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Sample records for operate cellular circuits

  1. INTEGRATED SENSOR EVALUATION CIRCUIT AND METHOD FOR OPERATING SAID CIRCUIT

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger, Jens; Gausa, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    WO15090426A1 Sensor evaluation device and method for operating said device Integrated sensor evaluation circuit for evaluating a sensor signal (14) received from a sensor (12), having a first connection (28a) for connection to the sensor and a second connection (28b) for connection to the sensor. The integrated sensor evaluation circuit comprises a configuration data memory (16) for storing configuration data which describe signal properties of a plurality of sensor control signals (26a-c). T...

  2. Operational amplifier circuits analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, J C C

    1995-01-01

    This book, a revised and updated version of the author's Basic Operational Amplifiers (Butterworths 1986), enables the non-specialist to make effective use of readily available integrated circuit operational amplifiers for a range of applications, including instrumentation, signal generation and processing.It is assumed the reader has a background in the basic techniques of circuit analysis, particularly the use of j notation for reactive circuits, with a corresponding level of mathematical ability. The underlying theory is explained with sufficient but not excessive, detail. A range of compu

  3. Power operated contact apparatus for superconductive circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, D.C.; Efferson, K.R.

    1989-10-10

    This patent describes a power operated contact apparatus for extending and retracting one or more electrical leads into and out of a cryostat for making and breaking, at a cryogenic temperature, electrical contact with a superconductive circuit. It comprises at least one rigid elongated lead for extending into a cold space of the cryostat which is at or near a cryogenic temperature. The lead having an inner end and a outer end; a connector fixed at the inner end of the lead for making electrical contact in the cold space with a connector of the superconductive circuit; guide means journaling the lead for allowing the lead to move axially relative to the guide means and sealing against the lead; a foundation for sealed attachment to the cryostat and to the guide means so that the connector on the inner end of the lead is extendable into making electrical contact with the connector of the superconductive circuit in the cold space; power operated means mounted on the foundation and fixed to the outer end of the lead for extending and retracting the lead to and from making electrical contact with the superconductive circuit in the cold space; and means for de-icing the exterior of the leads and guide means when the leads are connected to the superconducting circuit.

  4. Design of arithmetic circuits in quantum dot cellular automata nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Sridharan, K

    2015-01-01

    This research monograph focuses on the design of arithmetic circuits in Quantum Dot Cellular Automata (QCA). Using the fact that the 3-input majority gate is a primitive in QCA, the book sets out to discover hitherto unknown properties of majority logic in the context of arithmetic circuit designs. The pursuit for efficient adders in QCA takes two forms. One involves application of the new results in majority logic to existing adders. The second involves development of a custom adder for QCA technology. A QCA adder named as hybrid adder is proposed and it is shown that it outperforms existing multi-bit adders with respect to area and delay. The work is extended to the design of a low-complexity multiplier for signed numbers in QCA. Furthermore the book explores two aspects unique to QCA technology, namely thermal robustness and the role of interconnects. In addition, the book introduces the reader to QCA layout design and simulation using QCADesigner. Features & Benefits: This research-based book: ·  �...

  5. Feedback analysis of transimpedance operational amplifier circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    1993-01-01

    The transimpedance or current feedback operational amplifier (CFB op-amp) is reviewed and compared to a conventional voltage mode op-amp using an analysis emphasizing the basic feedback characteristics of the circuit. With this approach the paradox of the constant bandwidth obtained from CFB op...

  6. Green Virtualization for Multiple Collaborative Cellular Operators

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Muhammad Junaid; Ghazzai, Hakim; Yaacoub, Elias; Kadri, Abdullah; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes and investigates a green virtualization framework for infrastructure sharing among multiple cellular operators whose networks are powered by a combination of conventional and renewable sources of energy. Under the proposed

  7. Explicit implementation of quantum circuits on a quantum-cellular-automata-like architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Y.; Yamashita, S.; Kitagawa, M.

    2005-01-01

    We present an efficient strategy to translate a normal quantum algorithm into a sequence of operations on the quantum-cellular-automata-like architecture (QCALA) originally proposed by Lloyd. The QCALA assumes arrays of weakly coupled quantum systems where an interaction exists only between neighboring qubits and can only perform the same quantum operation onto all the qubits. The sequence obtained by the strategy proposed by Lloyd needs at most 12n operations, where n is the number of qubits for the original circuit. The sequence obtained by our strategy needs at most 6n operations. We also clarified the relations between the upper bound of the number of translated operations and the period of the QCALA and between the upper bound of the number of qubits and the period of the QCALA

  8. Quantum circuits cannot control unknown operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araújo, Mateus; Feix, Adrien; Costa, Fabio; Brukner, Časlav

    2014-01-01

    One of the essential building blocks of classical computer programs is the ‘if’ clause, which executes a subroutine depending on the value of a control variable. Similarly, several quantum algorithms rely on applying a unitary operation conditioned on the state of a control system. Here we show that this control cannot be performed by a quantum circuit if the unitary is completely unknown. The task remains impossible even if we allow the control to be done modulo a global phase. However, this no-go theorem does not prevent implementing quantum control of unknown unitaries in practice, as any physical implementation of an unknown unitary provides additional information that makes the control possible. We then argue that one should extend the quantum circuit formalism to capture this possibility in a straightforward way. This is done by allowing unknown unitaries to be applied to subspaces and not only to subsystems. (paper)

  9. Operator Spreading in Random Unitary Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Adam; Vijay, Sagar; Haah, Jeongwan

    2018-04-01

    Random quantum circuits yield minimally structured models for chaotic quantum dynamics, which are able to capture, for example, universal properties of entanglement growth. We provide exact results and coarse-grained models for the spreading of operators by quantum circuits made of Haar-random unitaries. We study both 1 +1 D and higher dimensions and argue that the coarse-grained pictures carry over to operator spreading in generic many-body systems. In 1 +1 D , we demonstrate that the out-of-time-order correlator (OTOC) satisfies a biased diffusion equation, which gives exact results for the spatial profile of the OTOC and determines the butterfly speed vB. We find that in 1 +1 D , the "front" of the OTOC broadens diffusively, with a width scaling in time as t1 /2. We address fluctuations in the OTOC between different realizations of the random circuit, arguing that they are negligible in comparison to the broadening of the front within a realization. Turning to higher dimensions, we show that the averaged OTOC can be understood exactly via a remarkable correspondence with a purely classical droplet growth problem. This implies that the width of the front of the averaged OTOC scales as t1 /3 in 2 +1 D and as t0.240 in 3 +1 D (exponents of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class). We support our analytic argument with simulations in 2 +1 D . We point out that, in two or higher spatial dimensions, the shape of the spreading operator at late times is affected by underlying lattice symmetries and, in general, is not spherical. However, when full spatial rotational symmetry is present in 2 +1 D , our mapping implies an exact asymptotic form for the OTOC, in terms of the Tracy-Widom distribution. For an alternative perspective on the OTOC in 1 +1 D , we map it to the partition function of an Ising-like statistical mechanics model. As a result of special structure arising from unitarity, this partition function reduces to a random walk calculation which can be

  10. Cellular Automata Ideas in Digital Circuits and Switching Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwak, Pawel P.

    1985-01-01

    Presents two examples which illustrate the usefulness of ideas from cellular automata. First, Lee's algorithm is recalled and its cellular nature shown. Then a problem from digraphs, which has arisen from analyzing predecessing configurations in the famous Conway's "game of life," is considered. (Author/JN)

  11. Isocost Lines Describe the Cellular Economy of Genetic Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyorgy, Andras; Jiménez, José I; Yazbek, John; Huang, Hsin-Ho; Chung, Hattie; Weiss, Ron; Del Vecchio, Domitilla

    2015-08-04

    Genetic circuits in living cells share transcriptional and translational resources that are available in limited amounts. This leads to unexpected couplings among seemingly unconnected modules, which result in poorly predictable circuit behavior. In this study, we determine these interdependencies between products of different genes by characterizing the economy of how transcriptional and translational resources are allocated to the production of proteins in genetic circuits. We discover that, when expressed from the same plasmid, the combinations of attainable protein concentrations are constrained by a linear relationship, which can be interpreted as an isocost line, a concept used in microeconomics. We created a library of circuits with two reporter genes, one constitutive and the other inducible in the same plasmid, without a regulatory path between them. In agreement with the model predictions, experiments reveal that the isocost line rotates when changing the ribosome binding site strength of the inducible gene and shifts when modifying the plasmid copy number. These results demonstrate that isocost lines can be employed to predict how genetic circuits become coupled when sharing resources and provide design guidelines for minimizing the effects of such couplings. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Green Virtualization for Multiple Collaborative Cellular Operators

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Muhammad Junaid

    2017-06-05

    This paper proposes and investigates a green virtualization framework for infrastructure sharing among multiple cellular operators whose networks are powered by a combination of conventional and renewable sources of energy. Under the proposed framework, the virtual network formed by unifying radio access infrastructures of all operators is optimized for minimum energy consumption by deactivating base stations (BSs) with low traffic loads. The users initially associated to those BSs are off-loaded to neighboring active ones. A fairness criterion for collaboration based on roaming prices is introduced to cover the additional energy costs incurred by host operators. The framework also ensures that any collaborating operator is not negatively affected by its participation in the proposed virtualization. A multi-objective linear programming problem is formulated to achieve energy and cost efficiency of the networks\\' operation by identifying the set of inter-operator roaming prices. For the case when collaboration among all operators is infeasible due to profitability, capacity, or power constraints, an iterative algorithm is proposed to determine the groups of operators that can viably collaborate. Results show significant energy savings using the proposed virtualization as compared to the standalone case. Moreover, collaborative operators exploiting locally generated renewable energy are rewarded more than traditional ones.

  13. Fluid logic control circuit operates nutator actuator motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Fluid logic control circuit operates a pneumatic nutator actuator motor. It has no moving parts and consists of connected fluid interaction devices. The operation of this circuit demonstrates the ability of fluid interaction devices to operate in a complex combination of series and parallel logic sequence.

  14. Universal programmable quantum circuit schemes to emulate an operator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daskin, Anmer; Grama, Ananth; Kollias, Giorgos [Department of Computer Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Kais, Sabre [Department of Chemistry, Department of Physics and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Doha (Qatar)

    2012-12-21

    Unlike fixed designs, programmable circuit designs support an infinite number of operators. The functionality of a programmable circuit can be altered by simply changing the angle values of the rotation gates in the circuit. Here, we present a new quantum circuit design technique resulting in two general programmable circuit schemes. The circuit schemes can be used to simulate any given operator by setting the angle values in the circuit. This provides a fixed circuit design whose angles are determined from the elements of the given matrix-which can be non-unitary-in an efficient way. We also give both the classical and quantum complexity analysis for these circuits and show that the circuits require a few classical computations. For the electronic structure simulation on a quantum computer, one has to perform the following steps: prepare the initial wave function of the system; present the evolution operator U=e{sup -iHt} for a given atomic and molecular Hamiltonian H in terms of quantum gates array and apply the phase estimation algorithm to find the energy eigenvalues. Thus, in the circuit model of quantum computing for quantum chemistry, a crucial step is presenting the evolution operator for the atomic and molecular Hamiltonians in terms of quantum gate arrays. Since the presented circuit designs are independent from the matrix decomposition techniques and the global optimization processes used to find quantum circuits for a given operator, high accuracy simulations can be done for the unitary propagators of molecular Hamiltonians on quantum computers. As an example, we show how to build the circuit design for the hydrogen molecule.

  15. Universal programmable quantum circuit schemes to emulate an operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daskin, Anmer; Grama, Ananth; Kollias, Giorgos; Kais, Sabre

    2012-01-01

    Unlike fixed designs, programmable circuit designs support an infinite number of operators. The functionality of a programmable circuit can be altered by simply changing the angle values of the rotation gates in the circuit. Here, we present a new quantum circuit design technique resulting in two general programmable circuit schemes. The circuit schemes can be used to simulate any given operator by setting the angle values in the circuit. This provides a fixed circuit design whose angles are determined from the elements of the given matrix–which can be non-unitary–in an efficient way. We also give both the classical and quantum complexity analysis for these circuits and show that the circuits require a few classical computations. For the electronic structure simulation on a quantum computer, one has to perform the following steps: prepare the initial wave function of the system; present the evolution operator U=e −iHt for a given atomic and molecular Hamiltonian H in terms of quantum gates array and apply the phase estimation algorithm to find the energy eigenvalues. Thus, in the circuit model of quantum computing for quantum chemistry, a crucial step is presenting the evolution operator for the atomic and molecular Hamiltonians in terms of quantum gate arrays. Since the presented circuit designs are independent from the matrix decomposition techniques and the global optimization processes used to find quantum circuits for a given operator, high accuracy simulations can be done for the unitary propagators of molecular Hamiltonians on quantum computers. As an example, we show how to build the circuit design for the hydrogen molecule.

  16. Cellular complexity in subcortical white matter: a distributed control circuit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Jorge A

    2018-03-01

    The subcortical white matter (SWM) has been traditionally considered as a site for passive-neutral-information transfer through cerebral cortex association and projection fibers. Yet, the presence of subcortical neuronal and glial "interstitial" cells expressing immunolabelled neurotransmitters/neuromodulators and synaptic vesicular proteins, and recent immunohistochemical and electrophysiological observations on the rat visual cortex as well as interactive regulation of myelinating processes support the possibility that SWM nests subcortical, regionally variable, distributed neuronal-glial circuits, that could influence information transfer. Their hypothetical involvement in regulating the timing and signal transfer probability at the SWM axonal components ought to be considered and experimentally analysed. Thus, the "interstitial" neuronal cells-associated with local glial cells-traditionally considered to be vestigial and functionally inert under normal conditions, they may well turn to be critical in regulating information transfer at the SWM.

  17. Circuit breaker operation and potential failure modes during an earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, H.E.; Budnitz, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    This study addresses the effect of a strong-motion earthquake on circuit breaker operation. It focuses on the loss of offsite power (LOSP) transient caused by a strong-motion earthquake at the Zion Nuclear Power Plant. This paper also describes the operator action necessary to prevent core melt if the above circuit breaker failure modes occur simultaneously on three 4.16 KV buses. Numerous circuit breakers important to plant safety, such as circuit breakers to diesel generators and engineered safety systems (ESS), must open and/or close during this transient while strong motion is occurring. Potential seismically-induced circuit-breaker failures modes were uncovered while the study was conducted. These failure modes include: circuit breaker fails to close; circuit breaker trips inadvertently; circuit breaker fails to reclose after trip. The causes of these failure modes include: Relay chatter causes the circuit breaker to trip; Relay chatter causes anti-pumping relays to seal-in which prevents automatic closure of circuit breakers; Load sequencer failures. The incorporation of these failure modes as well as other instrumentation and control failures into a limited scope seismic probabilistic risk assessment is also discussed in this paper

  18. A Simple Square Rooting Circuit Based on Operational Amplifiers (OPAMPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Selvam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple circuit which accepts a negative voltage as input and provides an output voltage equal to the square root of the input voltage is described in this paper. The square rooting operation is dependent only on the ratio of two resistors and a DC voltage. Hence, the required accuracy can be obtained by employing precision resistors and a stable reference voltage. The feasibility of the circuit is examined by testing the results on a proto type.

  19. Integrated Circuit-Based Biofabrication with Common Biomaterials for Probing Cellular Biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Chun-Yen; Yang, Chung-Yao; Yeh, J Andrew; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in bioengineering have enabled the development of biomedical tools with modifiable surface features (small-scale architecture) to mimic extracellular matrices and aid in the development of well-controlled platforms that allow for the application of mechanical stimulation for studying cellular biomechanics. An overview of recent developments in common biomaterials that can be manufactured using integrated circuit-based biofabrication is presented. Integrated circuit-based biofabrication possesses advantages including mass and diverse production capacities for fabricating in vitro biomedical devices. This review highlights the use of common biomaterials that have been most frequently used to study cellular biomechanics. In addition, the influence of various small-scale characteristics on common biomaterial surfaces for a range of different cell types is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. New reactor safety circuit for low-power-level operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.P.; Keefe, D.J.; Rusch, G.K.

    1978-01-01

    In the operation of nuclear reactors at low-power levels, one of the primary instrumentation problems is that the statistical fluctuations of reactor neutron population are accentuated by conventional log-count-rate and differentiating circuits and can cause frequent spurious scrams unless long time constants are incorporated in the circuit. Excessive time constants may introduce undesirable delay in the circuit response to legitimate scram signals. The paper develops the concept of a count doubling-time monitor which generates a scram signal if the number of counts from a pulse type neutron detector doubles in a given period of time. The paper demonstrates the theoretical relation between count doubling time and asymptomatic periods. A practical circuit to implement the function is described

  1. Demodulation Radio Frequency Interference Effects in Operational Amplifier Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutu, Yue-Hong

    A series of investigations have been carried out to determine RFI effects in analog circuits using monolithic integrated operational amplifiers (op amps) as active devices. The specific RFI effect investigated is how amplitude-modulated (AM) RF signals are demodulated in op amp circuits to produce undesired low frequency responses at AM-modulation frequency. The undesired demodulation responses were shown to be characterized by a second-order nonlinear transfer function. Four representative op amp types investigated were the 741 bipolar op amp, the LM10 bipolar op amp, the LF355 JFET-Bipolar op amp, and the CA081 MOS-Bipolar op amp. Two op amp circuits were investigated. The first circuit was a noninverting unity voltage gain buffer circuit. The second circuit was an inverting op amp configuration. In the second circuit, the investigation includes the effects of an RFI suppression capacitor in the feedback path. Approximately 30 units of each op amp type were tested to determine the statistical variations of RFI demodulation effects in the two op amp circuits. The Nonlinear Circuit Analysis Program, NCAP, was used to simulate the demodulation RFI response. In the simulation, the op amp was replaced with its incremental macromodel. Values of macromodel parameters were obtained from previous investigations and manufacturer's data sheets. Some key results of this work are: (1) The RFI demodulation effects are 10 to 20 dB lower in CA081 and LF355 FET-bipolar op amp than in 741 and LM10 bipolar op amp except above 40 MHz where the LM10 RFI response begins to approach that of CA081. (2) The experimental mean values for 30 741 op amps show that RFI demodulation responses in the inverting amplifier with a 27 pF feedback capacitor were suppressed from 10 to 35 dB over the RF frequency range 0.1 to 150 MHz except at 0.15 MHz where only 3.5 dB suppression was observed. (3) The NCAP program can predict RFI demodulation responses in 741 and LF355 unity gain buffer circuits

  2. Simulation of worst-case operating conditions for integrated circuits operating in a total dose environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuva, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    Degradations in the circuit performance created by the radiation exposure of integrated circuits are so unique and abnormal that thorough simulation and testing of VLSI circuits is almost impossible, and new ways to estimate the operating performance in a radiation environment must be developed. The principal goal of this work was the development of simulation techniques for radiation effects on semiconductor devices. The mixed-mode simulation approach proved to be the most promising. The switch-level approach is used to identify the failure mechanisms and critical subcircuits responsible for operational failure along with worst-case operating conditions during and after irradiation. For precise simulations of critical subcircuits, SPICE is used. The identification of failure mechanisms enables the circuit designer to improve the circuit's performance and failure-exposure level. Identification of worst-case operating conditions during and after irradiation reduces the complexity of testing VLSI circuits for radiation environments. The results of test circuits for failure simulations using a conventional simulator and the new simulator showed significant time savings using the new simulator. The savings in simulation time proved to be circuit topology-dependent. However, for large circuits, the simulation time proved to be orders of magnitude smaller than simulation time for conventional simulators

  3. Secondary coolant circuit operation tests: steam generator feedwater supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beroux, M.

    1985-01-01

    No one important accident occurred during the start-up tests of the 1300MWe P4 series, concerning the feedwater system of steam generators (SG). This communication comments on some incidents, that the tests allowed to detect very soon and which had no consequences on the operation of units: 1) Water hammer in feedwater tubes, and incidents met in the emergency steam generator water supply circuit. The technological differences between SG 900 and 1300 are pointed out, and the measures taken to prevent this problem are presented. 2) Incidents met on the emergency feedwater supply circuit of steam generators; mechanical or functional modifications involved by these incidents [fr

  4. Cellular phone interference with the operation of mechanical ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Cheryl I; Kacmarek, Robert M; Hampton, Rickey L; Riggi, Vincent; El Masry, Ashraf; Cooper, Jeffrey B; Hurford, William E

    2004-04-01

    To determine whether a cellular phone would interfere with the operation of mechanical ventilators. Laboratory study. University medical center. Fourteen mechanical ventilators. We evaluated change in operation and malfunction of the mechanical ventilators. The cellular phone (Nokia 6120i) was computer controlled, operating at 828.750 MHz analog modulation. It was operated at 16, 40, 100, 250, and 600 mW, 30 cm from the floor and 30, 15, and ventilator. Six of the 14 ventilators tested malfunctioned when a cellular phone at maximum power output was placed ventilating when the cellular phone at maximum power output was placed ventilator. One ventilator doubled the ventilatory rate and another increased the displayed tidal volume from 350 to 1033 mL. In one of the infant ventilators, displayed tidal volume increased from 21 to 100 mL. In another ventilator, the high respiratory rate alarm sounded but the rate had not changed. In a controlled laboratory setting, cellular phones placed in close proximity to some commercially available intensive care ventilators can cause malfunctions, including irrecoverable cessation of ventilation. This is most likely to occur if the cellular phone is or =3 feet from all medical devices. The current electromagnetic compatibility standards for mechanical ventilators are inadequate to prevent malfunction. Manufacturers should ensure that their products are not affected by wireless technology even when placed immediately next to the device.

  5. Statistics for demodulation RFI in inverting operational amplifier circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutu, Y.-H.; Whalen, J. J.

    An investigation was conducted with the objective to determine statistical variations for RFI demodulation responses in operational amplifier (op amp) circuits. Attention is given to the experimental procedures employed, a three-stage op amp LED experiment, NCAP (Nonlinear Circuit Analysis Program) simulations of demodulation RFI in 741 op amps, and a comparison of RFI in four op amp types. Three major recommendations for future investigations are presented on the basis of the obtained results. One is concerned with the conduction of additional measurements of demodulation RFI in inverting amplifiers, while another suggests the employment of an automatic measurement system. It is also proposed to conduct additional NCAP simulations in which parasitic effects are accounted for more thoroughly.

  6. Equivalent Circuit for Magnetoelectric Read and Write Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camsari, Kerem Y.; Faria, Rafatul; Hassan, Orchi; Sutton, Brian M.; Datta, Supriyo

    2018-04-01

    We describe an equivalent circuit model applicable to a wide variety of magnetoelectric phenomena and use spice simulations to benchmark this model against experimental data. We use this model to suggest a different mode of operation where the 1 and 0 states are represented not by states with net magnetization (like mx , my, or mz) but by different easy axes, quantitatively described by (mx2-my2), which switches from 0 to 1 through the write voltage. This change is directly detected as a read signal through the inverse effect. The use of (mx2-my2) to represent a bit is a radical departure from the standard convention of using the magnetization (m ) to represent information. We then show how the equivalent circuit can be used to build a device exhibiting tunable randomness and suggest possibilities for extending it to nonvolatile memory with read and write capabilities, without the use of external magnetic fields or magnetic tunnel junctions.

  7. Electric circuit breaker comprising a plurality of vacuum interrupters simultaneously operated by a common operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Philip; Imam, Imdad

    1980-01-01

    This circuit breaker comprises a plurality of a vacuum-type circuit interrupters, each having a movable contact rod. A common operating device for the interrupters comprises a linearly-movable operating member. The interrupters are mounted at one side of the operating member with their movable contact rods extending in a direction generally toward the operating member. Means is provided for mechanically coupling the operating member to the contact rods, and this means comprises a plurality of insulating operating rods, each connected at one end to the operating member and at its opposite end to one of the movable contact rods. The operating rods are of substantially equal length and have longitudinal axes that converge and intersect at substantially a common point.

  8. Hydraulically-activated operating system for an electric circuit breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Imdad; Barkan, Philip

    1979-01-01

    This operating system comprises a fluid motor having a piston, a breaker-opening space at one side of the piston, and a breaker-closing space at its opposite side. An accumulator freely communicates with the breaker-opening space for supplying pressurized fluid thereto during a circuit-breaker opening operation. A normally-closed valve located on the breaker-closing-side of the piston is openable to release liquid from the breaker-closing space so that pressurized liquid in the breaker-opening space can drive the piston in an opening direction. Means is provided for restoring the valve to its closed position following the circuit-breaker opening operation. An impeded passage affords communication between the accumulator and the breaker-closing space to allow pressurized liquid to flow from the accumulator to the breaker-closing space and develop a pressure therein substantially equal to accumulator pressure when the valve is restored to closed position following breaker-opening. This passage is so impeded that the flow therethrough from the accumulator into the breaker-closing space is sufficiently low during initial opening motion of the piston through a substantial portion of its opening stroke as to avoid interference with said initial opening motion of the piston.

  9. Hydraulically-actuated operating system for an electric circuit breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Philip; Imam, Imdad

    1978-01-01

    This hydraulically-actuated operating system comprises a cylinder, a piston movable therein in an opening direction to open a circuit breaker, and an accumulator for supplying pressurized liquid to a piston-actuating space within the cylinder. A normally-closed valve between the accumulator and the actuating space is openable to allow pressurized liquid from the accumulator to flow through the valve into the actuating space to drive the piston in an opening direction. A vent is located hydraulically between the actuating space and the valve for affording communication between said actuating space and a low pressure region. Flow control means is provided for restricting leakage through said vent to a rate that prevents said leakage from substantially detracting from the development of pressure within said actuatng space during the period from initial opening of the valve to the time when said piston has moved through most of its opening stroke. Following such period and while the valve is still open, said flow control means allows effective leakage through said vent. The accumulator has a limited capacity that results in the pressure within said actuating space decaying promptly to a low value as a result of effective leakage through said vent after the piston has moved through a circuit-breaker opening stroke and while the valve is in its open state. Means is provided for resetting the valve to its closed state in response to said pressure decay in the actuating space.

  10. Equivalent Electrical Circuits of Thermoelectric Generators under Different Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Siouane

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting has become a promising and alternative solution to conventional energy generation patterns to overcome the problem of supplying autonomous electrical systems. More particularly, thermal energy harvesting technologies have drawn a major interest in both research and industry. Thermoelectric Generators (TEGs can be used in two different operating conditions, under constant temperature gradient or constant heat flow. The commonly used TEG electrical model, based on a voltage source in series with an electrical resistance, shows its limitations especially under constant heat flow conditions. Here, the analytical electrical modeling, taking into consideration the internal and contact thermal resistances of a TEG under constant temperature gradient and constant heat flow conditions, is first given. To give further insight into the electrical behavior of a TEG module in different operating conditions, we propose a new and original way of emulating the above analytical expressions with usual electronics components (voltage source, resistors, diode, whose values are determined with the TEG’s parameters. Note that such a TEG emulation is particularly suited when designing the electronic circuitry commonly associated to the TEG, to realize both Maximum Power Point Tracking and output voltage regulation. First, the proposed equivalent electrical circuits are validated through simulation with a SPICE environment in static operating conditions using only one value of either temperature gradient or heat flow. Then, they are also analyzed in dynamic operating conditions where both temperature gradient and heat flow are considered as time-varying functions.

  11. A programmable CCD driver circuit for multiphase CCD operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewin, A.J.; Reed, K.V.

    1989-01-01

    A programmable CCD driver circuit was designed to drive CCD's in multiphased modes. The purpose of the drive electronics was to operate developmental CCD imaging arrays for NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer - Tiltable (MODIS-T). Five prototype arrays were designed. Valid's Graphics Editor (GED) was used to design the driver. With this driver design, any of the five arrays can be readout. Designing the driver with GED allowed functional simulation, timing verification, and certain packaging analyses to be done on the design before fabrication. The driver verified its function with the master clock running up to 10 MHz. This suggests a maximum rate of 400 Kpixels/sec. Timing and packaging parameters were verified. the design uses 54 TTL component chips

  12. Seeking a unified framework for cerebellar function and dysfunction: from circuit operations to cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidio eD‘Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the fundamental recognition of its involvement in sensory-motor coordination and learning, the cerebellum is now also believed to take part in the processing of cognition and emotion. This hypothesis is recurrent in numerous papers reporting anatomical and functional observations, and it requires an explanation. We argue that a similar circuit structure in all cerebellar areas may carry out various operations using a common computational scheme. On the basis of a broad review of anatomical data, it is conceivable that the different roles of the cerebellum lie in the specific connectivity of the cerebellar modules, with motor, cognitive and emotional functions (at least partially segregated into different cerebro-cerebellar loops. We here develop a conceptual and operational framework based on multiple interconnected levels (a meta-levels hypothesis: from cellular/molecular to network mechanisms leading to generation of computational primitives, thence to high-level cognitive/emotional processing, and finally to the sphere of mental function and dysfunction. The main concept explored is that of intimate interplay between timing and learning (reminiscent of the timing and learning machine capabilities long attributed to the cerebellum, which reverberates from cellular to circuit mechanisms. Subsequently, integration within large-scale brain loops could generate the disparate cognitive/emotional and mental functions in which the cerebellum has been implicated. We propose, therefore, that the cerebellum operates as a general-purpose co-processor, whose effects depend on the specific brain centers to which individual modules are connected. Abnormal functioning in these loops could eventually contribute to the pathogenesis of major brain pathologies including not just ataxia but also dyslexia, autism, schizophrenia and depression.

  13. Investigation on the Short Circuit Safe Operation Area of SiC MOSFET Power Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Luo, Haoze; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a better insight of the short circuit capability of state-of-the-art SiC MOSFET power modules rated at 1.2 kV by highlighting the physical limits under different operating conditions. Two different failure mechanisms have been identified, both reducing the short-circuit capability...... of SiC power modules in respect to discrete SiC devices. Based on such failure mechanisms, two short circuit criteria (i.e., short circuit current-based criterion and gate voltage-based criterion) are proposed in order to ensure their robustness under short-circuit conditions. A Safe Operation Area (SOA...

  14. Cellular Biotechnology Operations Support System Fluid Dynamics Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Tissue Culture Medium (TCM) is the bioreactor vessel in which cell cultures are grown. With its two syringe ports, it is much like a bag used to administer intravenous fluid, except it allows gas exchange needed for life. The TCM contains cell culture medium, and when frozen cells are flown to the ISS, they are thawed and introduced to the TCM through the syringe ports. In the Cellular Biotechnology Operations Support System-Fluid Dynamics Investigation (CBOSS-FDI) experiment, several mixing procedures are being assessed to determine which method achieves the most uniform mixing of growing cells and culture medium.

  15. 47 CFR 22.925 - Prohibition on airborne operation of cellular telephones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition on airborne operation of cellular... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.925 Prohibition on airborne operation of cellular telephones. Cellular telephones installed in or carried aboard airplanes, balloons or...

  16. A Short-Circuit Safe Operation Area Identification Criterion for SiC MOSFET Power Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Luo, Haoze

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for the investigation of the short-circuit safe operation area (SCSOA) of state-of-the-art SiC MOSFET power modules rated at 1.2 kV based on the variations in SiC MOSFET electrical parameters (e.g., short-circuit current and gate–source voltage). According...... to the experimental results, two different failure mechanisms have been identified, both reducing the short-circuit capability of SiC power modules with respect to discrete SiC devices. Based on such failure mechanisms, two short-circuit safety criteria have been formulated: 1) the short-circuit...

  17. Integrated optical switch circuit operating under FPGA control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stabile, R.; Zal, M.; Williams, K.A.; Bienstman, P.; Morthier, G.; Roelkens, G.; et al., xx

    2011-01-01

    Integrated photonic circuits are enabling an abrupt step change in networking systems providing massive bandwidth and record transmission. The increasing complexity of high connectivity photonic integrated switches requires sophisticated control planes and more intimate high speed electronics. Here

  18. Aluminum nitride nanophotonic circuits operating at ultraviolet wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegmaier, M.; Ebert, J.; Pernice, W. H. P., E-mail: wolfram.pernice@kit.edu [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Meckbach, J. M.; Ilin, K.; Siegel, M. [Institute of Micro- und Nanoelectronic Systems, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76187 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-03-03

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) has recently emerged as a promising material for integrated photonics due to a large bandgap and attractive optical properties. Exploiting the wideband transparency, we demonstrate waveguiding in AlN-on-Insulator circuits from near-infrared to ultraviolet wavelengths using nanophotonic components with dimensions down to 40 nm. By measuring the propagation loss over a wide spectral range, we conclude that both scattering and absorption of AlN-intrinsic defects contribute to strong attenuation at short wavelengths, thus providing guidelines for future improvements in thin-film deposition and circuit fabrication.

  19. Cellular and circuit mechanisms maintain low spike co-variability and enhance population coding in somatosensory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng eLy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The responses of cortical neurons are highly variable across repeated presentations of a stimulus. Understanding this variability is critical for theories of both sensory and motor processing, since response variance affects the accuracy of neural codes. Despite this influence, the cellular and circuit mechanisms that shape the trial-to-trial variability of population responses remain poorly understood. We used a combination of experimental and computational techniques to uncover the mechanisms underlying response variability of populations of pyramidal (E cells in layer 2/3 of rat whisker barrel cortex. Spike trains recorded from pairs of E-cells during either spontaneous activity or whisker deflected responses show similarly low levels of spiking co-variability, despite large differences in network activation between the two states. We developed network models that show how spike threshold nonlinearities dilutes E-cell spiking co-variability during spontaneous activity and low velocity whisker deflections. In contrast, during high velocity whisker deflections, cancelation mechanisms mediated by feedforward inhibition maintain low E-cell pairwise co-variability. Thus, the combination of these two mechanisms ensure low E-cell population variability over a wide range of whisker deflection velocities. Finally, we show how this active decorrelation of population variability leads to a drastic increase in the population information about whisker velocity. The canonical cellular and circuit components of our study suggest that low network variability over a broad range of neural states may generalize across the nervous system.

  20. A Current-Mode Common-Mode Feedback Circuit (CMFB) with Rail-to-Rail Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suadet, Apirak; Kasemsuwan, Varakorn

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a current-mode common-mode feedback (CMFB) circuit with rail-to-rail operation. The CMFB is a stand-alone circuit, which can be connected to any low voltage transconductor without changing or upsetting the existing circuit. The proposed CMFB employs current mirrors, operating as common-mode detector and current amplifier to enhance the loop gain of the CMFB. The circuit employs positive feedback to enhance the output impedance and gain. The circuit has been designed using a 0.18 μm CMOS technology under 1V supply and analyzed using HSPICE with BSIM3V3 device models. A pseudo-differential amplifier using two common sources and the proposed CMFB shows rail to rail output swing (± 0.7 V) with low common-mode gain (-36 dB) and power dissipation of 390 μW.

  1. Influence of Insulation Monitoring Devices on the Operation of DC Control Circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszowiec, Piotr, E-mail: olpio@o2.pl [Erea Polaniec (Poland)

    2017-03-15

    The insulation level of DC control circuits is an important safety-critical factor and, thus, should be subject to continuous and periodic monitoring. The methods used for monitoring the insulation in live circuits may, however, disturb the reliable operation of control relays. The risks of misoperation and failure to reset of relays posed by the operation of various insulation monitoring and fault location systems are evaluated.

  2. Integrated electrofluidic circuits: pressure sensing with analog and digital operation functionalities for microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chueh-Yu; Lu, Jau-Ching; Liu, Man-Chi; Tung, Yi-Chung

    2012-10-21

    Microfluidic technology plays an essential role in various lab on a chip devices due to its desired advantages. An automated microfluidic system integrated with actuators and sensors can further achieve better controllability. A number of microfluidic actuation schemes have been well developed. In contrast, most of the existing sensing methods still heavily rely on optical observations and external transducers, which have drawbacks including: costly instrumentation, professional operation, tedious interfacing, and difficulties of scaling up and further signal processing. This paper reports the concept of electrofluidic circuits - electrical circuits which are constructed using ionic liquid (IL)-filled fluidic channels. The developed electrofluidic circuits can be fabricated using a well-developed multi-layer soft lithography (MSL) process with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels. Electrofluidic circuits allow seamless integration of pressure sensors with analog and digital operation functions into microfluidic systems and provide electrical readouts for further signal processing. In the experiments, the analog operation device is constructed based on electrofluidic Wheatstone bridge circuits with electrical outputs of the addition and subtraction results of the applied pressures. The digital operation (AND, OR, and XOR) devices are constructed using the electrofluidic pressure controlled switches, and output electrical signals of digital operations of the applied pressures. The experimental results demonstrate the designed functions for analog and digital operations of applied pressures are successfully achieved using the developed electrofluidic circuits, making them promising to develop integrated microfluidic systems with capabilities of precise pressure monitoring and further feedback control for advanced lab on a chip applications.

  3. Detection circuit of solenoid valve operation and control rod drive mechanism utilizing the circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Takehiko.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To detect the operation of a plunger and detect opening and closing operations of a solenoid valve driving device due to change in impedance of a coil for driving the solenoid valve to judge normality and abnormality of the solenoid valve, thereby increasing reliance and safety of drive and control apparatus of control rods. Structure: An arrangement comprises a drive and operation detector section wherein the operation of a solenoid driving device for controlling power supply to a coil for driving the solenoid valve to control opening and closing of the solenoid valve, and a plunger operation detector section for detecting change in impedance of the drive coil to detect that the plunger of the solenoid valve is either in the opening direction or closing direction, whereby a predetermined low voltage such as not to activate the solenoid valve even when the solenoid valve is open or closed is applied to detect a current flowing into the coil at that time, thus detecting an operating state of the plunger. (Yoshino, Y.)

  4. Integrated circuits and logic operations based on single-layer MoS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radisavljevic, Branimir; Whitwick, Michael Brian; Kis, Andras

    2011-12-27

    Logic circuits and the ability to amplify electrical signals form the functional backbone of electronics along with the possibility to integrate multiple elements on the same chip. The miniaturization of electronic circuits is expected to reach fundamental limits in the near future. Two-dimensional materials such as single-layer MoS(2) represent the ultimate limit of miniaturization in the vertical dimension, are interesting as building blocks of low-power nanoelectronic devices, and are suitable for integration due to their planar geometry. Because they are less than 1 nm thin, 2D materials in transistors could also lead to reduced short channel effects and result in fabrication of smaller and more power-efficient transistors. Here, we report on the first integrated circuit based on a two-dimensional semiconductor MoS(2). Our integrated circuits are capable of operating as inverters, converting logical "1" into logical "0", with room-temperature voltage gain higher than 1, making them suitable for incorporation into digital circuits. We also show that electrical circuits composed of single-layer MoS(2) transistors are capable of performing the NOR logic operation, the basis from which all logical operations and full digital functionality can be deduced.

  5. Cellular and circuit properties supporting different sensory coding strategies in electric fish and other systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsat, Gary; Longtin, André; Maler, Leonard

    2012-08-01

    Neural codes often seem tailored to the type of information they must carry. Here we contrast the encoding strategies for two different communication signals in electric fish and describe the underlying cellular and network properties that implement them. We compare an aggressive signal that needs to be quickly detected, to a courtship signal whose quality needs to be evaluated. The aggressive signal is encoded by synchronized bursts and a predictive feedback input is crucial in separating background noise from the communication signal. The courtship signal is accurately encoded through a heterogenous population response allowing the discrimination of signal differences. Most importantly we show that the same strategies are used in other systems arguing that they evolved similar solutions because they faced similar tasks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vagal gustatory reflex circuits for intraoral food sorting behavior in the goldfish: cellular organization and neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaga, Takanori; Ogura, Tatsuya; Finger, Thomas E

    2009-09-20

    The sense of taste is crucial in an animal's determination as to what is edible and what is not. This gustatory function is especially important in goldfish, who utilize a sophisticated oropharyngeal sorting mechanism to separate food from substrate material. The computational aspects of this detection are carried out by the medullary vagal lobe, which is a large, laminated structure combining elements of both the gustatory nucleus of the solitary tract and the nucleus ambiguus. The sensory layers of the vagal lobe are coupled to the motor layers via a simple reflex arc. Details of this reflex circuit were investigated with histology and calcium imaging. Biocytin injections into the motor layer labeled vagal reflex interneurons that have radially directed dendrites ramifying within the layers of primary afferent terminals. Axons of reflex interneurons extend radially inward to terminate onto both vagal motoneurons and small, GABAergic interneurons in the motor layer. Functional imaging shows increases in intracellular Ca++ of vagal motoneurons following electrical stimulation in the sensory layer. These responses were suppressed under Ca(++)-free conditions and by interruption of the axons bridging between the sensory and motor layers. Pharmacological experiments showed that glutamate acting via (+/-)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy- 5-ethylisoxazole-4-propioinc acid (AMPA)/kainate and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors mediate neurotransmission between reflex interneurons and vagal motoneurons. Thus, the vagal gustatory portion of the viscerosensory complex is linked to branchiomotor neurons of the pharynx via a glutamatergic interneuronal system.

  7. Vagal gustatory reflex circuits for intraoral food sorting behavior in the goldfish Cellular organization and neurotransmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaga, Takanori; Ogura, Tatsuya; Finger, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    The sense of taste is crucial in an animal’s determination as to what is edible and what is not. This gustatory function is especially important in goldfish who utilize a sophisticated oropharyngeal sorting mechanism to separate food from substrate material. The computational aspects of this detection are carried out by the medullary vagal lobe which is a large, laminated structure combining elements of both the gustatory nucleus of the solitary tract and the nucleus ambiguus. The sensory layers of the vagal lobe are coupled to the motor layers via a simple reflex arc. Details of this reflex circuit were investigated with histology and calcium imaging. Biocytin injections into the motor layer labeled vagal reflex interneurons which have radially-directed dendrites ramifying within the layers of primary afferent terminals. Axons of reflex interneurons extend radially inward to terminate onto both vagal motoneurons and small, GABAergic interneurons in the motor layer. Functional imaging shows increases in intracellular Ca++ of vagal motoneurons following electrical stimulation in the sensory layer. These responses were suppressed under Ca++-free conditions and by interruption of the axons bridging between the sensory and motor layers. Pharmacological experiments showed that glutamate acting via (±)-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-ethylisoxazole-4-propioinc acid (AMPA)/kainate and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors mediates neurotransmission between reflex interneurons and vagal motoneurons. Thus the vagal gustatory portion of the viscerosensory complex is linked to branchiomotor neurons of the pharynx via a glutamatergic interneuronal system. PMID:19598285

  8. A Customizable Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Building Block for the Synthesis of Classical and Reversible Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ahmed; Younes, Ahmed; Hassan, Yasser F

    2015-01-01

    Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) are nanoscale digital logic constructs that use electrons in arrays of quantum dots to carry out binary operations. In this paper, a basic building block for QCA will be proposed. The proposed basic building block can be customized to implement classical gates, such as XOR and XNOR gates, and reversible gates, such as CNOT and Toffoli gates, with less cell count and/or better latency than other proposed designs.

  9. Dangers of bypassing thermal overload relays in nuclear power plant motor operated valve circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, F.D.

    1980-01-01

    Operation of motor operated valves is analyzed under various abnormal conditions such as frozen bearing, tight packing, mid-travel obstruction, torque switch failure, limit switch failure, and post-accident operation. Each condition has been reviewed to show that an adverse situation results if the thermal overload relays in the circuit are bypassed. In conclusion, there appears to be no technical basis for bypassing or oversizing the thermal overload relay provided it is selected correctly

  10. Designing reversible arithmetic, logic circuit to implement micro-operation in quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalita, Gunajit; Saikia, Navajit

    2016-01-01

    The futuristic computing is desired to be more power full with low-power consumption. That is why quantum computing has been a key area of research for quite some time and is getting more and more attention. Quantum logic being reversible, a significant amount of contributions has been reported on reversible logic in recent times. Reversible circuits are essential parts of quantum computers, and hence their designs are of great importance. In this paper, designs of reversible circuits are proposed using a recently proposed reversible gate for arithmetic and logic operations to implement various micro-operations (simple add and subtract, add with carry, subtract with borrow, transfer, incrementing, decrementing etc., and logic operations like XOR, XNOR, complementing etc.) in a reversible computer like quantum computer. The two new reversible designs proposed here for half adder and full adders are also used in the presented reversible circuits to implement various microoperations. The quantum costs of these designs are comparable. Many of the implemented micro-operations are not seen in previous literatures. The performances of the proposed circuits are compared with existing designs wherever available. (paper)

  11. Integrated Circuit Design of 3 Electrode Sensing System Using Two-Stage Operational Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, S.; Abdullah, W. F. H.; Zain, Z. M.; N, Aqmar N. Z.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the design of a two-stage operational amplifier(op amp) for 3-electrode sensing system readout circuits. The designs have been simulated using 0.13μm CMOS technology from Silterra (Malaysia) with Mentor graphics tools. The purpose of this projects is mainly to design a miniature interfacing circuit to detect the redox reaction in the form of current using standard analog modules. The potentiostat consists of several op amps combined together in order to analyse the signal coming from the 3-electrode sensing system. This op amp design will be used in potentiostat circuit device and to analyse the functionality for each module of the system.

  12. Prolonged 500 C Operation of 100+ Transistor Silicon Carbide Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, David J.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Lukco, Dorothy; Chen, Liangyu; Krasowski, Michael J.; Prokop, Norman F.; Chang, Carl W.; Beheim, Glenn M.

    2017-01-01

    This report describes more than 5000 hours of successful 500 C operation of semiconductor integrated circuits (ICs) with more than 100 transistors. Multiple packaged chips with two different 4H-SiC junction field effect transistor (JFET) technology demonstrator circuits have surpassed thousands of hours of oven-testing at 500 C. After 100 hours of 500 C burn-in, the circuits (except for 2 failures) exhibit less than 10 change in output characteristics for the remainder of 500C testing. We also describe the observation of important differences in IC materials durability when subjected to the first nine constituents of Venus-surface atmosphere at 9.4 MPa and 460C in comparison to what is observed for Earth-atmosphere oven testing at 500 C.

  13. Oscillator circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1996-01-01

    This series of circuits provides designers with a quick source for oscillator circuits. Why waste time paging through huge encyclopedias when you can choose the topic you need and select any of the specialized circuits sorted by application?This book in the series has 250-300 practical, ready-to-use circuit designs, with schematics and brief explanations of circuit operation. The original source for each circuit is listed in an appendix, making it easy to obtain additional information.Ready-to-use circuits.Grouped by application for easy look-up.Circuit source listing

  14. Measuring circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1996-01-01

    This series of circuits provides designers with a quick source for measuring circuits. Why waste time paging through huge encyclopedias when you can choose the topic you need and select any of the specialized circuits sorted by application?This book in the series has 250-300 practical, ready-to-use circuit designs, with schematics and brief explanations of circuit operation. The original source for each circuit is listed in an appendix, making it easy to obtain additional information.Ready-to-use circuits.Grouped by application for easy look-up.Circuit source listings

  15. Modeling of electrical and mesoscopic circuits at quantum nanoscale from heat momentum operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nabulsi, Rami Ahmad

    2018-04-01

    We develop a new method to study electrical circuits at quantum nanoscale by introducing a heat momentum operator which reproduces quantum effects similar to those obtained in Suykens's nonlocal-in-time kinetic energy approach for the case of reversible motion. The series expansion of the heat momentum operator is similar to the momentum operator obtained in the framework of minimal length phenomenologies characterized by the deformation of Heisenberg algebra. The quantization of both LC and mesoscopic circuits revealed a number of motivating features like the emergence of a generalized uncertainty relation and a minimal charge similar to those obtained in the framework of minimal length theories. Additional features were obtained and discussed accordingly.

  16. Radio Access Sharing Strategies for Multiple Operators in Cellular Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2015-01-01

    deployments (required for coverage enhancement), increased base station utilization, and reduced overall power consumption. Today, network sharing in the radio access part is passive and limited to cell sites. With the introduction of Cloud Radio Access Network and Software Defined Networking adoption...... to the radio access network, the possibility for sharing baseband processing and radio spectrum becomes an important aspect of network sharing. This paper investigates strategies for active sharing of radio access among multiple operators, and analyses the individual benefits depending on the sharing degree...

  17. Password Based Distribution Panel and Circuit Breaker Operation for the Safety of Lineman during Maintenance Work

    OpenAIRE

    Hudedmani, Mallikarjun G; Ummannanavar, Nitin; Mudaliar, Mani Dheeraj; Sooji, Chandana; Bogar, Mala

    2017-01-01

    Security is the prime concern in our day to day life while performing any activity. In the current scenario, accidental death of lineman is often read and evidenced. In this direction, a safety measure to safe guard the operator is found very necessary looking into the present working style. The electric lineman safety system is designed to control the control panel doors and circuit breaker by using a password for the safety. Critical electrical accidents to lineman are on the rise during el...

  18. DIADEME: A computer code to assess in operation defective fuel characteristics and primary circuit contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genin, J.B. [DEN/DEC/S3C, CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Harrer, A. [EdF/SEPTEN, 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Musante, Y. [FRAMATOME-ANP, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2002-07-01

    DIADEME is a computer code developed within the framework of R and D cooperation between the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Electricite de France (EdF) and FRAMATOME-ANP. Its aim is to assess in operation defective fuel characteristics and primary circuit contamination for actinides and long half-life fission products involved in health physics problems as well as in waste and decommissioning studies. DIADEME has been developed and qualified for the EDF nuclear power plants. For many years, both theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out at the CEA on the release of fission products and actinides out of defective fuel rods in operation, their migration and deposition in PWR primary circuits. These studies have allowed defect characteristic diagnosis methods to be developed, based on radiochemical measurements of the primary coolant. These methods are generally used along with gamma spectrometry measurements on primary water sampling. In order to be completely efficient, these methods can also be used in connection with an on-line primary water gamma spectrometry device. This permits to obtain the most comprehensive data on fission product activity evolutions at steady state and during operation transients, and allows the on-line characterization of the defective fuel assemblies. For long half-life fission products and for actinides, DIADEME is also able to assess the activities of soluble and insoluble forms in the primary water and in the chemical and voluminal control system (CVCS) filters and resins, as well as those activities deposited on primary circuit surfaces. (author)

  19. DIADEME: A computer code to assess in operation defective fuel characteristics and primary circuit contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genin, J.B.; Harrer, A.; Musante, Y.

    2002-01-01

    DIADEME is a computer code developed within the framework of R and D cooperation between the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Electricite de France (EdF) and FRAMATOME-ANP. Its aim is to assess in operation defective fuel characteristics and primary circuit contamination for actinides and long half-life fission products involved in health physics problems as well as in waste and decommissioning studies. DIADEME has been developed and qualified for the EDF nuclear power plants. For many years, both theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out at the CEA on the release of fission products and actinides out of defective fuel rods in operation, their migration and deposition in PWR primary circuits. These studies have allowed defect characteristic diagnosis methods to be developed, based on radiochemical measurements of the primary coolant. These methods are generally used along with gamma spectrometry measurements on primary water sampling. In order to be completely efficient, these methods can also be used in connection with an on-line primary water gamma spectrometry device. This permits to obtain the most comprehensive data on fission product activity evolutions at steady state and during operation transients, and allows the on-line characterization of the defective fuel assemblies. For long half-life fission products and for actinides, DIADEME is also able to assess the activities of soluble and insoluble forms in the primary water and in the chemical and voluminal control system (CVCS) filters and resins, as well as those activities deposited on primary circuit surfaces. (author)

  20. Adder design using a 5-input majority gate in a novel “multilayer gate design paradigm” for quantum dot cellular automata circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rohit; Ghosh, Bahniman; Gupta, Shoubhik

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel design paradigm for circuits designed in quantum dot cellular automata (QCA) technology. Previously reported QCA circuits in the literature have generally been designed in a single layer which is the main logical block in which the inverter and majority gate are on the base layer, except for the parts where multilayer wire crossing was used. In this paper the concept of multilayer wire crossing has been extended to design logic gates in multilayers. Using a 5-input majority gate in a multilayer, a 1-bit and 2-bit adder have been designed in the proposed multilayer gate design paradigm. A comparison has been made with some adders reported previously in the literature and it has been shown that circuits designed in the proposed design paradigm are much more efficient in terms of area, the requirement of QCA cells in the design and the input–output delay of the circuit. Over all, the availability of one additional spatial dimension makes the design process much more flexible and there is scope for the customizability of logic gate designs to make the circuit compact. (paper)

  1. High speed hydraulically-actuated operating system for an electric circuit breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iman, Imdad

    1983-06-07

    This hydraulically-actuated operating system comprises a cylinder, a piston movable therein in an opening direction to open a circuit breaker, and an accumulator for supplying pressurized liquid to a breaker-opening piston-actuating space within the cylinder. A normally-closed valve between the accumulator and the actuating space is openable to allow pressurized liquid from the accumulator to flow through the valve into the actuating space to drive the piston in an opening direction. A dashpotting mechanism operating separately from the hydraulic actuating system is provided, thereby reducing flow restriction interference with breaker opening.

  2. Test results and in-orbit operation of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite circumvention circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, E. C.; Langford, D.

    1984-01-01

    The IRAS circumvention circuit (CC) eliminates the unwanted charged-particle pulses from the IR signal. The operation of the CC along with preflight and in-orbit testing is described. Ground testing of the brassboard circuit using a simulated preamplifier output showed that the CC would perform the circumvention function as designed. When all flight detectors and preamplifiers became available, the CC was tested using a gamma source to simulate charged-particle sources; with the low energy deposited in the detectors (20 keV average) the noise was reduced by up to 5 times with the CC turned on. In-orbit results show that the CC decreases the unwanted charged-particle background noise by up to two orders of magnitude. The difference in the results with the CC on and off is so great that the science team has recommended that no data be taken with the CC off.

  3. Estimation of Operating Condition of Appliances Using Circuit Current Data on Electric Distribution Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwafune, Yumiko; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko; Yagita, Yoshie

    The Energy management systems (EMS) on demand sides are expected as a method to enhance the capability of supply and demand balancing of a power system under the anticipated penetration of renewable energy generation such as Photovoltaics (PV). Elucidation of energy consumption structure in a building is one of important elements for realization of EMS and contributes to the extraction of potential energy saving. In this paper, we propose the estimation method of operating condition of household appliances using circuit current data on an electric distribution board. Circuit current data are broken down by their shape using a self-organization map method and aggregated by appliance based on customers' information of appliance possessed. Proposed method is verified using residential energy consumption measurement survey data.

  4. Multi-operator collaboration for green cellular networks under roaming price consideration

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim; Yaacoub, Elias E.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the collaboration between multiple mobile operators to optimize the energy efficiency of cellular networks. Our framework studies the case of LTE-Advanced networks deployed in the same area and owning renewable energy generators. The objective is to reduce the CO2 emissions of cellular networks via collaborative techniques and using base station sleeping strategy while respecting the network quality of service. Low complexity and practical algorithm is employed to achieve green goals during low traffic periods. Cooperation decision criteria are also established basing on derived roaming prices and profit gains of competitive mobile operators. Our numerical results show a significant save in terms of CO2 compared to the non-collaboration case and that cooperative mobile operator exploiting renewables are more awarded than traditional operators.

  5. Multi-operator collaboration for green cellular networks under roaming price consideration

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2014-09-01

    This paper investigates the collaboration between multiple mobile operators to optimize the energy efficiency of cellular networks. Our framework studies the case of LTE-Advanced networks deployed in the same area and owning renewable energy generators. The objective is to reduce the CO2 emissions of cellular networks via collaborative techniques and using base station sleeping strategy while respecting the network quality of service. Low complexity and practical algorithm is employed to achieve green goals during low traffic periods. Cooperation decision criteria are also established basing on derived roaming prices and profit gains of competitive mobile operators. Our numerical results show a significant save in terms of CO2 compared to the non-collaboration case and that cooperative mobile operator exploiting renewables are more awarded than traditional operators.

  6. Operational Excellence through Schedule Optimization and Production Simulation of Application Specific Integrated Circuits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flory, John Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Padilla, Denise D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauthier, John H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zwerneman, April Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Steven P [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Upcoming weapon programs require an aggressive increase in Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) production at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL has developed unique modeling and optimization tools that have been instrumental in improving ASIC production productivity and efficiency, identifying optimal operational and tactical execution plans under resource constraints, and providing confidence in successful mission execution. With ten products and unprecedented levels of demand, a single set of shared resources, highly variable processes, and the need for external supplier task synchronization, scheduling is an integral part of successful manufacturing. The scheduler uses an iterative multi-objective genetic algorithm and a multi-dimensional performance evaluator. Schedule feasibility is assessed using a discrete event simulation (DES) that incorporates operational uncertainty, variability, and resource availability. The tools provide rapid scenario assessments and responses to variances in the operational environment, and have been used to inform major equipment investments and workforce planning decisions in multiple SNL facilities.

  7. 10-Qubit Entanglement and Parallel Logic Operations with a Superconducting Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chao; Xu, Kai; Liu, Wuxin; Yang, Chui-ping; Zheng, Shi-Biao; Deng, Hui; Xie, Qiwei; Huang, Keqiang; Guo, Qiujiang; Zhang, Libo; Zhang, Pengfei; Xu, Da; Zheng, Dongning; Zhu, Xiaobo; Wang, H.; Chen, Y.-A.; Lu, C.-Y.; Han, Siyuan; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-11-01

    Here we report on the production and tomography of genuinely entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states with up to ten qubits connecting to a bus resonator in a superconducting circuit, where the resonator-mediated qubit-qubit interactions are used to controllably entangle multiple qubits and to operate on different pairs of qubits in parallel. The resulting 10-qubit density matrix is probed by quantum state tomography, with a fidelity of 0.668 ±0.025 . Our results demonstrate the largest entanglement created so far in solid-state architectures and pave the way to large-scale quantum computation.

  8. Wide operating window spin-torque majority gate towards large-scale integration of logic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaysset, Adrien; Zografos, Odysseas; Manfrini, Mauricio; Mocuta, Dan; Radu, Iuliana P.

    2018-05-01

    Spin Torque Majority Gate (STMG) is a logic concept that inherits the non-volatility and the compact size of MRAM devices. In the original STMG design, the operating range was restricted to very small size and anisotropy, due to the exchange-driven character of domain expansion. Here, we propose an improved STMG concept where the domain wall is driven with current. Thus, input switching and domain wall propagation are decoupled, leading to higher energy efficiency and allowing greater technological optimization. To ensure majority operation, pinning sites are introduced. We observe through micromagnetic simulations that the new structure works for all input combinations, regardless of the initial state. Contrary to the original concept, the working condition is only given by threshold and depinning currents. Moreover, cascading is now possible over long distances and fan-out is demonstrated. Therefore, this improved STMG concept is ready to build complete Boolean circuits in absence of external magnetic fields.

  9. Why we can talk, debate, and change our minds: neural circuits, basal ganglia operations, and transcriptional factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Philip

    2014-12-01

    Ackermann et al. disregard attested knowledge concerning aphasia, Parkinson disease, cortical-to-striatal circuits, basal ganglia, laryngeal phonation, and other matters. Their dual-pathway model cannot account for "what is special about the human brain." Their human cortical-to-laryngeal neural circuit does not exist. Basal ganglia operations, enhanced by mutations on FOXP2, confer human motor-control, linguistic, and cognitive capabilities.

  10. Resonant magnetoelectric response of composite cantilevers: Theory of short vs. open circuit operation and layer sequence effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias C. Krantz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The magnetoelectric effect in layered composite cantilevers consisting of strain coupled layers of magnetostrictive (MS, piezoelectric (PE, and substrate materials is investigated for magnetic field excitation at bending resonance. Analytic theories are derived for the transverse magnetoelectric (ME response in short and open circuit operation for three different layer sequences and results presented and discussed for the FeCoBSi-AlN-Si and the FeCoBSi-PZT-Si composite systems. Response optimized PE-MS layer thickness ratios are found to greatly change with operation mode shifting from near equal MS and PE layer thicknesses in the open circuit mode to near vanishing PE layer thicknesses in short circuit operation for all layer sequences. In addition the substrate layer thickness is found to differently affect the open and short circuit ME response producing shifts and reversal between ME response maxima depending on layer sequence. The observed rich ME response behavior for different layer thicknesses, sequences, operating modes, and PE materials can be explained by common neutral plane effects and different elastic compliance effects in short and open circuit operation.

  11. Treatment of Wastewater from Electroplating, Metal Finishing and Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    One of four manuals dealing with the operation of wastewater plants, this document was designed to address the treatment of wastewater from electroplating, metal finishing, and printed circuit board manufacturing. It emphasizes how to operate and maintain facilities which neutralize acidic and basic waters; treat waters containing metals; destroy…

  12. Prolonged silicon carbide integrated circuit operation in Venus surface atmospheric conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip G. Neudeck

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The prolonged operation of semiconductor integrated circuits (ICs needed for long-duration exploration of the surface of Venus has proven insurmountably challenging to date due to the ∼ 460 °C, ∼ 9.4 MPa caustic environment. Past and planned Venus landers have been limited to a few hours of surface operation, even when IC electronics needed for basic lander operation are protected with heavily cumbersome pressure vessels and cooling measures. Here we demonstrate vastly longer (weeks electrical operation of two silicon carbide (4H-SiC junction field effect transistor (JFET ring oscillator ICs tested with chips directly exposed (no cooling and no protective chip packaging to a high-fidelity physical and chemical reproduction of Venus’ surface atmosphere. This represents more than 100-fold extension of demonstrated Venus environment electronics durability. With further technology maturation, such SiC IC electronics could drastically improve Venus lander designs and mission concepts, fundamentally enabling long-duration enhanced missions to the surface of Venus.

  13. Stability of operation versus temperature of a three-phase clock-driven chaotic circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ji-Chao; Son Hyunsik; Song Han Jung; Kim Namtae

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the influence of temperature on the behavior of a three-phase clock-driven metal—oxide—semiconductor (MOS) chaotic circuit. The chaotic circuit consists of two nonlinear functions, a level shifter, and three sample and hold blocks. It is necessary to analyze a CMOS-based chaotic circuit with respect to variation in temperature for stability because the circuit is sensitive to the behavior of the circuit design parameters. The temperature dependence of the proposed chaotic circuit is investigated via the simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis (SPICE) using 0.6-μm CMOS process technology with a 5-V power supply and a 20-kHz clock frequency. The simulation results demonstrate the effects of temperature on the chaotic dynamics of the proposed chaotic circuit. The time series, frequency spectra, bifurcation phenomena, and Lyapunov exponent results are provided. (general)

  14. An improved cellular automata model for train operation simulation with dynamic acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Jun; Nie, Lei

    2018-03-01

    Urban rail transit plays an important role in the urban public traffic because of its advantages of fast speed, large transport capacity, high safety, reliability and low pollution. This study proposes an improved cellular automaton (CA) model by considering the dynamic characteristic of the train acceleration to analyze the energy consumption and train running time. Constructing an effective model for calculating energy consumption to aid train operation improvement is the basis for studying and analyzing energy-saving measures for urban rail transit system operation.

  15. The CRESST-III iStick veto. Stable operation of multiple transition edge sensors in one readout circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, Johannes [Max-Planck-Institut f. Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut) (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: CRESST-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    To enable complete rejection of holder-related events in the upcoming CRESST-III dark matter search experiment, the scintillating target crystals are held by calcium tungstate sticks (iSticks) instrumented with tungsten transition edge sensors (TESs). Since the iStick signals are used exclusively for vetoing, it is sufficient to register if an event happened in any stick, without knowing which one. This allows the operation of all iSticks in a single readout circuit, requiring just one SQUID magnetometer. The talk describes the effect of bias current heating and corresponding hysteresis phenomena known in single-TES circuits, and the resulting conditions for stability in multiple-TES circuits. The fundamentally different behaviour of parallel and series circuits and resulting design choices are explored.

  16. Operative modes of the primary circuit degasser of Atucha II N.P.P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Ivanna; Contino, Maximiliano; Chocron, Mauricio; Duca, Jorge

    2012-09-01

    Atucha II (N.A.S.A., Buenos Aires Province, Argentina) is a Pressurized Vessel Heavy Water Reactor designed by Siemens with a capacity of 740 MWe. After a long delay in construction the plant is close to the commissioning and among the many task that are carried out, chemistry and operation of devices related to it are under consideration [1]. As it is known, Hydrogen or Deuterium dosing has the purpose of both: limitation of the water radiolysis and to provide an appropriate reductive media for the structural materials, mainly stainless steel, A800 and Zr-4. Dealing with a heavy water plant, it is critical to determine whether it is necessary to add D 2 or if it is feasible to dose H 2 , by considering heavy water degradation and heavy water upgrading system capability. Those aspects have been previously analyzed and presented [2]. It is also necessary to consider blankets and venting locations that address to losses of the expensive D 2 . In the present work several alternatives of hydrogenation are presented and evaluated, considering the Degasser (D), the Volume Control Tank (TCV) and the special features of the purification and volume control system of a pressurized vessel heavy water plant where the primary circuit and moderator are partially mixed. Also the influence of venting through the pressurizer is analyzed. Conclusions are obtained in connection to (i) the maintenance of a permanent blanket of H 2 /He, 4%, in the TCV dome at a given initial pressure, (ii) The same but constant pressure to reach 0.6 ppm of H 2 in the Primary and Moderator water circuit, (iii) transients while reducing pressure in the Degasser and considering contribution of pressurizer venting, (iv) estimated contribution of the general corrosion of the system and (iv) differences if D 2 is used. (authors)

  17. Role of correlation in the operation of quantum-dot cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, Geza; Lent, Craig S.

    2001-01-01

    Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) may offer a viable alternative of traditional transistor-based technology at the nanoscale. When modeling a QCA circuit, the number of degrees of freedom necessary to describe the quantum mechanical state increases exponentially making modeling even modest size cell arrays difficult. The intercellular Hartree approximation largely reduces the number of state variables and still gives good results especially when the system remains near ground state. This suggests that a large part of the correlation degrees of freedom are not essential from the point of view of the dynamics. In certain cases, however, such as, for example, the majority gate with unequal input legs, the Hartree approximation gives qualitatively wrong results. An intermediate model is constructed between the Hartree approximation and the exact model, based on the coherence vector formalism. By including correlation effects to a desired degree, it improves the results of the Hartree method and gives the approximate dynamics of the correlation terms. It also models the majority gate correctly. Beside QCA cell arrays, our findings are valid for Ising spin chains in transverse magnetic field, and can be straightforwardly generalized for coupled two-level systems with a more complicated Hamiltonian. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  18. Ripple gate drive circuit for fast operation of series connected IGBTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockot, Joseph H.; Murray, Thomas W.; Bass, Kevin C.

    2005-09-20

    A ripple gate drive circuit includes a plurality of transistors having their power terminals connected in series across an electrical potential. A plurality of control circuits, each associated with one of the transistors, is provided. Each control circuit is responsive to a control signal and an optical signal received from at least one other control circuit for controlling the conduction of electrical current through the power terminals of the associated transistor. The control circuits are responsive to a first state of the control circuit for causing each transistor in series to turn on sequentially and responsive to a second state of the control signal for causing each transistor in series to turn off sequentially.

  19. Assessment of Durable SiC JFET Technology for +600 C to -125 C Integrated Circuit Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudeck, P. G.; Krasowski, M. J.; Prokop, N. F.

    2011-01-01

    Electrical characteristics and circuit design considerations for prototype 6H-SiC JFET integrated circuits (ICs) operating over the broad temperature range of -125 C to +600 C are described. Strategic implementation of circuits with transistors and resistors in the same 6H-SiC n-channel layer enabled ICs with nearly temperature-independent functionality to be achieved. The frequency performance of the circuits declined at temperatures increasingly below or above room temperature, roughly corresponding to the change in 6H-SiC n-channel resistance arising from incomplete carrier ionization at low temperature and decreased electron mobility at high temperature. In addition to very broad temperature functionality, these simple digital and analog demonstration integrated circuits successfully operated with little change in functional characteristics over the course of thousands of hours at 500 C before experiencing interconnect-related failures. With appropriate further development, these initial results establish a new technology foundation for realizing durable 500 C ICs for combustion engine sensing and control, deep-well drilling, and other harsh-environment applications.

  20. Modeling the dynamic and thermodynamic operation of Stirling engines by means of an equivalent electrical circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cascella, Franco; Sorin, Mikhail; Formosa, Fabien; Teyssedou, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A model based on the electrical analogy theory has been developed to predict the operation of a Stirling engine. • The models takes into account the continuity, the momentum and the energy conservation equations. • The model predicts the operating conditions of the RE100 Free piston Stirling engine. • The model is sensible to the modeling of the effects of the machine load. - Abstract: The Stirling engines are inherently efficient; their thermodynamic cycles reach the Carnot efficiency. These technologies are suitable to operate under any low temperature difference between the hot and the cold sources. For these reasons, these engines can be considered as reliable power conversion systems to promote the conversion of low-grade waste heat generated by industrial plants. The need of a model to predict the behavior of these engines is of primary importance. Nevertheless, a great difficulty is encountered in developing such a model since it is not simple to take into account coupled thermodynamic and dynamic effects. This is the main reason why several models make use of electrical analogies to describe Stirling engines (in particular, free-piston machines): by assuming the pressure equivalent to a voltage and the flow rate to an electrical current, a coupled dynamic-thermodynamic analysis of the engine can be performed. In this paper, an electrical circuit whose behavior is equivalent to that of the engine is derived from the electrical analogy theory. To this aim, we propose an electrical analogy model based on the three conservation laws (mass, momentum and energy). Since limited experimental information is available in the open literature, the results obtained with the proposed model are compared with the experimental data collected at the NASA Lewis Research center for a free-piston Stirling engine i.e., the RE-1000 engine.

  1. Open-circuit fault detection and tolerant operation for a parallel-connected SAB DC-DC converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Kiwoo; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an open-circuit fault detection method and its tolerant control strategy for a Parallel-Connected Single Active Bridge (PCSAB) dc-dc converter. The structural and operational characteristics of the PCSAB converter lead to several advantages especially for high power applicatio...

  2. An analysis of the operation of a single-pole relay integrated circuit device with a controlled reset ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshetov, N.E.

    1980-01-01

    Relay equipment using semiconductor components (such as those containing gates using planar transformers, and a relay in networks which control the operational time of a relay) are widely used in the automation equipment of electric power systems. A scheme where a gate in the form of an integrated circuit is used is given.

  3. Operational and biological effects zones from base stations of cellular telephony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geronikolou, St. A., E-mail: sgeronik@bioacademy.gr [Biomedical Research Foundation Academy of Athens, Athens (Greece); Zimeras, S., E-mail: zimste@aegean.gr [University of the Aegean, Karlovassi, Samos (Greece); Tsitomeneas, S. Th., E-mail: stsit@teipir.gr [Piraeus University of Applied Sciences, Aigaleo (Greece)

    2016-03-25

    The possible environmental impacts of cellular base stations are operational and biological. The operational effects comprise Εlectro-Μagnetic Interference (EMI), lightning alterations and aesthetic degradation. Both thermal and non-thermal biological effects depend on the absorption of UHF radiofrequencies used. We measured, calculated and estimated the impact zones. The results are: (a) The lightning lethal zone equal to the antenna height, (b) the EMI impact in a zone up to 40m and (c) the ICNIRP’s limits exceed to a zone of 8∼20m into the antenna’s radiation pattern (for 2G GSM and 3G UMTS station). Finally we conclude the adverse effects must not expected in a zone of more than 150m from the radiated antenna, whereas, there is possibility of stochastic effects in intermediate distances (20/40-150m).

  4. Operation results of the secondary circuits of the French PWR type power plant park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Global results of performances realized since 1981 by the French PWR 900 MW power plants (installed power, availability, casual or planned shutdowns); analysis of the behaviour (casual unavailability) comparing together the performances of the different components in the secondary circuit; behaviour of the principal materials of the secondary circuit and their weight in the unavailabilities of the whole French nuclear park [fr

  5. Design of Introspective Circuits for Analysis of Cell-Level Dis-orientation in Self-Assembled Cellular Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Jesse Macias

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a novel approach to managing complexity in a large self-assembled system, by employing the self-assembling components themselves to address the complexity. Challenges are discussed, including the question of how to deal with elements that are assembled in different orientations from each other, and a solution based on the idea of introspective circuits is described. A methodology for determining a single cell’s orientation from an adjacent cell is given. An algorithm is then described for using such re-oriented edge cells to determine orientation of more-interior cells, thus allowing re-orientation of an entire 2D region of cells. Test procedures are described, and results are presented to show better-than-linear time performance (O(sqrt(n. The significance of this work is discussed, not only in terms of managing arrays of dis-oriented cells, but more importantly as an example of the usefulness of local, distributed self-configuration to create and use introspective circuitry. Finally, future work is discussed, including extension to 3D collections of cells.

  6. Corrosion and indices of operating reliability of steam-water circuits of foreign NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynova, O.I.

    1983-01-01

    Corrosion failures in circuits of foreign NPPs are considered. According to American statistics there are more corrosion failures in two-circuit NPPs than in NPPs with one circuit. Steam generators mostly suffer from ''corrosion denting''. Lately pitting corrosion becomes a potentially serious problem. Steam generator vertical tubes are maiply subjected to this corrosion type. Attention is drawn to intercrystalline corrosion. The causes of corrosion are described. The problem of optimization of structural materials is discussed to reduce corrosion failures as well as other methods of decreasing corrosion failures. Organization of nondestructive testing, increased requirements to water and steam purity are of great importance

  7. Low-power operation using self-timed circuits and adaptive scaling of the supply voltage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Skovby; Niessen, C.; Sparsø, Jens

    1994-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that for certain types of applications like sampled audio systems, self-timed circuits can achieve very low power consumption, because unused circuit parts automatically turn into a stand-by mode. Additional savings may be obtained by combining the self......-timed circuits with a mechanism that adaptively adjusts the supply voltage to the smallest possible, while maintaining the performance requirements. This paper describes such a mechanism, analyzes the possible power savings, and presents a demonstrator chip that has been fabricated and tested. The idea...... of voltage scaling has been used previously in synchronous circuits, and the contributions of the present paper are: 1) the combination of supply scaling and self-timed circuitry which has some unique advantages, and 2) the thorough analysis of the power savings that are possible using this technique.>...

  8. Design and development of improved ballscrew and control circuit for reactivity mechanisms of 220 MWe PHWR operating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, A.K.; Rama Mohan, N.; Mathew, Jimmy; Mathur, M.K.; Roy, S.; Ingle, V.J.; Ghoshal, B.; Ashok Kumar, B.; Patil, D.C.; Dwivedi, K.P.; Bhambra, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    There has been persistent failure of Ballscrews used for Reactivity Mechanism in standardised 220 MWe PHWR units. The detailed review of failures indicated that on one hand the number of demands for operation of Absorber Rod and Regulating Rod had increased due to use of digital circuit in the drive control system as compared analog circuits used earlier. On the other hand, the existing design of ballscrew had some inherent weaknesses to withstand the loads generated during starting and stopping of the regulating rods. To solve these problems two-pronged approach was adopted. The control problem was traced to overshooting of the servomotor of Absorber Rod and Regulating Rod to the full speed at the time of starting and thereafter, settling to the required speed. This sudden overshooting produces a jerk in the drive mechanism. A modified circuit has been evolved to solve this problem. Also, Changing the dead band and gain of control circuits have reduced the number of rod movements. A 'new design' of Ballscrew assembly was finalised by NPCIL with a view to withstand the severe loads generated during starting and stopping of the regulating rods and to achieve enhanced service life under water-lubrication condition. Based on this design, prototype assemblies were successfully manufactured by two Indian manufacturers. The design was cleared for manufacturing of the bulk production of Ballscrew assemblies after evaluation of its performance during rigorous 'Acceptance Testing'. Two ballscrews of new design were installed in the KGS-1 reactor and are operating since July 2005. This paper covers operational feedback including ballscrew failures in various units, Design/Development of Modified Reactivity Mechanism Ballscrews and Control Circuit based on analysis of underlying causes of failures and feedback on performance of new design. (author)

  9. Beyond voltage-gated ion channels: Voltage-operated membrane proteins and cellular processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianping; Chen, Xingjuan; Xue, Yucong; Gamper, Nikita; Zhang, Xuan

    2018-04-18

    Voltage-gated ion channels were believed to be the only voltage-sensitive proteins in excitable (and some non-excitable) cells for a long time. Emerging evidence indicates that the voltage-operated model is shared by some other transmembrane proteins expressed in both excitable and non-excitable cells. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about voltage-operated proteins, which are not classic voltage-gated ion channels as well as the voltage-dependent processes in cells for which single voltage-sensitive proteins have yet to be identified. Particularly, we will focus on the following. (1) Voltage-sensitive phosphoinositide phosphatases (VSP) with four transmembrane segments homologous to the voltage sensor domain (VSD) of voltage-gated ion channels; VSPs are the first family of proteins, other than the voltage-gated ion channels, for which there is sufficient evidence for the existence of the VSD domain; (2) Voltage-gated proton channels comprising of a single voltage-sensing domain and lacking an identified pore domain; (3) G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate the depolarization-evoked potentiation of Ca 2+ mobilization; (4) Plasma membrane (PM) depolarization-induced but Ca 2+ -independent exocytosis in neurons. (5) Voltage-dependent metabolism of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns[4,5]P 2 , PIP 2 ) in the PM. These recent discoveries expand our understanding of voltage-operated processes within cellular membranes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Biofouling evaluation in the seawater cooling circuit of an operating coastal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, P.S.; Veeramani, P.; Ershath, M.I.M.; Venugopalan, V.P. [BARC Facilities, Water and Steam Chemistry Div., Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-07-01

    Chlorination is the most commonly used method of biofouling control in cooling water systems of coastal power stations. In the present study, we report results of extensive sampling in different sections of the cooling water system of an operating power station undertaken during three consecutive maintenance shutdowns. The power plant employed continuous low level chlorination (0.2 ± 0.1 mg L{sup -1} TRO) with twice-a-week booster dosing (0.4 ± 0.1 mg L-1 TRO for 8 hours). In addition, the process seawater heat exchangers received supplementary dosing of bromide treatment (0.2 ± 0.1 mg L{sup -1} TRO for 1 hour in every 8 h shift). Biofouling samples were collected from the cooling water conduits, heat exchanger water boxes, pipelines, heated discharge conduits and outfall section during the annual maintenance shutdown of the plant in the years 2007, 2008 and 2009. Simultaneous monitoring of biofouling on test coupons in coastal waters enabled direct comparison of fouling situation on test panels and that in the cooling system. The data showed significant reduction in biofouling inside the cooling circuit as compared to the coastal waters. However, significant amount of fouling was still evident at several places, indicating inadequacy of the biocide treatment regime. The maximum load of 31.3 kg m{sup 2} y{sup -1} was observed in the conduits leading to the process seawater heat exchangers (PSW-HX) and the minimum of 1.3 kg m{sup 2} y{sup -1} was observed in the outfall section. Fouling loads of 12.2 - 14.7 kg m{sup 2} y{sup -1} were observed in the concrete conduits feeding the main condensers. Bromide treatment ahead of the PSW-HX could marginally reduce the fouling load in the downstream section of the dosing point; the HX inlets still showed good biofouling. Species diversity across the cooling water system showed the pre-condenser section to be dominated by green mussels (Perna viridis), pearl oysters (Pinctada sp.) and edible oysters (Crassostrea sp

  11. Biofouling evaluation in the seawater cooling circuit of an operating coastal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, P.S.; Veeramani, P.; Ershath, M.I.M.; Venugopalan, V.P.

    2010-01-01

    Chlorination is the most commonly used method of biofouling control in cooling water systems of coastal power stations. In the present study, we report results of extensive sampling in different sections of the cooling water system of an operating power station undertaken during three consecutive maintenance shutdowns. The power plant employed continuous low level chlorination (0.2 ± 0.1 mg L -1 TRO) with twice-a-week booster dosing (0.4 ± 0.1 mg L-1 TRO for 8 hours). In addition, the process seawater heat exchangers received supplementary dosing of bromide treatment (0.2 ± 0.1 mg L -1 TRO for 1 hour in every 8 h shift). Biofouling samples were collected from the cooling water conduits, heat exchanger water boxes, pipelines, heated discharge conduits and outfall section during the annual maintenance shutdown of the plant in the years 2007, 2008 and 2009. Simultaneous monitoring of biofouling on test coupons in coastal waters enabled direct comparison of fouling situation on test panels and that in the cooling system. The data showed significant reduction in biofouling inside the cooling circuit as compared to the coastal waters. However, significant amount of fouling was still evident at several places, indicating inadequacy of the biocide treatment regime. The maximum load of 31.3 kg m 2 y -1 was observed in the conduits leading to the process seawater heat exchangers (PSW-HX) and the minimum of 1.3 kg m 2 y -1 was observed in the outfall section. Fouling loads of 12.2 - 14.7 kg m 2 y -1 were observed in the concrete conduits feeding the main condensers. Bromide treatment ahead of the PSW-HX could marginally reduce the fouling load in the downstream section of the dosing point; the HX inlets still showed good biofouling. Species diversity across the cooling water system showed the pre-condenser section to be dominated by green mussels (Perna viridis), pearl oysters (Pinctada sp.) and edible oysters (Crassostrea sp.), whereas the post-condenser section and heat

  12. Design of a magnetic-tunnel-junction-oriented nonvolatile lookup table circuit with write-operation-minimized data shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Daisuke; Hanyu, Takahiro

    2018-04-01

    A magnetic-tunnel-junction (MTJ)-oriented nonvolatile lookup table (LUT) circuit, in which a low-power data-shift function is performed by minimizing the number of write operations in MTJ devices is proposed. The permutation of the configuration memory cell for read/write access is performed as opposed to conventional direct data shifting to minimize the number of write operations, which results in significant write energy savings in the data-shift function. Moreover, the hardware cost of the proposed LUT circuit is small since the selector is shared between read access and write access. In fact, the power consumption in the data-shift function and the transistor count are reduced by 82 and 52%, respectively, compared with those in a conventional static random-access memory-based implementation using a 90 nm CMOS technology.

  13. MSAT and cellular hybrid networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowsky, Patrick W., II

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation is developing both the Communications Ground Segment and the Series 1000 Mobile Phone for American Mobile Satellite Corporation's (AMSC's) Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system. The success of the voice services portion of this system depends, to some extent, upon the interoperability of the cellular network and the satellite communication circuit switched communication channels. This paper will describe the set of user-selectable cellular interoperable modes (cellular first/satellite second, etc.) provided by the Mobile Phone and described how they are implemented with the ground segment. Topics including roaming registration and cellular-to-satellite 'seamless' call handoff will be discussed, along with the relevant Interim Standard IS-41 Revision B Cellular Radiotelecommunications Intersystem Operations and IOS-553 Mobile Station - Land Station Compatibility Specification.

  14. A 35fJ/Step differential successive approximation capacitive sensor readout circuit with quasi-dynamic operation

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham

    2016-10-06

    We propose a successive-approximation capacitive sensor readout circuit that achieves 35fJ/Step energy efficiency FoM, which represents 4× improvement over the state-of-the-art. A fully differential architecture is employed to provide robustness against common mode noise and errors. An inverter-based amplifier with near-threshold biasing provides robust, fast, and energy-efficient operation. Quasi-dynamic operation is used to maintain the energy efficiency for a scalable sample rate. A hybrid coarse-fine capacitive DAC achieves 11.7bit effective resolution in a compact area. © 2016 IEEE.

  15. Cellular Biotechnology Operations Support Systems-Fluid Dynamics Investigation (CBOSS-FDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Tissue Culture Module (TCM) is the stationary bioreactor vessel in which cell cultures grow. However, for the Cellular Biotechnology Operations Support Systems-Fluid Dynamics Investigation (CBOSS-FDI), color polystyrene beads are used to measure the effectiveness of various mixing procedures. Uniform mixing is a crucial component of CBOSS experiments involving the immune response of human lymphoid cell suspensions. In this picture, the beads are trapped in the injection port shortly after injection. Swirls of beads indicate, event to the naked eye, the contents of the TCM are not fully mixed. The beads are similar in size and density to human lymphoid cells. The goal is to develop procedures that are both convenient for the flight crew and are optimal in providing uniform and reproducible mixing of all components, including cells. The average bead density in a well mixed TCM will be uniform, with no bubbles, and it will be measured using the absorption of light

  16. Circuit model optimization of a nano split ring resonator dimer antenna operating in infrared spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gneiding, N.; Zhuromskyy, O.; Peschel, U.; Shamonina, E.

    2014-01-01

    Metamaterials are comprised of metallic structures with a strong response to incident electromagnetic radiation, like, for example, split ring resonators. The interaction of resonator ensembles with electromagnetic waves can be simulated with finite difference or finite elements algorithms, however, above a certain ensemble size simulations become inadmissibly time or memory consuming. Alternatively a circuit description of metamaterials, a well developed modelling tool at radio and microwave frequencies, allows to significantly increase the simulated ensemble size. This approach can be extended to the IR spectral range with an appropriate set of circuit element parameters accounting for physical effects such as electron inertia and finite conductivity. The model is verified by comparing the coupling coefficients with the ones obtained from the full wave numerical simulations, and used to optimize the nano-antenna design with improved radiation characteristics.

  17. Method for determining the optimum mode of operation of the chemical water regime in the water-steam-circuit of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerfeldt, P.; Reisner, H.; Hartmann, G.; Kulicke, P.

    1988-01-01

    The method aims at increasing the lifetime of secondary coolant circuit components in nuclear power plants through the determination of the optimum mode of operation of the chemical water regime by help of radioisotopes

  18. Designing of all optical generalized circuit for two-input binary and multi-valued logical operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Panchatapa; Roy, Jitendra Nath; Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a generalized all optical circuit of two-input logical operation (both binary and multi-valued), using an optical nonlinear material (OPNLM) based switch. The inputs of the logic gates are represented by different polarization states of light. This model is simple, practical and very much useful for future all optical information processing. Proposed scheme can work for different wavelengths and for different materials. The simulation result with the nonlinear material gold nanoparticle embedded in optically transparent matrices alumina (Al2O3) is also presented in the paper.

  19. Short circuit detection in the winding and operation of superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstrom, P.L.

    1982-01-01

    Three categories of shorts will be discussed: (1) shorts to the metallic bobbin or other structural elements, (2) shorts between turns caused by instrumentation wires that are deliberately connected to a turn at the end (e.g., voltage taps) and that short out to another turn but are not completely severed in the process, and (3) short circuits between turns caused by direct contact due to insulation failure by chips of metal bridging turns and by instrumentation wires that bridge turns but are severed in the process of shorting

  20. EDF operational experience of primary circuit filter usage. Analysis of results and strategy for optimizing filtration and reducing solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarenhas, Darren; Moleiro, Edgar; Bancelin, Estelle; Bretelle, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Pleated fibreglass media filter cartridges are used throughout the auxiliary systems at nuclear power plants across the 58 reactors of EDF fleet. The main role of these filters is to remove suspended solids from coolant to prevent them accumulating in circuits or in equipments. In the primary circuit, these filters therefore limit the deposition of solids that are active or could become active if allowed to recirculate throughout the primary circuit, avoiding potential consequences such as an increase in dose rates, axial offset anomalies, demineralisers fouling, higher pressure losses in primary loop, and clogging of the primary pumps. Since 2008, a steady increase in the consumption of filters has been noticed, and therefore an increase in the amount of solid waste to treat. Preliminary studies have identified the primary circuit high-flow filters of the 1300/1450 MWe reactors as the main source of this increase. Not only has this stretched of solid waste containers production to the limit, as well as strained site resources and increased risks of operational errors during periods of frequent filter changes; it has also suggested that there is an underlying problem that could pose a serious risk to the primary circuit if untreated. Further studies have been carried out to identify more precisely the impact of possible causes, including increased quality surveillance of the filters, correlation of consumption data with the concentrations of various conditioning products and typical pollutants, and an impact analysis of events such as steam generator replacements or new practices like zinc injection. Work has been done with the filter manufacturer to improve their service lifetime and a simulation tool has been developed in order to understand and optimise filtration. We are also working with sites on creating good practices and avoiding bad ones. These actions should reduce the consumption in the short term while still assuring a high quality of filtration and

  1. Computation of fission product distribution in core and primary circuit of a high temperature reactor during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattke, U.H.

    1991-08-01

    The fission product release during normal operation from the core of a high temperature reactor is well known to be very low. A HTR-Modul-reactor with a reduced power of 170 MW th is examined under the aspect whether the contamination with Cs-137 as most important nuclide will be so low that a helium turbine in the primary circuit is possible. The program SPTRAN is the tool for the computations and siumlations of fission product transport in HTRs. The program initially developed for computations of accident events has been enlarged for computing the fission product transport under the conditions of normal operation. The theoretical basis, the used programs and data basis are presented followed by the results of the computations. These results are explained and discussed; moreover the consequences and future possibilities of development are shown. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Amino acids and autophagy: cross-talk and co-operation to control cellular homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Bernadette; Korolchuk, Viktor I; Sarkar, Sovan

    2015-10-01

    Maintenance of amino acid homeostasis is important for healthy cellular function, metabolism and growth. Intracellular amino acid concentrations are dynamic; the high demand for protein synthesis must be met with constant dietary intake, followed by cellular influx, utilization and recycling of nutrients. Autophagy is a catabolic process via which superfluous or damaged proteins and organelles are delivered to the lysosome and degraded to release free amino acids into the cytoplasm. Furthermore, autophagy is specifically activated in response to amino acid starvation via two key signaling cascades: the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) and the general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2) pathways. These pathways are key regulators of the integration between anabolic (amino acid depleting) and catabolic (such as autophagy which is amino acid replenishing) processes to ensure intracellular amino acid homeostasis. Here, we discuss the key roles that amino acids, along with energy (ATP, glucose) and oxygen, are playing in cellular growth and proliferation. We further explore how sophisticated methods are employed by cells to sense intracellular amino acid concentrations, how amino acids can act as a switch to dictate the temporal and spatial activation of anabolic and catabolic processes and how autophagy contributes to the replenishment of free amino acids, all to ensure cell survival. Relevance of these molecular processes to cellular and organismal physiology and pathology is also discussed.

  3. Enhancing Sensor Network Data Quality via Collaborated Circuit and Network Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Vespa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In many applications, the quality of data gathered by sensor networks is directly related to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of the sensor data being transmitted in the networks. Different from the SNR that is often used in measuring the quality of communication links, the SNR used in this work measures how accurately the data in the network packets represent the physical parameters being sensed. Hence, the signal here refers to the physical parameters that are being monitored by sensor networks; the noise is due to environmental interference and circuit noises at sensor nodes, and packet loss during network transmission. While issues affecting SNR at sensor nodes have been intensively investigated, the impact of network packet loss on data SNR has not attracted significant attention in sensor network design. This paper investigates the impact of packet loss on sensor network data SNR and shows that data SNR is dramatically affected by network packet loss. A data quality metric, based on data SNR, is developed and a cross-layer adaptive scheme is presented to minimize data quality degradation in congested sensor networks. The proposed scheme consists of adaptive downsampling and bit truncation at sensor nodes and intelligent traffic management techniques at the network level. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed techniques.

  4. Radiation Hardened High Speed Integrated Circuits SERDES I/O for Extreme Operating Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Manned and robotic space missions require high-performance electronic control systems capable of operating for extended periods in harsh environments subject to...

  5. A Review of Anti- Podal Vivaldi Antenna Operating in Cellular Mobile Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Alkhaibari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The antenna proposed is a new geomantic structure of Ultra-Wideband (UWB Anti- Podal Vivaldi antenna (AVA. It remarkably offers an attractive performance over the bands of cellular networks. However, its benefits are not limited only in particular applications, whereas radar imaging, mining detection, the biomedical science in the heating of brain cancer tumor and treatment, and the wireless communication are considered as the main applications suitable for utilization. Therefore, the focus on this paper is to spot the light illuminating into the cellular communications network Systems. On the other hands, several characteristics of Vivaldi antenna have been provided such as the gain, return loss, Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR, current distribution and E- fields. Finally, the results illustrate the capability and feasibility of the designed antenna.

  6. What's Behind a "+" Sign? Perceiving an Arithmetic Operator Recruits Brain Circuits for Spatial Orienting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Romain; Epinat-Duclos, Justine; Sigovan, Monica; Breton, Audrey; Cheylus, Anne; Fayol, Michel; Thevenot, Catherine; Prado, Jérôme

    2018-05-01

    Do mathematical symbols evoke spatial representations? Although behavioral studies have long demonstrated interactions between space and the processing of Arabic digits, how to interpret these results remains controversial. Here, we tested whether activity in regions supporting spatial processing contributes to the processing of symbols conveying fundamental arithmetic concepts-such as operation signs-even in the absence of associated digits. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that merely perceiving a "+" sign triggers activity in brain regions that support the orienting of spatial attention in adults. Activity in these regions was greater for "+" than for "×" signs, indicating that it is modulated by whether an operator reflects an operation that evokes numerical manipulation (rather than rote memorization). Finally, the degree to which subjects activated a spatial region in response to a "+" sign was correlated with the degree to which subjects benefited from being briefly presented with that sign before having to calculate a single-digit addition problem, an effect termed operator-priming. Therefore, not only are some arithmetic operators linked to spatial intuitions, but such intuitions might also have an important role during arithmetic calculation. More generally, our findings support the view that mathematical symbols inherently evoke spatial representations.

  7. Thermionic integrated circuits: electronics for hostile environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, D.K.; McCormick, J.B.; MacRoberts, M.D.J.; Wilde, D.K.; Dooley, G.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    Thermionic integrated circuits combine vacuum tube technology with integrated circuit techniques to form integrated vacuum triode circuits. These circuits are capable of extended operation in both high-temperature and high-radiation environments

  8. Performance of the Protection System for Superconducting Circuits during LHC Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Denz, R; Charifoulline, Z; Dahlerup-Petersen, K; Schmidt, R; Siemko, A; Steckert, J

    2011-01-01

    The protection system for superconducting magnets and bus-bars is an essential part of the LHC machine protection and ensures the integrity of substantial elements of the accelerator. Due to the large amount of hardwired and software interlock channels the dependability of the system is a critical parameter for the successful operation of the LHC.

  9. An RF energy harvesting power management circuit for appropriate duty-cycled operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirane, Atsushi; Ito, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Noboru; Masu, Kazuya

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we present an RF energy harvesting power management unit (PMU) for battery-less wireless sensor devices (WSDs). The proposed PMU realizes a duty-cycled operation that is divided into the energy charging time and discharging time. The proposed PMU detects two types of timing, thus, the appropriate timing for the activation can be recognized. The activation of WSDs at the proper timing leads to energy efficient operation and stable wireless communication. The proposed PMU includes a hysteresis comparator (H-CMP) and an RF signal detector (RF-SD) to detect the timings. The proposed RF-SD can operate without the degradation of charge efficiency by reusing the RF energy harvester (RF-EH) and H-CMP. The PMU fabricated in a 180 nm Si CMOS demonstrated the charge operation using the RF signal at 915 MHz and the two types of timing detection with less than 124 nW in the charge phase. Furthermore, in the active phase, the PMU generates a 0.5 V regulated power supply from the charged energy.

  10. Investigation of thermohydraulic parameter variations in operating conditions of Bilibino NPP CPS cooling circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranaev, Yu.D.; Koz'menkova, V.V.; Parafilo, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    In consequence of activities on uncovering the reasons for through faults formation in cooling tubes of reactor control and protection system (CPS) channels of Bilibino-2 reactor the conclusion is made that corrosion failure development takes place against the backdrop of periodic increase of total moisture in reactor space at transient and standby modes at top of cooling tubes of CPS channels. Formation of corrosion defects in cooling tubes of four CPS channels of unit 2 in 2011-2012 is specific factor for this plant unit and do not effect on operation of other plant units. It is pointed out that ingress of moisture into gas system of the reactor is the critical factor providing integrity of structure elements of EhPG-6 reactor core cooling system. This fact agrees nicely with the results obtained during operation AM reactor of the First NPP [ru

  11. Operative and postoperative control of variations in characteristics of physicochemical processes in NPP circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilkov, N.Ya.; Krjukov, Yu.V.; Blinov, S.V.; Fedoseev, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    Based on actual data obtained from operative chemical monitoring in operating NPPs, the authors show the use of some probability diagnosis methods in practical applications such as identification of anomalies of the water chemistry condition, specifically, in the following: detecting violation of control limits a priori determined for the water chemistry parameters, using the control card method; construction of detectors for identifying probably (statistically) significant stepwise changes in the current arithmetical mean of the water chemistry parametric values; identifying successive changes in the behavior of robust estimators of the monitored parameters values; construction of robust linear regression prognostic models for dynamic changes in the monitored parameters values; correlation analysis of time series formed from the measured data on the water chemistry connected parameters (which are lumped (concentrated at one control point) and/or distributed along the coolant path). (author)

  12. Impact of load follow operation on the chemistry of the primary and secondary circuit of a pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, F.; Riehm, S.; Bolz, M.; Speck, A.

    2012-09-01

    products activity concentrations in the loop surfaces and the dose rates at the loop lines that are monitored and assessed regularly. The secondary circuit is operated according the H-AVT chemistry (high-pH, treatment with volatile chemicals) to minimize the release of metals from carbon- and low alloy steels. The impact of load follow operation on the corrosion protection of the carbon- and low alloy steels on the secondary side due to changes of physico-chemical conditions is discussed. (authors)

  13. Operant behavior to obtain palatable food modifies neuronal plasticity in the brain reward circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guegan, Thomas; Cutando, Laura; Ayuso, Eduard; Santini, Emanuela; Fisone, Gilberto; Bosch, Fatima; Martinez, Albert; Valjent, Emmanuel; Maldonado, Rafael; Martin, Miquel

    2013-02-01

    Palatability enhances food intake by hedonic mechanisms that prevail over caloric necessities. Different studies have demonstrated the role of endogenous cannabinoids in the mesocorticolimbic system in controlling food hedonic value and consumption. We hypothesize that the endogenous cannabinoid system could also be involved in the development of food-induced behavioral alterations, such as food-seeking and binge-eating, by a mechanism that requires neuroplastic changes in the brain reward pathway. For this purpose, we evaluated the role of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1-R) in the behavioral and neuroplastic changes induced by operant training for standard, highly caloric or highly palatable isocaloric food using different genetics, viral and pharmacological approaches. Neuroplasticity was evaluated by measuring changes in dendritic spine density in neurons previously labeled with the dye DiI. Only operant training to obtain highly palatable isocaloric food induced neuroplastic changes in neurons of the nucleus accumbens shell and prefrontal cortex that were associated to changes in food-seeking behavior. These behavioral and neuroplastic modifications induced by highly palatable isocaloric food were dependent on the activity of the CB1-R. Neuroplastic changes induced by highly palatable isocaloric food are similar to those produced by some drugs of abuse and may be crucial in the alteration of food-seeking behavior leading to overweight and obesity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  14. Two-qubit gate operations in superconducting circuits with strong coupling and weak anharmonicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lü Xinyou; Ashhab, S; Cui Wei; Wu Rebing; Nori, Franco

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically study the implementation of two-qubit gates in a system of two coupled superconducting qubits. In particular, we analyze two-qubit gate operations under the condition that the coupling strength is comparable with or even larger than the anharmonicity of the qubits. By numerically solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation under the assumption of negligible decoherence, we obtain the dependence of the two-qubit gate fidelity on the system parameters in the case of both direct and indirect qubit-qubit coupling. Our numerical results can be used to identify the ‘safe’ parameter regime for experimentally implementing two-qubit gates with high fidelity in these systems. (paper)

  15. On Green Cognitive Radio Cellular Networks: Dynamic Spectrum and Operation Management

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2016-07-18

    We study a profit maximization problem related to cognitive radio cellular networks in an environmentally- friendly framework. The objective of the primary network (PN) and secondary network (SN) is to maximize their profits while respecting a certain carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions threshold. In this study, the PN can switch off some of its base stations (BSs) powered by mircogrids, and hence leases the spectrum in the corresponding cells, to reduce its footprint. The corresponding users are roamed to the SN infrastructure. In return, the SN receives a certain roaming cost and its users can freely exploit the spectrum. We study two scenarios in which the profits are either separately or jointly maximized. In the disjoint maximization problem, two low complexity algorithms for PN and SN BS on/off switching are proposed to maximize the profit per CO2 emissions utility and determine the amount of the shared bandwidth. In the joint maximization approach, the low complexity algorithm is based on maximizing the sum of weighted profits per CO2. Selected numerical results illustrate the collaboration performance versus various system parameters. We show that the proposed algorithms achieve performances close to those obtained with the exhaustive search method, and that the roaming price and the renewable energy availability are crucial parameters that control the collaboration of both networks.

  16. On Green Cognitive Radio Cellular Networks: Dynamic Spectrum and Operation Management

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman; Ghazzai, Hakim; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    We study a profit maximization problem related to cognitive radio cellular networks in an environmentally- friendly framework. The objective of the primary network (PN) and secondary network (SN) is to maximize their profits while respecting a certain carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions threshold. In this study, the PN can switch off some of its base stations (BSs) powered by mircogrids, and hence leases the spectrum in the corresponding cells, to reduce its footprint. The corresponding users are roamed to the SN infrastructure. In return, the SN receives a certain roaming cost and its users can freely exploit the spectrum. We study two scenarios in which the profits are either separately or jointly maximized. In the disjoint maximization problem, two low complexity algorithms for PN and SN BS on/off switching are proposed to maximize the profit per CO2 emissions utility and determine the amount of the shared bandwidth. In the joint maximization approach, the low complexity algorithm is based on maximizing the sum of weighted profits per CO2. Selected numerical results illustrate the collaboration performance versus various system parameters. We show that the proposed algorithms achieve performances close to those obtained with the exhaustive search method, and that the roaming price and the renewable energy availability are crucial parameters that control the collaboration of both networks.

  17. Feeding Behavior of Aplysia: A Model System for Comparing Cellular Mechanisms of Classical and Operant Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Feeding behavior of Aplysia provides an excellent model system for analyzing and comparing mechanisms underlying appetitive classical conditioning and reward operant conditioning. Behavioral protocols have been developed for both forms of associative learning, both of which increase the occurrence of biting following training. Because the neural…

  18. Simulating the impacts of on-street vehicle parking on traffic operations on urban streets using cellular automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingxu; Li, Zhibin; Jiang, Hang; Zhu, Senlai; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, many bicycle lanes on urban streets are replaced with vehicle parking places. Spaces for bicycle riding are reduced, resulting in changes in bicycle and vehicle operational features. The objective of this study is to estimate the impacts of on-street parking on heterogeneous traffic operation on urban streets. A cellular automaton (CA) model is developed and calibrated to simulate bicycle lane-changing on streets with on-street parking. Two types of street segments with different bicycle lane width are considered. From the simulation, two types of conflicts between bicycles and vehicles are identified which are frictional conflicts and blocking conflicts. Factors affecting the frequency of conflicts are also identified. Based on the results, vehicle delay is estimated for various traffic situations considering the range of occupancy levels for on-street parking. Later, a numerical network example is analyzed to estimate the network impact of on-street parking on traffic assignment and operation. Findings of the study are helpful to policies and design regarding on-street vehicle parking to improve the efficiency of traffic operations.

  19. Suppression of the high-frequency disturbances in low-voltage circuits caused by disconnector operation in high-voltage open-air substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savic, M.S.

    1986-07-01

    The switching off and on of small capacitive currents charging busbar capacitances, connection conductors and open circuit breakers with disconnectors causes high-frequency transients in high-voltage networks. In low voltage circuits, these transient processes induce dangerous overvoltages for the electronic equipment in the substation. A modified construction of the disconnector with a damping resistor was investigated. Digital simulation of the transient process in a high-voltage network during the arcing period between the disconnector contacts with and without damping resistor were performed. A significant decrease of the arcing duration and the decrease of the electromagnetic field magnitude in the vicinity of the operating disconnector were noticed. In the low voltage circuit protected with the surge arrester, the overvoltage magnitude was not affected by the damping resistor due to the arrester protection effect.

  20. The Fault Detection, Localization, and Tolerant Operation of Modular Multilevel Converters with an Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT Open Circuit Fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Reliability is one of the critical issues for a modular multilevel converter (MMC since it consists of a large number of series-connected power electronics submodules (SMs. In this paper, a complete control strategy including fault detection, localization, and tolerant operation is proposed for the MMC under an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT open circuit fault. According to the output characteristics of the SM with the open-circuit fault of IGBT, a fault detection method based on the circulating current and output current observation is used. In order to further precisely locate the position of the faulty SM, a fault localization method based on the SM capacitor voltage observation is developed. After the faulty SM is isolated, the continuous operation of the converter is ensured by adopting the fault-tolerant strategy based on the use of redundant modules. To verify the proposed fault detection, fault localization, and fault-tolerant operation strategies, a 900 kVA MMC system under the conditions of an IGBT open circuit is developed in the Matlab/Simulink platform. The capabilities of rapid detection, precise positioning, and fault-tolerant operation of the investigated detection and control algorithms are also demonstrated.

  1. Maturity Assessment of Knowledge Management at PT. Cellular Tbk.: A Case Study at A Telecommunication Operator in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Achmad; Vivaldi, Harly; Putranto, Nur Arief Rahmatsyah

    2017-01-01

    Managing knowledge integrally as one of the company's asset is now a necessity to be part of the knowledge-based economy in the global industry. PT Cellular Tbk. (Cellular) has been a player of mobile communication service for more than 20 years. Cellular shows business transformation through increased gross revenue from Data services while…

  2. Interrogating the topological robustness of gene regulatory circuits by randomization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Huang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important roles of cells is performing their cellular tasks properly for survival. Cells usually achieve robust functionality, for example, cell-fate decision-making and signal transduction, through multiple layers of regulation involving many genes. Despite the combinatorial complexity of gene regulation, its quantitative behavior has been typically studied on the basis of experimentally verified core gene regulatory circuitry, composed of a small set of important elements. It is still unclear how such a core circuit operates in the presence of many other regulatory molecules and in a crowded and noisy cellular environment. Here we report a new computational method, named random circuit perturbation (RACIPE, for interrogating the robust dynamical behavior of a gene regulatory circuit even without accurate measurements of circuit kinetic parameters. RACIPE generates an ensemble of random kinetic models corresponding to a fixed circuit topology, and utilizes statistical tools to identify generic properties of the circuit. By applying RACIPE to simple toggle-switch-like motifs, we observed that the stable states of all models converge to experimentally observed gene state clusters even when the parameters are strongly perturbed. RACIPE was further applied to a proposed 22-gene network of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT, from which we identified four experimentally observed gene states, including the states that are associated with two different types of hybrid Epithelial/Mesenchymal phenotypes. Our results suggest that dynamics of a gene circuit is mainly determined by its topology, not by detailed circuit parameters. Our work provides a theoretical foundation for circuit-based systems biology modeling. We anticipate RACIPE to be a powerful tool to predict and decode circuit design principles in an unbiased manner, and to quantitatively evaluate the robustness and heterogeneity of gene expression.

  3. The test of VLSI circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baviere, Ph.

    Tests which have proven effective for evaluating VLSI circuits for space applications are described. It is recommended that circuits be examined after each manfacturing step to gain fast feedback on inadequacies in the production system. Data from failure modes which occur during operational lifetimes of circuits also permit redefinition of the manufacturing and quality control process to eliminate the defects identified. Other tests include determination of the operational envelope of the circuits, examination of the circuit response to controlled inputs, and the performance and functional speeds of ROM and RAM memories. Finally, it is desirable that all new circuits be designed with testing in mind.

  4. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1968-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 1 deals with the design and applications of electronic devices and circuits such as passive components, diodes, triodes and transistors, rectification and power supplies, amplifying circuits, electronic instruments, and oscillators. These topics are supported with introductory network theory and physics. This volume is comprised of nine chapters and begins by explaining the operation of resistive, inductive, and capacitive elements in direct and alternating current circuits. The theory for some of the expressions quoted in later chapters is presented. Th

  5. Automatic circuit analysis based on mask information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preas, B.T.; Lindsay, B.W.; Gwyn, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The Circuit Mask Translator (CMAT) code has been developed which converts integrated circuit mask information into a circuit schematic. Logical operations, pattern recognition, and special functions are used to identify and interconnect diodes, transistors, capacitors, and resistances. The circuit topology provided by the translator is compatible with the input required for a circuit analysis program

  6. A 35fJ/Step differential successive approximation capacitive sensor readout circuit with quasi-dynamic operation

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham; Alhoshany, Abdulaziz; Alahmadi, Hamzah; Salama, Khaled N.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a successive-approximation capacitive sensor readout circuit that achieves 35fJ/Step energy efficiency FoM, which represents 4× improvement over the state-of-the-art. A fully differential architecture is employed to provide robustness

  7. Theory, analysis and applications of the operation of the superconducting transformer supplying a direct current to a non-dissipative superconducting charge circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sole, J.

    1967-01-01

    The author derives the very simple equations governing the operation of a transformer with superconducting windings supplying direct current to a non-dissipative superconducting charge circuit. An analysis of the various possible modes of operation with direct or slowly varying current raises the problem of the magnetic core. The study. leads to a conclusion which a priori might be surprising: the elimination of the magnetic core and the use of a primary super-conductor. An example of a possible realization of such a transformer is given as an indication, and the present prospects for different applications are considered. (author) [fr

  8. Proposed minimum requirements for the operational characteristics and testing of closed circuit life support system control electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, J C

    1998-01-01

    The popularization and transformation of scuba diving into a broadly practiced sport has served to ignite the interest of technically oriented divers into ever more demanding areas. This, along with the gradual release of military data, equipment, and techniques of closed circuit underwater breathing apparatus, has resulted in a virtual explosion of semiclosed and closed circuit systems for divers. Although many of these systems have been carefully thought out by capable designers, the impulse to rush to market with equipment that has not been fully developed and carefully tested is irresistible to marketers. In addition, the presence of systems developed by well-intentioned and otherwise competent designers who are, nonetheless, inexperienced in the field of life support can result in the sale of failure-prone equipment to divers who lack the knowledge and skills to identify deficiencies before disaster occurs. For this reason, a set of industry standards establishing minimum requirements and testing is needed to guide the designers of this equipment, and to protect the user community from incomplete or inadequate design. Many different technologies go into the development of closed circuit scuba. One key area is the design of electronics to monitor and maintain the critical gas mixtures of the closed circuit loop. Much of the system reliability and inherent danger is resident in the design of the circuitry and the software (if any) that runs it. This article will present a set of proposed minimum requirements, with the goal of establishing a dialog for the creation of guidelines for the classification, rating, design, and testing of embedded electronics for life support systems used in closed circuit applications. These guidelines will serve as the foundation for the later creation of a set of industry specifications.

  9. Feasibility Study of the PS Injection for 2 GeV LIU Beams with an Upgraded KFA-45 Injection Kicker System Operating in Short Circuit Mode

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Thomas; Borburgh, Jan; Ducimetière, Laurent; Feliciano, Luis; Ferrero Colomo, Alvaro; Goddard, Brennan; Sermeus, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Under the scope of the LIU project the CERN PS Booster to PS beam transfer will be modified to match the requirements for the future 2 GeV beams. This paper describes the evaluation of the proposed upgrade of the PS injection kicker. Different schemes of an injection for LIU beams into the PS have been outlined in the past already under the aspect of individual transfer kicker rise and fall time performances. Homogeneous rise and fall time requirements in the whole PSB to PS transfer chain have been established which allowed to consider an upgrade option of the present injection kicker system operated in short circuit mode. The challenging pulse quality constraints require an improvement of the flat top and post pulse ripples. Both operation modes, terminated and short circuit mode are analysed and analogue circuit simulations for the present and upgraded system are outlined. Recent measurements on the installed kickers are presented and analysed together with the simulation data. First measurements verifying...

  10. LOGIC CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, G.H.; Faught, M.L.

    1963-12-24

    A device for safety rod counting in a nuclear reactor is described. A Wheatstone bridge circuit is adapted to prevent de-energizing the hopper coils of a ball backup system if safety rods, sufficient in total control effect, properly enter the reactor core to effect shut down. A plurality of resistances form one arm of the bridge, each resistance being associated with a particular safety rod and weighted in value according to the control effect of the particular safety rod. Switching means are used to switch each of the resistances in and out of the bridge circuit responsive to the presence of a particular safety rod in its effective position in the reactor core and responsive to the attainment of a predetermined velocity by a particular safety rod enroute to its effective position. The bridge is unbalanced in one direction during normal reactor operation prior to the generation of a scram signal and the switching means and resistances are adapted to unbalance the bridge in the opposite direction if the safety rods produce a predetermined amount of control effect in response to the scram signal. The bridge unbalance reversal is then utilized to prevent the actuation of the ball backup system, or, conversely, a failure of the safety rods to produce the predetermined effect produces no unbalance reversal and the ball backup system is actuated. (AEC)

  11. Sequential circuit design for radiation hardened multiple voltage integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lawrence T [Phoenix, AZ; McIver, III, John K.

    2009-11-24

    The present invention includes a radiation hardened sequential circuit, such as a bistable circuit, flip-flop or other suitable design that presents substantial immunity to ionizing radiation while simultaneously maintaining a low operating voltage. In one embodiment, the circuit includes a plurality of logic elements that operate on relatively low voltage, and a master and slave latches each having storage elements that operate on a relatively high voltage.

  12. Radioactivity of long-lived nuclides in the primary circuit of the reactor BOR-60 during operation with defective fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryazev, V.M.; Kizin, V.D.; Lisitsyn, E.S.; Polyakov, V.I.; Chechetkin, Y.V.

    1978-06-01

    The summarized results of measurements of the enrichment and distribution of radioactive nuclides from corrosion and of fission products during the four years of operation of BOR-60, including a longer period of operation with detective fuel elements in the core, are presented. It is shown that for operation with approximately 1% leaking fuel rods radiation exposure becomes worse manily because of release and enrichment of cesium isotopes in the coolant. Of the other fission products, the largest contribution to the dose rate in pipework and components is given by 140 Ba / 140 La and 95 Nb. On operation with 0.1 to 0.2% of leaking fuel rods, this contribution is comparable to that of the corrosion products 60 Co and 54 Mn. The radioactivity of corrosion products in the circuit has not increased within the last three years and was about one order of magnitude lower than the theoretical values. The corrosion and fission products are nonuniformly distributed over the circuit. Concentration of 95 Nb and 60 Co in the pipe for 'cold' sodium is larger by a factor of 2 - 5 and of 140 Ba and 54 Mn by a factor of 10-20 than in the pipes for 'hot' sodium. Most of the cobalt was found to deposit in the heat exchanges. The effectiveness of emptying the pipes from coolant in order to reduce the dose sate is assessed. (orig.) [de

  13. Insulated transcriptional elements enable precise design of genetic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yeqing; Zhang, Haoqian M; Lyu, Cheng; Ji, Xiangyu; Hou, Junran; Guo, Xian; Ouyang, Qi; Lou, Chunbo

    2017-07-03

    Rational engineering of biological systems is often complicated by the complex but unwanted interactions between cellular components at multiple levels. Here we address this issue at the level of prokaryotic transcription by insulating minimal promoters and operators to prevent their interaction and enable the biophysical modeling of synthetic transcription without free parameters. This approach allows genetic circuit design with extraordinary precision and diversity, and consequently simplifies the design-build-test-learn cycle of circuit engineering to a mix-and-match workflow. As a demonstration, combinatorial promoters encoding NOT-gate functions were designed from scratch with mean errors of 96% using our insulated transcription elements. Furthermore, four-node transcriptional networks with incoherent feed-forward loops that execute stripe-forming functions were obtained without any trial-and-error work. This insulation-based engineering strategy improves the resolution of genetic circuit technology and provides a simple approach for designing genetic circuits for systems and synthetic biology.Unwanted interactions between cellular components can complicate rational engineering of biological systems. Here the authors design insulated minimal promoters and operators that enable biophysical modeling of bacterial transcription without free parameters for precise circuit design.

  14. Chemical operational experience with the water/steam-circuit at KNK II; Presentation at the meeting on Experience exchange on operational experience of fast breeder reactors, Karlsruhe/Bensberg/Kalkar, June 18. - 22. 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grumer, U.

    1990-06-01

    The availability of sodium cooled reactors depends essentially from the safety and reliability of the sodium heated steam generator. The transition from experimental plants with 12-20 MW electrical power to larger plants with 600 MW (BN-600) or 1200 MW (Superphenix) required the change from modular components to larger and compact steam generators with up to 800 MW. Defects of these large components cause extreme losses in availability of the plant and have to be avoided. In view of this request, a comprehensive test program has been performed at KNK II in addition to the normal control of the water/steam-circuit to compile all operational data on the water and steam side of the sodium heated steam generator. This paper describes the plant and the water/steam-circuit with its mode of operation. The experience with the surveillance and different methods of the conditioning are discussed in detail in this presentation

  15. Optically controllable molecular logic circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Takahiro; Fujii, Ryo; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Molecular logic circuits represent a promising technology for observation and manipulation of biological systems at the molecular level. However, the implementation of molecular logic circuits for temporal and programmable operation remains challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate an optically controllable logic circuit that uses fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for signaling. The FRET-based signaling process is modulated by both molecular and optical inputs. Based on the distance dependence of FRET, the FRET pathways required to execute molecular logic operations are formed on a DNA nanostructure as a circuit based on its molecular inputs. In addition, the FRET pathways on the DNA nanostructure are controlled optically, using photoswitching fluorescent molecules to instruct the execution of the desired operation and the related timings. The behavior of the circuit can thus be controlled using external optical signals. As an example, a molecular logic circuit capable of executing two different logic operations was studied. The circuit contains functional DNAs and a DNA scaffold to construct two FRET routes for executing Input 1 AND Input 2 and Input 1 AND NOT Input 3 operations on molecular inputs. The circuit produced the correct outputs with all possible combinations of the inputs by following the light signals. Moreover, the operation execution timings were controlled based on light irradiation and the circuit responded to time-dependent inputs. The experimental results demonstrate that the circuit changes the output for the required operations following the input of temporal light signals

  16. Flexible integrated diode-transistor logic (DTL) driving circuits based on printed carbon nanotube thin film transistors with low operation voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Zhao, Jianwen; Xu, Weiwei; Dou, Junyan; Zhao, Xinluo; Deng, Wei; Wei, Changting; Xu, Wenya; Guo, Wenrui; Su, Wenming; Jie, Jiansheng; Cui, Zheng

    2018-01-03

    Fabrication and application of hybrid functional circuits have become a hot research topic in the field of printed electronics. In this study, a novel flexible diode-transistor logic (DTL) driving circuit is proposed, which was fabricated based on a light emitting diode (LED) integrated with printed high-performance single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin-film transistors (TFTs). The LED, which is made of AlGaInP on GaAs, is commercial off-the-shelf, which could generate free electrical charges upon white light illumination. Printed top-gate TFTs were made on a PET substrate by inkjet printing high purity semiconducting SWCNTs (sc-SWCNTs) ink as the semiconductor channel materials, together with printed silver ink as the top-gate electrode and printed poly(pyromellitic dianhydride-co-4,4'-oxydianiline) (PMDA/ODA) as gate dielectric layer. The LED, which is connected to the gate electrode of the TFT, generated electrical charge when illuminated, resulting in biased gate voltage to control the TFT from "ON" status to "OFF" status. The TFTs with a PMDA/ODA gate dielectric exhibited low operating voltages of ±1 V, a small subthreshold swing of 62-105 mV dec -1 and ON/OFF ratio of 10 6 , which enabled DTL driving circuits to have high ON currents, high dark-to-bright current ratios (up to 10 5 ) and good stability under repeated white light illumination. As an application, the flexible DTL driving circuit was connected to external quantum dot LEDs (QLEDs), demonstrating its ability to drive and to control the QLED.

  17. Pulse mode of operation of a spherical piezoceramic transducer filled with liquid and having a correcting electric circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, S I; Kuz'menko, A G

    2010-12-01

    By means of a computational method, the possibility of radiating a short acoustic pulse by a transducer in the form of a piezoceramic sphere internally filled with liquid is investigated. An electric inductive-resistive circuit is connected to the electric input of the transducer. Solution is obtained based on scheme-analogs theory for piezoceramic transducers, and spectral Fourier transform theory. The values of parameters of the system, providing minimal durations of radiated signals, are determined. Computation was carried out for different values of relative thicknesses of the transducer wall. The estimates of durations and amplitudes of the acoustic signals radiated into the external medium are obtained.

  18. Current regulators for I/SUP 2/L circuits to be operated from low-voltage power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik; Hansen, Ole

    1980-01-01

    A new bandgap current reference is described which can be used to control the injector current of I/SUP 2/L circuits for supply voltages down to about 1 V. For small currents the total injector current is obtained as a mirror of the reference current. For large injector currents the current control......, but well controlled temperature coefficient is desired. It is shown how a temperature stable ring oscillator with I/SUP 2/L gates can be constructed by tailoring the temperature dependence of the supply current appropriately....

  19. Complex cellular logic computation using ribocomputing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Alexander A; Kim, Jongmin; Ma, Duo; Silver, Pamela A; Collins, James J; Yin, Peng

    2017-08-03

    Synthetic biology aims to develop engineering-driven approaches to the programming of cellular functions that could yield transformative technologies. Synthetic gene circuits that combine DNA, protein, and RNA components have demonstrated a range of functions such as bistability, oscillation, feedback, and logic capabilities. However, it remains challenging to scale up these circuits owing to the limited number of designable, orthogonal, high-performance parts, the empirical and often tedious composition rules, and the requirements for substantial resources for encoding and operation. Here, we report a strategy for constructing RNA-only nanodevices to evaluate complex logic in living cells. Our 'ribocomputing' systems are composed of de-novo-designed parts and operate through predictable and designable base-pairing rules, allowing the effective in silico design of computing devices with prescribed configurations and functions in complex cellular environments. These devices operate at the post-transcriptional level and use an extended RNA transcript to co-localize all circuit sensing, computation, signal transduction, and output elements in the same self-assembled molecular complex, which reduces diffusion-mediated signal losses, lowers metabolic cost, and improves circuit reliability. We demonstrate that ribocomputing devices in Escherichia coli can evaluate two-input logic with a dynamic range up to 900-fold and scale them to four-input AND, six-input OR, and a complex 12-input expression (A1 AND A2 AND NOT A1*) OR (B1 AND B2 AND NOT B2*) OR (C1 AND C2) OR (D1 AND D2) OR (E1 AND E2). Successful operation of ribocomputing devices based on programmable RNA interactions suggests that systems employing the same design principles could be implemented in other host organisms or in extracellular settings.

  20. A process for superheating steam in a nuclear power station circuit and device for putting in operation this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteil, Marcel; Forestier, Jean; Leblanc, Bernard; Monteil, Pierre

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for superheating steam in a nuclear power station circuit, comprising a turbine with a high pressure chamber and a low pressure chamber. It consists in superheating the steam between the high and low pressure chambers of the turbine by using as heating fluid water under pressure at vaporisation temperature, directly taken from the recirculation or circulation flow water of the reactor or of the steam generators. The process is adapted to a pressurised water reactor using a once-through steam generator comprising in succession an economiser, a vaporiser and a superheater, the superheating water being taken at the vaporiser intake. It is also adapted for a boiling water reactor, in that the water is taken directly from the reactor vessel and at a suitable level in the recirculation water [fr

  1. Resonance circuits for adiabatic circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schlachta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible techniques to reduces the power consumption in digital CMOS circuits is to slow down the charge transport. This slowdown can be achieved by introducing an inductor in the charging path. Additionally, the inductor can act as an energy storage element, conserving the energy that is normally dissipated during discharging. Together with the parasitic capacitances from the circuit a LCresonant circuit is formed.

  2. Interface Circuit For Printer Port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jerry H.; Yadlowsky, Ann B.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic circuit, called printer-port interface circuit (PPI) developed to overcome certain disadvantages of previous methods for connecting IBM PC or PC-compatible computer to other equipment. Has both reading and writing modes of operation. Very simple, requiring only six integrated circuits. Provides for moderately fast rates of transfer of data and uses existing unmodified circuit card in IBM PC. When used with appropriate software, circuit converts printer port on IBM PC, XT, AT, or compatible personal computer to general purpose, 8-bit-data, 16-bit address bus that connects to multitude of devices.

  3. Optimal planning of series resistor to control time constant of test circuit for high-voltage AC circuit-breakers

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon-Ho Kim; Jung-Hyeon Ryu; Jin-Hwan Kim; Kern-Joong Kim

    2016-01-01

    The equivalent test circuit that can deliver both short-circuit current and recovery voltage is used to verify the performance of high-voltage circuit breakers. Most of the parameters in this circuit can be obtained by using a simple calculation or a simulation program. The ratings of the circuit breaker include rated short-circuit breaking current, rated short-circuit making current, rated operating sequence of the circuit breaker and rated short-time current. Among these ratings, the short-...

  4. Modeling and interpretation of electrical impedance spectra of dye solar cells operated under open-circuit conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, R.; Sastrawan, R.; Ferber, J.; Stangl, R.; Luther, J.

    2002-01-01

    Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied in order to investigate electrochemical nanocrystalline TiO 2 dye solar cells (DSC). Typically, three characteristic frequency peaks were observed in the spectra. These frequency peaks could be explained by variations of cell parameters and by comparison with intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy (IMVS). It was shown that the low-frequency peak (in the mHz range) corresponds to the Nernstian diffusion within the electrolyte, while the middle-frequency peak (in the 10-100 Hz range) reflects the properties of the photoinjected electrons within the TiO 2 . The high-frequency peak (in the kHz range) corresponds to the charge-transfer at the platinum counter electrode. For a detailed analysis of the spectra, a model was developed which allows the evaluation of EIS spectra, measured under bias illumination and under open-circuit conditions. The influence of cell parameters such as the TiO 2 layer thickness, cell thickness, charge-transfer resistance of the platinum counter electrode, and the lifetime of the photoinjected electrons, on the impedance spectra was studied both experimentally and theoretically. Finally, it is shown that EIS is a measurement method suited well for the investigation of the long-term stability of DSC, as changes of the inner cell parameters can be revealed

  5. Electronic circuit encyclopedia 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun Ho

    1992-10-01

    This book is composed of 15 chapters, which are amplification of weak signal and measurement circuit audio control and power amplification circuit, data transmission and wireless system, forwarding and isolation, signal converting circuit, counter and comparator, discriminator circuit, oscillation circuit and synthesizer, digital and circuit on computer image processing circuit, sensor drive circuit temperature sensor circuit, magnetic control and application circuit, motor driver circuit, measuring instrument and check tool and power control and stability circuit.

  6. Electronic circuit encyclopedia 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Ho

    1992-10-15

    This book is composed of 15 chapters, which are amplification of weak signal and measurement circuit audio control and power amplification circuit, data transmission and wireless system, forwarding and isolation, signal converting circuit, counter and comparator, discriminator circuit, oscillation circuit and synthesizer, digital and circuit on computer image processing circuit, sensor drive circuit temperature sensor circuit, magnetic control and application circuit, motor driver circuit, measuring instrument and check tool and power control and stability circuit.

  7. Radiation Hardened High Speed Integrated Circuits Double Data Rate I/O for Extreme Operating Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Manned and robotic space missions require high-performance electronic control systems capable of operating for extended periods in harsh environments that are...

  8. Design of a system for examinations of the history of operation of selected WWER primary circuit facilities. Stage I: requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.; Kraus, V.; Ruscak, M.; Vejvoda, S.

    1994-01-01

    A survey is presented of data required for the evaluation and control of nuclear power plant aging and service life, and a data acquisition and record-keeping system is proposed. The data fall in 3 classes: (i) information on the initial status, including design data and status data at the beginning of the operational lifetime of the facilities; (ii) data on the history of operation, including operating conditions at the level of the corresponding system and facility, as well as operating test and failure data; and (iii) data on the history of maintenance, including data on the monitoring of the facility condition and on maintenance. Basic information requirements for the evaluation of the service life of the pressure vessel, steam generator, pressurizer, and main circulation pipe are given; the way of processing this information is outlined. (J.B.). 2 figs

  9. Magnonic logic circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khitun, Alexander; Bao Mingqiang; Wang, Kang L

    2010-01-01

    We describe and analyse possible approaches to magnonic logic circuits and basic elements required for circuit construction. A distinctive feature of the magnonic circuitry is that information is transmitted by spin waves propagating in the magnetic waveguides without the use of electric current. The latter makes it possible to exploit spin wave phenomena for more efficient data transfer and enhanced logic functionality. We describe possible schemes for general computing and special task data processing. The functional throughput of the magnonic logic gates is estimated and compared with the conventional transistor-based approach. Magnonic logic circuits allow scaling down to the deep submicrometre range and THz frequency operation. The scaling is in favour of the magnonic circuits offering a significant functional advantage over the traditional approach. The disadvantages and problems of the spin wave devices are also discussed.

  10. Meeting of specialists on 'Operational Safety of Sodium Circuits', Risley, UK, March 17-19, 1971. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The meeting was attended by 20 delegates fyom Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Discussion took place in the following 5 Sessions: Safety Aspects of Design and Construction; Operational Practices; Sodium Leakage Phenomena; Emergency Procedures; Case Histories of Incidents. The formal papers tabled by the delegates at the meeting are reproduced in Appendix 2 of this report. At the final session of the meeting, the delegates agreed on the following report. The case histories of incidents as presented by various delegates are included in Appendix 2 of this report

  11. Contribution to the electrothermal simulation in power electronics. Development of a simulation methodology applied to switching circuits under variable operating conditions; Contribution a la simulation electrothermique en electronique de puissance. Developpement d`une methode de simulation pour circuits de commutation soumis a des commandes variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vales, P.

    1997-03-19

    In modern hybrid or monolithic integrated power circuits, electrothermal effects can no longer be ignored. A methodology is proposed in order to simulate electrothermal effects in power circuits, with a significant reduction of the computation time while taking into account electrical and thermal time constants which are usually widely different. A supervising program, written in Fortran, uses system call sequences and manages an interactive dialog between a fast thermal simulator and a general electrical simulator. This explicit coupling process between two specific simulators requires a multi-task operating system. The developed software allows for the prediction of the electrothermal power dissipation drift in the active areas of components, and the prediction of thermally-induced coupling effects between adjacent components. An application to the study of hard switching circuits working under variable operating conditions is presented

  12. Streaming Reduction Circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Kuper, Jan; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Molenkamp, Egbert

    2009-01-01

    Reduction circuits are used to reduce rows of floating point values to single values. Binary floating point operators often have deep pipelines, which may cause hazards when many consecutive rows have to be reduced. We present an algorithm by which any number of consecutive rows of arbitrary lengths

  13. Current-mode minimax circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    The minimum-maximum (minimax) circuit selects the minimum and maximum of two input currents. Four transistors in matched pairs are operated in the saturation region. Because the behavior of the circuit is based on matched devices and is independent of the relationship between the drain current and

  14. Cell short circuit, preshort signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, C.

    1980-01-01

    Short-circuit events observed in ground test simulations of DSCS-3 battery in-orbit operations are analyzed. Voltage signatures appearing in the data preceding the short-circuit event are evaluated. The ground test simulation is briefly described along with performance during reconditioning discharges. Results suggest that a characteristic signature develops prior to a shorting event.

  15. Explicit logic circuits discriminate neural states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lane Yoder

    Full Text Available The magnitude and apparent complexity of the brain's connectivity have left explicit networks largely unexplored. As a result, the relationship between the organization of synaptic connections and how the brain processes information is poorly understood. A recently proposed retinal network that produces neural correlates of color vision is refined and extended here to a family of general logic circuits. For any combination of high and low activity in any set of neurons, one of the logic circuits can receive input from the neurons and activate a single output neuron whenever the input neurons have the given activity state. The strength of the output neuron's response is a measure of the difference between the smallest of the high inputs and the largest of the low inputs. The networks generate correlates of known psychophysical phenomena. These results follow directly from the most cost-effective architectures for specific logic circuits and the minimal cellular capabilities of excitation and inhibition. The networks function dynamically, making their operation consistent with the speed of most brain functions. The networks show that well-known psychophysical phenomena do not require extraordinarily complex brain structures, and that a single network architecture can produce apparently disparate phenomena in different sensory systems.

  16. Arithmetic circuits for DSP applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stouraitis, Thanos

    2017-01-01

    Arithmetic Circuits for DSP Applications is a complete resource on arithmetic circuits for digital signal processing (DSP). It covers the key concepts, designs and developments of different types of arithmetic circuits, which can be used for improving the efficiency of implementation of a multitude of DSP applications. Each chapter includes various applications of the respective class of arithmetic circuits along with information on the future scope of research. Written for students, engineers, and researchers in electrical and computer engineering, this comprehensive text offers a clear understanding of different types of arithmetic circuits used for digital signal processing applications. The text includes contributions from noted researchers on a wide range of topics, including a review o circuits used in implementing basic operations like additions and multiplications; distributed arithmetic as a technique for the multiplier-less implementation of inner products for DSP applications; discussions on look ...

  17. Control circuit for transformer relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    A control circuit for a transformer relay which will automatically momentarily control the transformer relay to a selected state upon energization of the control circuit. The control circuit has an energy storage element and a current director coupled in series and adapted to be coupled with the secondary winding of the transformer relay. A device for discharge is coupled across the energy storage element. The energy storage element and current director will momentarily allow a unidirectional flow of current in the secondary winding of the transformer relay upon application of energy to the control circuit. When energy is not applied to the control circuit the device for discharge will allow the energy storage element to discharge and be available for another operation of the control circuit

  18. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  19. Controllable circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A switch-mode power circuit comprises a controllable element and a control unit. The controllable element is configured to control a current in response to a control signal supplied to the controllable element. The control unit is connected to the controllable element and provides the control...

  20. Circuit Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jane B.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a research-based activity for high school physics students in which they build an LC circuit and find its resonant frequency of oscillation using an oscilloscope. Includes a diagram of the apparatus and an explanation of the procedures. (DDR)

  1. Investigation and Classification of Short-Circuit Failure Modes Based on Three-Dimensional Safe Operating Area for High-Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuxiang; Li, Wuhua; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    is implemented to motivate advanced contributions in future dependence research of device short-circuit failure modes on temperature. Consequently, a comprehensive and thoughtful review of where the development of short-circuit failure mode research works of IGBT stands and is heading is provided....

  2. Understanding the Form, Function, and Logic of Clandestine Cellular Networks: The First Step in Effective Counternetwork Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    to Guerrilla Warfare and Underground Operations, ed. R. K. Brown, (Boulder, CO: Panther Publications, Inc., 1965); and Trinquier. Espionage related...Leaderless Resistance…has been used by white supremacists, anti-abortion and environmental activists, and animal rights groups. I argue that, despite...Stenson, Chad Oman, and Branko Lustig, “Scene 5,” Black Hawk Down, DVD, directed by Ridley Scott, (Culver City, CA: Columbia Pictures, 2002). 225 Ney

  3. Optimizing the operating parameters of corona electrostatic separation for recycling waste scraped printed circuit boards by computer simulation of electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Lu, Hongzhou; Liu, Shushu; Xu, Zhenming

    2008-05-01

    The printed circuit board (PCB) has a metal content of nearly 28% metal, including an abundance of nonferrous metals such as copper, lead, and tin. The purity of precious metals in PCBs is more than 10 times that of rich-content minerals. Therefore, the recycling of PCBs is an important subject, not only from the viewpoint of waste treatment, but also with respect to the recovery of valuable materials. Compared with traditional process the corona electrostatic separation (CES) had no waste water or gas during the process and it had high productivity with a low-energy cost. In this paper, the roll-type corona electrostatic separator was used to separate metals and nonmetals from scraped waste PCBs. The software MATLAB was used to simulate the distribution of electric field in separating space. It was found that, the variations of parameters of electrodes and applied voltages directly influenced the distribution of electric field. Through the correlation of simulated and experimental results, the good separation results were got under the optimized operating parameter: U=20-30 kV, L=L(1)=L(2)=0.21 m, R(1)=0.114, R(2)=0.019 m, theta(1)=20 degrees and theta(2)=60 degrees .

  4. Workers' exposure to electric fields during the task 'maintenance of an operating device of circuit breaker from a service platform' at 110-kV substations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2018-02-26

    The objective of the study was to investigate occupational exposure to electric fields during the task 'maintenance of an operating device of circuit breaker from a service platform' at 110-kV substations. The aim was also to compare the results to Directive 2013/35/EU. At 16 substations, 255 electric field measurements were performed. The highest mean value of the electric fields was 9.6 kV⋅m -1 . At 63% of substations the maximum values were over 10.0 kV⋅m -1 , and at 31% of the substations the 75th percentiles were over 10.0 kV⋅m -1 , which is the low action level (AL) according to Directive 2013/35/EU. All measured values were below the high AL (20.0 kV⋅m -1 ). In the future, it is important to take into account that the measurements were only taken at Finnish 110-kV substations; therefore, it is not possible to generalize these results to other countries and different types of substations.

  5. Robust Diagnosis Method Based on Parameter Estimation for an Interturn Short-Circuit Fault in Multipole PMSM under High-Speed Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jewon; Moon, Seokbae; Jeong, Hyeyun; Kim, Sang Woo

    2015-11-20

    This paper proposes a diagnosis method for a multipole permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) under an interturn short circuit fault. Previous works in this area have suffered from the uncertainties of the PMSM parameters, which can lead to misdiagnosis. The proposed method estimates the q-axis inductance (Lq) of the faulty PMSM to solve this problem. The proposed method also estimates the faulty phase and the value of G, which serves as an index of the severity of the fault. The q-axis current is used to estimate the faulty phase, the values of G and Lq. For this reason, two open-loop observers and an optimization method based on a particle-swarm are implemented. The q-axis current of a healthy PMSM is estimated by the open-loop observer with the parameters of a healthy PMSM. The Lq estimation significantly compensates for the estimation errors in high-speed operation. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can estimate the faulty phase, G, and Lq besides exhibiting robustness against parameter uncertainties.

  6. 49 CFR 236.721 - Circuit, control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, control. 236.721 Section 236.721..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.721 Circuit, control. An electrical circuit between a source of electric energy and a device which it operates. ...

  7. Implementation of Chua's circuit using simulated inductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopakumar, K.; Premlet, B.; Gopchandran, K. G.

    2011-05-01

    In this study we describe how to build an inductorless version of the classic Chua's circuit. A suitable inductor for Chua's circuit is often hard to procure. The required inductor for the circuit is designed using simple circuit elements such as resistors, capacitors and operational amplifiers. The complete circuit can be implemented by using off-the-shelf components, and it can readily be integrated on a single chip. This design of Chua's circuit allows the original dynamics to be slowed down to just a few hertz, enabling implementation of sophisticated control schemes without severe time restrictions. Another novel feature of the circuit is that losses associated with capacitors due to leakages can easily be compensated by providing negative resistance using the same setup. The chaotic behaviour of the circuit is verified by PSpice and Multisim simulation and also by experimental study on a circuit breadboard. The results give excellent agreement with each other and with the results of previous investigators.

  8. Evidence that the tri-cellular metabolism of N-acetylaspartate functions as the brain's "operating system": how NAA metabolism supports meaningful intercellular frequency-encoded communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baslow, Morris H

    2010-11-01

    N-acetylaspartate (NAA), an acetylated derivative of L-aspartate (Asp), and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), a derivative of NAA and L-glutamate (Glu), are synthesized by neurons in brain. However, neurons cannot catabolize either of these substances, and so their metabolism requires the participation of two other cell types. Neurons release both NAA and NAAG to extra-cellular fluid (ECF) upon stimulation, where astrocytes, the target cells for NAAG, hydrolyze it releasing NAA back into ECF, and oligodendrocytes, the target cells for NAA, hydrolyze it releasing Asp to ECF for recycling to neurons. This sequence is unique as it is the only known amino acid metabolic cycle in brain that requires three cell types for its completion. The results of this cycling are two-fold. First, neuronal metabolic water is transported to ECF for its removal from brain. Second, the rate of neuronal activity is coupled with focal hyperemia, providing stimulated neurons with the energy required for transmission of meaningful frequency-encoded messages. In this paper, it is proposed that the tri-cellular metabolism of NAA functions as the "operating system" of the brain, and is essential for normal cognitive and motor activities. Evidence in support of this hypothesis is provided by the outcomes of two human inborn errors in NAA metabolism.

  9. Average output polarization dataset for signifying the temperature influence for QCA designed reversible logic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah-Al-Shafi, Md; Bahar, Ali Newaz; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Maksudur Rahman; Shamim, S M; Ahmed, Kawser

    2018-08-01

    Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) as nanotechnology is a pledging contestant that has incredible prospective to substitute complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) because of its superior structures such as intensely high device thickness, minimal power depletion with rapid operation momentum. In this study, the dataset of average output polarization (AOP) for fundamental reversible logic circuits is organized as presented in (Abdullah-Al-Shafi and Bahar, 2017; Bahar et al., 2016; Abdullah-Al-Shafi et al., 2015; Abdullah-Al-Shafi, 2016) [1-4]. QCADesigner version 2.0.3 has been utilized to survey the AOP of reversible circuits at separate temperature point in Kelvin (K) unit.

  10. Operational amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Dostal, Jiri

    1993-01-01

    This book provides the reader with the practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. It presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits.Provides the reader with practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. Presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits

  11. Manpower allocation in a cellular manufacturing system considering the impact of learning, training and combination of learning and training in operator skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a manpower allocation and cell loading problem is studied, where demand is sto-chastic. The inter-cell and intra-cell movements are considered and attention is focused on as-signing operators with different skill levels to operations, because cell performance in addition to load cell is dependent on manpower. The purpose of this article is manpower allocation in cellu-lar manufacturing with consideration to learning and training policies. The manpower skill levels are determined in order to enhance production rate. The main contribution of this approach is the scenarios of training and learning in addition to the combination of training and learning being simulated. By using these three scenarios, the skill level of workers increase which reduces the processing time. In this regard cell layout is static where processing times and customer demand follow a normal distribution. As one of the significant costs of industrial unit is related to pro-duction cost, this study has attempted to reduce these costs by increasing the skill level of opera-tor which causes to reduce the processing time. Scenarios are evaluated by using a simulation method that finally attained results indicate this simulation provides better manpower assign-ments.

  12. Building the vision, a series of AZTech ITS model deployment success stories for the Phoenix metropolitan area : number seven : spectacular views sharing closed circuit TV between operations centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Advanced communications technology is the engine that continually moves AZTech closer to its goal of integrating transportation systems throughout the region. At the heart of this technology is a state-of-the-art Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) syst...

  13. Cellular gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Gruau; J.T. Tromp (John)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe consider the problem of establishing gravity in cellular automata. In particular, when cellular automata states can be partitioned into empty, particle, and wall types, with the latter enclosing rectangular areas, we desire rules that will make the particles fall down and pile up on

  14. Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry Does Not Control Proliferation in Primary Cultures of Human Metastatic Renal Cellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Dragoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE is activated following depletion of the inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3-sensitive Ca2+ pool to regulate proliferation in immortalized cell lines established from either primary or metastatic lesions. The molecular nature of SOCE may involve both Stim1, which senses Ca2+ levels within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER Ca2+ reservoir, and a number of a Ca2+-permeable channels on the plasma membrane, including Orai1, Orai3, and members of the canonical transient receptor (TRPC1–7 family of ion channels. The present study was undertaken to assess whether SOCE is expressed and controls proliferation in primary cultures isolated from secondary lesions of heavily pretreated metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC patients. SOCE was induced following pharmacological depletion of the ER Ca2+ store, but not by InsP3-dependent Ca2+ release. Metastatic RCC cells express Stim1-2, Orai1–3, and TRPC1–7 transcripts and proteins. In these cells, SOCE was insensitive to BTP-2, 10 µM Gd3+ and Pyr6, while it was inhibited by 100 µM Gd3+, 2-APB, and carboxyamidotriazole (CAI. Neither Gd3+ nor 2-APB or CAI impaired mRCC cell proliferation. Consistently, no detectable Ca2+ signal was elicited by growth factor stimulation. Therefore, a functional SOCE is expressed but does not control proliferation of mRCC cells isolated from patients resistant to multikinase inhibitors.

  15. Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry Does Not Control Proliferation in Primary Cultures of Human Metastatic Renal Cellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turin, Ilaria; Potenza, Duilio Michele; Bottino, Cinzia; Glasnov, Toma N.; Ferulli, Federica; Mosca, Alessandra; Guerra, Germano; Rosti, Vittorio; Luinetti, Ombretta; Porta, Camillo; Pedrazzoli, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is activated following depletion of the inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3)-sensitive Ca2+ pool to regulate proliferation in immortalized cell lines established from either primary or metastatic lesions. The molecular nature of SOCE may involve both Stim1, which senses Ca2+ levels within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ reservoir, and a number of a Ca2+-permeable channels on the plasma membrane, including Orai1, Orai3, and members of the canonical transient receptor (TRPC1–7) family of ion channels. The present study was undertaken to assess whether SOCE is expressed and controls proliferation in primary cultures isolated from secondary lesions of heavily pretreated metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients. SOCE was induced following pharmacological depletion of the ER Ca2+ store, but not by InsP3-dependent Ca2+ release. Metastatic RCC cells express Stim1-2, Orai1–3, and TRPC1–7 transcripts and proteins. In these cells, SOCE was insensitive to BTP-2, 10 µM Gd3+ and Pyr6, while it was inhibited by 100 µM Gd3+, 2-APB, and carboxyamidotriazole (CAI). Neither Gd3+ nor 2-APB or CAI impaired mRCC cell proliferation. Consistently, no detectable Ca2+ signal was elicited by growth factor stimulation. Therefore, a functional SOCE is expressed but does not control proliferation of mRCC cells isolated from patients resistant to multikinase inhibitors. PMID:25126575

  16. Cellular Reflectarray Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    The cellular reflectarray antenna is intended to replace conventional parabolic reflectors that must be physically aligned with a particular satellite in geostationary orbit. These arrays are designed for specified geographical locations, defined by latitude and longitude, each called a "cell." A particular cell occupies nominally 1,500 square miles (3,885 sq. km), but this varies according to latitude and longitude. The cellular reflectarray antenna designed for a particular cell is simply positioned to align with magnetic North, and the antenna surface is level (parallel to the ground). A given cellular reflectarray antenna will not operate in any other cell.

  17. Comminution circuits for compact itabirites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ferreira Pinto

    Full Text Available Abstract In the beneficiation of compact Itabirites, crushing and grinding account for major operational and capital costs. As such, the study and development of comminution circuits have a fundamental importance for feasibility and optimization of compact Itabirite beneficiation. This work makes a comparison between comminution circuits for compact Itabirites from the Iron Quadrangle. The circuits developed are: a crushing and ball mill circuit (CB, a SAG mill and ball mill circuit (SAB and a single stage SAG mill circuit (SSSAG. For the SAB circuit, the use of pebble crushing is analyzed (SABC. An industrial circuit for 25 million tons of run of mine was developed for each route from tests on a pilot scale (grinding and industrial scale. The energy consumption obtained for grinding in the pilot tests was compared with that reported by Donda and Bond. The SSSAG route had the lowest energy consumption, 11.8kWh/t and the SAB route had the highest energy consumption, 15.8kWh/t. The CB and SABC routes had a similar energy consumption of 14.4 kWh/t and 14.5 kWh/t respectively.

  18. Short- circuit tests of circuit breakers

    OpenAIRE

    Chorovský, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with short-circuit tests of low voltage electrical devices. In the first part of this paper, there are described basic types of short- circuit tests and their principles. Direct and indirect (synthetic) tests with more details are described in the second part. Each test and principles are explained separately. Oscilogram is obtained from short-circuit tests of circuit breakers at laboratory. The aim of this research work is to propose a test circuit for performing indirect test.

  19. Pulsed feedback defers cellular differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe H Levine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental signals induce diverse cellular differentiation programs. In certain systems, cells defer differentiation for extended time periods after the signal appears, proliferating through multiple rounds of cell division before committing to a new fate. How can cells set a deferral time much longer than the cell cycle? Here we study Bacillus subtilis cells that respond to sudden nutrient limitation with multiple rounds of growth and division before differentiating into spores. A well-characterized genetic circuit controls the concentration and phosphorylation of the master regulator Spo0A, which rises to a critical concentration to initiate sporulation. However, it remains unclear how this circuit enables cells to defer sporulation for multiple cell cycles. Using quantitative time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of Spo0A dynamics in individual cells, we observed pulses of Spo0A phosphorylation at a characteristic cell cycle phase. Pulse amplitudes grew systematically and cell-autonomously over multiple cell cycles leading up to sporulation. This pulse growth required a key positive feedback loop involving the sporulation kinases, without which the deferral of sporulation became ultrasensitive to kinase expression. Thus, deferral is controlled by a pulsed positive feedback loop in which kinase expression is activated by pulses of Spo0A phosphorylation. This pulsed positive feedback architecture provides a more robust mechanism for setting deferral times than constitutive kinase expression. Finally, using mathematical modeling, we show how pulsing and time delays together enable "polyphasic" positive feedback, in which different parts of a feedback loop are active at different times. Polyphasic feedback can enable more accurate tuning of long deferral times. Together, these results suggest that Bacillus subtilis uses a pulsed positive feedback loop to implement a "timer" that operates over timescales much longer than a cell cycle.

  20. Radiation-sensitive switching circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.H.; Cockshott, C.P.

    1976-03-16

    A radiation-sensitive switching circuit includes a light emitting diode which from time to time illuminates a photo-transistor, the photo-transistor serving when its output reaches a predetermined value to operate a trigger circuit. In order to allow for aging of the components, the current flow through the diode is increased when the output from the transistor falls below a known level. Conveniently, this is achieved by having a transistor in parallel with the diode, and turning the transistor off when the output from the phototransistor becomes too low. The circuit is designed to control the ignition system in an automobile engine.

  1. Collective of mechatronics circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This book is composed of three parts, which deals with mechatronics system about sensor, circuit and motor. The contents of the first part are photo sensor of collector for output, locating detection circuit with photo interrupts, photo sensor circuit with CdS cell and lamp, interface circuit with logic and LED and temperature sensor circuit. The second part deals with oscillation circuit with crystal, C-R oscillation circuit, F-V converter, timer circuit, stability power circuit, DC amp and DC-DC converter. The last part is comprised of bridge server circuit, deformation bridge server, controlling circuit of DC motor, controlling circuit with IC for PLL and driver circuit of stepping motor and driver circuit of Brushless.

  2. Collective of mechatronics circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-02-15

    This book is composed of three parts, which deals with mechatronics system about sensor, circuit and motor. The contents of the first part are photo sensor of collector for output, locating detection circuit with photo interrupts, photo sensor circuit with CdS cell and lamp, interface circuit with logic and LED and temperature sensor circuit. The second part deals with oscillation circuit with crystal, C-R oscillation circuit, F-V converter, timer circuit, stability power circuit, DC amp and DC-DC converter. The last part is comprised of bridge server circuit, deformation bridge server, controlling circuit of DC motor, controlling circuit with IC for PLL and driver circuit of stepping motor and driver circuit of Brushless.

  3. Effect of Short-Circuit Faults in the Back-to-Back Power Electronic Converter and Rotor Terminals on the Operational Behavior of the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Wind Energy Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios G. Giaourakis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the operational behavior of the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Wind Energy Conversion System under power electronic converter and rotor terminals faulty conditions. More specifically, the effect of the short-circuit fault both in one IGBT of the back-to-back power electronic converter and in rotor phases on the overall system behavior has been investigated via simulation using a system of 2 MW. Finally, the consequences of these faults have been evaluated.

  4. Circuit parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, R

    2000-03-01

    Circuit parties are extended celebrations, lasting from a day to a week, primarily attended by gay and bisexual men in their thirties and forties. These large-scale dance parties move from city to city and draw thousands of participants. The risks for contracting HIV during these parties include recreational drug use and unsafe sex. Limited data exists on the level of risk at these parties, and participants are skeptical of outside help because of past criticism of these events. Health care and HIV advocates can promote risk-reduction strategies with the cooperation of party planners and can counsel individuals to personally reduce their own risk. To convey the message, HIV prevention workers should emphasize positive and community-centered aspects of the parties, such as taking care of friends and avoiding overdose.

  5. Cellular Analogs of Operant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-31

    Scemi. R. A. Self- 1981. injection of apomorphine in the rat: Positive reinforcement by a 21. Gallistel . C. R., Davis, A. J. Affinity for the...377-384. 4 Gallistel . C.R. and Davis. AJ.. Affinity for the dopamine D, 10 Nakajima. S.. Subtypes of dopamine receptors involsed in the receptor...Morales, S. and Reid. LI).. Biomclme/n. Helium. 2.4 ’I) (984) 3o I -. 6W, .\\dcietiis a~crnts Ind intracranial self-timnulation il(*5: 22 Gallistel . C.R

  6. Commutation circuit for an HVDC circuit breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premerlani, William J.

    1981-01-01

    A commutation circuit for a high voltage DC circuit breaker incorporates a resistor capacitor combination and a charging circuit connected to the main breaker, such that a commutating capacitor is discharged in opposition to the load current to force the current in an arc after breaker opening to zero to facilitate arc interruption. In a particular embodiment, a normally open commutating circuit is connected across the contacts of a main DC circuit breaker to absorb the inductive system energy trapped by breaker opening and to limit recovery voltages to a level tolerable by the commutating circuit components.

  7. Circuit modification and research of operation modes of high-frequency pulsed resonant converter of the X-ray tube power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonov, V. V.; Larionov, I. A.; Bessonov, V. B.

    2018-02-01

    Despite obvious drawbacks of the resonant converter, such as complicated calculation, increased size and weight of the device, deviations of the circuit parameters from product to product, the resonant converter shows significant advantages in comparison with other. The task was to design the generator, which is built on a resonant topology.

  8. Analog circuit design designing dynamic circuit response

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This second volume, Designing Dynamic Circuit Response builds upon the first volume Designing Amplifier Circuits by extending coverage to include reactances and their time- and frequency-related behavioral consequences.

  9. Trigger circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verity, P.R.; Chaplain, M.D.; Turner, G.D.J.

    1984-01-01

    A monostable trigger circuit comprises transistors TR2 and TR3 arranged with their collectors and bases interconnected. The collector of the transistor TR2 is connected to the base of transistor TR3 via a capacitor C2 the main current path of a grounded base transistor TR1 and resistive means R2,R3. The collector of transistor TR3 is connected to the base of transistor TR2 via resistive means R6, R7. In the stable state all the transistors are OFF, the capacitor C2 is charged, and the output is LOW. A positive pulse input to the base of TR2 switches it ON, which in turn lowers the voltage at points A and B and so switches TR1 ON so that C2 can discharge via R2, R3, which in turn switches TR3 ON making the output high. Thus all three transistors are latched ON. When C2 has discharged sufficiently TR1 switches OFF, followed by TR3 (making the output low again) and TR2. The components C1, C3 and R4 serve to reduce noise, and the diode D1 is optional. (author)

  10. Synthetic Biology: A Unifying View and Review Using Analog Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Jonathan J Y; Woo, Sung Sik; Sarpeshkar, Rahul

    2015-08-01

    We review the field of synthetic biology from an analog circuits and analog computation perspective, focusing on circuits that have been built in living cells. This perspective is well suited to pictorially, symbolically, and quantitatively representing the nonlinear, dynamic, and stochastic (noisy) ordinary and partial differential equations that rigorously describe the molecular circuits of synthetic biology. This perspective enables us to construct a canonical analog circuit schematic that helps unify and review the operation of many fundamental circuits that have been built in synthetic biology at the DNA, RNA, protein, and small-molecule levels over nearly two decades. We review 17 circuits in the literature as particular examples of feedforward and feedback analog circuits that arise from special topological cases of the canonical analog circuit schematic. Digital circuit operation of these circuits represents a special case of saturated analog circuit behavior and is automatically incorporated as well. Many issues that have prevented synthetic biology from scaling are naturally represented in analog circuit schematics. Furthermore, the deep similarity between the Boltzmann thermodynamic equations that describe noisy electronic current flow in subthreshold transistors and noisy molecular flux in biochemical reactions has helped map analog circuit motifs in electronics to analog circuit motifs in cells and vice versa via a `cytomorphic' approach. Thus, a body of knowledge in analog electronic circuit design, analysis, simulation, and implementation may also be useful in the robust and efficient design of molecular circuits in synthetic biology, helping it to scale to more complex circuits in the future.

  11. Discharge quenching circuit for counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasik, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    A circuit for quenching discharges in gas-discharge detectors with working voltage of 3-5 kV based on transistors operating in the avalanche mode is described. The quenching circuit consists of a coordinating emitter follower, amplifier-shaper for avalanche key cascade control which changes potential on the counter electrodes and a shaper of discharge quenching duration. The emitter follower is assembled according to a widely used flowsheet with two transistors. The circuit permits to obtain a rectangular quenching pulse with front of 100 ns and an amplitude of up to 3.2 kV at duration of 500 μm-8 ms. Application of the quenching circuit described permits to obtain countering characteristics with the slope less than or equal to 0.02%/V and plateau extent greater than or equal to 300 V [ru

  12. Biological 2-Input Decoder Circuit in Human Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Decoders are combinational circuits that convert information from n inputs to a maximum of 2n outputs. This operation is of major importance in computing systems yet it is vastly underexplored in synthetic biology. Here, we present a synthetic gene network architecture that operates as a biological decoder in human cells, converting 2 inputs to 4 outputs. As a proof-of-principle, we use small molecules to emulate the two inputs and fluorescent reporters as the corresponding four outputs. The experiments are performed using transient transfections in human kidney embryonic cells and the characterization by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. We show a clear separation between the ON and OFF mean fluorescent intensity states. Additionally, we adopt the integrated mean fluorescence intensity for the characterization of the circuit and show that this metric is more robust to transfection conditions when compared to the mean fluorescent intensity. To conclude, we present the first implementation of a genetic decoder. This combinational system can be valuable toward engineering higher-order circuits as well as accommodate a multiplexed interface with endogenous cellular functions. PMID:24694115

  13. Biological 2-input decoder circuit in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Michael; Bleris, Leonidas

    2014-08-15

    Decoders are combinational circuits that convert information from n inputs to a maximum of 2(n) outputs. This operation is of major importance in computing systems yet it is vastly underexplored in synthetic biology. Here, we present a synthetic gene network architecture that operates as a biological decoder in human cells, converting 2 inputs to 4 outputs. As a proof-of-principle, we use small molecules to emulate the two inputs and fluorescent reporters as the corresponding four outputs. The experiments are performed using transient transfections in human kidney embryonic cells and the characterization by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. We show a clear separation between the ON and OFF mean fluorescent intensity states. Additionally, we adopt the integrated mean fluorescence intensity for the characterization of the circuit and show that this metric is more robust to transfection conditions when compared to the mean fluorescent intensity. To conclude, we present the first implementation of a genetic decoder. This combinational system can be valuable toward engineering higher-order circuits as well as accommodate a multiplexed interface with endogenous cellular functions.

  14. Graphene radio frequency receiver integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shu-Jen; Garcia, Alberto Valdes; Oida, Satoshi; Jenkins, Keith A; Haensch, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Graphene has attracted much interest as a future channel material in radio frequency electronics because of its superior electrical properties. Fabrication of a graphene integrated circuit without significantly degrading transistor performance has proven to be challenging, posing one of the major bottlenecks to compete with existing technologies. Here we present a fabrication method fully preserving graphene transistor quality, demonstrated with the implementation of a high-performance three-stage graphene integrated circuit. The circuit operates as a radio frequency receiver performing signal amplification, filtering and downconversion mixing. All circuit components are integrated into 0.6 mm(2) area and fabricated on 200 mm silicon wafers, showing the unprecedented graphene circuit complexity and silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process compatibility. The demonstrated circuit performance allow us to use graphene integrated circuit to perform practical wireless communication functions, receiving and restoring digital text transmitted on a 4.3-GHz carrier signal.

  15. Magnetomicrofluidics Circuits for Organizing Bioparticle Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh

    Single-cell analysis (SCA) tools have important applications in the analysis of phenotypic heterogeneity, which is difficult or impossible to analyze in bulk cell culture or patient samples. SCA tools thus have a myriad of applications ranging from better credentialing of drug therapies to the analysis of rare latent cells harboring HIV infection or in Cancer. However, existing SCA systems usually lack the required combination of programmability, flexibility, and scalability necessary to enable the study of cell behaviors and cell-cell interactions at the scales sufficient to analyze extremely rare events. To advance the field, I have developed a novel, programmable, and massively-parallel SCA tool which is based on the principles of computer circuits. By integrating these magnetic circuits with microfluidics channels, I developed a platform that can organize a large number of single particles into an array in a controlled manner. My magnetophoretic circuits use passive elements constructed in patterned magnetic thin films to move cells along programmed tracks with an external rotating magnetic field. Cell motion along these tracks is analogous to the motion of charges in an electrical conductor, following a rule similar to Ohm's law. I have also developed asymmetric conductors, similar to electrical diodes, and storage sites for cells that behave similarly to electrical capacitors. I have also developed magnetophoretic circuits which use an overlaid pattern of microwires to switch single cells between different tracks. This switching mechanism, analogous to the operation of electronic transistors, is achieved by establishing a semiconducting gap in the magnetic pattern which can be changed from an insulating state to a conducting state by application of electrical current to an overlaid electrode. I performed an extensive study on the operation of transistors to optimize their geometry and minimize the required gate currents. By combining these elements into

  16. A new approach of optimization procedure for superconducting integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, K.; Soutome, Y.; Tarutani, Y.; Takagi, K.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed and tested a new circuit simulation procedure for superconducting integrated circuits which can be used to optimize circuit parameters. This method reveals a stable operation region in the circuit parameter space in connection with the global bias margin by means of a contour plot of the global bias margin versus the circuit parameters. An optimal set of parameters with margins larger than these of the initial values has been found in the stable region. (author)

  17. Linear integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    The linear IC market is large and growing, as is the demand for well trained technicians and engineers who understand how these devices work and how to apply them. Linear Integrated Circuits provides in-depth coverage of the devices and their operation, but not at the expense of practical applications in which linear devices figure prominently. This book is written for a wide readership from FE and first degree students, to hobbyists and professionals.Chapter 1 offers a general introduction that will provide students with the foundations of linear IC technology. From chapter 2 onwa

  18. Installations having pressurised fluid circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigg, S.; Grant, J.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to nuclear installations having pressurised coolant flow circuits. Breaches in such circuits may quickly result in much damage to the plant. Devices such as non-return valves, orifice plates, and automatically operated shut-off valves have been provided to prevent or reduce fluid flow through a breached pipe line, but such devices have several disadvantages; they may present large restrictions to normal flow of coolant, and may depend on the operation of ancillary equipment, with consequent delay in bringing them into operation in an emergency. Other expedients that have been adopted to prevent or reduce reverse flow through an upstream breach comprise various forms of hydraulic counter flow brakes. The arrangement described has at least one variable fluid brake comprising a fluidic device connected into a duct in the pressurised circuit, the device having an inlet, an outlet, a vortex chamber between the inlet and outlet, a control jet for introducing fluid into the vortex chamber, connections communicating the inlet and the outlet into one part of the circuit and the control jet into another region at a complementary pressure so that, in the event of a breach in the circuit in one region, fluid passes from the other region to enter the vortex chamber to stimulate pressure to create a flow restricting vortex in the chamber that reduces flow through the breach. The system finds particular application to stream generating pressure tube reactors, such as the steam generating heavy water reactor at UKAEA, Winfrith. (U.K.)

  19. Operation amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetsuya, Saito; Nauta, Bram

    2008-01-01

    To provide an operation amplifier which improves power source voltage removal ratios while assuring phase compensation characteristics, and therefore can be realized with a small-scale circuit and low power consumption. SOLUTION: The operation amplifier comprises: a differential amplifier circuit 1;

  20. Cellular metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, C.E.; Walters, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: chromatin structure; the use of circular synthetic polydeoxynucleotides as substrates for the study of DNA repair enzymes; human cellular kinetic response following exposure to DNA-interactive compounds; histone phosphorylation and chromatin structure in cell proliferation; photoaddition products induced in chromatin by uv light; pollutants and genetic information transfer; altered RNA metabolism as a function of cadmium accumulation and intracellular distribution in cultured cells; and thymidylate chromophore destruction by water free radicals

  1. An Optimized Three-Level Design of Decoder Based on Nanoscale Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedi, Saeid; Navimipour, Nima Jafari

    2018-03-01

    Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) has been potentially considered as a supersede to Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) because of its inherent advantages. Many QCA-based logic circuits with smaller feature size, improved operating frequency, and lower power consumption than CMOS have been offered. This technology works based on electron relations inside quantum-dots. Due to the importance of designing an optimized decoder in any digital circuit, in this paper, we design, implement and simulate a new 2-to-4 decoder based on QCA with low delay, area, and complexity. The logic functionality of the 2-to-4 decoder is verified using the QCADesigner tool. The results have shown that the proposed QCA-based decoder has high performance in terms of a number of cells, covered area, and time delay. Due to the lower clock pulse frequency, the proposed 2-to-4 decoder is helpful for building QCA-based sequential digital circuits with high performance.

  2. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  3. Circuit analysis for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Santiago, John

    2013-01-01

    Circuits overloaded from electric circuit analysis? Many universities require that students pursuing a degree in electrical or computer engineering take an Electric Circuit Analysis course to determine who will ""make the cut"" and continue in the degree program. Circuit Analysis For Dummies will help these students to better understand electric circuit analysis by presenting the information in an effective and straightforward manner. Circuit Analysis For Dummies gives you clear-cut information about the topics covered in an electric circuit analysis courses to help

  4. Current limiter circuit system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcher, Joseph Brandon; Bredemann, Michael V.

    2017-09-05

    An apparatus comprising a steady state sensing circuit, a switching circuit, and a detection circuit. The steady state sensing circuit is connected to a first, a second and a third node. The first node is connected to a first device, the second node is connected to a second device, and the steady state sensing circuit causes a scaled current to flow at the third node. The scaled current is proportional to a voltage difference between the first and second node. The switching circuit limits an amount of current that flows between the first and second device. The detection circuit is connected to the third node and the switching circuit. The detection circuit monitors the scaled current at the third node and controls the switching circuit to limit the amount of the current that flows between the first and second device when the scaled current is greater than a desired level.

  5. Effects of Genetic Variation on the E. coli Host-Circuit Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Cardinale

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Predictable operation of engineered biological circuitry requires the knowledge of host factors that compete or interfere with designed function. Here, we perform a detailed analysis of the interaction between constitutive expression from a test circuit and cell-growth properties in a subset of genetic variants of the bacterium Escherichia coli. Differences in generic cellular parameters such as ribosome availability and growth rate are the main determinants (89% of strain-specific differences of circuit performance in laboratory-adapted strains but are responsible for only 35% of expression variation across 88 mutants of E. coli BW25113. In the latter strains, we identify specific cell functions, such as nitrogen metabolism, that directly modulate circuit behavior. Finally, we expose aspects of carbon metabolism that act in a strain- and sequence-specific manner. This method of dissecting interactions between host factors and heterologous circuits enables the discovery of mechanisms of interference necessary for the development of design principles for predictable cellular engineering.

  6. Energy-efficient neuron, synapse and STDP integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Albrecht, Jose M; Yung, Michael W; Srinivasa, Narayan

    2012-06-01

    Ultra-low energy biologically-inspired neuron and synapse integrated circuits are presented. The synapse includes a spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) learning rule circuit. These circuits have been designed, fabricated and tested using a 90 nm CMOS process. Experimental measurements demonstrate proper operation. The neuron and the synapse with STDP circuits have an energy consumption of around 0.4 pJ per spike and synaptic operation respectively.

  7. Theory, analysis and applications of the operation of the superconducting transformer supplying a direct current to a non-dissipative superconducting charge circuit; Theorie, analyse et applications du fonctionnement du transformateur supraconducteur alimentant en courant continu un circuit de charge supraconducteur non dissipatif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The author derives the very simple equations governing the operation of a transformer with superconducting windings supplying direct current to a non-dissipative superconducting charge circuit. An analysis of the various possible modes of operation with direct or slowly varying current raises the problem of the magnetic core. The study. leads to a conclusion which a priori might be surprising: the elimination of the magnetic core and the use of a primary super-conductor. An example of a possible realization of such a transformer is given as an indication, and the present prospects for different applications are considered. (author) [French] L'auteur etablit les equations tres simples de fonctionnement du transformateur a enroulements supraconducteurs alimentant en courant continu un circuit de charge supraconducteur non dissipatif. L'analyse de divers modes de fonctionnement possibles en courant continu ou lentement variable souleve le probleme du noyau magnetique. L'etude aboutit a une conclusion qui a priori aurait pu surprendre: l'elimination du noyau magnetique et l'utilisation d'un primaire supraconducteur. Un exemple de realisation possible d'un tel transformateur est donne a titre indicatif et les perspectives d'applications actuelles sont envisagees. (auteur)

  8. RF Circuit Design in Nanometer CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    With CMOS technology entering the nanometer regime, the design of analog and RF circuits is complicated by low supply voltages, very non-linear (and nonquadratic) devices and large 1/f noise. At the same time, circuits are required to operate over increasingly wide bandwidths to implement modern

  9. A new integrated microwave SQUID circuit design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erne, S.N.; Finnegan, T.F.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper we consider the design and operation of a planar thin-film rf-SQUID circuit which can be realized via microwave-integrated-circuit (MIC) techniques and which differs substantially from pervious microwave SQUID configurations involving either mechanical point-contact or cylindrical thin-film micro-bridge geometries. (orig.)

  10. Integrated Transceivers for Millimeter Wave and Cellular Communication

    OpenAIRE

    TIRED, TOBIAS

    2016-01-01

    Abstract:This doctoral thesis is addresses two topics in integrated circuit design: multiband direct conversion cellular receivers for cellular frequencies and beam steering transmitters for millimeter wave communication for the cellular backhaul. The trend towards cellular terminals supporting ever more different frequency bands has resulted in complex radio frontends with a large number of RF inputs. Common receivers have, for performance reasons, in the past used differential RF inputs. Ho...

  11. Radiation-hardened CMOS integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenwick, G.F.; Hughes, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    Electronic circuits that operate properly after exposure to ionizing radiation are necessary for nuclear weapon systems, satellites, and apparatus designed for use in radiation environments. The program to develop and theoretically model radiation-tolerant integrated circuit components has resulted in devices that show an improvement in hardness up to a factor of ten thousand over earlier devices. An inverter circuit produced functions properly after an exposure of 10 6 Gy (Si) which, as far as is known, is the record for an integrated circuit

  12. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and its active peptide (1-3)IGF1 enhance the expression of synaptic markers in neuronal circuits through different cellular mechanisms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Corvin, Aiden P

    2012-06-27

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) and its active peptide (1-3)IGF1 modulate brain growth and plasticity and are candidate molecules for treatment of brain disorders. IGF1 N-terminal portion is naturally cleaved to generate the tri-peptide (1-3)IGF1 (glycine-praline-glutamate). IGF1 and (1-3)IGF have been proposed as treatment for neuropathologies, yet their effect on nerve cells has not been directly compared. In this study we examine the effects of IGF1 and (1-3)IGF1 in primary cortical cultures and measure the expression levels of markers for intracellular pathways and synaptic function. We find that both treatments activate the IGF1 receptor and enhance the expression of synaptic markers, however, they activate different intracellular pathways. Furthermore, (1-3)IGF1 administration increases the expression of endogenous IGF1, suggesting a direct interaction between the two molecules. The results show that the two molecules increase the expression of synaptic proteins through activating different cellular mechanisms.

  13. Control circuits in power electronics practical issues in design and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Castilla, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Control circuits are a key element in the operation and performance of power electronics converters. This book describes practical issues related to the design and implementation of these control circuits, and is divided into three parts - analogue control circuits, digital control circuits, and new trends in control circuits.

  14. Integrated mechanisms of anticipation and rate-of-change computations in cortical circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel D Puccini

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Local neocortical circuits are characterized by stereotypical physiological and structural features that subserve generic computational operations. These basic computations of the cortical microcircuit emerge through the interplay of neuronal connectivity, cellular intrinsic properties, and synaptic plasticity dynamics. How these interacting mechanisms generate specific computational operations in the cortical circuit remains largely unknown. Here, we identify the neurophysiological basis of both the rate of change and anticipation computations on synaptic inputs in a cortical circuit. Through biophysically realistic computer simulations and neuronal recordings, we show that the rate-of-change computation is operated robustly in cortical networks through the combination of two ubiquitous brain mechanisms: short-term synaptic depression and spike-frequency adaptation. We then show how this rate-of-change circuit can be embedded in a convergently connected network to anticipate temporally incoming synaptic inputs, in quantitative agreement with experimental findings on anticipatory responses to moving stimuli in the primary visual cortex. Given the robustness of the mechanism and the widespread nature of the physiological machinery involved, we suggest that rate-of-change computation and temporal anticipation are principal, hard-wired functions of neural information processing in the cortical microcircuit.

  15. Simplified design of filter circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1999-01-01

    Simplified Design of Filter Circuits, the eighth book in this popular series, is a step-by-step guide to designing filters using off-the-shelf ICs. The book starts with the basic operating principles of filters and common applications, then moves on to describe how to design circuits by using and modifying chips available on the market today. Lenk's emphasis is on practical, simplified approaches to solving design problems.Contains practical designs using off-the-shelf ICsStraightforward, no-nonsense approachHighly illustrated with manufacturer's data sheets

  16. Endogenous money, circuits and financialization

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Sawyer

    2013-01-01

    This paper locates the endogenous money approach in a circuitist framework. It argues for the significance of the credit creation process for the evolution of the economy and the absence of any notion of ‘neutrality of money’. Clearing banks are distinguished from other financial institutions as the providers of initial finance in a circuit whereas other financial institutions operate in a final finance circuit. Financialization is here viewed in terms of the growth of financial assets an...

  17. Intuitive analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject. In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and ""back-of-the-envelope"" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifi

  18. The circuit designer's companion

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Tim

    1991-01-01

    The Circuit Designer's Companion covers the theoretical aspects and practices in analogue and digital circuit design. Electronic circuit design involves designing a circuit that will fulfill its specified function and designing the same circuit so that every production model of it will fulfill its specified function, and no other undesired and unspecified function.This book is composed of nine chapters and starts with a review of the concept of grounding, wiring, and printed circuits. The subsequent chapters deal with the passive and active components of circuitry design. These topics are foll

  19. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1972-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 3 provides a comprehensive account on electronic devices and circuits and includes introductory network theory and physics. The physics of semiconductor devices is described, along with field effect transistors, small-signal equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and integrated circuits. Linear and non-linear circuits as well as logic circuits are also considered. This volume is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with an analysis of the use of Laplace transforms for analysis of filter networks, followed by a discussion on the physical properties of

  20. Circuit arrangement of an electronic component for the design of fail-safe protective circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centmaier, W.; Bernhard, U.; Friederich, B.; Heisecke, I.

    1974-01-01

    The critical parameters of reactors are controlled by safety circuits. These circuits are controlled designed as logic modules operating by the 'n-out-of-m' selection principle. In most cases, a combination of a '1-out-of-3' circuit with a '2-out-of-3' circuit and separate indication is sufficient for a dynamic fail-safe circuit. The basic logic elements are AND and OR gate circuits, respectively, which are triggered by pulse trains and in which the failure of a pulse train is indicated as an error at the output. The module allows the design of safety circuits offering various degrees of safety. If the indication of an error is made on the modules, faulty components can be exchanged by the maintenance crew right away. (DG) [de

  1. Multiplication circuit for particle identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlier, Jean

    1962-01-01

    After having commented some characteristics of the particles present in a cyclotron, and their interactions, this report addresses the development and the implementation of a method and a device for selecting and counting particles. The author presents the principle and existing techniques of selection. In comparison with an existing device, the proportional counter and the scintillator are replaced by junctions: a surface barrier type junction (a silicon N layer with a very thin oxygen layer playing the role of the P layer), and lithium-based junction (a silicon P type layer made intrinsic by migration of lithium). The author then describes the developed circuit and assembly (background of the choice of a multiplication circuit), and their operation. In the next part, he presents the performed tests and discuses the obtained results. He finally outlines the benefits of the herein presented circuit [fr

  2. Wiring of electronic evaluation circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R.; Svoboda, Z.

    1977-01-01

    The wiring is described of electronic evaluation circuits for the automatic viewing of photographic paper strip negatives on which line tracks with an angular scatter relative to the spectrograph longitudinal axis were recorded during the oblique flight of nuclear particles during exposure in the spectrograph. In coincidence evaluation, the size of the angular scatter eventually requires that evaluation dead time be increased. The equipment consists of minimally two fixed registers and a block of logic circuits whose output is designed such as will allow connection to equipment for recording signals corresponding to the number of tracks on the film. The connection may be implemented using integrated circuits guaranteeing high operating reliability and life. (J.B.)

  3. Simple Cell Balance Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven D.; Byers, Jerry W.; Martin, James A.

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed for continuous cell voltage balancing for rechargeable batteries (e.g. lithium ion batteries). A resistor divider chain is provided that generates a set of voltages representing the ideal cell voltage (the voltage of each cell should be as if the cells were perfectly balanced). An operational amplifier circuit with an added current buffer stage generates the ideal voltage with a very high degree of accuracy, using the concept of negative feedback. The ideal voltages are each connected to the corresponding cell through a current- limiting resistance. Over time, having the cell connected to the ideal voltage provides a balancing current that moves the cell voltage very close to that ideal level. In effect, it adjusts the current of each cell during charging, discharging, and standby periods to force the cell voltages to be equal to the ideal voltages generated by the resistor divider. The device also includes solid-state switches that disconnect the circuit from the battery so that it will not discharge the battery during storage. This solution requires relatively few parts and is, therefore, of lower cost and of increased reliability due to the fewer failure modes. Additionally, this design uses very little power. A preliminary model predicts a power usage of 0.18 W for an 8-cell battery. This approach is applicable to a wide range of battery capacities and voltages.

  4. Quasi-Linear Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, William; Bird, Ross; Eldred, Dennis; Zook, Jon; Knowles, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    This work involved developing spacequalifiable switch mode DC/DC power supplies that improve performance with fewer components, and result in elimination of digital components and reduction in magnetics. This design is for missions where systems may be operating under extreme conditions, especially at elevated temperature levels from 200 to 300 degC. Prior art for radiation-tolerant DC/DC converters has been accomplished utilizing classical magnetic-based switch mode converter topologies; however, this requires specific shielding and component de-rating to meet the high-reliability specifications. It requires complex measurement and feedback components, and will not enable automatic re-optimization for larger changes in voltage supply or electrical loading condition. The innovation is a switch mode DC/DC power supply that eliminates the need for processors and most magnetics. It can provide a well-regulated voltage supply with a gain of 1:100 step-up to 8:1 step down, tolerating an up to 30% fluctuation of the voltage supply parameters. The circuit incorporates a ceramic core transformer in a manner that enables it to provide a well-regulated voltage output without use of any processor components or magnetic transformers. The circuit adjusts its internal parameters to re-optimize its performance for changes in supply voltage, environmental conditions, or electrical loading at the output

  5. Electrical Circuits and Water Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frederick A.; Wilson, Jerry D.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes water analogies for electrical circuits and presents plans for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate these analogies. Demonstrations include series circuits, parallel circuits, and capacitors. (GS)

  6. Electric circuits essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electric Circuits I includes units, notation, resistive circuits, experimental laws, transient circuits, network theorems, techniques of circuit analysis, sinusoidal analysis, polyph

  7. Environment Aware Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented rise of mobile user demand over the years have led to an enormous growth of the energy consumption of wireless networks as well as the greenhouse gas emissions which are estimated currently to be around 70 million tons per year. This significant growth of energy consumption impels network companies to pay huge bills which represent around half of their operating expenditures. Therefore, many service providers, including mobile operators, are looking for new and modern green solutions to help reduce their expenses as well as the level of their CO2 emissions. Base stations are the most power greedy element in cellular networks: they drain around 80% of the total network energy consumption even during low traffic periods. Thus, there is a growing need to develop more energy-efficient techniques to enhance the green performance of future 4G/5G cellular networks. Due to the problem of traffic load fluctuations in cellular networks during different periods of the day and between different areas (shopping or business districts and residential areas), the base station sleeping strategy has been one of the main popular research topics in green communications. In this presentation, we present several practical green techniques that provide significant gains for mobile operators. Indeed, combined with the base station sleeping strategy, these techniques achieve not only a minimization of the fossil fuel consumption but also an enhancement of mobile operator profits. We start with an optimized cell planning method that considers varying spatial and temporal user densities. We then use the optimal transport theory in order to define the cell boundaries such that the network total transmit power is reduced. Afterwards, we exploit the features of the modern electrical grid, the smart grid, as a new tool of power management for cellular networks and we optimize the energy procurement from multiple energy retailers characterized by different prices and pollutant

  8. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  9. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  10. Short-circuit logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    2010-01-01

    Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of

  11. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  12. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  13. Resistor Extends Life Of Battery In Clocked CMOS Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, George H., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Addition of fixed resistor between battery and clocked complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) circuit reduces current drawn from battery. Basic idea to minimize current drawn from battery by operating CMOS circuit at lowest possible current consistent with use of simple, fixed off-the-shelf components. Prolongs lives of batteries in such low-power CMOS circuits as watches and calculators.

  14. Zeno's paradox in quantum cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groessing, G.; Zeilinger, A.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of Zeno's paradox in quantum theory is demonstrated with the aid of quantum mechanical cellular automata. It is shown that the degree of non-unitarity of the cellular automaton evolution and the frequency of consecutive measurements of cellular automaton states are operationally indistinguishable. (orig.)

  15. Zeno's paradox in quantum cellular automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groessing, G [Atominst. der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, Vienna (Austria); Zeilinger, A [Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik, Univ. Innsbruck (Austria)

    1991-07-01

    The effect of Zeno's paradox in quantum theory is demonstrated with the aid of quantum mechanical cellular automata. It is shown that the degree of non-unitarity of the cellular automaton evolution and the frequency of consecutive measurements of cellular automaton states are operationally indistinguishable. (orig.).

  16. Operational safety of small sodium circuits in a multi-purpose laboratory. Summary of a certain number of rules applied at BELGONUCLEAIRE's Brussels Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, A.

    1971-01-01

    The loops in operation at our Brussels Laboratory installed in Brussels University Applied Mechanics Hall have a maximum capacity of 400 l and a maximum operating temperature of 600 °C. They are equipped with electromagnetic pumps permitting a maximum flow rate of 15 m 3 /h approximately. They are designed for experiments in direct support of our fuel element design group that is e.g. simulation of fuel bundles for temperature distribution measurement, simulation of unloading under argon, etc. In the same lab, BELGONUCLEAIRE also has small sodium test facilities such as under sodium friction test tank. The operational safety of such loops can be described in two parts: design features and operational rules

  17. Cellular communications a comprehensive and practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathi, Nishith

    2014-01-01

    Even as newer cellular technologies and standards emerge, many of the fundamental principles and the components of the cellular network remain the same. Presenting a simple yet comprehensive view of cellular communications technologies, Cellular Communications provides an end-to-end perspective of cellular operations, ranging from physical layer details to call set-up and from the radio network to the core network. This self-contained source forpractitioners and students represents a comprehensive survey of the fundamentals of cellular communications and the landscape of commercially deployed

  18. Cellular dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humm, J.L.; Chin, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation dose is a useful predictive parameter for describing radiation toxicity in conventional radiotherapy. Traditionally, in vitro radiation biology dose-effect relations are expressed in the form of cell survival curves, a semilog plot of cell survival versus dose. However, the characteristic linear or linear quadratic survival curve shape, for high- and low-LET radiations respectively, is only strictly valid when the radiation dose is uniform across the entire target population. With an external beam of 60 Co gamma rays or x-rays, a uniform field may be readily achievable. When radionuclides are incorporated into a cell milieu, several new problems emerge which can result in a departure from uniformity in energy deposition throughout a cell population. This nonuniformity can have very important consequences for the shape of the survival curve. Cases in which perturbations of source uniformity may arise include: 1. Elemental sources may equilibrate in the cell medium with partition coefficients between the extracellular, cytosol, and nuclear compartments. The effect of preferential cell internalization or binding to cell membrane of some radionuclides can increase or decrease the slope of the survival curve. 2. Radionuclides bound to antibodies, hormones, metabolite precursors, etc., may result in a source localization pattern characteristic of the carrier agent, i.e., the sources may bind to cell surface receptors or antigens, be internalized, bind to secreted antigen concentrated around a fraction of the cell population, or become directly incorporated into the cell DNA. We propose to relate the distribution of energy deposition in cell nuclei to biological correlates of cellular inactivation. The probability of each cell's survival is weighted by its individual radiation burden, and the summation of these probabilities for the cell population can be used to predict the number or fraction of cell survivors

  19. Programmable cellular arrays. Faults testing and correcting in cellular arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cercel, L.

    1978-03-01

    A review of some recent researches about programmable cellular arrays in computing and digital processing of information systems is presented, and includes both combinational and sequential arrays, with full arbitrary behaviour, or which can realize better implementations of specialized blocks as: arithmetic units, counters, comparators, control systems, memory blocks, etc. Also, the paper presents applications of cellular arrays in microprogramming, in implementing of a specialized computer for matrix operations, in modeling of universal computing systems. The last section deals with problems of fault testing and correcting in cellular arrays. (author)

  20. A fast circuit analysis program based on microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Guoji

    1988-01-01

    A fast circuit analysis program (FCAP) is introduced. The program may be used to analyse DC operating point, frequency and transient response of fast circuit. The feature is that the model of active element is not specified. Users may choose one of many equivalent circuits. Written in FORTRAN 77, FCAP can be run on IBM PC and its compatible computers. It can be used as an assistant tool of analysis and design for fast circuits

  1. Synchronization circuit for shaping electron beam picosecond pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, Yu.S.; Solov'ev, N.G.; Tomnikov, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    A fast response circuit of modulator trigger pulse synchronization of a deflector of the electron linear accelerator at 13 MeV with the given phase of HF-voltage is described. The circuit is constructed using K500 and K100 integrated emitter-coupled logics circuits. Main parameters of a synchropulse are duration of 20-50 ns, pulse rise time of 1-5 ns, pulse amplitude >=10 V, delay instability of a trigger pulse <=+-0.05 ns. A radiopulse with 3 μs duration, 5 V amplitude and 400 Hz frequency enters the circuit input. The circuit can operate at both pulsed operation and continuous modes

  2. Fast frequency divider circuit using combinational logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helinski, Ryan

    2017-05-30

    The various technologies presented herein relate to performing on-chip frequency division of an operating frequency of a ring oscillator (RO). Per the various embodiments herein, a conflict between RO size versus operational frequency can be addressed by dividing the output frequency of the RO to a frequency that can be measured on-chip. A frequency divider circuit (comprising NOR gates and latches, for example) can be utilized in conjunction with the RO on the chip. In an embodiment, the frequency divider circuit can include a pair of latches coupled to the RO to facilitate dividing the oscillating frequency of the RO by 2. In another embodiment, the frequency divider circuit can include four latches (operating in pairs) coupled to the RO to facilitate dividing the oscillating frequency of the RO by 4. A plurality of ROs can be MUXed to the plurality of ROs by a single oscillation-counting circuit.

  3. The Limitations to Delay-Insensitivity in Asynchronous Circuits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Alain J

    1990-01-01

    ... produced are delay-insensitive (DI). A digital circuit is DI when its correct operation is independent of the delays in operators and in the wires connecting the operators, except that the delays are finite and positive...

  4. QCA Gray Code Converter Circuits Using LTEx Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Chiradeep; Panda, Saradindu; Mukhopadhyay, Asish Kumar; Maji, Bansibadan

    2018-04-01

    The Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) is the prominent paradigm of nanotechnology considered to continue the computation at deep sub-micron regime. The QCA realizations of several multilevel circuit of arithmetic logic unit have been introduced in the recent years. However, as high fan-in Binary to Gray (B2G) and Gray to Binary (G2B) Converters exist in the processor based architecture, no attention has been paid towards the QCA instantiation of the Gray Code Converters which are anticipated to be used in 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit or even more bit addressable machines of Gray Code Addressing schemes. In this work the two-input Layered T module is presented to exploit the operation of an Exclusive-OR Gate (namely LTEx module) as an elemental block. The "defect-tolerant analysis" of the two-input LTEx module has been analyzed to establish the scalability and reproducibility of the LTEx module in the complex circuits. The novel formulations exploiting the operability of the LTEx module have been proposed to instantiate area-delay efficient B2G and G2B Converters which can be exclusively used in Gray Code Addressing schemes. Moreover this work formulates the QCA design metrics such as O-Cost, Effective area, Delay and Cost α for the n-bit converter layouts.

  5. Feedback in analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a consistent and direct methodology to the analysis and design of analog circuits with particular application to circuits containing feedback. The analysis and design of circuits containing feedback is generally presented by either following a series of examples where each circuit is simplified through the use of insight or experience (someone else’s), or a complete nodal-matrix analysis generating lots of algebra. Neither of these approaches leads to gaining insight into the design process easily. The author develops a systematic approach to circuit analysis, the Driving Point Impedance and Signal Flow Graphs (DPI/SFG) method that does not require a-priori insight to the circuit being considered and results in factored analysis supporting the design function. This approach enables designers to account fully for loading and the bi-directional nature of elements both in the feedback path and in the amplifier itself, properties many times assumed negligible and ignored. Feedback circuits a...

  6. Design of Efficient Mirror Adder in Quantum- Dot Cellular Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Prashant Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Manju K.

    2018-03-01

    Lower power consumption is an essential demand for portable multimedia system using digital signal processing algorithms and architectures. Quantum dot cellular automata (QCA) is a rising nano technology for the development of high performance ultra-dense low power digital circuits. QCA based several efficient binary and decimal arithmetic circuits are implemented, however important improvements are still possible. This paper demonstrate Mirror Adder circuit design in QCA. We present comparative study of mirror adder cells designed using conventional CMOS technique and mirror adder cells designed using quantum-dot cellular automata. QCA based mirror adders are better in terms of area by order of three.

  7. Pulse generator circuit triggerable by nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredrickson, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    A pulse generator circuit triggerable by a pulse of nuclear radiation is described. The pulse generator circuit includes a pair of transistors arranged, together with other electrical components, in the topology of a standard monostable multivibrator circuit. The circuit differs most significantly from a standard monostable multivibrator circuit in that the circuit is adapted to be triggered by a pulse of nuclear radiation rather than electrically and the transistors have substantially different sensitivities to radiation, due to different physical and electrical characteristics and parameters. One of the transistors is employed principally as a radiation detector and is in a normally non-conducting state and the other transistor is normally in a conducting state. When the circuit is exposed to a pulse of nuclear radiation, currents are induced in the collector-base junctions of both transistors but, due to the different radiation sensitivities of the transistors, the current induced in the collector-base junction of the radiation-detecting transistor is substantially greater than that induced in the collector-base junction of the other transistor. The pulse of radiation causes the radiation-detecting transistor to operate in its conducting state, causing the other transistor to operate in its non-conducting state. As the radiation-detecting transistor operates in its conducting state, an output signal is produced at an output terminal connected to the radiation-detecting transistor indicating the presence of a predetermined intensity of nuclear radiation

  8. Asynchronous Rate Chaos in Spiking Neuronal Circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omri Harish

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The brain exhibits temporally complex patterns of activity with features similar to those of chaotic systems. Theoretical studies over the last twenty years have described various computational advantages for such regimes in neuronal systems. Nevertheless, it still remains unclear whether chaos requires specific cellular properties or network architectures, or whether it is a generic property of neuronal circuits. We investigate the dynamics of networks of excitatory-inhibitory (EI spiking neurons with random sparse connectivity operating in the regime of balance of excitation and inhibition. Combining Dynamical Mean-Field Theory with numerical simulations, we show that chaotic, asynchronous firing rate fluctuations emerge generically for sufficiently strong synapses. Two different mechanisms can lead to these chaotic fluctuations. One mechanism relies on slow I-I inhibition which gives rise to slow subthreshold voltage and rate fluctuations. The decorrelation time of these fluctuations is proportional to the time constant of the inhibition. The second mechanism relies on the recurrent E-I-E feedback loop. It requires slow excitation but the inhibition can be fast. In the corresponding dynamical regime all neurons exhibit rate fluctuations on the time scale of the excitation. Another feature of this regime is that the population-averaged firing rate is substantially smaller in the excitatory population than in the inhibitory population. This is not necessarily the case in the I-I mechanism. Finally, we discuss the neurophysiological and computational significance of our results.

  9. Asynchronous Rate Chaos in Spiking Neuronal Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, Omri; Hansel, David

    2015-01-01

    The brain exhibits temporally complex patterns of activity with features similar to those of chaotic systems. Theoretical studies over the last twenty years have described various computational advantages for such regimes in neuronal systems. Nevertheless, it still remains unclear whether chaos requires specific cellular properties or network architectures, or whether it is a generic property of neuronal circuits. We investigate the dynamics of networks of excitatory-inhibitory (EI) spiking neurons with random sparse connectivity operating in the regime of balance of excitation and inhibition. Combining Dynamical Mean-Field Theory with numerical simulations, we show that chaotic, asynchronous firing rate fluctuations emerge generically for sufficiently strong synapses. Two different mechanisms can lead to these chaotic fluctuations. One mechanism relies on slow I-I inhibition which gives rise to slow subthreshold voltage and rate fluctuations. The decorrelation time of these fluctuations is proportional to the time constant of the inhibition. The second mechanism relies on the recurrent E-I-E feedback loop. It requires slow excitation but the inhibition can be fast. In the corresponding dynamical regime all neurons exhibit rate fluctuations on the time scale of the excitation. Another feature of this regime is that the population-averaged firing rate is substantially smaller in the excitatory population than in the inhibitory population. This is not necessarily the case in the I-I mechanism. Finally, we discuss the neurophysiological and computational significance of our results. PMID:26230679

  10. Low cost design of microprocessor EDAC circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Li; Yu Lixin; Peng Heping; Zhuang Wei

    2015-01-01

    An optimization method of error detection and correction (EDAC) circuit design is proposed. The method involves selecting or constructing EDAC codes of low cost hardware, associated with operation scheduling implementation based on 2-input XOR gates structure, and two actions for reducing hardware cells, which can reduce the delay penalties and area costs of the EDAC circuit effectively. The 32-bit EDAC circuit hardware implementation is selected to make a prototype, based on the 180 nm process. The delay penalties and area costs of the EDAC circuit are evaluated. Results show that the time penalty and area cost of the EDAC circuitries are affected with different parity-check matrices and different hardware implementation for the EDAC codes with the same capability of correction and detection code. This method can be used as a guide for low-cost radiation-hardened microprocessor EDAC circuit design and for more advanced technologies. (paper)

  11. Functional roles for noise in genetic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldar, Avigdor; Elowitz, Michael B

    2010-09-09

    The genetic circuits that regulate cellular functions are subject to stochastic fluctuations, or 'noise', in the levels of their components. Noise, far from just a nuisance, has begun to be appreciated for its essential role in key cellular activities. Noise functions in both microbial and eukaryotic cells, in multicellular development, and in evolution. It enables coordination of gene expression across large regulons, as well as probabilistic differentiation strategies that function across cell populations. At the longest timescales, noise may facilitate evolutionary transitions. Here we review examples and emerging principles that connect noise, the architecture of the gene circuits in which it is present, and the biological functions it enables. We further indicate some of the important challenges and opportunities going forward.

  12. Electric circuits and signals

    CERN Document Server

    Sabah, Nassir H

    2007-01-01

    Circuit Variables and Elements Overview Learning Objectives Electric Current Voltage Electric Power and Energy Assigned Positive Directions Active and Passive Circuit Elements Voltage and Current Sources The Resistor The Capacitor The Inductor Concluding Remarks Summary of Main Concepts and Results Learning Outcomes Supplementary Topics on CD Problems and Exercises Basic Circuit Connections and Laws Overview Learning Objectives Circuit Terminology Kirchhoff's Laws Voltage Division and Series Connection of Resistors Current Division and Parallel Connection of Resistors D-Y Transformation Source Equivalence and Transformation Reduced-Voltage Supply Summary of Main Concepts and Results Learning Outcomes Supplementary Topics and Examples on CD Problems and Exercises Basic Analysis of Resistive Circuits Overview Learning Objectives Number of Independent Circuit Equations Node-Voltage Analysis Special Considerations in Node-Voltage Analysis Mesh-Current Analysis Special Conside...

  13. [Shunt and short circuit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Abundis, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Shunt and short circuit are antonyms. In French, the term shunt has been adopted to denote the alternative pathway of blood flow. However, in French, as well as in Spanish, the word short circuit (court-circuit and cortocircuito) is synonymous with shunt, giving rise to a linguistic and scientific inconsistency. Scientific because shunt and short circuit made reference to a phenomenon that occurs in the field of the physics. Because shunt and short circuit are antonyms, it is necessary to clarify that shunt is an alternative pathway of flow from a net of high resistance to a net of low resistance, maintaining the stream. Short circuit is the interruption of the flow, because a high resistance impeaches the flood. This concept is applied to electrical and cardiovascular physiology, as well as to the metabolic pathways.

  14. Analog circuits cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Analog Circuits Cookbook presents articles about advanced circuit techniques, components and concepts, useful IC for analog signal processing in the audio range, direct digital synthesis, and ingenious video op-amp. The book also includes articles about amplitude measurements on RF signals, linear optical imager, power supplies and devices, and RF circuits and techniques. Professionals and students of electrical engineering will find the book informative and useful.

  15. Analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobkin, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book's in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today's demanding designs. <

  16. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  17. Four-terminal circuit element with photonic core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampayan, Stephen

    2017-08-29

    A four-terminal circuit element is described that includes a photonic core inside of the circuit element that uses a wide bandgap semiconductor material that exhibits photoconductivity and allows current flow through the material in response to the light that is incident on the wide bandgap material. The four-terminal circuit element can be configured based on various hardware structures using a single piece or multiple pieces or layers of a wide bandgap semiconductor material to achieve various designed electrical properties such as high switching voltages by using the photoconductive feature beyond the breakdown voltages of semiconductor devices or circuits operated based on electrical bias or control designs. The photonic core aspect of the four-terminal circuit element provides unique features that enable versatile circuit applications to either replace the semiconductor transistor-based circuit elements or semiconductor diode-based circuit elements.

  18. CMOS circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    1995-01-01

    CMOS Circuits Manual is a user's guide for CMOS. The book emphasizes the practical aspects of CMOS and provides circuits, tables, and graphs to further relate the fundamentals with the applications. The text first discusses the basic principles and characteristics of the CMOS devices. The succeeding chapters detail the types of CMOS IC, including simple inverter, gate and logic ICs and circuits, and complex counters and decoders. The last chapter presents a miscellaneous collection of two dozen useful CMOS circuits. The book will be useful to researchers and professionals who employ CMOS circu

  19. Timergenerator circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Timer/Generator Circuits Manual is an 11-chapter text that deals mainly with waveform generator techniques and circuits. Each chapter starts with an explanation of the basic principles of its subject followed by a wide range of practical circuit designs. This work presents a total of over 300 practical circuits, diagrams, and tables.Chapter 1 outlines the basic principles and the different types of generator. Chapters 2 to 9 deal with a specific type of waveform generator, including sine, square, triangular, sawtooth, and special waveform generators pulse. These chapters also include pulse gen

  20. Maximum Acceleration Recording Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Coarsely digitized maximum levels recorded in blown fuses. Circuit feeds power to accelerometer and makes nonvolatile record of maximum level to which output of accelerometer rises during measurement interval. In comparison with inertia-type single-preset-trip-point mechanical maximum-acceleration-recording devices, circuit weighs less, occupies less space, and records accelerations within narrower bands of uncertainty. In comparison with prior electronic data-acquisition systems designed for same purpose, circuit simpler, less bulky, consumes less power, costs and analysis of data recorded in magnetic or electronic memory devices. Circuit used, for example, to record accelerations to which commodities subjected during transportation on trucks.

  1. MOS integrated circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfendale, E

    2013-01-01

    MOS Integral Circuit Design aims to help in the design of integrated circuits, especially large-scale ones, using MOS Technology through teaching of techniques, practical applications, and examples. The book covers topics such as design equation and process parameters; MOS static and dynamic circuits; logic design techniques, system partitioning, and layout techniques. Also featured are computer aids such as logic simulation and mask layout, as well as examples on simple MOS design. The text is recommended for electrical engineers who would like to know how to use MOS for integral circuit desi

  2. Circuits and filters handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi

  3. Security electronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    MARSTON, R M

    1998-01-01

    Security Electronics Circuits Manual is an invaluable guide for engineers and technicians in the security industry. It will also prove to be a useful guide for students and experimenters, as well as providing experienced amateurs and DIY enthusiasts with numerous ideas to protect their homes, businesses and properties.As with all Ray Marston's Circuits Manuals, the style is easy-to-read and non-mathematical, with the emphasis firmly on practical applications, circuits and design ideas. The ICs and other devices used in the practical circuits are modestly priced and readily available ty

  4. New way on designing majorant coincidence circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajdamaka, R.I.; Kalinnikov, V.A.; Nikityuk, N.M.; Shirikov, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    A new way of designing fast devices of combinatorial selection by the number of particles passing through a multichannel charged particle detector is decribed. The algorithm of their operation is based on modern algebraic coding theory. By application of analytical computational methods Boolean expressions can be obtianed for designing basic circuits for a large number of inputs. An example of computation of 15 inputs majorant coincidence circuit is considered

  5. Electrical circuit modeling of reversed field pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprott, J.C.

    1988-02-01

    Equations are proposed to describe the radial variation of the magnetic field and current density in a circular, cylindrical RFP. These equations are used to derive the electrical circuit parameters (inductance, resistance, and coupling coefficient) for an RFP discharge. The circuit parameters are used to evaluate the flux and energy consumption for various startup modes and for steady-state operation using oscillating field current drive. The results are applied to the MST device. 32 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  6. Phase transitions enable computational universality in neuristor-based cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, Matthew D; Stanley Williams, R

    2013-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that Mott memristors, two-terminal devices that exhibit threshold switching via an insulator to conductor phase transition, can serve as the active components necessary to build a neuristor, a biomimetic threshold spiking device. Here we extend those results to demonstrate, in simulation, neuristor-based circuits capable of performing general Boolean logic operations. We additionally show that these components can be used to construct a one-dimensional cellular automaton, rule 137, previously proven to be universal. This proof-of-principle shows that localized phase transitions can perform spiking computation, which is of particular interest for neuromorphic hardware. (paper)

  7. Reversible Flip-Flops in Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Samaneh Kazemi; Heikalabad, Saeed Rasouli

    2017-09-01

    Quantum-dot cellular automata is a new technology to design the efficient combinational and sequential circuits at the nano-scale. This technology has many desirable advantages compared to the CMOS technology such as low power consumption, less occupation area and low latency. These features make it suitable for use in flip-flop design. In this paper, with knowing the characteristics of reversible logic, we design new structures for flip-flops. The operations of these structures are evaluated with QCADesigner Version 2.0.3 simulator. In addition, we calculate the power dissipation of these structures by QCAPro tool. The results illustrated that proposed structures are efficient compared to the previous ones.

  8. A Voltage Mode Memristor Bridge Synaptic Circuit with Memristor Emulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Chua

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A memristor bridge neural circuit which is able to perform signed synaptic weighting was proposed in our previous study, where the synaptic operation was verified via software simulation of the mathematical model of the HP memristor. This study is an extension of the previous work advancing toward the circuit implementation where the architecture of the memristor bridge synapse is built with memristor emulator circuits. In addition, a simple neural network which performs both synaptic weighting and summation is built by combining memristor emulators-based synapses and differential amplifier circuits. The feasibility of the memristor bridge neural circuit is verified via SPICE simulations.

  9. Single-event transients (SET) in analog circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Panxun; Zhou Kaiming

    2006-01-01

    A new phenomenon of single- event upset is introduced. The transient signal is produced in the output of analog circuits after a heavy ion strikes. The transient upset can influence the circuit connected with the output of analog circuits. For example, the output of operational amplifier can be connected with the input of a digital counter, and the pulse of sufficiently high transient output induced by an ion can increase counts of the counter. On the other hand, the transient voltage signal at the output of analog circuits can change the stage of other circuits. (authors)

  10. Application of cellular neural network (CNN) method to the nuclear reactor dynamics equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadad, K.; Piroozmand, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a multilayer cellular neural network (CNN) to model and solve the nuclear reactor dynamic equations. An equivalent electrical circuit is analyzed and the governing equations of a bare, homogeneous reactor core are modeled via CNN. The validity of the CNN result is compared with numerical solution of the system of nonlinear governing partial differential equations (PDE) using MATLAB. Steady state as well as transient simulations, show very good comparison between the two methods. We used our CNN model to simulate space-time response of different reactivity excursions in a typical nuclear reactor. On line solution of reactor dynamic equations is used as an aid to reactor operation decision making. The complete algorithm could also be implemented using very large scale integrated circuit (VLSI) circuitry. The efficiency of the calculation method makes it useful for small size nuclear reactors such as the ones used in space missions

  11. Circuits on Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Vinay, V

    2006-01-01

    We consider the computational power of constant width polynomial size cylindrical circuits and nondeterministic branching programs. We show that every function computed by a Pi2 o MOD o AC0 circuit can also be computed by a constant width polynomial size cylindrical nondeterministic branching pro...

  12. Superconducting flux flow digital circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, J.S.; Zipperian, T.E.; Hietala, V.M.; Ginley, D.S.; Tigges, C.P.; Phillips, J.M.; Siegal, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have developed a family of digital logic circuits based on superconducting flux flow transistors that show high speed, reasonable signal levels, large fan-out, and large noise margins. The circuits are made from high-temperature superconductors (HTS) and have been shown to operate at over 90 K. NOR gates have been demonstrated with fan-outs of more than 5 and fully loaded switching times less than a fixture-limited 50 ps. Ring-oscillator data suggest inverter delay times of about 40ps when using a 3-μm linewidths. Simple flip-flops have also been demonstrated showing large noise margins, response times of less than 30 ps, and static power dissipation on the order of 30 nW. Among other uses, this logic family is appropriate as an interface between logic families such as single flux quantum and conventional semiconductor logic

  13. Electron commutator on integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demidenko, V.V.

    1975-01-01

    The scheme and the parameters of an electron 16-channel contactless commutator based entirely on integrated circuits are described. The device consists of a unit of analog keys based on field-controlled metal-insulator-semiconductor (m.i.s.) transistors, operation amplifier comparators controlling these keys, and a level distributor. The distributor is based on a ''matrix'' scheme and comprises two ring-shaped shift registers plugged in series and a decoder base on two-input logical elements I-NE. The principal dynamical parameters of the circuit are as follows: the control signal delay in the distributor. 50 nsec; the total channel switch-over time, 500-600 nsec. The commutator transmits both constant signals and pulses whose duration reaches tens of nsec. The commutator can be used in data acquisition and processing systems, for shaping complicated signals (for example), (otherwise signals), for simultaneous oscillographing of several signals, and so forth [ru

  14. CMOS analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Phillip E

    1987-01-01

    This text presents the principles and techniques for designing analog circuits to be implemented in a CMOS technology. The level is appropriate for seniors and graduate students familiar with basic electronics, including biasing, modeling, circuit analysis, and some familiarity with frequency response. Students learn the methodology of analog integrated circuit design through a hierarchically-oriented approach to the subject that provides thorough background and practical guidance for designing CMOS analog circuits, including modeling, simulation, and testing. The authors' vast industrial experience and knowledge is reflected in the circuits, techniques, and principles presented. They even identify the many common pitfalls that lie in the path of the beginning designer--expert advice from veteran designers. The text mixes the academic and practical viewpoints in a treatment that is neither superficial nor overly detailed, providing the perfect balance.

  15. Robustness to Faults Promotes Evolvability: Insights from Evolving Digital Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Nicola; Nolfi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate how the need to cope with operational faults enables evolving circuits to find more fit solutions. The analysis of the results obtained in different experimental conditions indicates that, in absence of faults, evolution tends to select circuits that are small and have low phenotypic variability and evolvability. The need to face operation faults, instead, drives evolution toward the selection of larger circuits that are truly robust with respect to genetic variations and that have a greater level of phenotypic variability and evolvability. Overall our results indicate that the need to cope with operation faults leads to the selection of circuits that have a greater probability to generate better circuits as a result of genetic variation with respect to a control condition in which circuits are not subjected to faults.

  16. Accelerating functional verification of an integrated circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deindl, Michael; Ruedinger, Jeffrey Joseph; Zoellin, Christian G.

    2015-10-27

    Illustrative embodiments include a method, system, and computer program product for accelerating functional verification in simulation testing of an integrated circuit (IC). Using a processor and a memory, a serial operation is replaced with a direct register access operation, wherein the serial operation is configured to perform bit shifting operation using a register in a simulation of the IC. The serial operation is blocked from manipulating the register in the simulation of the IC. Using the register in the simulation of the IC, the direct register access operation is performed in place of the serial operation.

  17. Circadian pacemaking in cells and circuits of the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, M H; Brancaccio, M; Maywood, E S

    2014-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is the principal circadian pacemaker of the brain. It co-ordinates the daily rhythms of sleep and wakefulness, as well as physiology and behaviour, that set the tempo to our lives. Disturbance of this daily pattern, most acutely with jet-lag but more insidiously with rotational shift-work, can have severely deleterious effects for mental function and long-term health. The present review considers recent developments in our understanding of the properties of the SCN that make it a robust circadian time-keeper. It first focuses on the intracellular transcriptional/ translational feedback loops (TTFL) that constitute the cellular clockwork of the SCN neurone. Daily timing by these loops pivots around the negative regulation of the Period (Per) and Cryptochrome (Cry) genes by their protein products. The period of the circadian cycle is set by the relative stability of Per and Cry proteins, and this can be controlled by both genetic and pharmacological interventions. It then considers the function of these feedback loops in the context of cytosolic signalling by cAMP and intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+) ]i ), which are both outputs from, and inputs to, the TTFL, as well as the critical role of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) signalling in synchronising cellular clocks across the SCN. Synchronisation by VIP in the SCN is paracrine, operating over an unconventionally long time frame (i.e. 24 h) and wide spatial domain, mediated via the cytosolic pathways upstream of the TTFL. Finally, we show how intersectional pharmacogenetics can be used to control G-protein-coupled signalling in individual SCN neurones, and how manipulation of Gq/[Ca(2+) ]i -signalling in VIP neurones can re-programme the circuit-level encoding of circadian time. Circadian pacemaking in the SCN therefore provides an unrivalled context in which to understand how a complex, adaptive behaviour can be organised by the dynamic activity of a relatively

  18. Building robust functionality in synthetic circuits using engineered feedback regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Susan; Harrigan, Patrick; Heineike, Benjamin; Stewart-Ornstein, Jacob; El-Samad, Hana

    2013-08-01

    The ability to engineer novel functionality within cells, to quantitatively control cellular circuits, and to manipulate the behaviors of populations, has many important applications in biotechnology and biomedicine. These applications are only beginning to be explored. In this review, we advocate the use of feedback control as an essential strategy for the engineering of robust homeostatic control of biological circuits and cellular populations. We also describe recent works where feedback control, implemented in silico or with biological components, was successfully employed for this purpose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-08-18

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  20. Logarithmic circuit with wide dynamic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, P. H.; Manus, E. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A circuit deriving an output voltage that is proportional to the logarithm of a dc input voltage susceptible to wide variations in amplitude includes a constant current source which forward biases a diode so that the diode operates in the exponential portion of its voltage versus current characteristic, above its saturation current. The constant current source includes first and second, cascaded feedback, dc operational amplifiers connected in negative feedback circuit. An input terminal of the first amplifier is responsive to the input voltage. A circuit shunting the first amplifier output terminal includes a resistor in series with the diode. The voltage across the resistor is sensed at the input of the second dc operational feedback amplifier. The current flowing through the resistor is proportional to the input voltage over the wide range of variations in amplitude of the input voltage.

  1. Arc modelling in SF6 circuit breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verite, J.C.; Boucher, T.; Comte, A.; Delalondre, C.; Robin-Jouan, P.; Serres, E.; Texier, V.; Barrault, M.; Chevrier, P.; Fievet, C.

    1995-06-01

    The paper presents the work done by an operator, EDF and two manufacturers to improve the physical models and numerical methods used to simulate the behavior of the plasma and cold gas around it in a breaking chamber of the HV SF6 circuit breaker, during the high-current phase. This work concerns flow phenomena, in particular incorporating compressibility and the study of turbulence, the coupling between these flow phenomena and electromagnetic phenomena, and finally, radiation - which plays an essential role in energy transfer during the high-current phase. For this latter aspect, emission but also absorption were proven to play a major role, and the two were introduced into the models. The paper presents the models developed and the results obtained with them for simulation of two circuit breaker mock-ups (a double-pressure circuit breaker mock-up and a self-expanding and rotating arc circuit breaker mock-up). (author)

  2. Microwave integrated circuits for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Regis F.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1991-01-01

    Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC), which incorporate all the elements of a microwave circuit on a single semiconductor substrate, offer the potential for drastic reductions in circuit weight and volume and increased reliability, all of which make many new concepts in electronic circuitry for space applications feasible, including phased array antennas. NASA has undertaken an extensive program aimed at development of MMICs for space applications. The first such circuits targeted for development were an extension of work in hybrid (discrete component) technology in support of the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS). It focused on power amplifiers, receivers, and switches at ACTS frequencies. More recent work, however, focused on frequencies appropriate for other NASA programs and emphasizes advanced materials in an effort to enhance efficiency, power handling capability, and frequency of operation or noise figure to meet the requirements of space systems.

  3. Troubleshooting analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pease, Robert A

    1991-01-01

    Troubleshooting Analog Circuits is a guidebook for solving product or process related problems in analog circuits. The book also provides advice in selecting equipment, preventing problems, and general tips. The coverage of the book includes the philosophy of troubleshooting; the modes of failure of various components; and preventive measures. The text also deals with the active components of analog circuits, including diodes and rectifiers, optically coupled devices, solar cells, and batteries. The book will be of great use to both students and practitioners of electronics engineering. Other

  4. Modern TTL circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Modern TTL Circuits Manual provides an introduction to the basic principles of Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL). This book outlines the major features of the 74 series of integrated circuits (ICs) and introduces the various sub-groups of the TTL family.Organized into seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basics of digital ICs. This text then examines the symbology and mathematics of digital logic. Other chapters consider a variety of topics, including waveform generator circuitry, clocked flip-flop and counter circuits, special counter/dividers, registers, data latches, com

  5. Circuit analysis with Multisim

    CERN Document Server

    Baez-Lopez, David

    2011-01-01

    This book is concerned with circuit simulation using National Instruments Multisim. It focuses on the use and comprehension of the working techniques for electrical and electronic circuit simulation. The first chapters are devoted to basic circuit analysis.It starts by describing in detail how to perform a DC analysis using only resistors and independent and controlled sources. Then, it introduces capacitors and inductors to make a transient analysis. In the case of transient analysis, it is possible to have an initial condition either in the capacitor voltage or in the inductor current, or bo

  6. Optoelectronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Optoelectronics Circuits Manual covers the basic principles and characteristics of the best known types of optoelectronic devices, as well as the practical applications of many of these optoelectronic devices. The book describes LED display circuits and LED dot- and bar-graph circuits and discusses the applications of seven-segment displays, light-sensitive devices, optocouplers, and a variety of brightness control techniques. The text also tackles infrared light-beam alarms and multichannel remote control systems. The book provides practical user information and circuitry and illustrations.

  7. 'Speedy' superconducting circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst, T.

    1994-01-01

    The most promising concept for realizing ultra-fast superconducting digital circuits is the Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) logic. The basic physical principle behind RSFQ logic, which include the storage and transfer of individual magnetic flux quanta in Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs), is explained. A Set-Reset flip-flop is used as an example of the implementation of an RSFQ based circuit. Finally, the outlook for high-temperature superconducting materials in connection with RSFQ circuits is discussed in some details. (au)

  8. High-precision analog circuit technology for power supply integrated circuits; Dengen IC yo koseido anarogu kairo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamori, A.; Suzuki, T.; Mizoe, K. [Fuji Electric Corporate Research and Development,Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-08-10

    With the recent rapid spread of portable electronic appliances, specification requirements such as compact power supply and long operation with batteries have become severer. Power supply ICs (integrated circuits) are required to reduce power consumption in the circuit and perform high-precision control. To meet these requirements, Fuji Electric develops high-precision CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) analog technology. This paper describes three analog circuit technologies of a voltage reference, an operational amplifier and a comparator as circuit components particularly important for the precision of power supply ICs. (author)

  9. Outer-totalistic cellular automata on graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marr, Carsten; Huett, Marc-Thorsten

    2009-01-01

    We present an intuitive formalism for implementing cellular automata on arbitrary topologies. By that means, we identify a symmetry operation in the class of elementary cellular automata. Moreover, we determine the subset of topologically sensitive elementary cellular automata and find that the overall number of complex patterns decreases under increasing neighborhood size in regular graphs. As exemplary applications, we apply the formalism to complex networks and compare the potential of scale-free graphs and metabolic networks to generate complex dynamics

  10. Analogue circuits simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendo, C

    1988-09-01

    Most analogue simulators have evolved from SPICE. The history and description of SPICE-like simulators are given. From a mathematical formulation of the electronic circuit the following analysis are possible: DC, AC, transient, noise, distortion, Worst Case and Statistical.

  11. Printed circuit for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    A printed circuit board made by scientists in the ATLAS collaboration for the transition radiaton tracker (TRT). This will read data produced when a high energy particle crosses the boundary between two materials with different electrical properties.

  12. Circuit QED with transmon qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulschner, Karl Friedrich; Puertas, Javier; Baust, Alexander; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Haeberlein, Max; Schwarz, Manuel; Xie, Edwar; Zhong, Ling; Deppe, Frank; Fedorov, Kirill; Marx, Achim; Menzel, Edwin; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Huebl, Hans [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Weides, Martin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Superconducting quantum bits are basic building blocks for circuit QED systems. Applications in the fields of quantum computation and quantum simulation require long coherence times. We have fabricated and characterized superconducting transmon qubits which are designed to operate at a high ratio of Josephson energy and charging energy. Due to their low sensitivity to charge noise transmon qubits show good coherence properties. We couple transmon qubits to coplanar waveguide resonators and coplanar slotline resonators and characterize the devices at mK-temperatures. From the experimental data we derive the qubit-resonator coupling strength, the qubit relaxation time and calibrate the photon number in the resonator via Stark shifts.

  13. Operation Amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetsuya, Saito; Nauta, Bram

    2011-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an operation amplifier which improves power source voltage removal ratios while assuring phase compensation characteristics, and therefore can be realized with a small-scale circuit and low power consumption. SOLUTION: The operation amplifier comprises: a

  14. Operation Amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetsuya, S.; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an operation amplifier which improves power source voltage removal ratios while assuring phase compensation characteristics, and therefore can be realized with a small-scale circuit and low power consumption. ; SOLUTION: The operation amplifier comprises: a

  15. Peak reading detector circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtin, E.; Grund, K.; Traub, S.; Zeeb, H.

    1975-01-01

    The peak reading detector circuit serves for picking up the instants during which peaks of a given polarity occur in sequences of signals in which the extreme values, their time intervals, and the curve shape of the signals vary. The signal sequences appear in measuring the foetal heart beat frequence from amplitude-modulated ultrasonic, electrocardiagram, and blood pressure signals. In order to prevent undesired emission of output signals from, e. g., disturbing intermediate extreme values, the circuit consists of the series connections of a circuit to simulate an ideal diode, a strong unit, a discriminator for the direction of charging current, a time-delay circuit, and an electronic switch lying in the decharging circuit of the storage unit. The time-delay circuit thereby causes storing of a preliminary maximum value being used only after a certain time delay for the emission of the output signal. If a larger extreme value occurs during the delay time the preliminary maximum value is cleared and the delay time starts running anew. (DG/PB) [de

  16. Color Coding of Circuit Quantities in Introductory Circuit Analysis Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisslein, Jana; Johnson, Amy M.; Reisslein, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Learning the analysis of electrical circuits represented by circuit diagrams is often challenging for novice students. An open research question in electrical circuit analysis instruction is whether color coding of the mathematical symbols (variables) that denote electrical quantities can improve circuit analysis learning. The present study…

  17. Project Circuits in a Basic Electric Circuits Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, James P.; Plumb, Carolyn; Revia, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of project circuits (a photoplethysmograph circuit and a simple audio amplifier), introduced in a sophomore-level electric circuits course utilizing active learning and inquiry-based methods, is described. The development of the project circuits was initiated to promote enhanced engagement and deeper understanding of course content among…

  18. Multi-qubit circuit quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viehmann, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Circuit QED systems are macroscopic, man-made quantum systems in which superconducting artificial atoms, also called Josephson qubits, interact with a quantized electromagnetic field. These systems have been devised to mimic the physics of elementary quantum optical systems with real atoms in a scalable and more flexible framework. This opens up a variety of possible applications of circuit QED systems. For instance, they provide a promising platform for processing quantum information. Recent years have seen rapid experimental progress on these systems, and experiments with multi-component circuit QED architectures are currently starting to come within reach. In this thesis, circuit QED systems with multiple Josephson qubits are studied theoretically. We focus on simple and experimentally realistic extensions of the currently operated circuit QED setups and pursue investigations in two main directions. First, we consider the equilibrium behavior of circuit QED systems containing a large number of mutually noninteracting Josephson charge qubits. The currently accepted standard description of circuit QED predicts the possibility of superradiant phase transitions in such systems. However, a full microscopic treatment shows that a no-go theorem for superradiant phase transitions known from atomic physics applies to circuit QED systems as well. This reveals previously unknown limitations of the applicability of the standard theory of circuit QED to multi-qubit systems. Second, we explore the potential of circuit QED for quantum simulations of interacting quantum many-body systems. We propose and analyze a circuit QED architecture that implements the quantum Ising chain in a time-dependent transverse magnetic field. Our setup can be used to study quench dynamics, the propagation of localized excitations, and other non-equilibrium features in this paradigmatic model in the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and quantumcritical phenomena. The setup is based on a

  19. Multi-qubit circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehmann, Oliver

    2013-09-03

    Circuit QED systems are macroscopic, man-made quantum systems in which superconducting artificial atoms, also called Josephson qubits, interact with a quantized electromagnetic field. These systems have been devised to mimic the physics of elementary quantum optical systems with real atoms in a scalable and more flexible framework. This opens up a variety of possible applications of circuit QED systems. For instance, they provide a promising platform for processing quantum information. Recent years have seen rapid experimental progress on these systems, and experiments with multi-component circuit QED architectures are currently starting to come within reach. In this thesis, circuit QED systems with multiple Josephson qubits are studied theoretically. We focus on simple and experimentally realistic extensions of the currently operated circuit QED setups and pursue investigations in two main directions. First, we consider the equilibrium behavior of circuit QED systems containing a large number of mutually noninteracting Josephson charge qubits. The currently accepted standard description of circuit QED predicts the possibility of superradiant phase transitions in such systems. However, a full microscopic treatment shows that a no-go theorem for superradiant phase transitions known from atomic physics applies to circuit QED systems as well. This reveals previously unknown limitations of the applicability of the standard theory of circuit QED to multi-qubit systems. Second, we explore the potential of circuit QED for quantum simulations of interacting quantum many-body systems. We propose and analyze a circuit QED architecture that implements the quantum Ising chain in a time-dependent transverse magnetic field. Our setup can be used to study quench dynamics, the propagation of localized excitations, and other non-equilibrium features in this paradigmatic model in the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and quantumcritical phenomena. The setup is based on a

  20. Earth current monitoring circuit for inductive loads

    CERN Document Server

    Montabonnet, V; Thurel, Y; Cussac, P

    2010-01-01

    The search for higher magnetic fields in particle accelerators increasingly demands the use of superconducting magnets. This magnet technology has a large amount of magnetic energy storage during operation at relatively high currents. As such, many monitoring and protection systems are required to safely operate the magnet, including the monitoring of any leakage of current to earth in the superconducting magnet that indicates a failure of the insulation to earth. At low amplitude, the earth leakage current affects the magnetic field precision. At a higher level, the earth leakage current can additionally generate local losses which may definitively damage the magnet or its instrumentation. This paper presents an active earth fault current monitoring circuit, widely deployed in the converters for the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) superconducting magnets. The circuit allows the detection of earth faults before energising the circuit as well as limiting any eventual earth fault current. The electrical stress...

  1. Dynamic spectrum management in green cognitive radio cellular networks

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman; Ghazzai, Hakim; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new cellular network operation scheme fulfilling the 5G requirements related to spectrum management and green communications. We focus on cognitive radio cellular networks in which both the primary network (PN

  2. Solution of multiple circuits of steam cycle HTR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fu; Wang, Dengying; Hao, Chen; Zheng, Yanhua

    2014-01-01

    In order to analyze the dynamic operation performance and safety characteristics of the steam cycle high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTR) systems, it is necessary to find the solution of the whole HTR systems with all coupled circuits, including the primary circuit, the secondary circuit, and the residual heat removal system (RHRS). Considering that those circuits have their own individual fluidity and characteristics, some existing code packages for independent circuits themselves have been developed, for example THEMRIX and TINTE code for the primary circuit of the pebble bed reactor, BLAST for once through steam generator. To solve the coupled steam cycle HTR systems, a feasible way is to develop coupling method to integrate these independent code packages. This paper presents several coupling methods, e.g. the equivalent component method between the primary circuit and steam generator which reflect the close coupling relationship, the overlapping domain decomposition method between the primary circuit and the passive RHRS which reflects the loose coupling relationship. Through this way, the whole steam cycle HTR system with multiple circuits can be easily and efficiently solved by integration of several existing code packages. Based on this methodology, a code package TINTE–BLAST–RHRS was developed. Using this code package, some operation performance of HTR–PM was analyzed, such as the start-up process of the plant, and the depressurized loss of forced cooling accident when different number of residual heat removal trains is operated

  3. Simulation of electronic circuit sensitivity towards humidity using electrochemical data on water layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshy, Salil; Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2015-01-01

    Climatic conditions like temperature and humidity have direct influence on the operation of electronic circuits. The effects of temperature on the operation of electronic circuits have been widely investigated, while the effect of humidity and solder flux residues are not well understood including...... the effect on circuit and PCBA (printed circuit board assembly) layout design. This paper elucidates a methodology for analyzing the sensitivity of an electronic circuit based on parasitic circuit analysis using data on electrical property of the water layer formed under humid as well as contaminated...

  4. Low latency asynchronous interface circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Greg

    2017-06-20

    In one form, a logic circuit includes an asynchronous logic circuit, a synchronous logic circuit, and an interface circuit coupled between the asynchronous logic circuit and the synchronous logic circuit. The asynchronous logic circuit has a plurality of asynchronous outputs for providing a corresponding plurality of asynchronous signals. The synchronous logic circuit has a plurality of synchronous inputs corresponding to the plurality of asynchronous outputs, a stretch input for receiving a stretch signal, and a clock output for providing a clock signal. The synchronous logic circuit provides the clock signal as a periodic signal but prolongs a predetermined state of the clock signal while the stretch signal is active. The asynchronous interface detects whether metastability could occur when latching any of the plurality of the asynchronous outputs of the asynchronous logic circuit using said clock signal, and activates the stretch signal while the metastability could occur.

  5. Effects of smoke on functional circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.J.

    1997-10-01

    Nuclear power plants are converting to digital instrumentation and control systems; however, the effects of abnormal environments such as fire and smoke on such systems are not known. There are no standard tests for smoke, but previous smoke exposure tests at Sandia National Laboratories have shown that digital communications can be temporarily interrupted during a smoke exposure. Another concern is the long-term corrosion of metals exposed to the acidic gases produced by a cable fire. This report documents measurements of basic functional circuits during and up to 1 day after exposure to smoke created by burning cable insulation. Printed wiring boards were exposed to the smoke in an enclosed chamber for 1 hour. For high-resistance circuits, the smoke lowered the resistance of the surface of the board and caused the circuits to short during the exposure. These circuits recovered after the smoke was vented. For low-resistance circuits, the smoke caused their resistance to increase slightly. A polyurethane conformal coating substantially reduced the effects of smoke. A high-speed digital circuit was unaffected. A second experiment on different logic chip technologies showed that the critical shunt resistance that would cause failure was dependent on the chip technology and that the components used in the smoke exposures were some of the most smoke tolerant. The smoke densities in these tests were high enough to cause changes in high impedance (resistance) circuits during exposure, but did not affect most of the other circuits. Conformal coatings and the characteristics of chip technologies should be considered when designing circuitry for nuclear power plant safety systems, which must be highly reliable under a variety of operating and accident conditions. 10 refs., 34 figs., 18 tabs

  6. Developmental Vulnerability of Synapses and Circuits Associated with Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Penzes, Peter; Buonanno, Andres; Passafarro, Maria; Sala, Carlo; Sweet, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, including intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), schizophrenia (SZ), and Alzheimer's disease (AD), pose an immense burden to society. Symptoms of these disorders become manifest at different stages of life: early childhood, adolescence, and late adulthood, respectively. Progress has been made in recent years toward understanding the genetic substrates, cellular mechanisms, brain circuits, and endophenotypes of these disorder...

  7. The Corticohippocampal Circuit, Synaptic Plasticity, and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Jayeeta; Siegelbaum, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity serves as a cellular substrate for information storage in the central nervous system. The entorhinal cortex (EC) and hippocampus are interconnected brain areas supporting basic cognitive functions important for the formation and retrieval of declarative memories. Here, we discuss how information flow in the EC–hippocampal loop is organized through circuit design. We highlight recently identified corticohippocampal and intrahippocampal connections and how these long-range and local microcircuits contribute to learning. This review also describes various forms of activity-dependent mechanisms that change the strength of corticohippocampal synaptic transmission. A key point to emerge from these studies is that patterned activity and interaction of coincident inputs gives rise to associational plasticity and long-term regulation of information flow. Finally, we offer insights about how learning-related synaptic plasticity within the corticohippocampal circuit during sensory experiences may enable adaptive behaviors for encoding spatial, episodic, social, and contextual memories. PMID:26525152

  8. Integrated Circuits in the Introductory Electronics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Thomas C.; Lind, David A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the use of an integrated circuit operational amplifier in an introductory electronics laboratory course for undergraduate science majors. The advantages of this approach and the implications for scientific instrumentation are identified. Describes a number of experiments suitable for the undergraduate laboratory. (Author/DF)

  9. Test-circuits for HVDC thyristor valves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele, G.; Alarovandi, G.; Bonfanti, I.; Cepek, M.; Dumrese, H.G.; Damstra, G.C.

    1997-01-01

    In conformity with the usual classification of the specified tests into two major categories, dielectric tests and operational tests, the report is in two parts : Part 1 - Dielectric tests which deals principally with test circuits for verifying the high voltage characteristics of the valve, and

  10. A novel ternary logic circuit using Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisue, M.; Oochi, K.; Nishizawa, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a novel Josephson complementary ternary logic circuit named as JCTL. This fundamental circuit is constructed by combination of two SQUIDs, one of which is switched in the positive direction and the other in the negative direction. The JCTL can perform the fundamental operations of AND, OR, NOT and Double NOT in ternary form. The principle of the operation and design criteria are described in detail. The results of the simulation show that the reliable operations of these circuits can be achieved with a high performance

  11. Developing 300°C Ceramic Circuit Boards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normann, Randy A

    2015-02-15

    This paper covers the development of a geothermal ceramic circuit board technology using 3D traces in a machinable ceramic. Test results showing the circuit board to be operational to at least 550°C. Discussion on producing this type of board is outlined along with areas needing improvement.

  12. Modeling a verification test system for mixed-signal circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    San Segundo Bello, D.; Tangelder, R.J.W.T.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    In contrast to the large number of logic gates and storage circuits encountered in digital networks, purely analog networks usually have relatively few circuit primitives (operational amplifiers and so on). The complexity lies not in the number of building blocks but in the complexity of each block

  13. Junction and circuit fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackel, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Great strides have been made in Josephson junction fabrication in the four years since the first IC SQUID meeting. Advances in lithography have allowed the production of devices with planar dimensions as small as a few hundred angstroms. Improved technology has provided ultra-high sensitivity SQUIDS, high-efficiency low-noise mixers, and complex integrated circuits. This review highlights some of the new fabrication procedures. The review consists of three parts. Part 1 is a short summary of the requirements on junctions for various applications. Part 2 reviews intergrated circuit fabrication, including tunnel junction logic circuits made at IBM and Bell Labs, and microbridge radiation sources made at SUNY at Stony Brook. Part 3 describes new junction fabrication techniques, the major emphasis of this review. This part includes a discussion of small oxide-barrier tunnel junctions, semiconductor barrier junctions, and microbridge junctions. Part 3 concludes by considering very fine lithography and limitations to miniaturization. (orig.)

  14. Beam dynamics requirements for HL–LHC electrical circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Gamba, Davide; Cerqueira Bastos, Miguel; Coello De Portugal - Martinez Vazquez, Jaime Maria; De Maria, Riccardo; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Martino, Michele; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio

    2017-01-01

    A certain number of LHC magnets and relative electrical circuits will be replaced for the HL-LHC upgrade. The performance of the new circuits will need to be compatible with the current installation, and to provide the necessary improvements to meet the tight requirements of the new operational scenario. This document summarises the present knowledge of the performance and use of the LHC circuits and, based on this and on the new optics requirements, provides the necessary specifications for the new HL-LHC electrical circuits.

  15. Synchronization circuit for shaping picosecond accelerated-electron pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, Y.S.; Solov'ev, N.G.; Tomnikov, A.P.

    1986-01-01

    The authors discuss a high-speed circuit for synchronization of trigger pulses of the deflector modulator of an accelerator with a given phase of rf voltage of 200 MHz. The measured time instability between the output trigger pulses of the circuit and the input rf voltage is ≤ + or - 0.05 nsec. The circuit is implemented by ECL integrated circuits of series K100 and K500, and operates in both the pulse (pulse duration 3 μsec and repetition frequency 400 Hz) and continuous modes

  16. Logic-type Schmitt circuit using multi-valued gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakui, M.; Tanaka, M.

    Logic-type Schmitt circuits (LTSCs) proposed in this paper by author's proposal are a new detector for a multi-valued multi-threshold logic circuit, and it realizes the high resolution with a little hysteresis or the high noise margin. The detector consists of the combinations of the multi-valued gates (MVGs) and a positive reaction device (PRD), and each circuit can be realized by the conventional elements. This paper shows their practical circuits, and describes the regions and the conditions for their operation.

  17. Non-noise instabilities in oscilloscope trigger circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burd, Aleksander

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses two phenomena called tremor, which result in incorrect operation of the oscilloscope trigger circuits. Both of them change delays introduced by the trigger circuit, resulting in horizontal shifts of traces on the screen, but the origins of the two phenomena are different. Both kinds of tremors in the oscilloscope trigger circuits produce images on the screen, which often are similar to those resulting from the noise jitter. Hence, limited knowledge of tremor may be a source of improper interpretation of the oscilloscope measurements. On the other hand tremor can be considered as a different approach to the problem of flip-flop circuit's metastability

  18. Automatic ranging circuit for a digital panel meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, T.R.; Ross, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a range changing circuit that operates in conjunction with a digital panel meter of fixed sensitivity. The circuit decodes the output of the panel meter and uses that information to change the gain of an input amplifier to the panel meter in order to ensure that the maximum number of significant figures is always displayed in the meter. The circuit monitors five conditions in the meter and responds to any of four combinations of these conditions by means of logic elements to carry out the function of the circuit. The system was designed for readout of a fluorescence analyzer for uranium analysis

  19. Small circuits for cryptography.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torgerson, Mark Dolan; Draelos, Timothy John; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Miller, Russell D.; Anderson, William Erik

    2005-10-01

    This report examines a number of hardware circuit design issues associated with implementing certain functions in FPGA and ASIC technologies. Here we show circuit designs for AES and SHA-1 that have an extremely small hardware footprint, yet show reasonably good performance characteristics as compared to the state of the art designs found in the literature. Our AES performance numbers are fueled by an optimized composite field S-box design for the Stratix chipset. Our SHA-1 designs use register packing and feedback functionalities of the Stratix LE, which reduce the logic element usage by as much as 72% as compared to other SHA-1 designs.

  20. Silicon integrated circuit process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Duck

    1985-12-01

    This book introduces the process of silicon integrated circuit. It is composed of seven parts, which are oxidation process, diffusion process, ion implantation process such as ion implantation equipment, damage, annealing and influence on manufacture of integrated circuit and device, chemical vapor deposition process like silicon Epitaxy LPCVD and PECVD, photolithography process, including a sensitizer, spin, harden bake, reflection of light and problems related process, infrared light bake, wet-etch, dry etch, special etch and problems of etching, metal process like metal process like metal-silicon connection, aluminum process, credibility of aluminum and test process.

  1. Primer printed circuit boards

    CERN Document Server

    Argyle, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Step-by-step instructions for making your own PCBs at home. Making your own printed circuit board (PCB) might seem a daunting task, but once you master the steps, it's easy to attain professional-looking results. Printed circuit boards, which connect chips and other components, are what make almost all modern electronic devices possible. PCBs are made from sheets of fiberglass clad with copper, usually in multiplelayers. Cut a computer motherboard in two, for instance, and you'll often see five or more differently patterned layers. Making boards at home is relatively easy

  2. Silicon integrated circuit process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Duck

    1985-12-15

    This book introduces the process of silicon integrated circuit. It is composed of seven parts, which are oxidation process, diffusion process, ion implantation process such as ion implantation equipment, damage, annealing and influence on manufacture of integrated circuit and device, chemical vapor deposition process like silicon Epitaxy LPCVD and PECVD, photolithography process, including a sensitizer, spin, harden bake, reflection of light and problems related process, infrared light bake, wet-etch, dry etch, special etch and problems of etching, metal process like metal process like metal-silicon connection, aluminum process, credibility of aluminum and test process.

  3. Circuit design for reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yu; Wirth, Gilson

    2015-01-01

    This book presents physical understanding, modeling and simulation, on-chip characterization, layout solutions, and design techniques that are effective to enhance the reliability of various circuit units.  The authors provide readers with techniques for state of the art and future technologies, ranging from technology modeling, fault detection and analysis, circuit hardening, and reliability management. Provides comprehensive review on various reliability mechanisms at sub-45nm nodes; Describes practical modeling and characterization techniques for reliability; Includes thorough presentation of robust design techniques for major VLSI design units; Promotes physical understanding with first-principle simulations.

  4. Integrated Circuits for Analog Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

      This book presents theory, design methods and novel applications for integrated circuits for analog signal processing.  The discussion covers a wide variety of active devices, active elements and amplifiers, working in voltage mode, current mode and mixed mode.  This includes voltage operational amplifiers, current operational amplifiers, operational transconductance amplifiers, operational transresistance amplifiers, current conveyors, current differencing transconductance amplifiers, etc.  Design methods and challenges posed by nanometer technology are discussed and applications described, including signal amplification, filtering, data acquisition systems such as neural recording, sensor conditioning such as biomedical implants, actuator conditioning, noise generators, oscillators, mixers, etc.   Presents analysis and synthesis methods to generate all circuit topologies from which the designer can select the best one for the desired application; Includes design guidelines for active devices/elements...

  5. Computer controlled motor vehicle battery circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, W.R.; McAuiliffe, G.N.; Schlageter, G.A.

    1986-04-01

    This patent consists of a motor vehicle having a DC motor, a pedal biased to a released position and depressed by the driver to increase speed. An alternate switching means affects the vehicle speed control, a foot switch is operated by the pedal and operative when the pedal is depressed to close a circuit enabling energization of the alternate switching means. A microprocessor includes a program for controlling operation of the alternate switching means, the foot switch is operative when the pedal is released to open the enabling circuit. The program includes a register which is incremented with each passage of the logic and is responsive to the incremented count in the register to instruct a change in position of the alternate switching means.

  6. Device, system and method for a sensing electrical circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a driven ground electrical circuit. A driven ground is a current-measuring ground termination to an electrical circuit with the current measured as a vector with amplification. The driven ground module may include an electric potential source V.sub.S driving an electric current through an impedance (load Z) to a driven ground. Voltage from the source V.sub.S excites the minus terminal of an operational amplifier inside the driven ground which, in turn, may react by generating an equal and opposite voltage to drive the net potential to approximately zero (effectively ground). A driven ground may also be a means of passing information via the current passing through one grounded circuit to another electronic circuit as input. It may ground one circuit, amplify the information carried in its current and pass this information on as input to the next circuit.

  7. Nanophotonic integrated circuits from nanoresonators grown on silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Roger; Ng, Kar Wei; Ko, Wai Son; Parekh, Devang; Lu, Fanglu; Tran, Thai-Truong D; Li, Kun; Chang-Hasnain, Connie

    2014-07-07

    Harnessing light with photonic circuits promises to catalyse powerful new technologies much like electronic circuits have in the past. Analogous to Moore's law, complexity and functionality of photonic integrated circuits depend on device size and performance scale. Semiconductor nanostructures offer an attractive approach to miniaturize photonics. However, shrinking photonics has come at great cost to performance, and assembling such devices into functional photonic circuits has remained an unfulfilled feat. Here we demonstrate an on-chip optical link constructed from InGaAs nanoresonators grown directly on a silicon substrate. Using nanoresonators, we show a complete toolkit of circuit elements including light emitters, photodetectors and a photovoltaic power supply. Devices operate with gigahertz bandwidths while consuming subpicojoule energy per bit, vastly eclipsing performance of prior nanostructure-based optoelectronics. Additionally, electrically driven stimulated emission from an as-grown nanostructure is presented for the first time. These results reveal a roadmap towards future ultradense nanophotonic integrated circuits.

  8. Multiplier less high-speed squaring circuit for binary numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Kabiraj; Panda, Rutuparna

    2015-03-01

    The squaring operation is important in many applications in signal processing, cryptography etc. In general, squaring circuits reported in the literature use fast multipliers. A novel idea of a squaring circuit without using multipliers is proposed in this paper. Ancient Indian method used for squaring decimal numbers is extended here for binary numbers. The key to our success is that no multiplier is used. Instead, one squaring circuit is used. The hardware architecture of the proposed squaring circuit is presented. The design is coded in VHDL and synthesised and simulated in Xilinx ISE Design Suite 10.1 (Xilinx Inc., San Jose, CA, USA). It is implemented in Xilinx Vertex 4vls15sf363-12 device (Xilinx Inc.). The results in terms of time delay and area is compared with both modified Booth's algorithm and squaring circuit using Vedic multipliers. Our proposed squaring circuit seems to have better performance in terms of both speed and area.

  9. Integrated neuron circuit for implementing neuromorphic system with synaptic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Jun; Park, Jungjin; Kwon, Min-Woo; Hwang, Sungmin; Kim, Hyungjin; Park, Byung-Gook

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we propose and fabricate Integrate & Fire neuron circuit for implementing neuromorphic system. Overall operation of the circuit is verified by measuring discrete devices and the output characteristics of the circuit. Since the neuron circuit shows asymmetric output characteristic that can drive synaptic device with Spike-Timing-Dependent-Plasticity (STDP) characteristic, the autonomous weight update process is also verified by connecting the synaptic device and the neuron circuit. The timing difference of the pre-neuron and the post-neuron induce autonomous weight change of the synaptic device. Unlike 2-terminal devices, which is frequently used to implement neuromorphic system, proposed scheme of the system enables autonomous weight update and simple configuration by using 4-terminal synapse device and appropriate neuron circuit. Weight update process in the multi-layer neuron-synapse connection ensures implementation of the hardware-based artificial intelligence, based on Spiking-Neural- Network (SNN).

  10. Analog circuit design art, science and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    This book is far more than just another tutorial or reference guide - it's a tour through the world of analog design, combining theory and applications with the philosophies behind the design process. Readers will learn how leading analog circuit designers approach problems and how they think about solutions to those problems. They'll also learn about the `analog way' - a broad, flexible method of thinking about analog design tasks.A comprehensive and useful guide to analog theory and applications. Covers visualizing the operation of analog circuits. Looks at how to rap

  11. ESD analog circuits and design

    CERN Document Server

    Voldman, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and in-depth review of analog circuit layout, schematic architecture, device, power network and ESD design This book will provide a balanced overview of analog circuit design layout, analog circuit schematic development, architecture of chips, and ESD design.  It will start at an introductory level and will bring the reader right up to the state-of-the-art. Two critical design aspects for analog and power integrated circuits are combined. The first design aspect covers analog circuit design techniques to achieve the desired circuit performance. The second and main aspect pres

  12. Unstable oscillators based hyperchaotic circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.; G. Mykolaitis, A.

    1999-01-01

    A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations in the circ...... in the circuit. The performance of the circuit is investigated by means of numerical integration of appropriate differential equations, PSPICE simulations, and hardware experiment.......A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations...

  13. Electronic Circuit Analysis Language (ECAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenghang, C.

    1983-03-01

    The computer aided design technique is an important development in computer applications and it is an important component of computer science. The special language for electronic circuit analysis is the foundation of computer aided design or computer aided circuit analysis (abbreviated as CACD and CACA) of simulated circuits. Electronic circuit analysis language (ECAL) is a comparatively simple and easy to use circuit analysis special language which uses the FORTRAN language to carry out the explanatory executions. It is capable of conducting dc analysis, ac analysis, and transient analysis of a circuit. Futhermore, the results of the dc analysis can be used directly as the initial conditions for the ac and transient analyses.

  14. An integrated circuit switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, E. L.

    1969-01-01

    Multi-chip integrated circuit switch consists of a GaAs photon-emitting diode in close proximity with S1 phototransistor. A high current gain is obtained when the transistor has a high forward common-emitter current gain.

  15. Automatic sweep circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input is described. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found

  16. Automatic sweep circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Donald J.

    1980-01-01

    An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found.

  17. "Printed-circuit" rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Rectifying antenna is less bulky structure for absorbing transmitted microwave power and converting it into electrical current. Printed-circuit approach, using microstrip technology and circularly polarized antenna, makes polarization orientation unimportant and allows much smaller arrays for given performance. Innovation is particularly useful with proposed electric vehicles powered by beam microwaves.

  18. Het onzichtbare circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram

    2013-01-01

    De chip, of geïntegreerde schakeling, heeft in een razend tempo ons leven ingrijpend veranderd. Het lijkt zo vanzelfsprekend dat er weer een nieuwe generatie smartphones, tablets of computers is. Maar dat is het niet. Prof.dr.ir. Bram Nauta, hoogleraar Integrated Circuit Design, laat in zijn rede

  19. Voltage regulating circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    A voltage regulating circuit comprising a rectifier (2) for receiving an AC voltage (Vmains) and for generating a rectified AC voltage (vrec), and a capacitor (3) connected in parallel with said rectified AC voltage for providing a DC voltage (VDC) over a load (5), characterized by a unidirectional

  20. A Magnetic Circuit Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkooy, John; Lowe, June

    1995-01-01

    Presents a demonstration designed to illustrate Faraday's, Ampere's, and Lenz's laws and to reinforce the concepts through the analysis of a two-loop magnetic circuit. Can be made dramatic and challenging for sophisticated students but is suitable for an introductory course in electricity and magnetism. (JRH)

  1. CAD-CAM printed circuit board design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agy, W. E.

    A step-by-step procedure for a printed circuit design achieved by CAD is presented. The operator at the interactive CRT station moves a stylus across a graphics tablet and intersperses commands which result in computer-generated pictorial forms on the screen that were drawn on the pad. Standard symbols are used for commands allowing, for instance, connections to be made of specific types in certain locations, which can be automatically edited from a materials list. An entire network of drawn lines can be referenced by a signal name for recall, and a finished circuit schematic can be checked for designs rules compliance, including fault reporting in terms of designator/pin number. A map may be present delineating the boundaries of the circuitry area, and previously completed circuitry segments can be recalled for piece-by-piece assembly of the circuit board.

  2. Hybrid Direct-Current Circuit Breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruxi (Inventor); Premerlani, William James (Inventor); Caiafa, Antonio (Inventor); Pan, Yan (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A circuit breaking system includes a first branch including at least one solid-state snubber; a second branch coupled in parallel to the first branch and including a superconductor and a cryogenic contactor coupled in series; and a controller operatively coupled to the at least one solid-state snubber and the cryogenic contactor and programmed to, when a fault occurs in the load circuit, activate the at least one solid-state snubber for migrating flow of the electrical current from the second branch to the first branch, and, when the fault is cleared in the load circuit, activate the cryogenic contactor for migrating the flow of the electrical current from the first branch to the second branch.

  3. Estimating the short-circuit impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    1997-01-01

    A method for establishing a complex value of the short-circuit impedance from naturally occurring variations in voltage and current is discussed. It is the symmetrical three phase impedance at the fundamental grid frequency there is looked for. The positive sequence components in voltage...... and current are derived each period, and the short-circuit impedance is estimated from variations in these components created by load changes in the grid. Due to the noisy and dynamic grid with high harmonic distortion it is necessary to threat the calculated values statistical. This is done recursively...... through a RLS-algorithm. The algorithms have been tested and implemented on a PC at a 132 kV substation supplying a rolling mill. Knowing the short-circuit impedance gives the rolling mill an opportunity to adjust the arc furnace operation to keep flicker below a certain level. Therefore, the PC performs...

  4. Electromagnetic Compatibility Design of the Computer Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitai, Hong

    2018-02-01

    Computers and the Internet have gradually penetrated into every aspect of people’s daily work. But with the improvement of electronic equipment as well as electrical system, the electromagnetic environment becomes much more complex. Electromagnetic interference has become an important factor to hinder the normal operation of electronic equipment. In order to analyse the computer circuit compatible with the electromagnetic compatibility, this paper starts from the computer electromagnetic and the conception of electromagnetic compatibility. And then, through the analysis of the main circuit and system of computer electromagnetic compatibility problems, we can design the computer circuits in term of electromagnetic compatibility. Finally, the basic contents and methods of EMC test are expounded in order to ensure the electromagnetic compatibility of equipment.

  5. Wireless Cellular Mobile Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Zalud, V.

    2002-01-01

    In this article is briefly reviewed the history of wireless cellular mobile communications, examined the progress in current second generation (2G) cellular standards and discussed their migration to the third generation (3G). The European 2G cellular standard GSM and its evolution phases GPRS and EDGE are described somewhat in detail. The third generation standard UMTS taking up on GSM/GPRS core network and equipped with a new advanced access network on the basis of code division multiple ac...

  6. Magnetic Logic Circuits for Extreme Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The program aims to demonstrate a new genre of all-magnetic logic circuits which are radiation-tolerant and capable of reliable operation in extreme environmental...

  7. Circuit for Driving Piezoelectric Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, David P.; Chapsky, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts an oscillator circuit for driving a piezoelectric transducer to excite vibrations in a mechanical structure. The circuit was designed and built to satisfy application-specific requirements to drive a selected one of 16 such transducers at a regulated amplitude and frequency chosen to optimize the amount of work performed by the transducer and to compensate for both (1) temporal variations of the resonance frequency and damping time of each transducer and (2) initially unknown differences among the resonance frequencies and damping times of different transducers. In other words, the circuit is designed to adjust itself to optimize the performance of whichever transducer is selected at any given time. The basic design concept may be adaptable to other applications that involve the use of piezoelectric transducers in ultrasonic cleaners and other apparatuses in which high-frequency mechanical drives are utilized. This circuit includes three resistor-capacitor networks that, together with the selected piezoelectric transducer, constitute a band-pass filter having a peak response at a frequency of about 2 kHz, which is approximately the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric transducers. Gain for generating oscillations is provided by a power hybrid operational amplifier (U1). A junction field-effect transistor (Q1) in combination with a resistor (R4) is used as a voltage-variable resistor to control the magnitude of the oscillation. The voltage-variable resistor is part of a feedback control loop: Part of the output of the oscillator is rectified and filtered for use as a slow negative feedback to the gate of Q1 to keep the output amplitude constant. The response of this control loop is much slower than 2 kHz and, therefore, does not introduce significant distortion of the oscillator output, which is a fairly clean sine wave. The positive AC feedback needed to sustain oscillations is derived from sampling the current through the

  8. Electronic circuit design with HEP computational tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, Mario

    1996-01-01

    CPSPICE is an electronic circuit statistical simulation program developed to run in a parallel environment under UNIX operating system and TCP/IP communications protocol, using CPS - Cooperative Processes Software , SPICE program and CERNLIB software package. It is part of a set of tools being develop, intended to help electronic engineers to design, model and simulate complex systems and circuits for High Energy Physics detectors, based on statistical methods, using the same software and methodology used by HEP physicists for data analysis. CPSPICE simulates electronic circuits by Monte Carlo method, through several different processes running simultaneously SPICE in UNIX parallel computers or workstation farms. Data transfer between CPS processes for a modified version of SPICE2G6 is done by RAM memory, but can also be done through hard disk files if no source files are available for the simulator, and for bigger simulation outputs files. Simulation results are written in a HBOOK file as a NTUPLE, to be examined by HBOOK in batch model or graphics, and analyzed by statistical procedures available. The HBOOK file be stored on hard disk for small amount of data, or into Exabyte tape file for large amount of data. HEP tools also helps circuit or component modeling, like MINUT program from CERNLIB, that implements Nelder and Mead Simplex and Gradient with or without derivatives algorithms, and can be used for design optimization.This paper presents CPSPICE program implementation. The scheme adopted is suitable to make parallel other electronic circuit simulators. (author)

  9. Communication and Sensing Circuits on Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Alimenti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a review of several circuits for communication and wireless sensing applications implemented on cellulose-based materials. These circuits have been developed during the last years exploiting the adhesive copper laminate method. Such a technique relies on a copper adhesive tape that is shaped by a photo-lithographic process and then transferred to the hosting substrate (i.e., paper by means of a sacrificial layer. The presented circuits span from UHF oscillators to a mixer working at 24 GHz and constitute an almost complete set of building blocks that can be applied to a huge variety communication apparatuses. Each circuit is validated experimentally showing performance comparable with the state-of-the-art. This paper demonstrates that circuits on cellulose are capable of operating at record frequencies and that ultra- low cost, green i.e., recyclable and biodegradable materials can be a viable solution to realize high frequency hardware for the upcoming Internet of Things (IoT era.

  10. Biomechanics of cellular solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lorna J

    2005-03-01

    Materials with a cellular structure are widespread in nature and include wood, cork, plant parenchyma and trabecular bone. Natural cellular materials are often mechanically efficient: the honeycomb-like microstructure of wood, for instance, gives it an exceptionally high performance index for resisting bending and buckling. Here we review the mechanics of a wide range of natural cellular materials and examine their role in lightweight natural sandwich structures (e.g. iris leaves) and natural tubular structures (e.g. plant stems or animal quills). We also describe two examples of engineered biomaterials with a cellular structure, designed to replace or regenerate tissue in the body.

  11. The LMT circuit and SPICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.; Tamacevicius, Arunas

    2006-01-01

    The state equations of the LMT circuit are modeled as a dedicated analogue computer circuit and solved by means of PSpice. The nonlinear part of the system is studied. Problems with the PSpice program are presented....

  12. Resistor Combinations for Parallel Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTernan, James P.

    1978-01-01

    To help simplify both teaching and learning of parallel circuits, a high school electricity/electronics teacher presents and illustrates the use of tables of values for parallel resistive circuits in which total resistances are whole numbers. (MF)

  13. Detecting short circuits during assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboo, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    Detector circuit identifies shorts between bus bars of electronic equipment being wired. Detector sounds alarm and indicates which planes are shorted. Power and ground bus bars are scanned continuously until short circuit occurs.

  14. BR-5 primary circuit decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, I.A.; Nikulin, M.P.; Smirnov-Averin, A.P.; Tymosh, B.S.; Shereshkov, V.S.

    1976-01-01

    Results and methodology of steam-water and acid decontamination of the primary coolant circuit SBR-5 reactor in 1971 are discussed. Regeneration process in a cold trap of the primary coolant circuit is discussed

  15. Secondary Circuit Start Up Chemistry Optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontan, Guillaume; Morel, Pascal

    2012-09-01

    In a context of investment and renewal of equipment, Electricite De France (EDF) put enhanced efforts on operating practices during start-up of the secondary circuit, in order to improve operational performance and materials lifetime. This article focuses on the objective of optimizing the filling, the chemical conditioning and the thermal conditioning of the secondary fluid, while taking into account the following issues: - Limiting the time required to obtain a proper chemistry, - Limiting the amount of water and steam used, - Limiting the amount of effluent generated. The scope is all start-up conditions of secondary circuit, both after refuelling outage or fortuitous shutdowns of the plant. The recommendations produced are based on existing local procedures and good practices, which were collected and developed in order to propose a generic methodology understandable and useful both for operators, chemists and managers. (authors)

  16. LHC Report: superconducting circuit powering tests

    CERN Multimedia

    Mirko Pojer

    2015-01-01

    After the long maintenance and consolidation campaign carried out during LS1, the machine is getting ready to start operation with beam at 6.5 TeV… the physics community can’t wait! Prior to this, all hardware and software systems have to be tested to assess their correct and safe operation.   Most of the cold circuits (those with high current/stored energy) possess a sophisticated magnet protection system that is crucial to detect a transition of the coil from the superconducting to the normal state (a quench) and safely extract the energy stored in the circuits (about 1 GJ per dipole circuit at nominal current). LHC operation relies on 1232 superconducting dipoles with a field of up to 8.33 T operating in superfluid helium at 1.9 K, along with more than 500 superconducting quadrupoles operating at 4.2 or 1.9 K. Besides, many other superconducting and normal resistive magnets are used to guarantee the possibility of correcting all beam parameters, for a total of mo...

  17. Development of integrated thermionic circuits for high-temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, J.B.; Wilde, D.; Depp, S.; Hamilton, D.J.; Kerwin, W.; Derouin, C.; Roybal, L.; Dooley, R.

    1981-01-01

    A class of devices known as integrated thermionic circuits (ITC) capable of extended operation in ambient temperatures up to 500 0 C is described. The evolution of the ITC concept is discussed. A set of practical design and performance equations is demonstrated. Recent experimental results are discussed in which both devices and simple circuits have successfully operated in 500 0 C environments for extended periods of time

  18. MOS voltage automatic tuning circuit

    OpenAIRE

    李, 田茂; 中田, 辰則; 松本, 寛樹

    2004-01-01

    Abstract ###Automatic tuning circuit adjusts frequency performance to compensate for the process variation. Phase locked ###loop (PLL) is a suitable oscillator for the integrated circuit. It is a feedback system that compares the input ###phase with the output phase. It can make the output frequency equal to the input frequency. In this paper, PLL ###fomed of MOSFET's is presented.The presented circuit consists of XOR circuit, Low-pass filter and Relaxation ###Oscillator. On PSPICE simulation...

  19. Behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents a method for behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits, which aims at providing a synthesis flow which uses and tranfers methods from synchronous circuits to asynchronous circuits. We move the synchronous behavioral synthesis abstraction into the asynchronous handshake...... is idle. This reduces unnecessary switching activity in the individual functional units and therefore the energy consumption of the entire circuit. A collection of behavioral synthesis algorithms have been developed allowing the designer to perform time and power constrained design space exploration...

  20. Selected collection of circuit drawings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The many electronics circuits have been constracted in the Electronics Shop for use in nuclear experiments or other purposes of this Institute. The types of these circuits amount to about 500 items in total since 1968. This report describes the electronics circuit diagrams selected from this collection. The circuit details are not presented in this report, because these are already been published in the other technical reports. (auth.)

  1. Diode, transistor & fet circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Diode, Transistor and FET Circuits Manual is a handbook of circuits based on discrete semiconductor components such as diodes, transistors, and FETS. The book also includes diagrams and practical circuits. The book describes basic and special diode characteristics, heat wave-rectifier circuits, transformers, filter capacitors, and rectifier ratings. The text also presents practical applications of associated devices, for example, zeners, varicaps, photodiodes, or LEDs, as well as it describes bipolar transistor characteristics. The transistor can be used in three basic amplifier configuration

  2. Active quenching circuit for a InGaAs single-photon avalanche diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Lixia; Wu Jin; Xi Shuiqing; Shi Longxing; Liu Siyang; Sun Weifeng

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel gated operation active quenching circuit (AQC). In order to simulate the quenching circuit a complete SPICE model of a InGaAs SPAD is set up according to the I–V characteristic measurement results of the detector. The circuit integrated with aROIC (readout integrated circuit) is fabricated in an CSMC 0.5 μm CMOS process and then hybrid packed with the detector. Chip measurement results show that the functionality of the circuit is correct and the performance is suitable for practical system applications. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  3. Circuit of synchronous logic for the transmission of safety commands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uberschlag, J.

    1969-01-01

    The author reports the development of a control-command circuit for the transmission of binary commands related to the safety of nuclear reactors. He presents the main design criteria (operation safety, provided safety level, flexibility, technical adaptation), the definition of the operation principle (inputs, logical outputs), the properties of a logic system. He evokes redundancy issues, and presents the system structure, proposes a possible sketch of the logic circuit. He describes the possible options for intermediate circuits and logic outputs, and tests to be performed

  4. Testing methods of gaseous admixtures in HLMC circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelemet'ev, V.M.; Martynov, P.N.; Askhadullin, R.Sh.; Storozhenko, A.N.; Sadovnichij, R.P.; Ivanov, I.I.

    2014-01-01

    Control of gas phase is the effective method for state diagnostics of circuit of nuclear power facilities with heavy liquid metal coolants. Use of developing in IPPE solid electrolyte and conductometric oxygen and hydrogen sensors, which are set directly in gas system of the primary circuit, allows to maintain continuously control of oxygen and hydrogen content as well as operational efficiency and accuracy of these parameters determination under various situations related with oxygen and hydrogen insertion into circuit. Sensors ensure long-term safe operation under extreme conditions of high temperatures, pressures, humidity, etc., and are advanced devices for application in nuclear power facilities with heavy liquid metal coolants [ru

  5. Non-unitary probabilistic quantum computing circuit and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin P. (Inventor); Gingrich, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A quantum circuit performing quantum computation in a quantum computer. A chosen transformation of an initial n-qubit state is probabilistically obtained. The circuit comprises a unitary quantum operator obtained from a non-unitary quantum operator, operating on an n-qubit state and an ancilla state. When operation on the ancilla state provides a success condition, computation is stopped. When operation on the ancilla state provides a failure condition, computation is performed again on the ancilla state and the n-qubit state obtained in the previous computation, until a success condition is obtained.

  6. Activity-regulated genes as mediators of neural circuit plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Jennifer H; Nedivi, Elly

    2011-08-01

    Modifications of neuronal circuits allow the brain to adapt and change with experience. This plasticity manifests during development and throughout life, and can be remarkably long lasting. Evidence has linked activity-regulated gene expression to the long-term structural and electrophysiological adaptations that take place during developmental critical periods, learning and memory, and alterations to sensory map representations in the adult. In all these cases, the cellular response to neuronal activity integrates multiple tightly coordinated mechanisms to precisely orchestrate long-lasting, functional and structural changes in brain circuits. Experience-dependent plasticity is triggered when neuronal excitation activates cellular signaling pathways from the synapse to the nucleus that initiate new programs of gene expression. The protein products of activity-regulated genes then work via a diverse array of cellular mechanisms to modify neuronal functional properties. Synaptic strengthening or weakening can reweight existing circuit connections, while structural changes including synapse addition and elimination create new connections. Posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms, often also dependent on activity, further modulate activity-regulated gene transcript and protein function. Thus, activity-regulated genes implement varied forms of structural and functional plasticity to fine-tune brain circuit wiring. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of Bernstein's factorization circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenstra, A.K.; Shamir, A.; Tomlinson, J.; Tromer, E.; Zheng, Y.

    2002-01-01

    In [1], Bernstein proposed a circuit-based implementation of the matrix step of the number field sieve factorization algorithm. These circuits offer an asymptotic cost reduction under the measure "construction cost x run time". We evaluate the cost of these circuits, in agreement with [1], but argue

  8. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

  9. Neuromorphic Silicon Neuron Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiveri, Giacomo; Linares-Barranco, Bernabé; Hamilton, Tara Julia; van Schaik, André; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Delbruck, Tobi; Liu, Shih-Chii; Dudek, Piotr; Häfliger, Philipp; Renaud, Sylvie; Schemmel, Johannes; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Arthur, John; Hynna, Kai; Folowosele, Fopefolu; Saighi, Sylvain; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Wijekoon, Jayawan; Wang, Yingxue; Boahen, Kwabena

    2011-01-01

    Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain–machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance-based Hodgkin–Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive integrate and fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips. PMID:21747754

  10. Neuromorphic silicon neuron circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo eIndiveri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain-machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance based Hodgkin-Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive Integrate and Fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips.

  11. Synthesizing genetic sequential logic circuit with clock pulse generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chia-Hua; Lin, Chun-Liang

    2014-05-28

    Rhythmic clock widely occurs in biological systems which controls several aspects of cell physiology. For the different cell types, it is supplied with various rhythmic frequencies. How to synthesize a specific clock signal is a preliminary but a necessary step to further development of a biological computer in the future. This paper presents a genetic sequential logic circuit with a clock pulse generator based on a synthesized genetic oscillator, which generates a consecutive clock signal whose frequency is an inverse integer multiple to that of the genetic oscillator. An analogous electronic waveform-shaping circuit is constructed by a series of genetic buffers to shape logic high/low levels of an oscillation input in a basic sinusoidal cycle and generate a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) output with various duty cycles. By controlling the threshold level of the genetic buffer, a genetic clock pulse signal with its frequency consistent to the genetic oscillator is synthesized. A synchronous genetic counter circuit based on the topology of the digital sequential logic circuit is triggered by the clock pulse to synthesize the clock signal with an inverse multiple frequency to the genetic oscillator. The function acts like a frequency divider in electronic circuits which plays a key role in the sequential logic circuit with specific operational frequency. A cascaded genetic logic circuit generating clock pulse signals is proposed. Based on analogous implement of digital sequential logic circuits, genetic sequential logic circuits can be constructed by the proposed approach to generate various clock signals from an oscillation signal.

  12. Integrated circuit structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The invention describes the fabrication of integrated circuit structures, such as read-only memory components of field-effect transistors, which may be fabricated and then maintained in inventory, and later selectively modified in accordance with a desired pattern. It is claimed that MOS depletion-mode devices in accordance with the invention can be fabricated at lower cost and at higher yields. (U.K.)

  13. Integrated Circuit Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sketoe, J. G.; Clark, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a DOD E3 program overview on integrated circuit immunity. The topics include: 1) EMI Immunity Testing; 2) Threshold Definition; 3) Bias Tee Function; 4) Bias Tee Calibration Set-Up; 5) EDM Test Figure; 6) EMI Immunity Levels; 7) NAND vs. and Gate Immunity; 8) TTL vs. LS Immunity Levels; 9) TP vs. OC Immunity Levels; 10) 7805 Volt Reg Immunity; and 11) Seventies Chip Set. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  14. Integrated coincidence circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borejko, V.F.; Grebenyuk, V.M.; Zinov, V.G.

    1976-01-01

    The description is given of two coincidence units employing integral circuits in the VISHNYA standard. The units are distinguished for the coincidence selection element which is essentially a combination of a tunnel diode and microcircuits. The output fast response of the units is at least 90 MHz in the mode of the output signal unshaped in duration and 50 MHz minimum in the mode of the output signal shaping. The resolution time of the units is dependent upon the duration of input signals

  15. Linearizable cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobe, Atsushi; Yura, Fumitaka

    2007-01-01

    The initial value problem for a class of reversible elementary cellular automata with periodic boundaries is reduced to an initial-boundary value problem for a class of linear systems on a finite commutative ring Z 2 . Moreover, a family of such linearizable cellular automata is given

  16. Semiconductor integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, A.E.; Schwenker, R.O.; Ziegler, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    An improved method involving ion implantation to form non-epitaxial semiconductor integrated circuits. These are made by forming a silicon substrate of one conductivity type with a recessed silicon dioxide region extending into the substrate and enclosing a portion of the silicon substrate. A beam of ions of opposite conductivity type impurity is directed at the substrate at an energy and dosage level sufficient to form a first region of opposite conductivity within the silicon dioxide region. This impurity having a concentration peak below the surface of the substrate forms a region of the one conductivity type which extends from the substrate surface into the first opposite type region to a depth between the concentration peak and the surface and forms a second region of opposite conductivity type. The method, materials and ion beam conditions are detailed. Vertical bipolar integrated circuits can be made this way when the first opposite type conductivity region will function as a collector. Also circuits with inverted bipolar devices when this first region functions as a 'buried'' emitter region. (U.K.)

  17. Increase of energy efficiency in proportional adjusting of flow rate in the boiler circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Artamonov Pavel A.; Kurilenko Nikolai I.; Mamontov Gennady Ya.

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the results of theoretical studies in the field of the boiler circuit operating modes for the boiler rooms operating by the independent heat supply scheme. The 3D model of a boiler circuit for a boiler room with 3 MW rated output was developed, based on which there was made an estimation of the boiler pump performance indicators. There is proposed a method for reducing energy costs for the operation of the pumping equipment of the boiler circuit.

  18. Changes to the shuttle circuits

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    To fit with passengers expectation, there will be some changes to the shuttle circuits as from Monday 10 October. See details on http://cern.ch/ShuttleService (on line on 7 October). Circuit No. 5 is cancelled as circuit No. 1 also stops at Bldg. 33. In order to guarantee shorter travel times, circuit No. 1 will circulate on Meyrin site only and circuit No. 2, with departures from Bldg. 33 and 500, on Prévessin site only. Site Services Section

  19. Microwave components for cellular portable radiotelephone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraguchi, Masahiro; Aikawa, Masayoshi

    1995-09-01

    Mobile and personal communication systems are expected to represent a huge market for microwave components in the coming years. A number of components in silicon bipolar, silicon Bi-CMOS, GaAs MESFET, HBT and HEMT are now becoming available for system application. There are tradeoffs among the competing technologies with regard to performance, cost, reliability and time-to-market. This paper describes process selection and requirements of cost and r.f. performances to microwave semiconductor components for digital cellular and cordless telephones. Furthermore, new circuit techniques which were developed by NTT are presented.

  20. Superhigh-frequency circuit for the EPR spectrometer with rectifier screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhizhchenko, G.A.; Tsvirko, L.V.

    1983-01-01

    The hamodyne SHF circuit of a 3-cm EPR spectrometer with a reflecting resonator is described. The optimum operating mode of SHF-rectifier at a constant phase difference is automatically assured in the circuit. The circuit employs a reflecting p-i-n- attenuator and a SHF-rectifier sereen which simplify the spectrometer tuming. The circuit is used in a miniature EPR radiospectrometer Minsk EPR-6-type

  1. Power system with an integrated lubrication circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian D [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL; Algrain, Marcelo C [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Kris W [Washington, IL; Lane, William H [Chillicothe, IL

    2009-11-10

    A power system includes an engine having a first lubrication circuit and at least one auxiliary power unit having a second lubrication circuit. The first lubrication circuit is in fluid communication with the second lubrication circuit.

  2. Integrated coherent matter wave circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, C.; Boshier, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    An integrated coherent matter wave circuit is a single device, analogous to an integrated optical circuit, in which coherent de Broglie waves are created and then launched into waveguides where they can be switched, divided, recombined, and detected as they propagate. Applications of such circuits include guided atom interferometers, atomtronic circuits, and precisely controlled delivery of atoms. We report experiments demonstrating integrated circuits for guided coherent matter waves. The circuit elements are created with the painted potential technique, a form of time-averaged optical dipole potential in which a rapidly moving, tightly focused laser beam exerts forces on atoms through their electric polarizability. Moreover, the source of coherent matter waves is a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Finally, we launch BECs into painted waveguides that guide them around bends and form switches, phase coherent beamsplitters, and closed circuits. These are the basic elements that are needed to engineer arbitrarily complex matter wave circuitry

  3. Spike timing precision of neuronal circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Deniz; Demir, Alper

    2018-04-17

    Spike timing is believed to be a key factor in sensory information encoding and computations performed by the neurons and neuronal circuits. However, the considerable noise and variability, arising from the inherently stochastic mechanisms that exist in the neurons and the synapses, degrade spike timing precision. Computational modeling can help decipher the mechanisms utilized by the neuronal circuits in order to regulate timing precision. In this paper, we utilize semi-analytical techniques, which were adapted from previously developed methods for electronic circuits, for the stochastic characterization of neuronal circuits. These techniques, which are orders of magnitude faster than traditional Monte Carlo type simulations, can be used to directly compute the spike timing jitter variance, power spectral densities, correlation functions, and other stochastic characterizations of neuronal circuit operation. We consider three distinct neuronal circuit motifs: Feedback inhibition, synaptic integration, and synaptic coupling. First, we show that both the spike timing precision and the energy efficiency of a spiking neuron are improved with feedback inhibition. We unveil the underlying mechanism through which this is achieved. Then, we demonstrate that a neuron can improve on the timing precision of its synaptic inputs, coming from multiple sources, via synaptic integration: The phase of the output spikes of the integrator neuron has the same variance as that of the sample average of the phases of its inputs. Finally, we reveal that weak synaptic coupling among neurons, in a fully connected network, enables them to behave like a single neuron with a larger membrane area, resulting in an improvement in the timing precision through cooperation.

  4. Analysis of emergency operating procedures effectiveness for core damage prevention using computer code RELAP for nuclear power plants with VVER-1000/B-320 in reference to primary to secondary circuit leak with external power loss and BRU-A stuck open failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhangelski, L.; Sheveliov, D. V.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents analysis of development emergency operating procedures effectiveness for possible accident on nuclear power plant with WWER-1000 reactor type. Accident initiating event is the primary to secondary circuit leak caused by steam generator primary cover lift-up. In according to conservative assumptions the following additional failures were considered: dump valve BRU-A stuck open failure; loss of external power. The results of this work are represented as a comparative analysis of two possible ways of accident evolution: according to functioning automatic safety systems responses; according to accident management based on development emergency operating procedures with operator intervention. Developed emergency operating procedures assure the following significant goals to mitigate accident sequences: optimal use of ECCS water inventory; severe core damage prevention; mitigation of environment radioactive contamination. (authors)

  5. Heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Rose Qingyang

    2013-01-01

    A timely publication providing coverage of radio resource management, mobility management and standardization in heterogeneous cellular networks The topic of heterogeneous cellular networks has gained momentum in industry and the research community, attracting the attention of standardization bodies such as 3GPP LTE and IEEE 802.16j, whose objectives are looking into increasing the capacity and coverage of the cellular networks. This book focuses on recent progresses,  covering the related topics including scenarios of heterogeneous network deployment, interference management i

  6. Cellular decomposition in vikalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyatskaya, I.S.; Vintajkin, E.Z.; Georgieva, I.Ya.; Golikov, V.A.; Udovenko, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    Austenite decomposition in Fe-Co-V and Fe-Co-V-Ni alloys at 475-600 deg C is investigated. The cellular decomposition in ternary alloys results in the formation of bcc (ordered) and fcc structures, and in quaternary alloys - bcc (ordered) and 12R structures. The cellular 12R structure results from the emergence of stacking faults in the fcc lattice with irregular spacing in four layers. The cellular decomposition results in a high-dispersion structure and magnetic properties approaching the level of well-known vikalloys [ru

  7. Single-server blind quantum computation with quantum circuit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Weng, Jian; Li, Xiaochun; Luo, Weiqi; Tan, Xiaoqing; Song, Tingting

    2018-06-01

    Blind quantum computation (BQC) enables the client, who has few quantum technologies, to delegate her quantum computation to a server, who has strong quantum computabilities and learns nothing about the client's quantum inputs, outputs and algorithms. In this article, we propose a single-server BQC protocol with quantum circuit model by replacing any quantum gate with the combination of rotation operators. The trap quantum circuits are introduced, together with the combination of rotation operators, such that the server is unknown about quantum algorithms. The client only needs to perform operations X and Z, while the server honestly performs rotation operators.

  8. A parity checker circuit based on microelectromechanical resonator logic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al, E-mail: abdullah.hafiz@kaust.edu.sa [CEMSE Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Li, Ren [CEMSE Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Younis, Mohammad I. [PSE Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Fariborzi, Hossein [CEMSE Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-03-03

    Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based logic computation has attracted significant attention in recent years due to its dynamic mode of operation, ultra-low power consumption, and potential for reprogrammable and reversible computing. Here we demonstrate a 4-bit parity checker circuit by utilizing recently developed logic gates based on MEMS resonators. Toward this, resonance frequencies of shallow arch shaped micro-resonators are electrothermally tuned by the logic inputs to constitute the required logic gates for the proposed parity checker circuit. This study demonstrates that by utilizing MEMS resonator based logic elements, complex digital circuits can be realized. - Highlights: • A 4-bit parity checker circuit is proposed and demonstrated based on MEMS resonator based logic elements. • Multiple copies of MEMS resonator based XOR logic gates are used to construct a complex logic circuit. • Functionality and feasibility of micro-resonator based logic platform is demonstrated.

  9. Analysis of electronic circuits using digital computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapu, C.

    1968-01-01

    Various programmes have been proposed for studying electronic circuits with the help of computers. It is shown here how it possible to use the programme ECAP, developed by I.B.M., for studying the behaviour of an operational amplifier from different point of view: direct current, alternating current and transient state analysis, optimisation of the gain in open loop, study of the reliability. (author) [fr

  10. Viewing Integrated-Circuit Interconnections By SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Russel A.; Gauldin, Robert E.; Ruiz, Ronald P.

    1990-01-01

    Back-scattering of energetic electrons reveals hidden metal layers. Experiment shows that with suitable operating adjustments, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) used to look for defects in aluminum interconnections in integrated circuits. Enables monitoring, in situ, of changes in defects caused by changes in temperature. Gives truer picture of defects, as etching can change stress field of metal-and-passivation pattern, causing changes in defects.

  11. RD53A Integrated Circuit Specifications

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Sciveres, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Specifications for the RD53 collaboration’s first engineering wafer run of an integrated circuit (IC) for hybrid pixel detector readout, called RD53A. RD53A is intended to demonstrate in a large format IC the suitability of the technology (including radiation tolerance), the stable low threshold operation, and the high hit and trigger rate capabilities, required for HL-LHC upgrades of ATLAS and CMS. The wafer scale production will permit the experiments to prototype bump bonding assembly with...

  12. Dynamic pulse difference circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    A digital electronic circuit of especial use for subtracting background activity pulses in gamma spectrometry is disclosed which comprises an up-down counter connected to count up with signal-channel pulses and to count down with background-channel pulses. A detector responsive to the count position of the up-down counter provides a signal when the up-down counter has completed one scaling sequence cycle of counts in the up direction. In an alternate embodiment, a detector responsive to the count position of the up-down counter provides a signal upon overflow of the counter

  13. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2007-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Each chapter ends with a set

  14. Electric circuits problem solver

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    Each Problem Solver is an insightful and essential study and solution guide chock-full of clear, concise problem-solving gems. All your questions can be found in one convenient source from one of the most trusted names in reference solution guides. More useful, more practical, and more informative, these study aids are the best review books and textbook companions available. Nothing remotely as comprehensive or as helpful exists in their subject anywhere. Perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.Here in this highly useful reference is the finest overview of electric circuits currently av

  15. Digital logic circuit test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Gil Jung; Yang, Hong Young

    2011-03-15

    This book is about digital logic circuit test, which lists the digital basic theory, basic gate like and, or And Not gate, NAND/NOR gate such as NAND gate, NOR gate, AND and OR, logic function, EX-OR gate, adder and subtractor, decoder and encoder, multiplexer, demultiplexer, flip-flop, counter such as up/down counter modulus N counter and Reset type counter, shift register, D/A and A/D converter and two supplements list of using components and TTL manual and CMOS manual.

  16. Photonic Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael; Merritt, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonics generally is the integration of multiple lithographically defined photonic and electronic components and devices (e.g. lasers, detectors, waveguides passive structures, modulators, electronic control and optical interconnects) on a single platform with nanometer-scale feature sizes. The development of photonic integrated circuits permits size, weight, power and cost reductions for spacecraft microprocessors, optical communication, processor buses, advanced data processing, and integrated optic science instrument optical systems, subsystems and components. This is particularly critical for small spacecraft platforms. We will give an overview of some NASA applications for integrated photonics.

  17. Integrated circuit cell library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Sterling R. (Inventor); Miles, Lowell H. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    According to the invention, an ASIC cell library for use in creation of custom integrated circuits is disclosed. The ASIC cell library includes some first cells and some second cells. Each of the second cells includes two or more kernel cells. The ASIC cell library is at least 5% comprised of second cells. In various embodiments, the ASIC cell library could be 10% or more, 20% or more, 30% or more, 40% or more, 50% or more, 60% or more, 70% or more, 80% or more, 90% or more, or 95% or more comprised of second cells.

  18. Nano integrated circuit process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Yung Sup

    2004-02-01

    This book contains nine chapters, which are introduction of manufacture of semiconductor chip, oxidation such as Dry-oxidation, wet oxidation, oxidation model and oxide film, diffusion like diffusion process, diffusion equation, diffusion coefficient and diffusion system, ion implantation, including ion distribution, channeling, multiimplantation and masking and its system, sputtering such as CVD and PVD, lithography, wet etch and dry etch, interconnection and flattening like metal-silicon connection, silicide, multiple layer metal process and flattening, an integrated circuit process, including MOSFET and CMOS.

  19. Electronic logic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, J

    2013-01-01

    Most branches of organizing utilize digital electronic systems. This book introduces the design of such systems using basic logic elements as the components. The material is presented in a straightforward manner suitable for students of electronic engineering and computer science. The book is also of use to engineers in related disciplines who require a clear introduction to logic circuits. This third edition has been revised to encompass the most recent advances in technology as well as the latest trends in components and notation. It includes a wide coverage of application specific integrate

  20. Nano integrated circuit process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yung Sup

    2004-02-15

    This book contains nine chapters, which are introduction of manufacture of semiconductor chip, oxidation such as Dry-oxidation, wet oxidation, oxidation model and oxide film, diffusion like diffusion process, diffusion equation, diffusion coefficient and diffusion system, ion implantation, including ion distribution, channeling, multiimplantation and masking and its system, sputtering such as CVD and PVD, lithography, wet etch and dry etch, interconnection and flattening like metal-silicon connection, silicide, multiple layer metal process and flattening, an integrated circuit process, including MOSFET and CMOS.

  1. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2011-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Ea

  2. Optoelectronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    1999-01-01

    This manual is a useful single-volume guide specifically aimed at the practical design engineer, technician, and experimenter, as well as the electronics student and amateur. It deals with the subject in an easy to read, down to earth, and non-mathematical yet comprehensive manner, explaining the basic principles and characteristics of the best known devices, and presenting the reader with many practical applications and over 200 circuits. Most of the ICs and other devices used are inexpensive and readily available types, with universally recognised type numbers.The second edition

  3. Magnetohydrodynamics cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatori, Tadatsugu.

    1990-02-01

    There has been a renewal of interest in cellular automata, partly because they give an architecture for a special purpose computer with parallel processing optimized to solve a particular problem. The lattice gas cellular automata are briefly surveyed, which are recently developed to solve partial differential equations such as hydrodynamics or magnetohydrodynamics. A new model is given in the present paper to implement the magnetic Lorentz force in a more deterministic and local procedure than the previous one. (author)

  4. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Wenyi Xu; Fengzhong Wang; Zhongsheng Yu; Fengjiao Xin

    2016-01-01

    Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc.) is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the proce...

  5. Modeling cellular systems

    CERN Document Server

    Matthäus, Franziska; Pahle, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    This contributed volume comprises research articles and reviews on topics connected to the mathematical modeling of cellular systems. These contributions cover signaling pathways, stochastic effects, cell motility and mechanics, pattern formation processes, as well as multi-scale approaches. All authors attended the workshop on "Modeling Cellular Systems" which took place in Heidelberg in October 2014. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic cellular automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatori, Tadatsugu [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)

    1990-03-01

    There has been a renewal of interest in cellular automata, partly because they give an architecture for a special purpose computer with parallel processing optimized to solve a particular problem. The lattice gas cellular automata are briefly surveyed, which are recently developed to solve partial differential equations such as hydrodynamics or magnetohydrodynamics. A new model is given in the present paper to implement the magnetic Lorentz force in a more deterministic and local procedure than the previous one. (author).

  7. Magnetohydrodynamic cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatori, Tadatsugu

    1990-01-01

    There has been a renewal of interest in cellular automata, partly because they give an architecture for a special purpose computer with parallel processing optimized to solve a particular problem. The lattice gas cellular automata are briefly surveyed, which are recently developed to solve partial differential equations such as hydrodynamics or magnetohydrodynamics. A new model is given in the present paper to implement the magnetic Lorentz force in a more deterministic and local procedure than the previous one. (author)

  8. Progress in radiation immune thermionic integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, D.K.; McCormick, J.B.

    1985-08-01

    This report describes the results of a program directed at evaluating the thermionic integrated circuit (TIC) technology for applicability to military systems. Previous programs under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, have developed an initial TIC technology base and demonstrated operation in high-temperature and high-radiation environments. The program described in this report has two parts: (1) a technical portion in which experiments and analyses were conducted to refine perceptions of near-term as well as ultimate performance levels of the TIC technology and (2) an applications portion in which the technical conclusions were to be evaluated against potential military applications. This report draws several conclusions that strongly suggest that (1) useful radiation-hard/high-temperature operable integrated circuits can be developed using the TIC technology; (2) because of their ability to survive and operate in hostile environments, a variety of potential military applications have been projected for this technology; and (3) based on the above two conclusions, an aggressive TIC development program should be initiated to provide the designers of future systems with integrated circuits and devices with the unique features of the TICs

  9. Progress in radiation immune thermionic integrated circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, D.K.; McCormick, J.B. (comps.)

    1985-08-01

    This report describes the results of a program directed at evaluating the thermionic integrated circuit (TIC) technology for applicability to military systems. Previous programs under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, have developed an initial TIC technology base and demonstrated operation in high-temperature and high-radiation environments. The program described in this report has two parts: (1) a technical portion in which experiments and analyses were conducted to refine perceptions of near-term as well as ultimate performance levels of the TIC technology and (2) an applications portion in which the technical conclusions were to be evaluated against potential military applications. This report draws several conclusions that strongly suggest that (1) useful radiation-hard/high-temperature operable integrated circuits can be developed using the TIC technology; (2) because of their ability to survive and operate in hostile environments, a variety of potential military applications have been projected for this technology; and (3) based on the above two conclusions, an aggressive TIC development program should be initiated to provide the designers of future systems with integrated circuits and devices with the unique features of the TICs.

  10. Game of Life Cellular Automata

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    In the late 1960s, British mathematician John Conway invented a virtual mathematical machine that operates on a two-dimensional array of square cell. Each cell takes two states, live and dead. The cells' states are updated simultaneously and in discrete time. A dead cell comes to life if it has exactly three live neighbours. A live cell remains alive if two or three of its neighbours are alive, otherwise the cell dies. Conway's Game of Life became the most programmed solitary game and the most known cellular automaton. The book brings together results of forty years of study into computational

  11. Cellular MR Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Modo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Cellular MR imaging is a young field that aims to visualize targeted cells in living organisms. In order to provide a different signal intensity of the targeted cell, they are either labeled with MR contrast agents in vivo or prelabeled in vitro. Either (ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide [(USPIO] particles or (polymeric paramagnetic chelates can be used for this purpose. For in vivo cellular labeling, Gd3+- and Mn2+- chelates have mainly been used for targeted hepatobiliary imaging, and (USPIO-based cellular imaging has been focused on imaging of macrophage activity. Several of these magneto-pharmaceuticals have been FDA-approved or are in late-phase clinical trials. As for prelabeling of cells in vitro, a challenge has been to induce a sufficient uptake of contrast agents into nonphagocytic cells, without affecting normal cellular function. It appears that this issue has now largely been resolved, leading to an active research on monitoring the cellular biodistribution in vivo following transplantation or transfusion of these cells, including cell migration and trafficking. New applications of cellular MR imaging will be directed, for instance, towards our understanding of hematopoietic (immune cell trafficking and of novel guided (stem cell-based therapies aimed to be translated to the clinic in the future.

  12. Novel circuits for radiation hardened memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haraszti, T.P.; Mento, R.P.; Moyer, N.E.; Grant, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on implementation of large storage semiconductor memories which combine radiation hardness with high packing density, operational speed, and low power dissipation and require both hardened circuit and hardened process technologies. Novel circuits, including orthogonal shuffle type of write-read arrays, error correction by weighted bidirectional codes and associative iterative repair circuits, are proposed for significant improvements of SRAMs' immunity against the effects of total dose and cosmic particle impacts. The implementation of the proposed circuit resulted in fault-tolerant 40-Mbit and 10-Mbit monolithic memories featuring a data rate of 120 MHz and power dissipation of 880 mW. These experimental serial-parallel memories were fabricated with a nonhardened standard CMOS processing technology, yet provided a total dose hardness of 1 Mrad and a projected SEU rate of 1 x 10 - 12 error/bit/day. Using radiation hardened processing improvements by factors of 10 to 100 are predicted in both total dose hardness and SEU rate

  13. Quantum-Circuit Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    MöTtöNen, Mikko; Tan, Kuan Y.; Masuda, Shumpei; Partanen, Matti; Lake, Russell E.; Govenius, Joonas; Silveri, Matti; Grabert, Hermann

    Quantum technology holds great potential in providing revolutionizing practical applications. However, fast and precise cooling of the functional quantum degrees of freedom on demand remains a major challenge in many solid-state implementations, such as superconducting circuits. We demonstrate direct cooling of a superconducting resonator mode using voltage-controllable quantum tunneling of electrons in a nanoscale refrigerator. In our first experiments on this type of a quantum-circuit refrigerator, we measure the drop in the mode temperature by electron thermometry at a resistor which is coupled to the resonator mode through ohmic losses. To eliminate unwanted dissipation, we remove the probe resistor and directly observe the power spectrum of the resonator output in agreement with the so-called P(E) theory. We also demonstrate in microwave reflection experiments that the internal quality factor of the resonator can be tuned by orders of magnitude. In the future, our refrigerator can be integrated with different quantum electric devices, potentially enhancing their performance. For example, it may prove useful in the initialization of superconducting quantum bits and in dissipation-assisted quantum annealing. We acknowledge European Research Council Grant SINGLEOUT (278117) and QUESS (681311) for funding.

  14. Cosimulation of electromagnetics-circuit systems exploiting DGTD and MNA

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2014-06-01

    A hybrid electromagnetics (EM)-circuit simulator exploiting the discontinuous Galerkin time domain (DGTD) method and the modified nodal analysis (MNA) algorithm is developed for analyzing hybrid distributive and nonlinear multiport lumped circuit systems. The computational domain is split into two subsystems. One is the EM subsystem that is analyzed by DGTD, while the other is the circuit subsystem that is solved by the MNA method. The coupling between the EM and circuit subsystems is enforced at the lumped port where related field and circuit unknowns are coupled via the use of numerical flux, port voltages, and current sources. Since the spatial operations of DGTD are localized, thanks to the use of numerical flux, coupling matrices between EM and circuit subsystems are small and are directly inverted. To handle nonlinear devices within the circuit subsystem, the standard Newton-Raphson method is applied to the nonlinear coupling matrix system. In addition, a local time-stepping scheme is applied to improve the efficiency of the hybrid solver. Numerical examples including single and multiport linear/nonlinear circuit networks are presented to validate the proposed solver. © 2014 IEEE.

  15. Compiling quantum circuits to realistic hardware architectures using temporal planners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, Davide; Do, Minh; Rieffel, Eleanor; Frank, Jeremy

    2018-04-01

    To run quantum algorithms on emerging gate-model quantum hardware, quantum circuits must be compiled to take into account constraints on the hardware. For near-term hardware, with only limited means to mitigate decoherence, it is critical to minimize the duration of the circuit. We investigate the application of temporal planners to the problem of compiling quantum circuits to newly emerging quantum hardware. While our approach is general, we focus on compiling to superconducting hardware architectures with nearest neighbor constraints. Our initial experiments focus on compiling Quantum Alternating Operator Ansatz (QAOA) circuits whose high number of commuting gates allow great flexibility in the order in which the gates can be applied. That freedom makes it more challenging to find optimal compilations but also means there is a greater potential win from more optimized compilation than for less flexible circuits. We map this quantum circuit compilation problem to a temporal planning problem, and generated a test suite of compilation problems for QAOA circuits of various sizes to a realistic hardware architecture. We report compilation results from several state-of-the-art temporal planners on this test set. This early empirical evaluation demonstrates that temporal planning is a viable approach to quantum circuit compilation.

  16. A circuit design for multi-inputs stateful OR gate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qiao; Wang, Xiaoping, E-mail: wangxiaoping@hust.edu.cn; Wan, Haibo; Yang, Ran; Zheng, Jian

    2016-09-07

    The in situ logic operation on memristor memory has attracted researchers' attention. In this brief, a new circuit structure that performs a stateful OR logic operation is proposed. When our OR logic is operated in series with other logic operations (IMP, AND), only two voltages should to be changed while three voltages are necessary in the previous one-step OR logic operation. In addition, this circuit structure can be extended to multi-inputs OR operation to perfect the family of logic operations on memristive memory in nanocrossbar based networks. The proposed OR gate can enable fast logic operation, reduce the number of required memristors and the sequential steps. Through analysis and simulation, the feasibility of OR operation is demonstrated and the appropriate parameters are obtained.

  17. A circuit design for multi-inputs stateful OR gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qiao; Wang, Xiaoping; Wan, Haibo; Yang, Ran; Zheng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The in situ logic operation on memristor memory has attracted researchers' attention. In this brief, a new circuit structure that performs a stateful OR logic operation is proposed. When our OR logic is operated in series with other logic operations (IMP, AND), only two voltages should to be changed while three voltages are necessary in the previous one-step OR logic operation. In addition, this circuit structure can be extended to multi-inputs OR operation to perfect the family of logic operations on memristive memory in nanocrossbar based networks. The proposed OR gate can enable fast logic operation, reduce the number of required memristors and the sequential steps. Through analysis and simulation, the feasibility of OR operation is demonstrated and the appropriate parameters are obtained.

  18. Integrated circuit cooled turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Um, Jae Y.; Holloman, Harry; Koester, Steven

    2017-08-29

    A turbine rotor blade includes at least two integrated cooling circuits that are formed within the blade that include a leading edge circuit having a first cavity and a second cavity and a trailing edge circuit that includes at least a third cavity located aft of the second cavity. The trailing edge circuit flows aft with at least two substantially 180-degree turns at the tip end and the root end of the blade providing at least a penultimate cavity and a last cavity. The last cavity is located along a trailing edge of the blade. A tip axial cooling channel connects to the first cavity of the leading edge circuit and the penultimate cavity of the trailing edge circuit. At least one crossover hole connects the penultimate cavity to the last cavity substantially near the tip end of the blade.

  19. Source-circuit design overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The source circuit is the fundamental electrical building block of a large central-station array; it consists of a series-parallel network of solar cells that develops full system voltage. The array field is generally made up of a large number of parallel source circuits. Source-circuit electrical configuration is driven by a number of design considerations, which must be considered simultaneously. Array fault tolerance and hot spot heating endurance are examined in detail.

  20. Can we estimate the cellular phone RF peak output power with a simple experiment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioreze, Maycon; dos Santos Junior, Sauli; Goncalves Hönnicke, Marcelo

    2016-07-01

    Cellular phones are becoming increasingly useful tools for students. Since cell phones operate in the microwave bandwidth, they can be used to motivate students to demonstrate and better understand the properties of electromagnetic waves. However, since these waves operate at higher frequencies (L-band, from 800 MHz to 2 GHz) it is not simple to detect them. Usually, expensive real-time high frequency oscilloscopes are required. Indirect measurements are also possible through heat-based and diode-detector-based radio-frequency (RF) power sensors. Another didactic and intuitive way is to explore a simple and inexpensive detection system, based on the interference effect caused in the electronic circuit of TV and PC soundspeakers, and to try to investigate different properties of the cell phones’ RF electromagnetic waves, such as its power and modulated frequency. This manuscript proposes a trial to quantify these measurements, based on a simple Friis equation model and the time constant of the circuit used in the detection system, in order to show it didactically to the students and even allow them also to explore such a simple detection system at home.

  1. Can we estimate the cellular phone RF peak output power with a simple experiment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fioreze, Maycon; Hönnicke, Marcelo Goncalves; Dos Santos Junior, Sauli

    2016-01-01

    Cellular phones are becoming increasingly useful tools for students. Since cell phones operate in the microwave bandwidth, they can be used to motivate students to demonstrate and better understand the properties of electromagnetic waves. However, since these waves operate at higher frequencies (L-band, from 800 MHz to 2 GHz) it is not simple to detect them. Usually, expensive real-time high frequency oscilloscopes are required. Indirect measurements are also possible through heat-based and diode-detector-based radio-frequency (RF) power sensors. Another didactic and intuitive way is to explore a simple and inexpensive detection system, based on the interference effect caused in the electronic circuit of TV and PC soundspeakers, and to try to investigate different properties of the cell phones’ RF electromagnetic waves, such as its power and modulated frequency. This manuscript proposes a trial to quantify these measurements, based on a simple Friis equation model and the time constant of the circuit used in the detection system, in order to show it didactically to the students and even allow them also to explore such a simple detection system at home. (paper)

  2. Triple inverter pierce oscillator circuit suitable for CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessendorf,; Kurt, O [Albuquerque, NM

    2007-02-27

    An oscillator circuit is disclosed which can be formed using discrete field-effect transistors (FETs), or as a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit. The oscillator circuit utilizes a Pierce oscillator design with three inverter stages connected in series. A feedback resistor provided in a feedback loop about a second inverter stage provides an almost ideal inverting transconductance thereby allowing high-Q operation at the resonator-controlled frequency while suppressing a parasitic oscillation frequency that is inherent in a Pierce configuration using a "standard" triple inverter for the sustaining amplifier. The oscillator circuit, which operates in a range of 10 50 MHz, has applications for use as a clock in a microprocessor and can also be used for sensor applications.

  3. Reconfigurable Complementary Logic Circuits with Ambipolar Organic Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hocheon; Ghittorelli, Matteo; Smits, Edsger C P; Gelinck, Gerwin H; Lee, Han-Koo; Torricelli, Fabrizio; Kim, Jae-Joon

    2016-10-20

    Ambipolar organic electronics offer great potential for simple and low-cost fabrication of complementary logic circuits on large-area and mechanically flexible substrates. Ambipolar transistors are ideal candidates for the simple and low-cost development of complementary logic circuits since they can operate as n-type and p-type transistors. Nevertheless, the experimental demonstration of ambipolar organic complementary circuits is limited to inverters. The control of the transistor polarity is crucial for proper circuit operation. Novel gating techniques enable to control the transistor polarity but result in dramatically reduced performances. Here we show high-performance non-planar ambipolar organic transistors with electrical control of the polarity and orders of magnitude higher performances with respect to state-of-art split-gate ambipolar transistors. Electrically reconfigurable complementary logic gates based on ambipolar organic transistors are experimentally demonstrated, thus opening up new opportunities for ambipolar organic complementary electronics.

  4. A parity checker circuit based on microelectromechanical resonator logic elements

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al

    2017-01-11

    Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based logic computation has attracted significant attention in recent years due to its dynamic mode of operation, ultra-low power consumption, and potential for reprogrammable and reversible computing. Here we demonstrate a 4-bit parity checker circuit by utilizing recently developed logic gates based on MEMS resonators. Toward this, resonance frequencies of shallow arch shaped micro resonators are electrothermally tuned by the logic inputs to constitute the required logic gates for the proposed parity checker circuit. This study demonstrates that by utilizing MEMS resonator based logic elements, complex digital circuits can be realized.

  5. Pulse-power circuit diagnostics for the Nova laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, D.J.; Dallum, G.E.; Gritton, D.G.; Merritt, B.T.; Whitham, K.; Berkbigler, L.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Nova laser will have a large pulse power system for driving laser amplifiers, incorporating approximately 1600 flashlamp circuits. An automated system has been designed for diagnosing the condition of these flashlamp circuits. It records digitized circuit current waveforms and detects current excursions above a given threshold. In addition, it is able to fire flashlamps at a low energy to ascertain the health of the system. Data from this system can be ploted for inspection by the operator, analyzed by the computer system and archived for future reference

  6. Micromachined integrated quantum circuit containing a superconducting qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecht, Teresa; Chu, Yiwen; Axline, Christopher; Pfaff, Wolfgang; Blumoff, Jacob; Chou, Kevin; Krayzman, Lev; Frunzio, Luigi; Schoelkopf, Robert

    We demonstrate a functional multilayer microwave integrated quantum circuit (MMIQC). This novel hardware architecture combines the high coherence and isolation of three-dimensional structures with the advantages of integrated circuits made with lithographic techniques. We present fabrication and measurement of a two-cavity/one-qubit prototype, including a transmon coupled to a three-dimensional microwave cavity micromachined in a silicon wafer. It comprises a simple MMIQC with competitive lifetimes and the ability to perform circuit QED operations in the strong dispersive regime. Furthermore, the design and fabrication techniques that we have developed are extensible to more complex quantum information processing devices.

  7. Single-flux-quantum circuit technology for superconducting radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimaki, Akira; Onogi, Masashi; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Masamitsu; Sekiya, Akito; Hayakawa, Hisao; Yorozu, Shinichi; Terai, Hirotaka; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the application of the single-flux-quantum (SFQ) logic circuits to multi superconducting radiation detectors system. The SFQ-based analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) have the advantage in current sensitivity, which can reach less than 10 nA in a well-tuned ADC. We have also developed the design technology of the SFQ circuits. We demonstrate high-speed operation of large-scale integrated circuits such as a 2x2 cross/bar switch, arithmetic logic unit, indicating that our present SFQ technology is applicable to the multi radiation detectors system. (author)

  8. Fuse Modeling for Reliability Study of Power Electronic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive modeling approach on reliability of fuses used in power electronic circuits. When fuses are subjected to current pulses, cyclic temperature stress is introduced to the fuse element and will wear out the component. Furthermore, the fuse may be used in a large......, and rated voltage/current are opposed to shift in time to effect early breaking during the normal operation of the circuit. Therefore, in such cases, a reliable protection required for the other circuit components will not be achieved. The thermo-mechanical models, fatigue analysis and thermo...

  9. A parity checker circuit based on microelectromechanical resonator logic elements

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Li, Ren; Younis, Mohammad I.; Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based logic computation has attracted significant attention in recent years due to its dynamic mode of operation, ultra-low power consumption, and potential for reprogrammable and reversible computing. Here we demonstrate a 4-bit parity checker circuit by utilizing recently developed logic gates based on MEMS resonators. Toward this, resonance frequencies of shallow arch shaped micro resonators are electrothermally tuned by the logic inputs to constitute the required logic gates for the proposed parity checker circuit. This study demonstrates that by utilizing MEMS resonator based logic elements, complex digital circuits can be realized.

  10. Energy efficient circuit design using nanoelectromechanical relays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Ramakrishnan

    Nano-electromechanical (NEM) relays are a promising class of emerging devices that offer zero off-state leakage and behave like an ideal switch. Recent advances in planar fabrication technology have demonstrated that microelectromechanical (MEMS) scale miniature relays could be manufactured reliably and could be used to build fully functional, complex integrated circuits. The zero leakage operation of relays has renewed the interest in relay based low power logic design. This dissertation explores circuit architectures using NEM relays and NEMS-CMOS heterogeneous integration. Novel circuit topologies for sequential logic, memory, and power management circuits have been proposed taking into consideration the NEM relay device properties and optimizing for energy efficiency and area. In nanoscale electromechanical devices, dispersion forces like Van der Waals' force (vdW) affect the pull-in stability of the relay devices significantly. Verilog-A electromechanical model of the suspended gate relay operating at 1V with a nominal air gap of 5 - 10nm has been developed taking into account all the electrical, mechanical and dispersion effects. This dissertation explores different relay based latch and flip-flop topologies. It has been shown that as few as 4 relay cells could be used to build flip-flops. An integrated voltage doubler based flip flop that improves the performance by 2X by overdriving Vgb has been proposed. Three NEM relay based parallel readout memory bitcell architectures have been proposed that have faster access time, and remove the reliability issues associated with previously reported serial readout architectures. A paradigm shift in design of power switches using NEM relays is proposed. An interesting property of the relay device is that the ON state resistance (Ron) of the NEM relay switch is constant and is insensitive to the gate slew rate. This coupled with infinite OFF state resistance (Roff ) offers significant area and power advantages over CMOS

  11. Radiation-sensitive switching circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.H.; Cockshott, C.P.

    1976-03-16

    A radiation-sensitive switching circuit has a light emitting diode which supplies light to a photo-transistor, the light being interrupted from time to time. When the photo-transistor is illuminated, current builds up and when this current reaches a predetermined value, a trigger circuit changes state. The peak output of the photo-transistor is measured and the trigger circuit is arranged to change state when the output of the device is a set proportion of the peak output, so as to allow for aging of the components. The circuit is designed to control the ignition system in an automobile engine.

  12. Four-junction superconducting circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yueyin; Xiong, Wei; He, Xiao-Ling; Li, Tie-Fu; You, J. Q.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a theory for the quantum circuit consisting of a superconducting loop interrupted by four Josephson junctions and pierced by a magnetic flux (either static or time-dependent). In addition to the similarity with the typical three-junction flux qubit in the double-well regime, we demonstrate the difference of the four-junction circuit from its three-junction analogue, including its advantages over the latter. Moreover, the four-junction circuit in the single-well regime is also investigated. Our theory provides a tool to explore the physical properties of this four-junction superconducting circuit. PMID:27356619

  13. Testing Fixture For Microwave Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanofsky, Robert; Shalkhauser, Kurt

    1989-01-01

    Testing fixture facilitates radio-frequency characterization of microwave and millimeter-wave integrated circuits. Includes base onto which two cosine-tapered ridge waveguide-to-microstrip transitions fastened. Length and profile of taper determined analytically to provide maximum bandwidth and minimum insertion loss. Each cosine taper provides transformation from high impedance of waveguide to characteristic impedance of microstrip. Used in conjunction with automatic network analyzer to provide user with deembedded scattering parameters of device under test. Operates from 26.5 to 40.0 GHz, but operation extends to much higher frequencies.

  14. Nonlinear optics quantum computing with circuit QED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Prabin; Hafezi, Mohammad; Taylor, J M

    2013-02-08

    One approach to quantum information processing is to use photons as quantum bits and rely on linear optical elements for most operations. However, some optical nonlinearity is necessary to enable universal quantum computing. Here, we suggest a circuit-QED approach to nonlinear optics quantum computing in the microwave regime, including a deterministic two-photon phase gate. Our specific example uses a hybrid quantum system comprising a LC resonator coupled to a superconducting flux qubit to implement a nonlinear coupling. Compared to the self-Kerr nonlinearity, we find that our approach has improved tolerance to noise in the qubit while maintaining fast operation.

  15. The design and development of a multilayer RF circuit card

    OpenAIRE

    Ferro, John Francis

    1991-01-01

    The goal of this project was to design an airborne radio frequency circuit card that was very light weight, occupied a small volume, and operated from 20 Mhz to 1500 Mhz. The circuit card being reported on is called an RF multicoupler, and is one of two cards used in a radio frequency distribution unit (RFD). This unit interfaces a large number of receivers to various antennas. In the past this type of circuitry was done by cascading discrete connectorized RF compo...

  16. Application specific integrated circuit for high temperature oil well applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallet, T.; Gakkestad, J.; Forre, G.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the design of an integrated BiCMOS circuit for high temperature applications. The circuit contains Pierce oscillators with automatic gain control, and measurements show that it is operating up to 266{sup o}C. The relative frequency variation up to 200 {sup o}C is less than 60 ppm caused mainly by the crystal element itself. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  17. An optoelectronic integrated device including a laser and its driving circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsueda, H.; Nakano, H.; Tanaka, T.P.

    1984-10-01

    A monolithic optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEIC) including a laser diode, photomonitor and driving and detecting circuits has been fabricated on a semi-insulating GaAs substrate. The OEIC has a horizontal integrating structure which is suitable for realising high-density multifunctional devices. The fabricating process and the static and dynamic characteristics of the optical and electronic elements are described. The preliminary results of the co-operative operation of the laser and its driving circuit are also presented.

  18. Integrated biocircuits: engineering functional multicellular circuits and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prox, Jordan; Smith, Tory; Holl, Chad; Chehade, Nick; Guo, Liang

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Implantable neurotechnologies have revolutionized neuromodulatory medicine for treating the dysfunction of diseased neural circuitry. However, challenges with biocompatibility and lack of full control over neural network communication and function limits the potential to create more stable and robust neuromodulation devices. Thus, we propose a platform technology of implantable and programmable cellular systems, namely Integrated Biocircuits, which use only cells as the functional components of the device. Approach. We envision the foundational principles for this concept begins with novel in vitro platforms used for the study and reconstruction of cellular circuitry. Additionally, recent advancements in organoid and 3D culture systems account for microenvironment factors of cytoarchitecture to construct multicellular circuits as they are normally formed in the brain. We explore the current state of the art of these platforms to provide knowledge of their advancements in circuit fabrication and identify the current biological principles that could be applied in designing integrated biocircuit devices. Main results. We have highlighted the exemplary methodologies and techniques of in vitro circuit fabrication and propose the integration of selected controllable parameters, which would be required in creating suitable biodevices. Significance. We provide our perspective and propose new insights into the future of neuromodulaion devices within the scope of living cellular systems that can be applied in designing more reliable and biocompatible stimulation-based neuroprosthetics.

  19. NRC Information No. 90-41: Potential failure of General Electric Magne-Blast circuit breakers and AK circuit breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    This information notice is intended to alert addressees to potential safety concerns that may result from failures of GE vertical lift (AM) and horizontal draw-out (AMH) Magne-Blast circuit breakers utilizing ML-13 operating mechanisms to open or close them and AK circuit breakers. The particular breaker failures reported herein were caused by operating problems with prop springs, snap rings and lubricating grease. GE Nuclear Energy has informed the NRC that it is aware of these problems and that GE routinely checks and corrects them if the circuit breakers are serviced at one of the four GE nuclear service centers in the US. However, the NRC is aware that some utilities may have their circuit breakers repaired or serviced at facilities other than the four GE nuclear service centers

  20. Memristor Circuits and Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2015-05-01

    Current CMOS-based technologies are facing design challenges related to the continuous scaling down of the minimum feature size, according to Moore’s law. Moreover, conventional computing architecture is no longer an effective way of fulfilling modern applications demands, such as big data analysis, pattern recognition, and vector processing. Therefore, there is an exigent need to shift to new technologies, at both the architecture and the device levels. Recently, memristor devices and structures attracted attention for being promising candidates for this job. Memristor device adds a new dimension for designing novel circuits and systems. In addition, high-density memristor-based crossbar is widely considered to be the essential element for future memory and bio-inspired computing systems. However, numerous challenges need to be addressed before the memristor genuinely replaces current memory and computing technologies, which is the motivation behind this research effort. In order to address the technology challenges, we begin by fabricating and modeling the memristor device. The devices fabricated at our local clean room enriched our understanding of the memristive phenomenon and enabled the experimental testing for our memristor-based circuits. Moreover, our proposed mathematical modeling for memristor behavior is an essential element for the theoretical circuit design stage. Designing and addressing the challenges of memristor systems with practical complexity, however, requires an extra step, which takes the form of a reliable and modular simulation platform. We, therefore, built a new simulation platform for the resistive crossbar, which can simulate realistic size arrays filled with real memory data. In addition, this simulation platform includes various crossbar nonidealities in order to obtain accurate simulation results. Consequently, we were able to address the significant challenges facing the high density memristor crossbar, as the building block for

  1. Basic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, P M

    1980-01-01

    In the past, the teaching of electricity and electronics has more often than not been carried out from a theoretical and often highly academic standpoint. Fundamentals and basic concepts have often been presented with no indication of their practical appli­ cations, and all too frequently they have been illustrated by artificially contrived laboratory experiments bearing little relationship to the outside world. The course comes in the form of fourteen fairly open-ended constructional experiments or projects. Each experiment has associated with it a construction exercise and an explanation. The basic idea behind this dual presentation is that the student can embark on each circuit following only the briefest possible instructions and that an open-ended approach is thereby not prejudiced by an initial lengthy encounter with the theory behind the project; this being a sure way to dampen enthusiasm at the outset. As the investigation progresses, questions inevitably arise. Descriptions of the phenomena encounte...

  2. ECCS control circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takashi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To afford a sufficient margin to pressure vibrations upon starting of an automatic depressurization system by dispersing pressure vibration in suppression water due to the opening action of an automatic releaf valve in the automatic depressurization system thereby reducing the dynamic load exerted to the surface of the suppression walls. Constitution: Upon occurrence of loss of coolant accidents, an automatic releaf valve for automatic depressurization is opened to deliver the steams in the pressure vessel into the suppression pool. Since a plurality of automatic releaf valves have usually been disposed, if they are opened simultaneously, excess dynamic loads are exerted due to the pressure vibrations to the wall surface of the suppression pool. In this invention, a control circuit is disposed such that the opening timing for each of the automatic releaf valves is deviated upon occurrence of a driving signal for the automatic depressurization system to thereby disperse the pressure vibrations in the suppression water. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. A dishwasher for circuits

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    You have always been told that electronic devices fear water. However, at the Surface Mount Devices (SMD) Workshop here at CERN all the electronic assemblies are cleaned with a machine that looks like a… dishwasher.   The circuit dishwasher. Credit: Clara Nellist.  If you think the image above shows a dishwasher, you wouldn’t be completely wrong. Apart from the fact that the whole pumping system and the case itself are made entirely from stainless steel and chemical resistant materials, and the fact that it washes electrical boards instead of dishes… it works exactly like a dishwasher. It’s a professional machine (mainly used in the pharmaceutical industry) designed to clean everything that can be washed with a water-based chemical soap. This type of treatment increases the lifetime of the electronic boards and therefore the LHC's reliability by preventing corrosion problems in the severe radiation and ozone environment of the LHC tunn...

  4. Modeling cortical circuits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2010-09-01

    The neocortex is perhaps the highest region of the human brain, where audio and visual perception takes place along with many important cognitive functions. An important research goal is to describe the mechanisms implemented by the neocortex. There is an apparent regularity in the structure of the neocortex [Brodmann 1909, Mountcastle 1957] which may help simplify this task. The work reported here addresses the problem of how to describe the putative repeated units ('cortical circuits') in a manner that is easily understood and manipulated, with the long-term goal of developing a mathematical and algorithmic description of their function. The approach is to reduce each algorithm to an enhanced perceptron-like structure and describe its computation using difference equations. We organize this algorithmic processing into larger structures based on physiological observations, and implement key modeling concepts in software which runs on parallel computing hardware.

  5. Inductive circuit arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfield, Peter; Coxon, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    A switched coil arrangement is connected in a bridge configuration of four switches S 1 , S 2 , S 3 and S 4 which are each shunted by diodes D 1 , D 2 , D 3 and D 4 so that current can flow in either direction through a coil L depending on the setting of the switches. A capacitor C is connected across the bridge through a switch S 5 to receive the inductive energy stored in coil L on breaking the current flow path through the coil. The electrostatic energy stored in capacitor C can then be used to supply current through the coil in the reverse direction either immediately or after a time delay. Coil L may be a superconductive coil. Losses in the circuit can be made up by a trickle charge of capacitor C from a separate supply V 2 . The device may be used in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  6. Cellularized Cellular Solids via Freeze-Casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Sarah; Kwiatoszynski, Julien; Coradin, Thibaud; Fernandes, Francisco M

    2016-02-01

    The elaboration of metabolically active cell-containing materials is a decisive step toward the successful application of cell based technologies. The present work unveils a new process allowing to simultaneously encapsulate living cells and shaping cell-containing materials into solid-state macroporous foams with precisely controlled morphology. Our strategy is based on freeze casting, an ice templating materials processing technique that has recently emerged for the structuration of colloids into macroporous materials. Our results indicate that it is possible to combine the precise structuration of the materials with cellular metabolic activity for the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc. is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the processing of epigenetic memory. Here, we summarize the recent research progress in the epigenetic regulation of cellular metabolism and discuss how the dysfunction of epigenetic machineries influences the development of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity; then, we focus on discussing the notion that manipulating metabolites, the fuel of cell metabolism, can function as a strategy for interfering epigenetic machinery and its related disease progression as well.

  8. The central amygdala circuits in fear regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo

    The amygdala is essential for fear learning and expression. The central amygdala (CeA), once viewed as a passive relay between the amygdala complex and downstream fear effectors, has emerged as an active participant in fear conditioning. However, how the CeA contributes to the learning and expression of fear remains unclear. Our recent studies in mice indicate that fear conditioning induces robust plasticity of excitatory synapses onto inhibitory neurons in the lateral subdivision of CeA (CeL). In particular, this plasticity is cell-type specific and is required for the formation of fear memory. In addition, sensory cues that predict threat can cause activation of the somatostatin-positive CeL neurons, which is sufficient to drive freezing behavior. Here I will report our recent findings regarding the circuit and cellular mechanisms underlying CeL function in fear processing.

  9. DQ reference frame modeling and control of single-phase active power decoupling circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Qin, Zian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    . This paper presents the dq synchronous reference frame modeling of single-phase power decoupling circuits and a complete model describing the dynamics of dc-link ripple voltage is presented. The proposed model is universal and valid for both inductive and capacitive decoupling circuits, and the input...... of decoupling circuits can be either dependent or independent of its front-end converters. Based on this model, a dq synchronous reference frame controller is designed which allows the decoupling circuit to operate in two different modes because of the circuit symmetry. Simulation and experimental results...... are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed modeling and control method....

  10. The monitoring of oxygen, hydrogen and carbon in the sodium circuits of the PFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, L.; Morrison, N.S.; Robertson, C.M.; Trevillion, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    The paper reviews the instrumentation available for monitoring oxygen, hydrogen, tritium and carbon impurity levels on the primary and secondary circuits of PFR. Circuit oxygen levels measured using electrochemical oxygen meters are compared to estimates from circuit plugging meters. The data are interpreted in the light of information from cold trap temperatures. Measurements of secondary circuit hydrogen levels using both the sodium and gas phase hydrogen detection equipment are compared to estimates of circuit hydrogen levels from plugging meters and variations in sodium phase hydrogen levels during power operation are discussed. (author)

  11. Wireless Cellular Mobile Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zalud

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article is briefly reviewed the history of wireless cellularmobile communications, examined the progress in current secondgeneration (2G cellular standards and discussed their migration to thethird generation (3G. The European 2G cellular standard GSM and itsevolution phases GPRS and EDGE are described somewhat in detail. Thethird generation standard UMTS taking up on GSM/GPRS core network andequipped with a new advanced access network on the basis of codedivision multiple access (CDMA is investigated too. A sketch of theperspective of mobile communication beyond 3G concludes this article.

  12. A High-Voltage Level Tolerant Transistor Circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Anne J.; Geelen, Godefridus Johannes Gertrudis Maria

    2001-01-01

    A high-voltage level tolerant transistor circuit, comprising a plurality of cascoded transistors, including a first transistor (T1) operatively connected to a high-voltage level node (3) and a second transistor (T2) operatively connected to a low-voltage level node (2). The first transistor (T1)

  13. Compact Circuit Preprocesses Accelerometer Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Compact electronic circuit transfers dc power to, and preprocesses ac output of, accelerometer and associated preamplifier. Incorporated into accelerometer case during initial fabrication or retrofit onto commercial accelerometer. Made of commercial integrated circuits and other conventional components; made smaller by use of micrologic and surface-mount technology.

  14. Short-circuit impedance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2003-01-01

    Methods for estimating the short-circuit impedance in the power grid are investigated for various voltage levels and situations. The short-circuit impedance is measured, preferably from naturally occurring load changes in the grid, and it is shown that such a measurement system faces different...

  15. Enhancement of Linear Circuit Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans; Dabu, Mihaela; Beldiman, Octavian

    1996-01-01

    In this report a preliminary user friendly interface has been added to the LCP2 program making it possible to describe an electronic circuit by actually drawing the circuit on the screen. Component values and other options and parameters can easily be set by the aid of the interface. The interface...

  16. Testing of 800 and 1200 kV class circuit breakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, R.P.P.; Kuivenhoven, S.; Hofstee, A.B.

    2011-01-01

    The most critical transient a circuit breaker has to endure during its operation is the transient recovery voltage (TRV), initiated by the electric power system as a natural reaction on current interruption. For circuit breakers intended to operate in ultra-high voltage systems (with rated voltage

  17. On the synthesis of a bio-inspired dual-cellular fluidic flexible matrix composite adaptive structure based on a non-dimensional dynamics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Suyi; Wang, K W

    2013-01-01

    A recent study investigated the dynamic characteristics of an adaptive structure concept featuring dual fluidic flexible matrix composite (F 2 MC) cells inspired by the configuration of plant cells and cell walls. This novel bio-inspired system consists of two F 2 MC cells with different fiber angles connected through internal fluid circuits. It was discovered that the dual F 2 MC cellular structure can be characterized as a two degree of freedom damped mass–spring oscillator, and can be utilized as a vibration absorber or an enhanced actuator under different operation conditions. These results demonstrated that the concept is promising and further investigations are needed to develop methodologies for synthesizing future multi-cellular F 2 MC structural systems. While interesting, the previous study focused on specific case studies and analysis. That is, the outcome did not provide insight that could be generalized, or tools for synthesizing a multiple F 2 MC cellular structure. This paper attempts to address this important issue by developing a non-dimensional dynamic model, which reveals good physical insights as well as identifying crucial constitutive parameters for F 2 MC cellular design. Working with these parameters, rather than physical variables, can greatly simplify the mathematics involved in the study. A synthesis tool is then developed for the dual-cellular structure, and it is found that for each set of achievable target poles and zero, there exist multiple F 2 MC cellular designs, forming a design space. The presented physical insights and synthesis tool for the dual-cellular structure will be the building blocks for future investigation on cellular structures with a larger number of cells. (paper)

  18. Orientation-Selective Retinal Circuits in Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinucci, Paride; Hindges, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Visual information is already processed in the retina before it is transmitted to higher visual centers in the brain. This includes the extraction of salient features from visual scenes, such as motion directionality or contrast, through neurons belonging to distinct neural circuits. Some retinal neurons are tuned to the orientation of elongated visual stimuli. Such 'orientation-selective' neurons are present in the retinae of most, if not all, vertebrate species analyzed to date, with species-specific differences in frequency and degree of tuning. In some cases, orientation-selective neurons have very stereotyped functional and morphological properties suggesting that they represent distinct cell types. In this review, we describe the retinal cell types underlying orientation selectivity found in various vertebrate species, and highlight their commonalities and differences. In addition, we discuss recent studies that revealed the cellular, synaptic and circuit mechanisms at the basis of retinal orientation selectivity. Finally, we outline the significance of these findings in shaping our current understanding of how this fundamental neural computation is implemented in the visual systems of vertebrates.

  19. A novel sourceline voltage compensation circuit for embedded NOR flash memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shengbo; Yang Guangjun; Hu Jian; Xiao Jun

    2014-01-01

    A novel sourceline voltage compensation circuit for program operation in embedded flash memory is presented. With the sourceline voltage compensation circuit, the charge pump can modulate the output voltage according to the number of cells to be programmed with data “0”. So the IR drop on the sourceline decoding path is compensated, and a stable sourceline voltage can be obtained. In order to reduce the power dissipation in program operation, a bit-inversion program circuit is adopted. By using the bit-inversion program circuit, the cells programmed to data “0” are limited to half of the bits of a write data word, thus power dissipation in program operation is greatly reduced. A 1.8-V 8 × 64-kbits embedded NOR flash memory employing the two circuits has been integrated using a GSMC 0.18-μm 4-poly 4-metal CMOS process. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  20. Device and Circuit Design Challenges in the Digital Subthreshold Region for Ultralow-Power Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Vaddi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, subthreshold operation has gained a lot of attention due to ultra low-power consumption in applications requiring low to medium performance. It has also been shown that by optimizing the device structure, power consumption of digital subthreshold logic can be further minimized while improving its performance. Therefore, subthreshold circuit design is very promising for future ultra low-energy sensor applications as well as high-performance parallel processing. This paper deals with various device and circuit design challenges associated with the state of the art in optimal digital subthreshold circuit design and reviews device design methodologies and circuit topologies for optimal digital subthreshold operation. This paper identifies the suitable candidates for subthreshold operation at device and circuit levels for optimal subthreshold circuit design and provides an effective roadmap for digital designers interested to work with ultra low-power applications.

  1. Pulse Detecting Genetic Circuit – A New Design Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inniss, Mara; Iba, Hitoshi; Way, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    A robust cellular counter could enable synthetic biologists to design complex circuits with diverse behaviors. The existing synthetic-biological counters, responsive to the beginning of the pulse, are sensitive to the pulse duration. Here we present a pulse detecting circuit that responds only at the falling edge of a pulse–analogous to negative edge triggered electric circuits. As biological events do not follow precise timing, use of such a pulse detector would enable the design of robust asynchronous counters which can count the completion of events. This transcription-based pulse detecting circuit depends on the interaction of two co-expressed lambdoid phage-derived proteins: the first is unstable and inhibits the regulatory activity of the second, stable protein. At the end of the pulse the unstable inhibitor protein disappears from the cell and the second protein triggers the recording of the event completion. Using stochastic simulation we showed that the proposed design can detect the completion of the pulse irrespective to the pulse duration. In our simulation we also showed that fusing the pulse detector with a phage lambda memory element we can construct a counter which can be extended to count larger numbers. The proposed design principle is a new control mechanism for synthetic biology which can be integrated in different circuits for identifying the completion of an event. PMID:27907045

  2. Solid state light source driver establishing buck or boost operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Fred

    2017-08-29

    A solid state light source driver circuit that operates in either a buck convertor or a boost convertor configuration is provided. The driver circuit includes a controller, a boost switch circuit and a buck switch circuit, each coupled to the controller, and a feedback circuit, coupled to the light source. The feedback circuit provides feedback to the controller, representing a DC output of the driver circuit. The controller controls the boost switch circuit and the buck switch circuit in response to the feedback signal, to regulate current to the light source. The controller places the driver circuit in its boost converter configuration when the DC output is less than a rectified AC voltage coupled to the driver circuit at an input node. The controller places the driver circuit in its buck converter configuration when the DC output is greater than the rectified AC voltage at the input node.

  3. Radiolabelled cellular blood elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinzinger, H.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on radiolabelled cellular blood elements, covering new advances made during the past several years, in particular the use of Tc-99 as a tracer for blood elements. Coverage extends to several radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies that are specific for blood components and may label blood elements in vivo

  4. Building synthetic cellular organization

    OpenAIRE

    Polka, Jessica K.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    The elaborate spatial organization of cells enhances, restricts, and regulates protein–protein interactions. However, the biological significance of this organization has been difficult to study without ways of directly perturbing it. We highlight synthetic biology tools for engineering novel cellular organization, describing how they have been, and can be, used to advance cell biology.

  5. The New Cellular Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claman, Henry N.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the nature of the immune response and traces many of the discoveries that have led to the present state of knowledge in immunology. The new cellular immunology is directing its efforts toward improving health by proper manipulation of the immune mechanisms of the body. (JR)

  6. Electromagnetic cellular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifra, Michal; Fields, Jeremy Z; Farhadi, Ashkan

    2011-05-01

    Chemical and electrical interaction within and between cells is well established. Just the opposite is true about cellular interactions via other physical fields. The most probable candidate for an other form of cellular interaction is the electromagnetic field. We review theories and experiments on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields generally, and if the cell-generated electromagnetic field can mediate cellular interactions. We do not limit here ourselves to specialized electro-excitable cells. Rather we describe physical processes that are of a more general nature and probably present in almost every type of living cell. The spectral range included is broad; from kHz to the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. We show that there is a rather large number of theories on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields and discuss experimental evidence on electromagnetic cellular interactions in the modern scientific literature. Although small, it is continuously accumulating. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic Dominance & Cellular Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    In learning genetics, many students misunderstand and misinterpret what "dominance" means. Understanding is easier if students realize that dominance is not a mechanism, but rather a consequence of underlying cellular processes. For example, metabolic pathways are often little affected by changes in enzyme concentration. This means that…

  8. Cell-to-Cell Communication Circuits: Quantitative Analysis of Synthetic Logic Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman-Sommer, Marta; Supady, Adriana; Klipp, Edda

    2012-01-01

    One of the goals in the field of synthetic biology is the construction of cellular computation devices that could function in a manner similar to electronic circuits. To this end, attempts are made to create biological systems that function as logic gates. In this work we present a theoretical quantitative analysis of a synthetic cellular logic-gates system, which has been implemented in cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Regot et al., 2011). It exploits endogenous MAP kinase signaling pathways. The novelty of the system lies in the compartmentalization of the circuit where all basic logic gates are implemented in independent single cells that can then be cultured together to perform complex logic functions. We have constructed kinetic models of the multicellular IDENTITY, NOT, OR, and IMPLIES logic gates, using both deterministic and stochastic frameworks. All necessary model parameters are taken from literature or estimated based on published kinetic data, in such a way that the resulting models correctly capture important dynamic features of the included mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. We analyze the models in terms of parameter sensitivity and we discuss possible ways of optimizing the system, e.g., by tuning the culture density. We apply a stochastic modeling approach, which simulates the behavior of whole populations of cells and allows us to investigate the noise generated in the system; we find that the gene expression units are the major sources of noise. Finally, the model is used for the design of system modifications: we show how the current system could be transformed to operate on three discrete values. PMID:22934039

  9. Predicting the behavior of microfluidic circuits made from discrete elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Krisna C.; Thompson, Bryant; Iqbal, Danish; Malmstadt, Noah

    2015-10-01

    Microfluidic devices can be used to execute a variety of continuous flow analytical and synthetic chemistry protocols with a great degree of precision. The growing availability of additive manufacturing has enabled the design of microfluidic devices with new functionality and complexity. However, these devices are prone to larger manufacturing variation than is typical of those made with micromachining or soft lithography. In this report, we demonstrate a design-for-manufacturing workflow that addresses performance variation at the microfluidic element and circuit level, in context of mass-manufacturing and additive manufacturing. Our approach relies on discrete microfluidic elements that are characterized by their terminal hydraulic resistance and associated tolerance. Network analysis is employed to construct simple analytical design rules for model microfluidic circuits. Monte Carlo analysis is employed at both the individual element and circuit level to establish expected performance metrics for several specific circuit configurations. A protocol based on osmometry is used to experimentally probe mixing behavior in circuits in order to validate these approaches. The overall workflow is applied to two application circuits with immediate use at on the bench-top: series and parallel mixing circuits that are modularly programmable, virtually predictable, highly precise, and operable by hand.

  10. Predicting the behavior of microfluidic circuits made from discrete elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Krisna C; Thompson, Bryant; Iqbal, Danish; Malmstadt, Noah

    2015-10-30

    Microfluidic devices can be used to execute a variety of continuous flow analytical and synthetic chemistry protocols with a great degree of precision. The growing availability of additive manufacturing has enabled the design of microfluidic devices with new functionality and complexity. However, these devices are prone to larger manufacturing variation than is typical of those made with micromachining or soft lithography. In this report, we demonstrate a design-for-manufacturing workflow that addresses performance variation at the microfluidic element and circuit level, in context of mass-manufacturing and additive manufacturing. Our approach relies on discrete microfluidic elements that are characterized by their terminal hydraulic resistance and associated tolerance. Network analysis is employed to construct simple analytical design rules for model microfluidic circuits. Monte Carlo analysis is employed at both the individual element and circuit level to establish expected performance metrics for several specific circuit configurations. A protocol based on osmometry is used to experimentally probe mixing behavior in circuits in order to validate these approaches. The overall workflow is applied to two application circuits with immediate use at on the bench-top: series and parallel mixing circuits that are modularly programmable, virtually predictable, highly precise, and operable by hand.

  11. Stretchable Transparent Electrode Arrays for Simultaneous Electrical and Optical Interrogation of Neural Circuits in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Xiaojun; Xu, Wenjing; Luo, Wenhan; Li, Ming; Chu, Fangbing; Xu, Lu; Cao, Anyuan; Guan, Jisong; Tang, Shiming; Duan, Xiaojie

    2018-04-09

    Recent developments of transparent electrode arrays provide a unique capability for simultaneous optical and electrical interrogation of neural circuits in the brain. However, none of these electrode arrays possess the stretchability highly desired for interfacing with mechanically active neural systems, such as the brain under injury, the spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Here, we report a stretchable transparent electrode array from carbon nanotube (CNT) web-like thin films that retains excellent electrochemical performance and broad-band optical transparency under stretching and is highly durable under cyclic stretching deformation. We show that the CNT electrodes record well-defined neuronal response signals with negligible light-induced artifacts from cortical surfaces under optogenetic stimulation. Simultaneous two-photon calcium imaging through the transparent CNT electrodes from cortical surfaces of GCaMP-expressing mice with epilepsy shows individual activated neurons in brain regions from which the concurrent electrical recording is taken, thus providing complementary cellular information in addition to the high-temporal-resolution electrical recording. Notably, the studies on rats show that the CNT electrodes remain operational during and after brain contusion that involves the rapid deformation of both the electrode array and brain tissue. This enables real-time, continuous electrophysiological monitoring of cortical activity under traumatic brain injury. These results highlight the potential application of the stretchable transparent CNT electrode arrays in combining electrical and optical modalities to study neural circuits, especially under mechanically active conditions, which could potentially provide important new insights into the local circuit dynamics of the spinal cord and PNS as well as the mechanism underlying traumatic injuries of the nervous system.

  12. Design and Characterization of DNA Strand-Displacement Circuits in Serum-Supplemented Cell Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Joshua; Schulman, Rebecca

    2017-09-15

    The functional stability and lifetimes of synthetic molecular circuits in biological environments are important for long-term, stable sensors or controllers of cell or tissue behavior. DNA-based molecular circuits, in particular DNA strand-displacement circuits, provide simple and effective biocompatible control mechanisms and sensors, but are vulnerable to digestion by nucleases present in living tissues and serum-supplemented cell culture. The stability of double-stranded and single-stranded DNA circuit components in serum-supplemented cell medium and the corresponding effect of nuclease-mediated degradation on circuit performance were characterized to determine the major routes of degradation and DNA strand-displacement circuit failure. Simple circuit design choices, such as the use of 5' toeholds within the DNA complexes used as reactants in the strand-displacement reactions and the termination of single-stranded components with DNA hairpin domains at the 3' termini, significantly increase the functional lifetime of the circuit components in the presence of nucleases. Simulations of multireaction circuits, guided by the experimentally measured operation of single-reaction circuits, enable predictive realization of multilayer and competitive-reaction circuit behavior. Together, these results provide a basic route to increased DNA circuit stability in cell culture environments.

  13. Nanofluidic Transistor Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsueh-Chia; Cheng, Li-Jing; Yan, Yu; Slouka, Zdenek; Senapati, Satyajyoti

    2012-02-01

    Non-equilibrium ion/fluid transport physics across on-chip membranes/nanopores is used to construct rectifying, hysteretic, oscillatory, excitatory and inhibitory nanofluidic elements. Analogs to linear resistors, capacitors, inductors and constant-phase elements were reported earlier (Chang and Yossifon, BMF 2009). Nonlinear rectifier is designed by introducing intra-membrane conductivity gradient and by asymmetric external depletion with a reverse rectification (Yossifon and Chang, PRL, PRE, Europhys Lett 2009-2011). Gating phenomenon is introduced by functionalizing polyelectrolytes whose conformation is field/pH sensitive (Wang, Chang and Zhu, Macromolecules 2010). Surface ion depletion can drive Rubinstein's microvortex instability (Chang, Yossifon and Demekhin, Annual Rev of Fluid Mech, 2012) or Onsager-Wien's water dissociation phenomenon, leading to two distinct overlimiting I-V features. Bipolar membranes exhibit an S-hysteresis due to water dissociation (Cheng and Chang, BMF 2011). Coupling the hysteretic diode with some linear elements result in autonomous ion current oscillations, which undergo classical transitions to chaos. Our integrated nanofluidic circuits are used for molecular sensing, protein separation/concentration, electrospray etc.

  14. Experimental Device for Learning of Logical Circuit Design using Integrated Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    石橋, 孝昭

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental device for learning of logical circuit design using integrated circuits and breadboards. The experimental device can be made at a low cost and can be used for many subjects such as logical circuits, computer engineering, basic electricity, electrical circuits and electronic circuits. The proposed device is effective to learn the logical circuits than the usual lecture.

  15. Variational integrators for electric circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ober-Blöbaum, Sina; Tao, Molei; Cheng, Mulin; Owhadi, Houman; Marsden, Jerrold E.

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, we develop a variational integrator for the simulation of (stochastic and multiscale) electric circuits. When considering the dynamics of an electric circuit, one is faced with three special situations: 1. The system involves external (control) forcing through external (controlled) voltage sources and resistors. 2. The system is constrained via the Kirchhoff current (KCL) and voltage laws (KVL). 3. The Lagrangian is degenerate. Based on a geometric setting, an appropriate variational formulation is presented to model the circuit from which the equations of motion are derived. A time-discrete variational formulation provides an iteration scheme for the simulation of the electric circuit. Dependent on the discretization, the intrinsic degeneracy of the system can be canceled for the discrete variational scheme. In this way, a variational integrator is constructed that gains several advantages compared to standard integration tools for circuits; in particular, a comparison to BDF methods (which are usually the method of choice for the simulation of electric circuits) shows that even for simple LCR circuits, a better energy behavior and frequency spectrum preservation can be observed using the developed variational integrator

  16. Clock generators for SOC processors circuits and architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Fahim, Amr

    2004-01-01

    This book explores the design of fully-integrated frequency synthesizers suitable for system-on-a-chip (SOC) processors. The text takes a more global design perspective in jointly examining the design space at the circuit level as well as at the architectural level. The comprehensive coverage includes summary chapters on circuit theory as well as feedback control theory relevant to the operation of phase locked loops (PLLs). On the circuit level, the discussion includes low-voltage analog design in deep submicron digital CMOS processes, effects of supply noise, substrate noise, as well device noise. On the architectural level, the discussion includes PLL analysis using continuous-time as well as discrete-time models, linear and nonlinear effects of PLL performance, and detailed analysis of locking behavior. The book provides numerous real world applications, as well as practical rules-of-thumb for modern designers to use at the system, architectural, as well as the circuit level.

  17. A diagonal address generator for a Josephson memory circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, H.; Hasuo, S.

    1987-01-01

    The authors propose that a diagonal D address generator, which is useful for a single flux quantum (SFQ) memory cell in the triple coincidence scheme, can be performed by a full adder circuit. For the purpose of evaluating the D address generator for a 16-kbit memory circuit, a 6-bit full adder circuit, using a current-steering flip-flop circuit, has been designed and fabricated with the lead-alloy process. Operating times for the address latch, carry generator, and sum generator were 150 ps, 250 ps/stage, and 1.4 ns, respectively. From these results, they estimate that the time necessary for the diagonal signal generation is 2.8 ns

  18. Design of nuclear pulse shaped circuit based on proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Qianqian; Cheng Yi; Tuo Xianguo

    2011-01-01

    Use the self-developed proportional to sample gas tritium in environment and make the measurement. For this detector, a kind of pulse shape circuit based on second order active low pass filtering circuit realized filtering and shaping nuclear pulse by high-speed operational amplifier, with less stages that has been approved for filter Gaussian wave. Use Multisim 10.0 to simulate the different parameters of the filter circuit. The simulation result was consistent with the theoretical results. The experiments proved the feasibility of this circuit, and at the same time provided a convenient and reliable method for analysis and optimization of the nuclear pulse waveform in order for discriminating by MCA. (authors)

  19. Arc modelling in SF{sub 6} circuit breakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verite, J.C. [Electricite de France, Clamart (France). Derection des Etudes et Recherches; Boucher, T.; Comte, A. [Electricite de France, Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Delalondre, C. [Electricite de France, Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Robin-Jouan, P.; Serres, E.; Texier, V. [GEC Alsthom, Villeurbanne (France). Direction Technique Haute et Moyenne Tension; Barrault, M.; Chevrier, P.; Fievet, C. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38 (France). Merlin Gerin

    1995-06-01

    The paper presents the work done by an operator, EDF and two manufacturers to improve the physical models and numerical methods used to simulate the behavior of the plasma and cold gas around it in a breaking chamber of the HV SF6 circuit breaker, during the high-current phase. This work concerns flow phenomena, in particular incorporating compressibility and the study of turbulence, the coupling between these flow phenomena and electromagnetic phenomena, and finally, radiation - which plays an essential role in energy transfer during the high-current phase. For this latter aspect, emission but also absorption were proven to play a major role, and the two were introduced into the models. The paper presents the models developed and the results obtained with them for simulation of two circuit breaker mock-ups (a double-pressure circuit breaker mock-up and a self-expanding and rotating arc circuit breaker mock-up). (author) 10 refs.

  20. Integrated electric circuit CAD system in Minolta Camera Co. Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagami, Tsuyoshi; Hirata, Sumiaki; Matsumura, Fumihiko

    1988-08-26

    Development background, fundamental concept, details and future plan of the integrated electric circuit CAD system for OA equipment are presented. The central integrated database is basically intended to store experiences or know-hows, to cover the wide range of data required for designs, and to provide a friendly interface. This easy-to-use integrated database covers the drawing data, parts information, design standards, know-hows and system data. The system contains the circuit design function to support drawing circuit diagrams, the wiring design function to support the wiring and arrangement of printed circuit boards and various parts integratedly, and the function to verify designs, to make full use of parts or technical information, to maintain the system security. In the future, as the system will be wholly in operation, the design period reduction, quality improvement and cost saving will be attained by this integrated design system. (19 figs, 2 tabs)

  1. Short Circuit Tests First Step of LHC Hardware Commissioning Completion

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero-Soto, E; Bordry, Frederick; Casas Lino, M P; Coelingh, G J; Cumer, G; Dahlerup-Petersen, K; Guillaume, J C; Inigo-Golfin, J; Montabonnet, V; Nisbet, D; Pojer, M; Principe, R; Rodríguez-Mateos, F; Saban, R; Schmidt, R; Thiesen, H; Vergara-Fernández, A; Zerlauth, M; Castaneda Serra, A; Romera Ramirez, I

    2008-01-01

    For the two counter rotating beams in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) about 8000 magnets (main dipole and quadrupole magnets, corrector magnets, separation dipoles, matching section quadrupoles etc.) are powered in about 1500 superconducting electrical circuits. The magnets are powered by power converters that have been designed for the LHC with a current between 60 and 13000A. Between October 2005 and September 2007 the so-called Short Circuit Tests were carried-out in 15 underground zones where the power converters of the superconducting circuits are placed. The tests aimed to qualify the normal conducting equipments of the circuits such as power converters and normal conducting high current cables. The correct operation of interlock and energy extraction systems was validated. The infrastructure systems including AC distribution, water and air cooling and the control systems was also commissioned. In this paper the results of the two year test campaign are summarized with particular attention to problems e...

  2. Integrated circuits, and design and manufacture thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auracher, Stefan; Pribbernow, Claus; Hils, Andreas

    2006-04-18

    A representation of a macro for an integrated circuit layout. The representation may define sub-circuit cells of a module. The module may have a predefined functionality. The sub-circuit cells may include at least one reusable circuit cell. The reusable circuit cell may be configured such that when the predefined functionality of the module is not used, the reusable circuit cell is available for re-use.

  3. The Maplin electronic circuits handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Michael

    1990-01-01

    The Maplin Electronic Circuits Handbook provides pertinent data, formula, explanation, practical guidance, theory and practical guidance in the design, testing, and construction of electronic circuits. This book discusses the developments in electronics technology techniques.Organized into 11 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the common types of passive component. This text then provides the reader with sufficient information to make a correct selection of passive components for use in the circuits. Other chapters consider the various types of the most commonly used semiconductor

  4. Secure integrated circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Verbauwhede, Ingrid MR

    2010-01-01

    On any advanced integrated circuit or 'system-on-chip' there is a need for security. In many applications the actual implementation has become the weakest link in security rather than the algorithms or protocols. The purpose of the book is to give the integrated circuits and systems designer an insight into the basics of security and cryptography from the implementation point of view. As a designer of integrated circuits and systems it is important to know both the state-of-the-art attacks as well as the countermeasures. Optimizing for security is different from optimizations for speed, area,

  5. Self-powered 'AND' logic circuit of dynamic type with positive safety and application of said 'AND' circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, Claude; Therond, J.P.

    1974-01-01

    The present invention relates to a self-powered 'AND' logic circuit of dynamic type with positive safety, which delivers on duty operation an output signal equal to the logic product of the input logic signals. The invention relates also to the use of said 'AND' logic circuits in developing n/m logics also of dynamic types with positive safety, delivering on duty operation a zero valued signal when, at least n of the m input signals have the value zero. This type of logics can be inserted in nuclear reactor protection systems; when the value of the reactor operating physical characteristics go out of the safety margins, or true trouble affects 'AND' circuits the value of the output signal is zero, that triggers off the safety absorber drap, for instance [fr

  6. Theoretical modelling of quantum circuit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiffell, Peter Barry

    2002-01-01

    The work in this thesis concentrates on the interactions between circuit systems operating in the quantum regime. The main thrust of this work involves the use of a new model for investigating the way in which different components in such systems behave when coupled together. This is achieved by utilising the matrix representation of quantum mechanics, in conjunction with a number of other theoretical techniques (such as Wigner functions and entanglement entropies). With these tools in place it then becomes possible to investigate and review different quantum circuit systems. These investigations cover systems ranging from simple electromagnetic (cm) field oscillators in isolation to coupled SQUID rings in more sophisticated multi-component arrangements. Primarily, we look at the way SQUID rings couple to em fields, and how the ring-field interaction can be mediated by the choice of external flux, Φ x , applied to the SQUID ring. A lot of interest is focused on the transfer of energy between the system modes. However, we also investigate the statistical properties of the system, including squeezing, entropy and entanglement. Among the phenomena uncovered in this research we note the ability to control coupling in SQUID rings via the external flux, the capacity for entanglement between quantum circuit modes, frequency conversions of photons, flux squeezing and the existence of Schroedinger Cat states. (author)

  7. High transition temperature superconducting integrated circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiIorio, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis describes the design and fabrication of the first superconducting integrated circuit capable of operating at over 10K. The primary component of the circuit is a dc SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) which is extremely sensitive to magnetic fields. The dc SQUID consists of two superconductor-normal metal-superconductor (SNS) Josephson microbridges that are fabricated using a novel step-edge process which permits the use of high transition temperature superconductors. By utilizing electron-beam lithography in conjunction with ion-beam etching, very small microbridges can be produced. Such microbridges lead to high performance dc SQUIDs with products of the critical current and normal resistance reaching 1 mV at 4.2 K. These SQUIDs have been extensively characterized, and exhibit excellent electrical characteristics over a wide temperature range. In order to couple electrical signals into the SQUID in a practical fashion, a planar input coil was integrated for efficient coupling. A process was developed to incorporate the technologically important high transition temperature superconducting materials, Nb-Sn and Nb-Ge, using integrated circuit techniques. The primary obstacles were presented by the metallurgical idiosyncrasies of the various materials, such as the need to deposit the superconductors at elevated temperatures, 800-900 0 C, in order to achieve a high transition temperature

  8. Molecular and Cellular Signaling

    CERN Document Server

    Beckerman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A small number of signaling pathways, no more than a dozen or so, form a control layer that is responsible for all signaling in and between cells of the human body. The signaling proteins belonging to the control layer determine what kinds of cells are made during development and how they function during adult life. Malfunctions in the proteins belonging to the control layer are responsible for a host of human diseases ranging from neurological disorders to cancers. Most drugs target components in the control layer, and difficulties in drug design are intimately related to the architecture of the control layer. Molecular and Cellular Signaling provides an introduction to molecular and cellular signaling in biological systems with an emphasis on the underlying physical principles. The text is aimed at upper-level undergraduates, graduate students and individuals in medicine and pharmacology interested in broadening their understanding of how cells regulate and coordinate their core activities and how diseases ...

  9. Nested cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasthoff, U.

    1985-07-01

    Cellular automata by definition consist of a finite or infinite number of cells, say of unit length, with each cell having the same transition function. These cells are usually considered as the smallest elements and so the space filled with these cells becomes discrete. Nevertheless, large pictures created by such cellular automata look very fractal. So we try to replace each cell by a couple of smaller cells, which have the same transition functions as the large ones. There are automata where this replacement does not destroy the macroscopic structure. In these cases this nesting process can be iterated. The paper contains large classes of automata with the above properties. In the case of one dimensional automata with two states and next neighbour interaction and a nesting function of the same type a complete classification is given. (author)

  10. Quantum circuit behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulton, D.

    1989-09-01

    Single electron tunnelling in multiply connected weak link systems is considered. Using a second quantised approach the tunnel current, in both normal and superconducting systems, using perturbation theory, is derived. The tunnel currents are determined as a function of an Aharanov-Bohm phase (acquired by the electrons). Using these results, the multiply connected system is then discussed when coupled to a resonant LC circuit. The resulting dynamics of this composite system are then determined. In the superconducting case the results are compared and contrasted with flux mode behaviour seen in large superconducting weak link rings. Systems in which the predicted dynamics may be seen are also discussed. In analogy to the electron tunnelling analysis, the tunnelling of magnetic flux quanta through the weak link is also considered. Here, the voltage across the weak link, due to flux tunnelling, is determined as a function of an externally applied current. This is done for both singly and multiply connected flux systems. The results are compared and contrasted with charge mode behaviour seen in superconducting weak link systems. Finally, the behaviour of simple quantum fluids is considered when subject to an external rotation. Using a microscopic analysis it is found that the microscopic quantum behaviour of the particles is manifest on a macroscopic level. Results are derived for bosonic, fermionic and BCS pair-type systems. The connection between flux quantisation in electromagnetic systems is also made. Using these results, the dynamics of such a quantum fluid is considered when coupled to a rotating torsional oscillator. The results are compared with those found in SQUID devices. A model is also presented which discusses the possible excited state dynamics of such a fluid. (author)

  11. Superconducting quantum circuits theory and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiuhao

    Superconducting quantum circuit models are widely used to understand superconducting devices. This thesis consists of four studies wherein the superconducting quantum circuit is used to illustrate challenges related to quantum information encoding and processing, quantum simulation, quantum signal detection and amplification. The existence of scalar Aharanov-Bohm phase has been a controversial topic for decades. Scalar AB phase, defined as time integral of electric potential, gives rises to an extra phase factor in wavefunction. We proposed a superconducting quantum Faraday cage to detect temporal interference effect as a consequence of scalar AB phase. Using the superconducting quantum circuit model, the physical system is solved and resulting AB effect is predicted. Further discussion in this chapter shows that treating the experimental apparatus quantum mechanically, spatial scalar AB effect, proposed by Aharanov-Bohm, can't be observed. Either a decoherent interference apparatus is used to observe spatial scalar AB effect, or a quantum Faraday cage is used to observe temporal scalar AB effect. The second study involves protecting a quantum system from losing coherence, which is crucial to any practical quantum computation scheme. We present a theory to encode any qubit, especially superconducting qubits, into a universal quantum degeneracy point (UQDP) where low frequency noise is suppressed significantly. Numerical simulations for superconducting charge qubit using experimental parameters show that its coherence time is prolong by two orders of magnitude using our universal degeneracy point approach. With this improvement, a set of universal quantum gates can be performed at high fidelity without losing too much quantum coherence. Starting in 2004, the use of circuit QED has enabled the manipulation of superconducting qubits with photons. We applied quantum optical approach to model coupled resonators and obtained a four-wave mixing toolbox to operate photons

  12. Feeding and purge systems of coolant primary circuit and coolant secondary circuit control of the I sup(123) target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, G.L. de.

    1986-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Service of IEN (Brazilian-CNEN) detected three faults in sup(123)I target cooling system during operation process for producing sup(123)I: a) non hermetic vessel containing contaminated water from primary coolant circuit; possibility of increasing radioactivity in the vessel due to accumulation of contaminators in cooling water and; situation in region used for personnels to arrange and adjust equipments in nuclear physics area, to carried out maintenance of cyclotron and target coupling in irradiation room. The primary circuit was changed by secondary circuit for target coolant circulating through coil of tank, which receive weater from secondary circuit. This solution solved the three problems simultaneously. (M.C.K.)

  13. Flexible, High-Speed CdSe Nanocrystal Integrated Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinner, F Scott; Lai, Yuming; Straus, Daniel B; Diroll, Benjamin T; Kim, David K; Murray, Christopher B; Kagan, Cherie R

    2015-10-14

    We report large-area, flexible, high-speed analog and digital colloidal CdSe nanocrystal integrated circuits operating at low voltages. Using photolithography and a newly developed process to fabricate vertical interconnect access holes, we scale down device dimensions, reducing parasitic capacitances and increasing the frequency of circuit operation, and scale up device fabrication over 4 in. flexible substrates. We demonstrate amplifiers with ∼7 kHz bandwidth, ring oscillators with <10 μs stage delays, and NAND and NOR logic gates.

  14. Predictability in cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapie, Alexandru; Andreica, Anca; Chira, Camelia; Giuclea, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Modelled as finite homogeneous Markov chains, probabilistic cellular automata with local transition probabilities in (0, 1) always posses a stationary distribution. This result alone is not very helpful when it comes to predicting the final configuration; one needs also a formula connecting the probabilities in the stationary distribution to some intrinsic feature of the lattice configuration. Previous results on the asynchronous cellular automata have showed that such feature really exists. It is the number of zero-one borders within the automaton's binary configuration. An exponential formula in the number of zero-one borders has been proved for the 1-D, 2-D and 3-D asynchronous automata with neighborhood three, five and seven, respectively. We perform computer experiments on a synchronous cellular automaton to check whether the empirical distribution obeys also that theoretical formula. The numerical results indicate a perfect fit for neighbourhood three and five, which opens the way for a rigorous proof of the formula in this new, synchronous case.

  15. Probabilistic cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapie, Alexandru; Andreica, Anca; Giuclea, Marius

    2014-09-01

    Cellular automata are binary lattices used for modeling complex dynamical systems. The automaton evolves iteratively from one configuration to another, using some local transition rule based on the number of ones in the neighborhood of each cell. With respect to the number of cells allowed to change per iteration, we speak of either synchronous or asynchronous automata. If randomness is involved to some degree in the transition rule, we speak of probabilistic automata, otherwise they are called deterministic. With either type of cellular automaton we are dealing with, the main theoretical challenge stays the same: starting from an arbitrary initial configuration, predict (with highest accuracy) the end configuration. If the automaton is deterministic, the outcome simplifies to one of two configurations, all zeros or all ones. If the automaton is probabilistic, the whole process is modeled by a finite homogeneous Markov chain, and the outcome is the corresponding stationary distribution. Based on our previous results for the asynchronous case-connecting the probability of a configuration in the stationary distribution to its number of zero-one borders-the article offers both numerical and theoretical insight into the long-term behavior of synchronous cellular automata.

  16. Wavefront cellular learning automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradabadi, Behnaz; Meybodi, Mohammad Reza

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes a new cellular learning automaton, called a wavefront cellular learning automaton (WCLA). The proposed WCLA has a set of learning automata mapped to a connected structure and uses this structure to propagate the state changes of the learning automata over the structure using waves. In the WCLA, after one learning automaton chooses its action, if this chosen action is different from the previous action, it can send a wave to its neighbors and activate them. Each neighbor receiving the wave is activated and must choose a new action. This structure for the WCLA is necessary in many dynamic areas such as social networks, computer networks, grid computing, and web mining. In this paper, we introduce the WCLA framework as an optimization tool with diffusion capability, study its behavior over time using ordinary differential equation solutions, and present its accuracy using expediency analysis. To show the superiority of the proposed WCLA, we compare the proposed method with some other types of cellular learning automata using two benchmark problems.

  17. Algorithm for cellular reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquist, Scott; Patterson, Geoff; Muir, Lindsey A; Lindsly, Stephen; Chen, Haiming; Brown, Markus; Wicha, Max S; Bloch, Anthony; Brockett, Roger; Rajapakse, Indika

    2017-11-07

    The day we understand the time evolution of subcellular events at a level of detail comparable to physical systems governed by Newton's laws of motion seems far away. Even so, quantitative approaches to cellular dynamics add to our understanding of cell biology. With data-guided frameworks we can develop better predictions about, and methods for, control over specific biological processes and system-wide cell behavior. Here we describe an approach for optimizing the use of transcription factors (TFs) in cellular reprogramming, based on a device commonly used in optimal control. We construct an approximate model for the natural evolution of a cell-cycle-synchronized population of human fibroblasts, based on data obtained by sampling the expression of 22,083 genes at several time points during the cell cycle. To arrive at a model of moderate complexity, we cluster gene expression based on division of the genome into topologically associating domains (TADs) and then model the dynamics of TAD expression levels. Based on this dynamical model and additional data, such as known TF binding sites and activity, we develop a methodology for identifying the top TF candidates for a specific cellular reprogramming task. Our data-guided methodology identifies a number of TFs previously validated for reprogramming and/or natural differentiation and predicts some potentially useful combinations of TFs. Our findings highlight the immense potential of dynamical models, mathematics, and data-guided methodologies for improving strategies for control over biological processes. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  18. Wavefront cellular learning automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradabadi, Behnaz; Meybodi, Mohammad Reza

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes a new cellular learning automaton, called a wavefront cellular learning automaton (WCLA). The proposed WCLA has a set of learning automata mapped to a connected structure and uses this structure to propagate the state changes of the learning automata over the structure using waves. In the WCLA, after one learning automaton chooses its action, if this chosen action is different from the previous action, it can send a wave to its neighbors and activate them. Each neighbor receiving the wave is activated and must choose a new action. This structure for the WCLA is necessary in many dynamic areas such as social networks, computer networks, grid computing, and web mining. In this paper, we introduce the WCLA framework as an optimization tool with diffusion capability, study its behavior over time using ordinary differential equation solutions, and present its accuracy using expediency analysis. To show the superiority of the proposed WCLA, we compare the proposed method with some other types of cellular learning automata using two benchmark problems.

  19. Transistor and integrated circuit manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colman, D.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to the manufacture of transistors and integrated circuits by ion bombardment techniques and is particularly, but not exclusively, of value in the manufacture of so-called integrated injection logic circuitry. (author)

  20. Time domain analog circuit simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnvandraat, J.G.; Houben, S.H.M.J.; Maten, ter E.J.W.; Peters, J.M.F.

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments of new methods for simulating electric circuits are described. Emphasis is put on methods that fit existing datastructures for backward differentiation formulae methods. These methods can be modified to apply to hierarchically organized datastructures, which allows for efficient