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Sample records for operated diffusion absorption

  1. Effect of operating conditions on the performance of the bubble pump of absorption-diffusion refrigeration cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benhmidene Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model will be able to predict the operated condition (required tube diameters, heat input and submergence ratio….. That will result in a successful bubble pump design and hence a refrigeration unit. In the present work a one-dimensional two-fluid model of boiling mixing ammonia-water under constant heat flux is developed. The present model is used to predict the outlet liquid and vapor velocities and pumping ratio for different heat flux input to pump. The influence of operated conditions such as: ammonia fraction in inlet solution and tube diameter on the functioning of the bubble pump is presented and discussed. It was found that, the liquid velocity and pumping ratio increase with increasing heat flux, and then it decreases. Optimal heat flux depends namely on tube diameter variations. Vapour velocity increases linearly with increasing heat flux under designed conditions.

  2. Detailed thermodynamic analysis of a diffusion-absorption refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taieb, Ahmed; Mejbri, Khalifa; Bellagi, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an advanced simulation model for a Diffusion-Absorption Refrigerator DAR using ammonia/water/hydrogen as working fluids, and developed to describe and predict the behavior of the device under different operating conditions. The system is supposed to be cooled with ambient air and actuated with solar hot water available at 200 °C. The DAR is first simulated for a set of basic data; a COP of 0.126 associated to a cooling capacity of 22.3 W are found. Basing on the obtained results an exergetic analysis of the system is performed which shows that the rectifier contribution to the exergy destruction is the most important with 34%. In a second step, the thermal capacities of all heat exchangers of the DAR are evaluated and the mathematical model so modified that the calculated capacities are now used as input data. A parametric study of the cycle is then carried out. The COP is found to exhibit a maximum when the heat supplied to the boiler or to the bubble pump is varied. Similar behavior is observed for variable submergence ratio. It is further noted that the COP is very sensitive to the ambient air temperature and to the absorber efficiency. - Highlights: • A detailed model of a Diffusion Absorption is developed and simulated. • Irreversibility of each component of the cycle is examined. • A modified model based on thermal capacity of components of the DAR is elaborated. • System performance is calculated over a series of practical operating conditions.

  3. Development of a direct solar driven diffusion absorption chiller; Entwicklung einer direkt solarthermisch angetriebenen Diffusions-Absorptionskaeltemaschine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Fabian; Bierling, Bernd; Spindler, Klaus [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik (ITW)

    2013-03-15

    At the ITW, a decentralized solar cooling system is developed based on the diffusion-absorption refrigeration cycle. The generator and the bubble pump of the process are integrated in a solar collector, and therefore directly heated. The main research focus after reaching a stable operation of the system is a detailed investigation of the auxiliary gas circuit. (orig.)

  4. Diffuse reflectance relations based on diffusion dipole theory for large absorption and reduced scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremmer, Rolf H; van Gemert, Martin J C; Faber, Dirk J; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G

    2013-08-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra are used to determine the optical properties of biological samples. In medicine and forensic science, the turbid objects under study often possess large absorption and/or scattering properties. However, data analysis is frequently based on the diffusion approximation to the radiative transfer equation, implying that it is limited to tissues where the reduced scattering coefficient dominates over the absorption coefficient. Nevertheless, up to absorption coefficients of 20  mm-1 at reduced scattering coefficients of 1 and 11.5  mm-1, we observed excellent agreement (r2=0.994) between reflectance measurements of phantoms and the diffuse reflectance equation proposed by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628-6637 (1999)], derived as an approximation to one of the diffusion dipole equations of Farrell et al. [Med. Phys.19, 879-888 (1992)]. However, two parameters were fitted to all phantom experiments, including strongly absorbing samples, implying that the reflectance equation differs from diffusion theory. Yet, the exact diffusion dipole approximation at high reduced scattering and absorption also showed agreement with the phantom measurements. The mathematical structure of the diffuse reflectance relation used, derived by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628-6637 (1999)], explains this observation. In conclusion, diffuse reflectance relations derived as an approximation to the diffusion dipole theory of Farrell et al. can analyze reflectance ratios accurately, even for much larger absorption than reduced scattering coefficients. This allows calibration of fiber-probe set-ups so that the object's diffuse reflectance can be related to its absorption even when large. These findings will greatly expand the application of diffuse reflection spectroscopy. In medicine, it may allow the use of blue/green wavelengths and measurements on whole blood, and in forensic science, it may allow inclusion of objects such as blood stains and cloth at crime

  5. Diffuse reflectance relations based on diffusion dipole theory for large absorption and reduced scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Rolf H.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Faber, Dirk J.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra are used to determine the optical properties of biological samples. In medicine and forensic science, the turbid objects under study often possess large absorption and/or scattering properties. However, data analysis is frequently based on the diffusion approximation to

  6. Vacuum outgassing from diffuse-absorptive baffle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egert, C.M.; Basford, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of outgassing for Martin black and a variety of metallic, diffuse absorptive baffle materials under development for stray light management are reported in this paper. Outgassing measurements were made during pumpdown from atmosphere at room temperature. Mass scans indicate water was the major outgassing species for all materials tested. Calibrated measurements of water vapor outgassing as a function of time were also made for each baffle material. Most baffle materials exhibited total water vapor outgassed during pumpdown of between 1 x 10 -5 and 4 x 10 -5 moles/cm 2 . Plasma sprayed beryllium, currently under development exhibited approximately an order of magnitude lower total water vapor outgassed during pumpdown

  7. Modeling of a Von Platen-Munters diffusion absorption refrigeration cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Bruno; Agostini, Francesco; Habert, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    This article presents a thermodynamical model of a Von-Platen diffusion absorption refrigeration cycle for power electronics applications. It is first validated by comparison with data available in the literature for the classical water-ammonia-helium cycle for commercial absorption fridges. Then new operating conditions corresponding to specific ABB applications, namely high ambient temperature and new organic fluids combinations compatible with aluminium are simulated and discussed. The target application is to cool power electronics converters in harsh environments with high ambient temperature by providing refrigeration without compressor, for passive components losses of about 500 W, with a compact and low cost solution.

  8. Energy and exergy analyses of the diffusion absorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yıldız, Abdullah; Ersöz, Mustafa Ali

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the thermodynamic analyses of a DAR (diffusion absorption refrigeration) cycle. The experimental apparatus is set up to an ammonia–water DAR cycle with helium as the auxiliary inert gas. A thermodynamic model including mass, energy and exergy balance equations are presented for each component of the DAR cycle and this model is then validated by comparison with experimental data. In the thermodynamic analyses, energy and exergy losses for each component of the system are quantified and illustrated. The systems' energy and exergy losses and efficiencies are investigated. The highest energy and exergy losses occur in the solution heat exchanger. The highest energy losses in the experimental and theoretical analyses are found 25.7090 W and 25.4788 W respectively, whereas those losses as to exergy are calculated 13.7933 W and 13.9976 W. Although the values of energy efficiencies obtained from both the model and experimental studies are calculated as 0.1858, those values, in terms of exergy efficiencies are found 0.0260 and 0.0356. - Highlights: • The diffusion absorption refrigerator system is designed manufactured and tested. • The energy and exergy analyses of the system are presented theoretically and experimentally. • The energy and exergy losses are investigated for each component of the system. • The highest energy and exergy losses occur in the solution heat exchanger. • The energy and the exergy performances are also calculated

  9. Experimental analysis of a diffusion absorption refrigeration system used alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, A.; Oezbas, E.

    2009-01-01

    The continuous-cycle absorption refrigeration device is widely used in domestic refrigerators, and recreational vehicles. It is also used in year-around air conditioning of both homes and larger buildings. The unit consists of four main parts the boiler, condenser, evaporator and the absorber. When the unit operates on kerosene or gas, the heat is supplied by a burner. This element is fitted underneath the central tube. When operating on electricity, the heat is supplied by an element inserted in the pocket. No moving parts are employed. The operation of the refrigerating mechanism is based on Dalton's law. In this study, experimental analysis was performed of a diffusion absorption refrigeration system (DARS) used alternative energy sources such as solar, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) sources. Two basic DAR cycles were set up and investigated: i) In the first cycle (DARS-1), the condensate is sub-cooled prior to the evaporator entrance by the coupled evaporator/gas heat exchanger similar with manufactured by Electrolux Sweden. ii) In the second cycle (DARS-2), the condensate is not sub-cooled prior to the evaporator entrance and gas heat exchanger is separated from the evaporator. (author)

  10. A new noise erosion operator for anisotropic diffusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡超; 丁名跃; 周成平; 张天序

    2004-01-01

    A noise erosion operator based on partial differential equation (PDE) is introduced, which has an excellent ability of noise removal and edge preservation for two-dimensional (2D) gradient data. The operator is applied to estimate a new diffusion coefficient. Experimental results demonstrate that anisotropic diffusion based on this new erosion operator can efficiently reduce noise and sharpen object boundaries.

  11. Noninvasive photoacoustic measurement of absorption coefficient using internal light irradiation of cylindrical diffusing fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dong-qing; Zhu, Li-li; Li, Zhi-fang; Li, Hui

    2017-09-01

    Absorption coefficient of biological tissue is an important parameter in biomedicine, but its determination remains a challenge. In this paper, we propose a method using focusing photoacoustic imaging technique and internal light irradiation of cylindrical diffusing fiber (CDF) to quantify the target optical absorption coefficient. Absorption coefficients for ink absorbers are firstly determined through photoacoustic and spectrophotometric measurements at the same excitation, which demonstrates the feasibility of this method. Also, the optical absorption coefficients of ink absorbers with several concentrations are measured. Finally, the two-dimensional scanning photoacoustic image is obtained. Optical absorption coefficient measurement and simultaneous photoacoustic imaging of absorber non-invasively are the typical characteristics of the method. This method can play a significant role for non-invasive determination of blood oxygen saturation, the absorption-based imaging and therapy.

  12. Free radicals in irradiated unstabilized polypropylene, as seen by diffuse reflection absorption-spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.; Rafalski, A.

    1998-01-01

    The introduction of UV-Vis absorption spectrophotometry to the study of radiation chemistry of polymers has opened the possibility to investigate even very opaque samples. The virgin powder polypropylene, as obtained from the industrial production line, shows after irradiation unstable products of radiolysis. Until now they were investigated mainly by EPR method. Optical absorption spectra (by diffuse reflection spectrophotometry) contribute to better identification and study of changes in time, temperature and diffusion of reactive gases. Studying the formation of stable compounds, which do not produce EPR signal, we are able to examine these species on the basis of their electronic spectra. The most important results concern the peroxides in irradiated polypropylene

  13. Edge-promoting reconstruction of absorption and diffusivity in optical tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannukainen, A; Hyvönen, N; Majander, H; Harhanen, L

    2016-01-01

    In optical tomography a physical body is illuminated with near-infrared light and the resulting outward photon flux is measured at the object boundary. The goal is to reconstruct internal optical properties of the body, such as absorption and diffusivity. In this work, it is assumed that the imaged object is composed of an approximately homogeneous background with clearly distinguishable embedded inhomogeneities. An algorithm for finding the maximum a posteriori estimate for the absorption and diffusion coefficients is introduced assuming an edge-preferring prior and an additive Gaussian measurement noise model. The method is based on iteratively combining a lagged diffusivity step and a linearization of the measurement model of diffuse optical tomography with priorconditioned LSQR. The performance of the reconstruction technique is tested via three-dimensional numerical experiments with simulated data. (paper)

  14. Excess Diffuse Light Absorption in Upper Mesophyll Limits CO2 Drawdown and Depresses Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earles, J Mason; Théroux-Rancourt, Guillaume; Gilbert, Matthew E; McElrone, Andrew J; Brodersen, Craig R

    2017-06-01

    In agricultural and natural systems, diffuse light can enhance plant primary productivity due to deeper penetration into and greater irradiance of the entire canopy. However, for individual sun-grown leaves from three species, photosynthesis is actually less efficient under diffuse compared with direct light. Despite its potential impact on canopy-level productivity, the mechanism for this leaf-level diffuse light photosynthetic depression effect is unknown. Here, we investigate if the spatial distribution of light absorption relative to electron transport capacity in sun- and shade-grown sunflower ( Helianthus annuus ) leaves underlies its previously observed diffuse light photosynthetic depression. Using a new one-dimensional porous medium finite element gas-exchange model parameterized with light absorption profiles, we found that weaker penetration of diffuse versus direct light into the mesophyll of sun-grown sunflower leaves led to a more heterogenous saturation of electron transport capacity and lowered its CO 2 concentration drawdown capacity in the intercellular airspace and chloroplast stroma. This decoupling of light availability from photosynthetic capacity under diffuse light is sufficient to generate an 11% decline in photosynthesis in sun-grown but not shade-grown leaves, primarily because thin shade-grown leaves similarly distribute diffuse and direct light throughout the mesophyll. Finally, we illustrate how diffuse light photosynthetic depression could overcome enhancement in canopies with low light extinction coefficients and/or leaf area, pointing toward a novel direction for future research. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Lévy flight with absorption: A model for diffusing diffusivity with long tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rohit; Sebastian, K. L.

    2017-03-01

    We consider diffusion of a particle in rearranging environment, so that the diffusivity of the particle is a stochastic function of time. In our previous model of "diffusing diffusivity" [Jain and Sebastian, J. Phys. Chem. B 120, 3988 (2016), 10.1021/acs.jpcb.6b01527], it was shown that the mean square displacement of particle remains Fickian, i.e., ∝T at all times, but the probability distribution of particle displacement is not Gaussian at all times. It is exponential at short times and crosses over to become Gaussian only in a large time limit in the case where the distribution of D in that model has a steady state limit which is exponential, i.e., πe(D ) ˜e-D /D0 . In the present study, we model the diffusivity of a particle as a Lévy flight process so that D has a power-law tailed distribution, viz., πe(D ) ˜D-1 -α with 0 <α <1 . We find that in the short time limit, the width of displacement distribution is proportional to √{T }, implying that the diffusion is Fickian. But for long times, the width is proportional to T1 /2 α which is a characteristic of anomalous diffusion. The distribution function for the displacement of the particle is found to be a symmetric stable distribution with a stability index 2 α which preserves its shape at all times.

  16. Edge-promoting reconstruction of absorption and diffusivity in optical tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannukainen, A.; Harhanen, Lauri Oskari; Hyvönen, N.

    2015-01-01

    In optical tomography a physical body is illuminated with near-infrared light and the resulting outward photon flux is measured at the object boundary. The goal is to reconstruct internal optical properties of the body, such as absorption and diffusivity. In this work, it is assumed that the imaged...... measurement noise model. The method is based on iteratively combining a lagged diffusivity step and a linearization of the measurement model of diffuse optical tomography with priorconditioned LSQR. The performance of the reconstruction technique is tested via three-dimensional numerical experiments...

  17. Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zijian; Favazza, Christopher; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Wang, Lihong V

    2012-06-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) microscopy (PAM) can image optical absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution in the optical diffusive regime. Conventionally, accurate quantification in PAM requires knowledge of the optical fluence attenuation, acoustic pressure attenuation, and detection bandwidth. We circumvent this requirement by quantifying the optical absorption coefficients from the acoustic spectra of PA signals acquired at multiple optical wavelengths. With the acoustic spectral method, the absorption coefficients of an oxygenated bovine blood phantom at 560, 565, 570, and 575 nm were quantified with errors of <3%. We also quantified the total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in a live mouse. Compared with the conventional amplitude method, the acoustic spectral method provides greater quantification accuracy in the optical diffusive regime. The limitations of the acoustic spectral method was also discussed.

  18. Experimental analysis of diffusion absorption refrigerator driven by electrical heater and engine exhaust gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Izzedine Serge ADJIBADE

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an experimental study of H20-NH3-H2 diffusion absorption refrigeration under two types of energy sources, i.e. the conventional electric energy from grid (electric and exhaust gas from internal combustion engine. Dynamic method is used to evaluate the behavior of the components of the system for both energy sources. Results obtained show that the performance of each component under different types of energy sources is almost coherent. For the generator, the electrical heater system requires more time to warm up, around three minutes, compared to the 40 s for system running with exhaust gas. For the evaporator, the decreasing rate is higher for the exhaust gas source and it took only about two hours to reach steady-state while for the electrical heat, the steady-state is reached after about seven hours of operation. For both energy sources, the evaporation temperature stabilizes to 3 °C and the minimum temperature to boil off ammonia is around 140 °C.

  19. Simultaneous Absorptance and Thermal-Diffusivity Determination of Optical Components with Laser Calorimetry Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanru; Li, Bincheng

    2012-11-01

    The laser calorimetry (LCA) technique is used to determine simultaneously the absorptances and thermal diffusivities of optical components. An accurate temperature model, in which both the finite thermal conductivity and the finite sample size are taken into account, is employed to fit the experimental temperature data measured with an LCA apparatus for a precise determination of the absorptance and thermal diffusivity via a multiparameter fitting procedure. The uniqueness issue of the multiparameter fitting is discussed in detail. Experimentally, highly reflective (HR) samples prepared with electron-beam evaporation on different substrates (BK7, fused silica, and Ge) are measured with LCA. For the HR-coated sample on a fused silica substrate, the absorptance is determined to be 15.4 ppm, which is close to the value of 17.6 ppm, determined with a simplified temperature model recommended in the international standard ISO11551. The thermal diffusivity is simultaneously determined via multiparameter fitting to be approximately 6.63 × 10-7 m2 · s-1 with a corresponding square variance of 4.8 × 10-4. The fitted thermal diffusivity is in reasonably good agreement with the literature value (7.5 × 10-7 m2 · s -1). Good agreement is also obtained for samples with BK7 and Ge substrates.

  20. Improvement in performance of a direct solar-thermally driven diffusion-absorption refrigerator; Leistungssteigerung einer direkt solarthermisch angetriebenen Diffusions-Absorptionskaeltemaschine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Fabian; Bierling, Bernd; Spindler, Klaus [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik (ITW)

    2012-07-01

    The diffusion-absorption refrigeration process offers the possibility of a wear-free refrigeration system without electricity and noise. At the Institute for Thermodynamics and Thermal Engineering (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany), a decentralized solar refrigeration system is developed based on this process. The expeller and the thermosiphon pump of this process are integrated in the collector, and thus are heated directly. The diffusion-absorption refrigeration process also can be used for domestic water heating by means of a second cycle in the collector. A cooling capacity of 400 W is to be achieved for each solar collector (2.5 m{sup 2}). Several refrigeration systems can be modular interconnected for higher cooling capacities. As part of the DKV Conference 2011, the construction of the plant, the first measurement data and results were presented. Since then, both the cooling capacity and the coefficient of performance of the diffusion-absorption refrigeration system could be increased significantly. For this, solvent heat exchanger, evaporator, absorber and gas heat exchanger have been optimized in terms of system efficiency. In addition, a stable system operation could be achieved by means of a bypass line. About this line, an exaggerated refrigerant already is removed in the solvent heat exchanger. In addition, a condensate pre-cooler was integrated in order to increase the efficiency. For a detailed investigation of the auxiliary gas cycle facilities, the volume flow and the concentration of the auxiliary gas circuit were examined under utilization of an ultrasonic sensor. In order to evaluate the influence factors by means of a parametric study, the mass transfer in the auxiliary gas circuit was simulated using the two-fluid model. The results of these studies, the current system configuration and the current results are presented in the contribution under consideration.

  1. ITER TASK T26/28 (1995): Solubility, diffusion and absorption of hydrogen isotopes in potential fusion reactor ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.A.; Macauley-Newcombe, R.G.

    1996-04-01

    Ceramic insulators are integral parts of numerous components essential for the heating control and diagnostic measurement of fusion plasmas. For safe and reliable reactor operations it is necessary to be able to predict the resultant tritium inventories and permeation fluxes through these materials. Some materials being considered are Al 2 O 3 (both as single crystal sapphire and polycrystalline alumina) and BeO. This report contains results of ion-implantation, thermal absorption (diffusion loading) and ion-beam analysis experiments performed in 1994 and 1995 for ITER task T26/28. The combination of implantation and thermal absorption capabilities enable us to load samples with hydrogen isotopes under differing conditions. 13 figs., 1 tab., 11 refs

  2. Design and simulation of a heat transformer of a directly solar-driven diffusion absorption chiller; Auslegung und Simulation von Waermeuebertragern einer direkt solarthermisch angetriebenen Diffusions-Absorptionskaeltemaschine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Josua; Schmid, Fabian; Spindler, Klaus [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik (ITW)

    2011-07-01

    The ITW is working on a directly solar-driven diffusion absorption chiller. Solar cooling offers vast potential for saving fossil resources, e.g. owing to the good temporal agreement between insolation and cold demand for cooling of office buildings and domestic buildings. So far, the focus has been on central systems with indirect solar thermal operation. Direct solar thermal plants can be decentral. A diffusion-absorption refrigeration system without mechanical components was constructed. Solvent circulation is achieved by the thermosyphon principle, which makes the plant noiseless, wear-free, and low-maintenance. In the course of a study, a mathematical model of the heat exchangers was established on the basis of the heat transfer equations, and optimisation suggestions for the heat exchanger were identified on this basis. The influence of the pressure gradient - which is decisive -, and the influence of geometry and materials were investigated. The simulations were validated by measurements. Concrete optimisation potentials were identified, and first suggestions were implemented. [German] Am ITW wird intensiv an einer direkt solarthermisch angetriebenen Diffusions-Absorptionskaeltemaschine (DAKM) geforscht. Die solare Kuehlung bietet grosse Potentiale zur Einsparung fossiler Energietraeger. Ein Grund dafuer ist die gute zeitliche Uebereinstimmung zwischen Solarstrahlung und dem Kaeltebedarf fuer die Kuehlung von Wohngebaeuden und Bueros. Bislang standen zentrale und indirekt solarthermisch angetriebene Systeme zur Kaelteerzeugung im Fokus. Die direkt solarthermisch angetriebene Anlage kann auf Grund ihres neuen Konzepts dezentral aufgebaut und betrieben werden. Auf Grundlage des Diffusions-Absorptionskaelteprozesses wurde eine Anlage gebaut, die ohne mechanische Bauteile funktioniert. Der Loesungsmittelumlauf erfolgt durch das Thermosiphonprinzip. Dadurch ist die Anlage im Betrieb geraeuschlos, verschleissfrei und wartungsarm. Im Rahmen einer Studienarbeit

  3. Optical measurements of absorption changes in two-layered diffusive media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, Francesco; Sassaroli, Angelo; Henry, Michael E; Fantini, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    We have used Monte Carlo simulations for a two-layered diffusive medium to investigate the effect of a superficial layer on the measurement of absorption variations from optical diffuse reflectance data processed by using: (a) a multidistance, frequency-domain method based on diffusion theory for a semi-infinite homogeneous medium; (b) a differential-pathlength-factor method based on a modified Lambert-Beer law for a homogeneous medium and (c) a two-distance, partial-pathlength method based on a modified Lambert-Beer law for a two-layered medium. Methods (a) and (b) lead to a single value for the absorption variation, whereas method (c) yields absorption variations for each layer. In the simulations, the optical coefficients of the medium were representative of those of biological tissue in the near-infrared. The thickness of the first layer was in the range 0.3-1.4 cm, and the source-detector distances were in the range 1-5 cm, which is typical of near-infrared diffuse reflectance measurements in tissue. The simulations have shown that (1) method (a) is mostly sensitive to absorption changes in the underlying layer, provided that the thickness of the superficial layer is ∼0.6 cm or less; (2) method (b) is significantly affected by absorption changes in the superficial layer and (3) method (c) yields the absorption changes for both layers with a relatively good accuracy of ∼4% for the superficial layer and ∼10% for the underlying layer (provided that the absorption changes are less than 20-30% of the baseline value). We have applied all three methods of data analysis to near-infrared data collected on the forehead of a human subject during electroconvulsive therapy. Our results suggest that the multidistance method (a) and the two-distance partial-pathlength method (c) may better decouple the contributions to the optical signals that originate in deeper tissue (brain) from those that originate in more superficial tissue layers

  4. Dynamic investigation of the diffusion absorption refrigeration system NH3-H2O-H2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Izzedine Serge Adjibade

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a numerical and experimental study of a diffusion absorption refrigerator. The performance of the system is examined by computer simulation using MATLAB software and Engineering Equations Solver. A dynamic model is developed for each component of the system and solved numerically in order to predict the transient state of the diffusion absorption refrigeration. The experiment set included 0.04 m3 commercial absorption diffusion refrigerator working with the ammonia-water-hydrogen (NH3-H2O-H2 solution. The transient numerical results were validated with the experimental data. The investigations are focused on the dynamic profile of the temperature of each component. The results obtained agree with the experiment; the relative error between numerical and experimental models doesn’t exceed 15% for all temperatures of each component. The increase of the average ambient temperature from 23.04 °C to 32.56 °C causes an increase of the condensation temperature from 29.46 °C to 37.51 °C, and the best evaporation temperature obtained was 3 °C, with an ambient temperature of 23.04 °C. The results show that a minimum starting temperature of 152 °C and 63.8 W electric power are required to initiate the decrease of evaporation temperature.

  5. Absorption and scattering of laser radiation by the diffusion flame of aviation kerosene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gvozdev, S V; Glova, A F; Dubrovskii, V Yu; Durmanov, S T; Krasyukov, A G; Lysikov, A Yu; Smirnov, G V; Solomakhin, V B

    2012-01-01

    The absorption coefficient of the radiation of a repetitively pulsed Nd : YAG laser with an average output power up to 6 W and of a cw ytterbium optical fibre laser with an output power up to 3 kW was measured in the diffusion flame of aviation kerosene burning on a free surface in the atmospheric air. The absorption coefficient as a function of flame length, radiation power, and radiation intensity, which was varied in the ∼10 3 - 5×10 4 W cm -2 range, was obtained for two distances (1 and 2 cm) between the laser beam axis and the surface. The coefficient of radiation absorption by kerosene flame was compared with that in ethanol and kerosene - ethanol mixture flames. The radiation power scattered by a small segment of the kerosene flame irradiated by Nd : YAG laser radiation was measured as a function of longitudinal and azimuthal coordinates. An estimate was made of the total scattered radiation power.

  6. Absorption and scattering of laser radiation by the diffusion flame of aviation kerosene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvozdev, S. V.; Glova, A. F.; Dubrovskii, V. Yu; Durmanov, S. T.; Krasyukov, A. G.; Lysikov, A. Yu; Smirnov, G. V.; Solomakhin, V. B.

    2012-04-01

    The absorption coefficient of the radiation of a repetitively pulsed Nd : YAG laser with an average output power up to 6 W and of a cw ytterbium optical fibre laser with an output power up to 3 kW was measured in the diffusion flame of aviation kerosene burning on a free surface in the atmospheric air. The absorption coefficient as a function of flame length, radiation power, and radiation intensity, which was varied in the ~103 — 5×104 W cm-2 range, was obtained for two distances (1 and 2 cm) between the laser beam axis and the surface. The coefficient of radiation absorption by kerosene flame was compared with that in ethanol and kerosene — ethanol mixture flames. The radiation power scattered by a small segment of the kerosene flame irradiated by Nd : YAG laser radiation was measured as a function of longitudinal and azimuthal coordinates. An estimate was made of the total scattered radiation power.

  7. Minority carrier diffusion lengths and absorption coefficients in silicon sheet material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, K. A.; Swimm, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    Most of the methods which have been developed for the measurement of the minority carrier diffusion length of silicon wafers require that the material have either a Schottky or an ohmic contact. The surface photovoltage (SPV) technique is an exception. The SPV technique could, therefore, become a valuable diagnostic tool in connection with current efforts to develop low-cost processes for the production of solar cells. The technique depends on a knowledge of the optical absorption coefficient. The considered investigation is concerned with a reevaluation of the absorption coefficient as a function of silicon processing. A comparison of absorption coefficient values showed these values to be relatively consistent from sample to sample, and independent of the sample growth method.

  8. SIMS analysis of deuterium absorption and diffusion in austenitic Fe-Mn-C steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieudonne, T.; Chene, J.; Marchetti, L.; Jomard, F.; Wery, M.; Allely, C.; Cugy, P.; Scott, C.P.

    2012-01-01

    Austenitic Fe-Mn-C steels are Ultra High Strength Steels which may be used for the production of deep drawn automotive parts containing extremely high residual stress and strain levels. In consequence, hydrogen absorption occurring during the corrosion process in aqueous environments may enhance the sensitivity of these steels to different kinds of hydrogen-induced damage, in particular Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). In order to predict and prevent SCC, it is important to study the behaviour of hydrogen in these austenitic steels exposed to aqueous environments and in particular the dependence on the alloy chemistry and microstructure. SIMS profiles of deuterium introduced by cathodic charging in selected specimens were used to characterize the diffusion of hydrogen in these steels. This allowed to be studied the role of chemical composition and microstructure on the kinetics of H absorption at room temperature. The competition between bulk matrix diffusion and short-circuit diffusion phenomena along grain boundaries was investigated. The results show a strong dependence of H diffusion and distribution on the alloy chemistry and grain size. (authors)

  9. Radial diffusion in the Uranian radiatian belts - Inferences from satellite absorption loss models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.

    1989-01-01

    Low-energy charged particle (LECP) phase space density profiles available from the Voyager/1986 Uranus encounter are analyzed, using solutions of the time-averaged radial diffusion equation for charged particle transport in a dipolar planetary magnetic field. Profiles for lower-energy protons and electrons are first analyzed to infer radial diffusion rate as a function of L, assuming that satellite absorption is the dominant loss process and local sources for these particles are negligible. Satellite macrosignatures present in the experimentally derived profiles are approximately reproduced in several cases, lending credence to the loss model and indicating that magnetospheric distributed losses are not as rapid as satellite absorption near the minimum satellite L shells for the particles. Diffusion rates and L dependences are found to be similar to those previously inferred in the inner Jovian magnetosphere (Thomsen et al., 1977) and for the inner Saturnian magnetosphere (Hood, 1985). Profiles for higher energy electrons and protons are also analyzed using solutions that allow for the existence of significant particle sources as well as sinks. Possible implications for radial diffusion mechanisms in the Uranian radiation belts are discussed.

  10. Use of x-ray absorption imaging to evaluate the effects of heterogeneity on matrix diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, S.J.; Tidwell, V.C.; McKenna, S.A.; Meigs, L.C.

    1998-01-01

    An understanding of matrix diffusion is important in assessing potential nuclear waste repositories in geologic media, as it is a potentially significant process in retarding the transport of contaminant species. Recent work done in evaluating the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico has brought up two issues that complicate the incorporation of diffusion in Performance Assessment calculations. First, interpretations of single-well tracer test data suggest that the tracer was diffusing at multiple rates. Second, the estimated relevant rate(s) of diffusion are dependent on the time and length scales of the problem. To match the observed tracer test data, a model with a distribution of diffusion coefficients was required. This has led to the proposal of applying a model with multiple rates of diffusion, the multirate model, to Performance Assessment calculations for the WIPP. A series of laboratory- scale experiments have been designed for the purpose of evaluating heterogeneity and scaling properties of diffusion rates and to test the multirate model. X-ray absorption imaging was used to visualize and quantify the effects of matrix heterogeneity on the diffusion characteristics for four different centimeter-scale samples of dolomite. The samples were obtained from the Culebra dolomite at the WIPP site. Significant variations in diffusion rates were observed over relatively small length and time (months) scales for the preliminary laboratory experiments. A strong correlation between diffusion rate and porosity was also observed in each of the samples. Two sets of experiments are planned for 1998. The first set of experiments is similar to those described above. For these experiments, fourteen samples exhibiting a broader range of physical characteristics are being tested. The second set of experiments will visualize the combined effect of advection in a fracture and diffusion into adjacent matrix materials. Tracer solution will flow through

  11. Fractional Number Operator and Associated Fractional Diffusion Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rguigui, Hafedh

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we study the fractional number operator as an analog of the finite-dimensional fractional Laplacian. An important relation with the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is given. Using a semigroup approach, the solution of the Cauchy problem associated to the fractional number operator is presented. By means of the Mittag-Leffler function and the Laplace transform, we give the solution of the Caputo time fractional diffusion equation and Riemann-Liouville time fractional diffusion equation in infinite dimensions associated to the fractional number operator.

  12. Experimental validation of a model for diffusion-controlled absorption of organic compounds in the trachea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerde, P. [National Inst. for Working Life, Solna (Sweden); Muggenburg, B.A.; Thornton-Manning, J.R. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Most chemically induced lung cancer originates in the epithelial cells in the airways. Common conceptions are that chemicals deposited on the airway surface are rapidly absorbed through mucous membranes, limited primarily by the rate of blood perfusion in the mucosa. It is also commonly thought that for chemicals to induce toxicity at the site of entry, they must be either rapidly reactive, readily metabolizable, or especially toxic to the tissues at the site of entry. For highly lipophilic toxicants, there is a third option. Our mathematical model predicts that as lipophilicity increases, chemicals partition more readily into the cellular lipid membranes and diffuse more slowly through the tissues. Therefore, absorption of very lipophilic compounds will be almost entirely limited by the rate of diffusion through the epithelium rather than by perfusion of the capillary bed in the subepithelium. We have reported on a preliminary model for absorption through mucous membranes of any substance with a lipid/aqueous partition coefficient larger than one. The purpose of this work was to experimentally validate the model in Beagle dogs. This validated model on toxicant absorption in the airway mucosa will improve risk assessment of inhaled

  13. Band shape of IR-absorption of complex molecules and restricted rotational diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.N.; Umidulaev, Sh.U.

    1989-01-01

    The development of the theory of band shape (and Breadth) IR-absorption of complex molecules (regarding the molecules inside motions) is considered. It is supposed that a molecule fragment being responsible for IR-absorption takes part in the restricted rotational diffusion (RRD) with respect to the frame, and the molecule itself in general makes rotational motion (RM). Both kinds of motions are discussed in accordance with the theory of group motions representations. On the basis of correlative functions calculations of dipole moment a simple expression for the IR-absorption band shape have been obtained, which in itself uses to be the super position of two Lorencians with the semibreadths 2D 1 and 2D 1 +ν 2 0 (ν 2 0 +1D R accordingly (here D 1 is the coefficient of RM, D 2 is the coefficient of RRD, ν 2 0 is the well known function of RRD-cone divergence angle) in case of symmetric rotary abrasive disc. Analysis of experimental band shape of IR-absorption on the basis of the expression obtained allows to get information of MR-molecule parameters in general and RRD. It is really possible to determine the RRD-cone divergency angle from experimental weights of Lorencians. In accordance with experimental semibreadths the coefficient of RM D 1 and the coefficient of RRD D 2 are obtained. In conclusion it is noted that D 1 →0 (in the expression for the band shape of IR-absorption obtained), one of the Lorencians turns to the δ-function and finally there is an expression which describes IR-absorption band shape of molecules in polymer-mats. (author)

  14. Support Operators Method for the Diffusion Equation in Multiple Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, Andrew R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shashkov, Mikhail J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-14

    A second-order finite difference scheme for the solution of the diffusion equation on non-uniform meshes is implemented. The method allows the heat conductivity to be discontinuous. The algorithm is formulated on a one dimensional mesh and is derived using the support operators method. A key component of the derivation is that the discrete analog of the flux operator is constructed to be the negative adjoint of the discrete divergence, in an inner product that is a discrete analog of the continuum inner product. The resultant discrete operators in the fully discretized diffusion equation are symmetric and positive definite. The algorithm is generalized to operate on meshes with cells which have mixed material properties. A mechanism to recover intermediate temperature values in mixed cells using a limited linear reconstruction is introduced. The implementation of the algorithm is verified and the linear reconstruction mechanism is compared to previous results for obtaining new material temperatures.

  15. Absorption and scattering of laser radiation by the diffusion flame of aviation kerosene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gvozdev, S V; Glova, A F; Dubrovskii, V Yu; Durmanov, S T; Krasyukov, A G; Lysikov, A Yu; Smirnov, G V; Solomakhin, V B

    2012-04-30

    The absorption coefficient of the radiation of a repetitively pulsed Nd : YAG laser with an average output power up to 6 W and of a cw ytterbium optical fibre laser with an output power up to 3 kW was measured in the diffusion flame of aviation kerosene burning on a free surface in the atmospheric air. The absorption coefficient as a function of flame length, radiation power, and radiation intensity, which was varied in the {approx}10{sup 3} - 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} W cm{sup -2} range, was obtained for two distances (1 and 2 cm) between the laser beam axis and the surface. The coefficient of radiation absorption by kerosene flame was compared with that in ethanol and kerosene - ethanol mixture flames. The radiation power scattered by a small segment of the kerosene flame irradiated by Nd : YAG laser radiation was measured as a function of longitudinal and azimuthal coordinates. An estimate was made of the total scattered radiation power.

  16. Optimization of operating regime of mass-diffusion cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuzhinov, V.A.; Laguntsov, N.I.; Nikolaev, B.I.; Sulaberidze, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    This work deals with questions of the optimization of mass diffusion elements (columns or pumps) in cascades. Since the establishment and operation of real diffusion plants involves substantial outlays of material resources and energy, cascade optimization should be conducted in accordance with the criterion of the possibility of realizing further economies on the method and diffusion process. One of these indicators is the cost of the end product. Formulas are given for calculating the basic expenditures required for the production of an isotope in a cascade, and an analytical formula is obtained for assessing the cost of an enriched isotope mixture. Calculations are made of the influence of the steam flow rate on the cost of 99% 13 CH 4 and its constitutents, taking into account capital and power outlay on the construction and operation of the installation. It is demonstrated that as the result of a discrepancy between optimum power and capital outlays, the steam flow rate corresponding to the minimum cost is less than that corresponding to the maximum fractionating capacity of the column. In each specific case, optimization parameters should be selected having regard to the special features of the fractionating method and the fractionating apparatus. The results may be used in calculations of mass-diffusion fractionating installations, and also in comparisons of the effectiveness of the various methods used in the separation of these and other isotopes. (author)

  17. The influence of diffusion absorption refrigeration cycle configuration on the performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zohar, A.; Jelinek, M.; Levy, A.; Borde, I.

    2007-01-01

    Based on a full thermodynamic model for ammonia-water diffusion absorption refrigeration (DAR) cycle with hydrogen as the auxiliary inert gas, the performance of two fundamental configurations of a DAR cycle, with and without condensate sub-cooling prior to the evaporator entrance, were studied and compared. The performances of the two cycles were examined parametrically by computer simulations. Mass and energy conservation equations were developed for each component of the cycles and solved numerically. It was found that the DAR cycle without condensate sub-cooling shows higher COP of 14-20% in compare with the DAR cycle with the condensate sub-cooling, but it occurs at higher evaporator temperature of about 15 deg. C

  18. Ex vivo and in vivo diffusion of ropivacaine through spinal meninges: influence of absorption enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhonneur, Nolwenn; Dollo, Gilles; Ratajczak-Enselme, Maja; Deniau, Anne Laure; Chevanne, François; Estèbe, Jean Pierre; Legrand, Alain; Le Corre, Pascal

    2011-02-14

    Following epidural administration, cerebrospinal fluid bioavailability of local anesthetics is low, one major limiting factor being diffusion across the arachnoid mater barrier. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of absorption enhancers on the meningeal permeability of epidurally administered ropivacaine. Five enhancers known for their ability to increase drug permeability via transcellular and/or paracellular pathways, i.e. palmitoyl carnitine, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, sodium caprate, dodecylphosphocholine and pentylglycerol, were tested ex vivo on fresh specimen of meninges removed from cervical to lumbar level of rabbit spine following laminectomy and placed in diffusion chambers. Among them, sodium caprate lead to the best permeability improvement for both marker and drug (440% and 112% for mannitol and ropivacaine, respectively) and was therefore selected for in vivo study in a sheep model using microdialysis technique to evaluate epidural and intrathecal ropivacaine concentrations following epidural administration. Resulting dialysate and plasma concentrations were used to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Following sodium caprate pre-treatment, ropivacaine intrathecal maximal concentration (Cmax) was 1.6 times higher (78 ± 16 μg ml(-1) vs 129 ± 26 μg ml(-1), p<0.05) but the influence of the absorption enhancer was only effective the first 30 min following ropivacaine injection, as seen with the significantly increase of intrathecal AUC(0-30 min) (1629 ± 437 μg min ml(-1) vs 2477 ± 559 μg min ml(-1), p<0.05) resulting in a bioavailable fraction 130% higher 30 min after ropivavaine administration. Co-administration of local anesthetics with sodium caprate seems to allow a transient and reversible improvement of transmeningeal passage into intrathecal space. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Diffuse-light absorption spectroscopy by fiber optics for detecting and quantifying the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Ottevaere, H.; Thienpont, H.; Conte, L.; Marega, M.; Cichelli, A.; Attilio, C.; Cimato, A.

    2010-09-01

    A fiber optic setup for diffuse-light absorption spectroscopy in the wide 400-1700 nm spectral range is experimented for detecting and quantifying the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil caused by lower-grade olive oils. Absorption measurements provide spectral fingerprints of authentic and adulterated oils. A multivariate processing of spectroscopic data is applied for discriminating the type of adulterant and for predicting its fraction.

  20. Effect of incident beam and diffuse radiation on par absorption, photosynthesis and transpiration of sitka spruce - a simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.P.; Jarvis, P.G.

    1990-01-01

    A simulation model, Maestro, is used to study the influence of beam fraction in the incident radiation and the radiance distribution of the sky diffuse radiation on PAR absorption, photosynthesis and transpiration of a Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr) tree crown. It is concluded that inaccurate separation of beam and diffuse radiation leads to significant errors in estimating the amounts of PAR absorbed, photosynthesis and transpiration by a tree in the stand. Much more attention should be paid to adequate descriptions of the radiance distribution of the sky diffuse radiation under different sky conditions. A useful approach is proposed for simulating the incident global radiaiton in a physiological, process-based model

  1. Interference scattering effects on intermediate resonance absorption at operating temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, R.

    1975-01-01

    Resonance integrals may be accurately calculated using the intermediate resonance (IR) approximation. Results are summarized for the case of an absorber with given potential scattering cross sections and interference scattering parameter admixed with a non absorbing moderator of given cross section and located in a narrow resonance moderating medium. From the form of the IR solutions, it is possible to make some general observations about effects of interference scattering on resonance absorption. 2 figures

  2. Eternal solutions to a singular diffusion equation with critical gradient absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iagar, Razvan Gabriel; Laurençot, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The existence of non-negative radially symmetric eternal solutions of exponential self-similar type u(t, x) = e −pβt/(2−p) f β (|x|e −βt ; β) is investigated for the singular diffusion equation with critical gradient absorption ∂ t u−Δ p u+|∇u| p/2 =0  in (0,∞)×R N , where 2N/(N + 1) < p < 2. Such solutions are shown to exist only if the parameter β ranges in a bounded interval (0, β * ], which is in sharp contrast to well-known singular diffusion equations, such as ∂ t φ − Δ p φ = 0 when p = 2N/(N + 1), N ⩾ 1, or the porous medium equation ∂ t φ − Δφ m  = 0 when m = (N − 2)/N, N ⩾ 3. Moreover, the profile f(r; β) decays to zero as r → ∞ in a faster way for β = β * than for β ∈ (0, β * ) but the algebraic leading order is the same in both cases. In fact, for large r, f(r; β * ) decays as r −p/(2−p) while f(r; β) behaves as (log r) 2/(2−p) r −p/(2−p) when β ∈ (0, β * ). (paper)

  3. Model calculation of the characteristic mass for convective and diffusive vapor transport in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencs, László, E-mail: bencs.laszlo@wigner.mta.hu [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Laczai, Nikoletta [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Ajtony, Zsolt [Institute of Food Science, University of West Hungary, H-9200 Mosonmagyaróvár, Lucsony utca 15–17 (Hungary)

    2015-07-01

    A combination of former convective–diffusive vapor-transport models is described to extend the calculation scheme for sensitivity (characteristic mass — m{sub 0}) in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). This approach encompasses the influence of forced convection of the internal furnace gas (mini-flow) combined with concentration diffusion of the analyte atoms on the residence time in a spatially isothermal furnace, i.e., the standard design of the transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA). A couple of relationships for the diffusional and convectional residence times were studied and compared, including in factors accounting for the effects of the sample/platform dimension and the dosing hole. These model approaches were subsequently applied for the particular cases of Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, V and Zn analytes. For the verification of the accuracy of the calculations, the experimental m{sub 0} values were determined with the application of a standard THGA furnace, operating either under stopped, or mini-flow (50 cm{sup 3} min{sup −1}) of the internal sheath gas during atomization. The theoretical and experimental ratios of m{sub 0}(mini-flow)-to-m{sub 0}(stop-flow) were closely similar for each study analyte. Likewise, the calculated m{sub 0} data gave a fairly good agreement with the corresponding experimental m{sub 0} values for stopped and mini-flow conditions, i.e., it ranged between 0.62 and 1.8 with an average of 1.05 ± 0.27. This indicates the usability of the current model calculations for checking the operation of a given GFAAS instrument and the applied methodology. - Highlights: • A calculation scheme for convective–diffusive vapor loss in GFAAS is described. • Residence time (τ) formulas were compared for sensitivity (m{sub 0}) in a THGA furnace. • Effects of the sample/platform dimension and dosing hole on τ were assessed. • Theoretical m{sub 0} of 18 analytes were

  4. Solid tissue simulating phantoms having absorption at 970 nm for diffuse optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gordon T.; Lentsch, Griffin R.; Trieu, Brandon; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Saager, Rolf B.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2017-07-01

    Tissue simulating phantoms can provide a valuable platform for quantitative evaluation of the performance of diffuse optical devices. While solid phantoms have been developed for applications related to characterizing exogenous fluorescence and intrinsic chromophores such as hemoglobin and melanin, we report the development of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) tissue phantom that mimics the spectral characteristics of tissue water. We have developed these phantoms to mimic different water fractions in tissue, with the purpose of testing new devices within the context of clinical applications such as burn wound triage. Compared to liquid phantoms, cured PDMS phantoms are easier to transport and use and have a longer usable life than gelatin-based phantoms. As silicone is hydrophobic, 9606 dye was used to mimic the optical absorption feature of water in the vicinity of 970 nm. Scattering properties are determined by adding titanium dioxide, which yields a wavelength-dependent scattering coefficient similar to that observed in tissue in the near-infrared. Phantom properties were characterized and validated using the techniques of inverse adding-doubling and spatial frequency domain imaging. Results presented here demonstrate that we can fabricate solid phantoms that can be used to simulate different water fractions.

  5. Visualization and quantification of heterogeneous diffusion rates in granodiorite samples by X-ray absorption imaging. Diffusion within gouge materials, altered rim and intact rock matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, S.J.; Tidwell, V.C.; Uchida, M.

    2001-01-01

    Matrix diffusion is one of the most important contaminant migration retardation processes in crystalline rocks. Performance assessment calculations in various countries assume that only the area of the fracture surface where advection is active provides access to the rock matrix. However, accessibility to the matrix could be significantly enhanced with diffusion into stagnant zones, fracture fillings, and through an alteration rim in the matrix. Laboratory visualization experiments were conducted on granodiorite samples to investigate and quantify diffusion rates within different zones of a Cretaceous granodiorite. Samples were collected from the Kamaishi experimental site in the northern part of the main island of Japan. Diffusion of iodine out of the sample is visualized and rates are measured using x-ray absorption imaging. X-ray images allow for measurements of relative iodine concentration and relative iodine mass as a function of time and two-dimensional space at a sub-millimeter spatial resolution. In addition, two-dimensional heterogeneous porosity fields (at the same resolution as the relative concentration fields) are measured. This imaging technique allows for a greater understanding of the spatial variability of diffusion rates than can be accomplished with standard bulk measurements. It was found that diffusion rates were fastest in partially gouge-filled fractures. Diffusion rates in the recrystallized calcite-based fracture-filling material were up to an order of magnitude lower than in gouge-filled fractures. Diffusion in altered matrix around the fractures was over an order of magnitude lower than that in the gouge-filled fractures. Healed fractures did not appear to have different diffusion rates than the unaltered matrix

  6. Visualization and quantification of heterogeneous diffusion rates in granodiorite samples by X-ray absorption imaging. Diffusion within gouge materials, altered rim and intact rock matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, S.J.; Tidwell, V.C. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Uchida, M. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-08-01

    Matrix diffusion is one of the most important contaminant migration retardation processes in crystalline rocks. Performance assessment calculations in various countries assume that only the area of the fracture surface where advection is active provides access to the rock matrix. However, accessibility to the matrix could be significantly enhanced with diffusion into stagnant zones, fracture fillings, and through an alteration rim in the matrix. Laboratory visualization experiments were conducted on granodiorite samples to investigate and quantify diffusion rates within different zones of a Cretaceous granodiorite. Samples were collected from the Kamaishi experimental site in the northern part of the main island of Japan. Diffusion of iodine out of the sample is visualized and rates are measured using x-ray absorption imaging. X-ray images allow for measurements of relative iodine concentration and relative iodine mass as a function of time and two-dimensional space at a sub-millimeter spatial resolution. In addition, two-dimensional heterogeneous porosity fields (at the same resolution as the relative concentration fields) are measured. This imaging technique allows for a greater understanding of the spatial variability of diffusion rates than can be accomplished with standard bulk measurements. It was found that diffusion rates were fastest in partially gouge-filled fractures. Diffusion rates in the recrystallized calcite-based fracture-filling material were up to an order of magnitude lower than in gouge-filled fractures. Diffusion in altered matrix around the fractures was over an order of magnitude lower than that in the gouge-filled fractures. Healed fractures did not appear to have different diffusion rates than the unaltered matrix.

  7. Simulation Model for Dynamic Operation of Double-Effect Absorption Chillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mojahid Sid Ahmed Mohammed Salih

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The development in the field of refrigeration and air conditioning systems driven by absorption cycles acquired a considerable importance recently. For commercial absorption chillers, an essential challenge for creating chiller model certainly is the shortage of components technical specifications. These kinds of specifications are usually proprietary for chillers producers. In this paper, a double-effect parallel-flow-type steam absorption chiller model based on thermodynamic and energy equations is presented. The chiller studied is Lithium bromide-water with capacity of 1250 RT (Refrigeration Tons. The governing equations of the dynamic operation of the chiller are developed. From available design information, the values of the overall heat transfer coefficients multiplied by the surface area are computed. The dynamic operation of the absorption chiller is simulated to study the performance of the system. The model is able to provide essential details of the temperature, concentration, and flow rate at each state point in the chiller.

  8. Computer programs in BASIC language for atomic absorption flame spectroscopy. Part 1. Operating instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, W.G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    These instructions describe how to use three BASIC language programs to process data from atomic absorption spectrophotometers operated in the flame mode. These programs will also control an automatic sampler if desired. The instructions cover loading the programs, responding to computer prompts, choosing among various options for processing the data, operating the automatic sampler, and producing reports. How the programs differ is also explained. Examples of computer/operator dialogue are presented for typical cases

  9. Excess diffuse light absorption in upper mesophyll limits CO2 drawdown and depresses photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun-grown and shade-grown leaves of some species absorb direct and diffuse light differently. Sun-grown leaves can photosynthesize ~10-15% less under diffuse compared to direct irradiance, while shade-grown leaves do not exhibit this sensitivity. In this study, we investigate if the spatial differen...

  10. Laser absorption spectroscopy of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina: wall collision line broadening and gas diffusion dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Tomas; Lewander, Märta; Svanberg, Sune

    2010-08-02

    We demonstrate high-resolution tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina. Strong multiple light scattering results in long photon pathlengths (1 m through a 6 mm sample). We report on strong line broadening due to frequent wall collisions (gas-surface interactions). For the water vapor line at 935.685 nm, the HWHM of confined molecules are about 4.3 GHz as compared to 2.9 GHz for free molecules (atmospheric pressure). Gas diffusion is also investigated, and in contrast to molecular oxygen (that moves rapidly in and out of the alumina), the exchange of water vapor is found very slow.

  11. Differentiable absorption of Hilbert C*-modules, connections and lifts of unbounded operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaad, Jens

    2017-01-01

    . The differentiable absorption theorem is then applied to construct densely defined connections (or correpondences) on Hilbert C∗C∗-modules. These connections can in turn be used to define selfadjoint and regular "lifts" of unbounded operators which act on an auxiliary Hilbert C∗C∗-module....

  12. Diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubaschewski, O.

    1983-01-01

    The diffusion rate values of titanium, its compounds and alloys are summarized and tabulated. The individual chemical diffusion coefficients and self-diffusion coefficients of certain isotopes are given. Experimental methods are listed which were used for the determination of diffusion coefficients. Some values have been taken over from other studies. Also given are graphs showing the temperature dependences of diffusion and changes in the diffusion coefficient with concentration changes

  13. Enhanced Absorption and Diffusion Properties of Lithium on B,N,VC-decorated Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mengting; Yu, L. C.; Shi, W. M.; Deng, J. G.; Zhang, Y. N.

    2016-01-01

    Systematic first-principles calculations were performed to investigate the adsorption and diffusion of Li on different graphene layers with B/N-doping and/or C-vacancy, so as to understand why doping heteroatoms in graphene anode could significantly improve the performance of lithium-ion batteries. We found that the formation of single or double carbon vacancies in graphene are critical for the adsorption of Li atoms. While the N-doping facilitates the formation of vacancies, it introduces over binding issue and hinders the Li diffusion. The presence of B takes the excessive electrons from Li and N and reduces the energy barrier of Li diffusion on substrates. We perceive that these clear insights are crucial for the further development of graphene based anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. PMID:27897202

  14. Theoretical study of electronic absorption spectroscopy of propadienylidene molecule vis-â-vis the observed diffuse interstellar bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Samala Nagaprasad; Mahapatra, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Theoretical study of spectroscopy and dynamics of electronically excited l-C 3 H 2 . ► Construction of ab initio electronic potential energy and diabatic coupling surfaces. ► First principles study of nuclear dynamics on excited electronic states. ► Findings reveal l-C 3 H 2 is a potential molecular carrier of diffuse interstellar bands. ► Electronically excited l-C 3 H 2 decays by ultrafast nonradiative internal conversion. -- Abstract: Observation of broad and diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) at 4881 Å and 5440 Å assigned to the optical absorption spectrum of Y-shaped propadienylidene (H 2 C=C=C:) molecule is theoretically examined in this paper. This molecule apparently absorbs in the same wavelength region as the observed DIBs and was suggested to be a potential carrier of these DIBs. This assignment mostly relied on the experimental data from radioastronomy and laboratory measurements. Motivated by these available experimental data we attempt here a theoretical study and investigate the detailed electronic structure and nuclear dynamics underlying the electronic absorption bands of propadienylidene molecule. Our results show that this molecule indeed absorbs in the wavelength region of the recorded DIBs. Strong nonadiabatic coupling between its energetically low-lying electronic states plays major role, initiates ultrafast internal conversion and contributes to the spectral broadening. Theoretical findings are finally compared with the available experimental and theoretical data and discussed in connection with the recorded DIBs.

  15. Diffuse X-ray scattering and far infrared absorption of barium and lead β" aluminas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayes, W.; Kjær, Kristian; Pratt, F. L.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have carried out high-momentum-resolution studies in diffuse X-ray scattering of barium and lead B" aluminas in the temperature range 20-700 degrees C. They have also measured the vibrational spectra of these compounds between 2K and 300K in the energy range 10-100 cm-1. The results...

  16. The effectiveness of absorption heat pumps application for the increase of economic efficiency of CHP operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzhkovoy Dmitriy S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a comparative analysis of CHP operational efficiency in various working modes before and after the absorption heat pumps installation. The calculation was performed using a mathematical model of the extraction turbine PT- 80/100-130/13. Absorption heat pumps of LLC “OKB Teplosibmash” were used as AHP models for the analysis. The most effective way of absorption lithium-bromide heat pumps application as a part of the turbine PT-80/100-130/13 turned out to be their usage in a heat-producing mode during a non-heating season with a load of hot water supply. For this mode the dependence of the turbine heat efficiency on the heat load of the external consumer at a given throttle flow was analyzed.

  17. Reaction probability derived from an interpolation formula for diffusion processes with an absorptive boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misawa, T.; Itakura, H.

    1995-01-01

    The present article focuses on a dynamical simulation of molecular motion in liquids. In the simulation involving diffusion-controlled reaction with discrete time steps, lack of information regarding the trajectory within the time step may result in a failure to count the number of reactions of the particles within the step. In order to rectify this, an interpolated diffusion process is used. The process is derived from a stochastic interpolation formula recently developed by the first author [J. Math. Phys. 34, 775 (1993)]. In this method, the probability that reaction has occurred during the time step given the initial and final positions of the particles is calculated. Some numerical examples confirm that the theoretical result corresponds to an improvement over the Clifford-Green work [Mol. Phys. 57, 123 (1986)] on the same matter

  18. Performance of a LiBr water absorption chiller operating with plate heat exchangers

    OpenAIRE

    Vega Blázquez, Mercedes de; Almendros Ibáñez, José Antonio; Ruiz, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the performance of a lithium bromide water absorption chiller operating with plate heat exchangers (PHE). The overall heat transfer coefficients in the desorber, the condenser and the solution heat recoverer are calculated using the correlations provided in the literature for evaporation, condensation and liquid to liquid heat transfer in PHEs. The variable parameters are the external driving temperatures. In the desorber, the inlet temperature of the hot fluid ranges from ...

  19. Preliminary Hybrid Modeling of the Panama Canal: Operations and Salinity Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rabelo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the initial modeling of water salinity and its diffusion into the lakes during lock operation on the Panama Canal. A hybrid operational model was implemented using the AnyLogic software simulation environment. This was accomplished by generating an operational discrete-event simulation model and a continuous simulation model based on differential equations, which modeled the salinity diffusion in the lakes. This paper presents that unique application and includes the effective integration of lock operations and its impact on the environment.

  20. Hemodynamic measurements in rat brain and human muscle using diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoqiang; Durduran, Turgut; Furuya, D.; Lech, G.; Zhou, Chao; Chance, Britten; Greenberg, J. H.; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2003-07-01

    Measurement of concentration, oxygenation, and flow characteristics of blood cells can reveal information about tissue metabolism and functional heterogeneity. An improved multifunctional hybrid system has been built on the basis of our previous hybrid instrument that combines two near-infrared diffuse optical techniques to simultaneously monitor the changes of blood flow, total hemoglobin concentration (THC) and blood oxygen saturation (StO2). Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) monitors blood flow (BF) by measuring the optical phase shifts caused by moving blood cells, while diffuse photon density wave spectroscopy (DPDW) measures tissue absorption and scattering. Higher spatial resolution, higher data acquisition rate and higher dynamic range of the improved system allow us to monitor rapid hemodynamic changes in rat brain and human muscles. We have designed two probes with different source-detector pairs and different separations for the two types of experiments. A unique non-contact probe mounted on the back of a camera, which allows continuous measurements without altering the blood flow, was employed to in vivo monitor the metabolic responses in rat brain during KCl induced cortical spreading depression (CSD). A contact probe was used to measure changes of blood flow and oxygenation in human muscle during and after cuff occlusion or exercise, where the non-contact probe is not appropriate for monitoring the moving target. The experimental results indicate that our multifunctional hybrid system is capable of in vivo and non-invasive monitoring of the hemodynamic changes in different tissues (smaller tissues in rat brain, larger tissues in human muscle) under different conditions (static versus moving). The time series images of flow during CSD obtained by our technique revealed spatial and temporal hemodynamic changes in rat brain. Two to three fold longer recovery times of flow and oxygenation after cuff occlusion or exercise from calf flexors in a

  1. Diffusion Strategy-Based Distributed Operation of Microgrids Using Multiagent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van-Hai Bui

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In distributed operation, each unit is operated by its local controller instead of using a centralized controller, which allows the action to be based on local information rather than global information. Most of the distributed solutions have implemented the consensus method, however, convergence time of the consensus method is quite long, while diffusion strategy includes a stochastic gradient term and can reach convergence much faster compared with consensus method. Therefore, in this paper, a diffusion strategy-based distributed operation of microgrids (MGs is proposed using multiagent system for both normal and emergency operation modes. In normal operation, the MG system is operated by a central controller instead of the distributed controller to minimize the operation cost. If any event (fault occurs in the system, MG system can be divided into two parts to isolate the faulty region. In this case, the MG system is changed to emergency operation mode. The normal part is rescheduled by the central controller while the isolated part schedules its resources in a distributed manner. The isolated part carries out distributed communication using diffusion between neighboring agents for optimal operation of this part. The proposed method enables peer-to-peer communication among the agents without the necessity of a centralized controller, and simultaneously performs resource optimization. Simulation results show that the system can be operated in an economic way in both normal operation and emergency operation modes.

  2. Optimization of operation of energy supply systems with co-generation and absorption refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković Mirko M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-generation systems, together with absorption refrigeration and thermal storage, can result in substantial benefits from the economic, energy and environmental point of view. Optimization of operation of such systems is important as a component of the entire optimization process in pre-construction phases, but also for short-term energy production planning and system control. This paper proposes an approach for operational optimization of energy supply systems with small or medium scale co-generation, additional boilers and heat pumps, absorption and compression refrigeration, thermal energy storage and interconnection to the electric utility grid. In this case, the objective is to minimize annual costs related to the plant operation. The optimization problem is defined as mixed integer nonlinear and solved combining modern stochastic techniques: genetic algorithms and simulated annealing with linear programming using the object oriented “ESO-MS” software solution for simulation and optimization of energy supply systems, developed as a part of this research. This approach is applied to optimize a hypothetical plant that might be used to supply a real residential settlement in Niš, Serbia. Results are compared to the ones obtained after transforming the problem to mixed 0-1 linear and applying the branch and bound method.

  3. Method of independently operating a group of stages within a diffusion cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, M.; Allen, J.F.; Levey, H.B.

    1976-01-01

    A method of operating a group of the diffusion stages of a productive diffusion cascade with counter-current flow is described. The group consists of a top and a bottom stage which isolates the group from the cascade. The diffused gas produced in the top stage is circulated to the feed of the bottom stage, while at the same time undiffused gas from the bottom stage is circulated to the feed of the top stage whereby major changes in inventory distribution within the group of stages are prevented

  4. Information diffused by the operator on the nuclear risk: which answer to stakeholders expectations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plot-Vicard, Emmanuelle

    2010-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the practices of environmental information diffusion, and aims at identifying the possible discrepancies between information diffused by a company and the expectations of stakeholders, more particularly in the case of the nuclear risk. The first part presents the theoretical framework (notably the legitimacy theory) and determines the expectations of stakeholders as far as information on the nuclear risk is concerned. The second part describes and discusses information on nuclear risk diffused by operators in their annual reports, proposes an assessment of this information, and relates this assessment with the previous theoretical framework

  5. Simultaneous measurement of thermal diffusivity and effective infrared absorption coefficient in IR semitransparent and semiconducting n-CdMgSe crystals using photothermal radiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlak, M., E-mail: mpawlak@fizyka.umk.pl [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziądzka 5/7, Toruń (Poland); Maliński, M. [Department of Electronics and Computer Science, Koszalin University of Technology, 2 Śniadeckich St., Koszalin 75-453 (Poland)

    2015-01-10

    Highlights: • The new method of determination of the effective infrared absorption coefficient is presented. • The method can be used for transparent samples for the excitation radiation. • The effect of aluminum foil on the PTR signal in a transmission configuration is discussed. - Abstract: In this paper we propose a new procedure of simultaneous estimation of the effective infrared optical absorption coefficient and the thermal diffusivity of solid state samples using the photothermal infrared radiometry method in the transmission configuration. The proposed procedure relies on the analysis of the frequency dependent signal obtained from the samples covered with thin aluminum foil. This method can be applied for both optically opaque and transparent samples. The proposed method is illustrated with the results of the thermal diffusivity and the effective IR absorption coefficient obtained for several Cd{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}Se crystals.

  6. Cattaneo-Christov double-diffusion theory for three-dimensional flow of viscoelastic nanofluid with the effect of heat generation/absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Qayyum, Sajid; Shehzad, Sabir Ali; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    The present research article focuses on three-dimensional flow of viscoelastic(second grade) nanofluid in the presence of Cattaneo-Christov double-diffusion theory. Flow caused is due to stretching sheet. Characteristics of heat transfer are interpreted by considering the heat generation/absorption. Nanofluid theory comprises of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. Cattaneo-Christov double-diffusion theory is introduced in the energy and concentration expressions. Such diffusions are developed as a part of formulating the thermal and solutal relaxation times framework. Suitable variables are implemented for the conversion of partial differential systems into a sets of ordinary differential equations. The transformed expressions have been explored through homotopic algorithm. Behavior of sundry variables on the velocities, temperature and concentration are scrutinized graphically. Numerical values of skin friction coefficients are also calculated and examined. Here thermal field enhances for heat generation parameter while reverse situation is noticed for heat absorption parameter.

  7. A solar absorption refrigeration system operating with the mixture ammonia-lithium nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, W.; Martinez, F.; Garcia-Valladares, O. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia de la Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mor (Mexico); Rivera, C.O. [Univ. Veracruzana, Campus Coatzacoalcos (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    An intermittent solar absorption refrigeration system for ice production operating with the ammonia-lithium nitrate mixture has been developed in the Centro de Investigacion en Energia of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. The system consists basically of a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC), a generator-absorber, a condenser, a condensate tank, an expansion valve and an evaporator. The system was evaluated in sunny days with insolations above 20 MJ/m{sup 2}-day at different condenser temperatures. The generator temperatures varied from 108 to 121 C and the evaporator temperatures inside the camera from -8 to 0 C. The coefficients of performance (COP) varied from 0.13 to 0.26 depending of the operating temperatures of the system and the solar irradiation. (orig.)

  8. Experimental studies of solar heat pipe used to operate absorption chiller in conditions of Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiep, Le Chi [Ho Chi Minh City Univ. of Tech., Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Quoc, Hoang An [Ho Chi Minh City Univ. of Tech. Education, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Hung, Hoang Duong [Danang Univ. of Tech., Danang City (Viet Nam)

    2008-07-01

    Several models of solar heat pipe have been fabricated and tested. The experiments show that the flat plate model could be used to operate absorption chiller in the climate of southern part of Vietnam. Two main advantages of the selected solar heat pipe are low cost and easy fabrication at local conditions. It is expected that the selected solar heat pipe could attract attention of the community to develop the application of solar energy in Vietnam. Based on the current demand, the paper presents the experimental studies of the first generation of low cost solar heat pipe. The paper also discusses the ability of application of solar air conditioning in Vietnam and recommends the suitable diagram mixing solar energy with other heat source to operate stably the system. (orig.)

  9. Combined hyponatremia and hypocalcemia after intravascular absorption of 1.5% glycine during operative hysteroscopy. A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sherif S. Sultan

    2016-01-01

    Intravascular absorption of distending media may complicate operative hysteroscopy. Consequences differ according to type, amount and speed of absorption of the distending media. We report a case of intravascular absorption of more than one liter of 1.5% glycine. A 36 years old female developed metabolic acidosis, hyponatremia and hypocalcemia during operative hysteroscopy scheduled for resection of a uterine fibroid. Serum sodium reached down to 119 mmol/l and ionized calcium to 0.898 mmol/l...

  10. Uniqueness and non-uniqueness of semigroups generated by singular diffusion operators

    CERN Document Server

    Eberle, Andreas

    1999-01-01

    This book addresses both probabilists working on diffusion processes and analysts interested in linear parabolic partial differential equations with singular coefficients. The central question discussed is whether a given diffusion operator, i.e., a second order linear differential operator without zeroth order term, which is a priori defined on test functions over some (finite or infinite dimensional) state space only, uniquely determines a strongly continuous semigroup on a corresponding weighted Lp space. Particular emphasis is placed on phenomena causing non-uniqueness, as well as on the relation between different notions of uniqueness appearing in analytic and probabilistic contexts.

  11. Experimental assessment of an absorption cooling system operating with the ammonia/lithium nitrate mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Magallanes, J.A.; Domínguez-Inzunza, L.A.; Gutiérrez-Urueta, G.; Soto, P.; Jiménez, C.; Rivera, W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the experimental results of a single effect absorption cooling system of 3 kW of nominal cooling capacity operating with ammonia–lithium nitrate solution. The system was designed and built in the Instituto de Energías Renovables of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México and can be used for food conservation or air conditioning. The absorber and generator are falling film heat exchangers. The condenser, evaporator and solution heat exchanger are compact plate heat exchangers. The heat was supplied to the generator at temperatures between 85 °C and 105 °C, while the cooling water temperatures to remove the heat produced during the condensation and absorption varied between 18 °C and 36 °C. The results showed that the system can produce up to 2.7 kW of cooling capacity at heating water temperatures of 95 °C and can achieve evaporator temperatures as low as 1 °C. The experimental coefficients of performance varied between 0.45 and 0.70. Because of the developed system do not need a rectifier and reasonable good coefficients of performance were achieved, the developed system seems to be a good alternative to be used for food conservation or air conditioning. - Highlights: • An absorption cooling system was developed using NH 3 –LiNO 3 . • The achieved COP (coefficients of performance) are the highest reported for a system using NH 3 –LiNO 3 . • Evaporator temperatures as low as 1 °C were achieved. • COP varied between 0.45 and 0.7. • The developed system seems to be a good alternative for food conservation and air conditioning

  12. Phonon shake-up satellites in x-ray absorption: an operator approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    The phonon shake-up that occurs when the linear and quadratic phonon potentials both change during x-ray absorption is considered. Full account of all quadratic terms and the competition between linear and quadratic shake-up effects is made. Many previous studies of quadratic phonon shake-up have used a wavefunction approach. The phonon matrix elements have been determined by explicit evaluation of the overlap integrals. However, an equations of motion approach is used to transform the time evolution operator to a form that allows an exact evaluation of the phonon matrix elements needed to describe the spectra. This theory is used to determine the strengths of the phonon shake-up satellites in x-ray absorption spectra at zero temperature. An exact expression is obtained for the strength of each satellite. During quadratic shake-up, two phonon transitions and phonon frequency shifts occur. Both effects significantly change the strength of a a satellite from that predicted for linear shake-up alone. Inclusion of the two phonon transitions enhances the high-energy satellites. Inclusion of the frequency shifts can either broaden the spectra or increase the strength of the zero phonon lines depending on the sign of the frequency shift. (author)

  13. Theoretical study on the effect of operating conditions on performance of absorption refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaynakli, Omer; Kilic, Muhsin [Uludag University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Mechanical Engineering, TR-16059, Bursa (Turkey)

    2007-02-15

    In this study, a detailed thermodynamic analysis of the water/lithium bromide absorption refrigeration cycle is performed. The influences of operating temperature and effectiveness of heat exchanger on the thermal loads of components, coefficients of performance (COP{sub c}, COP) and efficiency ratio ({eta}) are investigated. It is concluded that the COP{sub c} and COP values increase with increasing generator and evaporator temperatures but decrease with increasing condenser and absorber temperatures. The {eta} value varies with these temperatures. Also, the effects of solution and refrigerant heat exchangers on the performance, efficiency ratio of the system and fluid temperatures are compared. As a result, it is found that the solution heat exchanger (SHE) has more effect on the investigated parameters than the refrigerant heat exchanger (RHE). While the SHE increases the COP value up to a maximum 44%, the RHE has an effect of only 2.8%. (author)

  14. Numerical investigation of diffuse ceiling ventilation in an office under different operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Petersen, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    is a numerical study of the performance of a six person office equipped with diffuse ventilation ceiling. In total six extreme, yet realistic, operation scenarios were simulated to study the performance including different occupancy, ventilation rates and supply air temperatures. The performance was studied...

  15. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of Spray Booth Operations in X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheaffer, M.K.; Keeton, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report evaluates nuclear criticality safety for Spray Booth Operations in the Decontamination and Recovery Facility, X-705, at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A general description of current procedures and related hardware/equipment is presented. Control parameters relevant to nuclear criticality safety are explained, and a consolidated listing of administrative controls and safety systems is developed. Based on compliance with DOE Orders and MMES practices, the overall operation is evaluated, and recommendations for enhanced safety are suggested

  16. Vibration energy absorption in the whole-body system of a tractor operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniak, Jan; Tanaś, Wojciech; Kromulski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Many people are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) in their occupational lives, especially drivers of vehicles such as tractor and trucks. The main categories of effects from WBV are perception degraded comfort interference with activities-impaired health and occurrence of motion sickness. Absorbed power is defined as the power dissipated in a mechanical system as a result of an applied force. The vibration-induced injuries or disorders in a substructure of the human system are primarily associated with the vibration power absorption distributed in that substructure. The vibration power absorbed by the exposed body is a measure that combines both the vibration hazard and the biodynamic response of the body. The article presents measurement method for determining vibration power dissipated in the human whole body system called Vibration Energy Absorption (VEA). The vibration power is calculated from the real part of the force-velocity cross-spectrum. The absorbed power in the frequency domain can be obtained from the cross-spectrum of the force and velocity. In the context of the vibration energy transferred to a seated human body, the real component reflects the energy dissipated in the biological structure per unit of time, whereas the imaginary component reflects the energy stored/released by the system. The seated human is modeled as a series/parallel 4-DOF dynamic models. After introduction of the excitation, the response in particular segments of the model can be analyzed. As an example, the vibration power dissipated in an operator has been determined as a function of the agricultural combination operating speed 1.39 - 4.16 ms(-1).

  17. Vibration energy absorption in the whole-body system of a tractor operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Szczepaniak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many people are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV in their occupational lives, especially drivers of vehicles such as tractor and trucks. The main categories of effects from WBV are perception degraded comfort interference with activities-impaired health and occurrence of motion sickness. Absorbed power is defined as the power dissipated in a mechanical system as a result of an applied force. The vibration-induced injuries or disorders in a substructure of the human system are primarily associated with the vibration power absorption distributed in that substructure. The vibration power absorbed by the exposed body is a measure that combines both the vibration hazard and the biodynamic response of the body. The article presents measurement method for determining vibration power dissipated in the human whole body system called Vibration Energy Absorption (VEA. The vibration power is calculated from the real part of the force-velocity cross-spectrum. The absorbed power in the frequency domain can be obtained from the cross-spectrum of the force and velocity. In the context of the vibration energy transferred to a seated human body, the real component reflects the energy dissipated in the biological structure per unit of time, whereas the imaginary component reflects the energy stored/released by the system. The seated human is modeled as a series/parallel 4-DOF dynamic models. After introduction of the excitation, the response in particular segments of the model can be analyzed. As an example, the vibration power dissipated in an operator has been determined as a function of the agricultural combination operating speed 1.39 – 4.16 ms[sup] -1 [/sup].

  18. Combined hyponatremia and hypocalcemia after intravascular absorption of 1.5% glycine during operative hysteroscopy. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif S. Sultan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Intravascular absorption of distending media may complicate operative hysteroscopy. Consequences differ according to type, amount and speed of absorption of the distending media. We report a case of intravascular absorption of more than one liter of 1.5% glycine. A 36 years old female developed metabolic acidosis, hyponatremia and hypocalcemia during operative hysteroscopy scheduled for resection of a uterine fibroid. Serum sodium reached down to 119 mmol/l and ionized calcium to 0.898 mmol/l. Serial estimations of arterial blood gases and serum electrolytes were followed. Management was successful in preventing serious side effects. Meticulous monitoring of distending media input/output balance remains the cornerstone in prevention of intravascular absorption.

  19. Influence of extrinsic operational parameters on salt diffusion during ultrasound assisted meat curing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inguglia, Elena S; Zhang, Zhihang; Burgess, Catherine; Kerry, Joseph P; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2018-02-01

    The present study investigated the effect of geometric parameters of the ultrasound instrument during meat salting in order to enhance salt diffusion and salt distribution in pork meat on a lab scale. The effects of probe size (∅2.5 and 1.3cm) and of different distances between the transducer and the meat sample (0.3, 0.5, and 0.8cm) on NaCl diffusion were investigated. Changes in the moisture content and NaCl gain were used to evaluate salt distribution and diffusion in the samples, parallel and perpendicular to ultrasound propagation direction. Results showed that 0.3cm was the most efficient distance between the probe and the sample to ensure a higher salt diffusion rate. A distance of 0.5cm was however considered as a trade-off distance to ensure salt diffusion and maintenance of meat quality parameters. The enhancement of salt diffusion by ultrasound was observed to decrease with increased horizontal distance from the probe. This study is of valuable importance for meat processing industries willing to apply new technologies on a larger scale and with defined operational standards. The data suggest that the geometric parameters of ultrasound systems can have strong influence on the efficiency of ultrasonic enhancement of NaCl uptake in meat and can be a crucial element in determining salt uptake during meat processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Solar-assisted absorption air-conditioning systems in buildings: Control strategies and operational modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, Ali; Pintaldi, Sergio; White, Stephen D.; Morrison, Graham L.; Rosengarten, Gary; Taylor, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A simulation model of a solar driven absorption chiller is developed in detail. • Three control strategies were proposed in the solar loop of the plant. • Series and parallel auxiliary heater arrangements were investigated. • The results showed the auxiliary-heater in parallel outperformed the series one. • Solar fraction can be increased by 20% by implementing the proposed configuration. - Abstract: Solar-assisted cooling technology has enormous potential for air-conditioning applications since both solar energy supply and cooling energy demand are well correlated. Unfortunately, market uptake of solar cooling technologies has been slow due to the high capital cost and limited design/operational experience. In the present work, different designs and operational modes for solar heating and cooling (SHC) absorption chiller systems are investigated and compared in order to identify the preferred design strategies for these systems. Three control scenarios are proposed for the solar collector loop. The first uses a constant flow pump, while the second and third control schemes employ a variable speed pump, where the solar collector (SC) set-point temperature could be either fixed or adjusted to the required demand. Series and parallel arrangements, between the auxiliary heater and the storage tank, have been examined in detail from an energy efficiency perspective. A simulation model for different system layouts is developed in the transient system simulation environment (TRNSYS, Version 17). Simulation results revealed that the total solar fraction of the plant is increased by up to 11% when a variable speed solar loop pump is used to achieve a collector set-point temperature adjusted according to the building load demand. Another significant finding of this study is that a parallel configuration for the auxiliary heater out-performs a conventional series configuration. The yearly performance of an auxiliary heater in parallel with the storage

  1. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

  2. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal

  3. Thermal diffusion of chlorine in uranium dioxide studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipon, Y.; Toulhoat, N.; Moncoffre, N.; Raimbault, L.; Scheidegger, A. M.; Farges, F.; Carlot, G.

    2007-05-01

    In a nuclear reactor, 35Cl present as an impurity in the nuclear fuel is activated by thermal neutron capture. During interim storage or geological disposal of the nuclear fuel, 36Cl may be released from the fuel to the geo/biosphere and contribute significantly to the 'instant release fraction'. In order to elucidate the diffusion mechanisms, both irradiation and thermal effects must be assessed. This paper deals with the thermal diffusion of chlorine in depleted UO2. For this purpose, sintered UO2 pellets were implanted with 37Cl at an ion fluence of 1013 cm-2 and successively annealed in the 1175-1475 K temperature range. The implanted chlorine is used to simulate the behaviour of the displaced one due to recoil and to interactions with the fission fragments during reactor operation. The behaviour of the pristine and the implanted chlorine was investigated during thermal annealing. SIMS and μ-XAS (at the Cl-K edge) analyses show that: the thermal migration of implanted chlorine becomes significant at 1275 K; this temperature and the calculated activation energy of 4.3 eV points out the great ability of chlorine to migrate in UO2 at relatively low temperatures, the behaviour of the implanted chlorine which aggregates into 'hot spots' during annealing before its effusion is clearly different from that of the pristine one which remains homogenously distributed after annealing, the 'hot spot' and the pristine chlorine seem to be in different structural environments. Both types of chlorine are assumed to have a valence state of -I, the comparison between an U2O2Cl5 reference compound and the pristine chlorine environment shows a contribution of the U2O2Cl5 to the pristine chlorine.

  4. Thermal diffusion of chlorine in uranium dioxide studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipon, Y.; Toulhoat, N.; Moncoffre, N.; Raimbault, L.; Scheidegger, A.M.; Farges, F.; Carlot, G.

    2007-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor, 35 Cl present as an impurity in the nuclear fuel is activated by thermal neutron capture. During interim storage or geological disposal of the nuclear fuel, 36 Cl may be released from the fuel to the geo/biosphere and contribute significantly to the 'instant release fraction'. In order to elucidate the diffusion mechanisms, both irradiation and thermal effects must be assessed. This paper deals with the thermal diffusion of chlorine in depleted UO 2 . For this purpose, sintered UO 2 pellets were implanted with 37 Cl at an ion fluence of 10 13 cm -2 and successively annealed in the 1175-1475K temperature range. The implanted chlorine is used to simulate the behaviour of the displaced one due to recoil and to interactions with the fission fragments during reactor operation. The behaviour of the pristine and the implanted chlorine was investigated during thermal annealing. SIMS and μ-XAS (at the Cl-K edge) analyses show that: (1) the thermal migration of implanted chlorine becomes significant at 1275K; this temperature and the calculated activation energy of 4.3eV points out the great ability of chlorine to migrate in UO 2 at relatively low temperatures; (2) the behaviour of the implanted chlorine which aggregates into 'hot spots' during annealing before its effusion is clearly different from that of the pristine one which remains homogenously distributed after annealing; (3) the 'hot spot' and the pristine chlorine seem to be in different structural environments. Both types of chlorine are assumed to have a valence state of -I; (4) the comparison between an U 2 O 2 Cl 5 reference compound and the pristine chlorine environment shows a contribution of the U 2 O 2 Cl 5 to the pristine chlorine

  5. Long-range global warming impact of gaseous diffusion plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trowbridge, L.D.

    1992-09-01

    The DOE gaseous diffusion plant complex makes extensive use of CFC-114 as a primary coolant. As this material is on the Montreal Protocol list of materials scheduled for production curtailment, a substitute must be found. In addition to physical cooling properties, the gaseous diffusion application imposes the unique requirement of chemical inertness to fluorinating agents. This has narrowed the selection of a near-term substitute to two fully fluorinated material, FC-318 and FC-3110, which are likely to be strong, long-lived greenhouse gases. In this document, calculations are presented showing, for a number of plausible scenarios of diffusion plant operation and coolant replacement strategy, the future course of coolant use, greenhouse gas emissions (including coolant and power-related indirect CO 2 emissions), and the consequent global temperature impacts of these scenarios

  6. Accurate reaction-diffusion operator splitting on tetrahedral meshes for parallel stochastic molecular simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepburn, I.; De Schutter, E., E-mail: erik@oist.jp [Computational Neuroscience Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Onna, Okinawa 904 0495 (Japan); Theoretical Neurobiology & Neuroengineering, University of Antwerp, Antwerp 2610 (Belgium); Chen, W. [Computational Neuroscience Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Onna, Okinawa 904 0495 (Japan)

    2016-08-07

    Spatial stochastic molecular simulations in biology are limited by the intense computation required to track molecules in space either in a discrete time or discrete space framework, which has led to the development of parallel methods that can take advantage of the power of modern supercomputers in recent years. We systematically test suggested components of stochastic reaction-diffusion operator splitting in the literature and discuss their effects on accuracy. We introduce an operator splitting implementation for irregular meshes that enhances accuracy with minimal performance cost. We test a range of models in small-scale MPI simulations from simple diffusion models to realistic biological models and find that multi-dimensional geometry partitioning is an important consideration for optimum performance. We demonstrate performance gains of 1-3 orders of magnitude in the parallel implementation, with peak performance strongly dependent on model specification.

  7. The new local control systems for operating gaseous diffusion plant units at Pierrelatte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delacroix, C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a local control network for operating gaseous diffusion plant units is presented. The objective of the control system up date was to replace all the information network hardware. The new generation HP1000 calculators and a network architecture were chosen. The validation tests performed in laboratory and in situ, and the management policies towards the personnel during the technical changes are summarized [fr

  8. A new fractional operator of variable order: Application in the description of anomalous diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Jun; Machado, J. A. Tenreiro

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a new fractional operator of variable order with the use of the monotonic increasing function is proposed in sense of Caputo type. The properties in term of the Laplace and Fourier transforms are analyzed and the results for the anomalous diffusion equations of variable order are discussed. The new formulation is efficient in modeling a class of concentrations in the complex transport process.

  9. Numerical Investigation of an Absorption-Diffusion Cooling Machine Using C3H8/C9H20 as Binary Working Fluid Étude numérique d’une machine frigorifique à absorption-diffusion utilisant le couple C3H8/C9H20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dardour H.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the analysis and the simulation of a heat-driven absorption-diffusion cooling machine which can operate with low-grade heat sources. The simplified configuration of the heat-powered absorption-diffusion refrigerating machine considered in this study is based on the Platen-Munters single pressure refrigerators principle [Platen B.C.V. and Munters C.G. (1928 Refrigerator, US Patent 1, 685-764J. Three working fluids are used, nonane as an absorbent, propane as a refrigerant and hydrogen as the inert auxiliary gas. The designed cooling capacity of the machine is 1 kW which is suitable for a domestic use for refrigeration purposes. We restricted the maximum temperature of the driving heat supplied to the generator to 130 °C, a temperature achievable with evacuated-tube solar collectors. The simulations are carried out using a commercially available flow sheeting software with the PengRobinson equation of state as property prediction method. In this paper, we analyze the heat and mass transfer characteristics in all relevant machine components (absorber, condenser, generator and solution heat exchangers. The simulations results allow determining the values of different parameters of the systems such as the refrigerant and the solvent temperatures in various points of the machine, the liquid and the vapor flow rates and compositions. The system performances were parametrically analyzed using the flow sheeting software. Performance characteristics were determined for a wide range of operating conditions allowing investigating and evaluating the effect of various design parameters. Ce papier est consacré à l’étude et l’analyse d’une machine frigorifique à absorption-diffusion. La machine est actionnée grâce à une source de chaleur de température modérée. La configuration et le principe de fonctionnement de l’appareil obéissent au modèle de Platen Munters [Platen B.C.V. and Munters C.G. (1928 Refrigerator

  10. Performance of a LiBr-water absorption chiller operating with plate heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, M. de; Almendros-Ibanez, J.A.; Ruiz, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the performance of a lithium bromide-water absorption chiller operating with plate heat exchangers (PHE). The overall heat transfer coefficients in the desorber, the condenser and the solution heat recoverer are calculated using the correlations provided in the literature for evaporation, condensation and liquid to liquid heat transfer in PHEs. The variable parameters are the external driving temperatures. In the desorber, the inlet temperature of the hot fluid ranges from 75 deg. C to 105 deg. C. In the condenser and the absorber, the inlet temperature of the cooling water goes from 20 deg. C to 40 deg. C. The coefficient of performance (COP) obtained ranges from 0.5 to 0.8 for cooling duties ranging from 2 kW to 12 kW. The chiller response to different hot fluid temperatures and circulated mass flow rates is also presented. The performance and the internal parameters of the chiller at part load are, therefore, calculated. A higher efficiency results when the solution pumped from the absorber to the desorber decreases. The heat transfer analysis of the PHEs is also presented. The overall heat transfer coefficient in the desorber, equal to 790 W/m 2 K at the design conditions, is also analysed at part load. The condenser performance can be represented by a similar relationship found in conventional air cooled condensers

  11. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of large cylinder cleaning operations in X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheaffer, M.K.; Keeton, S.C.; Lutz, H.F.

    1995-06-01

    This report evaluates nuclear criticality safety for large cylinder cleaning operations in the Decontamination and Recovery Facility, X-705, at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A general description of current cleaning procedures and required hardware/equipment is presented, and documentation for large cylinder cleaning operations is identified and described. Control parameters, design features, administrative controls, and safety systems relevant to nuclear criticality are discussed individually, followed by an overall assessment based on the Double Contingency Principle. Recommendations for enhanced safety are suggested, and issues for increased efficiency are presented

  12. Assessing the Engagement, Learning, and Overall Experience of Students Operating an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer with Remote Access Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Daniel J.; Brewer, Sharon E.; Cinel, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The use of internet-based technologies in the teaching of laboratories has emerged as a promising education tool. This study evaluated the effectiveness of using remote access technology to operate an atomic absorption spectrophotometer in analyzing the iron content in a crude myoglobin extract. Sixty-two students were surveyed on their level of…

  13. Energy analysis of a diffusion absorption cooling system using lithium nitrate, sodium thiocyanate and water as absorbent substances and ammonia as the refrigerant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acuña, A.; Velázquez, N.; Cerezo, J.

    2013-01-01

    A diffusion absorption cooling system is analyzed to determine the appropriate fluid for the unit, based on the coefficient of performance (COP) and operating conditions, by comparing lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ), sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN) and water (H 2 O) as absorbent substances and by using ammonia (NH 3 ) as the refrigerant. The presence of crystallization in the system is analyzed as a function of the generator and absorber temperatures. Additionally, the effects on the efficiency of the system from adding the inert gas helium (He) or hydrogen (H 2 ) are studied. A mathematical model is developed and compared to experimental studies reported in the literature. At an evaporator temperature of −15 °C, a generator temperature of 120 °C and absorber and condenser temperatures of 40 °C, the results show that the best performance is achieved by the NH 3 –LiNO 3 –He mixture, with a COP of 0.48. This mixture performs 27–46% more efficient than the NH 3 –NaSCN mixture. The NH 3 –H 2 O mixture is 52–69% less efficient than the NH 3 –LiNO 3 mixture. However, when the evaporator runs at 7.5 °C, the NH 3 –H 2 O–He mixture achieves a more efficient COP than does the NH 3 –LiNO 3 –He mixture, and the NH 3 –NaSCN–He and NH 3 –LiNO 3 –He mixtures achieve the same COP when the evaporator is at 10 °C. At temperatures below 7.5 °C, the NH 3 –NaSCN–He mixture achieves a higher COP than does the NH 3 –H 2 O–He mixture. The NH 3 –LiNO 3 mixture shows crystallization at higher temperatures in the generator than does the NH 3 –NaSCN mixture. Moreover, at the same evaporator temperature, the NH 3 –LiNO 3 mixture works at activation temperatures lower than does the NH 3 –NaSCN mixture. -- Highlights: ► We studied a diffusion absorption cooling system with different working mixtures. ► The NH 3 –LiNO 3 mixture showed more efficiency than NH 3 –H 2 O mixture and NH 3 –NaSCN mixture. ► The generator and absorber temperature

  14. Assessing the engagement, learning, and overall experience of students operating an atomic absorption spectrophotometer with remote access technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Daniel J; Brewer, Sharon E; Cinel, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The use of internet-based technologies in the teaching of laboratories has emerged as a promising education tool. This study evaluated the effectiveness of using remote access technology to operate an atomic absorption spectrophotometer in analyzing the iron content in a crude myoglobin extract. Sixty-two students were surveyed on their level of engagement, learning, and overall experience. Feedback from students suggests that the use of remote access technology is effective in teaching students the principles of chemical analysis by atomic absorption spectroscopy. © 2014 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  15. Computer programs in BASIC language for graphite furnace atomic absorption using the method of additions. Part 1. Operating instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, W.G. Jr.; Ryan, D.P.

    1979-01-01

    These instructions describe how to use BASIC language programs to process data from atomic absorption spectrophotometers using the graphite furnace and the method of additions calibration technique. The instructions cover loading the programs, responding to computer prompts, choosing among various options for processing the data, performing operations with an automatic sampler, and producing reports. How the programs interact with each other is also explained. Examples of computer/operator dialogue are presented for typical cases. In addition, a concise set of operating instructions is included as an appendix

  16. The fortran programme for the calculation of the absorption and double scattering corrections in cross-section measurements with fast neutrons using the monte Carlo method (1963); Programme fortran pour le calcul des corrections d'absorption et de double diffusion dans les mesures de sections efficaces pour les neutrons rapides par la methode de monte-carlo (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    A calculation for double scattering and absorption corrections in fast neutron scattering experiments using Monte-Carlo method is given. Application to cylindrical target is presented in FORTRAN symbolic language. (author) [French] Un calcul des corrections de double diffusion et d'absorption dans les experiences de diffusion de neutrons rapides par la methode de Monte-Carlo est presente. L'application au cas d'une cible cylindrique est traitee en langage symbolique FORTRAN. (auteur)

  17. Cleanup operations at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant contaminated metal scrapyard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    Cleanup operations at the contaminated metal storage yard located at the Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Gaseous Diffusion Plant have been completed. The storage yard, in existence since the early 1970s, contained an estimated 35,000 tons of mixed-type metals spread over an area of roughly 30 acres. The overall cleanup program required removing the metal from the storage yard, sorting by specific metal types, and size reduction of specific types for future processing. This paper explains the methods and procedures used to accomplish this task

  18. Operator Splitting Methods for Degenerate Convection-Diffusion Equations I: Convergence and Entropy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, Helge; Karlsen, Kenneth H.; Lie, Knut-Andreas

    1999-10-01

    We present and analyze a numerical method for the solution of a class of scalar, multi-dimensional, nonlinear degenerate convection-diffusion equations. The method is based on operator splitting to separate the convective and the diffusive terms in the governing equation. The nonlinear, convective part is solved using front tracking and dimensional splitting, while the nonlinear diffusion equation is solved by a suitable difference scheme. We verify L{sup 1} compactness of the corresponding set of approximate solutions and derive precise entropy estimates. In particular, these results allow us to pass to the limit in our approximations and recover an entropy solution of the problem in question. The theory presented covers a large class of equations. Important subclasses are hyperbolic conservation laws, porous medium type equations, two-phase reservoir flow equations, and strongly degenerate equations coming from the recent theory of sedimentation-consolidation processes. A thorough numerical investigation of the method analyzed in this paper (and similar methods) is presented in a companion paper. (author)

  19. Measured performance of a 3 ton LiBr absorption water chiller and its effect on cooling system operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A three ton lithium bromide absorption water chiller was tested for a number of conditions involving hot water input, chilled water, and the cooling water. The primary influences on chiller capacity were the hot water inlet temperature and the cooling water inlet temperature. One combination of these two parameters extended the output to as much as 125% of design capacity, but no combination could lower the capacity to below 60% of design. A cooling system was conceptually designed so that it could provide several modes of operation. Such flexibility is needed for any solar cooling system to be able to accommodate the varying solar energy collection and the varying building demand. It was concluded that a three-ton absorption water chiller with the kind of performance that was measured can be incorporated into a cooling system such as that proposed, to provide efficient cooling over the specified ranges of operating conditions.

  20. Measured performance of a 3-ton LiBr absorption water chiller and its effect on cooling system operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A 3-ton lithium bromide absorption water chiller was tested for a number of conditions involving hot-water input, chilled water, and the cooling water. The primary influences on chiller capacity were the hot water inlet temperature and the cooling water inlet temperature. One combination of these two parameters extended the output to as much as 125% of design capacity, but no combination could lower the capacity to below 60% of design. A cooling system was conceptually designed so that it could provide several modes of operation. Such flexibility is needed for any solar cooling system to be able to accommodate the varying solar energy collection and the varying building demand. It is concluded that a 3-ton absorption water chiller with the kind of performance that was measured can be incorporated into a cooling system such as that proposed, to provide efficient cooling over the specified ranges of operating conditions.

  1. Competition between convection and diffusion in a metal halide lamp, investigated by numerical simulations and imaging laser absorption spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beks, M.L.; Flikweert, A.J.; Nimalasuriya, T.; Stoffels, W.W.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the competition between convection and diffusion on the distribution of metal halide additives in a high pressure mercury lamp has been examined by placing COST reference lamps with mercury fillings of 5 and 10 mg in a centrifuge. By subjecting them to different accelerational

  2. Measurement of laser absorptivity for operating parameters characteristic of laser drilling regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M; Berthe, L; Fabbro, R; Muller, M [Laboratoire pour l' Application des Lasers de Puissance, UPR CNRS no1578, 16 Bis, Avenue Prieur de la Cote D' Or, 94114 Arcueil Cedex (France)], E-mail: matthieu.schneider@gmail.com

    2008-08-07

    Laser drilling in the percussion regime is commonly used in the aircraft industry to drill sub-millimetre holes in metallic targets. Characteristic laser intensities in the range of 10 MW cm{sup -2} are typically employed for drilling metallic targets. With these intensities the temperature of the irradiated matter is above the vaporization temperature and the drilling process is led by hydrodynamic effects. Although the main physical processes involved are identified, this process is not correctly understood or completely controlled. A major characteristic coefficient of laser-matter interaction for this regime, which is the absorptivity of the laser on the irradiated surface, is still unknown, because of the perturbing effects due to laser beam geometrical trapping inside the drilled hole. So, by using time resolved experiments, this study deals with the direct measurement of the variation of the intrinsic absorption of aluminium, nickel and steel materials, as a function of the incident laser intensity up to 20 MW cm{sup -2}. We observe that for this incident intensity, the absorptivity can reach up to 80%. This very high and unexpected value is discussed by considering the microscopic behaviour of the heated matter near the vapour-liquid interface that undergoes possible Rayleigh-Taylor instability or volume absorption.

  3. Measurement of laser absorptivity for operating parameters characteristic of laser drilling regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M.; Berthe, L.; Fabbro, R.; Muller, M.

    2008-08-01

    Laser drilling in the percussion regime is commonly used in the aircraft industry to drill sub-millimetre holes in metallic targets. Characteristic laser intensities in the range of 10 MW cm-2 are typically employed for drilling metallic targets. With these intensities the temperature of the irradiated matter is above the vaporization temperature and the drilling process is led by hydrodynamic effects. Although the main physical processes involved are identified, this process is not correctly understood or completely controlled. A major characteristic coefficient of laser-matter interaction for this regime, which is the absorptivity of the laser on the irradiated surface, is still unknown, because of the perturbing effects due to laser beam geometrical trapping inside the drilled hole. So, by using time resolved experiments, this study deals with the direct measurement of the variation of the intrinsic absorption of aluminium, nickel and steel materials, as a function of the incident laser intensity up to 20 MW cm-2. We observe that for this incident intensity, the absorptivity can reach up to 80%. This very high and unexpected value is discussed by considering the microscopic behaviour of the heated matter near the vapour-liquid interface that undergoes possible Rayleigh-Taylor instability or volume absorption.

  4. Operating limit study for the proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.W.; Wang, J.C.; Kocher, D.C.

    1995-06-01

    A proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) would accept wastes generated during normal operations that are identified as non-radioactive. These wastes may include small amounts of radioactive material from incidental contamination during plant operations. A site-specific analysis of the new solid waste landfill is presented to determine a proposed operating limit that will allow for waste disposal operations to occur such that protection of public health and the environment from the presence of incidentally contaminated waste materials can be assured. Performance objectives for disposal were defined from existing regulatory guidance to establish reasonable dose limits for protection of public health and the environment. Waste concentration limits were determined consistent with these performance objectives for the protection of off-site individuals and inadvertent intruders who might be directly exposed to disposed wastes. Exposures of off-site individuals were estimated using a conservative, site-specific model of the groundwater transport of contamination from the wastes. Direct intrusion was analyzed using an agricultural homesteader scenario. The most limiting concentrations from direct intrusion or groundwater transport were used to establish the concentration limits for radionuclides likely to be present in PGDP wastes.

  5. Operating limit study for the proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.; Wang, J.C.; Kocher, D.C.

    1995-06-01

    A proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) would accept wastes generated during normal operations that are identified as non-radioactive. These wastes may include small amounts of radioactive material from incidental contamination during plant operations. A site-specific analysis of the new solid waste landfill is presented to determine a proposed operating limit that will allow for waste disposal operations to occur such that protection of public health and the environment from the presence of incidentally contaminated waste materials can be assured. Performance objectives for disposal were defined from existing regulatory guidance to establish reasonable dose limits for protection of public health and the environment. Waste concentration limits were determined consistent with these performance objectives for the protection of off-site individuals and inadvertent intruders who might be directly exposed to disposed wastes. Exposures of off-site individuals were estimated using a conservative, site-specific model of the groundwater transport of contamination from the wastes. Direct intrusion was analyzed using an agricultural homesteader scenario. The most limiting concentrations from direct intrusion or groundwater transport were used to establish the concentration limits for radionuclides likely to be present in PGDP wastes

  6. Performance simulation of an absorption heat transformer operating with partially miscible mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, D.; Cachot, T.; Hornut, J.M. [LSGC-CNRS-ENSIC, Nancy (France); Univ. Henri Poincare, Nancy (France). IUT

    2002-07-08

    This paper proposes to study the thermodynamics performances of a new absorption heat-transformer cycle, where the separation step is obtained by the cooling and settling of a partially miscible mixture at low temperature. This new cycle has been called an absorption-demixing heat transformer (ADHT) cycle. A numerical simulation code has been written, and has allowed us to evaluate the temperature lift and thermal yield of 2 working pairs. Both high qualitative and quantitative performances have been obtained, so demonstrating the feasibility and industrial interest for such a cycle. Moreover a comparison of the simulation results with performances really obtained on an experimental ADHT has confirmed the pertinence of the simulation code.(author)

  7. DUVAS (derivative uv-absorption spectrometer): instrument description and operating manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Dougherty, J.M.; Metcalfe, C.E.

    1980-11-01

    DUVAS is a real-time, field-portable spectrometer capable of monitoring a variety of aromatic organic vapors and inorganic gases at sub-ppM concentrations. The instrument is a prototype, microcomputer-controlled, derivative ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectrometer (DUVAS) developed primarily for area monitoring at coal conversion facilities, although other important occupational and environmental monitoring applications for compounds such as SO 2 , NO/sub x/, NH 3 , and HCHO are also being pursued

  8. Solar heating and cooling system with absorption chiller and low temperature latent heat storage: Energetic performance and operational experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, M.; Keil, C.; Hiebler, S.; Mehling, H.; Schweigler, C. [Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern) (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Absorption cooling systems based on water/lithium bromide (LiBr) solution typically require an open wet cooling tower to transfer the reject heat to the ambient. Yet, water consumption, the need for water make-up and cleaning, formation of fog, and the risk of Legionella bacteria growth are hindering factors for the implementation of small solar cooling systems. The application of a latent heat storage supporting the heat rejection of the absorption chiller in conjunction with a dry cooling system allows eliminating the wet cooling tower. By that means heat rejection of the chiller is shifted to periods with lower ambient temperatures, i.e. night time or off-peak hours. The system concept and the hydraulic scheme together with an analysis of the energetic performance of the system are presented, followed by a report on the operation of a first pilot installation. (author)

  9. Operating experience with aluminum bearings at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langebrake, C.O.

    1975-01-01

    Considerable operating experience has been gained at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant over the last 15 years in the use of aluminum bearings in process related and auxiliary equipment. All of this experience has been excellent and, in several cases, the use of this type of bearing material has solved significant operating problems. Aluminum 850-T101 alloy was first used as a bearing material in purge cascade (PC-9) centrifugal compressors where a fatigue problem was being experienced with babbitt-type bearings. Good experience in this application led to the extended use of this bearing material in other equipment including process related as well as auxiliary equipment. Since 1961 aluminum bearings have been installed in approximately 21 Type PC-9 (centrifugal), 97 Type 9 (centrifugal), 262 Type X-29 (axial), and 101 Type 31 (axial) compressors, and 3 speed increasers in the X-330 Evacuation Booster Station. Based on successful operation of these bearings, continued and expanded use of aluminum bearings is recommended as a means of obtaining a high fatigue resistant bearing at a cost lower than that for babbitt-type bearings. (U.S.)

  10. Determination of operating limits for radionuclides for a proposed landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.C.; Lee, D.W.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, R.R.; Kocher, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    The operating limits for radionuclides in sanitary and industrial wastes were determined for a proposed landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Kentucky. These limits, which may be very small but nonzero, are not mandated by law or regulation but are needed for rational operation. The approach was based on analyses of the potential contamination of groundwater at the plant boundary and the potential exposure to radioactivity of an intruder at the landfill after closure. The groundwater analysis includes (1) a source model describing the disposal of waste and the release of radionuclides from waste to the groundwater, (2) site-specific groundwater flow and contaminant transport calculations, and (3) calculations of operating limits from the dose limit and conversion factors. The intruder analysis includes pathways through ingestion of contaminated vegetables and soil, external exposure to contaminated soil, and inhalation of suspended activity from contaminated soil particles. In both analyses, a limit on annual effective dose equivalent of 4 mrem (0.04 mSv) was adopted. The intended application of the results is to refine the radiological monitoring standards employed by the PGDP Health Physics personnel to determine what constitutes radioactive wastes, with concurrence of the Commonwealth of Kentucky

  11. Helmholtz and Diffusion Equations Associated with Local Fractional Derivative Operators Involving the Cantorian and Cantor-Type Cylindrical Coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Juan Hao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main object of this paper is to investigate the Helmholtz and diffusion equations on the Cantor sets involving local fractional derivative operators. The Cantor-type cylindrical-coordinate method is applied to handle the corresponding local fractional differential equations. Two illustrative examples for the Helmholtz and diffusion equations on the Cantor sets are shown by making use of the Cantorian and Cantor-type cylindrical coordinates.

  12. Operational methods for minimising soil compaction and diffuse pollution risk from wheelings in winter cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bob; Silgram, Martyn; Quinton, John

    2010-05-01

    Recent UK government-funded research has shown that compacted, unvegetated tramlines wheelings can represent an important source and transport pathway, which can account for 80% of surface runoff, sediment and phosphorus losses to edge-of-field from cereals on moderate slopes. For example, recent research found 5.5-15.8% of rainfall lost as runoff, and losses of 0.8-2.9 kg TP/ha and 0.3-4.8 T/ha sediment from tramline wheelings. When compaction was released by shallow cultivation, runoff was reduced to 0.2-1.7% of rainfall with losses of 0.0-0.2 kg TP/ha and 0.003-0.3 T/ha sediment respectively i.e. close to reference losses from control areas without tramlines. Recent independent assessments using novel tracer techniques have also shown that tramline wheelings can represent important sediment sources at river catchment scale. In response to these latest findings, a new project is now underway investigating the most cost-effective and practical ways of operationalising methods for managing tramline wheelings in autumn-sown cereal systems to reduce the risk of soil compaction from the autumn spray operation and the associated risk of surface runoff and diffuse pollution loss of sediment, phosphorus and nitrogen to edge of field. Research is focusing on the over-winter period when soils are close to field capacity and the physical protection of the soil surface granted by growing crop is limited. This paper outlines this new multi-disciplinary project and associated methodologies, which include hillslope-scale event-based evaluations of the effectiveness of novel mitigation methods on surface runoff and diffuse pollution losses to edge of field, assessments of the economic and practical viability of mitigation methods, and modelling the impact on water quality of implementation of the most promising techniques at both farm and catchment scale. The study involves a large consortium with 20 partners, including many industrial organisations representing tractor, crop

  13. Effects of two-photon absorption on all optical logic operation based on quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Dutta, Niloy K.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate all-optical logic operation in quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier (QD-SOA) based Mach-Zehnder interferometer considering the effects of two-photon absorption (TPA). TPA occurs during the propagation of sub-picosecond pulses in QD-SOA, which leads to a change in carrier recovery dynamics in quantum-dots. We utilize a rate equation model to take into account carrier refill through TPA and nonlinear dynamics including carrier heating and spectral hole burning in the QD-SOA. The simulation results show the TPA-induced pumping in the QD-SOA can reduce the pattern effect and increase the output quality of the all-optical logic operation. With TPA, this scheme is suitable for high-speed Boolean logic operation at 320 Gb/s.

  14. Development of the Hybrid Operation Method of a Multi-Geothermal Heat Pump System and Absorption Chiller-Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ju Jung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Considerable efforts have been made to reduce the energy consumption of buildings due to the energy crisis, and, the Korean government has supported the use of renewable energy through various grants. Among the possible renewable energy sources, geothermal energy can be used regardless of the outside weather. Therefore, energy consumption can be reduced considerably in summer and winter. Despite the increasing use of renewable energy, the use of renewables has not been operating appropriately. Therefore, this study examined some of the problems of the operation of renewable energy and some possible improvements. The aim of the study is to evaluate a building containing an actual installed multi-geothermal heat pump (Multi-GHP system, in terms of the energy efficiency. In addition, this study evaluated the present control system and the method of complex operation regarding existing heat sources systems and GHP systems through a simulation. The results can be regarded as the result of a hybrid operation method for the improvement of an existing operation. Therefore, the Multi-GHP system energy use of a hybrid operation condition of the Multi-GHP systems and the absorption (ABS chiller-heater system was reduced compared to the operation condition of the Multi-GHP system, and the total energy consumption of the heat source equipment was reduced. The proposed operation plan was evaluated after applying the system to a building. These results showed that the efficient operation of a Multi-GHP hybrid operation method is possible. As a result, the GHP energy use of Multi-GHP systems and the ABS chiller-heater system was reduced by 30% compared to existing operation and the total energy consumption of heat source equipment was reduced by 78%.

  15. Identifying the limitations of conventional biofiltration of diffuse methane emissions at long-term operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Cuervo, S; Hernández, J; Omil, F

    2016-08-01

    There is growing international concern about the increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, particularly CO2 and methane. The emissions of methane derived from human activities are associated with large flows and very low concentrations, such as those emitted from landfills and wastewater treatment plants, among others. The present work was focused on the biological methane degradation at diffuse concentrations (0.2% vv(-1)) in a conventional biofilter using a mixture of compost, perlite and bark chips as carrier. An extensive characterization of the process was carried out at long-term operation (250 days) in a fully monitored pilot plant, achieving stable conditions during the entire period. Operational parameters such as waterings, nitrogen addition and inlet loads and contact time influences were evaluated. Obtained results indicate that empty bed residence times within 4-8 min are crucial to maximize elimination rates. Waterings and the type of nitrogen supplied in the nutrient solution (ammonia or nitrate) have a strong impact on the biofilter performance. The better results compatible with a stable operation were achieved using nitrate, with elimination capacities up to 7.6 ± 1.1 g CH4 m(-3 )h(-1). The operation at low inlet concentrations (IC) implied that removal rates obtained were quite limited (ranging 3-8 g CH4 m(-3 )h(-1)); however, these results could be significantly increased (up to 20.6 g CH4 m(-3) h(-1)) at higher IC, which indicates that the mass transfer from the gas to the liquid layer surrounding the biofilm is a key limitation of the process.

  16. Fast and accurate implementation of Fourier spectral approximations of nonlocal diffusion operators and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Qiang; Yang, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    This work is concerned with the Fourier spectral approximation of various integral differential equations associated with some linear nonlocal diffusion and peridynamic operators under periodic boundary conditions. For radially symmetric kernels, the nonlocal operators under consideration are diagonalizable in the Fourier space so that the main computational challenge is on the accurate and fast evaluation of their eigenvalues or Fourier symbols consisting of possibly singular and highly oscillatory integrals. For a large class of fractional power-like kernels, we propose a new approach based on reformulating the Fourier symbols both as coefficients of a series expansion and solutions of some simple ODE models. We then propose a hybrid algorithm that utilizes both truncated series expansions and high order Runge–Kutta ODE solvers to provide fast evaluation of Fourier symbols in both one and higher dimensional spaces. It is shown that this hybrid algorithm is robust, efficient and accurate. As applications, we combine this hybrid spectral discretization in the spatial variables and the fourth-order exponential time differencing Runge–Kutta for temporal discretization to offer high order approximations of some nonlocal gradient dynamics including nonlocal Allen–Cahn equations, nonlocal Cahn–Hilliard equations, and nonlocal phase-field crystal models. Numerical results show the accuracy and effectiveness of the fully discrete scheme and illustrate some interesting phenomena associated with the nonlocal models.

  17. Design of a hybrid silicon-plasmonic co-propagating coupler operating close to coherent perfect absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanotto, Simone; Melloni, Andrea [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2016-04-28

    By hybrid integration of plasmonic and dielectric waveguide concepts, it is shown that nearly perfect coherent absorption can be achieved in a co-propagating coupler geometry. First, the operating principle of the proposed device is detailed in the context of a more general 2 × 2 lossy coupler formalism. Then, it is shown how to tune the device in a wide region of possible working points, its broadband operation, and the tolerance to fabrication uncertainties. Finally, a complete picture of the electromagnetic modes inside the hybrid structure is analyzed, shining light onto the potentials which the proposed device holds in view of classical and quantum signal processing, nonlinear optics, polarization control, and sensing.

  18. Pt and Ru X-ray absorption spectroscopy of PtRu anode catalysts in operating direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupin, Stanislav; Chung, Eun-Hyuk; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Segre, Carlo U; Smotkin, Eugene S

    2006-05-25

    In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, ex situ X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray powder diffraction enabled detailed core analysis of phase segregated nanostructured PtRu anode catalysts in an operating direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). No change in the core structures of the phase segregated catalyst was observed as the potential traversed the current onset potential of the DMFC. The methodology was exemplified using a Johnson Matthey unsupported PtRu (1:1) anode catalyst incorporated into a DMFC membrane electrode assembly. During DMFC operation the catalyst is essentially metallic with half of the Ru incorporated into a face-centered cubic (FCC) Pt alloy lattice and the remaining half in an amorphous phase. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis suggests that the FCC lattice is not fully disordered. The EXAFS indicates that the Ru-O bond lengths were significantly shorter than those reported for Ru-O of ruthenium oxides, suggesting that the phases in which the Ru resides in the catalysts are not similar to oxides.

  19. ANALYSIS ABSORPTION CAPACITY OF EUROPEAN FUNDS UNDER THE OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA FLORESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals of the European Union is the economic progress. In the last 50 years, and especially beginning with the ‘80s, remarkable efforts have been made for removing the borders between the EU national economies and for creating a unique market where goods, persons, capital and services could move freely. Commercial interchanges between UE states have significantly grown and at the same time EU has become a global commercial force. EU’s goal is to become the most dynamic economy based on global recognition. This implies a significant investment in research, education and forming, which allows the population to have access to this new information. This research work displays diverse aspects concerning the Romania’s ability draw of irredeemable funds in period 2007 – 2013, focusing on human capital development activity. Today, the problem absorptions are no longer able to develop projects, that knowing a significant improvement but the stage of implementation and funding.

  20. Optimum pressure for total-reflux operated thermal diffusion column for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Ichiro; Makino, Hitoshi; Kanagawa, Akira

    1990-01-01

    A formula for prediction of the optimum operating pressure P opt of the thermal diffusion columns at total reflux is derived based on the approximate formulae for the column constants which can be evaluated analytically. The formula is expressed explicitly in terms of (1) physical properties of gases to be separated, (2) ratio of radii between hot wire and cold wall of the column, and (3) the ratio of the temperature difference to the cold wall temperature. The result is compared with experimental data; (1) binary monatomic gas systems, (2) multicomponent monatomic gas systems, (3) isotopically substituted polyatomic systems, (4) systems of low atomic or molecular weight, and (5) mixtures of unlike gases; mainly obtained by Rutherford and coworkers. Although the formula is based on the rather rough approximation for the column constants, the optimum pressures predicted by the present formula are in successfully good agreement with the experimental data even for the systems of low atomic or molecular weight and that of mixtures of unlike gases. (author)

  1. Prediction of post-operative necrosis after mastectomy: A pilot study utilizing optical diffusion imaging spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Xian-Jin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Flap necrosis and epidermolysis occurs in 18-30% of all mastectomies. Complications may be prevented by intra-operative detection of ischemia. Currently, no technique enables quantitative valuation of mastectomy skin perfusion. Optical Diffusion Imaging Spectroscopy (ViOptix T.Ox Tissue Oximeter measures the ratio of oxyhemoglobin to deoxyhemoglobin over a 1 × 1 cm area to obtain a non-invasive measurement of perfusion (StO2. Methods This study evaluates the ability of ViOptix T.Ox Tissue Oximeter to predict mastectomy flap necrosis. StO2 measurements were taken at five points before and at completion of dissection in 10 patients. Data collected included: demographics, tumor size, flap length/thickness, co-morbidities, procedure length, and wound complications. Results One patient experienced mastectomy skin flap necrosis. Five patients underwent immediate reconstruction, including the patient with necrosis. Statistically significant factors contributing to necrosis included reduction in medial flap StO2 (p = 0.0189, reduction in inferior flap StO2 (p = 0.003, and flap length (p = 0.009. Conclusion StO2 reductions may be utilized to identify impaired perfusion in mastectomy skin flaps.

  2. Photoinduced Operation by Absorption of the Chalcogenide Nanocrystallite Containing Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaggar A.M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that for the solar cells containing chalcogenide nanocrystallites using external laser light, one can achieve some enhancement of the photovoltaic efficiency. Photoinduced treatment was carried out using two beams of splitted Er: glass laser operating at 1.54 μm. The light of the laser was incident at different angles and the angles between the beams also were varied. Also, the studies of nanocomposite effective structures have shown enhancement of effective nanocrystalline sizes during the laser treatment. Nanocrystallites of CuInS2 and CuZnSnS4 (CZTS were used as chalcogenide materials. The optimization of the laser beam intensities and nanoparticle sizes were explored.

  3. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy of Hidden Objects, Part I: Interpretation of the Reflection-Absorption-Scattering Fractions in Near-Infrared (NIR) Spectra of Polyethylene Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantsev, Alexey L; Rodionova, Oxana Ye; Skvortsov, Alexej N

    2017-08-01

    Investigation of a sample covered by an interfering layer is required in many fields, e.g., for process control, biochemical analysis, and many other applications. This study is based on the analysis of spectra collected by near-infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Each spectrum is a composition of a useful, target spectrum and a spectrum of an interfering layer. To recover the target spectrum, we suggest using a new phenomenological approach, which employs the multivariate curve resolution (MCR) method. In general terms, the problem is very complex. We start with a specific problem of analyzing a system, which consists of several layers of polyethylene (PE) film and underlayer samples with known spectral properties. To separate information originating from PE layers and the target, we modify the system versus both the number of the PE layers as well as the reflectance properties of the target sample. We consider that the interfering spectrum of the layer can be modeled using three components, which can be tentatively called transmission, absorption, and scattering contributions. The novelty of our approach is that we do not remove the reflectance and scattering effects from the spectra, but study them in detail aiming to use this information to recover the target spectrum.

  4. Anomalous Diffusion Approximation of Risk Processes in Operational Risk of Non-Financial Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdziarz, M.; Mista, P.; Weron, A.

    2007-05-01

    We introduce an approximation of the risk processes by anomalous diffusion. In the paper we consider the case, where the waiting times between successive occurrences of the claims belong to the domain of attraction of alpha -stable distribution. The relationship between the obtained approximation and the celebrated fractional diffusion equation is emphasised. We also establish upper bounds for the ruin probability in the considered model and give some numerical examples.

  5. Oxide ion diffusion mechanism related to Co and Fe ions in (Ba0.5Sr0.5)(Co0.8Fe0.2)O3-δ using in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Takanori; Imai, Hideto

    2018-03-01

    The time changes of the white line and pre-edge intensities of Co and Fe K-edge in (Ba0.5Sr0.5)(Co0.8Fe0.2)O3-δ (BSCF) were observed to estimate the oxide ion diffusion related to Co and Fe ions by using in - situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) during oxidation. The 20 μm self-standing BSCF film was prepared for in - situ XAS measurements. The time changes of absorption were fitted to the exponential decay function with two terms. The longer relaxation time (τ), related to the oxide ion diffusion during the oxidation of BSCF, is dependent on temperature. The oxide ion diffusion coefficients (D) were calculated from the τ s estimated by in - situ XAS. The values of the activation energy (Ea) for D related to Co K-edge white line, Co pre-edge, and Fe pre-edge were 1.8-2.0 eV. The value of Ea for D related to Fe K-edge white line, however, was higher than other absorption values at approximately 2.3 eV. We discussed the oxide ion diffusion mechanism related to Co and Fe ions in BSCF using in - situ XAS.

  6. Experimental diagnosis of the influence of operational variables on the performance of a solar absorption cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venegas, M.; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, M.C.; Salgado, R.; Lecuona, A.; Rodriguez, P.; Gutierrez, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the performance of a solar cooling facility along one summer season using a commercial single-effect water-lithium bromide absorption chiller aiming at domestic applications. The facility works only with solar energy using flat plate collectors and it is located at Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain. The statistical analysis performed with the gathered data shows the influence of five daily operational variables on the system performance. These variables are solar energy received along the day (H) and the average values, along the operating period of the solar cooling facility (from sunrise to the end of the cold-water production), of the ambient temperature (T -bar ), the wind velocity magnitude (V), the wind direction (θ) and the relative humidity (RH). First order correlation functions are given. The analysis of the data allows concluding that the most influential variables on the daily cooling energy produced and the daily averaged solar COP are H, V and θ. The period length of cold-water production is determined mainly by H and T -bar .

  7. Experimental diagnosis of the influence of operational variables on the performance of a solar absorption cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venegas, M.; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, M.C.; Lecuona, A.; Rodriguez, P.; Gutierrez, G. [Dpto. Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Salgado, R. [Dpto. Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad Interamericana de Puerto Rico, Recinto de Bayamon, 500 Carretera Dr. John Will Harris Bayamon, PR 00957-6257 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    This paper presents the analysis of the performance of a solar cooling facility along one summer season using a commercial single-effect water-lithium bromide absorption chiller aiming at domestic applications. The facility works only with solar energy using flat plate collectors and it is located at Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain. The statistical analysis performed with the gathered data shows the influence of five daily operational variables on the system performance. These variables are solar energy received along the day (H) and the average values, along the operating period of the solar cooling facility (from sunrise to the end of the cold-water production), of the ambient temperature (anti T), the wind velocity magnitude (V), the wind direction ({theta}) and the relative humidity (RH). First order correlation functions are given. The analysis of the data allows concluding that the most influential variables on the daily cooling energy produced and the daily averaged solar COP are H, V and {theta}. The period length of cold-water production is determined mainly by H and anti T. (author)

  8. Low voltage operation of electro-absorption modulator promising for high-definition 3D imaging application using a three step asymmetric coupled quantum well structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Byung Hoon; Ju, Gun Wu; Cho, Yong Chul; Lee, Yong Tak; Choi, Hee Ju; Jeon, Jin Myeong; Lee, Soo Kyung; Park, Yong Hwa; Park, Chang Young

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a transmission type electro-absorption modulator (EAM) operating at 850 nm having low operating voltage and high absorption change with low insertion loss using a novel three step asymmetric coupled quantum well (3 ACQW) structure which can be used as an optical image shutter for high-definition (HD) three dimensional (3D) imaging. Theoretical calculations show that the exciton red shift of 3 ACQW structure is more than two times larger than that of rectangular quantum well (RQW) structure while maintaining high absorption change. The EAM having coupled cavities with 3 ACQW structure shows a wide spectral bandwidth and high amplitude modulation at a bias voltage of only -8V, which is 41% lower in operating voltage than that of RQW, making the proposed EAM highly attractive as an optical image shutter for HD 3D imaging applications

  9. On the fundamentals of winning virtuous strategies creation toward leveraged buyout transactions implementation during private equity investment in conditions of resonant absorption of discrete information in diffusion - type financial system with induced nonlinearities

    OpenAIRE

    Ledenyov, Dimitri O.; Ledenyov, Viktor O.

    2014-01-01

    The authors perform an original research on the fundamentals of winning virtuous strategies creation toward the leveraged buyout transactions implementation during the private equity investment in the conditions of the resonant absorption of discrete information in the diffusion - type financial system with the induced nonlinearities at the influences by the Schumpeterian creative disruption processes in the free market economy. We propose that the money is a financial computing process, whic...

  10. Absorption of CO2 and H2S in Aqueous Alkanolamine Solutions using a Fixed-Bed Reactor with Cocurrent Downflow Operation in the Pulsing Flow Regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1988-01-01

    Absorption rates of H2S and CO2 in several aqueous alkanolamines in a cocurrent downflow fixed-bed reactor operated in the pulse flow regime have been measured in order to obtain information on the potential selectivity and on the mass transfer parameters. From these experiments it can be concluded

  11. Pseudospectral operational matrix for numerical solution of single and multiterm time fractional diffusion equation

    OpenAIRE

    GHOLAMI, SAEID; BABOLIAN, ESMAIL; JAVIDI, MOHAMMAD

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new numerical approach to solve single and multiterm time fractional diffusion equations. In this work, the space dimension is discretized to the Gauss$-$Lobatto points. We use the normalized Grunwald approximation for the time dimension and a pseudospectral successive integration matrix for the space dimension. This approach shows that with fewer numbers of points, we can approximate the solution with more accuracy. Some examples with numerical results in tables and fig...

  12. Water absorption in brick masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, H.J.P.; Smolders, H.R.

    1996-01-01

    The water absorption in brick, mortar that was cured separately, and masonry samples was studied using NMR. Models of the moisture transport are usually formulated on the basis of a diffusion equation. In the case of water absorption in separate brick and mortar samples, the moisture diffusivity in

  13. Respective influence of thermodynamic, hydrodynamic and diffusion factors on ion exchanger operation. Application to the ion exchanger NYMPHEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoud, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nymphea is an annular ion exchanger, with a resin bed 30 centimeter-thick, used for purification of the water from the spent fuel storage pool at La Hague reprocessing plant. Very low concentration solutions (10 -12 eq/l for cobalt) are purified by Nymphea, and parameter must be extrapolated from the range 0.01 - 0.0001 eq/l to very low concentrations. A model is developed, describing ion state inside the grains. The limiting step in Nymphea operation is external diffusion. Diffusion time is determined by mean grain size which should be accurately defined for extrapolation of results from monodispersed distribution (often the case in laboratories) to polydispersed (often the case in industry). Operation of an ion exchanger can be simulated for any ion number in solution. In steady state condition of concentration pool purification increases with flow rate. Simulation in transient operation allows the determination of all the concentrations in function of time and hence to calculate the time to reach the maximum permissible concentration for cobalt. This time depends upon calcium pollution (by fuel can dissolution, atmospheric pollution) which is not accurately known [fr

  14. Field study evaluation of diffuse ceiling ventilation in classroom during real operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin Heine; Jensen, Jakob Søland; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •Field experimental measurements during real operating conditions. •Evaluation of pressure chamber effect. •Evaluation of displacement effect. •Evaluation of thermal comfort.......Highlights •Field experimental measurements during real operating conditions. •Evaluation of pressure chamber effect. •Evaluation of displacement effect. •Evaluation of thermal comfort....

  15. Emission and absorption spectroscopy study of Ar excited states in 13.56 MHz argon plasma operating at sub-atmospheric to atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L. [Department of Applied Physics, Research Unit Plasma Technology, Ghent University, Jozef Plateaustraat 22, Ghent B-9000 (Belgium); Nikiforov, A., E-mail: anton.nikiforov@ugent.be [Department of Applied Physics, Research Unit Plasma Technology, Ghent University, Jozef Plateaustraat 22, Ghent B-9000 (Belgium); Institute of Solution Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Science, Academicheskaya St., 1, Ivanovo, 153045 (Russian Federation); Britun, N. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), CIRMAP, Universite de Mons, 23 Place du Parc, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Snyders, R. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), CIRMAP, Universite de Mons, 23 Place du Parc, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Materia Nova Research Centre, Parc Initialis, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Leys, C. [Department of Applied Physics, Research Unit Plasma Technology, Ghent University, Jozef Plateaustraat 22, Ghent B-9000 (Belgium)

    2015-05-01

    The densities of metastable and resonant states of Ar atoms are measured in high pressure Ar radio frequency discharge. Resonant absorption spectroscopy for the case of a low pressure spectral lamp and high-pressure plasma absorption lines is implemented for this purpose. The necessary generalizations for the high-pressure resonant absorption method are given. Absolute density of Ar 1s levels obtained at different RF input power and operating pressures are of the order of 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3}, which is in a good agreement with those reported in the literature. The population distribution on the Ar 2p (excited) levels, obtained from the optical emission spectroscopy, reveals strong deviation from thermal equilibrium for these levels in the high-pressure case. The generation of the Ar excited states in the studied discharges is compared to the previously reported results. - Highlights: • Strong non-equilibrium distribution of Ar 2p levels is observed. • The absolute number density of non-radiative Ar 1s states is determined by the easier and low cost spectral-lamp absorption method. • The modified absorption theory of Mitchell and Zemanski was used to obtain the absolute number density of Ar 1s states at high pressure. • The developed RF source with 5 cm long gap can be a possible alternative to micro-plasma working in Ar at atmospheric pressure.

  16. Operational Efficiency Forecasting Model of an Existing Underground Mine Using Grey System Theory and Stochastic Diffusion Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Strbac Savic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting the operational efficiency of an existing underground mine plays an important role in strategic planning of production. Degree of Operating Leverage (DOL is used to express the operational efficiency of production. The forecasting model should be able to involve common time horizon, taking the characteristics of the input variables that directly affect the value of DOL. Changes in the magnitude of any input variable change the value of DOL. To establish the relationship describing the way of changing we applied multivariable grey modeling. Established time sequence multivariable response formula is also used to forecast the future values of operating leverage. Operational efficiency of production is often associated with diverse sources of uncertainties. Incorporation of these uncertainties into multivariable forecasting model enables mining company to survive in today’s competitive environment. Simulation of mean reversion process and geometric Brownian motion is used to describe the stochastic diffusion nature of metal price, as a key element of revenues, and production costs, respectively. By simulating a forecasting model, we imitate its action in order to measure its response to different inputs. The final result of simulation process is the expected value of DOL for every year of defined time horizon.

  17. Diffusion in cladding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, M.S.; Pande, B.M.; Agarwala, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    Aluminium has been used as a cladding material in most research reactors because its low neutron absorption cross section and ease of fabrication. However, it is not suitable for cladding in power reactors and as such zircaloy-2 is normally used as a clad because it can withstand high temperature. It has low neutron absorption cross section, good oxidation, corrosion, creep properties and possesses good mechanical strength. With the passage of time, further development in this branch of science took place and designers started looking for better neutron economy and less hydrogen pickup in PHW reactors. The motion of fission products in the cladding material could pose a problem after long operation. In order to understand their behaviour under reactor environment, it is essential to study first the diffusion under normal conditions. These studies will throw light on the interaction of defects with impurities which would in turn help in understanding the mechanism of diffusion. In this article, it is intended to discuss the diffusion behaviour of impurities in cladding materials.(i.e. aluminium, zircaloy-2, zirconium-niobium alloy etc.). (author). 94 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Spectral analysis of the diffusion operator with random jumps from the boundary

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolb, M.; Krejčiřík, David

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 284, 3-4 (2016), s. 877-900 ISSN 0025-5874 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : self-adjoint operators * eigenvalues * eigenfunctions Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.738, year: 2016

  19. Modelling and simulation of an absorption cycle with a blow pump; Modellierung und Simulation eines Absorptionskreislaufes mit einer Blasenpumpe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buecherl, Markus

    2011-07-01

    Diffusion-absorption refrigerators are commonly operated with ammonia and water. If a ionic liquid with negligible vapour pressure is substituted for water, the rectifier will be unnecessary. In the context of a diploma thesis, a diffusion-absorption refrigerator with a blower pump and ammonia and a ionic liquid as working fluid was modelled and simulated. For this, three models were selected from the relevant literature and compared. Changes in COP as a result of varied operating parameters were investigated as well. It was shown that it is possible, in principle, to operate a diffusion-absorption refrigerator with a ionic liquid. [German] Diffusions-Absorptions-Kaeltemaschinen werden in der Regel mit dem Arbeitsstoffpaar Ammoniak-Wasser betrieben. Ersetzt man das Absorptionsmittel Wasser gegen eine ionische Fluessigkeit, die nur einen vernachlaessigbaren Dampfdruck besitzt, kann man den Rektifikator einsparen. Im Rahmen einer Diplomarbeit wurde eine Diffusions-Absorptions-Kaeltemaschine mit einer Blasenpumpe und dem Arbeitsstoffpaar Ammoniak-Ionische Fluessigkeit modelliert und simuliert. Hierfuer wurden drei Modelle aus der Literatur ausgewaehlt. Diese Modelle wurden untereinander verglichen. Ausserdem wurde die Veraenderung des COP bei der Variation der Betriebsparameter fuer diese Berechnungsmodelle untersucht. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass es prinzipiell moeglich ist, eine Diffusions-Absorptions-Kaeltemaschine mit ionischer Fluessigkeit zu betreiben.

  20. Post-operative diffusion weighted imaging as a predictor of posterior fossa syndrome permanence in paediatric medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Felicia H Z; Thien, Ady; Ng, Lee Ping; Seow, Wan Tew; Low, David C Y; Chang, Kenneth T E; Lian, Derrick W Q; Loh, Eva; Low, Sharon Y Y

    2017-03-01

    Posterior fossa syndrome (PFS) is a serious complication faced by neurosurgeons and their patients, especially in paediatric medulloblastoma patients. The uncertain aetiology of PFS, myriad of cited risk factors and therapeutic challenges make this phenomenon an elusive entity. The primary objective of this study was to identify associative factors related to the development of PFS in medulloblastoma patient post-tumour resection. This is a retrospective study based at a single institution. Patient data and all related information were collected from the hospital records, in accordance to a list of possible risk factors associated with PFS. These included pre-operative tumour volume, hydrocephalus, age, gender, extent of resection, metastasis, ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion, post-operative meningitis and radiological changes in MRI. Additional variables included molecular and histological subtypes of each patient's medulloblastoma tumour. Statistical analysis was employed to determine evidence of each variable's significance in PFS permanence. A total of 19 patients with appropriately complete data was identified. Initial univariate analysis did not show any statistical significance. However, multivariate analysis for MRI-specific changes reported bilateral DWI restricted diffusion changes involving both right and left sides of the surgical cavity was of statistical significance for PFS permanence. The authors performed a clinical study that evaluated possible risk factors for permanent PFS in paediatric medulloblastoma patients. Analysis of collated results found that post-operative DWI restriction in bilateral regions within the surgical cavity demonstrated statistical significance as a predictor of PFS permanence-a novel finding in the current literature.

  1. Time-resolved soft x-ray absorption setup using multi-bunch operation modes at synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebel, L.; Sigalotti, P.; Ressel, B.; Cautero, G.; Malvestuto, M.; Capogrosso, V.; Bondino, F.; Magnano, E.; Parmigiani, F.

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report on a novel experimental apparatus for performing time-resolved soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy in the sub-ns time scale using non-hybrid multi-bunch mode synchrotron radiation. The present setup is based on a variable repetition rate Ti:sapphire laser (pump pulse) synchronized with the ∼500 MHz x-ray synchrotron radiation bunches and on a detection system that discriminates and singles out the significant x-ray photon pulses by means of a custom made photon counting unit. The whole setup has been validated by measuring the time evolution of the L 3 absorption edge during the melting and the solidification of a Ge single crystal irradiated by an intense ultrafast laser pulse. These results pave the way for performing synchrotron time-resolved experiments in the sub-ns time domain with variable repetition rate exploiting the full flux of the synchrotron radiation.

  2. GaSb based lasers operating near 2.3 .mu.m for high resolution absorption spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Horká-Zelenková, Veronika; Šimeček, Tomislav; Hulicius, Eduard; Pangrác, Jiří; Oswald, Jiří; Petříček, Otto; Rouillard, C.; Alibert, C.; Werner, R.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 61, - (2005), s. 3066-3069 ISSN 1386-1425 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1010104; GA AV ČR IAA4040104; GA MŠk OC 715.50 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : laser diode * absorption spectroscopy * gas detection * methane Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.290, year: 2005

  3. Near-infrared free carrier absorption in heavily doped silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker-Finch, Simeon C.; McIntosh, Keith R.; Yan, Di; Fong, Kean Chern; Kho, Teng C.

    2014-01-01

    Free carrier absorption in heavily doped silicon can have a significant impact on devices operating in the infrared. In the near infrared, the free carrier absorption process can compete with band to band absorption processes, thereby reducing the number of available photons to optoelectronic devices such as solar cells. In this work, we fabricate 18 heavily doped regions by phosphorus and boron diffusion into planar polished silicon wafers; the simple sample structure facilitates accurate and precise measurement of the free carrier absorptance. We measure and model reflectance and transmittance dispersion to arrive at a parameterisation for the free carrier absorption coefficient that applies in the wavelength range between 1000 and 1500 nm, and the range of dopant densities between ∼10 18 and 3 × 10 20  cm −3 . Our measurements indicate that previously published parameterisations underestimate the free carrier absorptance in phosphorus diffusions. On the other hand, published parameterisations are generally consistent with our measurements and model for boron diffusions. Our new model is the first to be assigned uncertainty and is well-suited to routine device analysis

  4. Development and operation of a real-time data acquisition system for the NASA-LaRC differential absorption lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, C.

    1985-01-01

    Computer hardware and software of the NASA multipurpose differential absorption lidar (DIAL) sysatem were improved. The NASA DIAL system is undergoing development and experimental deployment for remote measurement of atmospheric trace gas concentration from ground and aircraft platforms. A viable DIAL system was developed with the capability of remotely measuring O3 and H2O concentrations from an aircraft platform. Test flights were successfully performed on board the NASA/Goddard Flight Center Electra aircraft from 1980 to 1984. Improvements on the DIAL data acquisition system (DAS) are described.

  5. Study of the influence of chemical binding on resonant absorption and scattering of neutrons; Etude de l'influence des liaisons chimiques sur l'absorption et la diffusion des neutrons aux energies de resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naberejnev, D.G. [Aix-Marseille-1 Univ., 13 - Marseille (France)

    1999-02-01

    At present time the problem of taking into account of the crystalline binding in the heavy nuclei resonance range is not correctly treated in nuclear data processing codes. The present work deals separately with resonant absorption and scattering of neutrons. The influence of crystalline binding is considered for both types of reactions in the harmonic crystal frame work. The harmonic crystal model is applied to the study of resonant absorption cross sections to show the inconsistency of the free gas model widely in use in reactor neutronics. The errors due to the use of the latter were found to be non negligible. These errors should be corrected by introducing a more elaborated harmonic crystal model in codes for resonances analysis and on the nuclear data processing stage. Currently the influence of crystalline binding on transfer cross section in the resonance domain is taken into account in a naive manner using the model of the free nucleus at rest in the laboratory system. In this work I present a formalism (Uncoupled Phonon Approximation) which permits to consider in more detail the crystalline structure of the nuclear fuel. This formalism shows new features in comparison with the static model. (author)

  6. Study of the influence of chemical binding on resonant absorption and scattering of neutrons; Etude de l'influence des liaisons chimiques sur l'absorption et la diffusion des neutrons aux energies de resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naberejnev, D G [Aix-Marseille-1 Univ., 13 - Marseille (France)

    1999-02-01

    At present time the problem of taking into account of the crystalline binding in the heavy nuclei resonance range is not correctly treated in nuclear data processing codes. The present work deals separately with resonant absorption and scattering of neutrons. The influence of crystalline binding is considered for both types of reactions in the harmonic crystal frame work. The harmonic crystal model is applied to the study of resonant absorption cross sections to show the inconsistency of the free gas model widely in use in reactor neutronics. The errors due to the use of the latter were found to be non negligible. These errors should be corrected by introducing a more elaborated harmonic crystal model in codes for resonances analysis and on the nuclear data processing stage. Currently the influence of crystalline binding on transfer cross section in the resonance domain is taken into account in a naive manner using the model of the free nucleus at rest in the laboratory system. In this work I present a formalism (Uncoupled Phonon Approximation) which permits to consider in more detail the crystalline structure of the nuclear fuel. This formalism shows new features in comparison with the static model. (author)

  7. Combined influence of radiation absorption and Hall current effects on MHD double-diffusive free convective flow past a stretching sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sreedevi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis has been carried out on the influence of radiation absorption, variable viscosity, Hall current of a magnetohydrodynamic free-convective flow and heat and mass transfer over a stretching sheet in the presence of heat generation/absorption. The fluid viscosity is assumed to vary as an inverse linear function of temperature. The boundary-layer equations governing the fluid flow, heat and mass transfer under consideration have been reduced to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by employing a similarity transformation. Using the finite difference scheme, numerical solutions to the transform ordinary differential equations have been obtained and the results are presented graphically. The numerical results obtained are in good agreement with the existing scientific literature.

  8. Performance analysis of single stage libr-water absorption machine operated by waste thermal energy of internal combustion engine: Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Hafiz Zafar; Leman, A. M.; Muthuraman, S.; Salleh, Mohd Najib Mohd; Zakaria, Supaat

    2017-09-01

    Combined heating, cooling, and power is also known as Tri-generation. Tri-generation system can provide power, hot water, space heating and air -conditioning from single source of energy. The objective of this study is to propose a method to evaluate the characteristic and performance of a single stage lithium bromide-water (LiBr-H2O) absorption machine operated with waste thermal energy of internal combustion engine which is integral part of trigeneration system. Correlations for computer sensitivity analysis are developed in data fit software for (P-T-X), (H-T-X), saturated liquid (water), saturated vapor, saturation pressure and crystallization temperature curve of LiBr-H2O Solution. Number of equations were developed with data fit software and exported into excel work sheet for the evaluation of number of parameter concerned with the performance of vapor absorption machine such as co-efficient of performance, concentration of solution, mass flow rate, size of heat exchangers of the unit in relation to the generator, condenser, absorber and evaporator temperatures. Size of vapor absorption machine within its crystallization limits for cooling and heating by waste energy recovered from exhaust gas, and jacket water of internal combustion engine also presented in this study to save the time and cost for the facilities managers who are interested to utilize the waste thermal energy of their buildings or premises for heating and air conditioning applications.

  9. Geospatial Absorption and Regional Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN MAC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The geospatial absorptions are characterized by a specific complexity both in content and in their phenomenological and spatial manifestation fields. Such processes are differentiated according to their specificity to pre-absorption, absorption or post-absorption. The mechanisms that contribute to absorption are extremely numerous: aggregation, extension, diffusion, substitution, resistivity (resilience, stratification, borrowings, etc. Between these mechanisms frequent relations are established determining an amplification of the process and of its regional effects. The installation of the geographic osmosis phenomenon in a given territory (a place for example leads to a homogenization of the geospatial state and to the installation of the regional homogeneity.

  10. Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadeishi, T.; McLaughlin, R.

    1978-08-01

    The design and development of a Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer for trace element analysis are described. An instruction manual is included which details the operation, adjustment, and maintenance. Specifications and circuit diagrams are given

  11. Absorption heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formigoni, C.

    1998-01-01

    A brief description of the difference between a compression and an absorption heat pump is made, and the reasons why absorption systems have spread lately are given. Studies and projects recently started in the field of absorption heat pumps, as well as criteria usually followed in project development are described. An outline (performance targets, basic components) of a project on a water/air absorption heat pump, running on natural gas or LPG, is given. The project was developed by the Robur Group as an evolution of a water absorption refrigerator operating with a water/ammonia solution, which has been on the market for a long time and recently innovated. Finally, a list of the main energy and cost advantages deriving from the use of absorption heat pumps is made [it

  12. Development and operation of a real-time data acquisition system for the NASA, Langley Research Center Differential Absorption Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, C.; Kindle, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    The capabilities of the DIAL data acquisition system (DAS) for the remote measurement of atmospheric trace gas concentrations from ground and aircraft platforms were extended through the purchase and integration of other hardware and the implementation of improved software. An operational manual for the current system is presented. Hardware and peripheral device registers are outlined only as an aid in debugging any DAS problems which may arise.

  13. The molecular chemistry of diffuse and translucent clouds in the line-of-sight to Sgr B2: Absorption by simple organic and inorganic molecules in the GBT PRIMOS survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corby, J. F.; McGuire, B. A.; Herbst, E.; Remijan, A. J.

    2018-02-01

    The 1-50 GHz PRebiotic Interstellar MOlecular Survey (PRIMOS) contains 50 molecular absorption lines observed in clouds located in the line-of-sight to Sgr B2(N). The line-of-sight material is associated with diffuse and translucent clouds located in the Galactic center, bar, and spiral arms in the disk. We measured the column densities and estimate abundances, relative to H2, of 11 molecules and additional isotopologues observed in this material. We used absorption by optically thin transitions of c-C3H2 to estimate the molecular hydrogen columns, and argue that this method is preferable to more commonly used methods. We discuss the kinematic structure and abundance patterns of small molecules including the sulfur-bearing species CS, SO, CCS, H2CS, and HCS+; oxygen-bearing molecules OH, SiO, and H2CO; and simple hydrocarbon molecules c-C3H2, l-C3H, and l-C3H+. Finally, we discuss the implications of the observed chemistry for the structure of the gas and dust in the ISM. Highlighted results include the following. First, whereas gas in the disk has a molecular hydrogen fraction of 0.65, clouds on the outer edge of the Galactic bar and in or near the Galactic center have molecular fractions of 0.85 and >0.9, respectively. Second, we observe trends in isotope ratios with Galactocentric distance; while carbon and silicon show enhancement of the rare isotopes at low Galactocentric distances, sulfur exhibits no trend with Galactocentric distance. We also determine that the ratio of c-C3H2/c-H13CCCH provides a good estimate of the 12C/13C ratio, whereas H2CO/H213CO exhibits fractionation. Third, we report the presence of l-C3H+ in diffuse clouds for the first time. Finally, we suggest that CS has an enhanced abundance within higher density clumps of material in the disk, and therefore may be diagnostic of cloud conditions. If this holds, the diffuse clouds in the Galactic disk contain multiple embedded hyperdensities in a clumpy structure, and the density profile is not

  14. Maximum Exergetic Efficiency Operation of a Solar Powered H2O-LiBr Absorption Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Stanciu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A solar driven cooling system consisting of a single effect H2O-LiBr absorbtion cooling module (ACS, a parabolic trough collector (PTC, and a storage tank (ST module is analyzed during one full day operation. The pressurized water is used to transfer heat from PTC to ST and to feed the ACS desorber. The system is constrained to operate at the maximum ACS exergetic efficiency, under a time dependent cooling load computed on 15 July for a one storey house located near Bucharest, Romania. To set up the solar assembly, two commercial PTCs were selected, namely PT1-IST and PTC 1800 Solitem, and a single unit ST was initially considered. The mathematical model, relying on the energy balance equations, was coded under Engineering Equation Solver (EES environment. The solar data were obtained from the Meteonorm database. The numerical simulations proved that the system cannot cover the imposed cooling load all day long, due to the large variation of water temperature inside the ST. By splitting the ST into two units, the results revealed that the PT1-IST collector only drives the ACS between 9 am and 4:30 pm, while the PTC 1800 one covers the entire cooling period (9 am–6 pm for optimum ST capacities of 90 kg/90 kg and 90 kg/140 kg, respectively.

  15. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    During the month of March 2006, a number of instruments were used to determine the absorption characteristics of aerosols found in the Mexico City Megacity and nearby Valley of Mexico. These measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City (MAX-Mex) that was carried out in collaboration with the Megacity Interactions: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign. MILAGRO was a joint effort between the DOE, NSF, NASA, and Mexican agencies aimed at understanding the impacts of a megacity on the urban and regional scale. A super-site was operated at the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City (designated T-0) and at the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac (designated T-1) that was located about 35 km to the north east of the T-0 site in the State of Mexico. A third site was located at a private rancho in the State of Hidalgo approximately another 35 km to the northeast (designated T-2). Aerosol absorption measurements were taken in real time using a number of instruments at the T-0 and T-1 sites. These included a seven wavelength aethalometer, a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a photo-acoustic spectrometer. Aerosol absorption was also derived from spectral radiometers including a multi-filter rotating band spectral radiometer (MFRSR). The results clearly indicate that there is significant aerosol absorption by the aerosols in the Mexico City megacity region. The absorption can lead to single scattering albedo reduction leading to values below 0.5 under some circumstances. The absorption is also found to deviate from that expected for a "well-behaved" soot anticipated from diesel engine emissions, i.e. from a simple 1/lambda wavelength dependence for absorption. Indeed, enhanced absorption is seen in the region of 300-450 nm in many cases, particularly in the afternoon periods indicating that secondary organic aerosols are contributing to the aerosol absorption. This is likely due

  16. Theory and operation of the real-time data acquisition system for the NASA-LaRC differential absorption lidar (DIAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Carolyn; Spencer, Randall

    1988-01-01

    The improvement of computer hardware and software of the NASA Multipurpose Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system is documented. The NASA DIAL system has undergone development and experimental deployment at NASA/Langley Res. Center for the remote measurement of atmospheric trace gas concentrations from ground and aircraft platforms. A viable DIAL system was developed capable of remotely measuring O3 and H2O concentrations from an aircraft platform. The DIAL Data Acquisition System (DAS) has undergone a number of improvements also. Due to the participation of the DIAL in the Global Tropospheric Experiment, modifications and improvements of the system were tested and used both in the lab and in air. Therefore, this is an operational manual for the DIAL DAS.

  17. Improvements to water vapor transmission and capillary absorption measurements in porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Samuel V. Glass; Charles R. Boardman

    2016-01-01

    The vapor permeability (or equivalently the vapor diffusion resistance factor) and the capillary absorption coefficient are frequently used as inputs to hygrothermal or heat, air, and moisture (HAM) models. However, it has been well documented that the methods used to determine these properties are sensitive to the operator, and wide variations in the properties have...

  18. Dispersion of UO2F2 aerosol and HF vapor in the operating floor during winter ventilation at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Chen, N.C.J.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Keith, K.D.; Schmidt, R.W.; Carter, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    The gaseous diffusion process is currently employed at two plants in the US: the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. As part of a facility-wide safety evaluation, a postulated design basis accident involving large line-rupture induced releases of uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) into the process building of a gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) is evaluated. When UF 6 is released into the atmosphere, it undergoes an exothermic chemical reaction with moisture (H 2 O) in the air to form vaporized hydrogen fluoride (HF) and aerosolized uranyl fluoride (UO 2 F 2 ). These reactants disperse in the process building and transport through the building ventilation system. The ventilation system draws outside air into the process building, distributes it evenly throughout the building, and discharges it to the atmosphere at an elevated temperature. Since air is recirculated from the cell floor area to the operating floor, issues concerning in-building worker safety and evacuation need to be addressed. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the transport of HF vapor and UO 2 F 2 aerosols throughout the operating floor area following B-line break accident in the cell floor area

  19. Aerosol absorption coefficient and Equivalent Black Carbon by parallel operation of AE31 and AE33 aethalometers at the Zeppelin station, Ny Ålesund, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Kalogridis, Athina-Cerise; Vratolis, Sterios; Fiebig, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Light absorbing carbon in atmospheric aerosol plays a critical role in radiative forcing and climate change. Despite the long term measurements across the Arctic, comparing data obtained by a variety of methods across stations requires caution. A method for extracting the aerosol absorption coefficient from data obtained over the decades by filter based instrument is still under development. An IASOA Aerosol working group has been initiated to address this and other cross-site aerosol comparison opportunities. Continuous ambient measurements of EBC/light attenuation by means of a Magee Sci. AE-31 aethalometer operating at the Zeppelinfjellet station (474 m asl; 78°54'N, 11°53'E), Ny Ålesund, Svalbard, have been available since 2001 (Eleftheriadis et al, 2009), while a new aethalometer model (AE33, Drinovec et al, 2014) has been installed to operate in parallel from the same inlet since June 2015. Measurements are recorded by a Labview routine collecting all available parameters reported by the two instrument via RS232 protocol. Data are reported at 1 and 10 minute intervals as averages for EBC (μg m-3) and aerosol absorption coefficients (Mm-1) by means of routine designed to report Near Real Time NRT data at the EBAS WDCA database (ebas.nilu.no) Results for the first 6 month period are reported here in an attempt to evaluate comparative performance of the two instruments in terms of their response with respect to the variable aerosol load of light absorbing carbon during the warm and cold seasons found in the high arctic. The application of available conversion schemes for obtaining the absorption coefficient by the two instruments is found to demonstrate a marked difference in their output. During clean periods of low aerosol load (EBC origin was also conducted. Drinovec, L., Močnik, G., Zotter, P., Prévôt, A. S. H., Ruckstuhl, C., Coz, E., Rupakheti, M., Sciare, J., Müller, T., Wiedensohler, A., and Hansen, A. D. A. The "dual-spot" Aethalometer: an

  20. Two-dimensional temperature and carbon dioxide concentration profiles in atmospheric laminar diffusion flames measured by mid-infrared direct absorption spectroscopy at 4.2 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xunchen; Zhang, Guoyong; Huang, Yan; Wang, Yizun; Qi, Fei

    2018-04-01

    We present a multi-line flame thermometry technique based on mid-infrared direct absorption spectroscopy of carbon dioxide at its v_3 fundamental around 4.2 μm that is particularly suitable for sooting flames. Temperature and concentration profiles of gas phase molecules in a flame are important characteristics to understand its flame structure and combustion chemistry. One of the standard laboratory flames to analyze polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot formation is laminar non-premixed co-flow flame, but PAH and soot introduce artifact to most non-contact optical measurements. Here we report an accurate diagnostic method of the temperature and concentration profiles of CO2 in ethylene diffusion flames by measuring its v_3 vibrational fundamental. An interband cascade laser was used to probe the R-branch bandhead at 4.2 μm, which is highly sensitive to temperature change, free from soot interference and ambient background. Calibration measurement was carried out both in a low-pressure Herriott cell and an atmospheric pressure tube furnace up to 1550 K to obtain spectroscopic parameters for high-temperature spectra. In our co-flow flame measurement, two-dimensional line-of-sight optical depth of an ethylene/N2 laminar sooting flame was recorded by dual-beam absorption scheme. The axially symmetrical attenuation coefficient profile of CO2 in the co-flow flame was reconstructed from the optical depth by Abel inversion. Spatially resolved flame temperature and in situ CO2 volume fraction profiles were derived from the calibrated CO2 spectroscopic parameters and compared with temperature profiles measured by two-line atomic fluorescence.

  1. NLP model of a LiBr–H2O absorption refrigeration system for the minimization of the annual operating cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio-Maya, Carlos; Pacheco-Ibarra, J. Jesús; Belman-Flores, Juan M.; Galván-González, Sergio R.; Mendoza-Covarrubias, Crisanto

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the optimization of a LiBr–H 2 O absorption refrigeration system with the annual operating cost as the objective function to be minimized is presented. The optimization problem is established as a Non-Linear Programming (NLP) model allowing a formulation of the problem in a simple and structured way, and reducing the typical complexity of the thermal systems. The model is composed of three main parts: the thermodynamic model based on the exergy concept including also the proper formulation for the thermodynamic properties of the LiBr–H 2 O mixture, the second is the economic model and the third part composed by inequality constraints. The solution of the model is obtained using the CONOPT solver suitable for NLP problems (code is available on request). The results show the values of the decision variables that minimize the annual cost under the set of assumptions considered in the model and agree well with those reported in other works using different optimization approaches. - Highlights: ► The optimization of an ARS is presented using the annual operating cost as the objective function. ► The problem is established as an NLP model allowing a formulation in a simple and structured way. ► Several formulations for the thermodynamic properties were tested to implement the simpler ones. ► The results obtained agree well with those reported in the work being in comparison.

  2. Calcium absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlmark, B.; Reizenstein, P.; Dudley, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The methods most commonly used to measure the absorption and retention of orally administered calcium are reviewed. Nearly all make use of calcium radioisotopes. The magnitude of calcium absorption and retention depends upon the chemical form and amount of calcium administered, and the clinical and nutritional status of the subject; these influences are briefly surveyed. (author)

  3. Absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Absorption studies were once quite popular but hardly anyone does them these days. It is easier to estimate the blood level of the nutrient directly by radioimmunoassay (RIA). However, the information obtained by estimating the blood levels of the nutrients is not the same that can be obtained from the absorption studies. Absorption studies are primarily done to find out whether some of the essential nutrients are absorbed from the gut or not and if they are absorbed, to determine how much is being absorbed. In the advanced countries, these tests were mostly done to detect pernicious anaemia where vitamin B 12 is not absorbed because of the lack of the intrinsic factor in the stomach. In the tropical countries, ''malabsorption syndrome'' is quire common. In this condition, several nutrients like fat, folic acid and vitamin B 12 are not absorbed. It is possible to study absorption of these nutrients by radioisotopic absorption studies

  4. Folate absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.J.

    1976-01-01

    Folate is the generic term given to numerous compounds of pteroic acid with glutamic acid. Knowledge of absorption is limited because of the complexities introduced by the variety of compounds and because of the inadequacy of investigational methods. Two assay methods are in use, namely microbiological and radioactive. Techniques used to study absorption include measurement of urinary excretion, serum concentration, faecal excretion, intestinal perfusion, and haematological response. It is probably necessary to test absorption of both pteroylmonoglutamic acid and one or more polyglutamates, and such tests would be facilitated by availability of synthesized compounds labelled with radioactive tracers at specifically selected sites. (author)

  5. Development of a 3D-Multigroup program to simulate anomalous diffusion phenomena in the nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maleki Moghaddam, Nader; Afarideh, Hossein; Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The new version of neutron diffusion equation for simulating anomalous diffusion is presented. • Application of fractional calculus in the nuclear reactor is revealed. • A 3D-Multigroup program is developed based on the fractional operators. • The super-diffusion and sub-diffusion phenomena are modeled in the nuclear reactors core. - Abstract: The diffusion process is categorized in three parts, normal diffusion, super-diffusion and sub-diffusion. The classical neutron diffusion equation is used to model normal diffusion. A new scheme of derivatives is required to model anomalous diffusion phenomena. The fractional space derivatives are employed to model anomalous diffusion processes where a plume of particles spreads at an inconsistent rate with the classical Brownian motion model. In the fractional diffusion equation, the fractional Laplacians are used; therefore the statistical jump length of neutrons is unrestricted. It is clear that the fractional Laplacians are capable to model the anomalous phenomena in nuclear reactors. We have developed a NFDE-3D (neutron fractional diffusion equation) as a core calculation code to model normal and anomalous diffusion phenomena. The NFDE-3D is validated against the LMW-LWR reactor. The results demonstrate that reactors exhibit complex behavior versus order of the fractional derivatives which depends on the competition between neutron absorption and super-diffusion phenomenon

  6. Dual gas-diffusion membrane- and mediatorless dihydrogen/air-breathing biofuel cell operating at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hong-qi; So, Keisei; Kitazumi, Yuki; Shirai, Osamu; Nishikawa, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Kano, Kenji

    2016-12-01

    A membraneless direct electron transfer (DET)-type dihydrogen (H2)/air-breathing biofuel cell without any mediator was constructed wherein bilirubin oxidase from Myrothecium verrucaria (BOD) and membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F (MBH) were used as biocatalysts for the cathode and the anode, respectively, and Ketjen black-modified water proof carbon paper (KB/WPCC) was used as an electrode material. The KB/WPCC surface was modified with 2-aminobenzoic acid and p-phenylenediamine, respectively, to face the positively charged electron-accepting site of BOD and the negatively charged electron-donating site of MBH to the electrode surface. A gas-diffusion system was employed for the electrodes to realize high-speed substrate supply. As result, great improvement in the current density of O2 reduction with BOD and H2 reduction with MBH were realized at negatively and postively charged surfaces, respectively. Gas diffusion system also suppressed the oxidative inactivation of MBH at high electrode potentials. Finally, based on the improved bioanode and biocathode, a dual gas-diffusion membrane- and mediatorless H2/air-breathing biofuel cell was constructed. The maximum power density reached 6.1 mW cm-2 (at 0.72 V), and the open circuit voltage was 1.12 V using 1 atm of H2 gas as a fuel at room temperature and under passive and quiescent conditions.

  7. Absorption and Metabolism of Xanthophylls

    OpenAIRE

    Kotake-Nara, Eiichi; Nagao, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    Dietary carotenoids, especially xanthophylls, have attracted significant attention because of their characteristic biological activities, including anti-allergic, anti-cancer, and anti-obese actions. Although no less than forty carotenoids are ingested under usual dietary habits, only six carotenoids and their metabolites have been found in human tissues, suggesting selectivity in the intestinal absorption of carotenoids. Recently, facilitated diffusion in addition to simple diffusion has bee...

  8. Gintonin absorption in intestinal model systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Hwan Lee

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study shows that gintonin could be absorbed in the intestine through transcellular and paracellular diffusion, and active transport. In addition, the lipid component of gintonin might play a key role in its intestinal absorption.

  9. Diffuse interstellar clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The author defines and discusses the nature of diffuse interstellar clouds. He discusses how they contribute to the general extinction of starlight. The atomic and molecular species that have been identified in the ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared regions of the spectrum of a diffuse cloud are presented. The author illustrates some of the practical considerations that affect absorption line observations of interstellar atoms and molecules. Various aspects of the theoretical description of diffuse clouds required for a full interpretation of the observations are discussed

  10. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soffiantini, V.

    1981-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectrophotometry is essentially an analytical technique used for quantitative trace metal analysis in a variety of materials. The speed and specificity of the technique is its greatest advantage over other analytical techniques. What atomic absorption spectrophotometry can and cannot do and its advantages and disadvantages are discussed, a summary of operating instructions are given, as well as a summary of analytical interferences. The applications of atomic absorption spectrophotometry are also shortly discussed

  11. Absorption and Metabolism of Xanthophylls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi Kotake-Nara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary carotenoids, especially xanthophylls, have attracted significant attention because of their characteristic biological activities, including anti-allergic, anti-cancer, and anti-obese actions. Although no less than forty carotenoids are ingested under usual dietary habits, only six carotenoids and their metabolites have been found in human tissues, suggesting selectivity in the intestinal absorption of carotenoids. Recently, facilitated diffusion in addition to simple diffusion has been reported to mediate the intestinal absorption of carotenoids in mammals. The selective absorption of carotenoids may be caused by uptake to the intestinal epithelia by the facilitated diffusion and an unknown excretion to intestinal lumen. It is well known that β-carotene can be metabolized to vitamin A after intestinal absorption of carotenoids, but little is known about the metabolic transformation of non provitamin A xanthophylls. The enzymatic oxidation of the secondary hydroxyl group leading to keto-carotenoids would occur as a common pathway of xanthophyll metabolism in mammals. This paper reviews the absorption and metabolism of xanthophylls by introducing recent advances in this field.

  12. Absorption and metabolism of xanthophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotake-Nara, Eiichi; Nagao, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    Dietary carotenoids, especially xanthophylls, have attracted significant attention because of their characteristic biological activities, including anti-allergic, anti-cancer, and anti-obese actions. Although no less than forty carotenoids are ingested under usual dietary habits, only six carotenoids and their metabolites have been found in human tissues, suggesting selectivity in the intestinal absorption of carotenoids. Recently, facilitated diffusion in addition to simple diffusion has been reported to mediate the intestinal absorption of carotenoids in mammals. The selective absorption of carotenoids may be caused by uptake to the intestinal epithelia by the facilitated diffusion and an unknown excretion to intestinal lumen. It is well known that β-carotene can be metabolized to vitamin A after intestinal absorption of carotenoids, but little is known about the metabolic transformation of non provitamin A xanthophylls. The enzymatic oxidation of the secondary hydroxyl group leading to keto-carotenoids would occur as a common pathway of xanthophyll metabolism in mammals. This paper reviews the absorption and metabolism of xanthophylls by introducing recent advances in this field.

  13. Narrative absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narrative Absorption brings together research from the social sciences and Humanities to solve a number of mysteries: Most of us will have had those moments, of being totally absorbed in a book, a movie, or computer game. Typically we do not have any idea about how we ended up in such a state. No...

  14. Environmental assessment for the construction and operation of waste storage facilities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    DOE is proposing to construct and operate 3 waste storage facilities (one 42,000 ft 2 waste storage facility for RCRA waste, one 42,000 ft 2 waste storage facility for toxic waste (TSCA), and one 200,000 ft 2 mixed (hazardous/radioactive) waste storage facility) at Paducah. This environmental assessment compares impacts of this proposed action with those of continuing present practices aof of using alternative locations. It is found that the construction, operation, and ultimate closure of the proposed waste storage facilities would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required

  15. Eigenvalues and bifurcation for problems with positively homogeneous operators and reaction-diffusion systems with unilateral terms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Milan; Navrátil, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 166, January (2018), s. 154-180 ISSN 0362-546X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : global bifurcation * maximal eigenvalue * positively homogeneous operators Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.192, year: 2016 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0362546X17302559?via%3Dihub

  16. Eigenvalues and bifurcation for problems with positively homogeneous operators and reaction-diffusion systems with unilateral terms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Milan; Navrátil, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 166, January (2018), s. 154-180 ISSN 0362-546X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : global bifurcation * maximal eigenvalue * positively homogeneous operators Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.192, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362546X17302559?via%3Dihub

  17. Breakthrough characteristics of gas absorption in a packed column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shitanda, Shoji; Fukada, Satoshi; Koto, Kenji; Mitsuishi, Nobuo

    1979-01-01

    In nuclear industries, the operations to collect or recover various radioactive and non-radioactive gases with a number of absorption or adsorption reagents are practically utilized or planned. Specifically in the operations of recovering hydrogen isotopes, the direct collecting method with active metals such as uranium, zirconium (Zr) and yttrium is watched with keen interest. In this study, the capability of recovering hydrogen by means of Zr was investigated through the estimation of rate-determining step, by flowing the gas mixture of hydrogen and argon after activating metallic Zr under the condition of high temperature and high vacuum, and by determining overall mass transfer coefficient from the absorption breakthrough curves. The details of a packed column and the flowsheet are also described, and the deterioration of Zr powder is considered. That is, the diffusion speed and absorbing reaction speed of hydrogen in Zr particles are supposed to be slow and dominant in mass transfer speed. Further, since gas mixture does not simply diffuse in Zr particles, but the reaction plane seems to move toward the center from the surface in the case of Zr, different from general adsorbents, the moving speed seems to give large effect on the rate-determining step. It is ensured that the hydrogen absorption with Zr powder is so active that hydrogen in gas flow can easily be recovered, and its separation from other gases can be effectively carried out by the desorption of hydrogen from Zr powder by heating it in vacuum. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. Absorptive products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assarsson, P.G.; King, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    Applications for hydrophile gels produced by the radiation induced cross-linking in aqueous solution of polyethylene oxide and starch, as described in Norwegian patent 133501 (INIS RN 281494), such as sanitary napkins (diapers) and sanitary towels, are discussed. The process itself is also discussed and results, expressed as the percentage of insoluble gel and its absorptive capacity for saline solution as functions of the ratio of polyethylene oxide to starch and the radiation dose, are presented. (JIW)

  19. Environmental assessment for the construction and operation of waste storage facilities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    DOE is proposing to construct and operate 3 waste storage facilities (one 42,000 ft{sup 2} waste storage facility for RCRA waste, one 42,000 ft{sup 2} waste storage facility for toxic waste (TSCA), and one 200,000 ft{sup 2} mixed (hazardous/radioactive) waste storage facility) at Paducah. This environmental assessment compares impacts of this proposed action with those of continuing present practices aof of using alternative locations. It is found that the construction, operation, and ultimate closure of the proposed waste storage facilities would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required.

  20. COMPARISON OF IMPLICIT SCHEMES TO SOLVE EQUATIONS OF RADIATION HYDRODYNAMICS WITH A FLUX-LIMITED DIFFUSION APPROXIMATION: NEWTON–RAPHSON, OPERATOR SPLITTING, AND LINEARIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetsu, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Taishi, E-mail: h.tetsu@geo.titech.ac.jp [Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Radiation is an important process of energy transport, a force, and a basis for synthetic observations, so radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) calculations have occupied an important place in astrophysics. However, although the progress in computational technology is remarkable, their high numerical cost is still a persistent problem. In this work, we compare the following schemes used to solve the nonlinear simultaneous equations of an RHD algorithm with the flux-limited diffusion approximation: the Newton–Raphson (NR) method, operator splitting, and linearization (LIN), from the perspective of the computational cost involved. For operator splitting, in addition to the traditional simple operator splitting (SOS) scheme, we examined the scheme developed by Douglas and Rachford (DROS). We solve three test problems (the thermal relaxation mode, the relaxation and the propagation of linear waves, and radiating shock) using these schemes and then compare their dependence on the time step size. As a result, we find the conditions of the time step size necessary for adopting each scheme. The LIN scheme is superior to other schemes if the ratio of radiation pressure to gas pressure is sufficiently low. On the other hand, DROS can be the most efficient scheme if the ratio is high. Although the NR scheme can be adopted independently of the regime, especially in a problem that involves optically thin regions, the convergence tends to be worse. In all cases, SOS is not practical.

  1. Additional value of diffusion-weighted imaging to evaluate multifocal and multicentric breast cancer detected using pre-operative breast MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Eun; Park, Eun Kyung; Cho, Kyu Ran; Cho, Sung Bum [Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Bo Kyoung [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Ok Hee [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seung Pil [Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    To investigate whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) aids pre-operative dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) to evaluate additional lesions in breast cancer patients. DCE-MRI and DWI were performed on 131 lesions, with available histopathological results. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of each lesion was measured, and the cut-off value for differentiation between malignant and benign lesions was calculated. A protocol combining the ADC cut-off value with DCE-MRI was validated in a cohort of 107 lesions in 77 patients. When an ADC cut-off value of 1.11 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s from the development cohort was applied to the additional lesions in the validation cohort, the specificity increased from 18.9% to 67.6% (P < 0.001), and the diagnostic accuracy increased from 61.7% to 82.2% (P = 0.05), without significant loss of sensitivity (98.6% vs. 90.0%, P = 0.07). The negative predictive values of lesions in the same quadrant had decreased, as had those of lesions ≥1 cm in diameter. The ADC cut-off value in the validation cohort was 1.05 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s. Additional implementation of DWI for breast lesions in pre-operative MRI can help to obviate unnecessary biopsies by increasing specificity. However, to avoid missing cancers, clinicians should closely monitor lesions located in the same quadrant or lesions ≥1 cm. (orig.)

  2. Anomalous water absorption in porous materials

    CERN Document Server

    Lockington, D A

    2003-01-01

    The absorption of fluid by unsaturated, rigid porous materials may be characterized by the sorptivity. This is a simple parameter to determine and is increasingly being used as a measure of a material's resistance to exposure to fluids (especially moisture and reactive solutes) in aggressive environments. The complete isothermal absorption process is described by a nonlinear diffusion equation, with the hydraulic diffusivity being a strongly nonlinear function of the degree of saturation of the material. This diffusivity can be estimated from the sorptivity test. In a typical test the cumulative absorption is proportional to the square root of time. However, a number of researchers have observed deviation from this behaviour when the infiltrating fluid is water and there is some potential for chemo-mechanical interaction with the material. In that case the current interpretation of the test and estimation of the hydraulic diffusivity is no longer appropriate. Kuentz and Lavallee (2001) discuss the anomalous b...

  3. Thermal diffusion (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemarechal, A.

    1963-01-01

    This report brings together the essential principles of thermal diffusion in the liquid and gaseous phases. The macroscopic and molecular aspects of the thermal diffusion constant are reviewed, as well as the various measurement method; the most important developments however concern the operation of the CLUSIUS and DICKEL thermo-gravitational column and its applications. (author) [fr

  4. Study and selection of structured packing material: metallic, polymeric or ceramic to operate a column of absorption polluting gases coming from brick kilns efficiently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar P, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this research three structured packing materials were characterized: a metallic, polymeric and ceramic. The study of the physical properties of structured packing materials, and their behavior within the absorption column allowed to suggest a gas-liquid contactor material with higher mechanical and chemical resistance, which is more efficient for the treatment of sour gases from brick kilns. To study the mechanical properties (hardness, tension and elastic modulus) were used procedures of the American Society for Testing Materials, as well as resistance to corrosion. The geometric characteristics, the density, the melting temperature and the weight were tested with procedures of the measuring equipment. The structure was evaluated by X-ray diffraction, morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy coupled to a sound of dispersive energy of X-ray, to quantify elemental chemical composition. The interaction of gas-liquid contactors materials in presence of CO 2 , was evaluated in three absorption columns built of Pyrex glass, with a diameter of 0.1016 m, of 1.5 m in height, 0.0081m 2 cross-sectional area, packed with every kind of material: metallic, polymeric and ceramic, processing a gas flow of 20m 3 / h at 9% CO 2 , in air and a liquid flow to 30% of Mea 5 L/min. The results of the properties studied were by the metallic material: more density, higher roughness, the greater tensile strength, greater resistance to corrosion in the presence of an aqueous solution of monoethanolamine (Mea) to 30% by weight, improvement more efficient absorption of CO 2 , and higher modulus of elasticity. The polymeric material was characterized to have lower hardness, lower roughness, lower density, lower melting temperature, greater resistance to corrosion in the presence of 1 N H 2 SO 4 aqueous solution, and allowed an absorption efficiency of CO 2 , 2% lower than that presented by the material metallic. The ceramic material found to be the hardest of the three

  5. Turbulent effective absorptivity and refractivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rax, J.M.

    1984-09-01

    The problem of wave propagation in a turbulent magnetized plasma is investigated. Considering small scale, low frequency density fluctuations we solve the Maxwell equations and show that the eikonal approximation remains valid with an effective refractivity and an effective absorptivity taking into account the energy diffusion due to the turbulent motion. Then the result is applied to the problem of lower hybrid waves scattering by drift waves density fluctuations in tokamaks

  6. Strong Stationary Duality for Diffusion Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fill, James Allen; Lyzinski, Vince

    2014-01-01

    We develop the theory of strong stationary duality for diffusion processes on compact intervals. We analytically derive the generator and boundary behavior of the dual process and recover a central tenet of the classical Markov chain theory in the diffusion setting by linking the separation distance in the primal diffusion to the absorption time in the dual diffusion. We also exhibit our strong stationary dual as the natural limiting process of the strong stationary dual sequence of a well ch...

  7. The limitation and modification of flux-limited diffusion theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengan; Huang Wenkai

    1986-01-01

    The limitation of various typical flux-limited diffusion theory and advantages of asymptotic diffusion theory with time absorption constant are analyzed and compared. The conclusions are as following: Though the flux-limited problem in neutron diffusion theory are theoretically solved by derived flux-limited diffusion equation, it's going too far to limit flux due to the inappropriate assumption in deriving flux-limited diffusion equation. The asymptotic diffusion theory with time absorption constant has eliminated the above-mentioned limitation, and it is more accurate than flux-limited diffusion theory in describing neutron transport problem

  8. Transdermic absorption of Melagenina II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Gonzalez, I.; Martinez Lopez, B.; Ruiz Pena, M.; Caso Pena, R.

    1997-01-01

    The transdermic absorption of Melagenina II (MII) was evaluated. MII was a labelled with 125I by the yodogen method and purified by column chromatography with Sephadex LH-20 in ethanol: water (7:3). In vitro absorption of ( 125I ) - MII thought human skin was carried out in Keshary-Chien modified diffusion cells. Tape stripping method was applied after 24 hours to evaluate the accumulated activity in dermis and epidermis. In vivo assays were performed in Sprague Dawley rats to analyze absorption of MII until 24 hours after a single application and for five days a low penetrability of the drug while in vivo there were not found blood levels significantly greater than zero , nevertheless and important amount of radioactivity was found in feces and urine. The activity was concentrated mainly in the application site in both models

  9. Thermal diffusion (1963); Diffusion thermique (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemarechal, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    This report brings together the essential principles of thermal diffusion in the liquid and gaseous phases. The macroscopic and molecular aspects of the thermal diffusion constant are reviewed, as well as the various measurement method; the most important developments however concern the operation of the CLUSIUS and DICKEL thermo-gravitational column and its applications. (author) [French] Ce rapport rassemble les principes essentiels de la diffusion thermique en phase liquide et en phase gazeuse. Les aspects macroscopique et moleculaire de la constante de diffusion thermique sont passes en revue ainsi que ses differentes methodes de mesure; mais les developpements les plus importants concernent le fonctionnement de ls colonne thermogravitationnelle de CLUSIUS et DICKEL et ses applications. (auteur)

  10. Fractional diffusion equations and anomalous diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Evangelista, Luiz Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Anomalous diffusion has been detected in a wide variety of scenarios, from fractal media, systems with memory, transport processes in porous media, to fluctuations of financial markets, tumour growth, and complex fluids. Providing a contemporary treatment of this process, this book examines the recent literature on anomalous diffusion and covers a rich class of problems in which surface effects are important, offering detailed mathematical tools of usual and fractional calculus for a wide audience of scientists and graduate students in physics, mathematics, chemistry and engineering. Including the basic mathematical tools needed to understand the rules for operating with the fractional derivatives and fractional differential equations, this self-contained text presents the possibility of using fractional diffusion equations with anomalous diffusion phenomena to propose powerful mathematical models for a large variety of fundamental and practical problems in a fast-growing field of research.

  11. Potential Hazards Relating to Pyrolysis of c-C{sub 4}F{sub 8} in Selected Gaseous Diffusion Plant Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trowbridge, L.D.

    1999-03-01

    As part of a program intended to replace the present evaporative coolant at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) with a non-ozone-depleting alternate, a series of investigations of the suitability of candidate substitutes in under way. One issue concerning a primary candidate, c-C4F8, is the possibility that it might produce the highly toxic perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB) in high temperature environments. This study was commissioned to determine the likelihood and severity of decomposition under two specific high temperature thermal environments, namely the use of a flame test for the presence of coolant vapors and welding in the presence of coolant vapors. The purpose of the study was to develop and evaluate available data to provide information that will allow the technical and industrial hygiene staff at the GDPs to perform appropriate safety evaluations and to determine the need for field testing or experimental work. The scope of this study included a literature search and an evaluation of the information developed therefrom. Part of that evaluation consists of chemical kinetics modeling of coolant decomposition in the two operational environments. The general conclusions are that PFIB formation is unlikely in either situation but that it cannot be ruled out completely under extreme conditions. The presence of oxygen, moisture, and combustion products will tend to lead to formation of oxidation products (COF2, CO, CO2, and HF) rather than PFIB.

  12. Establishment of the Processes of Absorption and Diffusion of Systemic Insecticides in Populus Euramericana Dode Guinier ''Robusta''; L'etablissement des processus d'absorption et diffusion des insecticides systemiques au Populus x Euramericana Dode Guinier ''Robista; Opredelenie protsessov pogloshcheniya i diffuzii somaticheskikh insektitsidov u Populus x Euramerican a Dode Guinier ''Robusta''; Determinacion de los procesos de absorcion y difusion de los insecticidas sistemicos en el Populus x Euramericana Dope Guinier ''Robusta''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catrina, I.; Popa, A.; Constantinesco, V.; Constantinesco, O.; Constantinesco, El.; Hulula, C. [Institut de Recherches Forestieres de Bucarest, Bucharest (Romania)

    1963-09-15

    The organophosphoric insecticides having systemic properties due to their ability to penetrate into the sap flow of plants act on insects which spend part of their lives either in the cambial region between wood and bark, or in the wood itself. Until the introduction of these new insecticides chemical control of xylophagous insects in tree-trunks was almost impossible. The mechanism of absorption, diffusion and concentration of systemic insecticides in species of poplar and willow, which are frequently attacked by xylophagous insects, was studied using labelled Dipterex on the poplai Robusta R20. The insecticide was labelled in the reactor, using powdered Dipterex (1.5 g) as target, at a flux {Phi}= 10{sup 11} n/cm{sup 2} s and at a temperature of 30-40{sup o}C. Irradiation was carried on until an absolute target activity of {approx_equal} 1 mc was obtained. The insecticide was administered, in the form of a solution, by pouring it on to the soil, except in one case in which the insecticide was sprayed on to the leaves. One series of experiments was conducted in the laboratory using seedlings grown in pots, and another series was performed in a nursery, using one- and two-year-old saplings. One to two months after administration of the labelled insecticide solutions the trees were subjected to radiometric analysis. In the laboratory experiments the insecticide accumulated in considerable quantities in the leaves, and in smaller amounts in the wood. Both in the laboratory and in the nursery a greater amount of insecticide accumulated in the leaves. In the nursery experiment, however, a considerable increase was observed in the accumulation in the branches and in the wood of the stem, especially at the extremities. The mean accumulation of insecticide amounted to 1.65 mg/g green matter in the'nursery as against 0.24 mg/g in pots. It was shown that under field conditions, in dry weather, two-year-old Robusta saplings take up Dipterex administered in an aqueous

  13. Design, evaluation and recommedation effort relating to the modification of a residential 3-ton absorption cycle cooling unit for operation with solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, R. H.; Anderson, P. P.

    1973-01-01

    The possible use of solar energy powered absorption units to provide cooling and heating of residential buildings is studied. Both, the ammonia-water and the water-lithium bromide cycles, are considered. It is shown that the air cooled ammonia water unit does not meet the criteria for COP and pump power on the cooling cycle and the heat obtained from it acting as a heat pump is at too low a temperature. If the ammonia machine is water cooled it will meet the design criteria for cooling but can not supply the heating needs. The water cooled lithium bromide unit meets the specified performance for cooling with appreciably lower generator temperatures and without a mechanical solution pump. It is recommeded that in the demonstration project a direct expansion lithium bromide unit be used for cooling and an auxiliary duct coil using the solar heated water be employed for heating.

  14. Correlated diffusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Alexander; Glaister, Jeffrey; Cameron, Andrew; Haider, Masoom

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the male population. Fortunately, the prognosis is excellent if detected at an early stage. Hence, the detection and localization of prostate cancer is crucial for diagnosis, as well as treatment via targeted focal therapy. New imaging techniques can potentially be invaluable tools for improving prostate cancer detection and localization. In this study, we introduce a new form of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging called correlated diffusion imaging, where the tissue being imaged is characterized by the joint correlation of diffusion signal attenuation across multiple gradient pulse strengths and timings. By taking into account signal attenuation at different water diffusion motion sensitivities, correlated diffusion imaging can provide improved delineation between cancerous tissue and healthy tissue when compared to existing diffusion imaging modalities. Quantitative evaluation using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, tissue class separability analysis, and visual assessment by an expert radiologist were performed to study correlated diffusion imaging for the task of prostate cancer diagnosis. These results are compared with that obtained using T2-weighted imaging and standard diffusion imaging (via the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)). Experimental results suggest that correlated diffusion imaging provide improved delineation between healthy and cancerous tissue and may have potential as a diagnostic tool for cancer detection and localization in the prostate gland. A new form of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging called correlated diffusion imaging (CDI) was developed for the purpose of aiding radiologists in cancer detection and localization in the prostate gland. Preliminary results show CDI shows considerable promise as a diagnostic aid for radiologists in the detection and localization of prostate cancer

  15. Degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations

    CERN Document Server

    Favini, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of these notes is to include in a uniform presentation style several topics related to the theory of degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations, treated in the mathematical framework of evolution equations with multivalued m-accretive operators in Hilbert spaces. The problems concern nonlinear parabolic equations involving two cases of degeneracy. More precisely, one case is due to the vanishing of the time derivative coefficient and the other is provided by the vanishing of the diffusion coefficient on subsets of positive measure of the domain. From the mathematical point of view the results presented in these notes can be considered as general results in the theory of degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations. However, this work does not seek to present an exhaustive study of degenerate diffusion equations, but rather to emphasize some rigorous and efficient techniques for approaching various problems involving degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations, such as well-posedness, periodic solutions, asympt...

  16. Liver imaging at 3.0 T: Diffusion-induced black-blood echo-planar imaging with large anatomic volumetric coverage as an alternative for specific absorption rate-intensive echo-train spin-echo sequences: Feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.C. van den Bos (Indra); S.M. Hussain (Shahid); G.P. Krestin (Gabriel); P.A. Wielopolski (Piotr)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractInstitutional Review Board approval and signed informed consent were obtained by all participants for an ongoing sequence optimization project at 3.0 T. The purpose of this study was to evaluate breath-hold diffusion-induced blackblood echo-planar imaging (BBEPI) as a potential

  17. Potential Hazards Relating to Pyrolysis of c-C4F8O, n-C4F10 and c-C4F8 in selected gaseous diffusion plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trowbridge, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    As part of a program intended to replace the present evaporative coolant at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) with a non-ozone-depleting alternate, a series of investigations of the suitability of candidate substitutes is under way. This report summarizes studies directed at estimating the chemical and thermal stability of three candidate coolants, c-C 4 F 8 O, n-C 4 F 10 and c-C 4 4F 8 , in a few specific environments to be found in gaseous diffusion plant operations

  18. Mechanism of selenium hydride atomization, fate of free atoms and temperature distribution in an argon shielded, highly fuel-rich, hydrogen-oxygen diffusion micro-flame studied by atomic absorption spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    D'Ulivo, A.; Dědina, Jiří; Lampugnani, L.; Matoušek, Tomáš

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2002), s. 253-257 ISSN 0267-9477 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/01/0453; GA ČR GA203/98/0754 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : hydride atomization * hydride generation * atomic absorption spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.250, year: 2002

  19. Evaluating X-ray absorption of nano-bismuth oxide ointment for decreasing risks associated with X-ray exposure among operating room personnel and radiology experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rashidi

    2015-12-01

      Conclusion: It seems that due to higher atomic number and lower toxicity, Bi2O3 nanoparticles have better efficiency in X-ray absorbtion, comparing to the lead. Cream and ointment of bismuth oxide nanoparticles can be used as X-ray absorbant for different professions such as physicians, dentists, radiology experts, and operating room staff and consequently increase health and safety of these employees.

  20. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub (1−x)}N double quantum wells operating at 1.55 μm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakhlaoui, Hassen [Department of Physics, College of Science for Girls, University of Dammam (UOD), Saudi Arabia and Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, University of Carthage (Tunisia)

    2015-04-07

    In the present paper, the linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes between the ground and the first excited states in double GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub (1−x)}N quantum wells are studied theoretically. The electronic energy levels and their corresponding wave functions are obtained by solving Schrödinger-Poisson equations self-consistently within the effective mass approximation. The obtained results show that the optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes can be red- and blue-shifted through varying the left quantum well width and the aluminum concentration x{sub b2} of the central barrier, respectively. These structural parameters are found to present optimum values for carrying out the transition of 0.8 eV (1.55 μm). Furthermore, we show that the desired transition can also be achieved by replacing the GaN in the left quantum well with Al{sub y}Ga{sub (1−y)}N and by varying the aluminum concentration y{sub Al}. The obtained results give a new degree of freedom in optoelectronic device applications such as optical fiber telecommunications operating at (1.55 μm)

  1. Conservative diffusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlen, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    In Nelson's stochastic mechanics, quantum phenomena are described in terms of diffusions instead of wave functions. These diffusions are formally given by stochastic differential equations with extremely singular coefficients. Using PDE methods, we prove the existence of solutions. This reult provides a rigorous basis for stochastic mechanics. (orig.)

  2. On uniqueness in diffuse optical tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrach, Bastian

    2009-01-01

    A prominent result of Arridge and Lionheart (1998 Opt. Lett. 23 882–4) demonstrates that it is in general not possible to simultaneously recover both the diffusion (aka scattering) and the absorption coefficient in steady-state (dc) diffusion-based optical tomography. In this work we show that it suffices to restrict ourselves to piecewise constant diffusion and piecewise analytic absorption coefficients to regain uniqueness. Under this condition both parameters can simultaneously be determined from complete measurement data on an arbitrarily small part of the boundary

  3. Hybrid Solar-Geothermal Energy Absorption Air-Conditioning System Operating with NaOH-H2O—Las Tres Vírgenes (Baja California Sur, “La Reforma” Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuridiana Rocio Galindo-Luna

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Solar and geothermal energies are considered cleaner and more useful energy sources that can be used to avoid the negative environmental impacts caused by burning fossil fuels. Several works have reported air-conditioning systems that use solar energy coupled to geothermal renewable energy as a thermal source. In this study, an Absorption Air-Conditioning System (AACS used sodium hydroxide-water (NaOH-H2O instead of lithium bromide-water to reduce the cost. Low enthalpy geothermal heat was derived from two shallow wells, 50 and 55 m deep. These wells are of interest due to the thermal recovery (temperature vs. time of 56.2 °C that was possible at the maximum depth, which can be used for the first stage of the process. These wells were coupled with solar energy as a geothermal energy application for direct uses such as air-conditioning systems. We studied the performance of an absorption cooling system operating with a NaOH-H2O mixture and using a parabolic trough plant coupled with a low enthalpy geothermal heat system as a hybrid heat source, as an alternative process that can help reduce operating costs and carbon dioxide emissions. The numerical heat transfer results showed the maximum convective heat transfer coefficient, as function of fluid velocity, and maximum temperature for a depth higher than 40 m. The results showed that the highest temperatures occur at low fluid velocities of less than or equal to 5.0 m/s. Under these conditions, reaching temperatures between 51.0 and 56.2 °C in the well was possible, which is required of the geothermal energy for the solar energy process. A water stream was used as the working fluid in the parabolic trough collector field. During the evaluation stage, the average experimental storage tank temperature achieved by the parabolic trough plant was 93.8 °C on October 23 and 92.9 °C on October 25, 2017. The numerical simulation used to evaluate the performance of the absorption cycle used a generator

  4. Modeling the influence of the parameters the diffusion of chromium plating on operational and physical and mechanical properties of steels for stamping tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Петрович Чейлях

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion hardening steel can be produced in any plant having a thermal equipment, besides, it is more economical than obtaining an alloy steel with similar properties. The influence of the parameters of the diffusion of chromium plating (the composition of the steel, powder mixture on the structure and mechanical properties of structural and tool steels was investigated. Results of X-ray analysis showed that the diffusion zone in the samples consists of two layers. First layer is predominantly carbides Cr7C3, Cr23C6, Fe3C. An intermediate layer composed of carbon-free solid solution of chromium in the iron. The maximum total thickness of the diffusion zone is observed in the steel 130Cr12V1 and 130Cr12Mo1 (~80 µm, minimum – in carbon steels 45, U10 (~10-30 µm. The thickness of carbide layer is approximately the same – 1-3 µm. Analyzing of data micro-hardness measurement across the thickness of the diffusion zone it must be noted that the diffusion layers of the samples of the tool steels have a high micro-hardness 6000-10000. The maximum HV=10200 was in steel 30Cr2W8V1. Chromium saturation of steel surface significantly increases its wear resistance. A much greater effect of increase of coefficient of relative wear resistance (3 fold increase was observed in steels 30Cr2W8V1, 130Cr12V1 and 130Cr12Mo1. The mathematical models relating the micro-hardness, wear resistance, the thickness of the diffusion layer were obtained. In view of the analytical relationships ascertained that the wear resistance of hardened steels substantially depend on the thickness of the diffusion coating, the micro-hardness of the layer and the core of steel and alloy steels has increased more than two times. For hardening steel punching tool 30Cr2W8V1 can be recommended composition of the powder mixture: 50% FeCr + 48% Al2O3 + 2% NaF, and for steel 130Cr12V1 preferably used as activator NH4F

  5. Contribution to the build-up of a core calculation frame: comparison between ''diffusion'' and ''SPn'' operators on various configurations of the first N4 core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magat, Ph.

    1997-04-01

    The aim of this study is to compare two calculation methods implemented in the neutronic code CRONOS 2: the diffusion approximation and the SP n method. The APOLLO 2 code is used to build the multiparameter cross section libraries.The comparison is based on the first core of N4 type Chooz reactor. The rod worth and the power map have been calculated. Some recommendations about the SP n development order of flux are made and the results show that the diffusion calculations over-estimate the black rod efficiency up to 10%. (A.C.)

  6. Absorption-heat-pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  7. Confinement and diffusion in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliams, R.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of electric field fluctuations on confinement and diffusion in tokamak is discussed. Based on the experimentally determined cross-field turbolent diffusion coefficient, D∼3.7*cT e /eB(δn i /n i ) rms which is also derived by a simple theory, the cross-field diffusion time, tp=a 2 /D, is calculated and compared to experimental results from 51 tokamak for standard Ohmic operation

  8. D-xylose absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003606.htm D-xylose absorption To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. D-xylose absorption is a laboratory test to determine ...

  9. Numerical investigation of biogas diffusion flames characteristics under several operation conditions in counter-flow configuration with an emphasis on thermal and chemical effects of CO2 in the fuel mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameri, A.; Tabet, F.; Hadef, A.

    2017-08-01

    This study addresses the influence of several operating conditions (composition and ambient pressure) on biogas diffusion flame structure and NO emissions with particular attention on thermal and chemical effect of CO2. The biogas flame is modeled by a counter flow diffusion flame and analyzed in mixture fraction space using flamelet approach. The GRI Mech-3.0 mechanism that involves 53 species and 325 reactions is adopted for the oxidation chemistry. It has been observed that flame properties are very sensitive to biogas composition and pressure. CO2 addition decreases flame temperature by both thermal and chemical effects. Added CO2 may participate in chemical reaction due to thermal dissociation (chemical effect). Excessively supplied CO2 plays the role of pure diluent (thermal effect). The ambient pressure rise increases temperature and reduces flame thickness, radiation losses and dissociation amount. At high pressure, recombination reactions coupled with chain carrier radicals reduction, diminishes NO mass fraction.

  10. Absorption and excretion tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berberich, R.

    1988-01-01

    The absorption and excretion of radiopharmaceuticals is still of interest in diagnostic investigations of nuclear medicine. In this paper the most common methods of measuring absorption and excretion are described. The performance of the different tests and their standard values are discussed. More over the basic possibilities of measuring absorption and excretion including the needed measurement equipments are presented. (orig.) [de

  11. Efficient numerical simulation of non-integer-order space-fractional reaction-diffusion equation via the Riemann-Liouville operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Kolade M.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we are concerned with the solution of non-integer space-fractional reaction-diffusion equations with the Riemann-Liouville space-fractional derivative in high dimensions. We approximate the Riemann-Liouville derivative with the Fourier transform method and advance the resulting system in time with any time-stepping solver. In the numerical experiments, we expect the travelling wave to arise from the given initial condition on the computational domain (-∞, ∞), which we terminate in the numerical experiments with a large but truncated value of L. It is necessary to choose L large enough to allow the waves to have enough space to distribute. Experimental results in high dimensions on the space-fractional reaction-diffusion models with applications to biological models (Fisher and Allen-Cahn equations) are considered. Simulation results reveal that fractional reaction-diffusion equations can give rise to a range of physical phenomena when compared to non-integer-order cases. As a result, most meaningful and practical situations are found to be modelled with the concept of fractional calculus.

  12. Fractional Diffusion Equations and Anomalous Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Luiz Roberto; Kaminski Lenzi, Ervin

    2018-01-01

    Preface; 1. Mathematical preliminaries; 2. A survey of the fractional calculus; 3. From normal to anomalous diffusion; 4. Fractional diffusion equations: elementary applications; 5. Fractional diffusion equations: surface effects; 6. Fractional nonlinear diffusion equation; 7. Anomalous diffusion: anisotropic case; 8. Fractional Schrödinger equations; 9. Anomalous diffusion and impedance spectroscopy; 10. The Poisson–Nernst–Planck anomalous (PNPA) models; References; Index.

  13. Quasilinear analysis of absorption of ion Bernstein waves by electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinali, A.; Paoletti, F.; Bernabei, S.; Ono, M.

    1995-01-01

    The effects induced on plasma electrons by an externally launched ion Bernstein wave (IBW), in the presence of a lower hybrid wave (LHW) in the current drive regime, are studied by analytical integration of the IBW ray-tracing equations along with the amplitude transport equation (Poynting theorem). The electric field amplitude parallel and perpendicular to the external magnetic field, the quasilinear diffusion coefficient, and the modified electron distribution function are analytically calculated in the case of IBW. The analytical calculation is compared to the numerical solution obtained by using a 2-D Fokker-Planck code for the distribution function, without any approximation for the collision operator. The synergy between the IBW and LHW can be accounted for, and the absorption of the IBW power when the electron distribution function presents a tail generated by the LHW in the current drive regime can be calculated

  14. Dynamics of water absorption through superabsorbent polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sooyoung; Kim, Wonjung

    2017-11-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) consist of hydrophilic cross-linked polymer networks that can absorb and retain a great amount of water relative to their own mass, so that they are widely used for disposable diapers and holding soil moisture in agriculture. SAPs are typically available in the form of submillimeter-sized particles, and the water absorption is driven by capillary flows between particles as well as diffusion that entail swelling. Although the control of water absorption of SAPs is important in engineering applications, but the dynamics of water absorption in SAP particles has not been fully understood. We examine the dynamics of the water absorption of sodium polyacrylate, one of the most common SAP. We experimentally measured the water absorption of sodium polyacrylate particles in one-dimensional confined channel. The water flows through the particles were analyzed by capillarity dominant at the early stage and by diffusion involving volume expansion critical at a later stage. The results provide a quantitative basis of the hydrodynamic analysis of the water flow through SAP particles from a macroscopic point of view, facilitating the prediction of water uptake of SAPs in hygienic and agricultural applications. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No.2015R1A2A2A04006181).

  15. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recker, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    Defective absorption of calcium has been thought to exist in patients with achlorhydria. The author compared absorption of calcium in its carbonate form with that in a pH-adjusted citrate form in a group of 11 fasting patients with achlorhydria and in 9 fasting normal subjects. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by a modified double-isotope procedure with 0.25 g of calcium used as the carrier. Mean calcium absorption (+/- S.D.) in the patients with achlorhydria was 0.452 +/- 0.125 for citrate and 0.042 +/- 0.021 for carbonate (P less than 0.0001). Fractional calcium absorption in the normal subjects was 0.243 +/- 0.049 for citrate and 0.225 +/- 0.108 for carbonate (not significant). Absorption of calcium from carbonate in patients with achlorhydria was significantly lower than in the normal subjects and was lower than absorption from citrate in either group; absorption from citrate in those with achlorhydria was significantly higher than in the normal subjects, as well as higher than absorption from carbonate in either group. Administration of calcium carbonate as part of a normal breakfast resulted in completely normal absorption in the achlorhydric subjects. These results indicate that calcium absorption from carbonate is impaired in achlorhydria under fasting conditions. Since achlorhydria is common in older persons, calcium carbonate may not be the ideal dietary supplement

  16. Modernization of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasic, Visa; Milivojevic, Dragan; Karabasevic, Dejan

    2003-01-01

    In Copper Institute in Bor, connection has been made between absorption spectrophotometer and standard PC with the aim to make its operation more reliable and comfortable. Applied solution includes both software and hardware components. An I/O interface module has been installed in PC [1]. Software component consists of programs for measuring and interpretation of results. Paper presents details of this job realization.(Author)

  17. WE-FG-202-11: Longitudinal Diffusion MRI for Treatment Assessment of Sarcoma Patients with Pre-Operative Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y; Cao, M; Kamrava, M; Low, D; Sheng, K; Lamb, J; Agazaryan, N; Thomas, D; Hu, P [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Diffusion weighted MRI (DWI) is a promising imaging technique for early prediction of tumor response to radiation therapy. A recently proposed longitudinal DWI strategy using a Co-60 MRI guided RT system (MRIgRT) may bring functional MRI guided adaptive radiation therapy closer to clinical utility. We report our preliminary results of using this longitudinal DWI approach performed on the MRIgRT system for predicting the response of sarcoma patient to preop RT. Methods: Three sarcoma patients who underwent fractionated IMRT were recruited in this study. For all three patients DWI images were acquired immediately following his/her treatment. For each imaging session, ten slices were acquired interleaved with the b values covering the gross tumor volume (GTV). The diffusion images were processed to obtain the ADC maps using standard exponential fitting for each voxel. Regions of interest were drawn in the tumor on the diffusion images based on each patient’s clinical GTV contours. Each patient subsequently underwent surgery and the tumor necrosis score was available from standard pathology. The ADC values for each patient were compared to the necrosis scores to assess the predictive value of our longitudinal DWI for tumor response. Results: Each patient underwent 3 to 5 diffusion MRI scans depending on their treatment length. Patient 1 had a relatively unchanged ADC during the course of RT and a necrosis score of 30% at surgery. For patient 2, the mean ADC values decreased from 1.56 × 10-3 to 1.12 × 10-3 mm2/s and the patient’s necrosis score was less than 10%. Patient 3 had a slight increase in the ADC values from 0.59 × 10-3 to 0.71 × 10-3 mm2/s and patient’s necrosis score was 50%. Conclusion: Based on limited data from 3 patients, our longitudinal changes in tumor ADC assessed using the MRIgRT system correlated well with pathology results.

  18. The use of a reference absorber for absorption measurements in a reverberation chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolan, Melanie; Vercammen, Martijn; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The statistical incidence absorption coefficient is measured in a reverberation room according to ISO 354. This absorption coefficient is referred to as Sabine absorption coefficient, which assumes the chambe r to be completely diffuse. It is known that the reproducibility of these results is poo...

  19. [Study on lead absorption in pumpkin by atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Xia; Sun, Yong-Dong; Chen, Bi-Hua; Li, Xin-Zheng

    2008-07-01

    A study was carried out on the characteristic of lead absorption in pumpkin via atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that lead absorption amount in pumpkin increased with time, but the absorption rate decreased with time; And the lead absorption amount reached the peak in pH 7. Lead and cadmium have similar characteristic of absorption in pumpkin.

  20. Amplitude equations for a sub-diffusive reaction-diffusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nec, Y; Nepomnyashchy, A A

    2008-01-01

    A sub-diffusive reaction-diffusion system with a positive definite memory operator and a nonlinear reaction term is analysed. Amplitude equations (Ginzburg-Landau type) are derived for short wave (Turing) and long wave (Hopf) bifurcation points

  1. Modulation of intestinal absorption of calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, P; Dupuis, Y [Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, 75 - Paris (France); Paris-11 Univ., 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France))

    1975-01-01

    Absorption of ingested calcium (2ml of a 10mM CaCl/sub 2/ solution + /sup 45/Ca) by the adult rat was shown to be facilitated by the simultaneous ingestion of an active carbohydrate, L-arabinose. As the carbohydrate concentration is increased from 10 to 200mM, the absorption of calcium is maximised at a level corresponding to about twice the control absorption level. A similar doubling of calcium absorption is obtained when a 100mM concentration of any one of a number of other carbohydrates is ingested simultaneously with a 10mM CaCl/sub 2/ solution. Conversely, the simultaneous ingestion of increasing doses (10 to 100mM) of phosphate (NaH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/) with a 10mM CaCl/sub 2/ solution results in decreased /sup 45/Ca absorption and retention by the adult rat. The maximum inhibition of calcium absorption by phosphate is independent of the concentration of the ingested calcium solution (from 5 to 50mM CaCl/sub 2/). The simultaneous ingestion of CaCl/sub 2/ (10mM) with lactose and sodium phosphate (50 and 10mM respectively) shows that the activation effect of lactose upon /sup 45/Ca absorption may be partly dissimulated by the presence of phosphate. These various observations indicate that, within a large concentration range (2 to 50mM CaCl/sub 2/) calcium absorption appears to be a precisely modulated diffusion process. Calcium absorption varies (between minimum and maximum levels) as a function of the state of saturation by the activators (carbohydrates) and inhibitors (phosphate) of the calcium transport system.

  2. Absorption of water and lubricating oils into porous nylon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Oil and water absorption from air into sintered porous nylon can be described by infiltration into the pores of the material. This process can be modeled by a diffusion-like mechanism. For water absorption, we find a formal diffusion coefficient of 1.5 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min when the nylon is initially dry. The diffusion coefficient is 4 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min when the nylon is oil-impregnated prior to air exposure. In a 52% RH atmosphere, dry nylon absorbs 3% w/w water, and oil-impregnated nylon absorbs 0.6% w/w water. For oil absorption there are three steps: (1) surface absorption and infiltration into (2) larger and (3) smaller pores. Surface absorption is too fast to be measured in these experiments. The diffusion coefficient for the second step is 6 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for SRG-60 oil into dry nylon and 4 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for air-equilibrated nylon. The diffusion coefficient for the third step is about 1 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min for both cases. The total amount of oil absorbed is 31% w/w. The interaction between water and nylon is not as strong as that between water and cotton-phenolic: oil can replace water, and only a small amount of water can enter previously oil-impregnated nylon.

  3. EURODIF company - Tricastin gaseous diffusion plant. Requests following the safety re-evaluation of the facility after 20 years of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This decision from the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN) concerns the safety reevaluation of the EURODIF plant ('Georges Besse plant') of the Tricastin site at Pierrelatte (France) which uses the gaseous diffusion process to separate the uranium isotopes. Since the last safety reevaluation in 1988, several points have been improved: reduction of the frequency and importance of uranium hexafluoride leaks (control of the pitting corrosion in the exchangers), no incident linked with exo-thermal reactions or explosions, a mastery of the exposure to ionizing radiations etc.. On the other hand, several points need improvement: the prevention of criticality risks, the earthquake resistance of some structures, and the integration of some accident scenarios (aircraft crash, UF 6 leak) in the emergency plan to avoid the fast release of toxic materials in the environment. These points are detailed in the document. (J.S.)

  4. Pre-operative assessment of residual disease in locally advanced breast cancer patients: A sequential study by quantitative diffusion weighted MRI as a function of therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Khushbu; Sharma, Uma; Sah, Rani G; Mathur, Sandeep; Hari, Smriti; Seenu, Vurthaluru; Parshad, Rajinder; Jagannathan, Naranamangalam R

    2017-10-01

    The potential of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in assessing pathologic response and surgical margins in locally advanced breast cancer patients (n=38) undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy was investigated. DWI was performed at pre-therapy (Tp0), after I (Tp1) and III (Tp3) NACT at 1.5T. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of whole tumor (ADC WT ), solid tumor (ADC ST ), intra-tumoral necrosis (ADC Nec ) was determined. Further, ADC of 6 consecutive shells (5mm thickness each) including tumor margin to outside tumor margins (OM1 to OM5) was calculated and the data analyzed to define surgical margins. Of 38 patients, 6 were pathological complete responders (pCR), 19 partial responders (pPR) and 13 were non-responders (pNR). Significant increase was observed in ADC ST and ADC WT in pCR and pPR following therapy. Pre-therapy ADC was significantly lower in pCR compared to pPR and pNR indicating the heterogeneous nature of tumor which may affect drug perfusion and consequently the response. ADC of outside margins (OM1, OM2, and OM3) was significantly different among pCR, pPR and pNR at Tp3 which may serve as response predictive parameter. Further, at Tp3, ADC of outside margins (OM1, OM2, and OM3) was significantly lower compared to that seen at Tp0 in pCR, indicating the presence of residual disease in these shells. Pre-surgery information may serve as a guide to define cancer free margins and the extent of residual disease which may be useful in planning breast conservation surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Model of diffusers / permeators for hydrogen processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, W. D.; Hang, T.

    2008-01-01

    Palladium-silver (Pd-Ag) diffusers are mainstays of hydrogen processing. Diffusers separate hydrogen from inert species such as nitrogen, argon or helium. The tubing becomes permeable to hydrogen when heated to more than 250 C and a differential pressure is created across the membrane. The hydrogen diffuses better at higher temperatures. Experimental or experiential results have been the basis for determining or predicting a diffuser's performance. However, the process can be mathematically modeled, and comparison to experimental or other operating data can be utilized to improve the fit of the model. A reliable model-based diffuser system design is the goal which will have impacts on tritium and hydrogen processing. A computer model has been developed to solve the differential equations for diffusion given the operating boundary conditions. The model was compared to operating data for a low pressure diffuser system. The modeling approach and the results are presented in this paper. (authors)

  6. Diffusion bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding. At least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces is coated with nickel. A coated surface portion is positioned in a contiguous relationship with another surface portion and subjected to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure. A force is applied on the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other. The contiguous surface portions are heated to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, and the applied force is decreased while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature. A portion of the applied force is maintained at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions

  7. Multipassage diffuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalis, A.; Rouviere, R.; Simon, G.

    1976-01-01

    A multipassage diffuser having 2p passages comprises a leak-tight cylindrical enclosure closed by a top cover and a bottom end-wall, parallel porous tubes which are rigidly assembled in sectors between tube plates and through which the gas mixture flows, the tube sectors being disposed at uniform intervals on the periphery of the enclosure. The top tube plates are rigidly fixed to an annular header having the shape of a half-torus and adapted to communicate with the tubes of the corresponding sector. Each passage is constituted by a plurality of juxtaposed sectors in which the mixture circulates in the same direction, the header being divided into p portions limited by radial partition-walls and each constituting two adjacent passages. The diffuser is provided beneath the bottom end-wall with p-1 leak-tight chambers each adapted to open into two different portions of the header, and with two collector-chambers each fitted with a nozzle for introducing the gas mixture and discharging the fraction of the undiffused mixture. By means of a central orifice formed in the bottom end-wall the enclosure communicates with a shaft for discharging the diffused fraction of the gas mixture

  8. Absorption process for removing krypton from the off-gas of an LMFBR fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, M.J.; Dunthorn, D.I.; Reed, W.D.; Pashley, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant selective absorption process for the collection and recovery of krypton and xenon is being further developed to demonstrate, on a pilot scale, a fluorocarbon-based process for removing krypton from the off-gas of an LMFBR fuel reprocessing plant. The new ORGDP selective absorption pilot plant consists of a primary absorption-stripping operation and all peripheral equipment required for feed gas preparation, process solvent recovery, process solvent purification, and krypton product purification. The new plant is designed to achieve krypton decontamination factors in excess of 10 3 with product concentration factors greater than 10 4 while processing a feed gas containing typical quantities of common reprocessing plant off-gas impurities, including oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, water, xenon, iodine, and methyl iodide. Installation and shakedown of the facility were completed and some short-term tests were conducted early this year. The first operating campaign using a simulated reprocessing plant off-gas feed is now underway. The current program objective is to demonstrate continuous process operability and performance for extended periods of time while processing the simulated ''dirty'' feed. This year's activity will be devoted to routine off-gas processing with little or no deliberate system perturbations. Future work will involve the study of the system behavior under feed perturbations and various plant disturbances. (U.S.)

  9. Noninvasive particle sizing using camera-based diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Otto Højager Attermann; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance measurements are useful for noninvasive inspection of optical properties such as reduced scattering and absorption coefficients. Spectroscopic analysis of these optical properties can be used for particle sizing. Systems based on optical fiber probes are commonly employed...

  10. Solar absorption surface panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  11. Nutrition and magnesium absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of various nutrients present in dairy products and soybean-based products on absorption of magnesium has been investigated. The studies demonstrate that soybean protein versus casein lowers apparent magnesium absorption in rats through its phytate component. However, true

  12. Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos-Vollebregt, M.T.C. de.

    1980-01-01

    A new method of background correction in atomic absorption spectroscopy has recently been introduced, based on the Zeeman splitting of spectral lines in a magnetic field. A theoretical analysis of the background correction capability observed in such instruments is presented. A Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer utilizing a 50 Hz sine wave modulated magnetic field is described. (Auth.)

  13. Quantum diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, S.

    1994-01-01

    We consider a simple quantum system subjected to a classical random force. Under certain conditions it is shown that the noise-averaged Wigner function of the system follows an integro-differential stochastic Liouville equation. In the simple case of polynomial noise-couplings this equation reduces to a generalized Fokker-Planck form. With nonlinear noise injection new ''quantum diffusion'' terms rise that have no counterpart in the classical case. Two special examples that are not of a Fokker-Planck form are discussed: the first with a localized noise source and the other with a spatially modulated noise source

  14. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Request Permissions Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 10/2017 What is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a rare ...

  15. Preserving Symmetry in Convection-Diffusion Schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstappen, R.W.C.P.; Veldman, A.E.P.; Drikakis, D.; Geurts, B.J.

    2002-01-01

    We propose to perform turbulent flow simulations in such manner that the difference operators do have the same symmetry properties as the corresponding differential operators. That is, the convective operator is represented by a skew-symmetric difference operator and the diffusive operator is

  16. Evolution of absorption machines; Evolution des machines a absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soide, I; Klemsdal, E [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France); Le Goff, P; Hornut, J M [LSGC-ENSIC, 54 - Nancy (France)

    1998-12-31

    Most of todays absorption air-conditioning machineries use the lithium bromide-water pair. The most performing can operate at a 150-160 deg. C, the temperature being limited by the corrosion resistance of metals with respect to LiBr solutions. Also, there is a revival of interest for water-ammonia systems. These systems require the use of a rectification column which reduces the coefficient of performance. Higher thermal performances are reached with hydrocarbon pairs and ternary mixtures (water-methanol-LiBr etc..). This paper presents different schemes of refrigerating heat pumps based on these different systems. (J.S.)

  17. Evolution of absorption machines; Evolution des machines a absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soide, I.; Klemsdal, E. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France); Le Goff, P.; Hornut, J.M. [LSGC-ENSIC, 54 - Nancy (France)

    1997-12-31

    Most of todays absorption air-conditioning machineries use the lithium bromide-water pair. The most performing can operate at a 150-160 deg. C, the temperature being limited by the corrosion resistance of metals with respect to LiBr solutions. Also, there is a revival of interest for water-ammonia systems. These systems require the use of a rectification column which reduces the coefficient of performance. Higher thermal performances are reached with hydrocarbon pairs and ternary mixtures (water-methanol-LiBr etc..). This paper presents different schemes of refrigerating heat pumps based on these different systems. (J.S.)

  18. Operative and scientific set-up to treat diffused and multi-focal metastases in the explanted liver. Preliminary indications from the first case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinelli, T.; Altieri, S.; Bruschi, P.; Fossati, F.; Zonta, A.; Ferrari, C.; Prati, U.; Roveda, L.; Barni, S.; Chiari, P.; Nano, R.

    2002-01-01

    A new method has been developed for the therapy of human liver affected with multi-focal and diffused metastases. The therapeutic concept is based on the neutron irradiation of the explanted organ which, soon after such a treatment, is re-implanted according to the self-transplant procedure. Metastases are generally numerous and not completely detectable by the current diagnostic methodologies: so it is necessary to irradiate the whole organ in a thermal neutron field to treat all metastases and to minimize the recurrence probability. The irradiation position into the thermal column of the Triga Mark II reactor of University of Pavia was designed by means of neutron transport code MCNP. The neutron flux components in air at the irradiation position are shown. During the irradiation, to have a neutron flux inside the liver as flat as possible (in the longitudinal axis of the irradiation channel), we rotate the liver of an angle of 180 deg around the vertical axis. The irradiation of the liver is performed putting the organ inside a two teflon bags and than in another rigid teflon container equipped with two thermocouples to monitor the liver temperature. The first clinical trial consist in the treatment of a male 48 years old made on December 19th 2001. The self-graft procedure and the neutron therapy were performed at S. Matteo Polyclinic and inside the thermal column of Triga Mark II reactor of the University of Pavia respectively. The patient's liver contained more than 20 metastases following the removal of a colon-adenocarcinoma few months before. Six months after treatment all radiological and clinical checks indicated a positive and hopeful trend of the patient's condition

  19. Effects of operational decisions on the diffusion of epidemic disease: A system dynamics modeling of the MERS-CoV outbreak in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Nina; Kwag, Taewoo; Park, Sangwook; Kim, Yon Hui

    2017-05-21

    We evaluated the nosocomial outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) Coronavirus (CoV) in the Republic of Korea, 2015, from a healthcare operations management perspective. Establishment of healthcare policy in South Korea provides patients' freedom to select and visit multiple hospitals. Current policy enforces hospitals preference for multi-patient rooms to single-patient rooms, to lower financial burden. Existing healthcare systems tragically contributed to 186 MERS outbreak cases, starting from single "index patient" into three generations of secondary infections. By developing a macro-level health system dynamics model, we provide empirical knowledge to examining the case from both operational and financial perspectives. In our simulation, under base infectivity scenario, high emergency room occupancy circumstance contributed to an estimated average of 101 (917%) more infected patients, compared to when in low occupancy circumstance. Economic patient room design showed an estimated 702% increase in the number of infected patients, despite the overall 98% savings in total expected costs compared to optimal room design. This study provides first time, system dynamics model, performance measurements from an operational perspective. Importantly, the intent of this study was to provide evidence to motivate public, private, and government healthcare administrators' recognition of current shortcomings, to optimize performance as a whole system, rather than mere individual aspects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Conception and operation of a 10 kCi liquid tritium target for the study of tritium nucleus by electron diffusion: 3H(e,e)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juster, F.P.

    1986-06-01

    We describe the conception and operation of an experimental setup, specially suited for the study of the nuclear structure of tritium by elastic electron scattering at intermediate energy. The experiment has been conducted at the ALS 700 MeV electron linac (Saclay, France). The radioactive nature of tritium has led to the design of a new target, suited for handling reliably ten kilocuries of tritium (one gram). The tritium is contained in three sealed envelopes. Initially a high pressure gas (23 bars) at room temperature, the tritium is cooled down to liquefaction by thermal conduction through a solid, without breaking any seal. The beam path and the scattered trajectories cross thin metallic windows. Additional protection, during the presence of personnel, is provided by a heavy container, remotely operated. Any leak in the containement vessels is detected by changes in pressure and/or temperature gauges, monitored by two independent processors. These processors handle the operation of the outer container, the beam switching and the spare venting system. No tritium leak has been detected during a total six-week run. The tritium liquefies in a cylindrical target, 5 cm long and 1 cm in diameter. A beam of 10 microamperes, in the 200-700 MeV, has been measured. The charge and magnetic form factors of tritium have been measured up to a momentum transfer of 31.3 fm -2 [fr

  1. Quasar Absorption Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the proposal is to investigate the absorption properties of a sample of inter-mediate redshift quasars. The main goals of the project are: Measure the redshift and the column density of the X-ray absorbers; test the correlation between absorption and redshift suggested by ROSAT and ASCA data; constrain the absorber ionization status and metallicity; constrain the absorber dust content and composition through the comparison between the amount of X-ray absorption and optical dust extinction. Unanticipated low energy cut-offs where discovered in ROSAT spectra of quasars and confirmed by ASCA, BeppoSAX and Chandra. In most cases it was not possible to constrain adequately the redshift of the absorber from the X-ray data alone. Two possibilities remain open: a) absorption at the quasar redshift; and b) intervening absorption. The evidences in favour of intrinsic absorption are all indirect. Sensitive XMM observations can discriminate between these different scenarios. If the absorption is at the quasar redshift we can study whether the quasar environment evolves with the Cosmic time.

  2. Iron absorption after antrectomy with gastroduodenostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, B.E.O.

    1976-01-01

    Haematological values were studied in 177 unselected patients 3-6 years after antrectomy with gastroduodenostomy. The majority (76%) had been operated upon for duodenal ulcer, 20% for gastric ulcer and the remaining patients had had both a duodenal and a gastric ulcer before the operation. In 65 patients a vagotomy had been added to the resection. 10% of the males and 15% of the females had a haemoglobin concentration below 13.0 or 12.0 g/100 ml, respectively. The corresponding frequencies for iron defifiency, defined as absence or only traces of haemosiderin in bone marrow smears, were 7% and 15%. The absorption of a small test dose of inorganic iron (0.56 mg Fe ++ as ferrous ascorbate) was studied in all the antrectomized patients. The absorption was also investigated in normal men and in patients who had had a Billroth II partial gastrectomy. No malabsorption of inorganic iron could be found in any of the groups. An inverse relationship between iron absorption and the grading of haemosiderin in bone marrow smears was found in normal subjects as well as in operated patients. Thus, an adequate increase of the absorption of ferrous iron was found even in operated patients with iron deficiency. Gastric acid secretion, measured as the peak acid output (PAO) after stimulation, was determined in all antrectomized patients. In patients having the same grading of haemosiderin (grade II) a slight but significant positive correlation was found between PAO and the absorption from the test dose (Fe ++ ). The absorption of food iron from a composite meal and the absorption from an iron salt (3.0 mg Fe ++ as ferrous ascorbate) was studied in 4 different groups: 1) normal males, 2) non-operated patients with peptic ulcer, 3) antrectomized patients with gastroduodenostomy and 4) patients operated upon with Billroth II partial gastrectomy. The range and mean absorption values from the test dose of inorganic iron were about the same in all groups. The absorption of food iron

  3. Uranium absorption study pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raievski, V.; Sautiez, B.

    1959-01-01

    The report describes a pile designed to measure the absorption of fuel slugs. The pile is of graphite and comprises a central section composed of uranium rods in a regular lattice. RaBe sources and BF 3 counters are situated on either side of the center. A given uranium charge is compared with a specimen charge of about 560 kg, and the difference in absorption between the two noted. The sensitivity of the equipment will detect absorption variations of about a few ppm boron (10 -6 boron per gr. of uranium) or better. (author) [fr

  4. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-06-01

    The present discussion is limited to a presentation of the most recent total photonuclear absorption experiments performed with real photons at intermediate energy, and more precisely in the region of nucleon resonances. The main sources of real photons are briefly reviewed and the experimental procedures used for total photonuclear absorption cross section measurements. The main results obtained below 140 MeV photon energy as well as above 2 GeV are recalled. The experimental study of total photonuclear absorption in the nuclear resonance region (140 MeV< E<2 GeV) is still at its beginning and some results are presented

  5. Thermodynamic performance optimization of the absorption-generation process in an absorption refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yi; Han, Wei; Jin, Hongguang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper proposes a new thermal compressor model with boost pressure ratio. • The proposed model is an effective way to optimize the absorption-generation process. • Boost pressure ratio is a key parameter in the proposed thermal compressor model. • The optimum boost pressure ratios for two typical refrigeration systems are obtained. - Abstract: The absorption refrigeration cycle is a basic cycle that establishes the systems for utilizing mid-low temperature heat sources. A new thermal compressor model with a key parameter of boost pressure ratio is proposed to optimize the absorption-generation process. The ultimate generation pressure and boost pressure ratio are used to represent the potential and operating conditions of the thermal compressor, respectively. Using the proposed thermal compressor model, the operation mechanism and requirements of the absorption refrigeration system and absorption-compression refrigeration system are elucidated. Furthermore, the two typical heat conversion systems are optimized based on the thermal compressor model. The optimum boost pressure ratios of the absorption refrigeration system and the absorption-compression refrigeration system are 0.5 and 0.75, respectively. For the absorption refrigeration system, the optimum generation temperature is 125.31 °C at the cooling water temperature of 30 °C, which is obtained by simple thermodynamic calculation. The optimized thermodynamic performance of the absorption-compression refrigeration system is 16.7% higher than that of the conventional absorption refrigeration system when the generation temperature is 100 °C. The thermal compressor model proposed in this paper is an effective method for simplifying the optimization of the thermodynamic systems involving an absorption-generation process.

  6. OH+ IN DIFFUSE MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porras, A. J.; Federman, S. R.; Welty, D. E.; Ritchey, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Near ultraviolet observations of OH + and OH in diffuse molecular clouds reveal a preference for different environments. The dominant absorption feature in OH + arises from a main component seen in CH + (that with the highest CH + /CH column density ratio), while OH follows CN absorption. This distinction provides new constraints on OH chemistry in these clouds. Since CH + detections favor low-density gas with small fractions of molecular hydrogen, this must be true for OH + as well, confirming OH + and H 2 O + observations with the Herschel Space Telescope. Our observed correspondence indicates that the cosmic ray ionization rate derived from these measurements pertains to mainly atomic gas. The association of OH absorption with gas rich in CN is attributed to the need for a high enough density and molecular fraction before detectable amounts are seen. Thus, while OH + leads to OH production, chemical arguments suggest that their abundances are controlled by different sets of conditions and that they coexist with different sets of observed species. Of particular note is that non-thermal chemistry appears to play a limited role in the synthesis of OH in diffuse molecular clouds

  7. Absorption heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  8. Vehicle effects on human stratum corneum absorption and skin penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Alissa; Jung, Eui-Chang; Zhu, Hanjiang; Zou, Ying; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2017-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of three vehicles-ethanol (EtOH), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and isopropyl myristate (IPM)-on stratum corneum (SC) absorption and diffusion of the [ 14 C]-model compounds benzoic acid and butenafine hydrochloride to better understand the transport pathways of chemicals passing through and resident in SC. Following application of topical formulations to human dermatomed skin for 30 min, penetration flux was observed for 24 h post dosing, using an in vitro flow-through skin diffusion system. Skin absorption and penetration was compared to the chemical-SC (intact, delipidized, or SC lipid film) binding levels. A significant vehicle effect was observed for chemical skin penetration and SC absorption. IPA resulted in the greatest levels of intact SC/SC lipid absorption, skin penetration, and total skin absorption/penetration of benzoic acid, followed by IPM and EtOH, respectively. For intact SC absorption and total skin absorption/penetration of butenafine, the vehicle that demonstrated the highest level of sorption/penetration was EtOH, followed by IPA and IPM, respectively. The percent doses of butenafine that were absorbed in SC lipid film and penetrated through skin in 24 h were greatest for IPA, followed by EtOH and IPM, respectively. The vehicle effect was consistent between intact SC absorption and total chemical skin absorption and penetration, as well as SC lipid absorption and chemical penetration through skin, suggesting intercellular transport as a main pathway of skin penetration for model chemicals. These results suggest the potential to predict vehicle effects on skin permeability with simple SC absorption assays. As decontamination was applied 30 min after chemical exposure, significant vehicle effects on chemical SC partitioning and percutaneous penetration also suggest that skin decontamination efficiency is vehicle dependent, and an effective decontamination method should act on chemical solutes in the lipid domain.

  9. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...

  10. Comment on resonant absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerling, P.

    1977-01-01

    An average over angles of incidence of the usual resonant absorption function is presented. This form is appropriate under experimental conditions where the angles of incidence vary greatly and in an unknown manner. For comparison a lens-ellipsoidal mirror illumination system with a known longitudinal aberration is considered. In the latter example the angles of incidence are readily obtained and the resulting resonance absorption function evaluated. The associated fields are calculated in a similar fashion. (author)

  11. Optical absorption measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draggoo, V.G.; Morton, R.G.; Sawicki, R.H.; Bissinger, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature

  12. Interfase y software de control para operar en sincronismo un automuestreador y un atomizador electrotérmico por filamento de tungsteno en espectrofotometría de absorción atómica Development of interface and software for synchronous operation of an autosampler and a tungsten coil electrothermal atomizer coupled to an atomic absorption spectophotometer

    OpenAIRE

    J. Neira; G. Valenzuela; J. Vega; J. Moya; C. G. Bruhn; J. A. Nóbrega

    1998-01-01

    The interface and software for synchronous control of an autosampler and an electrothermal tungsten coil atomizer in atomic absorption spectrophotometry were developed. The control of the power supply, the trigger of the Read function of the spectrophotometer and the automatic operation of the autosampler was performed by software written in "TurboBasic". The system was evaluated by comparison of the repeatability of peak-height absorbances obtained in the atomization of lead by consecutive 1...

  13. Environmental assessment for the construction, operation, and closure of the solid waste landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    DOE has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the proposed construction, operation, and closure of a Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) that would be designed in accordance with Commonwealth of Kentucky landfill regulations (401 Kentucky Administrative Regulations Chapters 47 and 48 and Kentucky Revised Statutes 224.855). PGDP produces approximately 7,200 cubic yards per year of non-hazardous, non-radioactive solid waste currently being disposed of in a transitional contained (residential) landfill cell (Cell No. 3). New Kentucky landfill regulations mandate that all existing landfills be upgraded to meet the requirements of the new regulations or stop receiving wastes by June 30, 1995. Cell No. 3 must stop receiving wastes at that time and be closed and capped within 180 days after final receipt of wastes. The proposed SWL would occupy 25 acres of a 60-acre site immediately north of the existing PGDP landfill (Cell No. 3). The EA evaluated the potential environmental consequences of the proposed action and reasonable alternative actions. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action which will significantly affect the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, it is determined that an environmental impact statement will not be prepared, and DOE is issuing this FONSI

  14. On absence of diffusion near the bottom of the spectrum for a random Schroedinger operator on L2(Rsup(ν))+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinelli, F.; Holden, H.

    1984-01-01

    We consider a random Schroedinger operator on L 2 (Rsup(ν)) of the form Hsub(ω)=-Δ+Vsub(ω), Vsub(ω)(x)=Σchisub(Ci)(x)qsub(i)(ω), [Csub(i)] being a covering of Rsup(ν) with unit cubes around the sites of Zsup(ν) and [qsub(i)] i.i.d. random variables with values in [0, 1]. We assume that the qsub(i)'s are continuously distributed with bounded density f(q) and that 0 0 2 vertical stroke(exp(itHsub(ω))PHI)(x)vertical stroke 2 >t -1 vanishes provided PHI=gsub(E)(Hsub(ω))PSI, where PHI is well-localized around the origin and gsub(E) is a positive Csup(infinite)-function with support in (0, E), E<=Esup(*)(α,vertical strokefvertical strokesub(infinite)). Our estimate of Esup(*)(α,vertical strokefvertical strokesub(infinite)) is such that the set [xelement ofRsup(ν)vertical strokeVsub(ω)(x)<=Esup(*)(α,vertical strokefvertical strokesub(infinite))] may contain with probability one an infinite cluster of cubes [Csub(i)] which are nearest neighbours. The proof is based on the technique introduced by Froehlich and Spencer for the analysis of the Anderson model. (orig.)

  15. Vitamin A absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.J.

    1976-01-01

    Investigation of the absorption of vitamin A and related substances is complicated by the multiplicity of forms in which they occur in the diet and by the possibility that they may be subject to different mechanisms of absorption. Present knowledge of these mechanisms is inadequate, especially in the case of carotenoids. Numerous tests of absorption have been developed. The most common has been the biochemical measurement of the rise in plasma vitamin A after an oral dose of retinol or retinyl ester, but standardization is inadequate. Radioisotope tests based upon assay of serum or faecal activity following oral administration of tritiated vitamin A derivaties hold considerable promise, but again standardization is inadequate. From investigations hitherto performed it is known that absorption of vitamin A is influenced by several diseases, although as yet the consistency of results and the correlation with other tests of intestinal function have often been poor. However, the test of vitamin A absorption is nevertheless of clinical importance as a specialized measure of intestinal function. (author)

  16. Inverse diffusion theory of photoacoustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, Guillaume; Uhlmann, Gunther

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the reconstruction of diffusion and absorption parameters in an elliptic equation from knowledge of internal data. In the application of photoacoustics, the internal data are the amount of thermal energy deposited by high frequency radiation propagating inside a domain of interest. These data are obtained by solving an inverse wave equation, which is well studied in the literature. We show that knowledge of two internal data based on well-chosen boundary conditions uniquely determines two constitutive parameters in diffusion and Schrödinger equations. Stability of the reconstruction is guaranteed under additional geometric constraints of strict convexity. No geometric constraints are necessary when 2n internal data for well-chosen boundary conditions are available, where n is spatial dimension. The set of well-chosen boundary conditions is characterized in terms of appropriate complex geometrical optics solutions

  17. Diffusion archeology for diffusion progression history reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefer, Emre; Kingsford, Carl

    2016-11-01

    Diffusion through graphs can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the spread of diseases, social network memes, computer viruses, or water contaminants. Often, a real-world diffusion cannot be directly observed while it is occurring - perhaps it is not noticed until some time has passed, continuous monitoring is too costly, or privacy concerns limit data access. This leads to the need to reconstruct how the present state of the diffusion came to be from partial diffusion data. Here, we tackle the problem of reconstructing a diffusion history from one or more snapshots of the diffusion state. This ability can be invaluable to learn when certain computer nodes are infected or which people are the initial disease spreaders to control future diffusions. We formulate this problem over discrete-time SEIRS-type diffusion models in terms of maximum likelihood. We design methods that are based on submodularity and a novel prize-collecting dominating-set vertex cover (PCDSVC) relaxation that can identify likely diffusion steps with some provable performance guarantees. Our methods are the first to be able to reconstruct complete diffusion histories accurately in real and simulated situations. As a special case, they can also identify the initial spreaders better than the existing methods for that problem. Our results for both meme and contaminant diffusion show that the partial diffusion data problem can be overcome with proper modeling and methods, and that hidden temporal characteristics of diffusion can be predicted from limited data.

  18. Time domain diffuse optical spectroscopy: In vivo quantification of collagen in breast tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taroni, Paola; Pifferi, Antonio; Quarto, Giovanna; Farina, Andrea; Ieva, Francesca; Paganoni, Anna Maria; Abbate, Francesca; Cassano, Enrico; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2015-05-01

    Time-resolved diffuse optical spectroscopy provides non-invasively the optical characterization of highly diffusive media, such as biological tissues. Light pulses are injected into the tissue and the effects of light propagation on re-emitted pulses are interpreted with the diffusion theory to assess simultaneously tissue absorption and reduced scattering coefficients. Performing spectral measurements, information on tissue composition and structure is derived applying the Beer law to the measured absorption and an empiric approximation to Mie theory to the reduced scattering. The absorption properties of collagen powder were preliminarily measured in the range of 600-1100 nm using a laboratory set-up for broadband time-resolved diffuse optical spectroscopy. Optical projection images were subsequently acquired in compressed breast geometry on 218 subjects, either healthy or bearing breast lesions, using a portable instrument for optical mammography that operates at 7 wavelengths selected in the range 635-1060 nm. For all subjects, tissue composition was estimated in terms of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin, water, lipids, and collagen. Information on tissue microscopic structure was also derived. Good correlation was obtained between mammographic breast density (a strong risk factor for breast cancer) and an optical index based on collagen content and scattering power (that accounts mostly for tissue collagen). Logistic regression applied to all optically derived parameters showed that subjects at high risk for developing breast cancer for their high breast density can effectively be identified based on collagen content and scattering parameters. Tissue composition assessed in breast lesions with a perturbative approach indicated that collagen and hemoglobin content are significantly higher in malignant lesions than in benign ones.

  19. Interfase y software de control para operar en sincronismo un automuestreador y un atomizador electrotérmico por filamento de tungsteno en espectrofotometría de absorción atómica Development of interface and software for synchronous operation of an autosampler and a tungsten coil electrothermal atomizer coupled to an atomic absorption spectophotometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Neira

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The interface and software for synchronous control of an autosampler and an electrothermal tungsten coil atomizer in atomic absorption spectrophotometry were developed. The control of the power supply, the trigger of the Read function of the spectrophotometer and the automatic operation of the autosampler was performed by software written in "TurboBasic". The system was evaluated by comparison of the repeatability of peak-height absorbances obtained in the atomization of lead by consecutive 10-µl injections of solutions (prepared in 0.2% v/v HNO3 using autosampler and manual sample introduction, and also by long term operation.

  20. Regularity of the Interband Light Absorption Coefficient

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we consider the interband light absorption coefficient (ILAC), in a symmetric form, in the case of random operators on the -dimensional lattice. We show that the symmetrized version of ILAC is either continuous or has a component which has the same modulus of continuity as the density of states.

  1. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) oral absorption and clinical influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, Robert B; Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Taylor, Robert; Decker, John F; Patrick, Jeffrey T

    2014-09-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a widely used nonopioid, non-NSAID analgesic that is effective against a variety of pain types, but the consequences of overdose can be severe. Because acetaminophen is so widely available as a single agent and is increasingly being formulated in fixed-ratio combination analgesic products for the potential additive or synergistic analgesic effect and/or reduced adverse effects, accidental cumulative overdose is an emergent concern. This has rekindled interest in the sites, processes, and pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen oral absorption and the clinical factors that can influence these. The absorption of oral acetaminophen occurs primarily along the small intestine by passive diffusion. Therefore, the rate-limiting step is the rate of gastric emptying into the intestines. Several clinical factors can affect absorption per se or the rate of gastric emptying, such as diet, concomitant medication, surgery, pregnancy, and others. Although acetaminophen does not have the abuse potential of opioids or the gastrointestinal bleeding or organ adverse effects of NSAIDs, excess amounts can produce serious hepatic injury. Thus, an understanding of the sites and features of acetaminophen absorption--and how they might be influenced by factors encountered in clinical practice--is important for pain management using this agent. It can also provide insight for design of formulations that would be less susceptible to clinical variables. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  2. Absorption Spectra of Gold Nanoparticle Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan'eva, M. V.; Nurmukhametov, D. R.; Zverev, A. S.; Nelyubina, N. V.; Zvekov, A. A.; Russakov, D. M.; Kalenskii, A. V.; Eremenko, A. N.

    2018-02-01

    Three gold nanoparticle suspensions are obtained, and mean radii in distributions - (6.1 ± 0.2), (11.9 ± 0.3), and (17.3 ± 0.7) nm - are determined by the transmission electron microscopy method. The optical absorption spectra of suspensions are obtained and studied. Calculation of spectral dependences of the absorption index of suspensions at values of the gold complex refractive index taken from the literature showed a significant deviation of experimental and calculated data in the region of 450-800 nm. Spectral dependences of the absorption of suspensions are simulated within the framework of the Mie-Drude theory taking into account the interband absorption in the form of an additional term in the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity of the Gaussian type. It is shown that to quantify the spectral dependences in the region of the plasmon absorption band of nanoparticles, correction of the parameters of the interband absorption is necessary in addition to the increase of the relaxation parameter of the Drude theory. Spectral dependences of the dielectric permittivity of gold in nanodimensional state are refined from the solution of the inverse problem. The results of the present work are important for predicting the special features of operation of photonic devices and optical detonators based on gold nanoparticles.

  3. Excess Entropy and Diffusivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Excess Entropy and Diffusivity. Excess entropy scaling of diffusivity (Rosenfeld,1977). Analogous relationships also exist for viscosity and thermal conductivity.

  4. Neutron resonance absorption theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, P.

    1991-11-01

    After some recalls on the physics of neutron resonance absorption during their slowing down, this paper presents the main features of the theoretical developments performed by the french school of reactor physics: the effective reaction rate method so called Livolant-Jeanpierre theory, the generalizations carried out by the author, and the probability table method [fr

  5. Noble gas absorption process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A method of removing a noble gas from air comprising the use of activated carbon filters in stages in which absorption and desorption steps in succession are conducted in order to increase the capacity of the filters is described. (U.S.)

  6. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental methods using real photon beams for measurements of total photonuclear absorption cross section σ(Tot : E/sub γ/) are recalled. Most recent σ(Tot : E/sub γ/)results for complex nuclei and in the nucleon resonance region are presented

  7. Chemical Absorption Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Chemical absorption materials that potentially can be used for post combustion carbon dioxide capture are discussed. They fall into five groups, alkanolamines, alkali carbonates, ammonia, amino acid salts, and ionic liquids. The chemistry of the materials is discussed and advantages and drawbacks...

  8. Influence of solvent absorption on the migration of Irganox 1076 from LDPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmroth, I.E.; Dekker, M.; Hankemeier, T.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of solvent absorption on additive migration was studied by relating the diffusion coefficient (D) of Irganox 1076 to the maximum solvent absorption of different solvents in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film. Solvents tested were ethanol, isopropanol, isooctane, ethylacetate,

  9. Diffuser Operations at Spring Hollow Reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Gantzer, Paul Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Stratification is a natural occurrence in deep lakes and reservoirs. This phenomenon results in two distinct layers, the warmer, less dense epilimnion on top and the colder, denser, hypolimnion on the bottom. The epilimnion remains saturated with dissolved oxygen (DO) from mass transfer with the atmosphere, while the hypolimnion continues to undergo oxygen-depleting processes. During seasons of high oxygen demand the hypolimnion often becomes anoxic and results in the release of compounds,...

  10. Multistage quantum absorption heat pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Luis A

    2014-04-01

    It is well known that heat pumps, while being all limited by the same basic thermodynamic laws, may find realization on systems as "small" and "quantum" as a three-level maser. In order to quantitatively assess how the performance of these devices scales with their size, we design generalized N-dimensional ideal heat pumps by merging N-2 elementary three-level stages. We set them to operate in the absorption chiller mode between given hot and cold baths and study their maximum achievable cooling power and the corresponding efficiency as a function of N. While the efficiency at maximum power is roughly size-independent, the power itself slightly increases with the dimension, quickly saturating to a constant. Thus, interestingly, scaling up autonomous quantum heat pumps does not render a significant enhancement beyond the optimal double-stage configuration.

  11. MNC Knowledge Transfer, Subsidiary Absorptive Capacity and HRM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Pedersen, Torben; Björkman, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    Based on a sample of 169 subsidiaries of multinational corporations (MNCs) operating in the USA, Russia, and Finland, this paper investigates the relationship between MNC subsidiary HRM practices, absorptive capacity and knowledge transfer. First, we examine the relationship between the application...... of specific HRM practices and the level of the absorptive capacity. Second, we suggest that absorptive capacity should be conceptualized as being comprised of both employees’ ability and motivation. Further, results indicate that both ability and motivation (absorptive capacity) are needed to facilitate...

  12. Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owejan, Jon P; Nicotera, Paul D; Mench, Matthew M; Evans, Robert E

    2013-08-27

    A fuel cell comprises a cathode gas diffusion layer, a cathode catalyst layer, an anode gas diffusion layer, an anode catalyst layer and an electrolyte. The diffusion resistance of the anode gas diffusion layer when operated with anode fuel is higher than the diffusion resistance of the cathode gas diffusion layer. The anode gas diffusion layer may comprise filler particles having in-plane platelet geometries and be made of lower cost materials and manufacturing processes than currently available commercial carbon fiber substrates. The diffusion resistance difference between the anode gas diffusion layer and the cathode gas diffusion layer may allow for passive water balance control.

  13. Linear absorptive dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tip, A.

    1998-06-01

    Starting from Maxwell's equations for a linear, nonconducting, absorptive, and dispersive medium, characterized by the constitutive equations D(x,t)=ɛ1(x)E(x,t)+∫t-∞dsχ(x,t-s)E(x,s) and H(x,t)=B(x,t), a unitary time evolution and canonical formalism is obtained. Given the complex, coordinate, and frequency-dependent, electric permeability ɛ(x,ω), no further assumptions are made. The procedure leads to a proper definition of band gaps in the periodic case and a new continuity equation for energy flow. An S-matrix formalism for scattering from lossy objects is presented in full detail. A quantized version of the formalism is derived and applied to the generation of Čerenkov and transition radiation as well as atomic decay. The last case suggests a useful generalization of the density of states to the absorptive situation.

  14. Absorption of carbon dioxide in waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1987-01-01

    Air flow rates and carbon dioxide concentrations of air entering and exiting eight H-Area waste tanks were monitored for a period of one year. The average instanteous concentration of carbon dioxide in air is within the range reported offsite, and therefore is not affect by operation of the coal-fired power plant adjacent to the tank farm. Waste solutions in each of the tanks were observed to be continuously absorbing carbon dioxide. The rate of absorption of carbon dioxide decreased linearly with the pH of the solution. Personnel exposure associated with the routine sampling and analysis of radioactive wastes stored at SRP to determine the levels of corrosion inhibitors in solution could be reduced by monitoring the absorption of carbon dioxide and using the relationship between pH and carbon dioxide absorption to determine the free hydroxide concentration in solution

  15. Hybrid Solar-Geothermal Energy Absorption Air-Conditioning System Operating with NaOH-H2O—Las Tres Vírgenes (Baja California Sur), “La Reforma” Case

    OpenAIRE

    Yuridiana Rocio Galindo-Luna; Efraín Gómez-Arias; Rosenberg J. Romero; Eduardo Venegas-Reyes; Moisés Montiel-González; Helene Emmi Karin Unland-Weiss; Pedro Pacheco-Hernández; Antonio González-Fernández; Jorge Díaz-Salgado

    2018-01-01

    Solar and geothermal energies are considered cleaner and more useful energy sources that can be used to avoid the negative environmental impacts caused by burning fossil fuels. Several works have reported air-conditioning systems that use solar energy coupled to geothermal renewable energy as a thermal source. In this study, an Absorption Air-Conditioning System (AACS) used sodium hydroxide-water (NaOH-H2O) instead of lithium bromide-water to reduce the cost. Low enthalpy geothermal heat was ...

  16. Iron absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekenved, G.

    1976-01-01

    The main objective of the present work was to study iron absorption from different iron preparations in different types of subjects and under varying therapeutic conditions. The studies were performed with different radioiron isotope techniques and with a serum iron technique. The preparations used were solutions of ferrous sulphate and rapidly-disintegrating tablets containing ferrous sulphate, ferrous fumarate and ferrous carbonate and a slow-release ferrous sulphate tablet of an insoluble matrix type (Duroferon Durules). The serum iron method was evaluated and good correlation was found between the serum iron response and the total amount of iron absorbed after an oral dose of iron given in solution or in tablet form. New technique for studying the in-vivo release properties of tablets was presented. Iron tablets labelled with a radio-isotope were given to healthy subjects. The decline of the radioactivity in the tablets was followed by a profile scanning technique applied to different types of iron tablets. The release of iron from the two types of tablets was shown to be slower in vivo than in vitro. It was found that co-administration of antacids and iron tablets led to a marked reduction in the iron absorption and that these drugs should not be administered sumultaneously. A standardized meal markedly decreased the absorbability of iron from iron tablets. The influence of the meal was more marked with rapidly-disintegrating than with slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets. The absorption from rapidly-disintegrating and slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets was compared under practical clinical conditions during an extended treatment period. The studies were performed in healthy subjects, blood donors and patients with iron deficiency anaemia and it was found that the absorption of iron from the slow-release tablets was significantly better than from the rapidly-disintegrating tablets in all three groups of subjects. (author)

  17. Gamma absorption meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincklage, R.D. von.

    1984-01-01

    The absorption meter consists of a radiation source, a trough for the absorbing liquid and a detector. It is characterized by the fact that there is a foil between the detector and the trough, made of a material whose binding energy of the K electrons is a little greater than the energy of the photons emitted by the radiation source. The source of radiation and foil are replaceable. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Total Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of determining the distribution of beta decay strength (B(GT)) as a function of excitation energy in the daughter nucleus is discussed. Total Absorption Spectroscopy is shown to provide a way of determining the B(GT) precisely. A brief history of such measurements and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, is followed by examples of two recent studies using the technique. (authors)

  19. Diffusing diffusivity: Rotational diffusion in two and three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rohit; Sebastian, K. L.

    2017-06-01

    We consider the problem of calculating the probability distribution function (pdf) of angular displacement for rotational diffusion in a crowded, rearranging medium. We use the diffusing diffusivity model and following our previous work on translational diffusion [R. Jain and K. L. Sebastian, J. Phys. Chem. B 120, 3988 (2016)], we show that the problem can be reduced to that of calculating the survival probability of a particle undergoing Brownian motion, in the presence of a sink. We use the approach to calculate the pdf for the rotational motion in two and three dimensions. We also propose new dimensionless, time dependent parameters, αr o t ,2 D and αr o t ,3 D, which can be used to analyze the experimental/simulation data to find the extent of deviation from the normal behavior, i.e., constant diffusivity, and obtain explicit analytical expressions for them, within our model.

  20. Diffusion in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, G.P.; Kale, G.B.; Patil, R.V.

    1999-01-01

    The article presents a brief survey of process of diffusion in solids. It is emphasised that the essence of diffusion is the mass transfer through the atomic jumps. To begin with formal equations for diffusion coefficient are presented. This is followed by discussions on mechanisms of diffusion. Except for solutes which form interstitial solid solution, diffusion in majority of cases is mediated through exchange of sites between an atom and its neighbouring vacancy. Various vacancy parameters such as activation volume, correlation factor, mass effect etc are discussed and their role in establishing the mode of diffusion is delineated. The contribution of dislocations and grain boundaries in diffusion process is brought out. The experimental determination of different types of diffusion coefficients are described. Finally, the pervasive nature of diffusion process in number of commercial processes is outlined to show the importance of diffusion studies in materials science and technology. (author)

  1. Absorptive form factors for high-energy electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, D.M.; King, Q.A.

    1990-01-01

    The thermal diffuse scattering contribution to the absorptive potential in high-energy electron diffraction is calculated in the form of an absorptive contribution to the atomic form factor. To do this, the Einstein model of lattice vibrations is used, with isotropic Debye-Waller factors. The absorptive form factors are calculated as a function of scattering vector s and temperature factor M on a grid which enables polynomial interpolation of the results to be accurate to better than 2% for much of the ranges 0≤Ms 2 ≤6 and 0≤M≤2 A 2 . The computed values, together with an interpolation routine, have been incorporated into a Fortran subroutine which calculates both the real and absorptive form factors for 54 atomic species. (orig.)

  2. Diffusion archeology for diffusion progression history reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Sefer, Emre; Kingsford, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion through graphs can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the spread of diseases, social network memes, computer viruses, or water contaminants. Often, a real-world diffusion cannot be directly observed while it is occurring — perhaps it is not noticed until some time has passed, continuous monitoring is too costly, or privacy concerns limit data access. This leads to the need to reconstruct how the present state of the diffusion came to be from partial d...

  3. Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy - GASMAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanberg, Sune

    2008-09-01

    An overview of the new field of Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy (GASMAS) is presented. GASMAS combines narrow-band diode-laser spectroscopy with diffuse media optical propagation. While solids and liquids have broad absorption features, free gas in pores and cavities in the material is characterized by sharp spectral signatures, typically 10,000 times sharper than those of the host material. Many applications in materials science, food packaging, pharmaceutics and medicine have been demonstrated. So far molecular oxygen and water vapour have been studied around 760 and 935 nm, respectively. Liquid water, an important constituent in many natural materials, such as tissue, has a low absorption at such wavelengths, allowing propagation. Polystyrene foam, wood, fruits, food-stuffs, pharmaceutical tablets, and human sinus cavities have been studied. Transport of gas in porous media can readily be studied by first immersing the material in, e.g., pure nitrogen, and then observing the rate at which normal air, containing oxygen, reinvades the material. The conductance of the sinus connective passages can be measured in this way by flushing the nasal cavity with nitrogen. Also other dynamic processes such as drying of materials can be studied. The techniques have also been extended to remote-sensing applications (LIDAR-GASMAS).

  4. A Simple Experiment for Visualizing Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helseth, L. E.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple and fascinating experiment for studying diffusion in gels using a pH-sensitive dye. By doping agar with methyl red, we obtain a gel which rapidly reacts to changes in pH by changing its absorption spectrum. The pH gradients can be followed using a digital camera, and we demonstrate here that the pH-sensitive colour changes can…

  5. Gaseous diffusion -- the enrichment workhorse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoemaker, J.E. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Construction of the first large-scale gaseous diffusion facility was started as part of the Manhattan Project in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, in 1943. This facility, code named ''K-25,'' began operation in January 1945 and was fully on stream by September 1945. Four additional process buildings were later added in Oak Ridge as the demand for enriched uranium escalated. New gaseous diffusion plants were constructed at Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, during this period. The three gaseous diffusion plants were the ''workhorses'' which provided the entire enriched uranium demand for the United States during the 1950s and 1960s. As the demand for enriched uranium for military purposes decreased during the early 1960s, power to the diffusion plants was curtailed to reduce production. During the 1960s, as plans for the nuclear power industry were formulated, the role of the diffusion plants gradually changed from providing highly-enriched uranium for the military to providing low-enriched uranium for power reactors

  6. Diffuse optical tomography using semiautomated coregistered ultrasound measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Atahar; Vavadi, Hamed; Uddin, K. M. Shihab; Zhu, Quing

    2017-12-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has demonstrated huge potential in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment monitoring. DOT image reconstruction guided by ultrasound (US) improves the diffused light localization and lesion reconstruction accuracy. However, DOT reconstruction depends on tumor geometry provided by coregistered US. Experienced operators can manually measure these lesion parameters; however, training and measurement time are needed. The wide clinical use of this technique depends on its robustness and faster imaging reconstruction capability. This article introduces a semiautomated procedure that automatically extracts lesion information from US images and incorporates it into the optical reconstruction. An adaptive threshold-based image segmentation is used to obtain tumor boundaries. For some US images, posterior shadow can extend to the chest wall and make the detection of deeper lesion boundary difficult. This problem can be solved using a Hough transform. The proposed procedure was validated from data of 20 patients. Optical reconstruction results using the proposed procedure were compared with those reconstructed using extracted tumor information from an experienced user. Mean optical absorption obtained from manual measurement was 0.21±0.06 cm-1 for malignant and 0.12±0.06 cm-1 for benign cases, whereas for the proposed method it was 0.24±0.08 cm-1 and 0.12±0.05 cm-1, respectively.

  7. Thermal neutron diffusion parameters in homogeneous mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdowicz, K.; Krynicka, E. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    A physical background is presented for a computer program which calculates the thermal neutron diffusion parameters for homogeneous mixtures of any compounds. The macroscopic absorption, scattering and transport cross section of the mixture are defined which are generally function of the incident neutron energy. The energy-averaged neutron parameters are available when these energy dependences and the thermal neutron energy distribution are assumed. Then the averaged diffusion coefficient and the pulsed thermal neutron parameters (the absorption rare and the diffusion constant) are also defined. The absorption cross section is described by the 1/v law and deviations from this behaviour are considered. The scattering cross section can be assumed as being almost constant in the thermal neutron region (which results from the free gas model). Serious deviations are observed for hydrogen atoms bound in molecules and a special study in the paper is devoted to this problem. A certain effective scattering cross section is found in this case on a base of individual exact data for a few hydrogenous media. Approximations assumed for the average cosine of the scattering angle are also discussed. The macroscopic parameters calculated are averaged over the Maxwellian energy distribution for the thermal neutron flux. An information on the input data for the computer program is included. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs.

  8. Thermal neutron diffusion parameters in homogeneous mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdowicz, K.; Krynicka, E.

    1995-01-01

    A physical background is presented for a computer program which calculates the thermal neutron diffusion parameters for homogeneous mixtures of any compounds. The macroscopic absorption, scattering and transport cross section of the mixture are defined which are generally function of the incident neutron energy. The energy-averaged neutron parameters are available when these energy dependences and the thermal neutron energy distribution are assumed. Then the averaged diffusion coefficient and the pulsed thermal neutron parameters (the absorption rare and the diffusion constant) are also defined. The absorption cross section is described by the 1/v law and deviations from this behaviour are considered. The scattering cross section can be assumed as being almost constant in the thermal neutron region (which results from the free gas model). Serious deviations are observed for hydrogen atoms bound in molecules and a special study in the paper is devoted to this problem. A certain effective scattering cross section is found in this case on a base of individual exact data for a few hydrogenous media. Approximations assumed for the average cosine of the scattering angle are also discussed. The macroscopic parameters calculated are averaged over the Maxwellian energy distribution for the thermal neutron flux. An information on the input data for the computer program is included. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs

  9. Optical absorption in dendrimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supritz, C.; Engelmann, A.; Reineker, P.

    2004-01-01

    Dendrimers are highly branched molecules, which are expected to be useful, for example, as efficient artificial light harvesting systems in nano-technological applications. There are two different classes of dendrimers: compact dendrimers with constant distance between neighboring branching points throughout the macromolecule and extended dendrimers, where this distance increases from the system periphery to the center. We investigate the linear absorption spectra of these dendrimer types using the Frenkel exciton concept. The electron-phonon interaction is taken into account by introducing a heat bath that interacts with the exciton in a stochastic manner

  10. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  11. Spin-diffusions and diffusive molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Brittan; Luskin, Mitchell; Plecháč, Petr; Simpson, Gideon

    2017-12-01

    Metastable configurations in condensed matter typically fluctuate about local energy minima at the femtosecond time scale before transitioning between local minima after nanoseconds or microseconds. This vast scale separation limits the applicability of classical molecular dynamics (MD) methods and has spurned the development of a host of approximate algorithms. One recently proposed method is diffusive MD which aims at integrating a system of ordinary differential equations describing the likelihood of occupancy by one of two species, in the case of a binary alloy, while quasistatically evolving the locations of the atoms. While diffusive MD has shown itself to be efficient and provide agreement with observations, it is fundamentally a model, with unclear connections to classical MD. In this work, we formulate a spin-diffusion stochastic process and show how it can be connected to diffusive MD. The spin-diffusion model couples a classical overdamped Langevin equation to a kinetic Monte Carlo model for exchange amongst the species of a binary alloy. Under suitable assumptions and approximations, spin-diffusion can be shown to lead to diffusive MD type models. The key assumptions and approximations include a well-defined time scale separation, a choice of spin-exchange rates, a low temperature approximation, and a mean field type approximation. We derive several models from different assumptions and show their relationship to diffusive MD. Differences and similarities amongst the models are explored in a simple test problem.

  12. Wine absorption by cork stoppers research in foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Adrados, J. R.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, F.; Garcia de Ceca, J. L.; Caceres-Esteban, M. J.; Garcia-Vallejo, M. C.

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the magnitude of wine absorption by cork under conditions as close to reality as possible and its evolution in time, ready-to-use natural cork stoppers and ''1+1'' cork stoppers were used to close bottles filled with red wine. Stoppers were removed after 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of contact to determine absorption of liquid and liquid progression along the lateral surface of the cork stopper.Variation of absorption with contact time was studied by adjusting the model Absorption = a {radical} t(R{sup 2}: 82.19 - 93.63%). A scheme of the evolution of wine absorption with time is proposed, differentiating liquid flow along cork-glass interface, diffusion in cell walls and liquid flow through the cell lumens. In conditions of use, a value of 4.48.10{sup 1}3 m{sup 2} s{sup -}1 was obtained for non-radial diffusion coefficient (D). (Author) 13 refs.

  13. Interstitial diffusion in crystal and the Moessbauer effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzyublik, A.Ya.

    1976-01-01

    The role of different vibrational states of a crystal is taken into account in the model of interstitial uncorrelated jumps. The relation of the diffusion coefficient for an interstitial with probabilities of jumps is found. The cross section for resonant absorption of γ-quanta by a nucleus of a diffusing atom in a crystal is calculated. The existence of vibrational levels is shown to lead to less broadening and intensity of the Moessbauer line than those predicted by the simple model of jumps. The absorption line shape for atom jumping through octahedral sites in bcc lattice is investigated [ru

  14. Water diffusion in clays with added organic surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda-Pinon, J; Mendoza-Lopez, M L; Manzano-RamIrez, A; Perez-Robles, J F; Vega-Duran, J T

    2007-01-01

    Tensoactive agents may decrease water absorption in clay products like adobes. They modify the characteristics of the surface of clay particles. Characterization of water diffusion through the pores of modified clays is important to apply appropriate surface modifiers and to improve their performance. We established a simple model for water diffusion in test samples of defined dimensions to estimate real physical parameters and their effect on water absorption. Adsorption mechanisms are examined based on experimental results. The fitting of the experimental data to the model provides a deep understanding of water adsorption in chemically modified clays. A better agreement between the model and the experimental data is achieved for complex molecules

  15. Diffusion in reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, G.B.; Smirnov, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    The monograph contains a brief description of the principles underlying the theory of diffusion, as well as modern methods of studying diffusion. Data on self-diffusion and diffusion of impurities in a nuclear fuel and fissionable materials (uranium, plutonium, thorium, zirconium, titanium, hafnium, niobium, molybdenum, tungsten, beryllium, etc.) is presented. Anomalous diffusion, diffusion of components, and interdiffusion in binary and ternary alloys were examined. The monograph presents the most recent reference material on diffusion. It is intended for a wide range of researchers working in the field of diffusion in metals and alloys and attempting to discover new materials for application in nuclear engineering. It will also be useful for teachers, research scholars and students of physical metallurgy

  16. Boundary fluxes for nonlocal diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortazar, Carmen; Elgueta, Manuel; Rossi, Julio D.; Wolanski, Noemi

    We study a nonlocal diffusion operator in a bounded smooth domain prescribing the flux through the boundary. This problem may be seen as a generalization of the usual Neumann problem for the heat equation. First, we prove existence, uniqueness and a comparison principle. Next, we study the behavior of solutions for some prescribed boundary data including blowing up ones. Finally, we look at a nonlinear flux boundary condition.

  17. The generalized Airy diffusion equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank M. Cholewinski

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of a generalized Airy diffusion equation and an associated nonlinear partial differential equation are obtained. Trigonometric type functions are derived for a third order generalized radial Euler type operator. An associated complex variable theory and generalized Cauchy-Euler equations are obtained. Further, it is shown that the Airy expansions can be mapped onto the Bessel Calculus of Bochner, Cholewinski and Haimo.

  18. Diffusion in flowing gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reus, K.W.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the back-diffusion method of calculating the mutual diffusion coefficient of two gases. The applicability of this method for measuring diffusion coefficients at temperatures up to 1300 K is considered. A further aim of the work was to make a contribution to the description of the interatomic potential energy of noble gases at higher energies as a function of the internuclear distance. This was achieved with the measured diffusion coefficients, especially with those for high temperatures. (Auth.)

  19. Diffusion Under Geometrical Constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Naohisa

    2014-01-01

    Here we discus the diffusion of particles in a curved tube. This kind of transport phenomenon is observed in biological cells and porous media. To solve such a problem, we discuss the three dimensional diffusion equation with a confining wall forming a thinner tube. We find that the curvature appears in a effective diffusion coefficient for such a quasi-one-dimensional system. As an application to higher dimensional case, we discuss the diffusion in a curved surface with ...

  20. The absorption factor of crystalline silicon PV cells: a numerical and experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santbergen, R.; Zolingen, van R.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    The absorption factor of a PV cell is defined as the fraction of incident solar irradiance that is absorbed by the cell. This absorption factor is one of the major parameters determining the cell temperature under operational conditions. Experimentally the absorption factor can be derived from

  1. Diffuse ceiling ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen

    Diffuse ceiling ventilation is an innovative ventilation concept where the suspended ceiling serves as air diffuser to supply fresh air into the room. Compared with conventional ventilation systems, diffuse ceiling ventilation can significantly reduce or even eliminate draught risk due to the low...

  2. Atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haswell, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy is now well established and widely used technique for the determination of trace and major elements in a wide range analyte types. There have been many advances in the atomic spectroscopy over the last decade and for this reason and to meet the demand, it was felt that there was a need for an updated book. Whilst interest in instrumental design has tended to dominate the minds of the spectrocopist, the analyst concerned with obtaining reliable and representative data, in diverse areas of application, has been diligently modifying and developing sample treatment and instrumental introduction techniques. Such methodology is de fundamental part of analysis and form the basis of the fourteen application chapters of this book. The text focuses in the main on AAS; however, the sample handling techniques described are in many cases equally applicable to ICP-OES and ICP-MS analysis. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  3. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockdale, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    In atomic absorption spectrophotometer, a reference path may be provided for radiation which excludes the flame. This radiation provides a signal from a detector which varies only with the instrumental drift produced by variations in the radiation source brightness and by variations in detector gain. The signal can be used to compensate for drift in other signals received through a sample path including the flame. In the present invention, radiation passes through the sample path continuously during measurement, and only through the reference path between sample measurements. Movable mirrors shift the radiation between the paths upon externally applied commands. Conveniently, the reference path measurement is made while the flame is stabilized during the change between samples. The reference path measurements are stored and used to correct for drift

  4. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  5. On the nature of absorption features toward nearby stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, S.; Czesla, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs) of largely unknown chemical origin are regularly observed primarily in distant early-type stars. More recently, detections in nearby late-type stars have also been claimed. These stars' spectra are dominated by stellar absorption lines. Specifically, strong interstellar atomic and DIB absorption has been reported in τ Boo. Aims: We test these claims by studying the strength of interstellar absorption in high-resolution TIGRE spectra of the nearby stars τ Boo, HD 33608, and α CrB. Methods: We focus our analysis on a strong DIB located at 5780.61 Å and on the absorption of interstellar Na. First, we carry out a differential analysis by comparing the spectra of the highly similar F-stars, τ Boo and HD 33608, whose light, however, samples different lines of sight. To obtain absolute values for the DIB absorption, we compare the observed spectra of τ Boo, HD 33608, and α CrB to PHOENIX models and carry out basic spectral modeling based on Voigt line profiles. Results: The intercomparison between τ Boo and HD 33608 reveals that the difference in the line depth is 6.85 ± 1.48 mÅ at the DIB location which is, however, unlikely to be caused by DIB absorption. The comparison between PHOENIX models and observed spectra yields an upper limit of 34.0 ± 0.3 mÅ for any additional interstellar absorption in τ Boo; similar results are obtained for HD 33608 and α CrB. For all objects we derive unrealistically large values for the radial velocity of any presumed interstellar clouds. In τ Boo we find Na D absorption with an equivalent width of 0.65 ± 0.07 mÅ and 2.3 ± 0.1 mÅ in the D2 and D1 lines. For the other Na, absorption of the same magnitude could only be detected in the D2 line. Our comparisons between model and data show that the interstellar absorption toward τ Boo is not abnormally high. Conclusions: We find no significant DIB absorption in any of our target stars. Any differences between modeled and

  6. Probing the diffuse interstellar medium with diffuse interstellar bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorus van Loon, Jacco; Bailey, Mandy; Farhang, Amin; Javadi, Atefeh; Khosroshahi, Habib

    2015-08-01

    For a century already, a large number of absorption bands have been known at optical wavelengths, called the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). While their carriers remain unidentified, the relative strengths of these bands in various environments make them interesting new probes of the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). We present the results from two large, dedicated campaigns to map the ISM using DIBs measured in the high signal-to-noise spectra of hundreds of early-type stars: [1] in and around the Local Bubble using ESO's New Technology Telescope and the Isaac Newton Telescope, and [2] across both Magellanic Clouds using the Very Large Telescope and the Anglo-Australian Telescope. We discuss the implications for the structure and dynamics of the ISM, as well as the constraints these maps place on the nature of the carriers of the DIBs. Partial results have appeared in the recent literature (van Loon et al. 2013; Farhang et al. 2015a,b; Bailey, PhD thesis 2014) with the remainder being prepared for publication now.

  7. Extended phase graphs with anisotropic diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, M.; Schwenk, S.; Kiselev, V. G.; Scheffler, K.; Hennig, J.

    2010-08-01

    The extended phase graph (EPG) calculus gives an elegant pictorial description of magnetization response in multi-pulse MR sequences. The use of the EPG calculus enables a high computational efficiency for the quantitation of echo intensities even for complex sequences with multiple refocusing pulses with arbitrary flip angles. In this work, the EPG concept dealing with RF pulses with arbitrary flip angles and phases is extended to account for anisotropic diffusion in the presence of arbitrary varying gradients. The diffusion effect can be expressed by specific diffusion weightings of individual magnetization pathways. This can be represented as an action of a linear operator on the magnetization state. The algorithm allows easy integration of diffusion anisotropy effects. The formalism is validated on known examples from literature and used to calculate the effective diffusion weighting in multi-echo sequences with arbitrary refocusing flip angles.

  8. Importance of the green color, absorption gradient, and spectral absorption of chloroplasts for the radiative energy balance of leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Atsushi

    2017-05-01

    Terrestrial green plants absorb photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm) but do not absorb photons evenly across the PAR waveband. The spectral absorbance of photosystems and chloroplasts is lowest for green light, which occurs within the highest irradiance waveband of direct solar radiation. We demonstrate a close relationship between this phenomenon and the safe and efficient utilization of direct solar radiation in simple biophysiological models. The effects of spectral absorptance on the photon and irradiance absorption processes are evaluated using the spectra of direct and diffuse solar radiation. The radiation absorption of a leaf arises as a consequence of the absorption of chloroplasts. The photon absorption of chloroplasts is strongly dependent on the distribution of pigment concentrations and their absorbance spectra. While chloroplast movements in response to light are important mechanisms controlling PAR absorption, they are not effective for green light because chloroplasts have the lowest spectral absorptance in the waveband. With the development of palisade tissue, the incident photons per total palisade cell surface area and the absorbed photons per chloroplast decrease. The spectral absorbance of carotenoids is effective in eliminating shortwave PAR (solar radiation. However, most of the near infrared radiation is unabsorbed and heat stress is greatly reduced. The incident solar radiation is too strong to be utilized for photosynthesis under the current CO 2 concentration in the terrestrial environment. Therefore, the photon absorption of a whole leaf is efficiently regulated by photosynthetic pigments with low spectral absorptance in the highest irradiance waveband and through a combination of pigment density distribution and leaf anatomical structures.

  9. Radionuclide Absorption Demonstration System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — After a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) is test fired, the engine’s reactor is operated in a cool-down mode during which radioactive exhaust by-products continue to be...

  10. Nonlinear effects in collective absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenoyama, Takeshi; Mima, Kunioki; Watanabe, Tsuguhiro.

    1981-01-01

    The collective absorption of high intensity laser radiation is analyzed numerically. Density profile modification due to the ponderomotive force associating laser radiation and the excited electron plasma waves is self-consistently taken into account, and the intensity dependences of the absorption efficiency are obtained. In the high intensity regime, the absorption efficiency is found to be strongly enhanced in the plasma without flow, but reduced with supersonic flow. (author)

  11. Reflection effect of localized absorptive potential on non-resonant and resonant tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, A.; Kumar, N.

    1992-06-01

    The reflection due to absorptive potential (-iV i ) for resonant and non-resonant tunneling has been considered. We show that the effect of reflection leads to a non-monotonic dependence of absorption on the strength V i with a maximum absorption of typically 0.5. This has implications for the operation of resonant tunneling devices. General conceptual aspects of absorptive potentials are discussed. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs

  12. Simulation of absorption refrigeration system for automobile application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanathan Anand

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An automotive air-conditioning system based on absorption refrigeration cycle has been simulated. This waste heat driven vapor absorption refrigeration system is one alternate to the currently used vapour compression refrigeration system for automotive air-conditioning. Performance analysis of vapor absorption refrigeration system has been done by developing a steady-state simulation model to find the limitation of the proposed system. The water-lithium bromide pair is used as a working mixture for its favorable thermodynamic and transport properties compared to the conventional refrigerants utilized in vapor compression refrigeration applications. The pump power required for the proposed vapor absorption refrigeration system was found lesser than the power required to operate the compressor used in the conventional vapor compression refrigeration system. A possible arrangement of the absorption system for automobile application is proposed.

  13. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  14. Diffusion in molybdenum disilicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamon, M.; Mehrer, H.

    2005-01-01

    The diffusion behaviour of the high-temperature material molybdenum disilicide (MoSi 2 ) was completely unknown until recently. In this paper we present studies of Mo self-diffusion and compare our present results with our already published studies of Si and Ge diffusion in MoSi 2 . Self-diffusion of molybdenum in monocrystalline MoSi 2 was studied by the radiotracer technique using the radioisotope 99 Mo. Deposition of the radiotracer and serial sectioning after the diffusion anneals to determine the concentration-depth profiles was performed using a sputtering device. Diffusion of Mo is a very slow process. In the entire temperature region investigated (1437 to 2173 K), the 99 Mo diffusivities in both principal directions of the tetragonal MoSi 2 crystals obey Arrhenius laws, where the diffusion perpendicular to the tetragonal axis is faster by two to three orders of magnitude than parallel to it. The activation enthalpies for diffusion perpendicular and parallel to the tetragonal axis are Q perpendicular to = 468 kJ mol -1 (4.85 eV) and Q parallel = 586 kJ mol -1 (6.07 eV), respectively. Diffusion of Si and its homologous element Ge is fast and is mediated by thermal vacancies of the Si sublattice of MoSi 2 . The diffusion of Mo is by several orders of magnitude slower than the diffusion of Si and Ge. This large difference suggests that Si and Mo diffusion are decoupled and that the diffusion of Mo likely takes place via vacancies on the Mo sublattice. (orig.)

  15. Nonlinear variational models for reaction and diffusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanyi, G.E.

    1983-08-01

    There exists a natural metric w.r.t. which the density dependent diffusion operator is harmonic in the sense of Eells and Sampson. A physical corollary of this statement is the property that any two regular points on the orbit of a reaction or diffusion operator can be connected by a path along which the reaction rate is constant. (author)

  16. Automated atomic absorption spectrophotometer, utilizing a programmable desk calculator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futrell, T.L.; Morrow, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    A commercial, double-beam atomic absorption spectrophotometer has been interfaced with a sample changer and a Hewlett-Packard 9810A calculator to yield a completely automated analysis system. The interface electronics can be easily constructed and should be adaptable to any double-beam atomic absorption instrument. The calculator is easily programmed and can be used for general laboratory purposes when not operating the instrument. The automated system has been shown to perform very satisfactorily when operated unattended to analyze a large number of samples. Performance statistics agree well with a manually operated instrument

  17. Galactic absorption line coronae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregman, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    We have investigated whether gaseous coronae around galaxies rise to the absorption systems seen in quasar spectra. In our model, gas originally located in the disk is heated to the million degree range and rises to surround the galaxy; the gas remains bound to the galaxy. Optically thin radiative cooling drives a thermal instability in the hot gas which causes cool clouds (T 4 K) to condense out of the corona. These clouds, which follow ballistic trajectories back to the disk, are the absorption sites. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic code with radiative cooling was used to study the dynamics and thermodynamics of the corona as well as the position rate at which clouds form. Coupled to the code is a galaxy with two mass components, a disk (approx.10 11 M/sub sun/) and a dark halo (approx.10 12 M/sub sun/). In a model where the temperature at the base of the corona (in the disk) is 3 x 10 6 K, absorbing gas of column density NL> or approx. =10 18 cm 2 extends radially to 100 kpc (face-on orientation) and vertically to 60 Kpc (edge-on orientation). The total mass of gas required here (coronal plus cloud gas) is 1.4 x 10 10 M/sub sun/, while the minimum supernova heating rate is one supernova per 27 years. In two other models (base coronal temperatures of 0.50 x 10 6 K and 1 x 10 6 K), coronal gas rises from an extended gaseous disk (in the previous model, the gas comes from a typical gaseous disk approximately 15 kpc in extent). Here, column densities of 10 19 cm -2 out to a radius of 70 kpc (face-on orientation) are achieved with a total gas mass of 1.7 x 10 9 M/sub direct-product/ and 2.0 x 10 9 M/sub sun/ and minimum heating rates of approximately one supernova per 170 years and one supernova per 60 years

  18. Absorption heat cycles. An experimental and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamsson, K.

    1993-09-01

    A flow sheeting programme, SHPUMP, was developed for simulating different absorption heat cycles. The programme consists of ten different modules which allow the user to construct his own absorption cycle. The ten modules configurate evaporators, absorbers, generators, rectifiers, condensers, solution heat exchangers, pumps, valves, mixers and splitters. Seven basic and well established absorption cycles are available in the configuration data base of the programme. A new Carnot model is proposed heat cycles. Together with exergy analysis, general equations for the Carnot coefficient of performance and equations for thermodynamic efficiency, exergetic efficiency and exergy index, are derived, discussed and compared for both absorption heat pumps and absorption heat transformers. Utilizing SHPUMP, simulation results are presented for different configurations where absorption heat cycles are suggested to be incorporated in three different unit operations within both pulp and paper and oleochemical industries. One of the application studies reveled that an absorption heat transformer incorporated with an evaporation plant in a major pulp and paper industry, would save 18% of the total prime energy consumption in one of the evaporation plants. It was also concluded that installing an absorption heat pump in a paper drying plant would result in steam savings equivalent to 12 MW. An experimental absorption heat transformer unit operating with self-circulation has been modified and thoroughly tested. A reference heat transformer plant has been designed and installed in a major pulp and paper mill where it is directly incorporated with one of the evaporation plants. Preliminary plant operation data are presented. 72 refs, 63 figs, 33 tabs

  19. Wet bar detection by using water absorption detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Soo; Bae, Yong Chae; Kee, Chang Doo

    2008-01-01

    Water leaks in water-cooled generator stator windings can generate serious accidents such as insulation breakdown and result in unexpected sudden outages. Thus, it is important to diagnose their water absorption for effective operation of the power plant. Especially, since the capacitance values that are measured for diagnosis are very small so special diagnosis methods like stochastic theory are needed. KEPRI developed a more advanced water absorption detector and diagnosis technology for it. They were applied to a real system and the results of the water absorption test for stator windings agree with the water leak test

  20. Mass: Fortran program for calculating mass-absorption coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Aa.; Svane Petersen, T.

    1980-01-01

    Determinations of mass-absorption coefficients in the x-ray analysis of trace elements are an important and time consuming part of the arithmetic calculation. In the course of time different metods have been used. The program MASS calculates the mass-absorption coefficients from a given major element analysis at the x-ray wavelengths normally used in trace element determinations and lists the chemical analysis and the mass-absorption coefficients. The program is coded in FORTRAN IV, and is operational on the IBM 370/165 computer, on the UNIVAC 1110 and on PDP 11/05. (author)

  1. Modelling aging effects on a thermal cycling absorption process column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laquerbe, C.; Contreras, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique - CEA/Valduc, F-21121 Is sur Tille (France); Baudouin, O. [ProSim SA, Stratege Bat. A, BP 27210, F-31672 Labege Cedex (France); Demoment, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique - CEA/Valduc, F-21121 Is sur Tille (France)

    2008-07-15

    Palladium coated on alumina is used in hydrogen separation systems operated at CEA/Valduc, and more particularly in Thermal Cycling Absorption Process columns. With such materials, tritium decay is known to induce aging effects which have direct side effects on hydrogen isotopes absorption isotherms. Furthermore in a TCAP column, aging occurs in an heterogeneous way. The possible impacts of these intrinsic material evolutions on the separation performances are investigated here through a numerical approach. (authors)

  2. Ab-initio calculations of the hydrogen-uranium system: Surface phenomena, absorption, transport and trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Christopher D.; Scott Lillard, R.

    2009-01-01

    Density functional theory was applied to the initial steps of uranium hydriding: surface phenomena, absorption, bulk transport and trapping. H adsorbs exothermically to the (0 0 1) surface, yet H absorption into the bulk is endothermic, with off-center octahedral absorption having the lowest absorption energy of 0.39 eV, relative to molecular H 2 . H absorption in interstitial sites causes a local softening of the bulk modulus. Diffusion of H in unstrained α-U has a barrier of 0.6 eV. The energy of H absorption adjacent to the chemical impurities C, S, Si was lowered by an amount proportional to the size of the impurity atom, and the resulting lattice strain Si > S > C. Thus, impurities may promote hydriding by providing surfaces or prestrained zones for H uptake.

  3. Wave energy absorption by ducks

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan, Adi

    2017-01-01

    We study the absorption of wave energy by a single and multiple cam-shaped bodies referred to as ducks. Numerical models are developed under the assumptions of linear theory. We consider wave absorption by a single duck as well as by two lines of ducks meeting at an angle.

  4. Wave energy absorption by ducks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurniawan, Adi

    2018-01-01

    We study the absorption of wave energy by a single and multiple cam-shaped bodies referred to as ducks. Numerical models are developed under the assumptions of linear theory. We consider wave absorption by a single duck as well as by two lines of ducks meeting at an angle....

  5. Atomic absorption instrument functional description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystroff, R.I.; Boyle, W.G. Jr.; Barton, G.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This report describes a proposed system for automating atomic absorption analysis. The system consists of two atomic absorption instruments and an automatic sampler that can be attached to either instrument. A computer program controls the sampling and gathers data. The program then uses the data to perform bookkeeping, data processing, and report writing

  6. Sublinear absorption in OCS gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogani, F.; Querzoli, R.; Ernst, K.

    1988-01-01

    Sublinear absorption in OCS gas has been experimentally studied in detail by means of an optoacustic technique and transmission measurements. The best fit of the results is obtained by a phenomenological model, that considers the process as the sum of one-and two-photon absorptions

  7. Optical absorption of irradiated carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, A.A.; Tiliks, Yu.E.

    1994-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of γ-irradiated carbohydrates (glucose, lactose, sucrose, maltose, and starch) and their aqueous solutions were studied. The comparison of the data obtained with the determination of the concentrations of molecular and radical products of radiolysis allows the absorption bands with maxima at 250 and 310 nm to be assigned to the radicals trapped in the irradiated carbohydrates

  8. Subgap absorption in conjugated polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, M.; Seager, C.H. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); McBranch, D.; Heeger, A.J. (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (USA)); Baker, G.L. (Bell Communications Research, Inc., Red Bank, NJ (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of < 10{sup {minus}5}, Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) is ideal for determining the absorption coefficients of thin films of transparent'' materials. We have used PDS to measure the optical absorption spectra of the conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Multifunctional hybrids for electromagnetic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynen, I.; Quievy, N.; Bailly, C.; Bollen, P.; Detrembleur, C.; Eggermont, S.; Molenberg, I.; Thomassin, J.M.; Urbanczyk, L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → EM absorption requires low dielectric constant and ∼1 S/m electrical conductivity. → New hybrids were processed with CNT-filled polymer foam inserted in Al honeycomb. → The EM absorption in the GHz range is superior to any known material. → A closed form model is used to guide the design of the hybrid. → The architectured material is light with potential for thermal management. - Abstract: Electromagnetic (EM) interferences are ubiquitous in modern technologies and impact on the reliability of electronic devices and on living cells. Shielding by EM absorption, which is preferable over reflection in certain instances, requires combining a low dielectric constant with high electrical conductivity, which are antagonist properties in the world of materials. A novel class of hybrid materials for EM absorption in the gigahertz range has been developed based on a hierarchical architecture involving a metallic honeycomb filled with a carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer foam. The waveguide characteristics of the honeycomb combined with the performance of the foam lead to unexpectedly large EM power absorption over a wide frequency range, superior to any known material. The peak absorption frequency can be tuned by varying the shape of the honeycomb unit cell. A closed form model of the EM reflection and absorption provides a tool for the optimization of the hybrid. This designed material sets the stage for a new class of sandwich panels combining high EM absorption with mass efficiency, stiffness and thermal management.

  10. Water Absorption Behavior of Hemp Hurds Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevulova, Nadezda; Cigasova, Julia; Purcz, Pavol; Schwarzova, Ivana; Kacik, Frantisek; Geffert, Anton

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, water sorption behavior of 28 days hardened composites based on hemp hurds and inorganic binder was studied. Two kinds of absorption tests on dried cube specimens in deionized water bath at laboratory temperature were performed. Short-term (after one hour water immersion) and long-term (up to 180 days) water absorption tests were carried out to study their durability. Short-term water sorption behavior of original hemp hurds composites depends on mean particle length of hemp and on binder nature. The comparative study of long-term water sorption behavior of composites reinforced with original and chemically modified hemp hurds in three reagents confirmed that surface treatment of filler influences sorption process. Based on evaluation of sorption curves using a model for composites based on natural fibers, diffusion of water molecules in composite reinforced with original and chemically modified hemp hurds is anomalous in terms of the Fickian behavior. The most significant decrease in hydrophility of hemp hurds was found in case of hemp hurds modified by NaOH and it relates to change in the chemical composition of hemp hurds, especially to a decrease in average degree of cellulose polymerization as well as hemicellulose content.

  11. Metric diffusion along foliations

    CERN Document Server

    Walczak, Szymon M

    2017-01-01

    Up-to-date research in metric diffusion along compact foliations is presented in this book. Beginning with fundamentals from the optimal transportation theory and the theory of foliations; this book moves on to cover Wasserstein distance, Kantorovich Duality Theorem, and the metrization of the weak topology by the Wasserstein distance. Metric diffusion is defined, the topology of the metric space is studied and the limits of diffused metrics along compact foliations are discussed. Essentials on foliations, holonomy, heat diffusion, and compact foliations are detailed and vital technical lemmas are proved to aide understanding. Graduate students and researchers in geometry, topology and dynamics of foliations and laminations will find this supplement useful as it presents facts about the metric diffusion along non-compact foliation and provides a full description of the limit for metrics diffused along foliation with at least one compact leaf on the two dimensions.

  12. Contribution to the build-up of a core calculation frame: comparison between ``diffusion`` and ``SP{sub n}`` operators on various configurations of the first N4 core; Contribution a l`elaboration d`un schema de coeur en transport: comparaison des operateurs ``diffusion`` et ``SP{sub n}`` sur differentes configurations du premier coeur N4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magat, Ph

    1997-04-01

    The aim of this study is to compare two calculation methods implemented in the neutronic code CRONOS 2: the diffusion approximation and the SP{sub n} method. The APOLLO 2 code is used to build the multiparameter cross section libraries.The comparison is based on the first core of N4 type Chooz reactor. The rod worth and the power map have been calculated. Some recommendations about the SP{sub n} development order of flux are made and the results show that the diffusion calculations over-estimate the black rod efficiency up to 10%. (A.C.) 12 refs.

  13. Solubility and diffusion of hydrogen in pure metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wipf, H.

    2001-01-01

    Basic facts are presented of the absorption of hydrogen gas by metals and the diffusion of hydrogen in metals. Specifically considered are crystalline metals without defects and lattice disorder (pure metals), low hydrogen concentrations and the possibility of high hydrogen gas pressures. The first introductory topic is a short presentation of typical phase diagrams of metal hydrogen systems. Then, hydrogen absorption is discussed and shown to be decisively determined by the enthalpy of solution, in particular by its sign which specifies whether absorption is exothermic or endothermic. The formation of high-pressure hydrogen gas bubbles in a metal, which can lead to blistering, is addressed. It is demonstrated that bubble formation will, under realistic conditions, only occur in strongly endothermically hydrogen absorbing metals. The chief aspects of hydrogen diffusion in metals are discussed, especially the large size of the diffusion coefficient and its dependence on lattice structure. It is shown that forces can act on hydrogen in metals, causing a directed hydrogen flux. Such forces arise, for instance, in the presence of stress and temperature gradients and can result in local hydrogen accumulation with potential material failure effects. The final aspect discussed is hydrogen permeation, where the absorption behavior of the hydrogen is found to be in general more decisive on the permeation rate than the value of the diffusion coefficient. (orig.)

  14. Studies of microstructured falling film reactor using Eddy diffusivity concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantu-Perez, A.; Al-Rawashdeh, M.I.M.; Hessel, V.; Gavriilidis, A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. This work introduces a model for the absorption of CO2 in a falling film microreactor that incorporates staggered herringbone structures. The effect of the herringbone structures was incorporated into the model via a position dependent eddy diffusivity obtained from turbulent theory

  15. Morphological inversion of complex diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, V. A. T.; Vural, D. C.

    2017-09-01

    Epidemics, neural cascades, power failures, and many other phenomena can be described by a diffusion process on a network. To identify the causal origins of a spread, it is often necessary to identify the triggering initial node. Here, we define a new morphological operator and use it to detect the origin of a diffusive front, given the final state of a complex network. Our method performs better than algorithms based on distance (closeness) and Jordan centrality. More importantly, our method is applicable regardless of the specifics of the forward model, and therefore can be applied to a wide range of systems such as identifying the patient zero in an epidemic, pinpointing the neuron that triggers a cascade, identifying the original malfunction that causes a catastrophic infrastructure failure, and inferring the ancestral species from which a heterogeneous population evolves.

  16. Gaseous diffusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, G.A.; Shacter, J.

    1978-01-01

    A gaseous diffusion system is described comprising a plurality of diffusers connected in cascade to form a series of stages, each of the diffusers having a porous partition dividing it into a high pressure chamber and a low pressure chamber, and means for combining a portion of the enriched gas from a succeeding stage with a portion of the enriched gas from the low pressure chamber of each stage and feeding it into one extremity of the high pressure chamber thereof

  17. Thermal diffusion of chlorine in uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipon, Y.; Toulhoat, N.; Moncoffre, N.; Jaffrezic, H.; Gavarini, S.; Martin, P.; Raimbault, L.; Scheidegger, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor, isotopes such as 35 Cl present as impurities in the nuclear fuel are activated by thermal neutron capture. During interim storage or geological disposal of nuclear fuel, the activation products such as 36 Cl may be released from the fuel to the geo/biosphere and contribute to the ''instant release fraction'' as they are likely to migrate in defects and grain boundaries. In order to differentiate diffusion mechanisms due to ''athermal'' processes during irradiation from thermally activated diffusion, both irradiation and thermal effects must be assessed. This work concerns the measurement of the thermal diffusion coefficient of chlorine in UO 2 . 37 Cl was implanted at a 10 13 at/cm 2 fluence in depleted UO 2 samples which were then annealed in the 900-1200 C temperature range and finally analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to obtain 37 Cl depth profiles. The migration process appears to be rather complex, involving mechanisms such as atomic, grain boundary, directed diffusion along preferential patterns as well as trapping into sinks before successive effusion. However, using a diffusion model based on general equation of transport, apparent diffusion coefficients could be calculated for 1000 and 1100 C and a mean activation energy of 4.3 eV is proposed. This value is one of the lowest values compared to those found in literature for other radionuclides pointing out a great ability of chlorine to migrate in UO 2 at relatively low temperatures. In order to unequivocally determine the diffusion behaviour of both implanted and pristine chlorine before and after thermal annealing, the structural environment of chlorine in UO 2 was examined using micro X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy (micro-XAS). (orig.)

  18. Comparison between POES energetic electron precipitation observations and riometer absorptions: Implications for determining true precipitation fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Craig J.; Kavanagh, Andrew J.; Clilverd, Mark A.; Marple, Steve R.

    2013-12-01

    electron precipitation (EEP) impacts the chemistry of the middle atmosphere with growing evidence of coupling to surface temperatures at high latitudes. To better understand this link, it is essential to have realistic observations to properly characterize precipitation and which can be incorporated into chemistry-climate models. The Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) detectors measure precipitating particles but only integral fluxes and only in a fraction of the bounce loss cone. Ground-based riometers respond to precipitation from the whole bounce loss cone; they measure the cosmic radio noise absorption (CNA), a qualitative proxy with scant direct information on the energy flux of EEP. POES observations should have a direct relationship with ΔCNA and comparing the two will clarify their utility in studies of atmospheric change. We determined ionospheric changes produced by the EEP measured by the POES spacecraft in ~250 overpasses of an imaging riometer in northern Finland. The ΔCNA modeled from the POES data is 10-15 times less than the observed ΔCNA when the >30 keV flux is reported as ground-based measurements. The discrepancy occurs mostly during periods of low geomagnetic activity, and we contend that weak diffusion is dominating the pitch angle scattering into the bounce loss cone at these times. A correction to the calculation using measurements of the trapped flux considerably reduces the discrepancy and provides further support to our hypothesis that weak diffusion leads to underestimates of the EEP.

  19. Inpainting using airy diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorduy Hernandez, Sara

    2015-09-01

    One inpainting procedure based on Airy diffusion is proposed, implemented via Maple and applied to some digital images. Airy diffusion is a partial differential equation with spatial derivatives of third order in contrast with the usual diffusion with spatial derivatives of second order. Airy diffusion generates the Airy semigroup in terms of the Airy functions which can be rewritten in terms of Bessel functions. The Airy diffusion can be used to smooth an image with the corresponding noise elimination via convolution. Also the Airy diffusion can be used to erase objects from an image. We build an algorithm using the Maple package ImageTools and such algorithm is tested using some images. Our results using Airy diffusion are compared with the similar results using standard diffusion. We observe that Airy diffusion generates powerful filters for image processing which could be incorporated in the usual packages for image processing such as ImageJ and Photoshop. Also is interesting to consider the possibility to incorporate the Airy filters as applications for smartphones and smart-glasses.

  20. Diffusion in compacted betonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Rantanen, J.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this report is to collect the literature bearing on the diffusion in compacted betonite, which has been suggested as possible buffer material for the disposal of spent fuel. Diffusion in a porous, water-saturated material is usually described as diffusion in the pore-water where sorption on the solid matter can delay the migration in the instationary state. There are also models which take into consideration that the sorbed molecules can also move while being sorbed. Diffusion experiments in compacted bentonite have been reported by many authors. Gases, anions, cations and actinides have been used as diffusing molecules. The report collects the results and the information on the measurement methods. On the basis of the results can be concluded that different particles possibly follow different diffusion mechanisms. The parameters which affect the diffusion seem to be for example the size, the electric charge and the sorption properties of the diffusing molecule. The report also suggest the parameters to be used in the diffusion calculation of the safety analyses of spent fuel disposal. (author)

  1. Subgap Absorption in Conjugated Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, M.; Seager, C. H.; McBranch, D.; Heeger, A. J; Baker, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of materials. We have used PDS to measure the optical absorption spectra of the conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination.

  2. Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2014-01-01

    into random incidence absorption coefficients for porous absorbers are investigated. Two optimization-based conversion methods are suggested: the surface impedance estimation for locally reacting absorbers and the flow resistivity estimation for extendedly reacting absorbers. The suggested conversion methods...

  3. Absorption factor for cylindrical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    The absorption factor for the scattering of X-rays or neutrons in cylindrical samples is calculated by numerical integration for the case in which the absorption coefficients of the incident and scattered beams are not equal. An extensive table of values having an absolute accuracy of 10 -4 is given in a companion report [Sears (1983). Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Report No. AECL-8176]. In the present paper an asymptotic expression is derived for the absorption factor which can be used with an error of less than 10 -3 for most cases of interest in both neutron inelastic scattering and neutron diffraction in crystals. (Auth.)

  4. Absorption and Transport of Sea Cucumber Saponins from Apostichopus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on the intestinal absorption of sea cucumber saponins. We determined the pharmacokinetic characteristics and bioavailability of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A1; the findings indicated that the bioavailability of Holotoxin A1 was lower than Echinoside A. We inferred that the differences in chemical structure between compounds was a factor that explained their different characteristics of transport across the intestine. In order to confirm the absorption characteristics of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A1, we examined their transport across Caco-2 cell monolayer and effective permeability by single-pass intestinal perfusion. The results of Caco-2 cell model indicate that Echinoside A is transported by passive diffusion, and not influenced by the exocytosis of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, expressed in the apical side of Caco-2 monolayers as the classic inhibitor. The intestinal perfusion also demonstrated well the absorption of Echinoside A and poor absorption of Holotoxin A1, which matched up with the result of the Caco-2 cell model. The results demonstrated our conjecture and provides fundamental information on the relationship between the chemical structure of these sea cucumber saponins and their absorption characteristics, and we believe that our findings build a foundation for the further metabolism study of sea cucumber saponins and contribute to the further clinical research of saponins.

  5. Absorption and Transport of Sea Cucumber Saponins from Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Wang, Han; Yang, Shuang; Lv, Zhihua

    2016-06-17

    The present study is focused on the intestinal absorption of sea cucumber saponins. We determined the pharmacokinetic characteristics and bioavailability of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A₁; the findings indicated that the bioavailability of Holotoxin A₁ was lower than Echinoside A. We inferred that the differences in chemical structure between compounds was a factor that explained their different characteristics of transport across the intestine. In order to confirm the absorption characteristics of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A₁, we examined their transport across Caco-2 cell monolayer and effective permeability by single-pass intestinal perfusion. The results of Caco-2 cell model indicate that Echinoside A is transported by passive diffusion, and not influenced by the exocytosis of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, expressed in the apical side of Caco-2 monolayers as the classic inhibitor). The intestinal perfusion also demonstrated well the absorption of Echinoside A and poor absorption of Holotoxin A₁, which matched up with the result of the Caco-2 cell model. The results demonstrated our conjecture and provides fundamental information on the relationship between the chemical structure of these sea cucumber saponins and their absorption characteristics, and we believe that our findings build a foundation for the further metabolism study of sea cucumber saponins and contribute to the further clinical research of saponins.

  6. Discrimination of thermal diffusivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Materials such as wood or metal which are at equal temperatures are perceived to be of different ‘coldness’ due to differences in thermal properties, such as the thermal diffusivity. The thermal diffusivity of a material is a parameter that controls the rate with which heat is extracted from the

  7. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Fogh Olsen, Ole; Sporring, Jon

    2007-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  8. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Olsen, Ole Fogh; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  9. Adaptation and Cultural Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormrod, Richard K.

    1992-01-01

    Explores the role of adaptation in cultural diffusion. Explains that adaptation theory recognizes the lack of independence between innovations and their environmental settings. Discusses testing and selection, modification, motivation, and cognition. Suggests that adaptation effects are pervasive in cultural diffusion but require a broader, more…

  10. Modelling of Innovation Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Kijek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the publication of the Bass model in 1969, research on the modelling of the diffusion of innovation resulted in a vast body of scientific literature consisting of articles, books, and studies of real-world applications of this model. The main objective of the diffusion model is to describe a pattern of spread of innovation among potential adopters in terms of a mathematical function of time. This paper assesses the state-of-the-art in mathematical models of innovation diffusion and procedures for estimating their parameters. Moreover, theoretical issues related to the models presented are supplemented with empirical research. The purpose of the research is to explore the extent to which the diffusion of broadband Internet users in 29 OECD countries can be adequately described by three diffusion models, i.e. the Bass model, logistic model and dynamic model. The results of this research are ambiguous and do not indicate which model best describes the diffusion pattern of broadband Internet users but in terms of the results presented, in most cases the dynamic model is inappropriate for describing the diffusion pattern. Issues related to the further development of innovation diffusion models are discussed and some recommendations are given. (original abstract

  11. Diffusion of Botulinum Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Brodsky

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is generally agreed that diffusion of botulinum toxin occurs, but the extent of the spread and its clinical importance are disputed. Many factors have been suggested to play a role but which have the most clinical relevance is a subject of much discussion.Methods: This review discusses the variables affecting diffusion, including protein composition and molecular size as well as injection factors (e.g., volume, dose, injection method. It also discusses data on diffusion from comparative studies in animal models and human clinical trials that illustrate differences between the available botulinum toxin products (onabotulinumtoxinA, abobotulinumtoxinA, incobotulinumtoxinA, and rimabotulinumtoxinB.Results: Neither molecular weight nor the presence of complexing proteins appears to affect diffusion; however, injection volume, concentration, and dose all play roles and are modifiable. Both animal and human studies show that botulinum toxin products are not interchangeable, and that some products are associated with greater diffusion and higher rates of diffusion-related adverse events than others.Discussion: Each of the botulinum toxins is a unique pharmacologic entity. A working knowledge of the different serotypes is essential to avoid unwanted diffusion-related adverse events. In addition, clinicians should be aware that the factors influencing diffusion may range from properties intrinsic to the drug to accurate muscle selection as well as dilution, volume, and dose injected.

  12. Fundamental research on isotherm capillary absorption of concrete by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanematsu, Manabu; Tsuchiya, Naoko; Noguchi, Takafumi

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the absorption process of concrete to determine the influence of aggregates on the local water behavior in concrete, by using neutron radiography. At first, water quantification method by using thermal neutron radiography is summarized which is developed in previous researches. With this method, the water absorption process was examined in concrete specimens containing artificial cylindrical aggregates. Using the obtained hydraulic diffusivity, an unsteady water diffusion analysis captured the experimentally observed water distribution around the aggregates. The result shows that the water behavior can be well explained by the geometric layout of the aggregates. (author)

  13. On diffusion process generators and scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demuth, M.

    1980-01-01

    In scattering theory the existence of wave operators is one of the mainly interesting points. For two selfadjoint operators K and H defined in separable Hilbertspaces H tilde and H' tilde, respectively, the usual two space wave operator is defined by Ωsub(+-)(H,J,K) = s-lim esup(itH)Jesup(-itK)Psup(ac), t → +-infinity, if these limits exist. J is the identification operator mapping H tilde into H' tilde. Psup(ac) is the orthogonal projection onto the absolutely continuous subspace of K. The objective is to prove the existence and completeness of the wave operator for K and K+V where K is a diffusion process generator and V a singular perturbation. Because generators of diffusion processes can be obtained by extension of second order differential operators with variable coefficients the result connects hard-core potential problems and wave operator existence for diffusion process generators including scattering theory for second order elliptic differential operators by means of the stochastic process theory and stochastic differential equation solutions. (author)

  14. Diffusion in Coulomb crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughto, J; Schneider, A S; Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K

    2011-07-01

    Diffusion in Coulomb crystals can be important for the structure of neutron star crusts. We determine diffusion constants D from molecular dynamics simulations. We find that D for Coulomb crystals with relatively soft-core 1/r interactions may be larger than D for Lennard-Jones or other solids with harder-core interactions. Diffusion, for simulations of nearly perfect body-centered-cubic lattices, involves the exchange of ions in ringlike configurations. Here ions "hop" in unison without the formation of long lived vacancies. Diffusion, for imperfect crystals, involves the motion of defects. Finally, we find that diffusion, for an amorphous system rapidly quenched from Coulomb parameter Γ=175 to Coulomb parameters up to Γ=1750, is fast enough that the system starts to crystalize during long simulation runs. These results strongly suggest that Coulomb solids in cold white dwarf stars, and the crust of neutron stars, will be crystalline and not amorphous.

  15. Atomic diffusion in stars

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, Georges; Richer, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This book gives an overview of atomic diffusion, a fundamental physical process, as applied to all types of stars, from the main sequence to neutron stars. The superficial abundances of stars as well as their evolution can be significantly affected. The authors show where atomic diffusion plays an essential role and how it can be implemented in modelling.  In Part I, the authors describe the tools that are required to include atomic diffusion in models of stellar interiors and atmospheres. An important role is played by the gradient of partial radiative pressure, or radiative acceleration, which is usually neglected in stellar evolution. In Part II, the authors systematically review the contribution of atomic diffusion to each evolutionary step. The dominant effects of atomic diffusion are accompanied by more subtle effects on a large number of structural properties throughout evolution. One of the goals of this book is to provide the means for the astrophysicist or graduate student to evaluate the importanc...

  16. Experiments on a vapour absorption heat transformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, J M; Murthy, S S [Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1993-03-01

    Tests were conducted on a 3 kW heating capacity R21-DMF vapour absorption heat transformer to study the influence of operating temperature on its performance. Heat source temperature and condensing temperature were varied in the ranges 50-75[sup o]C and 20-40[sup o]C, respectively. Heat delivery temperatures up to 85[sup o]C and temperature lifts up to 20[sup o]C were achieved. Actual coefficients of performance (COPs) ranged from 0.2 to 0.35, whereas exergetic efficiencies of 0.3-0.4 could be obtained. (Author)

  17. Oxygen diffusion in monazite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Nakamura, M.; Watson, E. B.

    2004-09-01

    We report measurements of oxygen diffusion in natural monazites under both dry, 1-atm conditions and hydrothermal conditions. For dry experiments, 18O-enriched CePO4 powder and monazite crystals were sealed in Ag-Pd capsules with a solid buffer (to buffer at NNO) and annealed in 1-atm furnaces. Hydrothermal runs were conducted in cold-seal pressure vessels, where monazite grains were encapsulated with 18O-enriched water. Following the diffusion anneals, oxygen concentration profiles were measured with Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) using the reaction 18O(p,α)15N. Over the temperature range 850-1100 °C, the Arrhenius relation determined for dry diffusion experiments on monazite is given by: Under wet conditions at 100 MPa water pressure, over the temperature range 700-880 °C, oxygen diffusion can be described by the Arrhenius relationship: Oxygen diffusion under hydrothermal conditions has a significantly lower activation energy for diffusion than under dry conditions, as has been found the case for many other minerals, both silicate and nonsilicate. Given these differences in activation energies, the differences between dry and wet diffusion rates increase with lower temperatures; for example, at 600 °C, dry diffusion will be more than 4 orders of magnitude slower than diffusion under hydrothermal conditions. These disparate diffusivities will result in pronounced differences in the degree of retentivity of oxygen isotope signatures. For instance, under dry conditions (presumably rare in the crust) and high lower-crustal temperatures (∼800 °C), monazite cores of 70-μm radii will preserve O isotope ratios for about 500,000 years; by comparison, they would be retained at this temperature under wet conditions for about 15,000 years.

  18. Atmospheric diffusion wind tunnel with automatic measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, S; Sakai, J; Murata, E

    1974-01-01

    A wind tunnel which permits estimates of atmospheric diffusion is described. Smoke from power plant smoke stacks, for example, can be simulated and traced to determine the manner of diffusion in the air as well as the grade of dilution. The wind tunnel is also capable of temperature controlled diffusion tests in which temperature distribution inside the wind tunnel is controlled. A minimum wind velocity of 10 cm can be obtained with accuracy within plus or minus 0.05 percent using a controlled direct current motor; diffusion tests are often made at low wind velocity. Fully automatic measurements can be obtained by using a minicomputer so that the operation and reading of the measuring instruments can be remotely controlled from the measuring chamber. (Air Pollut. Abstr.)

  19. Theory of quantum diffusion in biased semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Bryksin, V V

    2003-01-01

    A general theory is developed to describe diffusion phenomena in biased semiconductors and semiconductor superlattices. It is shown that the Einstein relation is not applicable for all field strengths so that the calculation of the field-mediated diffusion coefficient represents a separate task. Two quite different diffusion contributions are identified. The first one disappears when the dipole operator commutes with the Hamiltonian. It plays an essential role in the theory of small polarons. The second contribution is obtained from a quantity that is the solution of a kinetic equation but that cannot be identified with the carrier distribution function. This is in contrast to the drift velocity, which is closely related to the distribution function. A general expression is derived for the quantum diffusion regime, which allows a clear physical interpretation within the hopping picture.

  20. Resolution of the time dependent P{sub n} equations by a Godunov type scheme having the diffusion limit; Resolution des equations P{sub n} instationnaires par un schema de type Godunov, ayant la limite diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cargo, P.; Samba, G

    2007-07-01

    We consider the P{sub n} model to approximate the transport equation in one dimension of space. In a diffusive regime, the solution of this system is solution of a diffusion equation. We are looking for a numerical scheme having the diffusion limit property: in a diffusive regime, it gives the solution of the limiting diffusion equation on a mesh at the diffusion scale. The numerical scheme proposed is an extension of the Godunov type scheme proposed by L. Gosse to solve the P{sub 1} model without absorption term. Moreover, it has the well-balanced property: it preserves the steady solutions of the system. (authors)

  1. Derivation of a volume-averaged neutron diffusion equation; Atomos para el desarrollo de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez R, R.; Espinosa P, G. [UAM-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, Mexico D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Morales S, Jaime B. [UNAM, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Jiutepec, Morelos 62550 (Mexico)]. e-mail: rvr@xanum.uam.mx

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a general theoretical analysis of the problem of neutron motion in a nuclear reactor, where large variations on neutron cross sections normally preclude the use of the classical neutron diffusion equation. A volume-averaged neutron diffusion equation is derived which includes correction terms to diffusion and nuclear reaction effects. A method is presented to determine closure-relationships for the volume-averaged neutron diffusion equation (e.g., effective neutron diffusivity). In order to describe the distribution of neutrons in a highly heterogeneous configuration, it was necessary to extend the classical neutron diffusion equation. Thus, the volume averaged diffusion equation include two corrections factor: the first correction is related with the absorption process of the neutron and the second correction is a contribution to the neutron diffusion, both parameters are related to neutron effects on the interface of a heterogeneous configuration. (Author)

  2. OZONE ABSORPTION IN RAW WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA TAKIĆ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ozone absorption in raw water entering the main ozonization step at the Belgrade drinking water supply plant was investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR. A slow chemical reaction rate of dissolved ozone and pollutants present in raw water have been experimentally determined. The modified Hatta number was defined and calculated as a criterion which determines whether and to which extent the reactions of ozone and pollutants influence the rate of the pure physical ozone absorption.

  3. Microwaves absorption in superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biasi, R.S. de; Fernandes, A.A.R.; Pereira, R.F.R.

    1989-01-01

    Microwaves absorption measures in two superconductors ceramics systems, Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O are compared with similars datas obtained in the same band of temperature by a conventional method, mutual inductance. The results suggest that the microwaves absorption can be used as single and non-destructive method for investigating the properties of ceramics superconductors. (C.G.C.) [pt

  4. CN radical in diffuse interstellar clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federman, S.R.; Danks, A.C.; Lambert, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of 15 lines of sight for the CN B 2 Σ + --X 2 Σ + interstellar absorption lines shows that the CN column density in diffuse interstellar clouds follows the relation log N(CN)proportionalm log N(H 2 ), where mroughly-equal3. This result is reproduced by a reaction network in which CN is produced primarily from C 2 by the neutral-neutral reaction C 2 +N → CN+C, and photodissociation is the main destruction pathway for the neutral molecules CH, C 2 , and CN. The CN radical is the first molecular species observed in diffuse clouds that requires a neutral-neutral reaction for its formation in the gas phase. The network also reproduces the observed ratio N(CN)/N(H 2 )

  5. Hybrid diffusion-P3 equation in N-layered turbid media: steady-state domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhenzhi; Zhao, Huijuan; Xu, Kexin

    2011-10-01

    This paper discusses light propagation in N-layered turbid media. The hybrid diffusion-P3 equation is solved for an N-layered finite or infinite turbid medium in the steady-state domain for one point source using the extrapolated boundary condition. The Fourier transform formalism is applied to derive the analytical solutions of the fluence rate in Fourier space. Two inverse Fourier transform methods are developed to calculate the fluence rate in real space. In addition, the solutions of the hybrid diffusion-P3 equation are compared to the solutions of the diffusion equation and the Monte Carlo simulation. For the case of small absorption coefficients, the solutions of the N-layered diffusion equation and hybrid diffusion-P3 equation are almost equivalent and are in agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation. For the case of large absorption coefficients, the model of the hybrid diffusion-P3 equation is more precise than that of the diffusion equation. In conclusion, the model of the hybrid diffusion-P3 equation can replace the diffusion equation for modeling light propagation in the N-layered turbid media for a wide range of absorption coefficients.

  6. Metamaterials for perfect absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Young Pak; Yoo, Young Joon; Kim, Ki Won

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the theory and practical development of metamaterial-based perfect absorbers (MMPAs). It begins with a brief history of MMPAs which reviews the various theoretical and experimental milestones in their development. The theoretical background and fundamental working principles of MMPAs are then discussed, providing the necessary background on how MMPAs work and are constructed. There then follows a section describing how different MMPAs are designed and built according to the operating frequency of the electromagnetic wave, and how their behavior is changed. Methods of fabricating and characterizing MMPAs are then presented. The book elaborates on the performance and characteristics of MMPAs, including electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT). It also covers recent advances in MMPAs and their applications, including multi-band, broadband, tunability, polarization independence and incidence independence. Suitable for graduate students in optical sciences and e...

  7. Ultrasonic absorption in solid specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwabessy, P.J. W.; Stewart, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    As part of a project to measure the absorption of high frequency (50 - 500 kHz) sonar signals in warm sea-water, a laboratory apparatus has been constructed and tested against room temperature distilled water and various solutions of MgSO 4 (chemical relaxation of MgSO 4 is the major contribution to absorption below 200 kHz). The technique involves monitoring the decay of an acoustic signal for different sizes of vessels of water suspended in an evacuated chamber. So far, all containing vessels used have been spherical in shape. Extrapolation of the results to infinite volume yields the absorption due to the water alone. In order to accommodate variations in temperature and pressure, and to make the system more robust (e.g. for ship deck usage), it is desirable to employ stainless steel vessels. However, it was found that the quality of the data was greatly improved when pyrex glass spheres were used. The stainless steel spheres were manufactured by welding together mechanically spun hemispheres. The linear frequency dependence characteristic of acoustic absorption in solids was observed (in contrast to the quadratic frequency dependence of acoustic absorption in water), and the acoustic absorption was found to depend strongly on the thermal history of the steel

  8. Short-wave infrared barriode detectors using InGaAsSb absorption material lattice matched to GaSb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, A. P.; Percy, B.; Marshall, A. R. J. [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Jain, M. [Amethyst Research Ltd., Kelvin Campus, West of Scotland Science Park, Glasgow G20 0SP (United Kingdom); Wicks, G.; Hossain, K. [Amethyst Research, Inc., 123 Case Circle, Ardmore, Oklahoma 73401 (United States); Golding, T. [Amethyst Research Ltd., Kelvin Campus, West of Scotland Science Park, Glasgow G20 0SP (United Kingdom); Amethyst Research, Inc., 123 Case Circle, Ardmore, Oklahoma 73401 (United States); McEwan, K.; Howle, C. [Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-18

    Short-wave infrared barriode detectors were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. An absorption layer composition of In{sub 0.28}Ga{sub 0.72}As{sub 0.25}Sb{sub 0.75} allowed for lattice matching to GaSb and cut-off wavelengths of 2.9 μm at 250 K and 3.0 μm at room temperature. Arrhenius plots of the dark current density showed diffusion limited dark currents approaching those expected for optimized HgCdTe-based detectors. Specific detectivity figures of around 7×10{sup 10} Jones and 1×10{sup 10} Jones were calculated, for 240 K and room temperature, respectively. Significantly, these devices could support focal plane arrays working at higher operating temperatures.

  9. Absorption technology for solar and waste heat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, G.

    1993-01-01

    Absorption heat pumps, first developed in the 19th century, have received renewed and growing attention in the past two decades. With the increasing cost of oil and electricity, the particular features of this heat-powered cycle have made it attractive for both residential and industrial applications. Solar-powered air conditioning, gas-fired domestic cooling and waste-heat-powered temperature boosters are some of the applications on which intensive research and development has been conducted. This paper describes the operation of absorption systems and discusses several practical applications. It surveys recent advances in absorption technology, including the selection of working fluids, cycle improvements and multi-staging, and fundamentals of the combined heat and mass transfer in absorption processes. (author)

  10. Infrared diffuse interstellar bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galazutdinov, G. A.; Lee, Jae-Joon; Han, Inwoo; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Valyavin, G.; Krełowski, J.

    2017-05-01

    We present high-resolution (R ˜ 45 000) profiles of 14 diffuse interstellar bands in the ˜1.45 to ˜2.45 μm range based on spectra obtained with the Immersion Grating INfrared Spectrograph at the McDonald Observatory. The revised list of diffuse bands with accurately estimated rest wavelengths includes six new features. The diffuse band at 15 268.2 Å demonstrates a very symmetric profile shape and thus can serve as a reference for finding the 'interstellar correction' to the rest wavelength frame in the H range, which suffers from a lack of known atomic/molecular lines.

  11. Self diffusion in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundy, J.N.; Rothman, S.J.; Lam, N.Q.; Nowicki, L.J.; Hoff, H.A.

    1978-01-01

    The lack of understanding of self-diffusion in Group VI metals together with the wide scatter in the measured values of tungsten self-diffusion has prompted the present measurements to be made over a wide temperature range (1/2Tsub(m) to Tsub(m)). The diffusion coefficients have been measured in the temperature range 1430-2630 0 C. The present measurements show non-linear Arrhenius behavior but a reliable two-exponential fit of the data should await further measurements. (Auth.)

  12. An In Silico Knockout Model for Gastrointestinal Absorption Using a Systems Pharmacology Approach - Development and Application for Ketones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittal Shivva

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal absorption and disposition of ketones is complex. Recent work describing the pharmacokinetics (PK of d-β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB following oral ingestion of a ketone monoester ((R-3-hydroxybutyl (R-3-hydroxybutyrate found multiple input sites, nonlinear disposition and feedback on endogenous production. In the current work, a human systems pharmacology model for gastrointestinal absorption and subsequent disposition of small molecules (monocarboxylic acids with molecular weight < 200 Da was developed with an application to a ketone monoester. The systems model was developed by collating the information from the literature and knowledge gained from empirical population modelling of the clinical data. In silico knockout variants of this systems model were used to explore the mechanism of gastrointestinal absorption of ketones. The knockouts included active absorption across different regions in the gut and also a passive diffusion knockout, giving 10 gut knockouts in total. Exploration of knockout variants has suggested that there are at least three distinct regions in the gut that contribute to absorption of ketones. Passive diffusion predominates in the proximal gut and active processes contribute to the absorption of ketones in the distal gut. Low doses are predominantly absorbed from the proximal gut by passive diffusion whereas high doses are absorbed across all sites in the gut. This work has provided mechanistic insight into the absorption process of ketones, in the form of unique in silico knockouts that have potential for application with other therapeutics. Future studies on absorption process of ketones are suggested to substantiate findings in this study.

  13. Glyphosate (Ab)sorption by Shoots and Rhizomes of Native versus Hybrid Cattail (Typha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tianye; Sutton, Nora B; de Jager, Pim; Grosshans, Richard; Munira, Sirajum; Farenhorst, Annemieke

    2017-11-01

    Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America are integrated with farmland and contain mixtures of herbicide contaminants. Passive nonfacilitated diffusion is how most herbicides can move across plant membranes, making this perhaps an important process by which herbicide contaminants are absorbed by wetland vegetation. Prairie wetlands are dominated by native cattail (Typha latifolia) and hybrid cattail (Typha x glauca). The objective of this batch equilibrium study was to compare glyphosate absorption by the shoots and rhizomes of native versus hybrid cattails. Although it has been previously reported for some pesticides that passive diffusion is greater for rhizome than shoot components, this is the first study to demonstrate that the absorption capacity of rhizomes is species dependent, with the glyphosate absorption being significantly greater for rhizomes than shoots in case of native cattails, but with no significant differences in glyphosate absorption between rhizomes and shoots in case of hybrid cattails. Most importantly, glyphosate absorption by native rhizomes far exceeded that of the absorption occurring for hybrid rhizomes, native shoots and hybrid shoots. Glyphosate has long been used to manage invasive hybrid cattails in wetlands in North America, but hybrid cattail expansions continue to occur. Since our results showed limited glyphosate absorption by hybrid shoots and rhizomes, this lack of sorption may partially explain the poorer ability of glyphosate to control hybrid cattails in wetlands.

  14. [Tracheobronchoplasty for Severe Diffuse Tracheomalacia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, H; Gompelmann, D; Heußel, C P; Dienemann, H; Eberhardt, R

    2016-09-01

    Patients with diffuse airway instability due to tracheobronchomalacia or excessive dynamic airway collapse are typically highly symptomatic, with marked dyspnoea, recurrent bronchopulmonary infections and excruciating intractable cough. Silicone stents achieve immediate symptom control, but are - due to the typical complications associated with stent treatment - usually not an option for long-term treatment. The aim of surgical intervention is definitive stabilisation of the trachea and of both main bronchi by posterior splinting of the Paries membranaceus with a polypropylene mesh. This operation is an appropriate treatment option for patients with documented severe tracheobronchomalacia or excessive dynamic airway collapse and is ultimately the only therapy that can achieve permanent symptom control. The success of the operation, however, depends on many factors and requires close interdisciplinary collaboration. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Effects of porous carbon additives on the CO{sub 2} absorption performance of lithium orthosilicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeoung, Sungeun; Lee, Jae Hwa [Department of Chemistry, School of Natural Science, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), UNIST-gil 50, Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho Young [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Energy and Chemical Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), UNIST-gil 50, Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Hoi Ri, E-mail: hoirimoon@unist.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, School of Natural Science, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), UNIST-gil 50, Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-10

    Highlights: • Composites of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} and porous carbon materials were prepared for CO{sub 2} absorbents. • The kinetic parameters of the composites were examined. • The pores of CMK-3 in Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} aid the diffusion of CO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) is an attractive high-temperature CO{sub 2} sorbent (>650 °C) because of its large theoretical absorption capacity of up to 36.7 wt%. However, slow kinetics and partial reactions with CO{sub 2} hinder its proper operation as a sorbent under practical conditions. To allow the use of this sorbent at lower operation temperatures, the present studies explored the way to improve the CO{sub 2} absorption kinetics and increase the degree of reaction of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}. Porous carbon materials such as CMK-3 were introduced into the sorbent to provide an internal gas pathway. Upon calcination conditions, the carbon amount was controlled in the composites (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}@CMK-X%, where X represents the amounts of CMK-3). In Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}@CMK-1.8%, CMK-3 is distributed over the whole solid; in contrast, the additive in Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}@CMK-0.5% is mainly observed near the surface of the solid. CO{sub 2} gas sorption study of the composites showed that pores of CMK-3 in Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} aid the diffusion of CO{sub 2}. In addition, we found that the incorporation of porous carbon provides more active sites for interactions with CO{sub 2} through the formation of cavities between Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} and CMK-3. Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}@CMK-1.8% had an increased CO{sub 2} absorption capacity (35.4 wt%) and rate (15.2 wt% for the first 5 min) at 600 °C, compared to the CO{sub 2} absorption capacity (16.3 wt%) and rate (5.1 wt% for the first 5 min) of pristine Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} (p-Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}). To confirm the influence of porous carbon on the CO{sub 2} absorption properties, multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) was also examined as an additive

  16. The quasi-diffusive approximation in transport theory: Local solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celaschi, M.; Montagnini, B.

    1995-01-01

    The one velocity, plane geometry integral neutron transport equation is transformed into a system of two equations, one of them being the equation of continuity and the other a generalized Fick's law, in which the usual diffusion coefficient is replaced by a self-adjoint integral operator. As the kernel of this operator is very close to the Green function of a diffusion equation, an approximate inversion by means of a second order differential operator allows to transform these equations into a purely differential system which is shown to be equivalent, in the simplest case, to a diffusion-like equation. The method, the principles of which have been exposed in a previous paper, is here extended and applied to a variety of problems. If the inversion is properly performed, the quasi-diffusive solutions turn out to be quite accurate, even in the vicinity of the interface between different material regions, where elementary diffusion theory usually fails. 16 refs., 3 tabs

  17. Characterization of Stationary Distributions of Reflected Diffusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    operations research to finance and mathemat- ical physics , and their stationary distributions often serve to characterize or approximate important...REFERENCES [1] Atar , R., Budhiraja, A. and Dupuis, P. (2001). On positive recurrence of constrained diffusion processes. Ann. Probab., 29 No. 2, 979-1000

  18. Diffusion of Wilson loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzoska, A.M.; Lenz, F.; Thies, M.; Negele, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    A phenomenological analysis of the distribution of Wilson loops in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory is presented in which Wilson loop distributions are described as the result of a diffusion process on the group manifold. It is shown that, in the absence of forces, diffusion implies Casimir scaling and, conversely, exact Casimir scaling implies free diffusion. Screening processes occur if diffusion takes place in a potential. The crucial distinction between screening of fundamental and adjoint loops is formulated as a symmetry property related to the center symmetry of the underlying gauge theory. The results are expressed in terms of an effective Wilson loop action and compared with various limits of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory

  19. Diffusion between evolving interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juntunen, Janne; Merikoski, Juha

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion in an evolving environment is studied by continuous-time Monte Carlo simulations. Diffusion is modeled by continuous-time random walkers on a lattice, in a dynamic environment provided by bubbles between two one-dimensional interfaces driven symmetrically towards each other. For one-dimensional random walkers constrained by the interfaces, the bubble size distribution dominates diffusion. For two-dimensional random walkers, it is also controlled by the topography and dynamics of the interfaces. The results of the one-dimensional case are recovered in the limit where the interfaces are strongly driven. Even with simple hard-core repulsion between the interfaces and the particles, diffusion is found to depend strongly on the details of the dynamical rules of particles close to the interfaces.

  20. On Diffusion and Permeation

    KAUST Repository

    Peppin, Stephen S. L.

    2009-01-01

    concentrations they form a nearly rigid porous glass through which the fluid permeates. The theoretically determined pressure drop is nonlinear in the diffusion regime and linear in the permeation regime, in quantitative agreement with experimental measurements

  1. Diffusing Best Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2014-01-01

    approach. The study context is a design case in which an organization desires to diffuse its best practices across different groups. The design goal is embodied in organizational mechanisms to achieve this diffusion. The study used Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as a kernel theory. The artifacts...... resulting from the design were two-day training workshops conceptually anchored to TBP. The design theory was evaluated through execution of eight diffusion workshops involving three different groups in the same company. The findings indicate that the match between the practice and the context materialized...... that the behavior will be effective). These two factors were especially critical if the source context of the best practice is qualitatively different from the target context into which the organization is seeking to diffuse the best practice....

  2. Detection of diffusible substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warembourg, M [Lille-1 Univ., 59 - Villeneuve-d' Ascq (France)

    1976-12-01

    The different steps of a radioautographic technique for the detection of diffusible substances are described. Using this radioautographic method, the topographic distribution of estradiol-concentrating neurons was studied in the nervous system and pituitary of the ovariectomized mouse and guinea-pig. A relatively good morphological preservation of structures can be ascertained on sections from unfixed, unembedded tissues prepared at low temperatures and kept-under relatively low humidity. The translocation or extraction of diffusible substances is avoided by directly mounting of frozen sections on dried photographic emulsion. Since no solvent is used, this technique excludes the major sources of diffusion artifacts and permits to be in favourable conditions for the localization of diffusible substances.

  3. On Diffusion and Permeation

    KAUST Repository

    Peppin, Stephen S. L.

    2009-01-01

    Diffusion and permeation are discussed within the context of irreversible thermodynamics. A new expression for the generalized Stokes-Einstein equation is obtained which links the permeability to the diffusivity of a two-component solution and contains the poroelastic Biot-Willis coefficient. The theory is illustrated by predicting the concentration and pressure profiles during the filtration of a protein solution. At low concentrations the proteins diffuse independently while at higher concentrations they form a nearly rigid porous glass through which the fluid permeates. The theoretically determined pressure drop is nonlinear in the diffusion regime and linear in the permeation regime, in quantitative agreement with experimental measurements. © 2009 Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York.

  4. Vertex operators for a bosonic string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Ryu; Yamanaka, Itaru.

    1985-09-01

    Based on the operator formalism and the Virasoro algebra, we present a simple method of constructing vertex operators describing the emission and absorption of general particles in bosonic string theories. (author)

  5. Backscatter absorption gas imaging systems and light sources therefore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, Thomas Jan [Livermore, CA; Kliner, Dahv A. V. [San Ramon, CA; Sommers, Ricky [Oakley, CA; Goers, Uta-Barbara [Campbell, NY; Armstrong, Karla M [Livermore, CA

    2006-12-19

    The location of gases that are not visible to the unaided human eye can be determined using tuned light sources that spectroscopically probe the gases and cameras that can provide images corresponding to the absorption of the gases. The present invention is a light source for a backscatter absorption gas imaging (BAGI) system, and a light source incorporating the light source, that can be used to remotely detect and produce images of "invisible" gases. The inventive light source has a light producing element, an optical amplifier, and an optical parametric oscillator to generate wavelength tunable light in the IR. By using a multi-mode light source and an amplifier that operates using 915 nm pump sources, the power consumption of the light source is reduced to a level that can be operated by batteries for long periods of time. In addition, the light source is tunable over the absorption bands of many hydrocarbons, making it useful for detecting hazardous gases.

  6. Drift-Diffusion Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Banoo

    1998-01-01

    equation in the discrete momentum space. This is shown to be similar to the conventional drift-diffusion equation except that it is a more rigorous solution to the Boltzmann equation because the current and carrier densities are resolved into M×1 vectors, where M is the number of modes in the discrete momentum space. The mobility and diffusion coefficient become M×M matrices which connect the M momentum space modes. This approach is demonstrated by simulating electron transport in bulk silicon.

  7. Effect of water absorption on the mechanical properties of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/vegetable fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Vithória A. D.; Carvalho, Laura H.; Canedo, Eduardo L.

    2015-05-01

    The present work studies the effect of water absorption on the performance of composites of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) - a fully biodegradable semi-crystalline thermoplastic obtained from renewable resources through low-impact biotechnological process, biocompatible and non-toxic - and vegetable fiber from the fruit (coconut) of babassu palm tree.Water resistance is an important characteristic of structural composites, that may exposed to rain and humid environments. Both water absorption capacity (water solubility in the material) and the rate of water absorption (controlled by the diffusivity of water in the material) are important parameters. However, water absorption per se may not be the most important characteristic, insofar as the performance and applications of the compounds. It is the effect of the water content on the ultimate properties that determine the suitability of the material for applications that involve prolonged exposure to water.PHB/babassu composites with 0-20% load were prepared in an internal mixer. Two different types of babassu fibers having two different article size ranges were compounded with PHB and test specimens molded by compression. The water absorption capacity and the kinetic constant of water absorption were measured in triplicate. Mechanical properties under tension were measured for dry and moist specimens with different amounts of absorbed water.Results indicate that the performance of the composites is comparable to that of the pure matrix. Water absorption capacity increases from 0.7% (pure PHB) to 4% (PHB/20% babassu), but the water diffusivity (4.10□8 cm2/s) was found to be virtually independent of the water absorption level. Water absorption results in moderate drop in elastic modulus (10-30% at saturation, according to fiber content) but has little effect on tensile strength and elongation at break. Fiber type and initial particle size do not have a significant effect on water absorption or mechanical properties.

  8. Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesar, A.

    1995-12-01

    In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technology diffusion mechanisms discussed in this paper are new, yet the opportunities to apply these mechanisms are growing. A dramatic increase in technology diffusion occurred over the last decade. The two major trends which probably drive this increase are a worldwide inclination towards ``freer`` markets and diminishing isolation. Technology is most rapidly diffusing from the US In fact, the US is supplying technology for the rest of the world. The value of the technology supplied by the US more than doubled from 1985 to 1992 (see the Introduction for details). History shows us that technology diffusion is inevitable. It is the rates at which technologies diffuse to other countries which can vary considerably. Manufacturers in these countries are increasingly able to absorb technology. Their manufacturing efficiency is expected to progress as technology becomes increasingly available and utilized.

  9. Now consider diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dungey, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    The authors want to talk about future work, but first he will reply to Stan Cowley's comment on his naivety in believing in the whole story to 99% confidence in '65, when he knew about Fairfield's results. Does it matter whether you make the right judgment about theories? Yes, it does, particularly for experimentalists perhaps, but also for theorists. The work you do later depends on the judgment you've made on previous work. People have wasted a lot of time developing on insecure or even wrong foundations. Now for future work. One mild surprise the authors have had is that they haven't heard more about diffusion, in two contexts. Gordon Rostoker is yet to come and he may talk about particles getting into the magnetosphere by diffusion. Lots of noise is observed and so diffusion must happen. If time had not been short, the authors were planning to discuss in a handwaving way what sort of diffusion mechanisms one might consider. The other aspect of diffusion he was going to talk about is at the other end of things and is velocity diffusion, which is involved in anomalous resistivity

  10. Electron magnetic resonance investigation of chromium diffusion in yttria powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biasi, R.S. de, E-mail: rsbiasi@ime.eb.b [Secao de Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais, Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Pr. General Tiburcio, 80, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Grillo, M.L.N., E-mail: mluciag@uerj.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-03-01

    The electron magnetic resonance (EMR) technique was used to investigate the diffusion of chromium in yttria (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) powders. The EMR absorption intensity was measured for several annealing times and three different temperatures of isothermal annealing: 1273, 1323 and 1373 K. The activation temperature for diffusion, calculated from the experimental data using a theoretical model based on the Fick equation, was found to be E{sub A}=342+-5 kJ mol{sup -1}. This value is larger than the activation energy for the diffusion of chromium in rutile (TiO{sub 2}), periclase (MgO) and cobalt monoxide (CoO) and smaller than the activation energy for the diffusion of chromium in chrysoberyl (BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}).

  11. Ponzi scheme diffusion in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Anding; Fu, Peihua; Zhang, Qinghe; Chen, Zhenyue

    2017-08-01

    Ponzi schemes taking the form of Internet-based financial schemes have been negatively affecting China's economy for the last two years. Because there is currently a lack of modeling research on Ponzi scheme diffusion within social networks yet, we develop a potential-investor-divestor (PID) model to investigate the diffusion dynamics of Ponzi scheme in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous networks. Our simulation study of artificial and real Facebook social networks shows that the structure of investor networks does indeed affect the characteristics of dynamics. Both the average degree of distribution and the power-law degree of distribution will reduce the spreading critical threshold and will speed up the rate of diffusion. A high speed of diffusion is the key to alleviating the interest burden and improving the financial outcomes for the Ponzi scheme operator. The zero-crossing point of fund flux function we introduce proves to be a feasible index for reflecting the fast-worsening situation of fiscal instability and predicting the forthcoming collapse. The faster the scheme diffuses, the higher a peak it will reach and the sooner it will collapse. We should keep a vigilant eye on the harm of Ponzi scheme diffusion through modern social networks.

  12. Absorption properties of identical atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sancho, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Emission rates and other optical properties of multi-particle systems in collective and entangled states differ from those in product ones. We show the existence of similar effects in the absorption probabilities for (anti)symmetrized states of two identical atoms. The effects strongly depend on the overlapping between the atoms and differ for bosons and fermions. We propose a viable experimental verification of these ideas. -- Highlights: •The absorption rates of a pair of identical atoms in product and (anti)symmetrized states are different. •The modifications of the optical properties are essentially determined by the overlapping between the atoms. •The absorption properties differ, in some cases, for bosons and fermions

  13. Architecture for Absorption Based Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Saeed; Chugh, Devesh

    2018-04-24

    An absorption based heater is constructed on a fluid barrier heat exchanging plate such that it requires little space in a structure. The absorption based heater has a desorber, heat exchanger, and absorber sequentially placed on the fluid barrier heat exchanging plate. The vapor exchange faces of the desorber and the absorber are covered by a vapor permeable membrane that is permeable to a refrigerant vapor but impermeable to an absorbent. A process fluid flows on the side of the fluid barrier heat exchanging plate opposite the vapor exchange face through the absorber and subsequently through the heat exchanger. The absorption based heater can include a second plate with a condenser situated parallel to the fluid barrier heat exchanging plate and opposing the desorber for condensation of the refrigerant for additional heating of the process fluid.

  14. Mercury absorption in aqueous hypochlorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, L.L.; Rochelle, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    The absorption of elemental Hg vapor into aqueous hypochlorite was measured in a stirred tank reactor at 25 and 55C. NaOCl strongly absorbs Hg even at high pH. Low pH, high Cl - and high-temperature favor mercury absorption. Aqueous free Cl 2 was the active species that reacted with mercury. However, chlorine desorption was evident at high Cl - and pH 15 M -1 s -1 at 25C and 1.4x10 17 M -1 s -1 at 55C. Gas-phase reaction was observed between Hg and Cl 2 on apparatus surfaces. Strong mercury absorption in water was also detected with Cl 2 present. Results indicate that the chlorine concentration, moisture, and surface area contribute positively to mercury removal. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  15. Phytases for improved iron absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    Phytase enzymes present an alternative to iron supplements, because they have been shown to improve iron absorption by means of catalysing the degradation of a potent iron absorption inhibitor: phytic acid. Phytic acid is a hexaphosphate of inositol and is particularly prevalent in cereal grains......, where it serves as a storage molecule for phosphorous. Phytic acid is also associated with minerals. The minerals are bound by chelation to the negatively charged phosphate groups in phytic acid. Phytases catalyse the dephosphorylation of phytic acid, thus releasing bound minerals to make them available...... for absorption. This article presents research on phytase catalysis in gastric conditions and considers potential benefits and drawbacks for using phytases as a food supplement....

  16. Absence of saturation of void growth in rate theory with anisotropic diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, T S; Sutton, A P

    2002-01-01

    We present a first attempt at solution the problem of the growth of a single void in the presence of anisotropically diffusing radiation induced self-interstitial atom (SIA) clusters. In order to treat a distribution of voids we perform ensemble averaging over the positions of centres of voids using a mean-field approximation. In this way we are able to model physical situations in between the Standard Rate Theory (SRT) treatment of swelling (isotropic diffusion), and the purely 1-dimensional diffusion of clusters in the Production Bias Model. The background absorption by dislocations is however treated isotropically, with a bias for interstitial cluster absorption assumed similar to that of individual SIAs. We find that for moderate anisotropy, unsaturated void growth is characteristic of this anisotropic diffusion of clusters. In addition we obtain a higher initial void swelling rate than predicted by SRT whenever the diffusion is anisotropic.

  17. Diffusivity of the interstitial hydrogen shallow donor in In 2 O 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Ying; Weiser, Philip; Villalta, Karla; Stavola, Michael; Fowler, W. Beall; Biaggio, Ivan; Boatner, Lynn

    2018-04-28

    Hydrogen has been found to be an n-type dopant in In2O3 that gives rise to unintentional conductivity. An infrared (IR) absorption line observed at 3306 cm-1 has been assigned to the Hi+ center. Two types of experiments have been performed to determine the diffusivity of Hi+ in In2O3 from its IR absorption spectra. (i) At temperatures near 700 K, the O-H line at 3306 cm-1 has been used to determine the diffusivity of Hi+ from its in-diffusion and out-diffusion behavior. (ii) At temperatures near 160 K, stress has been used to produce a preferential alignment of the Hi+ center that has been detected in IR absorption experiments made with polarized light. With the help of theory, the kinetics with which a stress-induced alignment can be produced yield the time constant for a single jump of the Hi+ center and also the diffusivity of Hi+ near 160 K. The combination of the diffusivity of Hi+ found near 700 K by mass-transport measurements along with the diffusivity found near 160 K from the time constant for a single Hi+ jump determines the diffusivity for Hi+ over eleven decades!

  18. Methods for deacidizing gaseous mixtures by phase enhanced absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang

    2012-11-27

    An improved process for deacidizing a gaseous mixture using phase enhanced gas-liquid absorption is described. The process utilizes a multiphasic absorbent that absorbs an acid gas at increased rate and leads to reduced overall energy costs for the deacidizing operation.

  19. Absorption Efficiency of Receiving Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Frandsen, Aksel

    2005-01-01

    A receiving antenna with a matched load will always scatter some power. This paper sets an upper and a lower bound on the absorption efficiency (absorbed power over sum of absorbed and scattered powers), which lies between 0 and 100% depending on the directivities of the antenna and scatter...... patterns. It can approach 100% as closely as desired, although in practice this may not be an attractive solution. An example with a small endfire array of dipoles shows an efficiency of 93%. Several examples of small conical horn antennas are also given, and they all have absorption efficiencies less than...

  20. Fundamental absorption edge of CdP2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', G.I.; Koval', V.S.; Kurik, M.V.

    1986-01-01

    Fundamental absorption edge of tetragonal CdP 2 crystals is investigated within the temperature range of 4.2-293 K. The crystals are grown by the Bridgman methods and resublimation methods and possess different degree of perfection and purity. In perfect CdP 2 crystals with small concentration of impurities in the region of K > 20 cm -1 the shape of the absorption edge spectrum is described by the Urbach rule. The Urbach rule parameters are defined. The electron-phonon interaction is shown to be the determinant at K > 20 cm -1 and the direct vertical transition is observed. A slight additional absorption with maximum at 2.163 eV within the range of K -1 and at T ≤ 50 is associated with transition from shallow acceptor level to the conduction zone. The impurity leads to the shift of the fundamental absorption edge to the long-wavelength side and diffusion of electrons on impurities is resulted

  1. Axial segregation in high intensity discharge lamps measured by laser absorption spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffels, W.W.; Flikweert, A.J.; Nimalasuriya, T.; Groothuis, C.H.J.M.; Haverlag, M.; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    2005-01-01

    HID lamps containing rare earth additives (in our case dysprosium) show color separation because of axial segregation, caused by diffusion and convection. Two-dimensional atomic Dy density profiles are measured by means of laser absorption spectroscopy. The radially resolved atomic density

  2. Two-color interpolation of the absorption response for quantitative acousto-optic imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bocoum, Maimouna; Gennisson, Jean Luc; Venet, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a reliable and widespread technique for monitoring qualitative changes in absorption inside highly scattering media. It has been shown, however, that acousto-optic (AO) imaging can provide significantly more qualitative information without the need for inversio...

  3. Absorption signatures of warm-hot gas at low redshift : Ne VIII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tepper-García, T

    2013-01-01

    At z {lt} 1 a large fraction of the baryons is thought to reside in diffuse gas that has been shock-heated to high temperatures (10$^{5}$-10$^{6}$ K). Absorption by the 770.41, 780.32 å doublet of Ne VIII in quasar spectra represents a unique tool to study this elusive warm-hot phase. We have

  4. Absorption coefficient of nearly transparent liquids measured using thermal lens spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Cabrera

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We use an optimized pump-probe mode-mismatched thermal lens scheme to determine the optical absorption coefficient and thermal diffusivity of ethanol, benzene, acetone, methanol, toluene and chloroform. In this scheme the excitation beam is focused in the presence of a collimated probe beam. The agreement between experimentally obtained results and values reported in the literature is good.

  5. Diffuse charge dynamics in ionic thermoelectrochemical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Robert F.; Khair, Aditya S.

    2017-08-01

    Thermoelectrics are increasingly being studied as promising electrical generators in the ongoing search for alternative energy sources. In particular, recent experimental work has examined thermoelectric materials containing ionic charge carriers; however, the majority of mathematical modeling has been focused on their steady-state behavior. Here, we determine the time scales over which the diffuse charge dynamics in ionic thermoelectrochemical systems occur by analyzing the simplest model thermoelectric cell: a binary electrolyte between two parallel, blocking electrodes. We consider the application of a temperature gradient across the device while the electrodes remain electrically isolated from each other. This results in a net voltage, called the thermovoltage, via the Seebeck effect. At the same time, the Soret effect results in migration of the ions toward the cold electrode. The charge dynamics are described mathematically by the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for dilute solutions, in which the ion flux is driven by electromigration, Brownian diffusion, and thermal diffusion under a temperature gradient. The temperature evolves according to the heat equation. This nonlinear set of equations is linearized in the (experimentally relevant) limit of a "weak" temperature gradient. From this, we show that the time scale on which the thermovoltage develops is the Debye time, 1 /D κ2 , where D is the Brownian diffusion coefficient of both ion species, and κ-1 is the Debye length. However, the concentration gradient due to the Soret effect develops on the bulk diffusion time, L2/D , where L is the distance between the electrodes. For thin diffuse layers, which is the condition under which most real devices operate, the Debye time is orders of magnitude less than the diffusion time. Therefore, rather surprisingly, the majority of ion motion occurs after the steady thermovoltage has developed. Moreover, the dynamics are independent of the thermal diffusion

  6. Diffuse charge dynamics in ionic thermoelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Robert F; Khair, Aditya S

    2017-08-01

    Thermoelectrics are increasingly being studied as promising electrical generators in the ongoing search for alternative energy sources. In particular, recent experimental work has examined thermoelectric materials containing ionic charge carriers; however, the majority of mathematical modeling has been focused on their steady-state behavior. Here, we determine the time scales over which the diffuse charge dynamics in ionic thermoelectrochemical systems occur by analyzing the simplest model thermoelectric cell: a binary electrolyte between two parallel, blocking electrodes. We consider the application of a temperature gradient across the device while the electrodes remain electrically isolated from each other. This results in a net voltage, called the thermovoltage, via the Seebeck effect. At the same time, the Soret effect results in migration of the ions toward the cold electrode. The charge dynamics are described mathematically by the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for dilute solutions, in which the ion flux is driven by electromigration, Brownian diffusion, and thermal diffusion under a temperature gradient. The temperature evolves according to the heat equation. This nonlinear set of equations is linearized in the (experimentally relevant) limit of a "weak" temperature gradient. From this, we show that the time scale on which the thermovoltage develops is the Debye time, 1/Dκ^{2}, where D is the Brownian diffusion coefficient of both ion species, and κ^{-1} is the Debye length. However, the concentration gradient due to the Soret effect develops on the bulk diffusion time, L^{2}/D, where L is the distance between the electrodes. For thin diffuse layers, which is the condition under which most real devices operate, the Debye time is orders of magnitude less than the diffusion time. Therefore, rather surprisingly, the majority of ion motion occurs after the steady thermovoltage has developed. Moreover, the dynamics are independent of the thermal diffusion

  7. Lead diffusion in monazite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardes, E.

    2006-06-01

    Proper knowledge of the diffusion rates of lead in monazite is necessary to understand the U-Th-Pb age anomalies of this mineral, which is one of the most used in geochronology after zircon. Diffusion experiments were performed in NdPO 4 monocrystals and in Nd 0.66 Ca 0.17 Th 0.17 PO 4 polycrystals from Nd 0.66 Pb 0.17 Th 0.17 PO 4 thin films to investigate Pb 2+ + Th 4+ ↔ 2 Nd 3+ and Pb 2+ ↔ Ca 2+ exchanges. Diffusion annealings were run between 1200 and 1500 Celsius degrees, at room pressure, for durations ranging from one hour to one month. The diffusion profiles were analysed using TEM (transmission electronic microscopy) and RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy). The diffusivities extracted for Pb 2+ + Th 4+ ↔ 2 Nd 3+ exchange follow an Arrhenius law with parameters E equals 509 ± 24 kJ mol -1 and log(D 0 (m 2 s -1 )) equals -3.41 ± 0.77. Preliminary data for Pb 2+ ↔ Ca 2+ exchange are in agreement with this result. The extrapolation of our data to crustal temperatures yields very slow diffusivities. For instance, the time necessary for a 50 μm grain to lose all of its lead at 800 Celsius degrees is greater than the age of the Earth. From these results and other evidence from the literature, we conclude that most of the perturbations in U-Th-Pb ages of monazite cannot be attributed to lead diffusion, but rather to interactions with fluids. (author)

  8. Qualitative comparison of duplex Stirling and absorption refrigerators in domestic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, H. [Global Cooling BV, Zutphen (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    A qualitative comparison has been carried out between the duplex Stirling and the absorption refrigerator for domestic applications. The duplex Stirling has many advantages over the absorption refrigerator on efficiency, modulation, suitability, operating costs, pollution reduction. Based on the state of the art of free-piston gas-bearing and linear-motor Stirling engines and coolers, it appears technically and economically feasible to develop the duplex Stirling to compete with the absorption refrigerator for heat-driven domestic refrigeration. (orig.)

  9. Asymmetric diffusion model for oblique-incidence reflectometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaqin Chen; Liji Cao; Liqun Sun

    2011-01-01

    A diffusion theory model induced by a line source distribution is presented for oblique-incidence reflectom-etry. By fitting to this asymmetric diffusion model, the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients μa and μ's of the turbid medium can both be determined with accuracy of 10% from the absolute profile of the diffuse reflectance in the incident plane at the negative position -1.5 transport mean free path (mfp') away from the incident point; particularly, μ's can be estimated from the data at positive positions within 0-1.0 mfp' with 10% accuracy. The method is verified by Monte Carlo simulations and experimentally tested on a phantom.%A diffusion theory model induced by a line source distribution is presented for oblique-incidence reflectometry.By fitting to this asymmetric diffusion model,the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients μa and μ's of the turbid medium can both be determined with accuracy of 10% from the absolute profile of the diffuse reflectance in the incident plane at the negative position -1.5 transport mean free path (mfp')away from the incident point;particularly,μ's can be estimated from the data at positive positions within 0-1.0 mfp' with 10% accuracy.The method is verified by Monte Carlo simulations and experimentally tested on a phantom.Knowledge about the optical properties,including the absorption coefficient (μa) and the reduced scattering coefficient (μ's =μs(1-g)),where μs is the scattering coefficient and g is the anisotropy factor of scattering,of biological tissues plays an important role for optical therapeutic and diagnostic techniques in medicine.

  10. Optical absorption and scattering spectra of pathological stomach tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraev, K. M.; Ashurbekov, N. A.; Lakhina, M. A.

    2011-03-01

    Diffuse reflection spectra of biotissues in vivo and transmission and reflection coefficients for biotissues in vitro are measured over 300-800 nm. These data are used to determine the spectral absorption and scattering indices and the scattering anisotropy factor for stomach mucous membranes under normal and various pathological conditions (chronic atrophic and ulcerous defects, malignant neoplasms). The most importan tphysiological (hemodynamic and oxygenation levels) and structural-morphological (scatterer size and density) parameters are also determined. The results of a morphofunctional study correlate well with the optical properties and are consistent with data from a histomorphological analysis of the corresponding tissues.

  11. SEARCHING FOR NAPHTHALENE CATION ABSORPTION IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searles, Justin M.; Destree, Joshua D.; Snow, Theodore P.; Salama, Farid; York, Donald G.; Dahlstrom, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Interstellar naphthalene cations (C 10 H + 8 ) have been proposed by a study to be the carriers of a small number of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). Using an archive of high signal-to-noise spectra obtained at the Apache Point Observatory, we used two methods to test the hypothesis. Both methods failed to detect significant absorption at lab wavelengths of interstellar spectra with laboratory spectra. We thereby conclude that C 10 H + 8 is not a DIB carrier in typical reddened sight lines.

  12. Spring 2014 Internship Diffuser Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laigaie, Robert T.; Ryan, Harry M.

    2014-01-01

    J-2X engine testing on the A-2 test stand at the NASA John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) has recently concluded. As part of that test campaign, the engine was operated at lower power levels in support of expanding the use of J-2X to other missions. However, the A-2 diffuser was not designed for engine testing at the proposed low power levels. To evaluate the risk of damage to the diffuser, computer simulations were created of the rocket engine exhaust plume inside the 50ft long, water-cooled, altitude-simulating diffuser. The simulations predicted that low power level testing would cause the plume to oscillate in the lower sections of the diffuser. This can possibly cause excessive vibrations, stress, and heat transfer from the plume to the diffuser walls. To understand and assess the performance of the diffuser during low power level engine testing, nine accelerometers and four strain gages were installed around the outer surface of the diffuser. The added instrumentation also allowed for the verification of the rocket exhaust plume computational model. Prior to engine hot-fire testing, a diffuser water-flow test was conducted to verify the proper operation of the newly installed instrumentation. Subsequently, two J-2X engine hot-fire tests were completed. Hot-Fire Test 1 was 11.5 seconds in duration, and accelerometer and strain data verified that the rocket engine plume oscillated in the lower sections of the diffuser. The accelerometers showed very different results dependent upon location. The diffuser consists of four sections, with Section 1 being closest to the engine nozzle and Section 4 being farthest from the engine nozzle. Section 1 accelerometers showed increased amplitudes at startup and shutdown, but low amplitudes while the diffuser was started. Section 3 accelerometers showed the opposite results with near zero G amplitudes prior to and after diffuser start and peak amplitudes to +/- 100G while the diffuser was started. Hot-Fire Test 1 strain gages

  13. DASH-FP, Multicomponent Time-Dependent Concentration Diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apperson, C.E. Jr.; Carruthers, L.M.; Shinn, J.F.; Lee, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The program DASH-FP calculates the transient concentration of multiple diffusing species with radioactive decay. 2 - Method of solution: Uses finite difference and exponential operator techniques

  14. Diffusion Influenced Adsorption Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Toshiaki; Seki, Kazuhiko

    2015-08-27

    When the kinetics of adsorption is influenced by the diffusive flow of solutes, the solute concentration at the surface is influenced by the surface coverage of solutes, which is given by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood adsorption equation. The diffusion equation with the boundary condition given by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood adsorption equation leads to the nonlinear integro-differential equation for the surface coverage. In this paper, we solved the nonlinear integro-differential equation using the Grünwald-Letnikov formula developed to solve fractional kinetics. Guided by the numerical results, analytical expressions for the upper and lower bounds of the exact numerical results were obtained. The upper and lower bounds were close to the exact numerical results in the diffusion- and reaction-controlled limits, respectively. We examined the validity of the two simple analytical expressions obtained in the diffusion-controlled limit. The results were generalized to include the effect of dispersive diffusion. We also investigated the effect of molecular rearrangement of anisotropic molecules on surface coverage.

  15. Bicarbonate diffusion through mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, E H; Miller, J; Engel, E

    1995-09-01

    The mucus layer overlying duodenal epithelium maintains a pH gradient against high luminal acid concentrations. Despite these adverse conditions, epithelial surface pH remains close to neutrality. The exact nature of the gradient-forming barrier remains unknown. The barrier consists of mucus into which HCO3- is secreted. Quantification of the ability of HCO3- to establish and maintain the gradient depends on accurate measurement of this ion's diffusion coefficient through mucus. We describe new experimental and mathematical methods for diffusion measurement and report diffusion coefficients for HCO3- diffusion through saline, 5% mucin solutions, and rat duodenal mucus. The diffusion coefficients were 20.2 +/- 0.10, 3.02 +/- 0.31, and 1.81 +/- 0.12 x 10(-6) cm2/s, respectively. Modeling of the mucobicarbonate layer with this latter value suggests that for conditions of high luminal acid strength the neutralization of acid by HCO3- occurs just above the epithelial surface. Under these conditions the model predicts that fluid convection toward the lumen could be important in maintaining the pH gradient. In support of this hypothesis we were able to demonstrate a net luminal fluid flux of 5 microliters.min-1.cm-2 after perfusion of 0.15 N HCl in the rat duodenum.

  16. Studies of Water Absorption Behavior of Plant Fibers at Different Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Dip

    2010-05-01

    Moisture absorption of natural fiber plastic composites is one major concern in their outdoor applications. The absorbed moisture has many detrimental effects on the mechanical performance of these composites. A knowledge of the moisture diffusivity, permeability, and solubility is very much essential for the application of natural fibers as an excellent reinforcement in polymers. An effort has been made to study the water absorption behavior of some natural fibers such as bowstring hemp, okra, and betel nut at different temperatures to improve the long-term performance of composites reinforced with these fibers. The gain in moisture content in the fibers due to water absorption was measured as a function of exposure time at temperatures ranging from 300 K to 340 K. The thermodynamic parameters of the sorption process, such as diffusion coefficients and corresponding activation energies, were estimated.

  17. Konference Distillation and Absorption 2010

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bendová, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 10 (2009), s. 862 ISSN 0009-2770 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA320 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : conference * announcement * distillation and absorption Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  18. Gamm-ray absorption techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    In this chapter the principles of gamma-ray absorption are described and important applications in plant and process techniques such as measurement of thickness of deposits on pipes, checking for voids in concrete, metal corrosion, measurement of the density of materials inside vessels in industrial radiography are discussed. (U.K.)

  19. Emission and absorption of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetter, S.

    1992-01-01

    A full understanding of fissile-material detection requires a solid knowledge of nuclear physics, especially the emission and absorption of radiation. The purpose of this paper is therefore to give a brief explanation of these processes so that the reader can better understand the assumptions leading to the results in the main text

  20. Interpretation of diffuse low-energy electron diffraction intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldin, D.K.; Pendry, J.B.; Van Hove, M.A.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the diffuse low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) that occurs between sharp LEED beams can be used to determine the local bonding configuration near disordered surface atoms. Two approaches to the calculation of diffuse LEED intensities are presented for the case of lattice-gas disorder of an adsorbate on a crystalline substrate. The capabilities of this technique are most similar to those of near-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure, but avoid the restrictions due to the use of photons

  1. Study of porous bed diffusion using the frequency response method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billy, J.

    1967-11-01

    The flow of an inert mixture of two gases across a catalytic bed is accompanied by diffusion phenomena in the inter-particulate space and inside the particles themselves, and adsorption phenomena at the surface of the particles. These phenomena are analyzed in turn and three coefficients which characterize each of them are defined. With a view to carrying out an experimental study by the frequency response method, the differential system deduced from the preceding analysis is then resolved with the help of two simplifying hypotheses; two relationships are given which make it possible to calculate the two diffusion coefficients and the absorption coefficient. (author) [fr

  2. Pulsed neutron method for diffusion, slowing down, and reactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoestrand, N.G.

    1985-01-01

    An outline is given on the principles of the pulsed neutron method for the determination of thermal neutron diffusion parameters, for slowing-down time measurements, and for reactivity determinations. The historical development is sketched from the breakthrough in the middle of the nineteen fifties and the usefulness and limitations of the method are discussed. The importance for the present understanding of neutron slowing-down, thermalization and diffusion are point out. Examples are given of its recent use for e.g. absorption cross section measurements and for the study of the properties of heterogeneous systems

  3. Bulk-mediated surface diffusion: non-Markovian desorption dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revelli, Jorge A; Budde, Carlos E; Prato, Domingo; Wio, Horacio S

    2005-01-01

    Here we analyse the dynamics of adsorbed molecules within the bulk-mediated surface diffusion framework, when the particle's desorption mechanism is characterized by a non-Markovian process, while the particle's adsorption as well as its motion in the bulk is governed by Markovian dynamics. We study the diffusion of particles in both semi-infinite and finite cubic lattices, analysing the conditional probability to find the system on the reference absorptive plane as well as the surface dispersion as functions of time. The results are compared with known Markovian cases showing the differences that can be exploited to distinguish between Markovian and non-Markovian desorption mechanisms in experimental situations

  4. Diffusive separation of particles by diffusion in swirled turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, V.N.; Shiliaev, M.I.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the dynamics of turbulent flow and diffusive separation of solid particles in a centrifugal air separator (consisting of two flat disks rotating at the same angular velocity) is presented. A closed set of balances for all the components of the tensor of turbulent stresses, extended to the entire flow region, is employed in the numerical analysis of transition and turbulent air flows between the rotating disks. The analytical relationships obtained for the case of the mixed flow for the various components of the average velocity, energy of fluctuations, and turbulence level in the circumferential direction agreed well with the theoretical and experimental distributions of Bakke, et al. (1973). It is shown that at high Reynolds numbers the flow is isotropic, the dependence of the circumferential component of the average velocity obeys a power law, and the generation of the radial component is controlled by the local centrifugal field. The sharpness of particle separation was calculated by the eddy diffusion equation and was found to depend on the geometry and the operating conditions. 8 references

  5. Kinetics of absorption of the environmental moisture in grainy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar-Cocina, E.; Valencia-Morales, E.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, R. [Universidad Central de las Villas, Villaclara (Cuba)

    2001-02-01

    The moisture absorption in granulated materials used in foundry technologies is analyzed. The absorption process has a diffusive behavior mainly. A simple experimental technique, in which the wet weight increment was recorded as the experimental variable and an analytic method with computing procedure to find the parameters characterizing the process was used. The determination of these parameters by traditional methods is a very difficult task, very refined and expensive trials are needed. The fitting of the model permits to determine the diffusion coefficient and the moisture concentration in the separation surface between the sample and the environment. The concentration profiles are established for different times. Finally, the possibility of occurrence of superimposed diffusive processes in some materials is analyzed and the diffusion coefficient and the amount of moisture incorporated by each process are calculated. [Spanish] Se analiza la absorcion de humedad en materiales granulados utilizados en tecnologias de funcion cuyo proceso tiene un comportamiento difusivo principalmente. Se utiliza una tecnica experimental simple en la cual el incremento en peso humedo es registrado como variable experimental. Un metodo analitico con procesamiento computacional es usado para determinar los parametros que caracterizan el proceso, cuya determinacion por metodos tradicionales es dificil y requiere de ensayos muy refinados y costosos. El ajuste del modelo permite determinar el coeficiente de difusion y la concentracion de humedad en la superficie de separacion de la muestra y la atmosfera circundante. Se establecen los perfiles de concentraciones para diferentes instantes de tiempo. Finalmente, la posibilidad de ocurrencia de procesos difusivos superpuestos en algunos materiales es analizada y son calculados los coeficientes de difusion y la cantidad de humedad incorporada por cada proceso.

  6. Absorptive capacity and smart companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Moro González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current competitive environment is substantially modifying the organizations’ learning processes due to a global increase of available information allowing this to be transformed into knowledge. This opportunity has been exploited since the nineties by the tools of “Business Analytics” and “Business Intelligence” but, nevertheless, being integrated in the study of new organizational capacities engaged in the process of creating intelligence inside organizations is still an outstanding task. The review of the concept of absorptive capacity and a detailed study from the perspective of this new reality will be the main objective of study of this paper.Design/methodology/approach: By comparing classical absorptive capacity and absorptive capacity from the point of view of information management tools in each one of the three stages of the organizational learning cycle, some gaps of the former are overcome/fulfilled. The academic/bibliographical references provided in this paper have been obtained from ISI web of knowledge, Scopus and Dialnet data bases, supporting the state of affairs on absorptive capacity and thereafter filtering by "Business Intelligence" and "Business Analytics". Specialized websites and Business Schools` Publications there have also been included, crowning the content on information management tools used that are currently used in the strategic consulting.Findings: Our contribution to the literature is the development of "smart absorptive capacity". This is a new capacity emerging from the reformulation of the classical concept of absorptive capacity wherein some aspects of its definition that might have been omitted are emphasized. The result of this new approach is the creation of a new Theoretical Model of Organizational Intelligence, which aims to explain, within the framework of the Resources and Capabilities Theory, the competitive advantage achieved by the so-called smart companies

  7. Observation of diffusion phenomena of liquid phase with multiple components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Wataru

    1979-01-01

    The diffusion phenomena of liquid phase with multiple components was directly observed, and the factors contributing to complex material transfer were investigated, comparing to the former experimental results. The most excellent method of observing the diffusion behavior of liquid phase used heretofore is to trace the time history of concentration distribution for each component in unsteady diffusion process. The method of directly observing the concentration distribution is usually classified into the analysis of diffused samples, the checking of radioactive isotope tracers, and the measurement of light refraction and transmission. The most suitable method among these is to trace this time history by utilizing the spectrophotometer of position scanning type. An improved spectrophotometer was manufactured for trial. The outline of the measuring system and the detail of the optical system of this new type spectrophotometer are explained. The resolving power for position measurement is described with the numerical calculation. As for the observation examples of the diffusion phenomena of liquid phase with multiple components, the diffusion of multiple electrolytes in aqueous solution, the observation of the material transfer phenomena accompanied by heterogeneous and single phase chemical reaction, and the observation of concentration distribution in the liquid diaphragm in a reaction absorption system are described. For each experimental item, the test apparatus, the sample material, the test process, the test results and the evaluation are explained in detail, and the diffusion phenomena of liquid phase with multiple components were pretty well elucidated. (Nakai, Y.)

  8. Cesium diffusion in graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.B. III; Davis, W. Jr.; Sutton, A.L. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments on diffusion of 137 Cs in five types of graphite were performed. The document provides a completion of the report that was started and includes a presentation of all of the diffusion data, previously unpublished. Except for data on mass transfer of 137 Cs in the Hawker-Siddeley graphite, analyses of experimental results were initiated but not completed. The mass transfer process of cesium in HS-1-1 graphite at 600 to 1000 0 C in a helium atmosphere is essentially pure diffusion wherein values of (E/epsilon) and ΔE of the equation D/epsilon = (D/epsilon) 0 exp [-ΔE/RT] are about 4 x 10 -2 cm 2 /s and 30 kcal/mole, respectively

  9. Apparatus for diffusion separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nierenberg, W.A.; Pontius, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    The method of testing the separation efficiency of porous permeable membranes is described which comprises causing a stream of a gaseous mixture to flow into contact with one face of a finely porous permeable membrane under such conditions that a major fraction of the mixture diffuses through the membrane, maintaining a rectangular cross section of the gaseous stream so flowing past said membrane, continuously recirculating the gas that diffuses through said membrane and continuously withdrawing the gas that does not diffuse through said membrane and maintaining the volume of said recirculating gas constant by continuously introducing into said continuously recirculating gas stream a mass of gas equivalent to that which is continuously withdrawn from said gas stream and comparing the concentrations of the light component in the entering gas, the withdrawn gas and the recirculated gas in order to determine the efficiency of said membrane

  10. Diffusion in flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogaard Kristensen, S.

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the work done on modelling and simulation of the complex diffusion of gas through the wall of a flexible pipe. The diffusion and thus the pressure in annulus depends strongly on the diffusion and solubility parameters of the gas-polymer system and on the degree of blocking of the outer surface of the inner liner due to pressure reinforcements. The report evaluates the basis modelling required to describe the complex geometries and flow patterns. Qualitatively results of temperature and concentration profiles are shown in the report. For the program to serve any modelling purpose in 'real life' the results need to be validated and possibly the model needs corrections. Hopefully, a full-scale test of a flexible pipe will provide the required temperatures and pressures in annulus to validate the models. (EHS)

  11. Distributed Control Diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2007-01-01

    . Programming a modular, self-reconfigurable robot is however a complicated task: the robot is essentially a real-time, distributed embedded system, where control and communication paths often are tightly coupled to the current physical configuration of the robot. To facilitate the task of programming modular....... This approach allows the programmer to dynamically distribute behaviors throughout a robot and moreover provides a partial abstraction over the concrete physical shape of the robot. We have implemented a prototype of a distributed control diffusion system for the ATRON modular, self-reconfigurable robot......, self-reconfigurable robots, we present the concept of distributed control diffusion: distributed queries are used to identify modules that play a specific role in the robot, and behaviors that implement specific control strategies are diffused throughout the robot based on these role assignments...

  12. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    cooling capacity, energy saving, low investment cost and low noise level; while the limitations include condensation risk and the limit on the room geometry. Furthermore, the crucial design parameters are summarized and their effects on the system performance are discussed. In addition to the stand...... is not well structured with this system. These become the motivations in developing the design guide. This design guide aims to establish a systematic understanding of diffuse ceiling ventilation and provide assistance in designing of such a system. The guide is targeted at design engineers, architects...... and manufacturers and the users of diffuse ceiling technology. The design guide introduces the principle and key characteristics of room air distribution with diffuse ceiling ventilation. It provides an overview of potential benefit and limitations of this technology. The benefits include high thermal comfort, high...

  13. Diffusion and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Vrentas, James S

    2013-01-01

    The book first covers the five elements necessary to formulate and solve mass transfer problems, that is, conservation laws and field equations, boundary conditions, constitutive equations, parameters in constitutive equations, and mathematical methods that can be used to solve the partial differential equations commonly encountered in mass transfer problems. Jump balances, Green’s function solution methods, and the free-volume theory for the prediction of self-diffusion coefficients for polymer–solvent systems are among the topics covered. The authors then use those elements to analyze a wide variety of mass transfer problems, including bubble dissolution, polymer sorption and desorption, dispersion, impurity migration in plastic containers, and utilization of polymers in drug delivery. The text offers detailed solutions, along with some theoretical aspects, for numerous processes including viscoelastic diffusion, moving boundary problems, diffusion and reaction, membrane transport, wave behavior, sedime...

  14. Diffusion in flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogaard Kristensen, S

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the work done on modelling and simulation of the complex diffusion of gas through the wall of a flexible pipe. The diffusion and thus the pressure in annulus depends strongly on the diffusion and solubility parameters of the gas-polymer system and on the degree of blocking of the outer surface of the inner liner due to pressure reinforcements. The report evaluates the basis modelling required to describe the complex geometries and flow patterns. Qualitatively results of temperature and concentration profiles are shown in the report. For the program to serve any modelling purpose in 'real life' the results need to be validated and possibly the model needs corrections. Hopefully, a full-scale test of a flexible pipe will provide the required temperatures and pressures in annulus to validate the models. (EHS)

  15. Thermal diffusivity of felsic to mafic granulites at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Labani; Förster, H.-J.; Schilling, F. R.; Förster, A.

    2006-11-01

    The thermal diffusivity of felsic and intermediate granulites (charnockites, enderbites), mafic granulites, and amphibolite-facies gneisses has been measured up to temperatures of 550 °C using a transient technique. The rock samples are from the Archean and Pan-African terranes of the Southern Indian Granulite Province. Thermal diffusivity at room temperature ( DRT) for different rock types ranges between 1.2 and 2.2 mm 2 s - 1 . For most of the rocks, the effect of radiative heat transfer is observed at temperatures above 450 °C. However, for few enderbites and mafic granulites, radiative heat transfer is negligible up to 550 °C. In the temperature range of conductive heat transfer, i.e., between 20 ° and 450 °C, thermal diffusivity decreases between 35% and 45% with increasing temperature. The temperature dependence of the thermal diffusivity is directly correlated with the thermal diffusivity at room temperature, i.e., the higher the thermal diffusivity at room temperature, DRT, the greater is its temperature dependence. In this temperature range i.e., between 20 and 450 °C, thermal diffusivity can be expressed as D = 0.7 mm 2 s -1 + 144 K ( DRT - 0.7 mm 2 s -1 ) / ( T - 150 K), where T is the absolute temperature in Kelvin. At higher temperatures, an additional radiative contribution is observed according to CT3, where C varies from 10 - 9 to 10 - 10 depending on intrinsic rock properties (opacity, absorption behavior, grain size, grain boundary, etc). An equation is presented that describes the temperature and pressure dependence thermal diffusivity of rocks based only on the room-temperature thermal diffusivity. Room-temperature thermal diffusivity and its temperature dependence are mainly dependent on the major mineralogy of the rock. Because granulites are important components of the middle and lower continental crust, the results of this study provide important constraints in quantifying more accurately the thermal state of the deeper continental

  16. Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, Anthony A.

    1985-01-01

    A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs.

  17. Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, A.A.

    1985-07-02

    A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs. 3 figs.

  18. The Trouble with Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.T. DeHoff

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenological formalism, which yields Fick's Laws for diffusion in single phase multicomponent systems, is widely accepted as the basis for the mathematical description of diffusion. This paper focuses on problems associated with this formalism. This mode of description of the process is cumbersome, defining as it does matrices of interdiffusion coefficients (the central material properties that require a large experimental investment for their evaluation in three component systems, and, indeed cannot be evaluated for systems with more than three components. It is also argued that the physical meaning of the numerical values of these properties with respect to the atom motions in the system remains unknown. The attempt to understand the physical content of the diffusion coefficients in the phenomenological formalism has been the central fundamental problem in the theory of diffusion in crystalline alloys. The observation by Kirkendall that the crystal lattice moves during diffusion led Darken to develop the concept of intrinsic diffusion, i.e., atom motion relative to the crystal lattice. Darken and his successors sought to relate the diffusion coefficients computed for intrinsic fluxes to those obtained from the motion of radioactive tracers in chemically homogeneous samples which directly report the jump frequencies of the atoms as a function of composition and temperature. This theoretical connection between tracer, intrinsic and interdiffusion behavior would provide the basis for understanding the physical content of interdiffusion coefficients. Definitive tests of the resulting theoretical connection have been carried out for a number of binary systems for which all three kinds of observations are available. In a number of systems predictions of intrinsic coefficients from tracer data do not agree with measured values although predictions of interdiffusion coefficients appear to give reasonable agreement. Thus, the complete

  19. Nonlinear diffusion equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Zhuo Qun; Li Hui Lai; Zhao Jun Ning

    2001-01-01

    Nonlinear diffusion equations, an important class of parabolic equations, come from a variety of diffusion phenomena which appear widely in nature. They are suggested as mathematical models of physical problems in many fields, such as filtration, phase transition, biochemistry and dynamics of biological groups. In many cases, the equations possess degeneracy or singularity. The appearance of degeneracy or singularity makes the study more involved and challenging. Many new ideas and methods have been developed to overcome the special difficulties caused by the degeneracy and singularity, which

  20. Phase transformation and diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, G B; Dey, G K

    2008-01-01

    Given that the basic purpose of all research in materials science and technology is to tailor the properties of materials to suit specific applications, phase transformations are the natural key to the fine-tuning of the structural, mechanical and corrosion properties. A basic understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms of phase transformation is therefore of vital importance. Apart from a few cases involving crystallographic martensitic transformations, all phase transformations are mediated by diffusion. Thus, proper control and understanding of the process of diffusion during nucleation, g

  1. Ambipolar diffusion in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.L. da.

    1987-01-01

    Is this thesis, a numerical method for the solution of the linear diffusion equation for a plasma containing two types of ions, with the possibility of charge exchange, has been developed. It has been shown that the decay time of the electron and ion densities is much smaller than that in a plasma containing only a single type of ion. A non-linear diffusion equation, which includes the effects of an external electric field varying linearly in time, to describe a slightly ionized plasma has also been developed. It has been verified that the decay of the electron density in the presence of such an electric field is very slow. (author)

  2. Computational Analysis on Performance of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Diffuser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, M. A. H. M.; Adnan, F.; Ismail, A. R.; Kardigama, K.; Salaam, H. A.; Ahmad, Z.; Johari, N. H.; Anuar, Z.; Azmi, N. S. N.

    2012-09-01

    Application of thermal energy storage (TES) system reduces cost and energy consumption. The performance of the overall operation is affected by diffuser design. In this study, computational analysis is used to determine the thermocline thickness. Three dimensional simulations with different tank height-to-diameter ratio (HD), diffuser opening and the effect of difference number of diffuser holes are investigated. Medium HD tanks simulations with double ring octagonal diffuser show good thermocline behavior and clear distinction between warm and cold water. The result show, the best performance of thermocline thickness during 50% time charging occur in medium tank with height-to-diameter ratio of 4.0 and double ring octagonal diffuser with 48 holes (9mm opening ~ 60%) acceptable compared to diffuser with 6mm ~ 40% and 12mm ~ 80% opening. The conclusion is computational analysis method are very useful in the study on performance of thermal energy storage (TES).

  3. Computational Analysis on Performance of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Diffuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M A H M; Ismail, A R; Kardigama, K; Salaam, H A; Ahmad, Z; Johari, N H; Anuar, Z; Azmi, N S N; Adnan, F

    2012-01-01

    Application of thermal energy storage (TES) system reduces cost and energy consumption. The performance of the overall operation is affected by diffuser design. In this study, computational analysis is used to determine the thermocline thickness. Three dimensional simulations with different tank height-to-diameter ratio (HD), diffuser opening and the effect of difference number of diffuser holes are investigated. Medium HD tanks simulations with double ring octagonal diffuser show good thermocline behavior and clear distinction between warm and cold water. The result show, the best performance of thermocline thickness during 50% time charging occur in medium tank with height-to-diameter ratio of 4.0 and double ring octagonal diffuser with 48 holes (9mm opening ∼ 60%) acceptable compared to diffuser with 6mm ∼ 40% and 12mm ∼ 80% opening. The conclusion is computational analysis method are very useful in the study on performance of thermal energy storage (TES).

  4. Temperature-insensitive laser frequency locking near absorption lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostinski, Natalie; Olsen, Ben A.; Marsland, Robert III; McGuyer, Bart H.; Happer, William

    2011-01-01

    Combined magnetically induced circular dichroism and Faraday rotation of an atomic vapor are used to develop a variant of the dichroic atomic vapor laser lock that eliminates lock sensitivity to temperature fluctuations of the cell. Operating conditions that eliminate first-order sensitivity to temperature fluctuations can be determined by low-frequency temperature modulation. This temperature-insensitive gyrotropic laser lock can be accurately understood with a simple model, that is in excellent agreement with observations in potassium vapor at laser frequencies in a 2 GHz range about the 770.1 nm absorption line. The methods can be readily adapted for other absorption lines.

  5. Deterioration of reflecting coatings by intermetallic diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, W R; Mikes, T L; Hass, G

    1972-07-01

    Gold diffraction gratings overcoated with Al + MgF(2) to increase their efficiency in the vacuum ultraviolet suffered a severe loss in efficiency within six months to a year after coating; for example, from 50% to 2% at lambda1216 A. The cause of this loss was assumed to be interdiffusion of Au and Al; therefore, a more complete study of Au-Al film combinations was performed. The coatings were aged at room and elevated temperatures. Reflectance measurements were made in the visible and vacuum ultraviolet spectral regions. For wavelengths longer than lambda900 A, the measurements show very little change until the diffusion boundary reaches the penetration depth of the radiation. If Al is the first surface layer, however, reflectance measurements at lambda584 A permit measuring the progress of the diffusion boundary toward the Al surface because of the low absorptance of Al at this wavelength. Interdiffusion can be effectively eliminated by the use of thin dielectric layers uch as SiO and the natural oxide of Al. Such protected coatings have been exposed for one week at a temperature of 170 degrees C with no visible sign of diffusion, whereas a similar coating without the barrier layer would become useless in less than 1 h. Some preliminary studies have been made with Pt-Al film combinations.

  6. Converting Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2013-01-01

    are suggested: An optimization method for the surface impedances for locally reacting absorbers, the flow resistivity for extendedly reacting absorbers, and the flow resistance for fabrics. With four porous type absorbers, the conversion methods are validated. For absorbers backed by a rigid wall, the surface...... coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients are proposed. The overestimations of the Sabine absorption coefficient are investigated theoretically based on Miki's model for porous absorbers backed by a rigid wall or an air cavity, resulting in conversion factors. Additionally, three optimizations...... impedance optimization produces the best results, while the flow resistivity optimization also yields reasonable results. The flow resistivity and flow resistance optimization for extendedly reacting absorbers are also found to be successful. However, the theoretical conversion factors based on Miki's model...

  7. Absorption heat pump for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan; Simon, William E.; Warrier, Gopinath R.; Woramontri, Woranun

    1993-01-01

    In the first part, the performance of the Absorption Heat Pump (AHP) with water-sulfuric acid and water-magnesium chloride as two new refrigerant-absorbent fluid pairs was investigated. A model was proposed for the analysis of the new working pairs in a heat pump system, subject to different temperature lifts. Computer codes were developed to calculate the Coefficient of Performance (COP) of the system with the thermodynamic properties of the working fluids obtained from the literature. The study shows the potential of water-sulfuric acid as a satisfactory replacement for water-lithium bromide in the targeted temperature range. The performance of the AHP using water-magnesium chloride as refrigerant-absorbent pair does not compare well with those obtained using water-lithium bromide. The second part concentrated on the design and testing of a simple ElectroHydrodynamic (EHD) Pump. A theoretical design model based on continuum electromechanics was analyzed to predict the performance characteristics of the EHD pump to circulate the fluid in the absorption heat pump. A numerical method of solving the governing equations was established to predict the velocity profile, pressure - flow rate relationship and efficiency of the pump. The predicted operational characteristics of the EHD pump is comparable to that of turbomachinery hardware; however, the overall efficiency of the electromagnetic pump is much lower. An experimental investigation to verify the numerical results was conducted. The pressure - flow rate performance characteristics and overall efficiency of the pump obtained experimentally agree well with the theoretical model.

  8. Diffuse axonal injury: detection of changes in anisotropy of water diffusion by diffusion-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, J.H.M.; Tsui, E.Y.K.; Yuen, M.K.; Peh, W.C.G.; Fong, D.; Fok, K.F.; Leung, K.M.; Fung, K.K.L.

    2003-01-01

    Myelinated axons of white matter demonstrate prominent directional differences in water diffusion. We performed diffusion-weighted imaging on ten patients with head injury to explore the feasibility of using water diffusion anisotropy for quantitating diffuse axonal injury. We showed significant decrease in diffusion anisotropy indices in areas with or without signal abnormality on T2 and T2*-weighted images. We conclude that the water diffusion anisotropy index a potentially useful, sensitive and quantitative way of diagnosing and assessing patients with diffuse axonal injury. (orig.)

  9. Survival probability of diffusion with trapping in cellular neurobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcman, David; Marchewka, Avi; Schuss, Zeev

    2005-09-01

    The problem of diffusion with absorption and trapping sites arises in the theory of molecular signaling inside and on the membranes of biological cells. In particular, this problem arises in the case of spine-dendrite communication, where the number of calcium ions, modeled as random particles, is regulated across the spine microstructure by pumps, which play the role of killing sites, while the end of the dendritic shaft is an absorbing boundary. We develop a general mathematical framework for diffusion in the presence of absorption and killing sites and apply it to the computation of the time-dependent survival probability of ions. We also compute the ratio of the number of absorbed particles at a specific location to the number of killed particles. We show that the ratio depends on the distribution of killing sites. The biological consequence is that the position of the pumps regulates the fraction of calcium ions that reach the dendrite.

  10. Acoustically assisted diffusion through membranes and biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floros, J.D.; Liang, H.

    1994-01-01

    Part of a special section on the symposium ''Ultrasonic Applications in the Food Industry.'' The use of high-intensity ultrasound in food processing is reviewed. Acoustic radiation, or sound, can be used to monitor various operations or products or to alter a process or product; however, the direct use of sound to improve food processes is not very popular. High-intensity acoustic radiation induces various changes as it passes through a medium, largely as a result of heating, cavitation, agitation and shear stresses, compression and rarefaction, and turbulence. The diffusion of sound through a medium is influenced by factors such as the temperature, acoustic intensity, acoustic frequency, direction of the acoustic wave, pulsation of the acoustic wave, and properties of the medium. Some potential applications of acoustic energy in food processes are increased drying efficiency, acceleration of diffusion through polymeric and biological membranes, and enhanced diffusion through porous materials

  11. Mesoscopic non-coherence as phase diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milman, Perola; Davidovich, Luiz; Castin, Yvan

    1997-01-01

    In this work, we approach to the question whether it is possible to describe the process of non-coherence in terms of phase diffusion ψ. We will show that this can be done, for an electromagnetic field mode in a cavity interacting with a continuum of modes outside the cavity, for any value of α, where |α> is an eigenstate of the lowering operator for the harmonic oscillator. The description in terms of phase diffusion will occurs however in context of continuous observation of the field exiting the cavity. In this sense, the non-coherence process description as a quantum phase diffusion corresponds to an realization of the evolution described by the master equation, in terms of a stochastic Schroedinger equation. We will demonstrate that the average on many realizations corresponds exactly to the result obtained from the master equation

  12. Averaging operations on matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-03

    Jul 3, 2014 ... Role of Positive Definite Matrices. • Diffusion Tensor Imaging: 3 × 3 pd matrices model water flow at each voxel of brain scan. • Elasticity: 6 × 6 pd matrices model stress tensors. • Machine Learning: n × n pd matrices occur as kernel matrices. Tanvi Jain. Averaging operations on matrices ...

  13. Performance assessment of diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging instruments in a 2-year multicenter breast cancer trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leproux, Anaïs; O'Sullivan, Thomas D.; Cerussi, Albert; Durkin, Amanda; Hill, Brian; Hylton, Nola; Yodh, Arjun G.; Carp, Stefan A.; Boas, David; Jiang, Shudong; Paulsen, Keith D.; Pogue, Brian; Roblyer, Darren; Yang, Wei; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2017-12-01

    We present a framework for characterizing the performance of an experimental imaging technology, diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI), in a 2-year multicenter American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) breast cancer study (ACRIN-6691). DOSI instruments combine broadband frequency-domain photon migration with time-independent near-infrared (650 to 1000 nm) spectroscopy to measure tissue absorption and reduced scattering spectra and tissue hemoglobin, water, and lipid composition. The goal of ACRIN-6691 was to test the effectiveness of optically derived imaging endpoints in predicting the final pathologic response of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Sixty patients were enrolled over a 2-year period at participating sites and received multiple DOSI scans prior to and during 3- to 6-month NAC. The impact of three sources of error on accuracy and precision, including different operators, instruments, and calibration standards, was evaluated using a broadband reflectance standard and two different solid tissue-simulating optical phantoms. Instruments showed <0.0010 mm-1 (10.3%) and 0.06 mm-1 (4.7%) deviation in broadband absorption and reduced scattering, respectively, over the 2-year duration of ACRIN-6691. These variations establish a useful performance criterion for assessing instrument stability. The proposed procedures and tests are not limited to DOSI; rather, they are intended to provide methods to characterize performance of any instrument used in translational optical imaging.

  14. In vitro and in vivo percutaneous absorption of retinol from cosmetic formulations: Significance of the skin reservoir and prediction of systemic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yourick, Jeffrey J.; Jung, Connie T.; Bronaugh, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    The percutaneous absorption of retinol (Vitamin A) from cosmetic formulations was studied to predict systemic absorption and to understand the significance of the skin reservoir in in vitro absorption studies. Viable skin from fuzzy rat or human subjects was assembled in flow-through diffusion cells for in vitro absorption studies. In vivo absorption studies using fuzzy rats were performed in glass metabolism cages for collection of urine, feces, and body content. Retinol (0.3%) formulations (hydroalcoholic gel and oil-in-water emulsion) containing 3 H-retinol were applied and absorption was measured at 24 or 72 h. All percentages reported are % of applied dose. In vitro studies using human skin and the gel and emulsion vehicles found 0.3 and 1.3% retinol, respectively, in receptor fluid at 24 h. Levels of absorption in the receptor fluid increased over 72 h with the gel and emulsion vehicles. Using the gel vehicle, in vitro rat skin studies found 23% in skin and 6% in receptor fluid at 24 h, while 72-h studies found 18% in skin and 13% in receptor fluid. Thus, significant amounts of retinol remained in rat skin at 24 h and decreased over 72 h, with proportional increases in receptor fluid. In vivo rat studies with the gel found 4% systemic absorption of retinol after 24 h and systemic absorption did not increase at 72 h. Retinol remaining in rat skin after in vivo application was 18% and 13% of the applied dermal dose after 24 and 72 h, respectively. Similar observations were made with the oil-in water emulsion vehicle in the rat. Retinol formed a reservoir in rat skin both in vivo and in vitro. Little additional retinol was bioavailable after 24 h. Comparison of these in vitro and in vivo results for absorption through rat skin indicates that the 24-h in vitro receptor fluid value accurately estimated 24-h in vivo systemic absorption. Therefore, the best single estimate of retinol systemic absorption from in vitro human skin studies is the 24-h receptor fluid

  15. Efficient continuous-wave and passively Q-switched pulse laser operations in a diffusion-bonded sapphire/Er:Yb:YAl3(BO3)4/sapphire composite crystal around 1.55 μm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yujin; Lin, Yanfu; Huang, Jianhua; Gong, Xinghong; Luo, Zundu; Huang, Yidong

    2018-01-08

    A composite crystal consisting of a 1.5-mm-thick Er:Yb:YAl 3 (BO 3 ) 4 crystal between two 1.2-mm-thick sapphire crystals was fabricated by the thermal diffusion bonding technique. Compared with a lone Er:Yb:YAl 3 (BO 3 ) 4 crystal measured under the identical experimental conditions, higher laser performances were demonstrated in the sapphire/Er:Yb:YAl 3 (BO 3 ) 4 /sapphire composite crystal due to the reduction of the thermal effects. End-pumped by a 976 nm laser diode in a hemispherical cavity, a 1.55 μm continuous-wave laser with a maximum output power of 1.75 W and a slope efficiency of 36% was obtained in the composite crystal when the incident pump power was 6.54 W. Passively Q-switched by a Co 2+ :MgAl 2 O 4 crystal, a 1.52 μm pulse laser with energy of 10 μJ and repetition frequency of 105 kHz was also realized in the composite crystal. Pulse width was 315 ns. The results show that the sapphire/Er:Yb:YAl 3 (BO 3 ) 4 /sapphire composite crystal is an excellent active element for 1.55 μm laser.

  16. Anisotropy in "isotropic diffusion" measurements due to nongaussian diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj; Olesen, Jonas Lynge; Ianuş, Andrada

    2017-01-01

    Designing novel diffusion-weighted NMR and MRI pulse sequences aiming to probe tissue microstructure with techniques extending beyond the conventional Stejskal-Tanner family is currently of broad interest. One such technique, multidimensional diffusion MRI, has been recently proposed to afford...... model-free decomposition of diffusion signal kurtosis into terms originating from either ensemble variance of isotropic diffusivity or microscopic diffusion anisotropy. This ability rests on the assumption that diffusion can be described as a sum of multiple Gaussian compartments, but this is often...

  17. Low-energy electron irradiation assisted diffusion of gold nanoparticles in polymer matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deore, Avinash V.; Bhoraskar, V.N.; Dhole, S.D.

    2014-01-01

    A simple and controllable method to synthesize nanoparticles in the surface region of polymers was used by low energy electron irradiation. Using this method, gold nanoparticles have been synthesized by irradiating gold coated PVA (Polyvinyl Alcohol) sheets. This method was easy in operation and even period of few minutes was sufficient to obtain the nanoparticles. The coatings (∼10 μm) made from a mixture of ethanol and HAuCl 4 on PVA sheets (∼150 μm) by simple drop cast method were irradiated with 30 keV electrons, at room temperature and 10 −6 mbar vacuum level. The electron fluence was varied from coating to coating in the range of 0 to 24×10 15 e/cm 2 . The irradiated samples were characterized by the UV–Vis, XRD, SEM and RBS techniques. The plasmon absorption peak at ∼539 nm in UV–Vis spectra was an evidence for the initiation of the growth of gold nanoparticles. The X-ray diffraction results and the blue shift in the plasmon absorption peak reveal that the size of nanoparticles could be tailored in the range from 58 to 40 nm by varying the electron fluence. The diffusion of gold in the PVA was confirmed by the Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques. This method of synthesis of metal nanoparticles by low energy electron beam irradiation has the key importance in the development of new fabrication techniques for nanomaterials. - Highlights: • The results indicate that low energy electrons can effectively be used for the synthesis of nanoparticles of different sizes. • This study leads to a definite conclusion that gold nanoparticles have been synthesized in surface region of the PVA sheet. • The size of nanoparticles decreases with increasing electron fluence. • The depth of diffusion of Au atoms at maximum fluence was found to be ∼1.5 μm

  18. Diffusion Indexes With Sparse Loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Johannes Tang

    2017-01-01

    The use of large-dimensional factor models in forecasting has received much attention in the literature with the consensus being that improvements on forecasts can be achieved when comparing with standard models. However, recent contributions in the literature have demonstrated that care needs...... to the problem by using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) as a variable selection method to choose between the possible variables and thus obtain sparse loadings from which factors or diffusion indexes can be formed. This allows us to build a more parsimonious factor model...... in forecasting accuracy and thus find it to be an important alternative to PC. Supplementary materials for this article are available online....

  19. Diffusivity of the interstitial hydrogen shallow donor in In2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ying; Weiser, Philip; Villalta, Karla; Stavola, Michael; Fowler, W. Beall; Biaggio, Ivan; Boatner, Lynn

    2018-04-01

    Hydrogen has been found to be an n-type dopant in In2O3 that gives rise to unintentional conductivity. An infrared (IR) absorption line observed at 3306 cm-1 has been assigned to the Hi+ center. Two types of experiments have been performed to determine the diffusivity of Hi+ in In2O3 from its IR absorption spectra. (i) At temperatures near 700 K, the O-H line at 3306 cm-1 has been used to determine the diffusivity of Hi+ from its in-diffusion and out-diffusion behaviors. (ii) At temperatures near 160 K, stress has been used to produce a preferential alignment of the Hi+ center that has been detected in IR absorption experiments made with polarized light. With the help of theory, the kinetics with which a stress-induced alignment can be produced yield the time constant for a single jump of the Hi+ center and also the diffusivity of Hi+ near 160 K. The combination of the diffusivity of Hi+ found near 700 K by mass-transport measurements and that found near 160 K from the time constant for a single Hi+ jump determines the diffusivity for Hi+ over eleven decades!

  20. Particle Simulation of Fractional Diffusion Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Allouch, Samer

    2017-07-12

    This work explores different particle-based approaches to the simulation of one-dimensional fractional subdiffusion equations in unbounded domains. We rely on smooth particle approximations, and consider four methods for estimating the fractional diffusion term. The first method is based on direct differentiation of the particle representation, it follows the Riesz definition of the fractional derivative and results in a non-conservative scheme. The other three methods follow the particle strength exchange (PSE) methodology and are by construction conservative, in the sense that the total particle strength is time invariant. The first PSE algorithm is based on using direct differentiation to estimate the fractional diffusion flux, and exploiting the resulting estimates in an integral representation of the divergence operator. Meanwhile, the second one relies on the regularized Riesz representation of the fractional diffusion term to derive a suitable interaction formula acting directly on the particle representation of the diffusing field. A third PSE construction is considered that exploits the Green\\'s function of the fractional diffusion equation. The performance of all four approaches is assessed for the case of a one-dimensional diffusion equation with constant diffusivity. This enables us to take advantage of known analytical solutions, and consequently conduct a detailed analysis of the performance of the methods. This includes a quantitative study of the various sources of error, namely filtering, quadrature, domain truncation, and time integration, as well as a space and time self-convergence analysis. These analyses are conducted for different values of the order of the fractional derivatives, and computational experiences are used to gain insight that can be used for generalization of the present constructions.

  1. Particle Simulation of Fractional Diffusion Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Allouch, Samer; Lucchesi, Marco; Maî tre, O. P. Le; Mustapha, K. A.; Knio, Omar

    2017-01-01

    This work explores different particle-based approaches to the simulation of one-dimensional fractional subdiffusion equations in unbounded domains. We rely on smooth particle approximations, and consider four methods for estimating the fractional diffusion term. The first method is based on direct differentiation of the particle representation, it follows the Riesz definition of the fractional derivative and results in a non-conservative scheme. The other three methods follow the particle strength exchange (PSE) methodology and are by construction conservative, in the sense that the total particle strength is time invariant. The first PSE algorithm is based on using direct differentiation to estimate the fractional diffusion flux, and exploiting the resulting estimates in an integral representation of the divergence operator. Meanwhile, the second one relies on the regularized Riesz representation of the fractional diffusion term to derive a suitable interaction formula acting directly on the particle representation of the diffusing field. A third PSE construction is considered that exploits the Green's function of the fractional diffusion equation. The performance of all four approaches is assessed for the case of a one-dimensional diffusion equation with constant diffusivity. This enables us to take advantage of known analytical solutions, and consequently conduct a detailed analysis of the performance of the methods. This includes a quantitative study of the various sources of error, namely filtering, quadrature, domain truncation, and time integration, as well as a space and time self-convergence analysis. These analyses are conducted for different values of the order of the fractional derivatives, and computational experiences are used to gain insight that can be used for generalization of the present constructions.

  2. Diffusion in building wakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-03-01

    Straight-line Gaussian models adequately describe atmospheric diffusion for many applications. They have been modified for use in estimating diffusion in building wakes by adding terms that include projected building area and by redefining the diffusion coefficients so that the coefficients have minimum values that are related to building dimensions. In a recent study, Ramsdell reviewed the building-wake dispersion models used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its control room habitability assessments. The review included comparison of model estimates of centerline concentrations with concentrations observed in experiments at seven nuclear reactors. In general, the models are conservative in that they tend to predict concentrations that are greater than those actually observed. However, the models show little skill in accounting for variations in the observed concentrations. Subsequently, the experimental data and multiples linear regression techniques have been used to develop a new building wake diffusion model. This paper describes the new building wake model and compares it with other models. 8 refs., 2 figs

  3. Osmosis and Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    OsmoBeaker is a CD-ROM designed to enhance the learning of diffusion and osmosis by presenting interactive experimentation to the student. The software provides several computer simulations that take the student through different scenarios with cells, having different concentrations of solutes in them.

  4. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Sporring, Jon; Fogh Olsen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    . To address this problem, we introduce a photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way, we preserve important illumination features, while...

  5. Bronnen van diffuse bodembelasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijzen JPA; Ekelenkamp A; LBG; DGM/BO

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to support the policy on preventive soil protection with information on the diffuse (non-local) emissions to soil and the influence on future soil quality. This study is related to inventories on (potential) sources of local soil pollution (e.g. industrial areas,

  6. Diffusion in glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubarak, A S

    1991-12-31

    Rutherford backscattering spectromertry technique (RBS) was used to characterize and investigate the depth distribution profiles of Ca-impurities of Ca-doped soda-time glass. The purposely added Ca-impurities were introduced inti the glass matrix by a normal ion exchange diffusion process. The measurements and analysis were performed using 2 MeV {sup 2}He{sup +} ions supplied from the University of Jordan Van de Graff acceierator (JOVAG). The normalized concetration versus depth profile distributions for the Ca-imourities were determined, both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical treatment was carried out by setting up and soiving the diffusion equation under the conditions of the experiment. The resulting profiles are characterized by a compiementary error function. the theoretical treeatment was extended to include the various methods of enhancing the diffusion process, e.g. using an electric field. The diffusion coefficient, assumed constant, of the Ca-impurities exchanged in the soda-lime glass was determined to be 1.23 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup 2}/s. A comparison between theoretically and experimentally determined profiles is made and commented at, where several conclusions are drawn and suggestions for future work are mentioned. (author). 38 refs., 21 figs., 10 Tabs.

  7. Diffusion or bulk flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    is currently matter of discussion, called passive symplasmic loading. Based on the limited material available, this review compares the different loading modes and suggests that diffusion is the driving force in apoplasmic loaders, while bulk flow plays an increasing role in plants having a continuous...

  8. Multienergy anomalous diffuse scattering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Miloš; Fábry, Jan; Kub, Jiří; Lausi, A.; Busetto, E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 19 (2008), 195504/1-195504/4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100529 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : diffuse scattering * x-rays * structure determination Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.180, year: 2008

  9. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    with conventional ventilation systems (mixing or displacement ventilation), diffuse ceiling ventilation can significantly reduce or even eliminate draught risk in the occupied zone. Moreover, this ventilation system presents a promising opportunity for energy saving, because of the low pressure loss, extended free...

  10. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2014-01-01

    As a novel air distribution system, diffuse ceiling ventilation combines the suspended acoustic ceiling with ventilation supply. Due to the low-impulse supply from the large ceiling area, the system does not generate draught when supplying cold air. However, heat sources play an important role...

  11. Diffusion in ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Pelleg, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    This textbook provides an introduction to changes that occur in solids such as ceramics, mainly at high temperatures, which are diffusion controlled, as well as presenting research data. Such changes are related to the kinetics of various reactions such as precipitation, oxidation and phase transformations, but are also related to some mechanical changes, such as creep. The book is composed of two parts, beginning with a look at the basics of diffusion according to Fick's Laws. Solutions of Fick’s second law for constant D, diffusion in grain boundaries and dislocations are presented along with a look at the atomistic approach for the random motion of atoms. In the second part, the author discusses diffusion in several technologically important ceramics. The ceramics selected are monolithic single phase ones, including: A12O3, SiC, MgO, ZrO2 and Si3N4. Of these, three refer to oxide ceramics (alumina, magnesia and zirconia). Carbide based ceramics are represented by the technologically very important Si-ca...

  12. Photo absorption studies of polyatomic molecules using Indus 1 synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraswathy, P.; Sunanda, K.; Aparna, S.; Rajashekar, B.N.; Das, N.C.

    2004-06-01

    The Photophysics beamline is a medium resolution beamline designed for carrying out photo absorption and fluorescence experiments using the synchrotron radiation source Indus-l. This beamline has been commissioned recently and is in operation. An experimental setup for gas phase absorption studies has been developed and installed. Absorption spectra of a few polyatomicmolecules viz. benzene, ammonia, carbon disulphide and acetone were recorded in the wavelength region 1500 -3000 A. The results from this study indicated the satisfactory performance of the beam line as well as the experimental setup. Details of the first set of absorption experiments carried out are discussed in this report. (author)

  13. Determination of diffusion coefficients and diffusion characteristics for chlorferon and diethylthiophosphate in Ca-alginate gel beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jiyeon; Engler, Cady R; Lee, Seung Jae

    2008-07-01

    Diffusion characteristics of chlorferon and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) in Ca-alginate gel beads were studied to assist in designing and operating bioreactor systems. Diffusion coefficients for chlorferon and DETP in Ca-alginate gel beads determined at conditions suitable for biodegradation studies were 2.70 x 10(-11) m(2)/s and 4.28 x 10(-11) m(2)/s, respectively. Diffusivities of chlorferon and DETP were influenced by several factors, including viscosity of the bulk solution, agitation speed, and the concentrations of diffusing substrate and immobilized cells. Diffusion coefficients increased with increasing agitation speed, probably due to poor mixing at low speed and some attrition of beads at high speeds. Diffusion coefficients also increased with decreasing substrate concentration. Increased cell concentration in the gel beads caused lower diffusivity. Theoretical models to predict diffusivities as a function of cell weight fraction overestimated the effective diffusivities for both chlorferon and DETP, but linear relations between effective diffusivity and cell weight fraction were derived from experimental data. Calcium-alginate gel beads with radii of 1.65-1.70 mm used in this study were not subject to diffusional limitations: external mass transfer resistances were negligible based on Biot number calculations and effectiveness factors indicated that internal mass transfer resistance was negligible. Therefore, the degradation rates of chlorferon and DETP inside Ca-alginate gel beads were reaction-limited. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Thin-source concentration dependent diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, G.

    1978-01-01

    The diffusion of (Ca ++ ) in NaCl has been measured for various diffusion times and for the temperature range (575 0 to 775 0 C), using a thin-source of 45 Ca tracer, rectangular geometry, and serial sectioning. The pre-diffusion surface concentration was approximately 3 x 10 16 (Ca)-atoms/cm 2 , which, for an average penetration depth of 100 to 300 μm, produces a maximum (post-diffusion) impurity concentration comparable to or greater than the intrinsic cation vacancy concentration. The high-temperature function closely matches the D 0 (T) function obtained from low impurity concentration experiments. The lower-temperature function, combined with the sudden failure of the D(C) = D 0 (1 + [C] + 0.5[C] 2 ) function at these lower temperatures, indicates the onset of a second diffusion process, one which would operate only at extremely high impurity concentrations. This low-temperature behavior is shown to be consistent with a breakdown of the conditions assumed for vacancy equilibrium

  15. Ultrafast lithium diffusion in bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühne, Matthias; Paolucci, Federico; Popovic, Jelena; Ostrovsky, Pavel M.; Maier, Joachim; Smet, Jurgen H.

    2017-09-01

    Solids that simultaneously conduct electrons and ions are key elements for the mass transfer and storage required in battery electrodes. Single-phase materials with a high electronic and high ionic conductivity at room temperature are hard to come by, and therefore multiphase systems with separate ion and electron channels have been put forward instead. Here we report on bilayer graphene as a single-phase mixed conductor that demonstrates Li diffusion faster than in graphite and even surpassing the diffusion of sodium chloride in liquid water. To measure Li diffusion, we have developed an on-chip electrochemical cell architecture in which the redox reaction that forces Li intercalation is localized only at a protrusion of the device so that the graphene bilayer remains unperturbed from the electrolyte during operation. We performed time-dependent Hall measurements across spatially displaced Hall probes to monitor the in-plane Li diffusion kinetics within the graphene bilayer and measured a diffusion coefficient as high as 7 × 10-5 cm2 s-1.

  16. Mathematical modeling of synthesis gas fueled electrochemistry and transport including H2/CO co-oxidation and surface diffusion in solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Cheng; Jiang, Zeyi; Zhang, Xinxin

    2015-10-01

    Fuel flexibility is a significant advantage of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). A comprehensive macroscopic framework is proposed for synthesis gas (syngas) fueled electrochemistry and transport in SOFC anode with two main novelties, i.e. analytical H2/CO electrochemical co-oxidation, and correction of gas species concentration at triple phase boundary considering competitive absorption and surface diffusion. Staring from analytical approximation of the decoupled charge and mass transfer, we present analytical solutions of two defined variables, i.e. hydrogen current fraction and enhancement factor. Giving explicit answer (rather than case-by-case numerical calculation) on how many percent of the current output contributed by H2 or CO and on how great the water gas shift reaction plays role on, this approach establishes at the first time an adaptive superposition mechanism of H2-fuel and CO-fuel electrochemistry for syngas fuel. Based on the diffusion equivalent circuit model, assuming series-connected resistances of surface diffusion and bulk diffusion, the model predicts well at high fuel utilization by keeping fixed porosity/tortuosity ratio. The model has been validated by experimental polarization behaviors in a wide range of operation on a button cell for H2-H2O-CO-CO2-N2 fuel systems. The framework could be helpful to narrow the gap between macro-scale and meso-scale SOFC modeling.

  17. NodHex3D: An application for solving the neutron diffusion equations in hexagonal-Z geometry and steady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquivel E, J.; Del Valle G, E.

    2014-10-01

    The system called NodHex3D is a graphical application that allows the solution of the neutron diffusion equation. The system considers fuel assemblies of hexagonal cross section. This application arose from the idea of expanding the development of neutron own codes, used primarily for academic purposes. The advantage associated with the use of NodHex3D, is that the kernel configuration and fuel batches is dynamically without affecting directly the base source code of the solution of the neutron diffusion equation. In addition to the kernel configuration to use, specify the values for the cross sections for each batch of fuel used, these values are: diffusion coefficient, removal cross section, absorption cross section, fission cross section and dispersion cross section. Important also, considering that the system is able to perform calculations for various energy groups. As evidence of the operation of NodHex3D, was proposed to model three-dimensional core of a nuclear reactor VVER-1000, based on the reference problem AER-FCM-101. The configuration of the reactor core consists of fuel assemblies (25 batches), composed of seven distinct materials, one of which reflector material, vacuum boundary conditions on the surface delimiting the reactor core. The diffusion equation for two energy groups solves, obtaining the value of the effective neutron multiplication factor. The obtained results are compared to those documented in the reference problem and by 3-DNT codes. (Author)

  18. Spatio-temporal imaging of the hemoglobin in the compressed breast with diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boverman, Gregory; Fang, Qianqian; Carp, Stefan A.; Miller, Eric L.; Brooks, Dana H.; Selb, Juliette; Moore, Richard H.; Kopans, Daniel B.; Boas, David A.

    2007-07-01

    We develop algorithms for imaging the time-varying optical absorption within the breast given diffuse optical tomographic data collected over a time span that is long compared to the dynamics of the medium. Multispectral measurements allow for the determination of the time-varying total hemoglobin concentration and of oxygen saturation. To facilitate the image reconstruction, we decompose the hemodynamics in time into a linear combination of spatio-temporal basis functions, the coefficients of which are estimated using all of the data simultaneously, making use of a Newton-based nonlinear optimization algorithm. The solution of the extremely large least-squares problem which arises in computing the Newton update is obtained iteratively using the LSQR algorithm. A Laplacian spatial regularization operator is applied, and, in addition, we make use of temporal regularization which tends to encourage similarity between the images of the spatio-temporal coefficients. Results are shown for an extensive simulation, in which we are able to image and quantify localized changes in both total hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation. Finally, a breast compression study has been performed for a normal breast cancer screening subject, using an instrument which allows for highly accurate co-registration of multispectral diffuse optical measurements with an x-ray tomosynthesis image of the breast. We are able to quantify the global return of blood to the breast following compression, and, in addition, localized changes are observed which correspond to the glandular region of the breast.

  19. Absorption/desorption in sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naimpally, A.

    1987-01-01

    This survey paper shall seek to present the present state of knowledge concerning absorption and desorption in spray chambers. The first part of the paper presents the theories and formulas for the atomization and break-up of sprays in nozzles. Formulas for the average (sauter-mean) diameters are then presented. For the case of absorption processes, the formulas for the dimensionless mass transfer coefficients is in drops. The total; mass transfer is the total of the transfer in individual drops. For the case of desorption of sparingly soluble gases from liquids in a spray chamber, the mass transfer occurs in the spray just at the point of break-up of the jet. Formulas for the desorption of gases are presented

  20. Bent Electro-Absorption Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    by applying a variable electric or electronmagnetic field. The modulation of the complex refractive index results in a modulation of the refractive index contrast and the absorption coefficient for the waveguide at the frequency of the light. By carefully adjusting the composition of the semiconducting...... components and the applied electric field in relation to the frequency of the modulated radiation, the bending losses (and possibly coupling losses) will provide extinction of light guided by the bent waveguide section. The refractive index contract may be modulated while keeping the absorption coefficient......The present invention relates to a method and a device for modulating optical signals based on modulating bending losses in bend, quantum well semiconductor waveguide sections. The complex refractive index of the optical active semiconducting components of the waveguide section is modulated...

  1. Geometrical interpretation of optical absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzon, J. J.; Barriuso, A. G.; Sanchez-Soto, L. L. [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Montesinos-Amilibia, J. M. [Departamento de Geometria y Topologia, Facultad de Matematicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    We reinterpret the transfer matrix for an absorbing system in very simple geometrical terms. In appropriate variables, the system appears as performing a Lorentz transformation in a (1 + 3)-dimensional space. Using homogeneous coordinates, we map that action on the unit sphere, which is at the realm of the Klein model of hyperbolic geometry. The effects of absorption appear then as a loxodromic transformation, that is, a rhumb line crossing all the meridians at the same angle.

  2. Slowing down with resonance absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de; Nair, R.P.K.

    1979-08-01

    The presence of heavy nuclei in nuclear reactors, in significant concentrations, facilitates the appearance of absorption resonances. For the moderation in the presence of absorbers an exact solution of the integral equations is possible by numerical methods. Approximated solutions for separated resonances in function of the practical width, (NR and NRIM approximations) are discussed in this paper. The method is generalized, presenting the solution by an intermediate approximation, in the definition of the resonance integral. (Author) [pt

  3. Determination of the Rb atomic number density in dense rubidium vapors by absorption measurements of Rb2 triplet bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvatic, Vlasta; Veza, Damir; Niemax, Kay; Vadla, Cedomil

    2008-01-01

    A simple and accurate way of determining atom number densities in dense rubidium vapors is presented. The method relies on the experimental finding that the reduced absorption coefficients of the Rb triplet satellite bands between 740 nm and 750 nm and the triplet diffuse band between 600 nm and 610 nm are not temperature dependent in the range between 600 K and 800 K. Therefore, the absolute values of the reduced absorption coefficients of these molecular bands can provide accurate information about atomic number density of the vapor. The rubidium absorption spectrum was measured by spatially resolved white-light absorption in overheated rubidium vapor generated in a heat pipe oven. The absolute values for the reduced absorption coefficients of the triplet bands were determined at lower vapor densities, by using an accurate expression for the reduced absorption coefficient in the quasistatic wing of the Rb D1 line, and measured triplet satellite bands to the resonance wing optical depth ratio. These triplet satellite band data were used to calibrate in absolute scale the reduced absorption coefficients of the triplet diffuse band at higher temperatures. The obtained values for the reduced absorption coefficient of these Rb molecular features can be used for accurate determination of rubidium atomic number densities in the range from about 5 x 10 16 cm -3 to 1 x 10 18 cm -3

  4. Fractional diffusion models of nonlocal transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo-Negrete, D. del

    2006-01-01

    A class of nonlocal models based on the use of fractional derivatives (FDs) is proposed to describe nondiffusive transport in magnetically confined plasmas. FDs are integro-differential operators that incorporate in a unified framework asymmetric non-Fickian transport, non-Markovian ('memory') effects, and nondiffusive scaling. To overcome the limitations of fractional models in unbounded domains, we use regularized FDs that allow the incorporation of finite-size domain effects, boundary conditions, and variable diffusivities. We present an α-weighted explicit/implicit numerical integration scheme based on the Grunwald-Letnikov representation of the regularized fractional diffusion operator in flux conserving form. In sharp contrast with the standard diffusive model, the strong nonlocality of fractional diffusion leads to a linear in time response for a decaying pulse at short times. In addition, an anomalous fractional pinch is observed, accompanied by the development of an uphill transport region where the 'effective' diffusivity becomes negative. The fractional flux is in general asymmetric and, for steady states, it has a negative (toward the core) component that enhances confinement and a positive component that increases toward the edge and leads to poor confinement. The model exhibits the characteristic anomalous scaling of the confinement time, τ, with the system's size, L, τ∼L α , of low-confinement mode plasma where 1<α<2 is the order of the FD operator. Numerical solutions of the model with an off-axis source show that the fractional inward transport gives rise to profile peaking reminiscent of what is observed in tokamak discharges with auxiliary off-axis heating. Also, cold-pulse perturbations to steady sates in the model exhibit fast, nondiffusive propagation phenomena that resemble perturbative experiments

  5. Organizational forms and knowledge absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing the entire portion of knowledge in an organization is a challenging task. At the organizational level, there can be enormous quantities of unknown, poorly valued or inefficiently applied knowledge. This is normally followed with the underdeveloped potential or inability of organizations to absorb knowledge from external sources. Facilitation of the efficient internal flow of knowledge within the established communication network may positively affect organizational capacity to absorb or identify, share and subsequently apply knowledge to commercial ends. Based on the evidences that the adoption of different organizational forms affects knowledge flows within an organization, this research analyzed the relationship between common organizational forms and absorptive capacity of organizations. In this paper, we test the hypothesis stating that the organizational structure affects knowledge absorption and exploitation in the organization. The methodology included quantitative and qualitative research method based on a questionnaire, while the data has been statistically analyzed and the hypothesis has been tested with the use of cross-tabulation and chi-square tests. The findings suggest that the type of organizational form affects knowledge absorption capacity and that having a less formalized and more flexible structure in an organization increases absorbing and exploiting opportunities of potentially valuable knowledge.

  6. Multigrid treatment of implicit continuum diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisquez, Manaure; Zhu, Ben; Rogers, Barrett

    2017-10-01

    Implicit treatment of diffusive terms of various differential orders common in continuum mechanics modeling, such as computational fluid dynamics, is investigated with spectral and multigrid algorithms in non-periodic 2D domains. In doubly periodic time dependent problems these terms can be efficiently and implicitly handled by spectral methods, but in non-periodic systems solved with distributed memory parallel computing and 2D domain decomposition, this efficiency is lost for large numbers of processors. We built and present here a multigrid algorithm for these types of problems which outperforms a spectral solution that employs the highly optimized FFTW library. This multigrid algorithm is not only suitable for high performance computing but may also be able to efficiently treat implicit diffusion of arbitrary order by introducing auxiliary equations of lower order. We test these solvers for fourth and sixth order diffusion with idealized harmonic test functions as well as a turbulent 2D magnetohydrodynamic simulation. It is also shown that an anisotropic operator without cross-terms can improve model accuracy and speed, and we examine the impact that the various diffusion operators have on the energy, the enstrophy, and the qualitative aspect of a simulation. This work was supported by DOE-SC-0010508. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC).

  7. Water absorption, retention and the swelling characteristics of cassava starch grafted with polyacrylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witono, J R; Noordergraaf, I W; Heeres, H J; Janssen, L P B M

    2014-03-15

    An important application of starch grafted with copolymers from unsaturated organic acids is the use as water absorbent. Although much research has been published in recent years, the kinetics of water absorption and the swelling behavior of starch based superabsorbents are relatively unexplored. Also, water retention under mechanical strain is usually not reported. Cassava starch was used since it has considerable economic potential in Asia. The gelatinized starch was grafted with acrylic acid and Fenton's initiator and crosslinked with N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBAM). Besides a good initial absorption capacity, the product could retain up to 63 g H2O/g under severe suction. The material thus combines a good absorption capacity with sufficient gel strength. The mathematical analysis of the absorption kinetics shows that at conditions of practical interest, the rate of water penetration into the gel is determined by polymer chain relaxations and not by osmotic driven diffusion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Greedy algorithms for diffuse optical tomography reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileep, B. P. V.; Das, Tapan; Dutta, Pranab K.

    2018-03-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a noninvasive imaging modality that reconstructs the optical parameters of a highly scattering medium. However, the inverse problem of DOT is ill-posed and highly nonlinear due to the zig-zag propagation of photons that diffuses through the cross section of tissue. The conventional DOT imaging methods iteratively compute the solution of forward diffusion equation solver which makes the problem computationally expensive. Also, these methods fail when the geometry is complex. Recently, the theory of compressive sensing (CS) has received considerable attention because of its efficient use in biomedical imaging applications. The objective of this paper is to solve a given DOT inverse problem by using compressive sensing framework and various Greedy algorithms such as orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP), compressive sampling matching pursuit (CoSaMP), and stagewise orthogonal matching pursuit (StOMP), regularized orthogonal matching pursuit (ROMP) and simultaneous orthogonal matching pursuit (S-OMP) have been studied to reconstruct the change in the absorption parameter i.e, Δα from the boundary data. Also, the Greedy algorithms have been validated experimentally on a paraffin wax rectangular phantom through a well designed experimental set up. We also have studied the conventional DOT methods like least square method and truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) for comparison. One of the main features of this work is the usage of less number of source-detector pairs, which can facilitate the use of DOT in routine applications of screening. The performance metrics such as mean square error (MSE), normalized mean square error (NMSE), structural similarity index (SSIM), and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) have been used to evaluate the performance of the algorithms mentioned in this paper. Extensive simulation results confirm that CS based DOT reconstruction outperforms the conventional DOT imaging methods in terms of

  9. Development of the krypton absorption in liquid carbon dioxide (KALC) process for HTGR off-gas reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.W.; Beaujean, H.W.R.; Cochran, H.D. Jr.; Haas, P.A.; Levins, D.M.; Woods, W.M.

    1975-01-01

    Reprocessing of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) fuel involves burning of the graphite-matrix elements to release the fuel for recovery purposes. The resulting off-gas is primarily CO 2 with residual amounts of N 2 , O 2 , and CO, together with fission products. Trace quantities of krypton-85 must be recovered in a concentrated form from the gas stream, but processes commonly employed for rare gas removal and concentration are not suitable for use with off-gas from graphite burning. The KALC (Krypton Absorption in Liquid CO 2 ) process employs liquid CO 2 as a volatile solvent for the krypton and is, therefore, uniquely suited to the task. Engineering development of the KALC process is currently under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). The ORNL system is designed for close study of the individual separation operations involved in the KALC process, while the ORGDP system provides a complete pilot facility for demonstrating combined operations on a somewhat larger scale. Packed column performance and process control procedures have been of prime importance in the initial studies. Computer programs have been prepared to analyze and model operational performance of the KALC studies, and special sampling and in-line monitoring systems have been developed for use in the experimental facilities. (U.S.)

  10. Development of an Ionic-Liquid Absorption Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Don

    2011-03-29

    Solar Fueled Products (SFP) is developing an innovative ionic-liquid absorption heat pump (ILAHP). The development of an ILAHP is extremely significant, as it could result in annual savings of more than 190 billion kW h of electrical energy and $19 billion. This absorption cooler uses about 75 percent less electricity than conventional cooling and heating units. The ILAHP also has significant environmental sustainability benefits, due to reduced CO2 emissions. Phase I established the feasibility and showed the economic viability of an ILAHP with these key accomplishments: • Used the breakthrough capabilities provided by ionic liquids which overcome the key difficulties of the common absorption coolers. • Showed that the theoretical thermodynamic performance of an ILAHP is similar to existing absorption-cooling systems. • Established that the half-effect absorption cycle reduces the peak generator temperature, improving collector efficiency and reducing collector area. • Component testing demonstrated that the most critical components, absorber and generator, operate well with conventional heat exchangers. • Showed the economic viability of an ILAHP. The significant energy savings, sustainability benefits, and economic viability are compelling reasons to continue the ILAHP development.

  11. Enriching Absorptive Capacity through Social Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hotho, Jasper J.; Becker-Ritterspach, Florian; Saka-Helmhout, Ayse

    Absorptive capacity is frequently highlighted as a key determinant of knowledge transfer within multinational enterprises. But how individual behaviour translates into absorptive capacity at the subsidiary level, and how this is contingent on subsidiaries' social context, remains under-addressed.

  12. Hopping absorption edge in silicon inversion layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, I.Z.

    1983-09-01

    The low frequency gap observed in the absorption spectrum of silicon inversion layers is related to the AC variable range hopping. The frequency dependence of the absorption coefficient is calculated. (author)

  13. Oxygen diffusion in zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, E. B.; Cherniak, D. J.

    1997-05-01

    Oxygen diffusion in natural, non-metamict zircon was characterized under both dry and water-present conditions at temperatures ranging from 765°C to 1500°C. Dry experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure by encapsulating polished zircon samples with a fine powder of 18O-enriched quartz and annealing the sealed capsules in air. Hydrothermal runs were conducted in cold-seal pressure vessels (7-70 MPa) or a piston cylinder apparatus (400-1000 MPa) on zircon samples encapsulated with both 18O-enriched quartz and 18O water. Diffusive-uptake profiles of 18O were measured in all samples with a particle accelerator, using the 18O(p, α) 15N reaction. For dry experimental conditions at 1100-1500°C, the resulting oxygen diffusivities (24 in all) are well described by: D dry (m 2/s) = 1.33 × 10 -4exp(-53920/T) There is no suggestion of diffusive anisotropy. Under wet conditions at 925°C, oxygen diffusion shows little or no dependence upon P H 2O in the range 7-1000 MPa, and is insensitive to total pressure as well. The results of 27 wet experiments at 767-1160°C and 7-1000 MPa can be described a single Arrhenius relationship: D wet (m 2/s) = 5.5 × 10 -12exp(-25280/T) The insensitivity of oxygen diffusion to P H 2O means that applications to geologic problems can be pursued knowing only whether the system of interest was 'wet' (i.e., P H 2O > 7MPa ) or 'dry'. Under dry conditions (presumably rare in the crust), zircons are extremely retentive of their oxygen isotopic signatures, to the extent that δ 18O would be perturbed at the center of a 200 μm zircon only during an extraordinarily hot and protracted event (e.g., 65 Ma at 900°C). Under wet conditions, δ 18O may or may not be retained in the central regions of individual crystals, cores or overgrowth rims, depending upon the specific thermal history of the system.

  14. The Pearson diffusions: A class of statistically tractable diffusion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forman, Julie Lyng; Sørensen, Michael

    The Pearson diffusions is a flexible class of diffusions defined by having linear drift and quadratic squared diffusion coefficient. It is demonstrated that for this class explicit statistical inference is feasible. Explicit optimal martingale estimating func- tions are found, and the corresponding...

  15. Characteristics of water absorption of beans

    OpenAIRE

    上中, 登紀子; 森, 孝夫; 豊沢, 功; Tokiko, Uenaka; Takao, Mori; Isao, Toyosawa

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics of water absorption of soybean, azuki bean and kidney beans (cv. Toramame and Taishokintoki) were investigated. The way of water absorption of soybean was different from that of other beans, because soybeans absorbed water from whole surface of seed coat immediately after the immersion. Azuki beans absorbed extremely slowly water from only strophiole, and then the water absorption in other tissue was induced by a certain amount of water absorption playing a role of trigger. Th...

  16. Liquid Thermal Diffusion during the Manhattan Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron Reed, B.

    2011-06-01

    On the basis of Manhattan Engineer District documents, a little known Naval Research Laboratory report of 1946, and other sources, I construct a more complete history of the liquid-thermal-diffusion method of uranium enrichment during World War II than is presented in official histories of the Manhattan Project. This method was developed by Philip Abelson (1913-2004) and put into operation at the rapidly-constructed S-50 plant at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, which was responsible for the first stage of uranium enrichment, from 0.72% to 0.85% U-235, producing nearly 45,000 pounds of enriched U-235 by July 1945 at a cost of just under 20 million. I review the history, design, politics, construction, and operation of the S-50 liquid-thermal-diffusion plant.

  17. Diffusion through composite materials made with thermosetting resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, Bruno.

    1981-08-01

    Medium and low-level radioactive wastes may be coated in a solid matrix mainly made with thermosetting resins: the study of water and cesium migration through composite materials made with thermosetting resins is usefull to compare the water tightness of different coatings. Disks with a thickness of two millimeters were used to measure the water absorption. Diffusion cells including a plane membrane the thickness of which was at least 70μ were used to measure the diffusion of cesium 137. The diffusion coefficient of water in pure thermosetting resins, polyester or epoxyde, is about 10 -9 cm 2 .s -1 ; the diffusion coefficients of cesium in the same materials are about 10 -12 cm 2 .s -1 ; the introduction of solid particles in these polymers generally induces an acceleration of the diffusion process: the diffusion coefficient may reach 10 -8 cm 2 .s -1 . This lost of water-tightness may be reduced either by rendering insoluble the filler mixed to the polymer, or by diminushing the porosity of the interfacial zones by improving the bonding between the polymer and the filler [fr

  18. Lactulose stimulates calcium absorption in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Muijs, T.; Dokkum, W. van; Schaafsma, G.

    1999-01-01

    Animal studies have indicated that calcium absorption is increased by lactulose, a synthetic disaccharide. Therefore, the influence of lactulose on calcium absorption was measured in postmenopausal women who may benefit from the possible enhancing effect of lactulose on calcium absorption. Twelve

  19. Uniform semiclassical approximation for absorptive scattering systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.; Pato, M.P.

    1987-07-01

    The uniform semiclassical approximation of the elastic scattering amplitude is generalized to absorptive systems. An integral equation is derived which connects the absorption modified amplitude to the absorption free one. Division of the amplitude into a diffractive and refractive components is then made possible. (Author) [pt

  20. Iron absorption in relation to iron status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, B.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.; Hallberg, L.; Rossander, L.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption from a 3 mg dose of ferrous iron was measured in 250 male subjects. The absorption was related to the log concentration of serum ferritin in 186 subjects of whom 99 were regular blood donors (r= -0.76), and to bone marrow haemosiderin grading in 52 subjects with varying iron status. The purpose was to try and establish a percentage absorption from such a dose that is representative of subjects who are borderline iron deficient. This information is necessary for food iron absorption studies in order (1) to calculate the absorption of iron from the diet at a given iron status and (2) compare the absorption of iron from different meals studied in different groups of subjects by different investigarors. The results suggest that an absorption of about 40% of a 3 mg reference dose of ferrous iron is given in a fasting state, roughly corresponds to the absorption in borderline-iron-deficient subjects. The results indicate that this 40% absorption value corresponds to a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l and that food iron absorption in a group of subjects should be expressed preferably as the absorption corresponding to a reference-dose absorption of 45%, or possibly a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l. (author)