Sample records for open-pit coal mines

  1. Mudstone depressurization behaviour in an open pit coal mine, Indonesia

    Marchand, G.; Waterhouse, J. [Golder Associates, West Perth, WA (Australia); Crisostomo, J. [PT Adaro Indonesia, Jakarta (Indonesia)


    Mining activities in the Tutupan mine in Indonesia began in the mid-1990s. The open pit mine's coal seams are interbedded with fine-grained sandstones, mudstones, and carbonaceous mudstones. Slope stability analyses at the pit have integrated hydrogeology with geotechnical engineering analyses to optimize slope designs and reduce the risk of slope failure. This paper discussed the impact of mining and dewatering on mudstone depressurization. Sensors were placed at key points in the mine to obtain data related to the mudstone units. Reductions in pore pressure occurred as a result of groundwater flow away from the observed zones, increases in porosity, and increases in total porosity caused by an expansion of the rock mass as a result of drainage and hydrostatic unloading. Mudstone pore pressure trends with time were interpreted by determining the thickness of the mudstone unit, the presence or absence of known thin sandstone beds, unloading from overhead mining activities, and the position of the mudstone within the sedimentary sequence. The study showed that unloading activities have a significant impact on pore pressure in thick mudstone units, regardless of the depth, thickness, or properties of the unit. Pore pressure within high wall mudstone units typically decreased to values equivalent to the elevation of the unit where it was exposed to dips in a high wall. The dewatering of sandstone units in low walls caused a decline in pore pressure within the thick mudstone units located beneath the sandstones. Differences in primary permeabilities were attributed to greater fracturing in deeper and stronger rock units. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Influence of the Haizhou Open Pit Coal Mine on the atmospheric flow over Fuxin,China

    CHEN He; YANG Zhi-feng; WANG Xuan


    The influence of the Haizhou Open Pit Mine on the atmospheric flow in nearby Fuxin City in China was analyzed with the aid of the steady-state Navier-Stokes equations. The finite element method was used to obtain numerical solutions to these equations. The results showed that the Haizhou Open Pit Coal Mine contributes to the turbulent flow in the Fuxin City and its surroundings. However, when compared with the climatic effects, the open pit mine has a relatively small impact on the atmospheric flow over Fuxin.

  3. Numerical modeling of open pit (OP to underground (UG transition in coal mining

    Nguyen Phu Minh Vuong


    Full Text Available The primary objective of the present paper is an attempt at evaluating the influence of sub-level caving operations on the slope stability of a still-functioning open pit coal mine in Vietnam. Initially, various methods of predicting the impact of underground mining on surface stability are discussed. Those theoretical considerations were later utilized in the process of constructing a Flac-2D-software-based numerical model for calculating the influence of underground operation on the deformation and possible loss of stability of an open pit slope. The numerical analysis proved that the values of open pit slope displacements were affected mainly by underground exploitation depth, direction of operation (i.e., from one slope to the other and the distance from the slope plane. Real geomechanical strata parameters from the Vietnamese coal basin of Cam Pha were used in the modeling process. The paper is, therefore, a critical review of the hitherto proposed methods of predicting the impact of underground operation (UG on open pit mining (OP, illustrated with selected examples of case studies on OP-UG interaction, followed by an original experiment based on numerical modeling method. This is first such study for the genuine conditions of the coal mining in Vietnam. The obtained results, however, should not be generalized due to a highly specific character of the analyzed phenomenon of mining-induced surface deformation. The practical implications of the study may occur extremely useful in the case of an UG-OP transition. Such a transition is often necessary for both technical and economical reasons, as in some coal basins open pit operations at greater depths occur unfeasible, which calls for a proper selection of parameters for a planned underground operation.

  4. Zonal extraction technology and numerical simulation analysis in open pit coal mine

    Chen Yanlong; Cai Qingxiang; Shang Tao; Peng Hongge; Zhou Wei; Chen Shuzhao


    In order to enhance coal recovery ratio of open pit coal mines,a new extraction method called zonal mining system for residual coal around the end-walls is presented.The mining system can improve economic benefits by exploiting haulage and ventilation roadways from the exposed position of coal seams by utilizing the existing transportation systems.Moreover,the main mining parameters have also been discussed.The outcome shows that the load on coal seam roof is about 0.307 MPa and the drop step of the coal seam roof about 20.3 m when the thickness of cover and average volume weight are about 120 m and 0.023 MN/m3 respectively.With the increase of mining height and width,the coal recovery ratio can be improved.However,when recovery ratio is more than 0.85,the average stress on the coal pillar will increase tempestuously,so the recovery ratio should also be controlled to make the coal seam roof safe.Based on the numerical simulation results,it is concluded that the ratio of coal pillar width to height should be more than 1.0 to make sure the coal pillars are steady,and there are only minor displacements on the end-walls.

  5. Research on ground water pollution by leacheate of waste dump of open pit coal mine

    LIU Zhi-bin; YAN Hong-kun; WANG Zhao-jun


    On the basis of investigation and research on the pollution source and pollution pathway of Yujiagou area, by the ground water quality analysis and the leaching and soaking experiments of the gangue, reliable data were obtained. The experiment results prove that these inorganic salt elements are easily dissolved by the water. The main pollu-tion factors in the ground water are consisted with the main pollution factor in the leading water of the gangue. By synthetically analyzing, a conclusion is shown that the salts in the leacheate of the waste dump of open pit coal mine are the primary pollution source for groundwater of Yujiagou area. An assessment is made about the degree of pollution of the ground water in the study area.

  6. Open pit mine Drmno coal characteristics analysis for long-term thermo power plant supply regarding desulphurization device

    Pavlovic, V.; Jakovljevic, I.; Stepanovic, S.


    The Drmno deposit is located in the eastern part of the Kostolac coal basin of Serbia. This paper discussed the characteristics of the open pit Drmno coal mine for long-term thermo power plant supply regarding desulphurization device. The paper provided background information on the Drmno deposit, including geologic exploration; rock type; coal layers; and a systematization of characteristics of coal. Several charts and figures were presented, including the boundary of the Drmno open pit mine on the terrain and the roof of the coal seam; a map of combustible sulphur content in the third coal seam; and exploitative quality of coal exploitation periods. It was concluded that decreasing of the emissions of sulphur oxides from the thermal power plant will be one of the highest priority tasks of EPS. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  7. Air quality impact assessment of multiple open pit coal mines in northern Colombia.

    Huertas, José I; Huertas, María E; Izquierdo, Sebastián; González, Enrique D


    The coal mining region in northern Colombia is one of the largest open pit mining regions of the world. In 2009, there were 8 mining companies in operation with an approximate coal production of ∼70 Mtons/year. Since 2007, the Colombian air quality monitoring network has reported readings that exceed the daily and annual air quality standards for total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm (PM₁₀) in nearby villages. This paper describes work carried out in order to establish an appropriate clean air program for this region, based on the Colombian national environmental authority requirement for modeling of TSP and PM(10) dispersion. A TSP and PM₁₀ emission inventory was initially developed, and topographic and meteorological information for the region was collected and analyzed. Using this information, the dispersion of TSP was modeled in ISC3 and AERMOD using meteorological data collected by 3 local stations during 2008 and 2009. The results obtained were compared to actual values measured by the air quality monitoring network. High correlation coefficients (>0.73) were obtained, indicating that the models accurately described the main factors affecting particle dispersion in the region. The model was then used to forecast concentrations of particulate matter for 2010. Based on results from the model, areas within the modeling region were identified as highly, fairly, moderately and marginally polluted according to local regulations. Additionally, the contribution particulate matter to the pollution at each village was estimated. Using these predicted values, the Colombian environmental authority imposed new decontamination measures on the mining companies operating in the region. These measures included the relocation of three villages financed by the mine companies based on forecasted pollution levels.

  8. Contributions to the workshop `Residual ponds from open pit brown coal mining`; Beitraege zum Workshop ``Braunkohlebergbaurestseen``



    The contributions to the workshop ``Investigations on flooding in residual ponds from open-pit mining`` deal, inter alia, with the hydrochemical development of flushing waters, the stability of the water quality of residual lakes, especially under the impact of land contamination, the influence of brine receipts by flushed residual lakes, and with the microbiological ecology of residual lakes from mining. Furthermore, geophysical studies for demonstrating paths of flow and for calculating the depth and volume of residual lakes from open-pit mining are discussed. (MSK) [Deutsch] Die Beitraege zu dem Workshop `Untersuchungen zu Flutungen in Tagebaurestseen` befassen sich unter anderem mit der hydrochemischen Entwicklung von Flutungsgewaessern, mit der Qualitaetsstabilitaet von Restseewaessern - insbesonders bei Einwirkung von Altlasten - und mit den Einfluessen von Solezufluessen bei Restseeflutung sowie mit Untersuchungen zur mikrobiologischen Oekologie in Bergbaurestseen. Desweiteren werden geophysikalische Untersuchungen zum Nachweis von Fliesswegen und die Tiefen- und Volumenberechnung eines Tagebaurestlochsees erlaeutert. (MSK)

  9. Novel approach for extinguishing large-scale coal fires using gas-liquid foams in open pit mines.

    Lu, Xinxiao; Wang, Deming; Qin, Botao; Tian, Fuchao; Shi, Guangyi; Dong, Shuaijun


    Coal fires are a serious threat to the workers' security and safe production in open pit mines. The coal fire source is hidden and innumerable, and the large-area cavity is prevalent in the coal seam after the coal burned, causing the conventional extinguishment technology difficult to work. Foams are considered as an efficient means of fire extinguishment in these large-scale workplaces. A noble foam preparation method is introduced, and an original design of cavitation jet device is proposed to add foaming agent stably. The jet cavitation occurs when the water flow rate and pressure ratio reach specified values. Through self-building foaming system, the high performance foams are produced and then infused into the blast drilling holes at a large flow. Without complicated operation, this system is found to be very suitable for extinguishing large-scale coal fires. Field application shows that foam generation adopting the proposed key technology makes a good fire extinguishment effect. The temperature reduction using foams is 6-7 times higher than water, and CO concentration is reduced from 9.43 to 0.092‰ in the drilling hole. The coal fires are controlled successfully in open pit mines, ensuring the normal production as well as the security of personnel and equipment.

  10. Development of an on-line coal quality management system in a lignite open pit mine in Serbia

    Zimmer, B. [Montan Bildungs-und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH, Theiben, (Germany)


    This paper presented a study regarding the development of a coal quality management system (CQMS) for two open pit mines located in Serbia called Tamnava West and Veliki Crljeni. The study was based on on-line measurements, and was commissioned by the public energy corporation Elektroprivreda Srbjie. The purpose of the study was to develop a CQMS that met the quality requirements of the power plants by implementing a rigorous exploration, production planning, and production monitoring system in order to control the production according to certain quality parameters. The paper provided general information and described the initial situation. It also presented an analysis of the necessity to introduce a production monitoring and control system. The setup and layout of a production monitoring and control system based on on-line measurements were outlined, with particular reference to the determination of input parameters for every excavator for the tracking of masses; the simulation of mass tracking and summation of the masses at the transfer points towards the major conveyor; and the monitoring of the output and control of the mass flow according to determined limit values. Recommendations for implementation were also discussed. It was concluded that the newly developed CQMS at Tamnava West open pit mine could be classified as uncomplicated with regard to the quality parameters to be controlled, since currently only calorific value was being controlled. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Characteristics of the Thorez open pit brown coal mine in Hungary

    Benedek, M.


    The Hungarian (VNR) brown coal deposits have a large number of thin and varying quality seams. The problem of selecting optimal equipment and technology for mining is determined by finding the parameters of a rotary complex and then the parameters of the technology.

  12. Soil water deficit and vegetation restoration in the refuse dumps of the Heidaigou open-pit coal mine, Inner Mongolia, China

    Lei Huang; Peng Zhang; YiGang Hu; Yang Zhao


    The sustainability of ecosystem restoration of refuse dumps in open-pit coal mines depends on plant species selection, their configuration, and the optimal usage of water resources. This study is based on field experiments in the northern refuse dump of the Heidaigou open-pit coal mine in Inner Mongolia of China established in 1995. Eight plant configurations, including trees, shrubs, grasses, and their combinations, as well as the adjacent community of natural vegetation, were selected. The succession of the revegetated plants, soil water storage, the spatiotemporal distribution of plant water deficits degree and its compensation degree were also studied. Results indicated that the vegetation cover (shrubs and herbaceous cover), richness, abundance, soil nutrients (soil organic matter, N and P), and biological soil crust coverage on the soil surface are significantly influenced by the vegetation configurations. The average soil water storage values in the shrub + grass and grass communities throughout the growing season are 208.69 mm and 206.55 mm, which are the closest to that of in the natural vegetation community (215.87 mm). Plant water deficits degree in the grass and shrub + grass communities were the lowest, but the degrees of water deficit compensation in these configuration were larger than those of the other vegetation configurations. Differences in plant water deficit degree and water compensation among the different config-urations were significant (P <0.05). Plant water deficit degrees were predominantly minimal on the surface, increased with increasing soil depth, and remained stable at 80 cm soil depth. The soil moisture compensation in the natural vegetation, shrub + grass, and grass communities changed at 10%, while that in other vegetation communities changed between 20% and 40%. Overall, we conclude that the shrub + grass and grass configuration modes are the optimal vegetation restoration models in terms of ecohydrology for future ecological

  13. Spatiotemporal variability and meteorological control of particulate matter pollution in a large open-pit coal mining region in Colombia

    Morales Rincon, L. A.; Jimenez-Pizarro, R.; Porras-Diaz, H.


    Luis Morales-Rincon (1), Hernan Porras-Diaz (1), Rodrigo Jiménez (2,*) (1) Geomatic Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Santander 680002, Colombia; (2) Air Quality Research Group, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, DC 111321, Colombia *Corresponding author: phone +57-1-316-5000 ext. 14099, fax +57-1-316-5334, e-mail The semi-desertic area of Central Cesar, Colombia, produced approximately 44 million tons of coal in 2011. This mining activity has been intensively developed since 2005. There are currently 7 large-scale mining projects in that area. The coal industry has strongly impacted not only the ecosystems, but also the neighboring communities around the coal mines. The main goal of the research work was to characterize spatial and temporal variations of particulate matter (total suspended particulates - TSP - and particulate matter below 10 μm - PM10) as measured at various air quality monitoring stations in Cesar's coal industry region as well as to study the relationship between these variability and meteorological factors. The analysis of the meteorological time series of revealed a complex atmospheric circulation in the region. No clear repetitive diurnal circulation patterns were observed, i.e. statistical mean patterns do not physically represent the actual atmospheric circulation. We attribute this complexity to the interdependence between local and synoptic phenomena over a low altitude, relatively flat area. On the other hand, a comparison of air quality in the mining area with a perimeter station indicates that coal industry in central Cesar has a mayor effect on the levels of particulate matter in the region. Particulate matter concentration is highly variable throughout the year. The strong correlation between TSP and PM10 indicates that secondary aerosols are of minor importance. Furthermore, particle

  14. Seasonal dynamics of the photosynthetic pigments content in Populus tremula L. leaves at the adaptation on an open-pit coal mine revegetating dump

    Yu. V. Zagurskaya


    Full Text Available Seasonal dynamics of the basic photosynthetic pigments (a and b chlorophylls, carotenoids content in the samples of aspen Populus tremula during natural regeneration on a revegetating pit dump of a worked-out coal pit has been studied. The studies were conducted every ten days during the vegetation period in 2015 (June–September on the territory of «Yuzhniy» dump of «Kedrovskiy» open-pit coal mine (Kemerovo region. The pigment content was identified by the means of spectrophotometric detection. The content of photosynthetic pigments in aspen leaves was calculated on oven-dry weight of the leaves, as moisture aspen leaves can greatly vary, and the determination of accuracy of dry matter content higher than the for specific gravity of the sheet. No changes in visible absorption spectrum of acetone extracts indicating pheophytin formation in chlorophylls have been identified. For all variants the larger amount of b chlorophyll was contained in control samples. The largest differences in a/b chlorophylls and chlorophylls/carotenoids ratio were observed in the end of vegetation period. The ratio between a and b chlorophylls of aspen leaves in both cases by the end of the season was considerably lower. The adaptation of aspen photosynthetic system to the revegetating dump conditions was performed due to decrease in the total pigment content and the percent of b chlorophyll in their composition.

  15. Mathematical Optimization Models and Methods for Open-Pit Mining

    Amankwah, Henry


    Open-pit mining is an operation in which blocks from the ground are dug to extract the ore contained in them, and in this process a deeper and deeper pit is formed until the mining operation ends. Mining is often a highly complex industrial operation, with respect to both technological and planning aspects. The latter may involve decisions about which ore to mine and in which order. Furthermore, mining operations are typically capital intensive and long-term, and subject to uncertainties rega...

  16. Cut slope reinforcement technique in open-pit mines

    Yongtao Gao; Jianbo Sun; Shunchuan Wu; Aibing Jin


    The design and practice in supporting the cut slope of an open-pit mine were introduced, in which the high pressure grouting method was used in reinforcing the weak formation in the slopes. Based on a detailed geological survey of the slope, a theoretical analysis was carried out, and the design parameters were proposed, where the Tresca or Mohr-Coulomb yield criteria was employed. A patent technology, named "Technology of high pressure and multiple grouting in different levels within a single hole", was employed in the construction. Anchor bars were also installed as grouting proceeds. This method combines anchoring and grouting comprehensively and was found successful in practice.

  17. Predictive Index for slope instabilities in open pit mining

    Ortega, J H; Lecaros, R; Medel, F; Padilla, F; García, A


    In this paper we study the stability and deformation of structures, in particular the wall of an open pit mine is studied by using information obtained from a variety of remote sensors and some extra data, with a novelty approach considering the use of mathematical models and data mining techniques. In particular we present two models to help the study the slope stability of pit and the possible occurrence of movements. Primarily we present an static model for slow movements, which will help us identify areas of possible risks areas with time horizons of several months or years, depends on the available information, before the wall start moving, and secondly a dynamic short-term model, which help us to determine risks of collapse zones with several days in advance. We remark that this methodology can be a powerful tool to plain future actions in order to simulate possible scenarios considering the production plans.

  18. 露天煤矿开采现状及生态环境影响分析%Impact analysis on mining status and ecological environment in open-pit coal mine

    宋子岭; 范军富; 王来贵; 魏春启; 王建国; 纪玉石


    The article analyzes the mining scale, regional distribution characteristics and the effect of open-pit mining on the mining area ecological environment, presents the integration technology of open-pit mining and ecological environment, and builds green mining theory system. The mine introduces "green factor" to establish the objective function of open-pit mining, in order to achieve ecological environment protection.%分析我国露天煤矿开采规模、地区分布特点,煤炭露天开采对矿区生态环境影响,提出了露天开采与生态环境一体化技术。建立露天矿绿色开采理论体系,引入“绿色因子”建立露天开采目标函数,以达到强制实现生态环境保护的目标。

  19. Radon release and dispersion from an open pit uranium mine

    Kisieleski, W.E.


    Radon-222 flux from representative sections of the United Nuclear St. Anthony open-pit mine complex was measured. The collected radon was adsorbed on activated charcoal and the radon activity was measured by gamma spectroscopy. System design, calibration, and the procedure to determine radon flux density (pCi/m/sup 2/.s) are described. A continuous series of radon flux densities were measured over a 5-month period at a control point in the mine. The average flux density at the control point was 1.9 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. A close correlation between radon flux density variations and changes in barometric pressure was observed by a comparison of meteorological data and average daily radon flux density measured at the control point. The release rate from each section of the mine was calculated from the average radon flux density and the area of the section, as determined from enlarged aerial photographs. The average radon flux density for eight locations over the ore-bearing section was 7.3 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average flux density for four locations over undisturbed topsoil was 0.17 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average Ra-226 content of ten samples taken from the ore-bearing region was 102 pCi/g ore. The ratio of radon flux density to radium content (specific flux) was 0.072. The release rate from the entire St. Anthony open pit was determined to be 3.5 x 10/sup 5/ pCi/s. This rate is comparable to the natural release of radon from one square mile of undisturbed topsoil. 16 refs., 31 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Optimization of transport passage with dragline system in thick overburden open pit mine

    Zhang Weishi; Cai Qingxiang; Chen Shuzhao


    According to the characteristics of opencast coal resources and dragline technology system application in China, the structure and shifting step of transport passage are optimized in this paper. Typical coal trans-port passage is analyzed in aspects such as the internal dump occupation, dragline operation efficiency, coal transport distance, upper stripping distance and shifting quantities. The middle passage should be given priority in thick overburden open pit mine because the dragline system is only responsible for part stripping task. According to characteristics of middle passage, the transport passage is divided into par-allel climbing, vertical climbing and horizontal transport. In addition, the transport passage structure optimization model and shifting distance optimization model are established in this paper. The case study in Heidaigou open pit mine shows that, the parallel climbing height is accounted for about 60%of the total height, and reasonable shifting distances of the first mining area and the second mining area are 240 and 320 m. Sensitivity analysis shows that, the total passage height has important influence on the shifting step, so it is with the stripping height and passage construction cost to the passage structure.

  1. Research on surveying technology applied for DTM modelling and volume computation in open pit mines

    Jaroslaw Wajs


    Full Text Available The spatial information systems of mining company can be used for monitoring of mining activity, excavation planning, calculations of the ore volume and decision making. Nowadays, data base has to be updated by sources such as surveying positioning technologies and remote sensed photogrammetry data. The presented paper contains review of the methodology for the digital terrain model, i.e. DTM, modelling and obtaining data from surveying technologies in an open pit mine or quarry. This paper reviews the application of GPS, total station measurements, and ground photogrammetry for the volume accuracy assessment of a selected object. The testing field was situated in Belchatow lignite open pit mine. A suitable object had been selected. The testing layer of coal seam was located at 8’th pit sidewall excavation area. The data were acquired two times within one month period and it was connected with monthly DTM actualization of excavation. This paper presents the technological process and the results of the research of using digital photogrammetry for opencast mining purposes in the scope of numerical volume computation and monitoring the mines by comparison of different sources. The results shows that the presented workflow allow to build DTM manually and remote sensed and the accuracy assessment was presented by the volume computation pathway. Major advantages of the techniques are presented illustrating how a terrestrial photogrammetry techniques provide rapid spatial measurements of breaklines 3D data utilized to volume calculation.

  2. Research on dump construction and development of vertical mining to horizontal mining in inclined coal seam open-pit mine%倾斜煤层露天矿纵采转横采排土场建设发展研究

    付恩三; 白润才; 刘光伟


    Under the conditions of vertical mining to horizontal mining in inclined coal seam open-pit mine, with the change of mining program, it leads to the changes of inner and outer dump program, stripping transportation distance, lifting height, the area of land and material goods flow. To solve this problem, the mine builds the economic model of dump construction development. From the inner and outer row of open-pit mine planning stream, outer dump transportation, land acquisition, inner dump dynamic development and the inner and outer rows peeling lifting height and other factors, the mine optimizes the inside and outside dump construction development program in the lifecycle. The article combines the process of vertical mining to horizontal mining to carry out research in Zhundong Open-pit Mine first mining area .%针对倾斜煤层露天矿纵采转横采条件下,随着开采程序的改变,导致内、外排土程序、剥离运距、提升高度、年征地面积及货料流发生变化。针对这一问题,建立排土场建设发展的经济模型,从露天矿山内外排货料流规划,外排土场运输、征地,内排土场动态发展形态及内外排剥离物提升高度等因素出发,优化露天矿生命周期内内外排土场建设发展程序。结合新疆准东露天煤矿首采区由纵采转横采的过程中,进行实例研究。

  3. Calculation of slope-cover height under price fluctuation in open-pit mines

    Ma Jinyan; Cai Qingxiang; Liu Fuming; Chen Shuzhao


    Leaving ditches between adjacent mining areas can effectively reduce re-stripping in the latter mining area and simultaneously lead to an increment in internal dumping costs in the former mining area. This paper establishes calculation models for these two marginal costs. The optimizing model for slope cover height can be determined by including marginal cost models in the objective function. The paper has two main contributions:(a) it fully considers redistribution of dumping space in the model;(b) it introduces price fluctuations and cash discounts in the model. We use the typical open-pit mine as an example to test and prove the model. We conclude that a completely covered slope is reasonable in Haerwusu open pit mine;in addition to an increasing price index, the slope cover height can be reduced;and that price changes are one of the most important influencing factors of slope cover height optimization in an open-pit mine.

  4. Production Scheduling Optimization of Open Pit Coal Mines Considering the Ecological Costs%考虑生态成本的露天煤矿生产计划优化

    王青; 胥孝川; 顾晓薇; 刘剑平


    在给定的露天矿境界中做生产计划,就是确定每年采场的推进位置、采剥量。不同的生产计划,每年的采剥量和采场推进位置也就不同,造成每年采场、排土场的破坏面积以及每年的污染物排放量不同,从而引发不同程度的生态破坏。鉴于此,首先基于一个已知最优境界,使用锥体排除法产生一系列地质最优开采体并进行动态排序;然后采用动态规划法对某大型露天煤矿设计多个生产方案,同时根据矿山环境破坏的时空顺序,建立矿山生态足迹和生态成本计算模型,评估生产方案与环境压力之间的相互影响关系。研究表明,不同的生产设计方案对矿山生态冲击不同,且生态成本占矿山总净现值比例较大,同时生态成本对优化方案的选择产生影响。%For a given boundary of the open pit,production scheduling is made to determine the advancing position and the striping and mining of the pit each year. Different production scheduling has different advancing positions and capacity of mining and stripping,resulting in different damage areas of stope and waste dump and the emissions of pollutants each year. All these cause some degree of ecological damage. In view of these,according to the optimum boundary obtained,a series of pits with optimum geological feature have been produced and realized dynamic sequencing by the cone exclusive method. Then a dynamic programming was used to design multiple production schemes for a large open pit coal mine. According to the space-time sequence of mine environment damage,mine ecological footprint and cost models were constructed to assess the relation-ship between the production program and the environment. The results show that different production scheduling has different ecological impacts and the ecological costs take a larger proportion of the total net value. At the same time, ecological costs have an impact on the

  5. Open-pit mining of lignite in Czechoslovakia

    Hojdar, J.


    The complicated nature of the overburden in Czechoslovakian surface mines poses considerable difficulties to the construction of dumps and the stability of overburden slopes. Operations are further hindered by the extent of the investments required to sufficiently address these problems, and to access the lignite reserves. An example of this arose when it was discovered that the town of Most was situated above a huge deposit of coal. As a result, the entire town had to be demolished, and subsequently rebuilt a few kilometers away, in order to provide access to the 90 Mt of high quality lignite with a low stripping ratio (less than 1 m/sup 3//t). A particularly large expenditure was required to relocate a precious historical monument, a 12,000 t medieval gothic church, to a site 850 m from its original location, without dismantling the building.

  6. A decision support system using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) for the optimal environmental reclamation of an open-pit mine

    Bascetin, A.


    The selection of an optimal reclamation method is one of the most important factors in open-pit design and production planning. It also affects economic considerations in open-pit design as a function of plan location and depth. Furthermore, the selection is a complex multi-person, multi-criteria decision problem. The group decision-making process can be improved by applying a systematic and logical approach to assess the priorities based on the inputs of several specialists from different functional areas within the mine company. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) can be very useful in involving several decision makers with different conflicting objectives to arrive at a consensus decision. In this paper, the selection of an optimal reclamation method using an AHP-based model was evaluated for coal production in an open-pit coal mine located at Seyitomer region in Turkey. The use of the proposed model indicates that it can be applied to improve the group decision making in selecting a reclamation method that satisfies optimal specifications. Also, it is found that the decision process is systematic and using the proposed model can reduce the time taken to select a optimal method.

  7. Easy profit maximization method for open-pit mining

    C.Dinis da Gama


    A methodology applicable at any phase of a surface mining project for evaluating its current technical and economic feasibility is presented. It requires the typically available quantitative data on the ore-body, with its three-dimensional block model developed upon accurate interpolations. Thus it allows estimations of exploitable reserves in func-tion of various cut-off grades, such as the average grade of mineable ore, the tonnages of ore and waste rock, stripping ratios and profit estimates for different production levels. If cost evaluations of essential mine operations are available (such as ore mining, waste removal, ore concentration, transportation, indirect project costs and expected concentrate selling prices), the method-ology will provide clear indications on the economic feasibility of mining, including the best available options at any moment. Simple expressions are developed on the basis of a profit mathematical function and an application example is presented with data available from an existing iron ore deposit.

  8. The Production Measurement Model of Open Pit Mine Based on Truck Operation Diagram

    Sun Xiao-Yu; Kong Xiao; Zhang Wei-Guo


    Conventional production measurement of truck dispatching system in open pit mine has not been effectively expressed by a mathematical model, which brings a negative effect on the subsequent data mining and a compatibility issue to apply the production measurement with fixed assignment of truck. In this study, based on the proposed concept that truck is not only the carrier of transport material, but also act as the bridges and linkages between the loading sites and the unloading sites, a new ...

  9. Mission-Critical Mobile Broadband Communications in Open Pit Mines

    Uzeda Garcia, Luis Guilherme; Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Barbosa, Viviane S. B.


    The need for continuous safety improvements and increased operational efficiency is driving the mining industry through a transition towards automated operations. From a communications perspective, this transition introduces a new set of high-bandwidth business- and mission-critical applications...

  10. An imperialist competitive algorithm for solving the production scheduling problem in open pit mine

    Mojtaba Mokhtarian Asl


    Full Text Available Production scheduling (planning of an open-pit mine is the procedure during which the rock blocks are assigned to different production periods in a way that the highest net present value of the project achieved subject to operational constraints. The paper introduces a new and computationally less expensive meta-heuristic technique known as imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA for long-term production planning of open pit mines. The proposed algorithm modifies the original rules of the assimilation process. The ICA performance for different levels of the control factors has been studied and the results are presented. The result showed that ICA could be efficiently applied on mine production planning problem.

  11. Charging for the waste dumping of open-pit metal mines

    Yunbing Hou; Zhaoxiang Zhang; Haifeng Duan; Liming Xue


    Based on the externality theory and the environmental value theory, the hypothesis of charging for waste dumping of open-pit metal mines was put forth. The charging methods were designed according to the characteristics of waste dumping of openpit metal mines, including charging based on the dumping amount of the total waste, multi-charging factors, exceeding standard punishment charging, and so on. The main charging parameter is based on the dumping area rather than the total amount of waste dumping.The charging model of waste dumping of open-pit mines was formulated, and the charging rate was divided into two parts, i.e., the standard charging rate and the differential charging rate. The standard charging rate was derived using the equilibrium dynamic model,whereas the differential one was obtained by establishing the fuzzy synthesized evaluation model.

  12. Prediction of blast boulders in open pit mines via multiple regression and artificial neural networks

    Ghiasi Majid; Askarnejad Nematollah; Dindarloo Saeid R.; Shamsoddini Hamed


    The most important objective of blasting in open pit mines is rock fragmentation. Prediction of produced boulders (oversized crushed rocks) is a key parameter in designing blast patterns. In this study, the amount of boulder produced in blasting operations of Golegohar iron ore open pit mine, Iran was pre-dicted via multiple regression method and artificial neural networks. Results of 33 blasts in the mine were collected for modeling. Input variables were: joints spacing, density and uniaxial compressive strength of the intact rock, burden, spacing, stemming, bench height to burden ratio, and specific charge. The dependent variable was ratio of boulder volume to pattern volume. Both techniques were successful in predicting the ratio. In this study, the multiple regression method was superior with coefficient of determination and root mean squared error values of 0.89 and 0.19, respectively.

  13. Optimization model of truck flow at open-pit mines and standards for feasibility test

    Ying Zhang; Yong Zhao; Qiwei Lu; Wenli Xu


    In order to increase production efficiency at open-pit mines, on the basis of linear programming, a practical mathematical model for optimizing truck flow was developed, which improved the traditional fixed manual schedule method. The model has advantages from linear programming and objective programming, makes most handling points working at full capacity and keeps an optimized ratio between trucks and excavators. For ensuring feasibility of the model in practical production, four standards for feasibility test were proposed. The model satisfied all the standards. The application in a large scale open-pit iron mine indicated that the model reduced the number of required trucks by 10% compared with the fixed manual schedule method.

  14. A statistical study of equipment operating time in an open pit lignite mine

    Xerokostas, D.; Polyzos, P.; Galitis, N.; Michiotis, A.; Dalakas, G. (National Technical University, Athens (Greece). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)


    The production planning of an open pit lignite mine, as of any mining operation in general, is influenced by a series of factors. Of great importance among these factors is the operating time of the equipment used in the production process. In this paper the authors use applied statistical methods (specially comparison tests) to study the net operating time of some excavation branches of the Ptolemais lignite mining district in Greece. Thus, it is hoped that the paper will contribute to estimating and predicting equipment performance in a more accurate way. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Stability assessment and feature analysis of slope in Nanfen Open Pit Iron Mine

    Yang Jun; Tao Zhigang; Li Baoliang; Gui Yang; Li Haifeng


    Under the combined influences of special topography and the long term mining in Nanfen Open Pit Iron Mine,many large scale landslide masses appeared in heading side of stope,and tens of millions of iron mine is buried underside,making great economic losses.In order to guide the safety mining and increase the supply quantity,this paper through the use of MSARMA-method and the "MSARMA evaluation and analytical system for slope stability analysis" based on this method,which aimed at the quantitative evaluating of the slope stability before and after the actual mining below the slip mass,and the sensitivity analysis for the main influencing factor,providing scientific proof for the parameter optimization of open mine surface slope,the security and sustainable exploitation.

  16. Slope orientation assessment for open-pit mines, using GIS-based algorithms

    Grenon, Martin; Laflamme, Amélie-Julie


    Standard stability analysis in geomechanical rock slope engineering for open-pit mines relies on a simplified representation of slope geometry, which does not take full advantage of available topographical data in the early design stages of a mining project; consequently, this may lead to nonoptimal slope design. The primary objective of this paper is to present a methodology that allows for the rigorous determination of interramp and bench face slope orientations on a digital elevation model (DEM) of a designed open pit. Common GIS slope algorithms were tested to assess slope orientations on the DEM of the Meadowbank mining project's Portage pit. Planar regression algorithms based on principal component analysis provided the best results at both the interramp and the bench face levels. The optimal sampling window for interramp was 21×21 cells, while a 9×9-cell window was best at the bench level. Subsequent slope stability analysis relying on those assessed slope orientations would provide a more realistic geometry for potential slope instabilities in the design pit. The presented methodology is flexible, and can be adapted depending on a given mine's block sizes and pit geometry.

  17. Long term monitoring of water basin of an abandoned copper open pit mine

    Nikolov, H.; Borisova, D.


    Nonoperating open pit mines, very often as a matter of fact abandoned, create serious ecological risk for the region of their location especially for the quality of the water since the rainfall fills the bottom of the pit forming water body having different depth. This water as a rule has very high concentration of the metals in it and is highly toxic. One example for such opencast, idle copper mine is Medet located in the central part of Bulgaria who was started for exploitation in 1964 and at that moment being the largest in Europe for production of copper concentrate. In the vicinity of it after autumn and spring rains there are many cases reported for water contamination by heavy metals such as arsenic, copper, cadmium in the rivers running close to this open pit mine. This justifies the need for long term and sustainable monitoring of the area of the water basin of this idle mine in order to estimate its acid drainage and imaging spectroscopy combined with is-situ investigations is proved to provide reliable results about the area of the water table. In the course of this study we have investigated historical data gathered by remote sensing which allowed us to make conclusions about the year behavior of this area. Our expectations are that the results of this research will help in the rehabilitation process of this idle mine and will provide the local authorities engaged in water quality monitoring with a tool to estimate the possible damage caused to the local rivers and springs. With this research we also would like to contribute to the fulfillment of the following EU Directives: Directive 2006/21/°C on the Management of Waste from the Extractive Industries and Directive 2004/35/ °C on Environmental Liability with regard to the Prevention and Remedying of Environmental Damage.

  18. The Production Measurement Model of Open Pit Mine Based on Truck Operation Diagram

    Sun Xiao-Yu


    Full Text Available Conventional production measurement of truck dispatching system in open pit mine has not been effectively expressed by a mathematical model, which brings a negative effect on the subsequent data mining and a compatibility issue to apply the production measurement with fixed assignment of truck. In this study, based on the proposed concept that truck is not only the carrier of transport material, but also act as the bridges and linkages between the loading sites and the unloading sites, a new truck operation diagram was established, which was further developed to a basic data matrix and a production measurement model. The new model allowed to calculatethe production measurement of the transport, loading, unloading, material and etc, respectively, as well as with any calculation in combination of more than one factor as needed.It solved the compatibility issue between conventional production measurement and the production measurement of fixed assignment of truck with good practical results.

  19. Stochastic Modeling Approach for the Evaluation of Backbreak due to Blasting Operations in Open Pit Mines

    Sari, Mehmet; Ghasemi, Ebrahim; Ataei, Mohammad


    Backbreak is an undesirable side effect of bench blasting operations in open pit mines. A large number of parameters affect backbreak, including controllable parameters (such as blast design parameters and explosive characteristics) and uncontrollable parameters (such as rock and discontinuities properties). The complexity of the backbreak phenomenon and the uncertainty in terms of the impact of various parameters makes its prediction very difficult. The aim of this paper is to determine the suitability of the stochastic modeling approach for the prediction of backbreak and to assess the influence of controllable parameters on the phenomenon. To achieve this, a database containing actual measured backbreak occurrences and the major effective controllable parameters on backbreak (i.e., burden, spacing, stemming length, powder factor, and geometric stiffness ratio) was created from 175 blasting events in the Sungun copper mine, Iran. From this database, first, a new site-specific empirical equation for predicting backbreak was developed using multiple regression analysis. Then, the backbreak phenomenon was simulated by the Monte Carlo (MC) method. The results reveal that stochastic modeling is a good means of modeling and evaluating the effects of the variability of blasting parameters on backbreak. Thus, the developed model is suitable for practical use in the Sungun copper mine. Finally, a sensitivity analysis showed that stemming length is the most important parameter in controlling backbreak.

  20. Optimization of drilling and blasting operations in an open pit mine-the SOMAIR experience

    AFENI Thomas Busuyi


    Drilling and blasting play vital roles in opencast mining. These operations not only affect the cost of production directly but as well and significantly, the overall operational costs. This research was carried out to find a possible way of optimizing the drilling and blasting operations in an open pit mine of Somair (Societe des Mines de l'Air), in the Niger Republic. In order to opti-mize the drilling operation, the time taken by two drilling machines to accomplish the same task was analyzed statistically. The result indicates that the Down the Hole Hammer Drilling Rig (DMNo406) is more efficient than the Drill Master (DM405). The relative unit consumption of two explosives (Explus and Nitram 9), when used under the same operating conditions, were also con-sidered and the results indicate Explus to be more economical per unit consumption with a range of 0.15 g/t0.183 g/t, when com-pared with Nitram 9 with a unit consumption range of 0.19 g/t-0.24 g/t in the study area.

  1. Implementing a parametric maximum flow algorithm for optimal open pit mine design under uncertain supply and demand

    M W A Asad; R Dimitrakopoulos


    Conventional open pit mine optimization models for designing mining phases and ultimate pit limit do not consider expected variations and uncertainty in metal content available in a mineral deposit (supply) and commodity prices (market demand). Unlike the conventional approach, a stochastic framework relies on multiple realizations of the input data so as to account for uncertainty in metal content and financial parameters, reflecting potential supply and demand. This paper presents a new met...

  2. Hyperspectral analysis for qualitative and quantitative features related to acid mine drainage at a remediated open-pit mine

    Davies, G.; Calvin, W. M.


    The exposure of pyrite to oxygen and water in mine waste environments is known to generate acidity and the accumulation of secondary iron minerals. Sulfates and secondary iron minerals associated with acid mine drainage (AMD) exhibit diverse spectral properties in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The use of hyperspectral imagery for identification of AMD mineralogy and contamination has been well studied. Fewer studies have examined the impacts of hydrologic variations on mapping AMD or the unique spectral signatures of mine waters. Open-pit mine lakes are an additional environmental hazard which have not been widely studied using imaging spectroscopy. A better understanding of AMD variation related to climate fluctuations and the spectral signatures of contaminated surface waters will aid future assessments of environmental contamination. This study examined the ability of multi-season airborne hyperspectral data to identify the geochemical evolution of substances and contaminant patterns at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site. The mine is located 24 miles southeast of Lake Tahoe and contains remnant tailings piles and several AMD collection ponds. The objectives were to 1) distinguish temporal changes in mineralogy at a the remediated open-pit sulfur mine, 2) identify the absorption features of mine affected waters, and 3) quantitatively link water spectra to known dissolved iron concentrations. Images from NASA's AVIRIS instrument were collected in the spring, summer, and fall seasons for two consecutive years at Leviathan (HyspIRI campaign). Images had a spatial resolution of 15 meters at nadir. Ground-based surveys using the ASD FieldSpecPro spectrometer and laboratory spectral and chemical analysis complemented the remote sensing data. Temporal changes in surface mineralogy were difficult to distinguish. However, seasonal changes in pond water quality were identified. Dissolved ferric iron and chlorophyll

  3. 井采扰动露天矿边坡变形机制与滑坡防治技术%Slope Deformation Mechanism and Landslide Control Techniques of Open-pit Under the Disturbance of Underground Mining



    In order to solve the open-pit slope stability problems under the disturbance of underground mining,combining theoretical research and on-site,the slope deformation mechanism under the conditions of combining open-pit with underground mining is discussed.Combined the actual production of North part of Anjialing Open-pit and No.2 coal mine,under the premise of monitoring,it is controlled by optimizing the time-space relationship of open-pit and underground,which ensures the safe and efficient production in Anjialing Coal Mine under the open and underground mining conditions.%为解决井采扰动下露天矿边坡稳定性问题,采用理论研究与现场相结合的方法,对露井联采条件下边坡变形机制进行了探讨;结合安家岭露天矿北帮与2#井工矿生产实际,在监测监控的前提下,通过优化露井时空关系等方式对其进行治理,保证了安家岭矿在露井联采条件下安全高效生产。

  4. Stability analysis of the open-pit mine slope and the study on the incensement of the slope angle

    LIU Bao-xu(刘宝许); QIAO Lan(乔兰); LAI Xing-ping(来兴平)


    Based on the exploration of the engineering geology and the rock mechanics testing, limit equilibrium analysis method was adopted to calculate the stability of the Huogeqi Copper Mine slope, the results show that the original slope angle is too conservative and the slope have the potential of more preferable slope angle. In order to discuss the possibility of slope angle enhancement, sensitivity analysis of parameters related to limit state slope was made. Quantitatively determined angle value of the adding and the optimal slope angle was obtained. The study having performed showed that it is not only useful for the safety control of open-pit mine slope but also for the open-pit mine design for the similar geological condition.

  5. Typical whole body vibration exposure magnitudes encountered in the open pit mining industry.

    Howard, Bryan; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Don


    According to recent research, a causal link has been established between occupational exposure to whole body vibration and an increased occurrence of low back pain. To aid in the further development of an in-house health and safety program for a large open pit mining facility interested in reducing back pain among its operators, whole body vibration magnitudes were characterized for a range of jobs. Specifically, thirty-five individual jobs from five different areas across the facility were evaluated for tri-axial acceleration levels during normal operating conditions. Tri-axial acceleration magnitudes were categorized into thirteen job groups. Job groups were ranked according to exposure and compared to the ISO 2631-1 standard for health risk assessment. Three of the thirteen job groups produced tri-axial acceleration magnitudes below the ISO 2631-1 low/moderate health caution limit for a twelve hour exposure. Six of the thirteen job groups produced exposures within the moderate health risk range. Four job groups were found to subject operators to WBV acceleration magnitudes above the moderate/high health caution limit.

  6. Assessment and modelling of heavy metal contamination from Madneuli open-pit mine, Georgia

    Tchelidze, T.; Melikadze, G.; Leveinen, J.; Kaija, J.; Kumpalainen, S.


    Acid mine drainage from banked waste rocks (150 million m^3) and sulfide ore tailings of the Madneuli Cu-Au open-pit mine have created major environmental pollution problem in Bolnisi district, Georgia. Intensive leaching of exposed rocks and direct discharge of mine waters to nearby watercourses have lead to strong heavy metal pollution of groundwater and Rivers Kazretula, Poladauri and Mashavera. Increased concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Mn, Cr, Cd and Hg exceeding maximum permissible values by 3-2000 times, are registered almost everywhere. Polluted surface waters are used intensively for irrigation. Besides, contaminated groundwater is pumped for irrigation and drinking water supply in alluvial deposits along the rivers. Because the spread of contamination is a slow process, the adverse health effects may not yet have emerged in the investigation area. The transport modelling was used in the framework of risk assessment to estimate the direction, rate and extent of chemical migration in the contaminated site in order to support environmental management and decisionmaking involving identification of high-risk areas, protection from pollutants, and planning of remediation work. Geochemical and contamination transport modelling conducted in this study suggest that the present contamination levels will eventually reach the total investigation area causing serious health risks to the local population in long terms. Mineral lifetime estimates suggest that the contamination might continue for centuries with current pollution loads. Furthermore, geochemical modelling showed that there is no reason to expect the natural attenuation of the contamination. The potential impacts of preventive actions were studied by preparing a model scenario where the present heavy metal contamination level was lowered to 0.1 mg/l in two streams entering the model area. The model results suggest that within 5 years, already significant reduction of concentrations can be reached. The

  7. Stability analysis of the sliding process of the west slope in Buzhaoba Open-Pit Mine

    Ning Fang; Ji Changsheng⇑; Garmondyu E. Crusoe Jr


    To study the stability of the west slope in Buzhaoba Open-Pit Mine and determine the aging stability coefficient during slide mass development, the deformation band of the west slope and the slide mass structure of the 34,600 profile are obtained on the basis of hydrology, geology, and monitoring data. The residual thrust method is utilized to calculate the stability coefficients, which are 1.225 and 1.00 under sound and transfixion conditions, respectively. According to the rock damage and fragmentation and the principle of mechanical parameter degradation, the mechanical models of the slide mass devel-opment of the hard and soft rock slopes are established. An integrated model for calculating the slope stability coefficient is built considering water, vibration, and other external factors that pertain to the structural plane damage mechanism and the generating mechanism of the sliding mass. The change curve of the stability coefficient in the slide mass development is obtained from the relevant analyses, and afterwards, the stability control measures are proposed. The analysis results indicate that in the cracking stage of the hard rock, the slope stability coefficient decreases linearly with the increase in the length Lb of the hard rock crack zone. The linear slope is positively correlated to rock cohesion c. In the transfixion stage of the soft rock, the decrease speed of the stability coefficient is positively correlated to the residual strength of the soft rock. When the slope is stable, the stability coefficient is in a quadratic-linear relationship with the decreased height Dh of the side slope and in a linear relationship with anchoring force P.

  8. Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents.

    Bendell, L I


    Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of "pulse" toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a "snap-shot" of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity.

  9. Analysis of the Potential for Use of Floating Photovoltaic Systems on Mine Pit Lakes: Case Study at the Ssangyong Open-Pit Limestone Mine in Korea

    Jinyoung Song; Yosoon Choi


    Recently, the mining industry has introduced renewable energy technologies to resolve power supply problems at mines operating in polar regions or other remote areas, and to foster substitute industries, able to benefit from abandoned sites of exhausted mines. However, little attention has been paid to the potential placement of floating photovoltaic (PV) systems operated on mine pit lakes because it was assumed that the topographic characteristics of open-pit mines are unsuitable for install...

  10. Applications of state estimation in multi-sensor information fusion for the monitoring of open pit mine slope deformation

    FU Hua; LIU Yin-ping; XIAO Jian


    The traditional open pit mine slope deformation monitoring system can not use the monitoring information coming from many monitoring points at the same time,can only using the monitoring data coming from a key monitoring point, and that is to say it can only handle one-dimensional time series. Given this shortage in the monitoring,the multi-sensor information fusion in the state estimation techniques would be introduced to the slope deformation monitoring system, and by the dynamic characteristics of deformation slope, the open pit slope would be regarded as a dynamic goal, the condition monitoring of which would be regarded as a dynamic target tracking. Distributed Information fusion technology with feedback was used to process the monitoring data and on this basis Klman filtering algorithms was introduced, and the simulation examples was used to prove its effectivenes.

  11. Caracterización de Partículas Suspendidas (PST y Partículas Respirables (PM 10 producidas en Áreas de Explotación Carbonífera a Cielo Abierto Characterization of Total Suspended Particles (TSP and Inhalable Particulate Matter (PM 10 generated in Open Pit Coal Mining Areas

    Luis C Angulo


    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión de la literatura sobre la cuantificación y caracterización de partículas suspendidas (PST y partículas respirables (PM10 producidas en áreas de explotación carbonífera a cielo abierto. El material particulado es un contaminante complejo por sus características físicas (distribución de tamaño de partícula, morfología y densidad y por sus características químicas (compuestos orgánicos e inorgánicos, metales y contaminantes primarios y secundarios. Estas características son críticas para determinar el tipo y magnitud de los efectos sobre la salud humana. Se encontró que los trabajos realizados, han empleado experimentos de laboratorio y de campo, así como estudios de modelación. Esta revisión bibliográfica contribuye a una mejor comprensión y evaluación de las tecnologías que se deben usar para encontrar soluciones a este problema de contaminación.This article presents a literature review about the quantification and characterization of total suspended particles (TSP and inhalable particulate matter (PM 10 generated in open pit coal mining areas. Particle matter is a complex pollutant due to its physical characteristics (particle size distribution, morphology and density and its chemical characteristics (organic and inorganic components, metals, and primary and secondary pollutants. These characteristics are critical to determine the type and the magnitude of their effects on human health. It was found that the different works published in the literature have used lab and field experiments, and also modeling studies. This literature review contributes to improve the understanding and evaluation of technologies that must be used to find solutions to this atmospheric pollution problem.

  12. Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity using abandoned works (deep mines or open pits) and the impact on groundwater flow

    Pujades, Estanislao; Willems, Thibault; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain


    Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants using open-pit or deep mines can be used in flat regions to store the excess of electricity produced during low-demand energy periods. It is essential to consider the interaction between UPSH plants and the surrounding geological media. There has been little work on the assessment of associated groundwater flow impacts. The impacts on groundwater flow are determined numerically using a simplified numerical model which is assumed to be representative of open-pit and deep mines. The main impact consists of oscillation of the piezometric head, and its magnitude depends on the characteristics of the aquifer/geological medium, the mine and the pumping and injection intervals. If an average piezometric head is considered, it drops at early times after the start of the UPSH plant activity and then recovers progressively. The most favorable hydrogeological conditions to minimize impacts are evaluated by comparing several scenarios. The impact magnitude will be lower in geological media with low hydraulic diffusivity; however, the parameter that plays the more important role is the volume of water stored in the mine. Its variation modifies considerably the groundwater flow impacts. Finally, the problem is studied analytically and some solutions are proposed to approximate the impacts, allowing a quick screening of favorable locations for future UPSH plants.


    Miroslav Ignjatović


    Full Text Available By examination and determination of optimal solution of technological processes of exploitation and oil shale processing from Aleksinac site and with adopted technical solution and exploitation of oil shale, derived a technical solution that optimize contour of the newly defined open pit mine. In the world, this problem is solved by using a computer program that has become the established standard for quick and efficient solution for this problem. One of the computer’s program, which can be used for determination of the optimal contours of open pit mines is Minex 5.2.3. program, produced in Australia in the Surpac Minex Group Pty Ltd Company, which is applied at the Mining and Metallurgy Institute Bor (no. of licenses are SSI - 24765 and SSI - 24766. In this study, authors performed 11 optimization of deposit geo - models in Minex 5.2.3. based on the tests results, performed in a laboratory for soil mechanics of Mining and Metallurgy Institute, Bor, on samples from the site of Aleksinac deposits.

  14. Application of waste mushroom on land reclamation in the refuse dump of Haizhou Open-pit Mines

    FAN Jun-fu; WANG Xiu-lan


    In order to rapidly increase the degree of maturation of the soil in land reclama-tion of the refuse dump of the Haizhou open-pit mines,the application of waste mushroom in the process of soil improvement in the dump was studied.Through the research on plant growth,root development and microbial changes in soil and change of physical and chemical characteristics of the plot,the result shows that waste mushroom can increase the degree of maturation of the soil and improve soil fertility.

  15. Availability-based simulation and optimization modeling framework for open-pit mine truck allocation under dynamic constraints

    Mena Rodrigo; Zio Enrico; Kristjanpoller Fredy; Arata Adolfo


    We present a novel system productivity simulation and optimization modeling framework in which equipment availability is a variable in the expected productivity function of the system.The framework is used for allocating trucks by route according to their operating performances in a truck-shovel system of an open-pit mine,so as to maximize the overall productivity of the fleet.We implement the framework in an originally designed and specifically developed simulator-optimizer software tool.We make an application on a real open-pit mine case study taking into account the stochasticity of the equipment behavior and environment.The total system production values obtained with and without considering the equipment reliability,availability and maintainability (RAM) characteristics are compared.We show that by taking into account the truck and shovel RAM aspects,we can maximize the total production of the system and obtain specific information on the production availability and productivity of its components.

  16. Groundwater age, mixing and flow rates in the vicinity of large open pit mines, Pilbara region, northwestern Australia

    Cook, Peter; Dogramaci, Shawan; McCallum, James; Hedley, Joanne


    Determining groundwater ages from environmental tracer concentrations measured on samples obtained from open bores or long-screened intervals is fraught with difficulty because the sampled water represents a variety of ages. A multi-tracer technique (Cl, 14C, 3H, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113 and SF6) was used to decipher the groundwater ages sampled from long-screened production bores in a regional aquifer around an open pit mine in the Pilbara region of northwest Australia. The changes in tracer concentrations due to continuous dewatering over 7 years (2008-2014) were examined, and the tracer methods were compared. Tracer concentrations suggest that groundwater samples are a mixture of young and old water; the former is inferred to represent localised recharge from an adjacent creek, and the latter to be diffuse recharge. An increase in 14C activity with time in wells closest to the creek suggests that dewatering of the open pit to achieve dry mining conditions has resulted in change in flow direction, so that localised recharge from the creek now forms a larger proportion of the pumped groundwater. The recharge rate prior to development, calculated from a steady-state Cl mass balance, is 6 mm/y, and is consistent with calculations based on the 14C activity. Changes in CFC-12 concentrations with time may be related to the change in water-table position relative to the depth of the well screen.

  17. The Experience of Implementation of Innovative Technology of Quarry Waste Water Purifying in Kuzbass Open Pit

    Lesin, Yu V.; Hellmer, M. C.


    Among all industries in Kuzbass (Western Siberia, Russia) the coal industry provides the most environmental threat. However, the construction of new and maintenance of existing open pit mines do not often correspond to the tasks of improving the environmental safety of surface mining. So the article describes the use of innovative quarry waste water purifying technology implemented in Kuzbass open pit mine «Shestaki». This technology is based on using artificial filter arrays made of overburden rock.

  18. Computer aided design and analysis of Sapan Dalam open pit mine

    Baafi, E.Y.; Milawarma, E.; Cusack, C. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Mining Engineering


    The Sapan Dalam coal deposit of Indonesia consists of ten steeply dipping seams with thicknesses varying between 0.1 and 3.5 m and split by shale clay, silt and sandstone. The area contains four faults dipping about 75{degree} with four to 85 m vertical displacements. The complex nature of the deposit coupled with limited 27 exploration drillholes at an average spacing of 200 m made it difficult to create a realistic geological model. A three-dimensional gridded seam model gave a fair representation of the deposit. Attempts to create an optimum pit using the WHITTLE 3D pit optimiser proved unsuccessful since the pit optimiser is restricted to standard regular or fixed blocks. The gridded seam model was converted to a fixed block model prior to the optimum pit design. Smoothing and pit base controlling were also introduced to obtain a smoother pit. A mining scenario produced 3.6 million tonnes of coal, 28.4 million bcm of waste and 18.1 million US dollars revenue. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Development and characterization of formulation of dust-suppressant used for stope road in open-pit mines

    Cui-Feng DU; Li LI


    The components of dust-suppressant were determined based on the analysis on characteristics and mechanisms of road dust raising in open-pit mines.The components were initially selected from moisture agent,coagulation agent and surfactant.The optimal formulation was determined based on orthogonal test and using the water loss rate as the evaluation index.The performances of moisture releasing and adsorption,wind resistance of optimal formulation in the natural environment were tested.The results show that the formula obtained in experiments provide a good performance of moisture absorption and water retention,and it also had a good dust preventing and controlling performance due to its high surface strength and consolidation under dry conditions.It has good application prospects considering the wide variety of sources for materials and the simple preparation process.

  20. Rational Use of Land Resource During the Implementation of Transportless System of Coal Strata Surface Mining

    Gvozdkova, T.; Tyulenev, M.; Zhironkin, S.; Trifonov, V. A.; Osipov, Yu M.


    Surface mining and open pits engineering affect the environment in a very negative way. Among other pollutions that open pits make during mineral deposits exploiting, particular problem is the landscape changing. Along with converting the land into pits, surface mining is connected with pilling dumps that occupy large ground. The article describes an analysis of transportless methods of several coal seams strata surface mining, applied for open pits of South Kuzbass coal enterprises (Western Siberia, Russia). To improve land-use management of open pit mining enterprises, the characteristics of transportless technological schemes for several coal seams strata surface mining are highlighted and observed. These characteristics help to systematize transportless open mining technologies using common criteria that characterize structure of the bottom part of a strata and internal dumping schemes. The schemes of transportless systems of coal strata surface mining implemented in South Kuzbass are given.

  1. Prediction for relocation scale of rural settlements based on farming radius in reclamation area of open-pit coal mine%基于耕作半径的采矿复垦区农村居民点安置规模预测

    胡兴定; 白中科


    耕作半径对农村居民点的规模具有重要影响,而地形则是耕作半径的决定因素之一。该文采用耕聚比和缓冲区分析的方法,对比采矿前后农村居民点的耕作半径变化。考虑研究区地形起伏的影响,计算耕作半径地形修正系数,确定最优耕作半径。在此基础上预测矿区复垦后可安置农村居民点的面积、数量及人口。研究结果表明:平朔复垦区农村居民点耕作半径地形修正系数为1.6836,复垦区规划农村居民点最优耕作半径为1500 m;复垦区预测回迁安置农村居民点总规模约651.24 hm2,共67个农村居民点;预测单个农村居民点面积9.72 hm2,控制耕地面积约109.68 hm2;预测回迁安置总人口约29521人,共7380户,该研究结果可为露天采矿复垦区农村居民点回迁安置规模与布局提供决策支持。%Mine reclamation has become a worldwide problem recently and has similar research directions both in China and abroad, including ecological restoration, mining technology, bioremediation technology, soil reconstruction techniques, soil quality testing, plant species selecting. The key target is to restore the ecological system and improve the environment. One of the main purposes of reclamation is to restore farmland, which is scarce in China. In addition, resettlement of residents and their living environment need to be taken into account. In this paper, the study area is the Pingshuo open-pit mine, which is located in Shuozhou City, Shanxi Province, China, and belongs to super-large open-pit mine with modern production. Mining activities began in 1987, and have lasted for 28 years until now. Fourteen rural settlements have moved, and resettlement population has reached 8400 by 2013.From the perspective of farming radius, buffer analysis of rural settlements was used to contrast the difference of farming radius before and after the open-pit mining by geographic information system

  2. Modelling Safety Factors of Slope Stability for Open-Pit Mining of Nigerian Tar-Sand Deposits

    D. A. Alao


    Full Text Available Slope failure might lead to loss of lives and valuable equipment which would increase overall operational cost of running a mine. The need to have stable slopes in open-pit mining of Nigerian tar sand deposits of Dahomey Basin, Southwestern Nigeria is emphasized in this study. At Loda village, Southwestern Nigeria, samples of the laterite soil and alluvial sand which overlie the tar sand occurrence were subjected to geotechnical tests. Computer simulation of bench face angles was carried out using SLOPE/W Software to determine the bench face angle(s with the least susceptibility to failure. Unit weight (ö, cohesion (c and angle of internal friction (0 values for the laterite soil were 25 kN/m, 45 kPa and 41 respectively for laterite. The corresponding values for the laterite, soil were 18 kN/m3, 0kPa and 34°. These values were used to run the software programme to simulate different bench face angles that could be cut into the two lithologic units. Factors of safety values between 3.58 and 1.73 were obtained for bench face angles between 10° and 30° which are least susceptible to failure even when inundation is considered. This research results have enabled us to recommend the use of bench slope angles ranging from 10° and 30° coupled with adequate drainage conditions which should guaranty optimum output.

  3. An application of discrete mathematics in the design of an open pit mine

    Caccetta, L.; Giannini, L.M.


    The determination of the 'optimum pit limit' of a mine is considered to be a fundamental problem in mine planning as it provides information which is essential in the evaluation of the economic potential of a mineral deposit, and in the formulation of long-, intermediate-, and short-range mine plans. A number of mathematical techniques have been proposed to solve this problem, some of the more elaborate ones posing considerable computational problems. In this paper we discuss the development and implementation of a graph-theoretic technique originally proposed by Lerchs and Grossman. Our implementation strategy involves the use of a dynamic programming technique to 'bound' the optimum. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Heat stress in an open-pit iron ore mine and its relationship with physiological strain

    Mohammad Javad Jafari


    (P value<0.001. The Pearson’s correlation coefficients were obtained 0.658 and 0.566 respectively, between WBGT index and values of PSI and PSIHR. Conclusion: WBGT index showed a higher correlation with physiological strain Index; and level of heat stress in all work units of mine was higher than recommended thresholds. Thus, countermeasures should be adopted to control heat stress for the workers in this field.

  5. Using radon-222 for tracing groundwater discharge into an open-pit lignite mining lake--a case study.

    Schmidt, Axel; Schubert, Michael


    Groundwater discharge into an open pit lignite mining lake was investigated using radon-222 as a naturally occurring environmental tracer. The chosen study site was a meromictic lake, i.e., a water body that is divided horizontally into two separate layers--the upper mixolimnion (with seasonal mixing) and the lower monimolimnion (without seasonal mixing). For the estimation of groundwater discharge rates into the lake, a simple box model including all radon sinks and sources related to each layer was applied. Two field investigations were performed. During the October campaign, the total groundwater discharge into the lake was found to be 18.9 and 0.7 m(3) d(-1) for the mixolimnion and monimolimnion, respectively. During the December campaign, the groundwater discharge into the mixolimnion was 15.0 m(3) d(-1), whereas no discharge at all was observed into the monimolimnion. Based on the given water volumes, the residence time of lake water was 5.3 years for the monimolimnion and varies between 0.9 and 1.1 years for the mixolimnion. The investigation confirmed radon to be a useful environmental tracer for groundwater and surface water interactions in meromictic lake environments.

  6. Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower using abandoned open pit mines: influence of groundwater seepage on the system efficiency

    Pujades, Estanislao; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain


    Pumped Storage Hydropower (PSH) plants can be used to manage the production of electrical energy according to the demand. These plants allow storing and generating electricity during low and high demand energy periods, respectively. Nevertheless, PSH plants require a determined topography because two reservoirs located at different heights are needed. At sites where PSH plants cannot be constructed due to topography requirements (flat regions), Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower (UPSH) plants can be used to adjust the electricity production. These plants consist in two reservoirs, the upper one is located at the surface (or at shallow depth) while the lower one is underground (or deeper). Abandoned open pit mines can be used as lower reservoirs but these are rarely isolated. As a consequence, UPSH plants will interact with surrounding aquifers exchanging groundwater. Groundwater seepage will modify hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir affecting global efficiency of the UPSH plant. The influence on the plant efficiency caused by the interaction between UPSH plants and aquifers will depend on the aquifer parameters, underground reservoir properties and pumping and injection characteristics. The alteration of the efficiency produced by the groundwater exchanges, which has not been previously considered, is now studied numerically. A set of numerical simulations are performed to establish in terms of efficiency the effects of groundwater exchanges and the optimum conditions to locate an UPSH plant.

  7. Multi-temporal and multi-platforms remote sensing data for the analysis of open-pit mining earth surface dynamics

    Feng, Zengwen; Chen, Jianping; Li, Ke; Tarolli, Paolo


    Open-pit mining activities can affect the earth surface processes inducing soil erosion, landslides, and subsidence. The recognition and the analysis of mining induced Earth surface changes and the related processes represent, therefore, a challenge for a sustainable environmental planning for those regions affected by an intense mining activity. The purpose of this study is to monitor the effects of open-pit mining and the associated landform processes using multi-temporal and multi-platforms remote sensing data. The study area consists in an open-pit mine located in Miyun county, northern Beijing. For the study area different datasets are available for different years: a GeoEye image (2011, res. 1m/pix), two pairs of Cartosat - 1 stereo pairs (2009, 2012, res. 2.5m/pix) from which we extracted two DSMs (res. 5m/pix), an UAV aerial photograph (2014, res. 0.07m) and the derived DSM (2014, res. 0.1m). We also obtained a DTM (2014, res. 1m) from terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) and a DSM (2014, res. 0.5m) using the Structure from Motion (SfM) technique by a camera. These data served as the basis to recognize, through the application of morphometric indicators, the areas subject to erosion and landsliding. A volumetric estimate of soil loss from 2009 to 2014 has been also quantified using the multiple DSMs provided by the multi-platform. The recognition and the analysis of earth surface dynamics using low-cost multi-temporal and multi-platforms remote sensing such as SfM and UAVs represents a useful tool to mitigate the environmental consequences open-pit mining, and to mitigate the related natural disaster and risk.

  8. Ground-based multispectral measurements for airborne data verification in non-operating open pit mine "Kremikovtsi"

    Borisova, Denitsa; Nikolov, Hristo; Petkov, Doyno


    The impact of mining industry and metal production on the environment is presented all over the world. In our research we set focus on the impact of already non-operating ferrous "Kremikovtsi"open pit mine and related waste dumps and tailings which we consider to be the major factor responsible for pollution of one densely populated region in Bulgaria. The approach adopted is based on correct estimation of the distribution of the iron oxides inside open pit mines and the neighboring regions those considered in this case to be the key issue for the ecological state assessment of soils, vegetation and water. For this study the foremost source of data are those of airborne origin and those combined with ground-based in-situ and laboratory acquired data were used for verification of the environmental variables and thus in process of assessment of the present environmental status influenced by previous mining activities. The percentage of iron content was selected as main indicator for presence of metal pollution since it could be reliably identified by multispectral data used in this study and also because the iron compounds are widely spread in the most of the minerals, rocks and soils. In our research the number of samples from every source (air, field, lab) was taken in the way to be statistically sound and confident. In order to establish relationship between the degree of pollution of the soil and mulspectral data 40 soil samples were collected during a field campaign in the study area together with GPS measurements for two types of laboratory measurements: the first one, chemical and mineralogical analysis and the second one, non-destructive spectroscopy. In this work for environmental variables verification over large areas mulspectral satellite data from Landsat instruments TM/ETM+ and from ALI/OLI (Operational Land Imager) were used. Ground-based (laboratory and in-situ) spectrometric measurements were performed using the designed and constructed in Remote

  9. Integrating geological uncertainty in long-term open pit mine production planning by ant colony optimization

    Gilani, Seyed-Omid; Sattarvand, Javad


    Meeting production targets in terms of ore quantity and quality is critical for a successful mining operation. In-situ grade uncertainty causes both deviations from production targets and general financial deficits. A new stochastic optimization algorithm based on ant colony optimization (ACO) approach is developed herein to integrate geological uncertainty described through a series of the simulated ore bodies. Two different strategies were developed based on a single predefined probability value (Prob) and multiple probability values (Pro bnt), respectively in order to improve the initial solutions that created by deterministic ACO procedure. Application at the Sungun copper mine in the northwest of Iran demonstrate the abilities of the stochastic approach to create a single schedule and control the risk of deviating from production targets over time and also increase the project value. A comparison between two strategies and traditional approach illustrates that the multiple probability strategy is able to produce better schedules, however, the single predefined probability is more practical in projects requiring of high flexibility degree.

  10. A Study of Soil and Water Conservation in Open Pit Quarry Mining%露天石矿开采工程水土保持研究

    王可可; 白晓敏


    结合露天石矿开采建设的实例,对露天石矿开采项目建设会产生的水土流失进行预测及危害分析,并确定了总体防治目标及防治措施布设,分析了水土流失监测重点及水土保持措施功能,总结了露天石矿开采建设项目水土保持工作中的重点。%In combination with one example of open pit quarry mining, a prediction and analysis are made on the soil ero-sion as well as its harm produced in the construction of the open pit quarry mining project. The general objective for its control and the prevention measures are determined. The focus of the monitoring of the soil erosion and the functions of the soil and water conservation measures are analyzed. Finally, the focus of the soil and water conservation in the construction of open pit quarry mining projects is summarized.

  11. Influence law of multipoint vibration load on slope stability in Xiaolongtan open pit mine in Yunnan, China

    韩流; 舒继森; N.R. HANIF; 席文佳; 李鑫; 靖洪文; 马力


    The purpose of this work was to explore the influence law of vibration load on rock mass structure and slope stability. Based on the type and transmission way of vibration stress wave, the main stress in the horizontal and vertical directions was analyzed and the superposition effect of the stress wave was revealed. After the mechanical analysis of the sliding mass, the calculation formulas of the anti-sliding force and the sliding force were derived and the damage mechanism of blasting vibration to the structural plane was defined. In addition, according to the structure and lithologic parameter of the slope as well as the vibration monitoring data, the west slope stability of Xiaolongtan open pit mine was analyzed. The results show that the time-dependent stability factor is proportional to the vibration speed and the peak values appear at the same time. Vibration load promotes the breakage of the structural plane leading to the drop of the west slope stability factor by 0.23%. Under the multipoint simultaneous blasting, the fluctuating laws of the stability factors are consistent. The more the start-up points are, the higher the weakening degree to the slope stability is. Under the multipoint allochronic blasting, the stability factor depends on the synthetic waveform structure of all vibration waves. The greater the blasting time difference is, the lower the weakening degree to the slope stability is. Selecting the reasonable quantity of start-up points and time difference could fully reduce the adverse influence of vibration load to slope stability.

  12. Radon Emission from Coal Mines of Kuzbass Region

    Portola, V. A.; Torosyan, E. S.; Antufeyev, V. K.


    The article represents the results of a research in radionuclides concentration in coal and rocks of Kuzbass mines as well as radon concentration in operative mines and mined-out spaces. It is proved that radon concentration in mines is considerably higher than in the atmosphere and it rises drastically in the mined-out spaces. It is found out that radon is carried out from mines by ventilation flows and from open pits, generating anomalous concentrations over self-ignition areas.

  13. 电动卡车运输双电源技术在露天煤矿中的可行性分析%Feasibility Analysis of Electric Truck with Dual Power Supply in Open-pit Mine



    分析中煤集团某露天矿燃油消耗及电动卡车的使用特点,阐明其双电源电动卡车在露天开采中的可行性,为煤炭行业“节能降耗,降本增效”提供新思路。%The paper analyzed fuel consumption and electric truck features in an open-pit mine in China Coal Group and presented the feasibility of the electric truck with dual power supply, which could contribute to Energy Saving and Consumption Reduction, Cost Cutting and Benefit Increasing in coal enterprises.

  14. Analysis of the Potential for Use of Floating Photovoltaic Systems on Mine Pit Lakes: Case Study at the Ssangyong Open-Pit Limestone Mine in Korea

    Jinyoung Song


    Full Text Available Recently, the mining industry has introduced renewable energy technologies to resolve power supply problems at mines operating in polar regions or other remote areas, and to foster substitute industries, able to benefit from abandoned sites of exhausted mines. However, little attention has been paid to the potential placement of floating photovoltaic (PV systems operated on mine pit lakes because it was assumed that the topographic characteristics of open-pit mines are unsuitable for installing any type of PV systems. This study analyzed the potential of floating PV systems on a mine pit lake in Korea to break this misconception. Using a fish-eye lens camera and digital elevation models, a shading analysis was performed to identify the area suitable for installing a floating PV system. The layout of the floating PV system was designed in consideration of the optimal tilt angle and array spacing of the PV panels. The System Advisor Model (SAM by National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA, was used to conduct energy simulations based on weather data and the system design. The results indicated that the proposed PV system could generate 971.57 MWh/year. The economic analysis (accounting for discount rate and a 20-year operational lifetime showed that the net present value would be $897,000 USD, and a payback period of about 12.3 years. Therefore, we could know that the economic effect of the floating PV system on the mine pit lake is relatively higher than that of PV systems in the other abandoned mines in Korea. The annual reduction of greenhouse gas emissions was analyzed and found to be 471.21 tCO2/year, which is twice the reduction effect achieved by forest restoration of an abandoned mine site. The economic feasibility of a floating PV system on a pit lake of an abandoned mine was thus established, and may be considered an efficient reuse option for abandoned mines.

  15. The 2000/60/EC Water Framework Directive and the Flooding of the Brown Coal Meirama Open Pit (NW Spain)

    Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.


    Coal mining in Galicia (NW Spain) has been an important activity which came to an end in December, 2007. Hence, for different reasons, the two large brown coal mines in Galicia (the As Pontes mine, run by ENDESA GENERACIÓN, and the Meirama mine, owned by Lignitos de Meirama, S.A., LIMEISA), have started closure procedures, both of which are considering the flooding of the mine pits to create two large lakes (~8 km2 in As Pontes and ~2 km2 in Meirama). They will be unique in Galicia, a nearly lake-free territory. An important point to consider as regards the flooding of the lignite mine pits in Galicia is how the process of the creation of a body of artificial water will adapt to the strict legal demands put forth in the Water Framework Directive. This problem has been carefully examined by different authors in other countries and it raises the question of the need to adapt sampling surveys to monitor a number of key parameters -priority substances, physical and chemical parameters, biological indicators, etc.- that cannot be overlooked. Flooding, in both cases consider the preferential entrance into the mine holes of river-diverted surface waters, in detriment of ground waters in order to minimize acidic inputs. Although both mines are located in the same hydraulic demarcation (i.e. administrative units that, in Spain, are in charge of the public administration and the enforcement of natural water-related laws) the problems facing the corresponding mine managers are different. In the case of Meirama, the mine hole covers the upper third part of the Barcés river catchment, which is a major source of water for the Cecebre reservoir. That reservoir constitutes the only supply of drinking water for the city of A Coruña (~250.000 inhabitants) and its surrounding towns. In this contribution we will discuss how mine managers and the administration have addressed the uncertainties derived from the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in the particular case of


    Mirosława Maria Gilewska


    Full Text Available Operated by lignite mine “Adams” coal deposits are located in the upland area of ​​the Turkish, belonging to the South Plains macro-region of Wielkopolska. A feature of this region are not only low rainfall, but also the lack of water reservoirs and large rivers. Mining activity has caused major changes in the hydrological network, not just for liquidation, postpone or reconstruction of riverbeds, but also the creation of new objects that collect water. These include settling the waters “dirty”, as well as reservoirs formed in excavation voids as part of a water reclamation. After the end of coal mining operation of these facilities is dependent on hydrology and hydraulic engineering conditions. This problem will be shown on the example of dirty water clarifier and final excavation undergoing water reclamation opencast mining areas Władysławów. Outcrop ended its activities in 2013. The final excavation is no outflow basin with a capacity of 42 million m3, located within the river basin Topiec constituting the left-hand tributary of the Warta.

  17. 露天矿土-岩复合逆倾边坡空间形态优化%Space Shape Optimization of the Soil-rock Composite Reverse Dip Slope in Open-pit Mine

    曹兰柱; 李广贺; 王东


    In view of the shape design of the boundary slope of the soil-rock composite reverse dip slope in the open-pit mine,the landslide model and stability of soil rock composite reverse dip slope in Dalianhe Open-pit Coal Mine is studied by a-dopting the method of rigid body limit equilibrium and three-dimensional numerical simulation. The study is based on the engi-neering practice of the compound reverse dip slope of the north slope of outer dump and the top slope of the stope in Dalianhe open-pit coal mine,by which the safety of the mining of coal resources of the north to boundary slope is guaranteed. The study results show that for the compound reverse dip slope of the north slope of outer dump and the top slope of the stope in Dalianhe open-pit coal mine,the landslide model is circular sliding;in order to meet the safety requirements, the mining slope angle should be up to 33°;the failure form of rock mass is the composition of tension and shear. At the foot of slope,local rock mass destruction should be done due to the stress concentration caused by the rock mass weight and it is the inducing factor of the whole slope failure.%针对露天矿土-岩复合逆倾边坡到界边坡形态设计问题,结合达连河露天煤矿外排土场北帮—采场顶帮复合逆倾边坡的工程实际,基于刚体极限平衡与三维数值模拟的手段,研究了露天矿土-岩复合逆倾边坡的滑坡模式及稳定性规律,设计了最终边坡形态,确保北帮到界过程中煤炭资源回采的安全。研究结果表明:达连河露天煤外排土场北帮—采场顶帮复合逆倾边坡的滑坡模式为圆弧滑动;使外排土场北帮—采场顶帮复合逆倾边坡满足安全要求的采场边坡角为33°;露天矿土-岩复合逆倾边坡岩体的破坏形式为拉张-剪切复合型,岩体自重作用下的坡脚处应力集中造成的局部岩体破坏是整体边坡失稳的诱发因素。

  18. 大红山铁矿坑露联合同步开采优化%Optimization of the Open-pit and Underground Joint Synchronous Mining of Dahongshan Iron Mine

    范有才; 徐万寿


    The production and technical problems such as the mineral below construction caused by slow open-pit mining,the contradiction between the open-pit and underground is obvious,the mining is not suitable for mineral processing,the deterioration of economic benefits are existed in the process of the open-pit and underground joint synchronous mining.According to the above problems,based on the early ground pressure monitoring data analysis results and the research theory of the relationship between open-pit and underground,combing with the actual situation of the Dahongshan iron mine,the following 4 technique optimization methods are proposed:the mine reserved safety pillars are conducted readjustment to reduce the mineral below construction caused by open-pit to relieve the contradiction between open-pit and underground based on studying the surrounding rock movement angle in the process of underground mining;the lava deposit model is established by adopting 3DMine software,the open-pit mining boundary is optimized based on the mining economical value to meet the requirements of mining economics and open-pit and underground joint synchronous mining speed;the underground mining sequence is optimized to realize the smooth and safety transition of open-pit and underground mining;the mining scheme of the ores outside the mining boundary is planed reasonably in advance to ensure the rational comprehensive u-tilization of resources.The above reasonable schemes can solve the above problems,which provide ample time for open-pit mining and create conditions of the underground safety production.Besides that,they are meet the requirement of safety and economics.%针对大红山坑露联合同步开采过程中存在的露采迟缓压矿、坑露矛盾突显、采不保选加剧与经济效益恶化等生产、技术难题,以前期地压监测数据分析及坑露关系研究理论为基础,结合实际、统筹兼顾,提出了4条技术优化思路:通过对井下开采

  19. Testing and modeling the influence of reclamation and control methods for reducing nonpoint mercury emissions associated with industrial open pit gold mines.

    Miller, Matthieu B; Gustin, Mae S


    Industrial gold mining is a significant source of mercury (Hg) emission to the atmosphere. To investigate ways to reduce these emissions, reclamation and dust and mercury control methods used at open pit gold mining operations in Nevada were studied in a laboratory setting. Using this information along with field data, and building off previous work, total annual Hg emissions were estimated for two active gold mines in northern Nevada. Results showed that capping mining waste materials with a low-Hg substrate can reduce Hg emissions from 50 to nearly 100%. The spraying of typical dust control solutions often results in higher Hg emissions, especially as materials dry after application. The concentrated application of a dithiocarbamate Hg control reagent appears to reduce Hg emissions, but further testing mimicking the actual distribution of this chemical within an active leach solution is needed to make a more definitive assessment.

  20. The environment of coal mining areas and the economic evaluation of the land reclamation

    王志宏; 肖兴田; 何志强


    The environment impact of the coal resources mining was analyzed. The method of economic evaluation for the coal mining was established to analyze land destruction. The opportunity cost method was used to quantitatively analyze and estimate the economic loss of the land destruction by coal mining. At the same time, the dump land reclamation of the Yuanbaoshan. Open Pit was taken as an example to evaluate environmental and economical benefit with the method of economic evaluation for the coal mining areas land reclamation.

  1. Dispersion and bioaccumulation of elements from an open-pit olivine mine in Southwest Greenland assessed using lichens, seaweeds, mussels and fish.

    Søndergaard, Jens


    This study investigated dispersion and bioaccumulation of mining-related elements from an open-pit olivine mine at Seqi in Southwest Greenland (64° N) using lichens (Flavocetraria nivalis), seaweeds (Fucus vesiculosus), mussels (Mytilus edulis) and fish (Myoxocephalus scorpius). The mine operated between 2005 and 2009, and samples were taken every year within a monitoring area 0-17 km from the mine during the period 2004-2011. A total of 46 elements were analysed in the samples. After mining began, highly elevated metal concentrations, especially nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) and cobalt (Co), were observed in lichens relative to pre-mining levels (up to a factor of 130) caused by dust dispersion from the mining activity. Elevated metal concentrations could be measured in lichens in distances up to ~5 km from the mine/ore treatment facility. Moderately elevated concentrations of Ni and Cr (up to a factor of 7) were also observed in seaweeds and mussels but only in close vicinity (<1 km) to the mine. Analyses of fish showed no significant changes in element composition. After mine closure, the elevated metal concentrations in lichens, seaweeds and mussels decreased markedly, and in 2011, significantly elevated metal concentrations could only be measured in lichens and only within a distance of 1 km from the mine.

  2. Application of reliability-centered maintenance for productivity improvement of open pit mining equipment:Case study of Sungun Copper Mine

    Amin Moniri Morad; Mohammad Pourgol-Mohammad; Javad Sattarvand


    Equipment plays an important role in open pit mining industry and its cost competence at efficient operation and maintenance techniques centered on reliability can lead to significant cost reduction. The application of optimal maintenance process was investigated for minimizing the equipment breakdowns and downtimes in Sungun Copper Mine. It results in the improved efficiency and productivity of the equipment and lowered expenses as well as the increased profit margin. The field operating data of 10 trucks are used to estimate the failure and maintenance profile for each component, and modeling and simulation are accomplished by using reliability block diagram method. Trend analysis was then conducted to select proper probabilistic model for maintenance profile. Then reliability of the system was evaluated and importance of each component was computed by weighted importance measure method. This analysis led to identify the items with critical impact on availability of overall equipment in order to prioritize improvement decisions. Later, the availability of trucks was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation and it is revealed that the uptime of the trucks is around 11000 h at 12000 operation hours. Finally, uncertainty analysis was performed to account for the uncertainty sources in data and models.

  3. Implications of mining practices in an open-pit gold mine for monitoring of a comprehensive test-ban treaty

    Jarpe, S.P.; Moran, B.; Goldstein, P.; Glenn, L.A.


    This report summarizes the results of an experiment at the Gold Quarry pit, operated by the Newmont Gold Company at Carlin, NV The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data, together with ``ground truth``, from conventional surface blasting activity and to use these data to help determine the effectiveness with which conventional mining blasts can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions.

  4. Coal Mining Machinery Development As An Ecological Factor Of Progressive Technologies Implementation

    Efremenkov, A. B.; Khoreshok, A. A.; Zhironkin, S. A.; Myaskov, A. V.


    At present, a significant amount of energy spent for the work of mining machines and coal mining equipment on coal mines and open pits goes to the coal grinding in the process of its extraction in mining faces. Meanwhile, the increase of small fractions in mined coal does not only reduce the profitability of its production, but also causes a further negative impact on the environment and degrades labor conditions for miners. The countermeasure to the specified processes is possible with the help of coal mining equipment development. However, against the background of the technological decrease of coal mine equipment applied in Russia the negative impact on the environment is getting reinforced.

  5. Detection and Monitoring of Surface Motions in Active Open Pit Iron Mine in the Amazon Region, Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry with TerraSAR-X Satellite Data

    Marcos E. Hartwig


    Full Text Available Persistent Scatterer interferometry (PSI represents a powerful tool for the detection and monitoring of tiny surface deformations in vast areas, allowing a better understanding of its triggering mechanisms, planning of mitigation measures, as well as to find better solutions for social and environmental issues. However, there is no record hitherto of its use in active open pit mine in tropical rainforest environment. In this paper we evaluate the use of the PSI technique for the detection and monitoring of mine slope deformations in the N4W iron mine and its surroundings, Pará State, Northern Brazil. The PSI processing was performed with 18 ascending SAR scenes of the TerraSAR-X satellite acquired in the dry season of 2012. The results showed a significant number of widely distributed persistent scatterers. It was observed that most of the study area was stable during the time span. Nevertheless, high deformation rates (312 mm/year were mapped over the mine waste piles, but do not offer any hazard, since they are expected displacements of meters in magnitude for these manmade land structures. Additionally, it was mapped tiny deformation rates in both the east and west flanks of pits 1 and 2. The main underlying reasons can be assigned to the accommodation phenomena of very poor rock masses, to the local geometric variations of the slope cuts, to the geological contact between ironstones and the country rocks, to the exploitation activities, as well as to the major geological structures. This study showed the applicability of the PSI technique using TerraSAR-X scenes in active open pit mines in tropical moist environment. However, the PSI technique is not capable in providing real-time warnings, and faces limitations due to SAR viewing geometry. In this sense, we strongly recommend the use of radar scenes acquired in both ascending and descending orbits, which would also provide a more complete understanding of the deformation patterns.

  6. The External Effects Model of Diesel Consumption of Transport Trucks in Open-pit Mine%露天矿运输卡车柴油消耗的外部影响模型

    温廷新; 戚磊; 邵良杉


    To establish a nonlinear model between the diesel consumption of transport trucks in open-pit mine and its main external influence factors,the support vector regression ( SVR) method is adopted,and the statistical data of actual pro-duction and dispatcher in a domestic open-pit coal mine are taken as original samples. With selection of output,volume,dis-tance,height,loading time,fuel up amount,rock volume as seven main external indexes,and by using the factor analysis meth-od to extract common factors as the input of the model,the training process of diesel consumption model is analyzed to make the simulation training through programming the corresponding program in MATLAB and finally get the diesel consumption model based on SVR. The training and testing results show that:the model can meet the precision requirement,and work well on the diesel consumption calculation and prediction of transportation truck in open-pit mine;This model can provide decision support for reasonable production schedule and guide to reduce the diesel consumption.%为建立露天矿运输卡车柴油消耗与其主要外部影响因素之间的非线性模型,采用回归型支持向量机( SVR)方法,并以国内某露天煤矿实际生产调度统计的数据作为原始样本,选取产量、运量、运距、高差、装车时间、加油量、岩量等7个主要外部影响指标,使用因子分析方法提取公共因子作为模型的输入,分析柴油消耗模型的训练过程,通过在MATLAB上编写相应程序并进行仿真训练,最终得出基于SVR的柴油消耗模型。训练和测试结果表明:该模型满足精度要求,能够很好地对露天矿运输卡车的柴油消耗进行计算和预测,可以为进行合理的生产调度提供决策支持,同时也为降低柴油消耗提供指导作用。

  7. Prevention and control of coalfield fire technology: A case study in the Antaibao Open Pit Mine goaf burning area, China

    Cao Kai; Zhong Xiaoxing; Wang Deming; Shi Guoqing; Wang Yanming; Shao Zhenlu


    It is very difficult to clearly detect the location of a burning area in a coal mine since it is hidden underground.So we conducted research on the distribution of the burning area before controlling it.Firstly,the original drilling technique was used to analyze and determine the loose and scope of caving of burning area through field test,and then obtained the gases and the temperature data in this area were according to the borehole data.By analyzing these data,we found out that the location of burning area concentrated in the loose and caving area; and finally,the location and development of the burning area within the tested area were accurately determined.Based on this theory,we used the ground penetrating radar (GPR) to find out the loose and caving scale in the burning area during the control process of the burning area,and then located the fire-extinguishing boreholes within target which we used to control burning fire in the section.A mobile comprehensive fire prevention and extinguishing system based on the three-phase foam fire prevention and control technique was then adopted and conducted in the burning area which took only 9 months to extinguish the 227,000 m2 of burning area of 9# coal.This control technology and experience will provide a very important reference to the control of other coalfield fire and hillock fire in the future.

  8. 露天转地下开采隔层厚度安全分析%Safety Analysis of Interlayer Thickness from Open Pit to Underground Mining

    陆广; 罗周全; 刘晓明; 杨彪


    Aiming at the problem of determining the interlayer thickness from open pit to underground mining, we perform the numerical simulation using the software Phase2D and taking a copper mine in Hubei province as the case study, the safety threshold of the thickness is 67.85 m according to the Lupeinie theory.When the interlayer thickness is 70 m, the maximum rock movement of the bottom of the open pit may reach 10 cm, well verified the theoretical estimation.In addition, the plastic deformation area is determined, which provides a reliable technique support for the design of underground mining.Combined with Cavity Monitoring System (CMS) and large-scale numerical software Surpac, the 3-D visual configration of open pit and goal is obtained.This 3-D model is then transformed into 2-D profile.By doing so, the thickness of interlayer can be accurately determined.According to our study, the thickness of interlayer in this mine has reached the safety critical value, showing that pit should be immediately closed.%针对露天转地下开采隔层厚度的确定问题,以湖北省某铜矿为例,优选鲁佩涅依特理论估算法得出隔层厚度的安全阈值为67.85 m.运用有限元数值分析软件Phase2D进行模拟,得出隔层厚度70 m时地下采场回采引起露天坑底的最大岩移达到10 cm,从而验证了理论估算值的合理性;确定了围岩的塑性变形区域,为地下采场的安全回采设计及支护提供了可靠的技术支撑.综合利用三维空区监测系统(CMS)和大型矿业软件Surpac,获取了露天坑和采空区可视化三维形态;对探测模型在敏感点进行剖切,将三维模型转化成二维剖面,实现隔层厚度的精确测量.研究表明,该矿山隔层厚度已至安全临界值,露天回采应该立即闭坑.

  9. Experimental study of impact of underground mining on stability of open pit slope%井工开采对露天矿边坡稳定性影响的试验研究



    The open pit slope stability is one of the main problems for the safe production of coal mine project. It has become the main factor of production in coal mine. Taking working face 29211 of Anjialing open pit for example, the impact of underground mining on deformation and rupture process of open pit slope is analyzed by similar material model test. Similar model tests results show that the“arch”structure formed by overburden deformation leads to a great horizontal displacement toward the free surface of slope;and it also results in varying degrees of tensile failure. When working face 29211 advancing to reasonable stopping line 2, local cracks appear in the slope rock mass. The clacks gradually run through and extend to the bottom of the slope when advancing to design stopping line. So, reasonable stopping line 2 is suitable for the location of the stop mining. The above of working face 29211 is the biggest settlement; and the maximum amount of subsidence is about 8 m. The slope which includes through cracks has an extruded trend. The results provide theoretical guidances for safety of open pit exploitation.%露天边坡的稳定性是关乎矿山安全生产的重要因素之一。以安家岭露天煤矿29211工作面开采为例,采用相似材料模型试验研究方法,研究井工开采对露天矿边坡变形破裂过程的影响。试验结果表明:29211采面的推进使得上覆岩层发生垮落和下沉变形,形成“拱式”结构,对边坡产生较大的水平推力作用,导致边坡向临空面方向发生较大的水平位移,同时也造成了边坡不同程度的拉裂和沉降变形;当29211工作面推进至合理停采线2时,边坡岩体内出现局部裂缝,推进至设计停采线时,边坡岩体内裂缝已逐渐形成并贯通至坡底,因此,29211工作面推进至合理停采线2时为适宜停采位置;29211工作面开采完毕后工作面中部正上方沉降量最大,边坡

  10. 大型复杂露天矿山境界优化方法%Boundary Optimization of Large and Complex Open-pit Mine

    王李管; 彭平安; 裴安磊


    In view of the problems existed in delineating the open-pit boundary by traditional manual work such as low accuracy and heavy workload,a new method is presented on the basis of Economic Block Value Model (EBVM) with applying Lerchs-Grossmann algorithm to solve boundary optimization problems in large and complex open-pit mine,in order to improve the design efficiency and economic benefits.Not only a means of structuring EBVM is elaborated,but also a mathematical model of linear programming is constructed to solving optimization problems.Moreover,steps of Lerchs-Grossmann algorithm are described from the point of view of the set theory.The method has been realized in DIMINE software,and applied to the actual boundary optimization and design of open-pit mines.Results show that the method is able to overcome the shortcomings of traditional manual methods and solve the optimal exploitation scenarios quickly and accurately under different parameters.It provides basis and assurance for mining company with the optimal use of resources.%为提高露天矿山的设计效率和经济效益,针对传统手工方法圈定露天境界时存在的准确度低、工作量大等缺点,提出在价值块段模型(Economic Block Value Model,EBVM)基础上运用Lerchs-Grossmann算法求解大型复杂露天矿山境界优化问题的方法.详细阐述了EBVM的构建途径,构造了求解境界优化问题的线性规划数学模型,并从图论学的角度介绍了Lerchs-Grossmann算法的求解步骤.该方法已在DIMINE数字采矿三维平台中得到实现,并应用于实际露天矿山的境界优化和设计中.结果表明,该方法能够快速准确地求解出不同参数条件下的最优开采方案,克服了传统手工方法的弊端,为矿山的设计生产和资源的优化利用提供了依据和保证.

  11. Optimization Methods for Ore Blending in Open-pit Mine%露天矿配矿优化方法研究

    吴丽春; 王李管; 彭平安; 王喆; 陈忠强


    针对露天矿山规划与矿石质量管理的配矿需求,在爆堆品位分布预测的基础上,利用0-1整数规划模型,研究了露天矿配矿的优化方法,进而将其嵌入到DIMINE软件中,并以某水泥灰岩矿配矿设计为例,验证该技术的性能.结果表明,该露天矿配矿优化方法应用简单、配矿效率高、效果好,可有效提高企业的经济效益,对于指导矿山企业的有效生产与决策具有重要的意义.%In view of the requirements of ore blending for ore quality management and open-pit mine plan,an optimization technique of ore blending for open-pit mine using a 0-1 integer programming model was proposed based on the grade distribution prediction for muck-pile. This method was theri integrated into DIMINE. Taking the ore blending design for a cement limestone ore as an example,the performance of this optimization technique was verified. The results show this optimization technique for ore blending,being characterized by easier application and high efficiency in ore blending,can greatly improve enterprises' economic benefit. It is of important significance for guiding the operation and planning on mine.

  12. 福建省某矿山露天采场矿坑废水的处理%Fujian Mine in Open Pit Mine Wastewater Treatment



    We know a certain mine in Fujian province in open pit mine is applied in wastewater aeration oxidation, including precipitation,pH adjustment,catalytic oxidation,flocculation precipitation,contact oxidation and the process of mechanical enrichment in filter wastewater treatment.The process contains Cd 0.455 mg/L,Mn 233.4 mg/L,1.725 mg/L Cu and zinc pH 2.5 455.7 mg/L,the excessive wastewater.Practice is to get out of the water containing Cd 0.018 mg/L,Mn 0.018 mg/L,0.024 mg/L Cu,zinc pH 6.81 0.005 mg/L,and it conforms the level of water discharge standards.%福建省某矿山露天采场矿坑废水采用曝气氧化、初沉淀、pH 调整、催化氧化、絮凝沉淀、接触氧化、机械浓缩过滤的废水处理工艺,分别处理含 Cd 0.455,Mn 233.4,Cu 1.725,Zn 455.7 mg/L, pH 2.5的超标废水,实践得到出水分别含 Cd 0.018,Mn 0.018,Cu 0.024,Zn 0.005 mg/L,pH 6.81,符合一级水排放标准。

  13. Development and application of acceptance surveying system for open-pit mine in residual mining stage%残采期露天矿测量验收系统的开发与应用∗



    Aiming at the problem of office work for acceptance surveying of excavated vol-ume in the open-pit mine in residual mining stage,the paper analyzes the current various calcula-tion methods of acceptance surveying and gets the constrained TIN method is much more suitable for measuring the open-pit mine in residual mining stage.On this basis,the paper designs and de-velops the acceptance surveying system for open-pit mine in residual mining stage,and takes the constrained TIN modeling and updating as the research core.It adopts the AutoCAD ActiveX technology and VBA language to achieve the function development of the test software of accept-ance surveying system for open-pit mine in residual mining stage and applies it in production prac-tice of the Haizhou open-pit mine in residual mining stage,which has saved the production cost of acceptance surveying work in residual mining stage and improved the efficiency and accuracy of the acceptance work.%针对残采期露天矿采剥工程量测量验收内业处理的问题,对目前测量验收计算方法进行比较分析,得出约束不规则三角网法更适合于残采期露天矿测量验收作业。以此为基础,对残采期露天矿的测量验收系统进行设计和开发,并以约束不规则三角网的建模和更新作为研究的核心,利用AutoCAD ActiveX技术和AutoCAD VBA语言的结合以模块化的形式进行系统功能的研究开发,实现一个残采期露天矿测量验收系统实验软件的功能开发,并将其应用到阜新海州露天矿残采期的生产实践当中,节约了该矿残采期测量验收工作的生产成本,并提高了验收效率和精度。

  14. A numerical solution to integrated water flows: Application to the flooding of an open pit mine at the Barcés river catchment - La Coruña, Spain

    Hernández, J.-Horacio; Padilla, Francisco; Juncosa, Ricardo; Vellando, Pablo R.; Fernández, Álvaro


    SummaryThis research and practical application is concerned with the development of a physically-based numerical model that incorporates new approaches for a finite element solution to the steady/transient problems of the joint surface/groundwater flows of a particular region with the help of a Geographic Information Systems to store, represent, manage and take decisions on all the simulated conditions. The proposed surface-subsurface model considers surface and groundwater interactions to be depth-averaged through a novel interpretation of a linear river flood routing method. Infiltration rates and overland flows generation processes are assessed by a sub-model which accounts for this kind of surface-groundwater interactions. Surface-groundwater interactions consider also novel evaporation and evapotranspiration processes as a diffuse discharge from surface water, non-saturated subsoil and groundwater table. The practical application regards the present flooding of the Meirama open pit, a quite deep coal mining excavation, with freshwater coming from the upper Meirama sub-basin, in the context of the water resources fate and use at the Barcés river catchment (˜87.9 km2), Coruña, Spain. The developed model MELEF was applied to the complex geology of a pull-apart type sedimentary tertiary valley and the whole of the water resources of the Barcés River drainage basin, down to its outlet at the Cecebre Reservoir. Firstly, the model was adapted and calibrated during a simulation period of three and a half years (2006/2009) with the aid of the historically registered hydrological parameters and data. Secondly, the results predict the most likely forthcoming evolution of the present flooding of the Meirama open pit to reach therein a total depth level of almost 200 m, as regards the projected evolution of the water resources, climatology and usages.

  15. Study of Blasting Vibration Effect on HML Open-pit Mine Slope%爆破震动对HML露天矿边坡影响的研究

    张建华; 黄刚


    Frequent blasting vibration could exert its influence on the stability of exiting slope of open-pit mine. Based on the study of HML open-pit mine monitors the effect of blasting vibration on the slope and obtains the formula of decay law of blasting seismic waves in rock mass with regression analysis principle. According to the formula,it can help to design the blasting parameter and predict the vibration for future. Based on the former data, the mine blasting could be simulated by the LS-DYNA explicit dynamic analysis software to analysis the effect of blasting vibration on slope. The mechanism of hazards and laws of seismic waves in the propagation of the rock mass can be concluded by analyzing the vibration speed and effective stress of dot and element from slope model in HML mining which ensures the smooth running of mine production and provides the basis to maintain the stability of the slope.%频繁的爆破震动会对露天矿已有边坡稳定性造成影响.以HML露天矿为背景,监测爆破震动对边坡的扰动,用回归分析原理得出爆破地震波在岩体中传播衰减规律公式.为今后的爆破设计和震动的预测提供依据.在原有的数据基础上,利用LS—DYNA显式动力分析软件模拟矿山爆破,分析爆破地震波对边坡的影响.在边坡模型上选取点和单元体,通过分析比较其震动速度和有效应力的衰减规律,可以总结出地震波在HML矿山岩体中的传播规律和危害机理.为确保矿山生产顺利进行,维护矿山边坡的稳定性提供依据.

  16. Complementary Use of Information from Space-Based Dinsar and Field Measuring Systems for Operational Monitoring Purposes in Open Pit Iron Mines of Carajas Mining Complex (brazilian Amazon Region)

    Paradella, W. R.; Mura, J. C.; Gama, F. F.; Santos, A. R.; Silva, G. G.; Galo, M.; Camargo, P. O.; Silva, A. Q.


    Now spanning five simultaneous open-pit operations with exploration carried out through open pit benching, Carajas complex encompasses the world's largest iron reserves. Open pit mining operations in the area can lead to slope instabilities with risks to personnel, equipment and production due to intense excavations in rock products of low geomechanical quality, blasting practices and heavy precipitation. Thus, an effective prediction and management of surface deformations should be a key concern for the mining operations. The ground displacement monitoring techniques in Carajas include surface measurement techniques at discrete points (total station/reflective prisms) and over area using SSR (Slope Stability Radar, a ground based radar). On the other hand, DInSAR techniques are receiving relevance in the mining industry for reasons such a synoptic and continuous coverage without the need for ground instrumentation and a point-to-point good accuracy of measuring displacements (millimeter to centimeter scale) over a dense grid. Using a stack of 33 StripMap TerraSAR-X images acquired over Carajas covering the time span from March 2012 to April 2013, a monitoring approach is discussed based on the complementary use of information provided by DInSAR (DInSAR Time-Series and Persistent Scatterer Interferometry) and surface measuring techniques (total station/prisms, ground-based radar).

  17. Numerical simulation study of the influence on stability of slope by underground mining under opencast coal mine slope

    LIU Ting-ting; LU Guo-bin; TONG Li-ming


    In view of the study on mining transferred from open-pit to underground,the research on the problem of the stability of slope is less.This article combined the actual situation of the Gaohai Coal Mine in Fuxin City and set up a three-dimensional model of the part of Huizhou open-pit slope by the finite difference software.Through the three-dimensional numerical simulation study of the influence on the stability of slope by underground mining,the basic characteristics of the open-pit slope deformation and the situation of basic stability were discussed.The simulation results of the mining slope of the displacement and deformation analysis of the state for mining provide a reference to the slope stability research.

  18. Design of 3 DMine Software in Open Pit Mining%基于3 DMine的露天采矿设计



    Mining design is a key link of mine construction and operation. In order to maximize economic benefits,re-source condition,mining technical condition,mineral products price,ore mining and processing costs etc. should be considered in mining design. At present,the combination of 3D deposit model and mining design makes the mining design more simplified, and good dynamic effect is obtained. Taken a Liberian iron mine as an example,terrain model,solid model and block model of ore bodies are built by using 3DMine software. On this basis,mining designs including the open pit boundary optimization,de-velopment and haulage system and the stripping schedule are made,which directly reflect the mining plan and the data chan-ges. Effect of different prices and steps on boundary optimization is discussed to analyze the variation under different stripping rate. In practical production,open-pit boundary can be adjusted according to the different situation to realize the best economic benefits.%采矿设计是矿山建设和运营的一个关键环节。采矿设计需要综合考虑矿山资源状况、开采技术条件、矿产品销售价格、矿石开采及处理成本等多种因素,以实现经济效益最大化。目前三维矿床模型和采矿三维设计方法的完美结合使采矿设计更为简化,并可获得良好的动态效果。以利比里亚某铁矿为例,利用3Dmine三维矿业软件,建立了地表地形、矿体实体和块体模型。在此基础上进行了露天开采境界优化、开拓运输系统布置、采剥进度计划编制等采矿设计。结果直观反映了采矿设计方案及数据变化关系。同时讨论了不同矿石价格及不同台阶对露天境界的影响,分析了不同条件下剥采比的变化情况。在实际生产中,可根据不同情况适时调整露天开采境界,以实现最优的矿山经济效益。

  19. Modelling of environmental impacts of 140 years of open pit lignite mining and chemical industry on groundwater contaminants in the Bitterfeld area, Germany

    Gossel, W.; Stollberg, R.; Wycisk, P. [Martin Luther Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. of Geosciences, Dept. of Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology


    In this study, a groundwater flow and transport model was used to estimate the contamination of watersheds located in the Bitterfeld area in Germany. The contamination was caused by previous open pit lignite mining activities in the region as well as by contaminants from a chemical plant. A high resolution geological model of the area was used to parametrize the model. The region is geologically complex, with Pleistocene channels and gullies from the Saalenian age. The mining activities also disturbed or destroyed many geological structures in the region. A geological description was provided, as well as details of hydraulic conductivity, lithology, and hydrostratigraphy. The model was based on borehole data and maps covering a total area of 60 km{sup 2}. The time-dependent groundwater recharge and boundary conditions were set. Dispersivity and diffusivity parameters were also considered. The model accurately characterized the successive spreading of groundwater contamination over the last 100 years in the area. The study showed that the contamination will spread to nature reserve zones in the region over the next few decades. 3 refs. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  20. Automatic prediction of time to failure of open pit mine slopes based on radar monitoring and inverse velocity method

    Osasan K.S.; Stacey T.R


    Radar slope monitoring is now widely used across the world, for example, the slope stability radar (SSR) and the movement and surveying radar (MSR) are currently in use in many mines around the world. However, to fully realize the effectiveness of this radar in notifying mine personnel of an impending slope failure, a method that can confidently predict the time of failure is necessary. The model developed in this study is based on the inverse velocity method pioneered by Fukuzono in 1985. The model named the slope failure prediction model (SFPM) was validated with the displacement data from two slope failures monitored with the MSR. The model was found to be very effective in predicting the time to failure while providing adequate evacuation time once the progressive displacement stage is reached.

  1. The continuous excavating technique system parameters optimization and economic assessment simulation model in open-pit mine

    ZHAO Bao-fu


    Based on the fundamental simulation theories and methods, this paper studies such questions as truck dispatching, discrete processing of belt system continuous haulage, belt system interlock, and economic assessment methods. On the basis of above studies, the paper establishes a simulation model for open-p i t mine semi-continuous production technique system. The paper applies GPSS lang u age to construct a simulation program, and the program has been successfully app lied in a certain coalmine.

  2. [Comparison of soil fertility among open-pit mine reclaimed lands in Antaibao regenerated with different vegetation types].

    Wang, Xiang; Li, Jin-chuan; Yue, Jian-ying; Zhou, Xiao-mei; Guo, Chun-yan; Lu, Ning; Wang, Yu-hong; Yang, Sheng-quan


    Re-vegetation is mainly applied into regeneration in opencast mine to improve the soil quality. It is very important to choose feasible vegetation types for soil restoration. In this study, three typical forest restoration types were studied at Antaibao mine, namely, Medicago sativa, mixed forests Pinus taebelaefolius-Robinia pseudoacacia-Caragana korshinskii and Elaeagnus angustifolia-Robinia pseudoacacia-Caragana korshinskii-Hipophae rhamnoides, to determine the nutrient contents and enzyme activities in different soil layers. The results showed that re-vegetation markedly increased soil nutrient contents and the enzyme activities during the restoration process. The nutrient content of soil in the P. taebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii mixed forest field was significantly higher than those in other plots. It was found that the soil of the P. taebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii mixed forest had the highest integrated fertility index values. In conclusion, the restoration effects of the P. zaebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. Korshinskii mixed forest was better than that of E. angustifolia-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii-H. rhamnoides, while M. sativa grassland had the least effect.

  3. New software for visualizing 3D geological data in coal mines

    Lee, Sungjae; Choi, Yosoon


    This study developed new software to visualize 3D geological data in coal mines. The Visualization Tool Kit (VTK) library and Visual Basic.NET 2010 were used to implement the software. The software consists of several modules providing functionalities: (1) importing and editing borehole data; (2) modelling of coal seams in 3D; (3) modelling of coal properties using 3D ordinary Kriging method; (4) calculating economical values of 3D blocks; (5) pit boundary optimization for identifying economical coal reserves based on the Lerchs-Grosmann algorithm; and (6) visualizing 3D geological, geometrical and economical data. The software has been applied to a small-scale open-pit coal mine in Indonesia revealed that it can provide useful information supporting the planning and design of open-pit coal mines.

  4. Geostatistical modeling of facies, bitumen grade and particle size distribution for the Joslyn oil sand open pit mine project

    Babak, Olena; Insalaco, Enzo; Mittler, Andreas [Total EandP Canada Ltd. (Canada)


    The Joslyn North Mine Project is currently in the pre-development stage; the aim of this study is to use different available data to draw a geological model of facies, bitumen grade, full particle size distribution (PSD) and ore/waste discrimination. The study was conducted with the database of around 800 wells, stochastic, indicator and Gaussian simulations were performed along with a sensitivity study. Results demonstrated the importance of some parameters for evaluating grade cases including variogram uncertainty, sampling limitations and errors in geostatistical workflow. In addition, modeling the full PSD dataset was shown to be useful. This study demonstrated how to use available database through an overall workflow to develop case scenarios for bitumen in place in ore and characterize the ore material.

  5. Application of artificial neural network coupled with genetic algorithm and simulated annealing to solve groundwater inflow problem to an advancing open pit mine

    Bahrami, Saeed; Doulati Ardejani, Faramarz; Baafi, Ernest


    In this study, hybrid models are designed to predict groundwater inflow to an advancing open pit mine and the hydraulic head (HH) in observation wells at different distances from the centre of the pit during its advance. Hybrid methods coupling artificial neural network (ANN) with genetic algorithm (GA) methods (ANN-GA), and simulated annealing (SA) methods (ANN-SA), were utilised. Ratios of depth of pit penetration in aquifer to aquifer thickness, pit bottom radius to its top radius, inverse of pit advance time and the HH in the observation wells to the distance of observation wells from the centre of the pit were used as inputs to the networks. To achieve the objective two hybrid models consisting of ANN-GA and ANN-SA with 4-5-3-1 arrangement were designed. In addition, by switching the last argument of the input layer with the argument of the output layer of two earlier models, two new models were developed to predict the HH in the observation wells for the period of the mining process. The accuracy and reliability of models are verified by field data, results of a numerical finite element model using SEEP/W, outputs of simple ANNs and some well-known analytical solutions. Predicted results obtained by the hybrid methods are closer to the field data compared to the outputs of analytical and simple ANN models. Results show that despite the use of fewer and simpler parameters by the hybrid models, the ANN-GA and to some extent the ANN-SA have the ability to compete with the numerical models.

  6. Handling equipment Selection in open pit mines by using an integrated model based on group decision making

    Abdolreza Yazdani-Chamzini


    Full Text Available Process of handling equipment selection is one of the most important and basic parts in the project planning, particularly mining projects due to holding a high charge of the total project's cost. Different criteria impact on the handling equipment selection, while these criteria often are in conflicting with each other. Therefore, the process of handling equipment selection is a complex and multi criteria decision making problem. There are a variety of methods for selecting the most appropriate equipment among a set of alternatives. Likewise, according to the sophisticated structure of the problem, imprecise data, less of information, and inherent uncertainty, the usage of the fuzzy sets can be useful. In this study a new integrated model based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP and fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (FTOPSIS is proposed, which uses group decision making to reduce individual errors. In order to calculate the weights of the evaluation criteria, FAHP is utilized in the process of handling equipment selection, and then these weights are inserted to the FTOPSIS computations to select the most appropriate handling system among a pool of alternatives. The results of this study demonstrate the potential application and effectiveness of the proposed model, which can be applied to different types of sophisticated problems in real problems.

  7. 综合物探法在平朔东露天矿铁路专用线煤窑采空区探测的应用%Comprehensive geophysical prospecting method in special railway line of coalpit goaf detection application of pingshuo eastern open-pit coal mine

    刘波; 高永涛; 金爱兵; 白哲; 邓富根


    小煤窑的无序无证开采,形成的采空区等地质异常体常成为公路、铁路等工程安全施工和长久运营的安全隐患.为解决上述问题,本文通过对测区浅部采空区采用探地雷达和AGI高密度电法、测区深部采空区采用EH4电磁成像系统的综合物探方法,得到了采空区分布的剖面图,划分了重点异常区,取得了令人满意的探测结果,为后期有针对性、有目的性地对采空区进行治理提供了保障.%Disordered mining of small coalpits without a license formed geological anomalous bodies such as the goaf which often brings hidden danger to highway, railway and other engineering construction and long operation. In order to solve the problem above, this article applies the comprehensive geophysical prospecting method that it measures the shallow goaf of sensing area by using the ground penetrating radar and AGI high density resistivity method and measures deep goaf by using EH4 Electromagnetic image system. As a result, it obtained distribution profiles of the goaf, divided key areas of abnormality and achieved satisfactory detection. At last it provides safety and security purposefully for the management of gob area.

  8. Application of Close Range Photogrammetry Technology of Slope Deformation Monitoring in Open Pit Mine%近景摄影技术在露天矿山边坡变形监测中的应用

    谢冬冬; 杨德宏


    In the open pit mine, the slope stability is a serious threat to the safety of mine production, so it is very important to strengthen the deformation monitoring and stability analysis of high and steep slope. This paper taking the northern slope of an open pit mine in Yunnan as an example, applied close range photogrammetry technology to the open pit mine slope deformation monitoring, compared and analyzed photogrammetry solution calculated data with the total station monitoring data, and obtained that it is feasible to apply the method of close range photogrammetry application to open pit slope deformation monitoring. Then it analyzed the factors that affect the measurement accuracy, and put forward the corresponding measures to improve the accuracy.%在露天矿山,边坡稳定性严重威胁着矿山的安全生产,加强对高陡边坡的变形监测和稳定性分析就显得非常重要。文章以云南某露天矿北部边坡为例,将近景摄影测量技术应用到露天矿山边坡变形监测中,将摄影测量解算出的数据与全站仪监测数据进行了对比分析,得出近景摄影测量方法应用于露天矿边坡变形监测是可行的,然后对影响量测精度的因素做出分析,并提出提高精度的相应措施。

  9. Optimization of the State of Open-pit Mine by Using 3DMine Software%利用3DMine软件进行露天矿境界优化

    钟德云; 胡柳青


    在某露天矿已建立的三维地质模型的基础上,以不同于传统境界优化的方法,利用当前国内优秀的矿业软件3DMine进行露天境界优化设计,实现了真正意义上的最终境界.阐述了利用矿业软件经行境界优化的完整过程以及在最终境界的基础上进行露天采场设计,分析了建模结果.%Based on three-dimensional geological model which has been established in an open-pit mine to the realm different from the traditional optimization methods,the use of current domestic outstanding open-pit mining software 3Dmine realm of optimization,a true sense of the final state had been achieved. Explained by using mining software to optimize the complete process line state and in the final state on the basis of the formation of the open-pit design, the modeling results were analyzed.

  10. The concurrent validity of learning potential and psychomotor ability measures for the selection of haul truck operators in an open-pit mine

    Marikie Pelser


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the concurrent validity of learning potential and psychomotor ability measures for the prediction of haul truck operator performance in an open-pit mine. Additional goals were to determine the nature of the relationship between learning potential and psychomotor abilities and to assess the relative contributions of these variables as predictors. The predictors were the TRAM 1 Learning Potential test and Vienna Test System subtests that were administered to 128 experienced haul truck operators. The job performance criteria used were spotting in time, corrected tons hauled and supervisor ranking. The concurrent validity of the learning potential and psychomotor ability measures was partially supported. An exploratory factor analysis provided relatively convincing evidence for a general cognitive ability factor (g underlying performance on the learning potential and several psychomotor measures. The existence of a general psychomotor factor was not substantiated in the current study. Suggestions were made for improving design and criterion shortcomings. Opsomming Die doel van die ondersoek was om die saamvallende geldigheid van leerpotensiaal en psigomotoriese metings vir die voorspelling van die werkprestasie van sleepvragwabestuurders in ’n oopgroefmyn te beoordeel. Addisionele doelwitte was om die aard van die verwantskap tussen leerpotensiaal en psigomotoriese vermoëns te gepaal en om die relatiewe bydraes van hierdie veranderlikes as voorspellers te bepaal. Die voorspellers was die TRAM 1 Leerpotensiaaltoets en die Vienna Test System subtoetse wat toegepas is op 128 ervare sleepvragwabestuurders. Die werkprestasiekriteria was inteikentyd, gekorrigeerde tonmaat gesleep en toesighouerbeoordeling. Die saamvallende geldigheid van die leerpotensiaal en psigomotoriese metings is gedeeltelik ondersteun. ’n Ondersoekende faktorontleding het die bestaan van ’n algemene kognitiewe vermoëfaktor (g, wat

  11. The environment of coal mining areas and the economic evaluation of the land reclamation

    WANG Zhi-hong; XIAO Xing-tian; HE Zhi-qiang


    The environment impact of the coal resources mining was analyzed. The method of economic evaluation for the coal mining was established to analyze lan d destruction. The opportunity cost method was used to quantitatively analyze an d estimate the economic loss of the land destruction by coal mining. At the same time, the dump land reclamation of the Yuanbaoshan Open Pit was taken as an exa mple to evaluate environmental and economical benefit with the method of economi c evaluation for the coal mining areas land reclamation.

  12. Study on Environment Characteristics for Mining Management at East Pit 3 West Banko Coal Mine

    Neny Rochyani; Eddy Ibrahim; M. Faizal; Ngudiantoro Ngudiantoro


    The management on mining environment is closely related to the environmental characteristics and the condition of mining itself.  In East PIT 3 West Banko Coal Mine Tanjung Enim mine drainage system has been developed which refers to the open pit method employed by the company. The observation and analysis showed that the sludge settling ponds have been constructed as well as adequate catchment area. To discharge water into the channel at 0.3016 m 3 / sec can still be accommodated due to the ...

  13. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  14. GIS-based 3D limit equilibrium analysis for design optimization of a 600 m high slope in an open pit mine

    Meifeng Cai; Mowen Xie; Chunlei Li


    Combining the GIS (geographic information systems) grid-based data with four proposed column-based 3D slope stability analysis models,a comprehensive solution of a high-steep open-pit slope has been obtained.For six searching ranges,19 critical slip surfaces of different sizes have been studied,in which the minimum 3D safety factor is 1.33.Comparison of 3D safety factors of designed and proposed slope plans shows for all the critical slip surfaces for the proposed plan,the smallest 3D safety factor is 1.33 under the most unfavorable condition.This means that the proposed plan of the high slopes,about 600 m,of an open pit (2-5°steeper than designed plan) is feasible.

  15. The Dynamic prediction of environment damage induced by the excavation from open-pit into underground mine%露天转地下开采诱发环境破坏的动态预测



    In the process of mineral resources development , the mining of deep resource in the open-pit mine re-stricted by the stripping ratio factors should turn to underground mining .Open-pit mining is located in the under-ground mining influence domain .This causes part of the two mining influence domain overlapping , of the two types mining effect, thus, it constitutes a compound superposition effect , and makes the overlying rock mass deformation mechanism more complicated and the deformation spread widely .This paper takes a mining engineering practice in Beijing as the background , to study the Dynamic evolution law , the sliding mechanism and the definition of damage zone of the surface deformation in the process of the excavation from open-pit into underground mine under complex conditions of environmental engineering geology .It also summarizes the evolution characteristics of dynamic damage range and movement parameters in the mining process , thus provides a decision-making basis for the mine safety production and safety control .%在矿产资源开发过程中,露天开采转为地下开采后,露天边坡受地下采动影响,由于两种采动影响部分重叠,造成两种采动效应相互作用,构成复合叠加效应,使得上覆岩体变形机制更加复杂、变形波及范围广。以北京某矿的开采工程实际为背景,研究了复杂的环境工程地质条件下露天转地下开采过程中地表变形的动态演变规律、滑移机制和破坏区的界定等内容,并得出了其开采过程中的动态破坏范围及其移动参数的演变特点,从而为矿山安全生产和安全防控提供了决策依据。

  16. 自动优化露天矿短期进度计划的渐进细化法%Progressive Thinning Algorithm for Automatic Optimization of Short-Term Scheduling of Open-Pit Mine

    孙效玉; 张维国; 孙梦红


    The current status of open-pit mine technology was analyzed,and the best approach for open-pit mine production schedule that combines computer aided design and mathematical programming was proposed.In order to resolve the existing problem of open pit mine production scheduled using integer programming and 0-1 integer programming in order of time period,a progressive thinning algorithm for optimizing the open-pit mine production schedule was proposed.Also,the progress of progressive thinning algorithm was discussed and the corresponding 0-1 integer programming model was established.The model was solved by calling LindoAPI mathematical software under the Visual C+ + programming environment.This 0-1 integer programming method has higher computing speed and meets the requirement for detailed industrial design.%分析了露天矿生产计划技术现状,提出计算机辅助设计法与数学规划法有机结合是制定露天生产进度计划的最佳手段.针对整数规划和具有前后时段顺序的0-1整数规划在露天矿生产进度计划应用中存在的问题,提出了渐进细化的生产进度计划优化方法,论述了渐进细化过程,建立了相应的0-1整数规划模型.在VC++环境下通过调用LindoAPI实现模型求解,该细化0-1整数规划方法,较前后时段0-1整数规划方法提高了计算速度,满足设计细化需要.

  17. Coal Mines, Active - Longwall Mining Panels

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Coal mining has occurred in Pennsylvania for over a century. A method of coal mining known as Longwall Mining has become more prevalent in recent decades. Longwall...

  18. Open-pit Mine Bench Blasting Design and the Application based on Three-dimensional Model%基于三维模型的露天矿台阶爆破设计及其应用

    段玉贤; 李发本


    Based on three-dimensional orebody modeling technology,the blast-hole distributing and blasting network design of open-pit mine bench blasting was studied.Which had been successfully used in blasting project design at 1414 northern bench of Sandaozhuang Open-pit Mine of Luoyang Luanchuan Molybdenum Industry Group Co,Ltd.The result indicated that the blasting design system blasting plan is scientific and effective,and the blasting design working efficiency has been improved greatly.%基于三维矿体建模技术,针对露天矿台阶爆破的布孔和爆破网络设计展开研究,并在洛钼集团三道庄露天矿1414台阶北部的爆破工程设计中成功应用。实践表明,该爆破设计系统爆破方案科学有效,大大提高了爆破设计工作效率。

  19. Coal mining: coal in Spain

    Garcia-Arguelles Martinez, A.; Lugue Cabal, V.


    The Survey of Spanish Coal Resources published by the Centre for Energy Studies in 1979 is without doubt the most serious and full study on this subject. The coal boom of the last few years and the important role it will play in the future, as well as the wealth of new information which has come to light in the research carried out in Spanish coalfields by both the public and private sector, prompted the General Mine Management of the Ministry of Industry and Energy to commission IGME to review and update the previous Survey of Spanish Coal Resources of November 1981.

  20. Optimization Design of Transition From Open Pit to Underground for JingChang Graphite Mine Based on Surpac Soft-ware%基于Surpac的金昌石墨矿露天转地下优化设计

    肖飞; 何治良; 黄其冲; 翟振


    以金昌石墨矿为研究对象,建立矿体的地表模型、矿体模型和块体模型,并对矿体进行储量估算和品位报告。详细总结了该矿山露天转地下开拓方案和开采方案,论证了Surpac软件的技术优势和应用前景。%Taking JingChang Graphite Mine as research object,ground surface model of ore body,ore body model and block model of were established,reserve and grade of the ore body were also estimated. Based on the practical application of the exploi-tation design of transition from open pit to underground mine in detail,the technical superiority and the application prospect of the software are demonstrated.

  1. 露天矿泥岩路基双重改性研究%Double modification for mudstone roadbed of open pit mines

    杨建林; 王来贵; 李喜林; 张鹏


    为了对露天矿临时性公路泥岩路基进行改良,提高泥岩路基的力学强度和耐崩解性,提出了双重改性方法。采用XRD、激光共聚焦显微镜、SEM、红外光谱仪、静态水接触角试验、力学性能测试等手段对改性前后泥岩的成分、微观结构、憎水性、膨胀率和抗剪强度等特征进行表征,分析了不同改性方法对泥岩改性的微观机理。结果表明:改性前泥岩浸水10 min崩解成碎屑,有机改性和双重改性后泥岩浸水2 d表面无明显变化,无机改性后泥岩浸水2 d周围有崩解碎屑产生;有机改性和双重改性后泥岩的润湿角由2.6°分别增加为116.3°和119.4°,而无机改性后润湿角仅为4.5°;经过有机改性、无机改性和双重改性,膨胀率由改性前的16.7%分别减小为11.2%,4.2%和2.4%;改性前泥岩的抗剪强度随含水率的增加而减小,改性后抗剪强度随含水率的增加先升高后降低,双重改性对抗剪强度的提高最明显,含水率为25%时泥岩改性效果最好。有机改性时岩粒表面形成一层非极性憎水膜,但泥岩的抗剪强度提高幅度较小;无机改性时泥岩内部孔隙被三维网状凝胶结构填充,力学强度明显提高,但耐崩解性提高幅度较小;双重改性综合了有机改性和无机改性的优点,力学强度和耐崩解性显著提高。%Mudstone can soften and break down in contact with water. This behaviour is frequently encountered in mudstone roadbed engineering of open pit mines. It is highly important to improve the mechanical properties of mudstone. By using the X-ray diffractometer, three-dimensional laser topography measurement instrument, scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, static water contact angle tests and mechanical experiments, the mudstone was characterized to investigate its change rules of composition, topography, contact angle, swelling ratio and

  2. Monitoring of surface deformation in open pit mine using DInSAR time-series: a case study in the N5W iron mine (Carajás, Brazil) using TerraSAR-X data

    Mura, José C.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Gama, Fabio F.; Santos, Athos R.; Galo, Mauricio; Camargo, Paulo O.; Silva, Arnaldo Q.; Silva, Guilherme G.


    We present an investigation of surface deformation using Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) time-series carried out in an active open pit iron mine, the N5W, located in the Carajás Mineral Province (Brazilian Amazon region), using 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) scenes. This mine has presented a historical of instability and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mine (pit walls) have been done based on ground based radar. Two complementary approaches were used: the standard DInSAR configuration, as an early warning of the slope instability conditions, and the DInSAR timeseries analysis. In order to decrease the topographic phase error a high resolution DEM was generated based on a stereo GeoEye-1 pair. Despite the fact that a DinSAR contains atmospheric and topographic phase artifacts and noise, it was possible to detect deformation in some interferometric pairs, covering pit benches, road ramps and waste piles. The timeseries analysis was performed using the 31 interferometric pairs, which were selected based on the highest mean coherence of a stack of 107 interferograms, presenting less phase unwrapping errors. The time-series deformation was retrieved by the Least-Squares (LS) solution using an extension of the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), with a set of additional weighted constrain on the acceleration deformation. The atmospheric phase artifacts were filtered in the space-time domain and the DEM height errors were estimated based on the normal baseline diversity. The DInSAR time-series investigation showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in the N5W mine located in a tropical rainforest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for alarm, planning and risk assessment.

  3. Coal Mines, Abandoned - Digitized Mined Areas

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Coal mining has occurred in Pennsylvania for over a century. The maps to these coal mines are stored at many various public and private locations (if they still...

  4. Application of Integration Technology in Handling Complex Mined-out Area in Luomu Open-pit Mine%洛钼露天矿复杂采空区治理一体化技术应用

    王春毅; 彭府华


    The integration of detection,stability monitoring and handling technology of mined-out area in Luomu open-pit mine are introduced. The high-density electrical and seismic imaging method are used to preliminarily detect the position of gobs,and then the drilling exploration and three-dimensional laser detection methods are adopted to detect the accurate charac-teristics of gobs. Microseismic technology is used for all-day,three-dimensional and real-time monitoring on the gob stability. It makes a very good application effect on the stability quantitative analysis,the influence of blasting vibration to the gobs and the stability monitoring in the processing of handling gobs. The gravel filling and controlled blasting technology is adopted to treat different gobs. According to characteristics of mined-out areas and the difficulty in gob handing,gobs are treated once or several times to finish the handling. With the use of this integrated technology,a large number of gobs in Luomu open-pit mine have been successfully treated. It ensures the safety production,and has vital significance for the sustainable development of mine. Moreover,it has important reference value to the similar mine at home and abroad.%介绍了洛钼露天矿采空区探测、采空区稳定性监测和采空区处理一体化技术。洛钼露天矿采用高密度电法和地震映象法对采空区位置进行初探,再利用钻孔探测和三维激光探测方法对采空区赋存形态进行精确探测。利用微震监测技术对采空区稳定性进行全天候、实时和立体监测,在对矿山采区岩体稳定性微震量化评估、爆破震动对采空区稳定性影响和采空区治理前后稳定性监测等方面取得了很好的应用效果。采用碎石充填和控制爆破技术对不同采空区进行处理,并根据采空区的赋存特点和处理的难易程度,对采空区进行分类一次处理或分次处理。洛钼露天矿采用该一体化技术已经成

  5. Ecological Footprint and Ecological Costs in Open-Pit Metal Mining%金属矿床露天开采的生态足迹和生态成本

    王青; 胥孝川; 顾晓薇; 刘剑平; 王晓旭


    footprint method,direct and indirect ecological footprint models have been developed to reflect the ecological pressure of open-pit metal mining.The former measures the direct damages of open-pit mining to the ecosystem,and the latter the indirect impact of CO2 emission from energy consumption on the ecosystem.Based on the ecological footprints and the major eco-service functions of the ecosystem,the ecological costs of open-pit mining are estimated,including lost value of direct eco-services,lost value of indirect eco-services,reclamation costs,and the eco-cost of energy consumption.The present values of ecological costs and profits were estimated based on the ultimate pit and mining schedule designed for a real open-pit mine.Results show that the total present value of ecological costs is 78% of the present value of profits,and the sum of the lost value of indirect eco-services and eco-cost of energy consumption,for which the mine operator is not responsible,is 33% of the present value of profits.It can be seen that,if mine operators were forced by the government to be responsible for all the ecological costs,the returns on investment in open-pit mines would be sharply lowered and many deposits with relatively unfavorable reserve conditions would not be exploited resulting in better resources protection.

  6. On open-pit boundary optimization of iron mine based on 3 Dmine%3 DMi ne境界优化功能在露天铁矿中的应用

    王瑜; 戴兴宇; 郭健


    矿用商业化软件将三维矿体模型和三维采矿设计相结合,使采矿设计更为简捷,获得了较好的动态效果。以鞍钢矿业集团下属关宝山铁矿为例,利用3DMine三维矿业软件,建立地表模型、地质数据库、矿体模型、块体模型,在2种条件下,进行露天境界优化,对比2种条件下优化结果的不同。%Mining trade software combines 3D deposit model with 3D mining design,and makes the mining design more simplified and good dynamic effect.Taken Guanbaoshan Iron Mine of Ansteel Mining Group as an example,this paper builds the terrain model,solid model,geological database,block model of ore bodies,on different condition,and completes the open-pit boundary optimization and contracts different optimization outcomes.

  7. 海州矿国家矿山公园主题广场景观设计浅析%Analysis on the Theme Square's Landscape Design of Haizhou Open-Pit Mine National Mining Park

    马强; 段渊古; 王敏


    Haizhou open-pit mine national mining park is a representative example of post-industrial landscape design in Liaoning province.Taking the theme square of this park as an example,the method of post-industrial square design on the basis of industrial elements remodeling and spatial expansion was discussed,and six spots of the central axis in the square were evaluated and analyzed,then the advantages and disadvantages in landscape design were summarized.Through research on the landscape design of the post-industrial square,related references for industrial heritage utilization of resource dependent cities in Northeast China were provided and the importance of industrial heritage landscape in urban industrial tourism development was revealed.%海州矿国家矿山公园是辽宁地区后工业景观设计的典型,以该公园的主题广场为例,从工业元素重塑和空间拓展方面对广场的设计手法进行了探讨,并对广场中轴线上的6个景点进行了分析与评价,总结出景观设计中存在的优缺点.以期通过对后工业广场景观设计的研究,为东北地区资源型城市的工业遗址资源开发提供一定参考,并揭示出工业遗址景观对于城市发展工业旅游的重要性.

  8. Coal Mines Security System

    Ankita Guhe


    Full Text Available Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, automatic detection, communication and microcontroller technologies, to realize the operational parameters of the mining area. The data acquisition terminal take the PIC 16F877A chip integrated circuit as a core for sensing the data, which carries on the communication through the RS232 interface with the main control machine, which has realized the intelligent monitoring. Data management system uses EEPROM chip as a Black box to store data permanently and also use CCTV camera for recording internal situation. The system implements the real-time monitoring and displaying for data undermine, query, deletion and maintenance of history data, graphic statistic, report printing, expert diagnosis and decision-making support. The Research, development and Promote Application will provide the safeguard regarding the mine pit control in accuracy, real-time capacity and has high reliability.

  9. Study of Mine Geologic Environmental Control and Ecologic Restoration Plans During Transfer from Open Pit to Underground Mine%露天转地下矿山地质环境治理与生态恢复规划研究

    南世卿; 李东生


    Taking for example mining of Shirengou Iron Mine during transfer from open pit to underground mine, the mine's geologic status was discussed. According to the characteristics of the mining during transfer from open pit to underground mine, the mine geologic environmental and ecologic restoration plans were raised. It effectively protected mine environment and restored ecology of mining area. It achieved better effects in ensuring underground safe mining and had a demonstration effect for similar mines.%以石人沟铁矿露天转地下开采为例,论述了其矿山地质现状,根据露天转地下开采的特点,提出了矿山地质环境与生态恢复的规划,既做到矿山环境有效保护、矿区生态得到恢复,又达到保障地下开采安全的良好效果,为类似矿山起到示范作用.

  10. Dynamic and Comprehensive Optimization of Ultimate Pit Limit for Complex Multi-metal Open-pit Mine%复杂多金属露天矿山最终境界动态综合优化

    杨彪; 罗周全; 陆广; 刘晓明; 鹿浩


    为了将矿岩时间属性准确加入到复杂多金属露采矿山境界优化过程中,提出了基于矿床块体模型的动态综合优化方法.采用当量品位的方式将多金属元素转化为综合当量品位并对矿床块模型进行经济参数赋值,运用L-G图论法通过矿石售价折扣的方式获得一系列静态方案,研究分析了复杂矿山的开采工艺并对各方案编排进度计划,统计计算各方案年现金流,经贴现获得净现值(NPV),综合分析各方案NPV及资源回收情况确定最优方案,实现复杂多金属露天矿山最终境界的动态综合优化圈定.基于生产进度计划的境界动态优化方法与矿山实际生产紧密结合,其优化结果可为矿山设计及未来生产提供更好的基础支撑,为露采矿山最优境界寻找开辟了一条新的途径.%In order to accurately endow the time attribute of ore and rock into the limit optimization process of complex multi-metal open pit mining limit, a dynamic limit optimization method was proposed based on the deposit block model.Multi-metal element was transformed into synthetic grade equivalent and economic parameters were given into the deposit block model. A series of static scenarios were obtained with discount of ore price by L - G graph theory method. Mining technology was studied for complex mine and progress schedule was prepared for each scenario. After calculating annual cash flow for each program, NPV was obtained by discounting. Optimal scenario was defined by analyzing the NPV and resource recover rate of each scenario. The dynamic limit optimization method based on production schedule is closely combined with practice of ore production, the optimization result provides a better and strong basis for mining design and production, which is a new way for the optimization of open-pit limit.

  11. Coal mine site reclamation



    Coal mine sites can have significant effects on local environments. In addition to the physical disruption of land forms and ecosystems, mining can also leave behind a legacy of secondary detrimental effects due to leaching of acid and trace elements from discarded materials. This report looks at the remediation of both deep mine and opencast mine sites, covering reclamation methods, back-filling issues, drainage and restoration. Examples of national variations in the applicable legislation and in the definition of rehabilitation are compared. Ultimately, mine site rehabilitation should return sites to conditions where land forms, soils, hydrology, and flora and fauna are self-sustaining and compatible with surrounding land uses. Case studies are given to show what can be achieved and how some landscapes can actually be improved as a result of mining activity.

  12. Research on Transport System Risk Factors of Open-pit Mine Based on W-R-SHEL%基于W-R-SHEL的露天矿山运输系统风险因素研究

    姜立春; 任晓会


    Personnel, machinery, environment, management and other aspects are related with Open-pit mine transport system accident. According to the fact that Open-pit mine transport system is complex and has high accident rate, human factors are chosen as the focus of risk factors analysis, a new risk factors I-dentification model is proposed based on the combination of WBS and R-SHEL model. With this model, risk factors of a large domestic aluminum mine' 8 transport system were identified, five first-level indexes, thirteen second-level indexes, forty third-level indexes were determined, risk factors'comprehensive evaluation was achieved by using three -scale IAHP and fuzzy mathematics, the comprehensive evaluation results are consistent with the practical situation.%露天矿山运输系统事故原因涉及人、机、环、管等多个环节.基于运输系统复杂、高事故率这一实际情况,以人为因素作为风险因素的分析中心,在总结传统人为风险因素辨识模型存在不足的基础上,提出基于工作分解结构(WBS)与R-SHEL相结合的风险因素辨识模型.将模型具体应用在国内某大型铝土矿山运输系统风险因素研究中,确定5个一级因素指标、13个二级因素指标及40个三级因素指标,采用三级标度IAHP与模糊(fuzzy)相结合的方法实现指标体系中风险因素的综合评判,得出综合评判结果与现场实际情况基本相符.

  13. Study on the Transport Process of Large Slope Skip in Phosphorus Open Pit Mine%露天磷矿山大型斜坡箕斗运输工艺研究

    李小双; 李耀基; 王孟来; 朱建新


    Taking the N0. 2 mining area of Kunyang phosphate mine of Yunnan Phosphate Chemical Group Co. ,Ltd ( YPC) as engineering background,the transport process of large slope skip in the open pit phosphorus mine was studied by va-rious research methods such as theoretical analysis,field measurement and feasibility demonstration of technical and economic scheme,according to the field research of the specific geological and mining conditions. The results showed that:①Comparing with the traditional single bucket truck transport process,the large slope skip the transport process has the following advanta-ges,including lower cost,less air pollution and noise pollution and lower maintenance cost. And it has a large advantage in deep concave mining stage that the stope mining vertical depth is greater than or equal to 85 m.②The large slope skip the transport process also has the following inferiors,such as larger initial investment,relatively fixed system and more complicated procedure etc. . And it has a large application limitation in shallow mining stage that the stope mining vertical depth is less than 85 m. The relevant research results can provide theoretical and technical guidance and advice for the open pit transportation technology of this mining area or mining area with similar conditions.%以云南磷化集团有限公司昆阳磷矿二矿区为工程背景,在进行实地调研其具体地质采矿条件的基础上,通过理论分析、现场实测以及技术经济方案可行性论证等多种研究手段,探讨了露天磷矿山的大型斜坡箕斗运输工艺。结果表明:①与传统的单斗卡车运输工艺相比,大型斜坡箕斗运输工艺具有运输成本低廉、空气与噪音污染小、能耗低的优点,在采场垂直开采深度≥85 m的深凹开采阶段具有较大优势。②大型斜坡箕斗运输工艺初期投资较大,系统相对固定,工艺环节较多,在采场垂直开采深度<85 m的浅部开采阶段

  14. Land reclamation in the lignite open pit mining industry of Central and Eastern Europe - a comparative discourse; Rekultivierung im Braunkohlenbergbau Mittel- und Osteuropas - eine vergleichende Betrachtung

    Drebenstedt, C. [TU Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany)


    This comparative discourse on land reclamation in the Central and East European lignite mining regions is based on a complex analysis of the prevailing natural, geological, technological and social conditions. Considering the above conditions, the reclaimed land in the mined-out lignite mines of Central and Eastern Europe will predominantly be used as forests, although farming is also possible under particularly suitable conditions. Some of the land is given over to recreational purposes and integrated into the relevant landscape. Large lakes in residual holes of former lignite mines have only been created in Germany so far, where the special requirements of nature preservation have also been given attention. As regards the planning and financing regulations and the regulations coordinating the use of the post-mining land, there are differences between the individual countries which must be attributed to the rather diverse legal conditions. In general, the tasks associated with recultivation are defined similarly, are based on scientific investigations and are implemented at a very high level. The exchange of experience should be continued also in the future. (orig.)

  15. Research of Rotary Drill Navigation System in Open-pit Mine based on GNSS%基于GNSS的露天矿牙轮钻机钻孔导航定位模型与系统研究

    吴浩; 李奎; 陶婧; 张建华; 叶海旺; 艾晓宗; 黎华; 鲍光明


    In order to improve the drilling accuracy and simplify the construction process,a rotary drill navigation system based on GNSS technology was proposed which closely related to the efficient production in open-pit mine. On the basis of establishing the architecture of system,a location model contains planar positioning and depth positioning was put forward. In addition,the function of system was detailed discussed which included graphical display,informa-tion management,navigation and quality evaluation. Development of such a system had a significant impact on drilling process by assisting driver navigation in real-time,which has helped in productivity improvement and decreased extra work. Besides,it has provided a construction management for blasting designer which was meaningful to the digitali-zation monitoring in open-pit mine.%从提高露天矿穿孔工艺质量角度出发,采用GNSS卫星导航定位方法,设计并开发出用于支持牙轮钻机钻孔作业的导航定位系统。介绍了系统的组成结构,重点阐述了支持钻头实时导航的平面定位模型和孔深定位模型,并讨论其具备的图形显示、信息管理、导航定位和质量评估四个核心功能。该系统可以为司机实时提供牙轮机钻头的三维空间位置,指导其钻孔作业全过程,不仅保证了爆破孔网参数的准确性和爆破效果,而且减轻人员工作强度,提高露天矿穿孔工作效率,提升数字矿山的信息化建设水平。

  16. Mineral Classification of Land Surface Using Multispectral LWIR and Hyperspectral SWIR Remote-Sensing Data. A Case Study over the Sokolov Lignite Open-Pit Mines, the Czech Republic

    Gila Notesco


    Full Text Available Remote-sensing techniques offer an efficient alternative for mapping mining environments and assessing the impacts of mining activities. Airborne multispectral data in the thermal region and hyperspectral data in the optical region, acquired with the Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS sensor over the Sokolov lignite open-pit mines in the Czech Republic, were analyzed. The emissivity spectrum was calculated for each vegetation-free land pixel in the longwave infrared (LWIR-region image using the surface-emitted radiation, and the reflectance spectrum was derived from the visible, near-infrared and shortwave-infrared (VNIR–SWIR-region image using the solar radiation reflected from the surface, after applying atmospheric correction. The combination of calculated emissivity, with the ability to detect quartz, and SWIR reflectance spectra, detecting phyllosilicates and kaolinite in particular, enabled estimating the content of the dominant minerals in the exposed surface. The difference between the emissivity values at λ = 9.68 µm and 8.77 µm was found to be a useful index for estimating the relative amount of quartz in each land pixel in the LWIR image. The absorption depth at around 2.2 µm in the reflectance spectra was used to estimate the relative amount of kaolinite in each land pixel in the SWIR image. The resulting maps of the spatial distribution of quartz and kaolinite were found to be in accordance with the geological nature and origin of the exposed surfaces and demonstrated the benefit of using data from both thermal and optical spectral regions to map the abundance of the major minerals around the mines.

  17. Monitoring of surface movement in a large area of the open pit iron mines (Carajás, Brazil) based on A-DInSAR techniques using TerraSAR-X data

    Mura, José C.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Gama, Fabio F.; Silva, Guilherme G.


    PSI (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry) analysis of large area is always a challenging task regarding the removal of the atmospheric phase component. This work presents an investigation of ground deformation measurements based on a combination of DInSAR Time-Series (DTS) and PSI techniques, applied in a large area of open pit iron mines located in Carajás (Brazilian Amazon Region), aiming at detect high rates of linear and nonlinear ground deformation. These mines have presented a historical of instability and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mines (pit walls) have been carried out based on ground based radar and total station (prisms). By using a priori information regarding the topographic phase error and phase displacement model derived from DTS, temporal phase unwrapping in the PSI processing and the removal of the atmospheric phases can be performed more efficiently. A set of 33 TerraSAR-X-1 images, acquired during the period from March 2012 to April 2013, was used to perform this investigation. The DTS analysis was carried out on a stack of multi-look unwrapped interferogram using an extension of SVD to obtain the Least-Square solution. The height errors and deformation rates provided by the DTS approach were subtracted from the stack of interferogram to perform the PSI analysis. This procedure improved the capability of the PSI analysis to detect high rates of deformation as well as increased the numbers of point density of the final results. The proposed methodology showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in a large mining area, which is located in a rain forest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for planning and risks control.

  18. 基于Surpac的铜陵新桥矿床露天开采境界优化%Surpac-based open-pit mining limit optimization for the Xinqiao ore deposit, Tongling

    崔灿; 袁峰; 李晓晖; 张明明; 贾蔡; 周涛发


      矿床的境界优化就是要设计一个最为接近理想状态的模型,使矿山企业利润最大化,在满足经济和边坡角几何约束的条件下,设计一个最终开采境界。基于三维地质矿业软件,可以将三维可视化技术与矿床的后期开采、生产进度编排进行紧密的结合,完成矿体形态与工程实体的衔接,其不同于传统境界优化的方法,可以在三维空间内进行境界优化的应用和研究。本研究选取SURPAC三维地质矿业软件系统,结合铜陵新桥矿床的实际需求,基于三维数字矿山模型,使用L-G算法规范的数学逻辑结构对露天采场进行境界优化。其结果可以为扩大经济效益提供详实的数据基础,并为新桥矿床开展更为合理的开采生产安排提出合理化建议。%  Deposit limit optimization is design of a closest-to ideal model to maximize mine profit. It is to design an ulti-mate mining limit after economic and slope geometric constraints are met. Three-D mining software can closely com-bine 3-D visualization technology with late mining, production progress arrangement of a deposit, achieving the align-ment of ore body form with the mining engineering entity. Different than traditional limit optimization, it can be opti-mized in 3-D space. This paper used Surpac 3-D mining software, considered the actual need of the mine, is based on 3-D digital mine model to perform open-pit limit optimization using L-G algorithm standard math logic structure, giv-ing suggestions for more reasonable mining of the Xinqao deposit.

  19. 平朔东露天矿作业环境与安全管理%Working environment and safety management in East Pingshuo Open-pit Mine

    马海渊; 刘果


    Safety management cannot be separated from the working environment, which directly affects the effectiveness of safety management. This article analyzes the safety problems of working environment and presents the measures of improving the working environment to improve the construction level of safe type mines and ensure the sustained and healthy development of the mines.%安全管理离不开作业环境,作业环境直接影响着安全管理的成效,通过对东露天矿作业环境安全隐患进行分析,提出改善作业环境的措施,从而提高本质安全型矿山的建设水平,保障矿山持续健康发展。

  20. Coal mining in socioeconomic aspect



    The article investigate the correlation of economic and social factors in the development of coal mining on example of vertically integrated companies with both domestic and foreign assets. The effect of socioeconomic aspects which have led to the American paradox of coal is studied to understand the essence of the coal mining industry at the present stage of the global economic management.

  1. Feasibility research on composite artificial boundary crown pillars in the transfer from open-pit to underground mining%露天转地下开采复合型人工境界顶柱可行性研究

    毛肖杰; 陈玉明; 吴爱梅


    针对传统露天转地下开采过程中留设的天然境界矿柱回采率低、损失大的缺点,在参考国内外相关文献的基础上,通过相关的技术经济比较和 FLAC3D 数值模拟分析,讨论了一种主要以钢筋混凝土为结构的人工境界顶柱代替天然境界矿柱作为境界顶柱的经济性和安全性。可行性研究结论可为类似工程设计时参考。%Natural boundary crown pillars set in the conventional transfer from open-pit to underground mining lead to low extraction rate and high ore loss.To solve the problem,the paper refers to related literature home and a-broad,compares technical indicators,conducts numerical simulation by FLA3D,and discusses the economy and safety of using artificial boundary crown pillars structured mainly by steel and concrete instead of natural crown pillars as boundary crown pillars.The feasibility research conclusion can be referred to in the design of similar projects.

  2. Slope stability analysis and optimum design in Dading open-pit iron mine%大顶铁矿露天采场边坡稳定性分析与优化设计

    蔡美峰; 朱青山; 乔兰; 李长洪; 王金安; 谭文辉


    The slope of Dading open-pit iron mine in south China has the characteristic of low rock strength and bad stability. Its basic information on engineering-geological conditions, hydro-geological conditions and rock mass structures together with physical and mechanical properties of rock mass was derived from systematical field and laboratory investigations, experiments and tests. Stability analysis and optimum design were done for the slope by using a combined method of numerical modeling and limit equilibrium analysis. The slope angle increases more than 3° compared with the original design.%针对大顶铁矿露天采场边坡岩体强度低、稳定性差的特点,在系统的现场工程地质、水文地质、岩体结构与岩性分布调查和岩石物理力学性质试验基础上,采用符合现代岩石力学原理的数值模拟和极限平衡相结合的方法,进行边坡稳定性和设计优化研究,并推荐了该矿的边坡设计方案.总体边坡角比原设计平均提高3°以上.

  3. Fiscal 1997 technological survey report. Engineer exchange project - coal mine technological field (Advanced coal producing country survey - U.S.A. survey); 1997 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) senshin santankoku chosa. Beikoku chosa



    While the introduction and adaptation of the Longwall excavation technology were carried forward for coal producing countries in the Pacific region, U.S.A. information was collected by making tours of coal mines in the West and Washington/Colorado/Utah States, with the intention of ascertaining technological trend so as to carry out efficient technological transfer, and for the purpose of replenishing the contents and contributing to the smooth implementation of the engineer exchange project in 'coal mine technological field'. The coal reserves are 400 billion tons, with 840 million tons produced and with 80 million tons exported; not less than 56% of the U.S. domestic electricity rests on coal. Production by open-pit mining is the majority while the output by underground mining is 38%; the Longwall method has increased as a digging method, taking 18% of all digging output. The productivity is 4.24 ton/person per day and ranks as the world highest. The coal mining technological trend in the U.S. can be summarized as follows. The coal mining output in the West is increasing, with the number of mines decreasing, so that the output per mine is increasing. With the output ratio by open-pit mining increasing, the digging method in the mine is being changed to the Longwall. (NEDO)

  4. 某矿山露天地下联合开采相互影响数值模拟分析%Numerical Simulation Analysis of the Interaction of a Mine in the Process of Open-pit Underground Combined Mining



    主要针对某露天矿进行露天地下联合开采而可能带来的矿房矿柱的稳定性问题进行模拟分析.项目开展过程中对该矿山进行了现场地应力测试和岩体力学测试分析,并对可能发生的工况建立9种计算模型,建立有限元2D及3D计算模型进行数值模拟,为该矿山后续设计提供基础依据,也为其他类似矿山提供借鉴意义.%Mainly aimed at simulation and analysis of the stability of the rooms and pillars of an Open-pit mine in the process of open-pit underground combined mining. Data of in-situ measurement of ground stress and rock mechanics was analyzed in the process of project of the mine. And 2D and 3D finite element model were set up for possible conditions in the nine calculation models. The calculation results of the finite element would provide the basis foundation to the subsequent design of the mine and greater reference significance to other similar mines.

  5. Optimization model of GNSS/pseudolites structure design for open-pit mine positioning%露天矿定位的GNSS/伪卫星结构优化模型

    单正英; 韩厚增; 姜昆


      提出新的露天矿GNSS/伪卫星组合定位系统的结构优化模型。通过引入空间位置精度因子(Pdop)与可靠性作为优化指标,建立多目标优化模型用于选择伪卫星的最优位置。在考虑实际环境的情况下,建立以方位角(a)、高度角(e)和历元(t)为自变量,Pdop为因变量的四维模型,并用于最优伪卫星布设带的选择。通过分析Pdop随时间的变化特征,最终确定最优的伪卫星布设位置。利用中国矿业大学校园内实测的天宝R8 GPS 数据测试模型的有效性,评价系统结构指标的变化规律,并将该模型用于抚顺矿业集团的西露天矿GNSS/伪卫星系统布设试验。通过模型优化可在降低成本的同时提高集成系统的整体性能,分析表明Pdop与可靠性都得到了有效提高。%A new pseudolites (PLs) structure optimization model of global navigation satellite system (GNSS)/PLs integration positioning system used in deep open-pit mine was presented. Position dilution of precision (Pdop) and reliability were selected as the optimization indicators to build a multi-objective optimization model to decide the optimum PLs location. A scheme was designed by establishing a four-dimensional model taking azimuth (a), elevation angle (e) and epoch (t) of satellites as the input independent variables and Pdop as the dependent variable to calculate the optimum PLs location zone considering the real circumstances. And then the ultimate PLs location can be fixed by testing the curves of Pdop along time. A field collected Trimble R8 GPS data set in China University of Mining and Technology (CUMT) campus was used for the model test to show the effectiveness, and the proposed PLs optimum design scheme was used at the west open-pit mine of Fushun mining group Co., Ltd., in China, better Pdop and reliability have been achieved for the integration system. Both experiments show that the proposed scheme is excellent in designing

  6. 降雨对某露天矿风化砂质边坡稳定性影响规律研究%Effect of Rainfall on the Stability of an Open-pit Mine's Weathered Sandy Slope

    李雪梅; 陈玉明; 袁利伟; 毛肖杰


    Slope stability is of great significance to the mine safety production. Upon choosing reasonable parameters and boundary conditions, a slope stability numerical model is established to simulate the slope rainfall infiltrations, the distribution of slip plane and slip line of an open-pit tungsten mine under different the conditions of different rainfalls and durations by applying slope stability analysis software Geo-studio. The safety factor of slope under different working conditions and influencing rule of rainfall infiltration on slope stability are obtained, which provides theoretical basis for the slope stability analysis. The safety factor results worked out from different slope stability analysis methods are compared, which showed the identical tendency.%边坡稳定性对矿山安全生产具有重要意义。文章结合云南某露天钨矿工程概况,应用边坡分析软件GEO-Studio,选择合理的参数及边界条件,建立边坡稳定性分析数值模型,模拟在不同降雨量、不同降雨持续时间条件下边坡的降雨入渗情况以及边坡滑移面、滑移线分布情况,得到在不同工况条件下边坡的安全系数及降雨渗流对边坡稳定性影响的规律,了解边坡失稳破坏的过程,为边坡稳定性分析提供理论依据。同时对比分析采用不同的边坡稳定性分析方法计算安全系数的结果,得出结果基本一致。

  7. Software development for geologic information management system on open-pit production

    Li, K.; Tian, A.; Ren, Z.; Pang, Y. [China University of Mining and Technomogy, Xuzhou (China). College of Mineral and Energy Resources


    A software, including geological data gathering and processing, deposit modelling, reserves calculating and mine map plotting, for geologic information management of open-pit production was developed. Based on the interactive technique, CAD, the object-oriented simulation, and the characteristics of geologic structures, all the geologic information databases and geologic mapping sub-systems have been established for open-pit production, planning and management. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Land reclamation beautifies coal mines

    Coblentz, B. [MSU Ag Communications (United States)


    The article explains how the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiments station, MAFES, has helped prepare land exploited by strip mining at North American Coal Corporation's Red Hills Mine. The 5,800 acre lignite mine is over 200 ft deep and uncovers six layers of coal. About 100 acres of land a year is mined and reclaimed, mostly as pine plantations. 5 photos.

  9. Coal Mine Methane in Russia



    This paper discusses coal mine methane emissions (CMM) in the Russian Federation and the potential for their productive utilisation. It highlights specific opportunities for cost-effective reductions of CMM from oil and natural gas facilities, coal mines and landfills, with the aim of improving knowledge about effective policy approaches.

  10. Optimization Of Blasting Design Parameters On Open Pit Bench A Case Study Of Nchanga Open Pits

    Victor Mwango Bowa


    Full Text Available Abstract In hard rock mining blasting is the most productive excavation technique applied to fragment insitu rock to the required size for efficient loading and crushing. In order to blast the insitu rock to the desired fragment size blast design parameter such as bench height hole diameter spacing burden hole length bottom charge specific charge and rock factor are considered. The research was carried out as a practical method on Nchanga Open Pits NOP ore Bench to optimize the blasting design parameters that can yield the required fragmentation size thereby reducing the shovel loading times and maximizing efficiency of the subsequent mining unit operations such as hauling and crushing. Fragmentation characteristics such as the mean fragment size were measured by means of a digital measuring tape and predicated using the Kuznetsov equation and rock factor value of ore bench was calculated using Lilly 1986 equations by means of rock characteristics. Traditional blasting design parameters were acquired for NOP and modified using Langerfors and Sharma P.A approaches. Several blast operations were conducted using both traditional and modified blasting design parameters on the same ore bench with the same geological conditions. Loading times of the shovel and fragment sizes were obtained after the blasts from ore bench where both the traditional and modified blasting design parameters were applied. Results show that mean fragment size and loading times were reduced from 51cm and 12minutes to 22cm and 3minutes where traditional and modified blasting design parameters were applied respectively.

  11. Patrones de sucesión vegetal sobre los depósitos de material residual en minas de gravas - Santa Fe de Bogotá Plant succession patterns on residual open-pit gravel mines deposits Bogota

    Mora Goyes Ricardo A.


    , textura, pH, cBased on both: the study of composition and structure of plant communities and the analysis of the physico-chemical characteristics of mining wastes, the initial patterns of primary succession were determined. These patterns were present in three deposits of waste material abandoned during 18, 36 and 120 months respectively. Sue materials were originated in open-pit gravel mines located to the south of Bogota (Colombia. This study pretends to contribute to the knowledge of the meehanlsms of natural restauration of tropical ecosystems subjected to man-borne degradation.

  12. 基于PGA-ANFIS的露天矿山生产成本优化控制研究%Optimization Control Research for Production Cost of Open Pit Mine Based on Parallel Genetic Algorithms and Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System

    游友珍; 戴剑勇


    According to the influencing factors of open-pit mine production process and production cost,the mine production cost model is set up with adaptive fuzzy inference sys-tem,then,the parameters of the model are optimized by parallel genetic algorithm,which realize the minimization of production cost of open-pit mine. With the cement raw material mine as an example,it successfully realized the optimization of production cost and techni-cal economic parameters of open-pit mine,which not only effectively reduced the produc-tion cost of mine,but also provided important reference for production cost control of manu-facturing enterprises.%根据露天矿山生产工艺流程及生产成本影响因素,运用自适应模糊推理系统建立矿山生产成本系统模型,应用并行遗传算法优化模型参数,实现露天矿山生产成本最小化。并以水泥原料矿山为例,成功实现了露天矿山生产成本与技术经济参数的优化问题,这不仅有效地降低了矿山生产成本,而且为制造企业生产成本控制提供了重要参考价值。

  13. Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COAL WORKERS' HEALTH SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases Coal mining-related respiratory ...

  14. Mining lore : Bankhead, mining for coal

    Nichiporuk, A.


    Bankhead, Alberta was one of the first communities to be established because of mining. It was founded in 1903 by the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) on Cascade Mountain in the Bow River Valley of Banff National Park. In 1904, Mine No. 80 was opened by the Pacific Coal Company to fuel CPR's steam engines. In order to avoid flooding the mine, the decision was made to mine up the steep seams instead of down. The mine entered full production in 1905. This article described the working conditions and pay scale for the mine workers, noting that there was not much in terms of safety equipment. There were many accidents and 15 men lost their lives at the mine. During the mine's 20-year operation, miners went on strike 6 times. The last strike marked the closure of the mine in June 1922 and the end of industry in national parks. CPR was ordered to clear out and move the mining equipment as well as the houses, buildings and essentially the entire town. During its peak production, Mine No. 80 produced about a half million tons of coal. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  15. The machinations in coal mining

    Round, C.


    The book presents a view of coal mining as seen by the author over a career of more than 40 years working in several coalfields in the UK and also undertaking consultancies and visits to coal mines in several other counties. It takes the format of episodes reported by the author of events and discussions with the people involved. There are three strands running through the book. Firstly, there is the biography of a family within the mining industry in the United Kingdom. The second strand of the book reflects the progress in mechanisation within the nationalised coal industry. Thirdly, the book traces the changes in the structural organisation of the British coal industry. The book captures the social side of the mining communities.

  16. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    Qingliang Chang


    Full Text Available Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application.

  17. Implementation of paste backfill mining technology in Chinese coal mines.

    Chang, Qingliang; Chen, Jianhang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao


    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application.

  18. Analysis of investment-benefit of the open pit underground proj ect in the Tuanj iegou mining field%团结沟采矿场露天转地下项目投资效益分析



    Tuanjiegou mine pit mining about 40 years and is now in the open-air remaining coal mining period,the existing deep ore body of underground mining is imperative under the situation.The article from the open turn underground project implementation,project investment and use of geological reserves,project benefit are briefly analyzed,in the current market price of gold low operation,after the implementation of the project is still unable to obtain better economic benefits.This paper can provide reference for similar mines.%团结沟采矿场露天开采约40年,现处于露天残采尾期,对现有深部矿体进行地下开采已势在必行.文章从露天转地下项目实施情况、工程投资、可利用地质储量情况、项目效益预测等方面进行了简析,在目前市场金价低位运行情况下,该项目实施后尚不能取得较好的经济效益.本文可为类似矿山提供参考.

  19. 基于卡车运输效率的露天矿山生产效率的主要影响因素分析%The Main In Fluencing Factor Analysis of Open - pit Mine Production Efficiency Based on Truck Transportation Effieiency

    陈毓; 杨志勇; 佟德君; 张东旭


    For the present large and modern open - pii with large - scale equipments and high degree of modernization, the efficiency of most mines" equipment has not been fully developed, which affects the economic benefits of mining. Factors affecting the efficiency of the device are management and equipment operation and maintenance. Through small - scale manual calibration of local production of one work shift in domestic open - pit mine site, the factors of restricting open pit truck transportation and production efficiency are ana- lyzed, which provides data support to enhance mine productivity efficiency.%对于目前大型的现代化露天矿,设备的大型化、现代化程度高,大部分矿山的设备的效率未能充分发挥,在相当程度上影响了矿山的经济效益。影响设备效率的因素主要堤管理和设备的运营维护等问题,通过在国内某露天矿现场对某一班次局部生产进行小范围人工标定,以分析制约露天矿卡车运输生产效率的因素,为有效的提升矿山生产效率提供数据支持。

  20. Environmental Reconnaissance of Shivee-Ovoo Coal Mine, Mongolia

    Battogtokh, B.; Woo, N. C.; Nemer, B.


    Mining sector is one of most rapidly developing industries in Mongolia for the last several decades. However, environmental monitoring and protection measures have been left out. An exploratory investigation was conducted to evaluate potential impacts of the mining activities on the soil and water environment at the Shivee-Ovoo surface coal mine. Water samples were collected from the mine dewatering boreholes, discharge lakes and drinking water sources around the mine area. High levels of electrical conductivity, ranging from 325μS/cm to 2,909μS/cm, indicate significant contents of dissolved solids in water. In general, Mg, Fe, F and EC levels in drinking water exceed the level of Mongolian and WHO guidelines for drinking water, and they appear to result from water-rock interaction along the groundwater flow paths. Hierarchical cluster analysis implies that the waters from the mine area and those from public water-supply wells be originated from the same aquifer. However, the water from the spring, dug well and artesian well are grouped separately, indicating different geological effects due to the shallow groundwater system with relatively short period of water-rock interaction. Groundwater dewatering for open-pit mine excavation causes significant water-level decline, and subsequently, the residents nearby areas happen to be provided with water from the deeper aquifer, which has with higher dissolved solids probably through longer period of water-rock interaction. Soil samples were collected from the top, middle and lower soil layers of excavation bench, mine-waste dump sites, topsoil and subsoil from nearby area of the mine. To evaluate potential of Acid Rock Drainage (ARD), samples were analyzed for chemical composition using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results show 0.36% of sulfur in only one sample, collected from waste dumping site of low quality coal. Since sulfur component were not detected in other samples, there appear no apparent threat of

  1. Economic Limit of Coal Mining Closedown in Restructuring Coal Industry


    One of the key points in restructuring the coal industry is to close some deficient coal mines which haveneither economic result nor social benefit. Based on the relationship among production, cost, and profit, differenteconomic limits for closing coal mines in different cases were put forward. The relationship between the profit andclosedown cost of deficient coal mines was analyzed and an overall economic limit for closing a deficient coal minewas also proposed.

  2. Study on Environment Characteristics for Mining Management at East Pit 3 West Banko Coal Mine

    Neny Rochyani


    Full Text Available The management on mining environment is closely related to the environmental characteristics and the condition of mining itself.  In East PIT 3 West Banko Coal Mine Tanjung Enim mine drainage system has been developed which refers to the open pit method employed by the company. The observation and analysis showed that the sludge settling ponds have been constructed as well as adequate catchment area. To discharge water into the channel at 0.3016 m 3 / sec can still be accommodated due to the dimensions of the channel that can accommodate an intake capacity of 1,639 m 3 / sec. While the use of lime made in the settling ponds  with the ratio of 0.7 g: 1 liter of water indicates the water quality test results that meet the environmental quality standards that the pH is 6.7 with a TSS of 12mg / l Fe content was 2.1580 mg / l and Mn content of 1.3 mg / l.

  3. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    Qingliang Chang; Jianhang Chen; Huaqiang Zhou; Jianbiao Bai


    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology a...

  4. UK coal mining engineering capability



    The document outlines the current position of underground coal mining in the UK and identifies the key suppliers of equipment and services, in the following sections: longwall face machinery; roadway drivage; seismic exploration; ventilation; methane drainage; underground transport; electrical and control systems; underground safety; research and development; consultancy services; coal associations. A directory of 43 companies organizations and academic institutions is included. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  5. RTRO–Coal: Real-Time Resource-Reconciliation and Optimization for Exploitation of Coal Deposits

    Benndorf, J.; Yueksel, C.; Soleymani, M.; Rosenberg, H.; Thielemann, T.; Mittmann, R.; Lohsträter, O.M.; Lindig, M.; Minnecker, C.; Donner, R.; Naworyta, W.


    This contribution presents an innovative and integrated framework for real-time-process reconciliation and optimization (RTRO) in large continuous open pit coal mines. RTRO-Coal is currently developed, validated, tested and implemented as part of a multi-national multi-partner European Union funded

  6. Fibre Optics In Coal Mining

    Cooper, Paul


    Coal mines have a number of unique problems which affect the use of fibre optic technology. These include a potentially explosive atmosphere due to the evolution of methane from coal, and a dirty environment with no cleaning facilities readily available. Equipment being developed by MRDE to allow the exploitation of optical fibres underground includes: A hybrid electrical/fibre optic connector for the flexible power trailing cable of the coal-face shearer; An Intrinsically Safe (IS) pulsed laser transmitter using Frequency Shift Key (FSK) data modulation; An IS Avalanche Photo Diode Receiver suitable for pulsed & continuous wave optical signals; A mine shaft and roadway cable/ connector system incorporating low loss butt-splices and preterminated demountable connectors.

  7. 30 CFR 49.20 - Requirements for all coal mines.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for all coal mines. 49.20 Section... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.20 Requirements for all coal mines. (a) The operator of each underground coal mine shall make available two certified mine...

  8. First Mexican coal mine recovery after mine fire, Esmeralda Mine

    Santillan, M.A. [Minerales Monclova, SA de CV, Palau Coahuila (Mexico)


    The fire started on 8 May 1998 in the development section from methane released into the mine through a roof-bolt hole. The flames spread quickly as the coal was ignited. After eight hours the Safety Department decided to seal the vertical ventilation shafts and the slopes. The quality of coal in the Esmeralda Mine is very high quality, and Minerales Monclova (MIMOSA) decided to recover the facilities. However, the Esmeralda Mine coals have a very high gas content of 12 m{sup 3}/t. During the next 2.5 months, MIMOSA staff and specialists observed and analysed the gas behaviour supported by a chromatograph. With the results of the observations and analyses, MIMOSA in consultation with the specialists developed a recovery plan based on flooding the area in which fire might have propagated and in which rekindling was highly probable. At the same time MIMOSA trained rescue teams. By 20 August 1998, the mine command centre had re-opened the slopes seal. Using a 'Step-by-Step' system, the rescue team began the recovery process by employing cross-cuts and using an auxiliary fan to establish the ventilation circuit. The MIMOSA team advanced into the mine as far as allowed by the water level and was able to recover the main fan. The official mine recovery date was 30 November 1998. Esmeralda Mine was back in operation in December 1998. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  9. Mining-Induced Coal Permeability Change Under Different Mining Layouts

    Zhang, Zetian; Zhang, Ru; Xie, Heping; Gao, Mingzhong; Xie, Jing


    To comprehensively understand the mining-induced coal permeability change, a series of laboratory unloading experiments are conducted based on a simplifying assumption of the actual mining-induced stress evolution processes of three typical longwall mining layouts in China, i.e., non-pillar mining (NM), top-coal caving mining (TCM) and protective coal-seam mining (PCM). A theoretical expression of the mining-induced permeability change ratio (MPCR) is derived and validated by laboratory experiments and in situ observations. The mining-induced coal permeability variation under the three typical mining layouts is quantitatively analyzed using the MPCR based on the test results. The experimental results show that the mining-induced stress evolution processes of different mining layouts do have an influence on the mechanical behavior and evolution of MPCR of coal. The coal mass in the PCM simulation has the lowest stress concentration but the highest peak MPCR (approximately 4000 %), whereas the opposite trends are observed for the coal mass under NM. The results of the coal mass under TCM fall between those for PCM and NM. The evolution of the MPCR of coal under different layouts can be divided into three sections, i.e., stable increasing section, accelerated increasing section and reducing section, but the evolution processes are slightly different for the different mining layouts. A coal bed gas intensive extraction region is recommended based on the MPCR distribution of coal seams obtained by simplifying assumptions and the laboratory testing results. The presented results are also compared with existing conventional triaxial compression test results to fully comprehend the effect of actual mining-induced stress evolution on coal property tests.

  10. SLOPE/W在某露天煤矿采掘场边坡稳定性分析中的应用%Application of SLOPEP/W in Slope Stability Analysis of an Open Pit Mining Field

    赵星宇; 王卫; 戴雄辉; 毕芬芬


    某煤矿采掘场非工作帮边坡为软岩高边坡,为分析边坡是否存在潜在安全隐患而影响施工进度及施工安全,进行了非工作帮边坡的稳定性分析.采用Geo-studio软件中的Slope/W模块建立了边坡的计算模型,并用Bishop法和Morgenstern-price法对暴雨工况和暴雨叠加地震工况进行计算,得出边坡的稳定性系数.推测的滑面计算结果与边坡稳定性评价的标准进行对比,发现计算结果与现场勘察后预测结论基本一致.该边坡整体稳定性为基本稳定.%The nonworking slope of a coal mining field is a high soft rocky slope. In order to analyze the slope whether there is a potential security risk to affect the construction schedule and construction safety, the stability of the nonworking slope is analyzed. The computational model of the slope is established with the Slope/W module in Geo-studio software, the rainstorm working condition and heavy rain superposition seism condition are calculated with Bishop and Morgenstem-price method, and the stability factor of the slope is obtained. Finally, compared the calculation results of the speculated sliding surface with the slope stability assessment standards, it is found that the calculation results and site survey forecasting conclusions are basically the same. The whole stability of the slope is basically stable.

  11. Coal Mines, Abandoned - COAL_MINE_UNDERGROUND_IN: Underground Coal Mines in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — COAL_UND, the predecessor of COAL_MINE_UNDERGROUND_IN, is a polygon-based ESRI ArcView shapefile that shows the location and extent of underground coal mines in the...

  12. Coal Mines, Abandoned - COAL_MINE_ENTRIES_IN: Underground Coal Mine Entrances in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Point Shapefile)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — SW_COAL_ENTRY, the predecessor of COAL_MINE_ENTRIES_IN, is a point- based ESRI ArcView shapefile that shows the locations of underground coal mine entrances in the...

  13. Organic petrology of Paleocene Marcelina Formation coals, Paso Diablo mine, western Venezuela: Tectonic controls on coal type

    Hackley, P.C.; Martinez, M.


    About 7??Mt of high volatile bituminous coal are produced annually from the four coal zones of the Upper Paleocene Marcelina Formation at the Paso Diablo open-pit mine of western Venezuela. As part of an ongoing coal quality study, we have characterized twenty-two coal channel samples from the mine using organic petrology techniques. Samples also were analyzed for proximate-ultimate parameters, forms of sulfur, free swelling index, ash fusion temperatures, and calorific value. Six of the samples represent incremental benches across the 12-13??m thick No. 4 bed, the stratigraphically lowest mined coal, which is also mined at the 10??km distant Mina Norte open-pit. Organic content of the No. 4 bed indicates an upward increase of woody vegetation and/or greater preservation of organic material throughout the life of the original mire(s). An upward increase in telovitrinite and corresponding decrease in detrovitrinite and inertinite illustrate this trend. In contrast, stratigraphically higher coal groups generally exhibit a 'dulling upward' trend. The generally high inertinite content, and low ash yield and sulfur content, suggest that the Paso Diablo coals were deposited in rain-fed raised mires, protected from clastic input and subjected to frequent oxidation and/or moisture stress. However, the two thinnest coal beds (both 0.7??m thick) are each characterized by lower inertinite and higher telovitrinite content relative to the rest of Paso Diablo coal beds, indicative of less well-established raised mire environments prior to drowning. Foreland basin Paleocene coals of western Venezuela, including the Paso Diablo deposit and time-correlative coal deposits of the Ta??chira and Me??rida Andes, are characterized by high inertinite and consistently lower ash and sulfur relative to Eocene and younger coals of the area. We interpret these age-delimited coal quality characteristics to be due to water availability as a function of the tectonic control of subsidence rate. It

  14. Coal Mine Methane in Russia [Russian Version



    This paper discusses coal mine methane emissions (CMM) in the Russian Federation and the potential for their productive utilisation. It highlights specific opportunities for cost-effective reductions of CMM from oil and natural gas facilities, coal mines and landfills, with the aim of improving knowledge about effective policy approaches.

  15. Rockburst disasters in coal mine

    Manchao HE


    The ruckburst of granite from Kailuan coal mine was reproduced by a new triaxial experimental system. The experimental results show that the rockburst process can be divided into four stages including calm period, grain ejection, sheet cracking and entire collapse. The rockburst intensity is classified by the ratio of maximum principal stress to uniaxial compressive strength. Three types of rockburst for the granite have been defined as delayed rockburst, normal rockburst, and instantaneous rockburst, according to the duration from suddenly unloading to rockburst occurring. Primary mechanism for the granite was studied.

  16. 76 FR 70075 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines


    ... Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION... addressing Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. This... Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. MSHA conducted hearings on October 18, October...




    This paper discribes the importance and necessity of the study on the data structures for displaying the mining field using the interactive technology in open pit design and planning,based upon the grid block model. The commonly used data structures--rectangular array structure and quadtree structure ,are analyzed. Two compressed data structures--compressed circular link array structure and compressed doubly-linked circular array structure,are proposed,which are much more suitable for displaying the regularly gridded block model. When the two compressed data structures are adopted,the storage space can be tremendously saved and the algorithms are simple,while the requirements of the accuracy and the manipulating speed will be both satisfied for the interactive open pit short range plan formulation.

  18. Obed Mountain Coal railcar loading automation

    Templeton, J.C. [Hinz Consulting Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    Coal from Obed Mountain Coal`s open pit mine near Hinton, Alberta is carried 11 km. by conveyor from the plant to the train loadout facility. The loadout facility is equipped with an upgraded computer system. The bin weighing system and the train car scale are connected directly to the loadout computer. The operator has complete information to collect, enter, and access information and to produce manifest and summary reports, in addition to controlling the loadout facility. 7 figs.

  19. Development and testing of methods for in-situ-monitoring the environmental problems in areas of abandoned open-pit lignite mines. Final report; Entwicklung und Erprobung von Methoden zur In-situ-Langzeitueberwachung fuer Probleme der Folgelandschaften des Braunkohlenbergbaus. Schlussbericht

    Knoedel, K.; Koenig, F.


    In the project a concept and prototypes have been developed and tested for an automatic, computer-based monitoring of sites suspected to be hazardous in areas of abandoned open-pit lignite mines. In-situ measurements with milieuparameter probes and an optical sensor system in observation wells are combined with measurements between the wells using an electromagnetic system. Methods are being developed for monitoring the vadose and saturated zones. The areas of abandoned open-pit lignite mines in eastern Germany are not in a steady-state condition. Considerable changes are occurring due to redistribution and aeration of the sediments during removal of the overburden, due to disposal of solid and liquid wastes in the mine area, as well as to the re-establishment of normal groundwater levels. Monitoring will help to better understand the system. Precautionary and remedial measures must also be monitored as well as natural attenuation of pollutants. The results of the project are encouraging with regard to the range of the electromagnetic monitoring system as well as with regard to the long-term stability. Hence, the efficiency will be tested at a reference object in a long time test. (orig.) [German] Im Vorhaben sind ein Konzept und Prototypen fuer die vollautomatische, rechnergestuetzte Langzeitueberwachung (Monitoring) von Altlastenstandorten in den Braunkohlenbergbaufolgelandschaften entwickelt und getestet worden. Das Konzept basiert auf der Kombination lokaler Messungen mit Milieuparametersonden und einem System zur optischen Spektrometrie mit raeumlichen Ueberwachungsmethoden eines elektromagnetischen Ueberwachungssystems. Dabei wurden Loesungen sowohl fuer ein Monitoring in der wassergesaettigten als auch in der ungesaettigten Zone entwickelt. Derartige Ueberwachungssysteme werden kuenftig benoetigt, um zu einem besseren Verstaendnis und zur Loesung der Probleme in den Braunkohlenbergbaufolgelandschaften zu kommen, die durch die Belueftung und Umstrukturierung

  20. FY 2000 international exchange project on exchanges of engineers - Coal mine technology field. Overseas workshop (Indonesia); 2000 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Kaigai workshop (Indonesia)



    For the purpose of making effective technology exchanges and surveying levels of technology in Indonesia and the needs and possibilities of technology transfer from Japan, workshop was held in Jakarta city on March 1, 2001. Subjects were the following seven: subjects on coal resource and technical strategy in the 21st century, challenge in coal development in Indonesia, geological structure survey at Tanjung Enim coal mine, waste water treatment in Indonesia, outlook for underground mining coal mines, joint research on the centralized monitoring system, and introduction of the optimum high wall coal mining system into open pit mining coal mines in Indonesia. The coal production amount in Indonesia was 75 million tons, and the domestic demand was 22 million tons. Japan imported 14 million tons from Indonesia. In coal mines in Indonesia, most of the coal preparation plants have no waste water treatment facilities. Considering that waste water treatment facilities are necessary for the plants in future, the joint research was made on the simple coal preparation waste water treatment system. (NEDO)

  1. Injury experience in coal mining, 1990



    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1990. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  2. Injury experience in coal mining, 1992

    Reich, R.B.; Hugler, E.C.


    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  3. The innovational mining technology of fully mechanized mining on thin coal seam

    Sheng, G.; Sun, Q.; Song, H. [China Ocean University, Qingdao (China)


    The paper describes the innovational fully mechanized mining technology practised on thin coal seams in Tianchen coal mine. This mining technology combined fully mechanized mining and orthodox working face mining. The technology is suitable for mining of particularly thin coal seams. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. 露天煤矿油库环境风险评价%Risk assessment of oil depot environment in open-pit coal mine




  5. 基于复利法的露天矿山生产设备优化配置%Optimized Configuration of Mechanical Equipment in Open-Pit Mines Based on the Compound Interest Method

    吴长振; 戴剑勇; 杨仕教


    Considering the time value of funds, based on the depreciation method of compound interest and the relationship between mine production scale and equipment capacity and actual conditions of mines, the paper solves the optimized configuration problem about the type of main mechanical equipment and the quantity by applying integrated planning and Matlab software at the preliminary scheduling phase. This optimized configuration scheme brings better benefits for mining enterprises and provides a new idea about optimized configuration of equipment in capital construction phase of mine.%考虑到资金使用的时间价值,依据复利法的折旧方式以及矿山生产规模与设备生产能力的关系,结合矿山的实际情况,运用整数规划及Matlab软件解决露天矿山在生产规划阶段主体机械的设备型号、数量选择的优化配置问题,进而使矿山取得较好的经营效益,为基建期的矿山企业优化机械设备提供了一种新思路.

  6. Discussion on the Geological Environment Management Mode of the Abandoned Open-pit Mine in Beijing%北京露天废弃矿山地质环境治理模式探讨

    李岩; 赵中锋


    北京地区许多废弃的无主老矿山未实施矿山环境治理和土地资源恢复工程,矿区内地质环境和生态条件恶劣。本文对废弃矿山及其治理工程特点进行了分析,运用灰色关联度分析法,阐述了矿山废弃地土地资源破坏效应的四个因素——地表景观效应、土体污染效应、次生灾害效应、生态环境之间的联系。以房山区石窝大理石矿山废弃地治理工程为例,提出了矿山废弃地治理以矿山环境、灾害治理为主,以园林景观绿化为辅相结合的二维治理模式,在地形整治、挡土墙、绿化等措施的基础上进行园林景观的设计,结合周边居民生活需求,利用矿区内的正负地形渣堆和采石坑,进行景观的再生和组合,将采石坑设计成下沉式休闲公园和健身广场,希望通过园林景观绿化工程的实施,改善矿区及周边地表景观和生态环境。%For many abandoned unowned old mine in Beijing, the environment management and land resources restoration project have not been implemented yet, and geological environment and the ecological conditions are bad in the mine. In this paper, the abandoned mine and engineering characteristics of treatment are analyzed, and using grey correlation analysis method this paper expounds the destruction of land resources of abandoned lands of mines effect of four factors - the landscape effect, effect of soil pollution and secondary disaster effect, the relationship between the ecological environment. In fangshan district marble stone nest engineerings of abandoned lands of mines, for example, puts forward the management on mine environment, disaster management of abandoned lands of mines is given priority to, with the combination of landscape greening as the auxiliary two-dimensional governance model, the terrain regulation, retaining wall, such as green measures on the basis of landscape design, combined with the surrounding residents

  7. 露天矿卡车调度系统数据处理技术的研究%Research on data processing technique of open-pit mine truck dispatch system

    王振军; 卢明银


    利用数据仓库DW(Data Warehouse)、联机分析处理OLAP(On-Line Analytical Processing)、数据挖掘DM(Data Mining)等技术对露天矿卡车调度系统存有的大量数据,提出分析处理的思路和方法.

  8. Injury experience in coal mining, 1991


    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. Data used in compiling this report were reported by operators of coal mines and preparation plants on a mandatory basis as required under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, Public Law 91-173,as amended by Public Law 95-164. Since January 1, 1978, operators of mines or preparation plants or both which are subject to the Act have been required under 30 CFR, Part 50, to submit reports of injuries, occupational illnesses, and related data.

  9. Informationization of coal enterprises and digital mine

    Lu, Jian-jun; Wang, Xiao-lu; Ma, Li; Zhao, An-xin [Xi' an University of Science and Technology, Xi' an (China). School of Communication and Information Engineering


    The main problems which were found in current conditions and problems of informationization in coal enterprises in China were analysed. The paper clarified how to achieve informationization in coal mining and put forward a general configuration of informationization construction in which informationization in coal enterprises was divided into two parts: informationization of safety production and informationization of management. A platform of integrated management of informationization in coal enterprises was planned. Ultimately, it was considered that an overall integrated digital mine is the way to achieve the goal of informatonization in coal enterprises, which can promote the application of automation, digitalization, networking, informaitionization to intellectualization. At the same time, the competitiveness of enterprises can be improved entirely and a new type of coal industry can be supported by information technology. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Informationization of coal enterprises and digital mine

    LU Jian-jun; WANG Xiao-lu; MA Li; ZHAO An-xin


    Analyzed the main problems which were found in current conditions and prob-lems of informationization in coal enterprises. It clarified how to achieve informationizationin coal mine and put forward a general configuration of informationization construction inwhich informationization in coal enterprises was divided into two parts: informationizationof safety production and informationization of management. Planned a platform of inte-grated management of informationization in coal enterprises. Ultimately, it has broughtforward that an overall integrated digital mine is the way to achieve the goal of informa-tionization in coal enterprises, which can promote the application of automation, digitaliza-tion, networking, informaitionization to intellectualization. At the same time, the competi-tiveness of enterprises can be improved entirely, and new type of coal industry can besupported by information technology.

  11. 78 FR 58264 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines


    ... Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for information...) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension gives interested parties additional... for Underground Coal Mines. The RFI comment period had been scheduled to close on October 7, 2013....

  12. 78 FR 48591 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines


    ... Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 153... 30 CFR Part 75 RIN 1219-AB84 Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and... alternatives in underground coal mines. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit...

  13. 78 FR 48593 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines


    ... Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for information... the existing rule during underground coal mine emergencies. The Agency continues to reiterate that in the event of an underground coal mine emergency, a miner should seek escape as the first line...

  14. 78 FR 73471 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines


    ... Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for information...) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension gives interested parties additional... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. The RFI comment period was originally scheduled to close on October...

  15. Study of application of ERTS-1 imagery to fracture-related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry

    Wier, C. E. (Principal Investigator); Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Russell, O. R.; Amato, R. V.


    The author has identified the following significant results. Numerous fractures are identifiable on the 1:120,000 color infrared photography. Some of these fractures are in the proximity of operating open pit mines and should provide opportunities for field checking and confirmation.

  16. Prevention of explosion in coal mine and management of coal mine gas

    FURUKAWA Hirofumi; LI Bingrui; TOMITA Shinji


    There are many problems in terms of safe coal production and the sound de-velopment of the coal industry. Accompanying the intensification and increasing efficiency of coal production and the conducting of mining operations at deeper and more remote areas of mines, the efficient recovery and utilization of Coal Mine Methane (CMM) is an important issue in improving and stabilizing the productivity in the coal mining industry with high levels of gas, where the incidence of gas outbursts is increasing. We plan to study various aspects of the development of production technology and characteristics of the mine site. This is to establish the technology for highly efficient coproduction coal and gas operation rate. As a result, the productivity at the coal mine face will increase due to the reduction in gas emissions in the mining face. Effective use of recovered gas can be ex-pected to reduce global warming by reducing the amount of coal mine methane gas emis-sion in the air.

  17. Evaluating the risk of coal bursts in underground coal mines

    Mark Christopher⇑; Gauna Michael


    Coal bursts involve the sudden, violent ejection of coal or rock into the mine workings. They are almost always accompanied by a loud noise, like an explosion, and ground vibration. Bursts are a particular haz-ard for miners because they typically occur without warning. Despite decades of research, the sources and mechanics of these events are not well understood, and therefore they are difficult to predict and control. Experience has shown, however, that certain geologic and mining factors are associated with an increased likelihood of a coal burst. A coal burst risk assessment consists of evaluating the degree to which these risk factors are present, and then identifying appropriate control measures to mitigate the hazard. This paper summarizes the U.S. and international experience with coal bursts, and describes the known risk factors in detail. It includes a framework that can be used to guide the risk assessment process.

  18. 露天采矿爆破振动特征参量的Logistic-ELM预测%Predicting blasting vibration characteristic parameters in open-pit mining based on Logistic-ELM

    温廷新; 戚磊; 邵良杉


    针对露天采矿爆破过程中特征参量的预测问题,采用Logistic回归分析和极限学习机(ELM )方法,选取总药量、水平距离、高差、前排抵抗线大小、预裂缝穿透率、岩体完整性、传播介质、测点与爆区相对位置、炸药爆速等9个主要影响因素,利用Logistic回归方法分析各个因素的重要程度,提取最主要的因素作为ELM模型的输入,建立基于Logistic‐ELM的露天采矿爆破振动特征参量预测模型。采用露天矿实际爆破过程中测量的100组数据作为学习样本,用于预测模型的训练,使用所得模型对其余15组检验样本进行预测并与真实结果对比。实验结果表明,经过Logistic回归分析提取影响爆破振动特征参量的主要因素后,所得模型可有效预测露天采矿爆破振动的特征参量,误差率较低。%In view of predicting characteristic parameters in the blasting process of open‐pit mining ,Logistic regression analysis and extreme learning machine (ELM ) method was used ,total dose ,horizontal distance and elevation difference ,size of the front resistance wire ,pre‐splitting fissure permeability ,rock mass integrity ,transmission medium ,relative position of measuring point and blasting area ,detonation velocity of explosive were selected as influence factors .Logistic regression method was used to analyze the factors’ important degree ,the main factors were extracted as input of ELM model ,then the blasting vibration characteristic parameters prediction model in open‐pit mining based on Logistic‐ELM was established .Taking 100 groups of open‐pit mining blasting data as learning samples and they were used to train the model .The model was used to forecast another 15 sets of data and compare with true values .Results show that after extracting main factors influencing the blasting vibration characteristic parameters with Logistic regression analysis ,the model can

  19. Recultivation of the cavity of the closed open pit Bor

    Lilić Jasmina


    Full Text Available Copper ore is one of the most important raw materials for industrial production. Increasing demands have been increasing its extraction generally. Shallow deposits with higher copper grade are mostly exhausted and the open pits become deeper, also the amount of overburden and the problems of its disposal are increased. In some cases large quantities of overburden can solve the problem of recultivation of degraded areas. This is the case of recultivation of degraded areas on the location of the closed open pit Bor. Here, the overburden from another open pit, Veliki Krivelj, is disposed into the cavity of the open pit Bor. In this way the overburden is disposed without further area degradation and the cavity is primarily, technically recultivated. When the filling process is finished, waste depot will have a flat top at the level K+450 [2], which is above the neighboring terrain, and the slopes height will vary. This problem was not especially considered up to date, so the experiences in this field are humble. This paper intends to be the basis for further research.

  20. Coal mines around Accrington and Blackburn

    Nadin, J.


    A companion to an earlier book on 'The coal-mines of East Lancashire', this volume covers coal mining in the townships of Church, Accrington, Oswaldthistle, Baxenden, Blackburn and Lower and Over Darmen, which are to the west. After a short history of the mining companies George Hargreaves & Co., and Simpson & Young, the book gives short historical accounts of all known coalmines, arranged in alphabetical order. It gives copious accounts of accidents and injuries in the pits, to both men and young children. The text and plates give an interesting insight into an area where coal mining goes back at least to the 15th century. Large scale extraction began at the turn of the 19th century. Many articles are reproduced from the local newspapers. An index of personnel names mentioned is included. 19 refs., 30 figs., 23 plates.

  1. Intelligent scheduling system application in complex open-pit mine production%智能调度指挥系统在复杂露天矿生产中的应用

    张荣雨; 付芳; 高永峰


    Baiyunebo Iron Mine Company of Baogang Group has been using human dispatching in duetion. In order to solve the relevant problems, such as overstaffed organization and personnel, pro- production decision-maker cannot real-time understand the situation of production site, an intelligent scheduling command system is proposed, including the optimal path planning dynamic programming subsystem model, realized automatic scheduling , linear programming and the excavator and dump truck. Intelligent dispatching system has been put into application since January, 2010 ,which greatly reduced the production cost, improved the production efficiency.%包钢(集团)公司白云鄂博铁矿建矿多年来一直沿用人工调度指挥生产,为了解决人工调度遇到的机构臃肿、人员众多、生产决策人员不能实时了解生产现场情况等问题,自云鄂博铁矿采用智能调度指挥系统,利用最佳路径、线性规划和动态规划子模型,实现了电铲、运矿车自动调度。智能调度指挥系统于2010年1月正式运行,大大降低了生产成本,提高了生产效率。

  2. Coal Mining Spoil Heap Management as urban solid waste dump; Utilizacion de Escombreras de Carbon como Vertedero Controlado de Residuos Solidos Urbanos



    In the coordinated project DISPOSAL OF SOLID RESIDUES FROM COAL it is included the project Coal Mining Spoil Heap Management as Urban Solid Waste Dump. The main target of this project consisted of determining the viability of using coal mining spoil heaps, as controlled dubbish dump of urban solid wastes. The working plan to achieve this objective was composed of the following stages: 1. Urban solid wastes characterization. 2. Methodology to be followed for the selection of coal mining spoil heaps as controlled dump of urban solid wastes. 2.1 Classification and preliminary assessment of the possibility of using spoil heaps as urban solid waste dumps (APT/NON APT). 2.2 Realization of geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and environmental studies applied to the spoil heaps classified as APT. 2.3 Analysis of the compatibility of the mining activity with the urban solid wastes dumped on the spoil heap. 2.4 Analysis of the use of coal mining wastes in the rubbish dump operative life. 3. Extraction of conclusions. The works were focused in the Leon province. As result of the researches we obtained the following results and conclusions: In the areas studied, only two emplacements are optima to dump urban solid wastes; spoil heap n. 13. Roguera Mine (Cinera-Matallana) and the open pit mine n. 4, Las Chaviadas, in Villablino. The active spoil heap use as controlled rubbish dump can cause, if not managed adequately, several coperating and occupational problems to the mine and to the company that manages the urban solid wastes. The abandoned spoil heap utilisation is difficult due to the problems that would arise when conditioning the site to be use as rubbish dump. The use of abandoned open pit mines, as controlled rubbish dump is feasible if geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and environmental studies support it. It's possible the use of the coal mining wastes in the different operatives phases of the controlled rubbish dump. The evaluation methodology

  3. 30 CFR 49.40 - Requirements for large coal mines.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for large coal mines. 49.40 Section 49.40 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.40 Requirements for large...

  4. 30 CFR 49.30 - Requirements for small coal mines.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for small coal mines. 49.30 Section 49.30 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.30 Requirements for small...

  5. 生物腐植酸对露天矿排土场黑麦草生长的影响%Effects of Biological Humic Acid on Growth of Lolium Multi f lorum in Open-pit Mine Dump

    张志玲; 王东丽; 尹志刚; 刘毅; 雷虹; 姜东奇; 苑子琦


    Objective] The effect of biological humic acid on soil improvement in open‐pit mine dump was studied ,in order to provide scientific references for the improvement of soil quality .[Methods] Biological humic acid with different contents (0—400 kg/hm2 ) were added in five different kinds of soil which were derived from five land use types(Robinia pseudoacacia forest ,Ulmus pumila forest ,V itex negundo forest , farming land and unutilized land) .Pot experiments were conducted by planting Lolium multif lorum species . The effects of biological humic acid on soil improvement were investigated .[Results] The maximum emer‐gence rate for the soil from R .pseudoacacia ,U .pumila ,V .negundo ,farming and unutilized land occurred when the amounts of biological humic acid were 200 ,200 ,300 ,300 and 200 kg/hm2 ,respectively .The max‐imum amount of biological humic acid required by Lolium multi f lorum seedling for five different kinds of soil were 200 ,200 ,200 ,300 and 300 kg/hm2 .The maximum root length occurred when the amounts of biologi‐cal humic acid were 300 ,100 ,300 ,300 and 300 kg/hm2 ,respectively ,and the maximum biomass occurred when the amount were 200 ,100 ,200 ,300 and 300 kg/hm2 ,respectively .As the biological humic acid increases ,all the seedling emergence ,seedling height ,root length and seedling biomass showed a downward trend before an increase .[Conclusion] There was a dose effect of the biological humic acid on the plant regeneration and growth in different soil of open‐pit mine dump .The change curves of the relations for the plant regeneration and grow th and the biological humic acid appeared as a “single‐peak”shape ,w hich indicate that a balanced amount of biological humic acid could improve the vegetation recovery in open‐pit mine dump .%[目的]研究生物腐植酸对露天矿排土场土壤改良效果的影响,为进一步提高露天矿排土场的土壤质量提供科学参考。[方法]通过盆栽试验,研究

  6. Disaster prediction of coal mine gas based on data mining

    SHAO Liang-shan; FU Gui-xiang


    The technique of data mining was provided to predict gas disaster in view of thecharacteristics of coal mine gas disaster and feature knowledge based on gas disaster.The rough set theory was used to establish data mining model of gas disaster prediction,and rough set attributes relations was discussed in prediction model of gas disaster tosupplement the shortages of rough intensive reduction method by using information en-tropy criteria. The effectiveness and practicality of data mining technology in the predictionof gas disaster is confirmed through practical application.

  7. Simulation Based Investigation of Different Fleet Management Paradigms in Open Pit Mines-A Case Study of Sungun Copper Mine / Symulacje I Badania Różnych Paradygmatów Wykorzystania Floty Pojazdów I Urządzeń W Kopalniach Odkrywkowych. Studium Przypadku: Kopalnia Miedzi W Sungun

    Hashemi, Ali Saadatmand; Sattarvand, Javad


    Using simulation modeling, different management systems of the open pit mining equipment including non-dispatching, dispatching and blending solutions have been studied for the Sungun copper mine. Developed model has the capability of considering detailed features of both loading and hauling equipment. Productivity assessment scenarios have been established on the constructed model and the outputs revealed the noteworthy impact of the match factor of the trucks to the loaders on the production rate by over 40%. A dispatching simulation model with the objective function of minimizing truck waiting times have been developed and 7.8% improvement obtained by applying a flexible assignment of the trucks for the loaders compared to the fixed assignment system. Finally ore grade blending control unit has been introduced into the model. Getting the advantages of the newly added module it became possible to monitor the portion of material excavated from different operating benches and control truck dispatching rules for keeping the overall ore grade exactly at desired value. Przy użyciu modeli symulacyjnych zbadano różnorodne systemy zarządzania flotą pojazdów i urządzeń w kopalni odkrywkowej (wydawanie dyspozycji przewozu, wstrzymywanie przewozu oraz rozwiązania kwestii mieszania o rud o różnej zawartości pierwiastka użytecznego) na przykładzie kopalni miedzi Sungun. Opracowany model uwzględnia szczegółowe cechy sprzętu przeładunkowego oraz transportowego. Na podstawie modelu opracowano następnie scenariusze oceny wydajności, a wyniki jednoznacznie wykazały wielką wagę odpowiedniego skojarzenia ilości pojazdów i ładowarek. Opracowano model symulacyjny kierowania urządzeń do pracy, jako funkcję celu przyjmujący minimalizacje czasu przestoju ciężarówek. Uzyskano wynik lepszy o 7.8% poprzez elastyczne przydzielania pojazdów do ładowarek w porównaniu do systemu trwałego ich do siebie przypisania. W ostatnim etapie dodano do modelu system

  8. Extent of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines and Surface Mines in the Boulder-Weld Coal Field (friminedu)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital polygon representation of the areal extent of abandoned underground coal mines and surface mines in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver Basin,...

  9. 78 FR 68783 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines


    ... Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Part 75 RIN 1219-AB84 Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal... training for miners to deploy and use refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. The U.S. Court of... in underground coal mines. On January 13, 2009, the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA)...

  10. Development of a new methodology of cost estimation and investment in the coal opencast mining sector in Spain. Desarrollo de una neuva metodologia de estimacion de costes e inversiones en el sector de la mineria a cielo abierto de carbon en Espana

    Orche Garcia, E.


    A double methodology of costs evaluation and investments is shown for open pit coal exploitations mined by drilling and blasting and/or ripping and annual productions between 0.5 and 8 millions m[sup 3] of waste and up to 700,000 tb of coal operated with conventional machines. The costs methodology has been made starting from 31 data of Spanish projects and exploitations. The investment methodology was made essentially on the basis of theoretical assumptions. The reckoned costs and investment have an accuracy of [+-]20%. The methodology of costs evaluation provides the total final cost of the ton of saleable coal. 35 figs., 86 tabs.




    Full Text Available En éste artículo se analizan diferentes mecanismos de rotura típicamente asociados a taludes de muro, con el objetivo de poder evaluar su estabilidad, mediante el código numérico UDEC (Código de Elementos Distintos Universal. Se analizan, también, mediante métodos de equilibrio límite (MEL, comparándose los resultados obtenidos por ambos métodos, a fin de determinar la validez del código UDEC como herramienta de análisis de la estabilidad de taludes de muro. Se incluye además, el análisis de dos casos reales, en los que la rotura del talud se produjo por mecanismos complejos.

  12. New wave seeks Indonesian coal mining concessions

    Symon, A.


    A further wave of new mine exploration and development is on the horizon in Indonesia with 40 companies seeking major new concessions. Successful companies will enjoy a more attractive regulatory framework than their predecessors. The Indonesian Government is recasting the terms of the agreements under which it allows private domestic and foreign invested companies to operate large scale operations in order to encourage more investment in the industry. The Government`s intent to encourage expansion of the industry reflects looming pressure to provide sufficient coal to meet ambitious power plant expansion plans, while being able to maintain coal`s now important role as an export earner. In 1995, steam coal exports reached 40 billion tonnes, and contributed more than 1 billion dollars to Indonesia`s trade accounts. With Indonesia facing a widening current account deficit - combined with high foreign debt - the coal industry is playing a not insignificant role in helping to stabilise Indonesia`s external accounts. 1 tab.

  13. Geotechnical applications of geophysics in coal mining

    Hatherly, P. [CMTE/CSIRO Exploration and Mining, North Ryde, NSW (Australia)


    In coal mining, geophysical techniques have an established application in determining the location of seam boundaries ahead of the face so that underground mines can be planned to avoid any geological structures that might disrupt production. Geophysics can also be used in geotechnical studies to determine the in situ properties of the rock mass and the response of the rock mass to the mining. The use of geophysical logs and microseismic monitoring in these geotechnical applications are discussed in this paper. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  14. The control of coal mine gas and coordinated exploitation of coal bed methane in China

    LIU Jian-zhong


    Based on the characteristics of the coalfield geology and the distribution of coal bed methane (CBM) in China, the geological conditions for exploiting the CBM and drain-ing the coal mine gas were analyzed, as well as the characteristics of CBM production. By comparing the current situation of CBM exploitation in China with that in the United States, the current technology and characteristics of the CBM exploitation in China were summa-rized and the major technical problems of coal mine gas control and CBM exploitation analyzed. It was emphasized that the CBM exploitation in China should adopt the coal mine gas drainage method coordinated with coal mine exploitation as the main model. It was proposed that coal mine gas control should be coordinated with coal mine gas ex-ploitation. The technical countermeasure should be integrating the exploitation of coal and CBM and draining gas before coal mining.

  15. Need for Clean Coal Mining in India

    Sribas Goswami


    Full Text Available Coal mining contributes largely towards economic development of the nation although it has a great impact on the human health. It also has an impact on a socio-cultural aspect of workers and people residing in and around coal mining areas. Thus a holistic approach to taking up with mining activities, keeping in mind the concerns over adjoining habitats and ecosystem, is the need of the hour. This requires identification of various sites where minerals exist, of various factors ranging from an appropriate angle of the slope of overburden dumps to safe disposal drains, of safe techniques to various silt control structures etc. In India, coal companies are now working towards “clean coal” strategies which aim to reduce environmental impacts. The reduced ash contents of the washed coal increase thermal efficiency of combustion which, in turn, makes a direct impact on reducing emissions of pollutants. However, the coal washing requires extra water and it can turn towards a pollution free society.

  16. Management present situation and countermeasures of coal mines safety in production

    ZHANG Shu-dong; YU Chang-wu


    Analyzed of the present situation of Chinese coal mines safety in production and the reasons for coal mining accident, and realized the coal mines safety in production,which should increase the legal safeguards of coal mine safety in production, and safety input, established the comprehensive coal mine safety evaluation system, comprehensively enhance quality of coal mine workers, established and improved early warning mechanism of safety production of coal mine.

  17. Comprehensive evaluation system of coal mining

    Lian, D.; Wang, Y. [University of Science and Technology of Suzhou, Suzhou (China). Dept. of City and Environment


    In order to ensure the sustainable and effective coal mining under buildings, railways and water bodies and reduce the influence on the ground establishment and the ecological environments, from the view of technology, economics, resources and society, the three-underground mining was evaluated and the comprehensive evaluating system was constructed. The evaluation of the three-underground mining was carried out with combination of qualitative with quantitative analysis, macro with micro discussion, the technical and the economic analysis and theory with practice. Such subjects as engineering economy, science of mining subsidence, fuzzy maths, operational research, theory of information and theory of system were adopted. The results can provide the theoretical basis and practical guidance for decision-making and related policy about three-underground mining. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Pneumatic automation systems in coal mines

    Shmatkov, N.A.; Kiklevich, Yu.N.


    Giprougleavtomatizatsiya, Avtomatgormash, Dongiprouglemash, VNIIGD and other plants develop 30 new pneumatic systems for mine machines and equipment control each year. The plants produce about 200 types of pneumatic systems. Major pneumatic systems for face systems, machines and equipment are reviewed: Sirena system for remote control of ANShch and AShchM face systems for steep coal seams, UPS control systems for pump stations, PAUZA control system for stowing machines, remote control system of B100-200 drilling machines, PUSK control system for coal cutter loaders with pneumatic drive (A-70, Temp), PUVSh control system for ventilation barriers activated from moving electric locomotives, PAZ control system for skip hoist loading. Specifications of the systems are given. Economic benefit produced by the pneumatic control systems are evaluated (from 1,500 to 40,000 rubles/year). Using the systems increases productivity of face machines and other machines used in black coal mines by 5 to 30%.

  19. Radon concentration measurements in bituminous coal mines.

    Fisne, Abdullah; Okten, Gündüz; Celebi, Nilgün


    Radon measurements were carried out in Kozlu, Karadon and Uzülmez underground coal mines of Zonguldak bituminous coal basin in Turkey. Passive-time integrating method, which is the most widely used technique for the measurement of radon concentration in air, was applied by using nuclear etched track detectors (CR-39) in the study area. The radon concentration measurements were performed on a total of 42 points in those three mines. The annual exposure, the annual effective dose and lifetime fatality risk, which are the important parameters for the health of workers, were estimated based on chronic occupational exposure to the radon gas, which is calculated using UNCEAR-2000 and ICRP-65 models. The radon concentrations at several coal production faces are higher than the action level of 1000 Bq m(-3). It is suggested that the ventilation rates should be rearranged to reduce the radon concentration.

  20. A Modified Coal Mine Roof Rating Classification System to Design Support Requirements in Coal Mines

    Taheri, Abbas; Lee, Yongha; Medina, Mario Andres Guardado


    The coal mine roof rating (CMRR) classification system has been applied in a number of coal mines worldwide including Australia. However, the current system cannot be used directly to design support measures in underground mines. Two case studies, the Eliza Hill project in Australia and Tabas coal mine in Iran were analyzed to assess the impact of various rock properties and gallery geometry on stability and to modify the CMRR classification system. Having considered the CMRR system as a working classification system, applicable information and related coal mine data were selected from the two case records. The CMRR value was evaluated and analysed by undertaking correlation between CMRR and factor of safety, followed by a parametric study based on various rock properties and gallery geometries. To improve the applicability of the current system, the CMRR system was then modified by adding additional parameters, namely, the width of roof span and the density of overburden rock. Consequently, based on the modified CMRR system (mCMRR) roof support requirements were recommended to select the suitable rock bolting system including length and spacing of rock bolt. Numerical modelling were then undertaken to verify the support requirements recommended. The support requirements recommended by the mCMRR were found to be relatively identical with numerical analysis results. Support systems proposed by mCMRR can assist mining engineers to assess the stability of underground coal mines or verify the results of other design tools.

  1. Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS

    Lee, U.J.; Kim, J.A.; Kim, S.S. [Coal Industry Promotion Board, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, W.K.; Yoon, S.H.; Choi, J.K. [Ssangyong Information and Communication Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

  2. Coal mine spoil-water interaction: Ⅱ. Weathering concentrated metals in surface coal mine spoils

    党志; 万国江; 李德忍


    Concentrations of metals are lower in coal shales collected from recently exposed surface mine wastes than in shales collected from spoils exposed to surface weathering for 45 a. In this period, the character of the spoils changes dramatically as a result of the accelerated breakdown of the freshly exposed minestones. Since the metals are held as unstable sulfides, it is suggested that enrichment may be caused by absorption of metals by colloid of iron or formation of organic complex compound with organic carbon existing in the remnant structure of coal mine spoil. This process may contribute to the triggering of soil contamination thresholds on coal-lands already heavily loaded with metals.

  3. 基于GIS的露天矿模型库设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Open-pit Model Base Based on GIS

    轩玉美; 张云鹏; 刘亚静


    露天矿应用模型库是针对露天矿生产优化管理地理空间决策的支持系统,其功能是从模型的角度实现地质、采矿计划、露天矿开采及土地复垦生态建设等的计算机决策支持管理.露天矿应用模型库系统的建立可以解决露天矿模型库系统通用平台研发的理论与技术问题,可高效地管理露天矿各个阶段的模型,并且为今后的露天矿信息化管理提供合理、可靠的辅助决策支持平台.%The establishment of open-pit application model library is a support system to optimize the management of geospatial decision for the open pit production,its function is to achieve the computer decision support management of the geology,mine plan,open-pit mining and land reclamation ecological construction through model. The establishment of model base system in open pit can solve the theoretical and technical issues to develop a common platform for open-pit mine model base system,can efficiently manage the model of open-pit at all phases,and provide a reasonable,reliable auxiliary decision support platform for information management in future.

  4. Recovery modelling and water resources of the abandoned open-pit talc-chlorite-feldspar mine excavations at Lasasai-Bonucoro,Central Sardinia,Italy%意大利撒丁岛中部Lasasai-Bonucoro地区的废弃露天滑石-绿泥石-长石采矿场的水资源及其修复模式

    Maddalena FIORI; Carlo MATZUZZI


    In the district of Orani, central Sardinia, several talc-chlorite-feldspar bodies, hosted in Palaeozoic metamorphic rocks and granites, have long been mined by open- pit operations. The mining activity has deeply modified the original landscape of the Lasasai-Bonucoro area. Thus the rearrangement of this area, in particular of the open-pit works that are now occupied by newly formed pools, filled with water from aquifers flowing along faults crossed by mining operations, should be considered as an overall project of landscape restoration. In the first phase of this work, the environmental and hydrogeological characterisation and the general definition of different zones characterised by different sets of intervention operations has already been made. The following step will include the detailed definition of the different technological interventions to be performed. In order to attain a rehabilitation of this area, first of all the interventions will include: 1) smoothing and re-modelling of local morphology in its still rough sites, namely a few points of the mine benches and dumps, by removing the volumes in excess and settling them again in the hollows, on the base of the indications obtained from opportunely plotted sections; 2) restoration of the removed soil covers, and rehabilitation of the newly formed surfaces after waste disposal, trough re-vegetation techniques including settlement of vegetal soil and nutrients, herbaceous essence hydrosowing, temporary automatic sprinkling; 3) rehabilitation of the corrected slopes, and in general of the remaining poorly vegetated surfaces, trough the above re-vegetation techniques.The above operations will result in a slightly modified plane-altimetrical and landscape arrangement. However these interventions will be sufficient to reach a new environmental qualification, characterised by several opportunities of exploitation. Particular conditions, such as the constant outflow of good-quality water and the amenity of

  5. Influence of Mining Thickness on the Rationality of Upward Mining in Coal Seam Group


    This study aimed to determine the influence of mining thickness on the rationality of upward mining in coal seam group. Numerical simulation and theoretical analysis were performed to investigate the influence of the mining thicknesses of initial mining seam on the destruction and pressure relief effect of the upper coal seam in a high-gas coal seam group. The mechanical model of the roof failure based on the mining thickness was established by assuming that the gob formed after a...

  6. 根据露天矿长期计划自动形成短期计划的0-1整数规划方法%Automatic formation of short-term plan based on the long-term plan on open-pit mine using O-1 integer programming

    孙效玉; 张维国; 陈毓; 王侠; 孙梦红


    针对露天矿生产不均衡产生的长期计划与短期计划严重脱节问题,通过对露天矿时空发展关系的分析,分时段建立露天矿短期计划的0-1整数规划模型,提出了超级组合块的概念,论述了短期计划优化处理逻辑。并在Surpac平台上采用TCL语言二次开发完成长期计划制作、台阶条块划分与动态显示功能,在VC++环境下通过调用LindoAPI数学软件自动优化形成短期计划。结果只需十几分钟到几小时的时间,即可实现传统方法根本无力解决的根据长期计划自动形成短期计划、进而验证长期计划的难题,实践证明这种方法稳定性强、工作效率高。%To solve the confliction between long-term and short-term production plan on open-pit mine, established a 0- 1 integer programming model of short-term plans by time period applying with space-time development, and a new con- cept of "super combo blocks" was proposed and the progress logic of short-term plan was dealt with. It implemented the design of long-term plan, dividing blocks from strip benches and dynamic displaying by secondary development using the TCL language on the Surpac software platform. The short-term plan could be automatically optimized by call- ing LindoAPI mathematical software under Visual C + + environment. It solved the problem that the short-term plan cannot be drawn out from automatic optimization based on long-term plan, but the program running time could be mi- nutes or few hours. The reliability and efficiency of the method is proved in the work field.

  7. Soil eco-physiological indicators from a coal mining area in El Bierzo District (Spain).

    Díaz Puente, Fco. Javier; Mejuto Mendieta, Marcos; Cardona García, Ana Isabel; Rodríguez Gallego, Vergelina; García Álvarez, Avelino


    CIEMAT. Avda. Complutense, 22. 28040 Madrid. Spain. The El Bierzo carboniferous basin (León, N.W. of Spain) is placed in a tenth of the surface of this district, in the area called "Bierzo Alto". Coal has been mined in El Bierzo from the late XVIII century, having been intensely exploited during the XX century. The mining activity has left a heritage of withdrawed mining structures. Nowadays some mining activity remains in the area, and new exploitations based on open pit processes, cause the burial of natural soil with overlaying mine tailings. Characterization and study of the edaphic landscapes in the area is a necessary activity within the framework of its overall restoration planning, also providing fundamental information for the design and monitoring of waste coal recovery activities. For this work eight zones were chosen, representing the spatial variability within the upper basin of the Rodrigatos river, into the Bierzo Alto, including reference areas not affected by mining activities. In addition three mine tailings outside the area are included in this work to cover the variability of restoration processes. After a first study, based on physical, physico-chemical and chemical characteristics of soils, we have continued the study including some eco-physiological parameters. The objective of this work is to identify potential soil disruption, its extent and causes. Soil microbial activity is influenced by a wide set of soil characteristics. Eco-physiological parameters analysed in this work are: • Microbial Biomass carbon • Basal Respirometry • Maximum respiratory rate Microbial biomass carbon was analysed according the Substrate Induced Respirometry (SIR) method. Relational parameters such as metabolic quotient (CO2-C/Cmic) and the Cmic/Corg ratio have been obtained from these variables. Our results shown that soil microbial biomass carbon is strongly influenced by the water holding capacity (WHC) of the samples (R=0,895) as well as by organic

  8. Research on coal structure indices to coal and gas outbursts in Pingdingshan Mine Area, China

    郭德勇; 宋广太; 库明欣


    According to the feature that coal and gas outbursts is controlled by coal structure in Pingdingshan mine area, based on the study of the distribution law of disturbed coal in Mine Area and the macroscopic characteristics of coal structure, the characteristics and genesis to micro-pore of disturbed coal, the relationship between the type of coal structure and gas parameter, and the structural feature of coal at outbursts sites are mainly explored in this paper. Further, the steps and methods are put forward that coal structure indices applied to forecast coal and gas outbursts.

  9. Survey of nine surface mines in North America. [Nine different mines in USA and Canada

    Hayes, L.G.; Brackett, R.D.; Floyd, F.D.


    This report presents the information gathered by three mining engineers in a 1980 survey of nine surface mines in the United States and Canada. The mines visited included seven coal mines, one copper mine, and one tar sands mine selected as representative of present state of the art in open pit, strip, and terrace pit mining. The purpose of the survey was to investigate mining methods, equipment requirements, operating costs, reclamation procedures and costs, and other aspects of current surface mining practices in order to acquire basic data for a study comparing conventional and terrace pit mining methods, particularly in deeper overburdens. The survey was conducted as part of a project under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023 titled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  10. Seismic surveying for coal mine planning

    Zhou, B. [CMTE/CSIRO Exploration and Mining, Kenmore, Qld. (Australia)


    More and more coal in Australia is extracted by underground mining methods especially by longwall mining. These methods can be particularly sensitive to relatively small-scale structural discontinuities and variations in roof and floor rock character. Traditionally, information on these features has been obtained through drilling. However, this is an expensive process and its relevance is limited to the immediate neighbourhood of the boreholes. Seismic surveying, especially by 3D seismic, is an alternative tool for geological structure delineation. It is one of the most effective geophysical methods available for identification of geological structures such as faults, folds, washouts, seam splits and thickness changes which are normally associated with potential mining hazards. Seismic data even can be used for stratigraphic identification. The information extracted from seismic data can be integrated into mine planning and design. In this paper, computer aided interpretation techniques for maximising the information from seismic data are demonstrated and the ability of seismic reflection methods to resolve localised geological features illustrated. Both synthetic and real seismic data obtained in recent 2D and 3D seismic surveys from Australian coal mines are used. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Guide for surface coal mine reclamation plans



    The purpose of the guide is to provide a framework for Nova Scotia's coal mining community to consult during reclamation planning and environmental assessment. The guide describe the best management practices for application to surface mine reclamation. Principles of reclamation, standard submission requirements for a reclamation plan, planning for reclamation, landscape design, and revegetation, and methods for site preparation, monitoring, and maintenance are discussed. Backfilling, flooded excavation management, and other options are outlined. The reclamation plan must consider decommissioning of equipment and infrastructure, water retention and treatment ponds, acid rock drainage control and monitoring, site monitoring, watercourse management, and public safety. A glossary is included.

  12. Hydrochemical characteristics of the natural waters associated with the flooding of the Meirama open pit (A Coruna, NW Spain)

    Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.; Vazquez, A.; Falcon, I.; Canal, J.; Hernandez, H.; Padilla, F.; Rodriguez-Vellando, P.; Delgado, J.L. [University of La Coruna, La Coruna (Spain). School of Civil Engineering


    In December, 2007, after 30 years of operations, the mine of Meirama ceased extraction of brown lignite. Since then operations have begun which will lead to the formation of a big mining lake (about 2 km{sup 2} surface and up to 180 m deep) after controlled flooding of the open pit. In the process of flooding, both surface and ground waters are involved, each with their own chemical signature. According to the information available, the diversion of surface waters towards the pit hole should lead to the formation of a water body of acceptable quality. However, all unassisted flooding process could eventually form all acidic lake.

  13. Development history of coal mine and advanced mining technology; Tanko no rekishi to saitan gijutsu no shinpo

    Nohara, H. [Tokyo (Japan)


    Japanese coal mine was get a full supply for the construction of the modernize nation in Meiji and the reconstruction of the industry after the second world war. This perfection was completed by the full coal resources and the advanced coal mining technology. But, japanese recent coal seam is too deep for the economical mining. And yet, advanced coal mining technology of japan is necessary for the coal mine of the developing country. (author)

  14. Conversion of Coal Mine Gas to LNG

    None, None


    This project evolved from a 1995, DOE-NETL competitive solicitation for practical CMM capture and utilization concepts. Appalachian Pacific was one of three companies selected to proceed with the construction and operation of a cost-shared demonstration plant. In the course of trying to proceed with this demonstration plant, AP examined several liquefaction technologies, discussed obtaining rights to coal mine methane with a number of coal companies, explored marketing potential with a wide variety of customers in many sections of the United States, studied in great detail the impact of a carbon credit exchange, and developed a suite of analytical tools with which to evaluate possible project options. In the end, the newness of the product, reluctance on the part of the coal companies to venture away from time tested practices, difficulty with obtaining financing, the failure of a carbon credit market to develop and the emergence of shale derived gas production prevented a demonstration plant from being built.

  15. Depth to Coal Mining in the Colorado Front Range (frimndpthu)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital polygon representation of the depth to (overburden above) abandoned underground coal mines in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver Basin,...


    王立杰; 傅贵辰


    This paper discusses the problems about the environmental pollution of the coal mines in China and analyses the main reasons which caused the pollution of coal mining areas and puts forward the view that we should get rid of our traditional concepts about social development and take the paths of sustained development. This paper also gives the suggestion that strict rules and laws for the protection of environment of the coal mining ares should be set up and favourabh policies be worked out to promote the improvement of coal mining area's environment.

  17. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) and Coal Mining on Water Resources in Australia

    Post, D. A.


    Mining of coal bed methane deposits (termed ';coal seam gas' in Australia) is a rapidly growing source of natural gas in Australia. Indeed, expansion of the industry is occurring so quickly that in some cases, legislation is struggling to keep up with this expansion. Perhaps because of this, community concern about the impacts of coal seam gas development is very strong. Responding to these concerns, the Australian Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) to provide advice to the Commonwealth and state regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. In order to provide the underlying science to the IESC, a program of ';bioregional assessments' has been implemented. One aim of these bioregional assessments is to improve our understanding of the connectivity between the impacts of coal seam gas extraction and groundwater aquifers, as well as their connection to surface water. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas and coal mining on water resources in Australia. The methodology of undertaking bioregional assessments will be described, and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia will be detailed. Preliminary results of the program of research to date will be assessed in light of the requirements of the IESC to provide independent advice to the Commonwealth and State governments. Finally, parallels between the expansion of the industry in Australia with that

  18. What Were the Reasons for the Rapid Landslide Occurrence in “Piaseczno” Open Pit? – Analysis of the Landslide Process

    Jakóbczyk Joanna


    Full Text Available Landslides are major natural hazards occurring in opencast mining. The problem of slope stability failure in the existing open pit mines as well as in those which are at a stage of technical closure is current issue in Poland and all over the world. This problem requires conducting in-depth and meaningful analysis which will identify the causes of processes characterized by a very rapid course and large extent.

  19. Experimental study on the variation law of coal temperature during excavation in coal mines

    Yi-Shan PAN; Lian-Man XU; Zhong-Hua LI; Guo-Zhen LI


    By testing the temperature of the coal and the stress of the working surface,we got the variation law of coal temperature and coal stress during the excavation.The result shows that the activities of mining affect the coal temperature,the fluctuation of coal temperature and the coal stress is synchronous.During the smooth change of crustal stress,the coal temperature basically keeps unchanged,when the dynamic phenomenon appears,the coal temperature changes,as well the coal stress.Therefore,we can use the online coal temperature monitoring system to test the coal temperature of the working surface continuously,and it can provide basic information for forecasting coal mine power disaster before it happens.

  20. Microbial ecology of coal mine refuse

    Cameron, R. E.; Miller, R. M.


    Baseline microbial and ecological studies of samples obtained from two abandoned coal mine refuse sites in the State of Illinois indicate that the unfavorable nature of refuse materials can be a very limiting factor for survival and growth of organisms. Despite the ''foothold'' obtained by some microorganisms, especially acidophilic fungi and some acidotolerant algae, the refuse materials should be amended or ameliorated to raise the pH, provide needed nutrients, especially nitrogen, and provide biodegradable organic matter, both for physical and biological purposes. Finally, the role of microbial populations, responses, and interactions in acid mine wastes must be put into larger perspective. Acid mine drainage amounts to over 4 million tons per year of acidity from active and abandoned mines. Microorganisms appear to be significantly responsible for this problem, but they also can play a beneficial and significant role in the amelioration or alleviation of this detrimental effect as abandoned mines are reclaimed and returned to useful productivity.

  1. 30 CFR 75.1907 - Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines.


    ... underground coal mines. 75.1907 Section 75.1907 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1907 Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines. (a) As...

  2. 30 CFR 49.50 - Certification of coal mine rescue teams.


    ... have experience working in an underground coal mine 49.12(c) (4) Team is available within 1-hour ground... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification of coal mine rescue teams. 49.50... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.50 Certification of coal...

  3. Study of Coal Mine Ventilation System Optimization based on Ventsim

    Zhang Jing Gang


    Full Text Available This article is based on the situation of too large coal mine ventilation resistance in the Majiagou coal mine. According to Majiagou coal mine late production plans, it measures resistance comprehensively, analyses the resistance distributions and the problems exist in the ventilation systems and comes up with targeted optimization programs. By studying the ventilation system model, as well as adjusting the system parameters, Ventsim software is applied to study ventilation system in Majiagou coal mine. Design of mine ventilation is proved practical in the mine ventilation system optimizations, thus Ventsim software can not only be used in the ventilation network calculation and merry-demand simulation and dynamic of wind flow, but also can be used to assist in the short-term and long-term planning for ventilation system, it is of a certain significance of guidance to find the problems in the mine management and optimizations of the ventilation network.

  4. From Mining to Post-Mining: The Sustainable Development Strategy of the German Hard Coal Mining Industry

    Kretschmann, J.; Efremenkov, A. B.; Khoreshok, A. A.


    By the end of the 1950s, the German coal mining industry produced 150 million tons of hard coal per year in 170 collieries with 600,000 employees. At that time, 70% of the primary energy demand of the Federal Republic of Germany was covered by domestic coal. Since the advance of oil, later of natural gas, in the world energy market and with the growth of world coal trade, domestic coal stood under a long-term restructuring pressure. This decision required a new strategy for the coal mining industry. Now German coal mining will be strictly finalized and will be prepared for the post-mining era. Within a sustainability strategy the long-term impacts of mining activities before and after the mine closures concerning the environmental, economic and social dimensions will be analyzed systematically and forward-looking.

  5. Study on ascending mining roadway layout of close distance coal seams in deep mine

    SHI Yong-kui; MO Ji


    To solve the problems appeared in mining process of No.2 seam, the ascending stress-releasing mining method was adopted. Studying on the reasonable layout of actual mining roadway in upper coal seams is the precondition of successful ascending mining.By using "device of leak measuring by blocking up double ends", it detected the height of overburden water flowing fractured zone originated from sub-coal seams mining. Thus it proved that the actual mining roadway of No.2 upper ascending seam was located in the smooth sagging zone. On the basis of analyzing the stress-releasing effect of sub-coal seams mining to upper coal seams by using RFPA software, it analyzed the stability of up-face coal seams and the reasonable location of starting cut in up-face coal seams. It also analyzed the reasonable gateway location in upper coal seams, which ensured the crossheading in upper coal seams out of the effect of sub-coal work face mining by using theory of underground pressure. Meanwhile, the reasonable pillars dimensions in upper coal seams by building the structure mechanics model of stope were researched. It can make the roadway driven along next goaf to be located in low stress zone, and be beneficial to keeping roads stable owing to less stress of surrounding rock. Finally, it tested the rationality of the layout method of roads in upper coal seams by engineering field measurement in 3221 working face.

  6. Influence of Mining Thickness on the Rationality of Upward Mining in Coal Seam Group

    Y. Li


    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the influence of mining thickness on the rationality of upward mining in coal seam group. Numerical simulation and theoretical analysis were performed to investigate the influence of the mining thicknesses of initial mining seam on the destruction and pressure relief effect of the upper coal seam in a high-gas coal seam group. The mechanical model of the roof failure based on the mining thickness was established by assuming that the gob formed after adjacent panels have fully been caved is the infinite plane. On the basis of this model, an equation was derived to calculate the roof failure height of the panel. Considering the geological conditions of No. 9 and No. 12 coal seams of Zhaogezhuang Coal Mine, economic effectiveness, and proposed techniques, we concluded that the top layer (4 m of the No. 12 coal seam should be mined first. The top layer of the No. 9 coal seam should be subsequently mined. The topcaving technique was applied to the exploitation of the lower layer of the No. 12 coal seam. Practically monitored data revealed that the deformation and failure of the No. 2699 panel roadway was small and controllable, the amount of gas emission was reduced significantly, and the effect of upward mining was active. The results of this study provide theory basics for mine designing, and it is the provision of a reference for safe and efficient coal exploitation under similar conditions.

  7. Regional gas drainage techniques in Chinese coal mines

    Wang Haifeng; Cheng Yuanping; Wang Lei


    China's rapid economic development has increased the demand for coal.These results in Chinese coal mines being extended to deeper levels.The eastern Chinese,more economical developed,regions have a long history of coal mining and many coal mines have now started deep mining at a depth from 800 to 1500 m.This increase in mining depth,geostresses,pressures,and gas content of the coal seam complicates geologic construction conditions.Lower permeability and softer coal contribute to increasing numbers of coal and gas outburst,and gas explosion,disasters.A search on effective methods of preventing gas disasters has been provided funds from the Chinese government since 1998.The National Engineering Research Center of Coal Gas Control and the Huainan and Huaibei Mining Group have conducted theoretical and experimental research on a regional gas extraction technology.The results included two important findings.First,grouped coal seams allow adoption of a method where a first,key protective layer is mined to protect upper and lower coal seams by increasing permeability from 400 to 3000 times.Desorption of gas and gas extraction in the protected coal seam of up to 60%,or more,may be achieved in this way.Second,a single seam may be protected by using a dense network of extraction boreholes consisting of cross and along-bed holes.Combined with this is increased use of water that increases extraction of coal seam gas by up to 50%.Engineering practice showed that regional gas drainage technology eliminates regional coal and gas outburst and also enables mining under low gas conditions.These research results have been adopted into the national safety codes of production technology.This paper systematically introduces the principles of the technology,the engineering methods and techniques,and the parameters of regional gas drainage.Engineering applications are discussed.

  8. Regional gas drainage techniques in Chinese coal mines

    Wang; Haifeng; Cheng; Yuanping; Wang; Lei


    China's rapid economic development has increased the demand for coal.These results in Chinese coal mines being extended to deeper levels.The eastern Chinese,more economical developed,regions have a long history of coal mining and many coal mines have now started deep mining at a depth from 800 to 1500 m.This increase in mining depth,geostresses,pressures,and gas content of the coal seam complicates geologic construction conditions.Lower permeability and softer coal contribute to increasing numbers of coal and gas outburst,and gas explosion,disasters.A search on effective methods of preventing gas disasters has been provided funds from the Chinese government since 1998.The National Engineering Research Center of Coal Gas Control and the Huainan and Huaibei Mining Group have conducted theoretical and experimental research on a regional gas extraction technology.The results included two important findings.First,grouped coal seams allow adoption of a method where a first,key protective layer is mined to protect upper and lower coal seams by increasing permeability from 400 to 3000 times.Desorption of gas and gas extraction in the protected coal seam of up to 60%,or more,may be achieved in this way.Second,a single seam may be protected by using a dense network of extraction boreholes consisting of cross and along-bed holes.Combined with this is increased use of water that increases extraction of coal seam gas by up to 50%.Engineering practice showed that regional gas drainage technology eliminates regional coal and gas outburst and also enables mining under low gas conditions.These research results have been adopted into the national safety codes of production technology.This paper systematically introduces the principles of the technology,the engineering methods and techniques,and the parameters of regional gas drainage.Engineering applications are discussed.

  9. Research on safety management shell in coal mine

    LI Hong-xia(李红霞); TIAN Shui-cheng(田水承); YU Zhong-ming(郁钟铭); CHEN Yong-gang(陈勇刚)


    Based on the shell (jieke) theory investigation of accident prevention in coal mine, submited a new definition of safety management shell, and analyzed causes on the lack of accident prevention, then pointed that the strength of research and practice of safety management is necessary to format enduring safety in coal mine.

  10. R&D and Technological Change in Coal Mining.

    Baker, Joe G.

    This report examines the issue of research and development (R and D) as well as technological changes in coal mining, focusing primarily on deep coal mining from 1970 to the present. First, a conceptual framework for classification of R and D as well as technological change is developed. A review of the literature that gives a mixed impression of…

  11. Distribution of ground stress on Puhe Coal Mine

    Guo Zhibiao; Jiang Yulin; Pang Jiewen; Liu Jiawei


    Puhe Coal Mine is a typical Tertiary coal in Shenbei mining area.With an increase in mining depth,tectonic stress field becomes more complex,leading to increased deformation and failure of the soft rock roadway.Stress becomes an important factor of mine safety and stability.This paper analyzes the distribution of the regional tectonic field,and determines the distribution of situ stress measurement through measuring the ground stress field in the main mining area level of Puhe Coal Mine using stress relief method.The acquired in situ stress data at different locations and depths provide a reference for the rational arrangement of the stop and mine roadway supporting design,which are of great significance for the efficient safety production of the mine.

  12. Simulator for bucket wheel excavators in brown coal open mining of RWE Power AG; Simulator fuer Schaufelradbagger in Braunkohlentagebauen der RWE Power AG

    Mittmann, Robert; Niess, Thomas [RWE Power AG, Frechen-Habbelrath (Germany). Technikzentrum Tagebaue / Abt. PCZ-E Betriebsfuehrungssysteme; Rosenberg, Heinrich [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany). Tagebauplanung und -genehmigung


    In the three large open pits Hambach, Garzweiler and Inden RWE Power AG (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) uses bucket wheel excavators, conveyor systems and spreaders that provide a continuous mass flow of the production side to the damping site of the opencast mine or the coal bunker respectively. On the world market there hardly exist paragons of solutions for the construction and commissioning of technical innovations of this conveyor technology. Consequently, the eligible technical and technological solutions have to be newly created. Therefore RWE Power AG developed an innovative simulator for bucket wheel excavators. The implementation takes place in a phased approach in which each stage has its own benefits for the company.

  13. Gas drainage management systems for modern coal mines

    Creedy, D.; Lunarzewski, L. [Wardell Armstrong, Newcastle-under-Lyme (United Kingdom)


    Gas emission and outburst problems remain one of the major difficulties facing the world coal mining industry. Methane emission in coal mines adversely affects the efficiency of coal production and mine safety conditions. Risk can be reduced by gas drainage. The methane thus recovered is a potentially valuable energy source which if used can produce both financial and environmental benefits. The generic gas control methods of gas drainage and ventilation are common to most coal mining countries but the detailed technologies applied differ according to the geological, mining and economic conditions, and also with the magnitudes of coal production. However, the critical element of all gas drainage management systems is the management organisation which ensures allocation of responsibility and provides a systematic framework for effective application of the most appropriate technology. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Variability of production in the Tito brown coal mines

    Vukovic, S. (Institut za Rudarska Istrazivanja, Tuzla (Yugoslavia))


    Examines daily production fluctuations in the Banovici coal basin from 1978-1985, where 2,800-4,100 workers produced 2-2.3x10{sup 6} t/a from underground and surface mines. The underground mine used mechanized longwall mining, surface mines employed shovel excavators, draglines, dumpers and belt conveyors. Statistical data showed large variations (+/- 2.5%, from 4,630 to 7,792 t/day) in daily coal production; evaluation showed close correlations for surface and underground mines. Highest production was achieved on Saturdays and Sundays, lowest on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. It is suggested that these variations may be due to maintenance work in the coal preparation plant, which was usually carried out on Mondays and Fridays. A stereogram of coal and overburden output for both types of mine and detailed statistical computations are included. 7 refs.

  15. Numerical Study on 4-1 Coal Seam of Xiaoming Mine in Ascending Mining

    Lan Tianwei


    Full Text Available Coal seams ascending mining technology is very significant, since it influences the safety production and the liberation of dull coal, speeds up the construction of energy, improves the stability of stope, and reduces or avoids deep hard rock mining induced mine disaster. Combined with the Xiaoming ascending mining mine 4-1, by numerical calculation, the paper analyses ascending mining 4-1 factors, determines the feasibility of ascending mining 4-1 coalbed, and proposes roadway layout program about working face, which has broad economic and social benefits.

  16. Numerical study on 4-1 coal seam of Xiaoming mine in ascending mining.

    Lan, Tianwei; Zhang, Hongwei; Li, Sheng; Han, Jun; Song, Weihua; Batugin, A C; Tang, Guoshui


    Coal seams ascending mining technology is very significant, since it influences the safety production and the liberation of dull coal, speeds up the construction of energy, improves the stability of stope, and reduces or avoids deep hard rock mining induced mine disaster. Combined with the Xiaoming ascending mining mine 4-1, by numerical calculation, the paper analyses ascending mining 4-1 factors, determines the feasibility of ascending mining 4-1 coalbed, and proposes roadway layout program about working face, which has broad economic and social benefits.

  17. Investigation of relationship between barometric pressure and coal and gas outburst events in underground coal mining

    Yönet, Sinem; Esen, Olgun; Fişne, Abdullah


    Coal and gas outburst is a serious risk which occurs during the mine production. This accident results both ejection of high volumes of gas and high amount of coal into the mine production area, and death of mining workers for many years in Turkey. Outburst of gas, coal and rock can be defined as sudden release of coal and rock accompanied by large quantities of gas into the working face or other mine workings. It is a phenomena that influenced by geological structure such as folds, joints of rocks or coal seams, is also still investigated for many years. Zonguldak Coal Basin is the main part of the Upper Carboniferous bituminous coal basin of Turkey. Much of the bituminous coal mining has thus been concentrated in the Zonguldak Basin which is located on the Black Sea coast. The coal field has been disturbed by tectonic activity, first by Hercynian and later by Alpine orogenesis resulting in folding and faulting of strata. This formation has a complex structural geology which consists mostly fault zones, anticlinal and syncline strata and because of this a large amount of methane gases are adsorbed or accumulated in strata or in coal fractures, pores and micropores. There are 5 Collieries exists in Zonguldak Coalfield and coal and gas outbursts were occurred only in two collieries such as Karadon and Kozlu Mines. In addition at a number of 90 coal and gas outburst events were experienced in these collieries. Based on the analysis of data, oscillation at barometric pressure and temperature values at the location of Kozlu and Karadon Mines were seen when coal and gas outburst events were occurred. In this study, barometric pressure and temperature changes are investigated at Kozlu and Karadon Mines. Also the relationship between the variation at temperature with barometric pressure and coal and gas outbursts are evaluated. It can be understand that this investigation depends to field observations and macroscopic considerations and on the purpose of predicting the

  18. Feasibility study of highwall mining in north surface mine of Yima Coal Corporation,China

    Guoming Cheng; Sijing Wang; Meifeng Cai


    Yima Coal Corporation is considering to adopt highwall mining method with auger machine to recover coal from north surface pit that has reached final highwall position. The major geomechanical issues associated with auger mining are highwall and pillar stability. Based on the field investigation and laboratory test results of mechanical parameters, numerical modeling is carried out to assess the stability of highwall and pillar. Field measurements of highwall deformation have been used to validate and ensure the confidence for the development of realistic models. The results of numerical modeling show that the mining method is feasible for mining the seam of 10 m thickness in north surface coal mine.

  19. 30 CFR 75.1107-11 - Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal.


    ... equipment employed in low coal. 75.1107-11 Section 75.1107-11 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES... § 75.1107-11 Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal. On...

  20. Development trends of machines and equipment for mine haulage in black coal mines

    Dembinski, C.; Gorol, S.; Janik, E.; Kotlarski, S.; Kowal, J.; Zeifert, S.


    This paper discusses development of equipment for mine haulage in underground black coal mines in Poland. Equipment type, selected aspects of its design, specifications, productivity and reliability are evaluated. The following equipment types are reviewed: chain conveyors (Rybnik-73, Samson, Supersamson, Supergrot), belt conveyors (Gwarek), mine cars (Granby mine cars with a capacity of 5.1 m/sup 3/), mine locomotives (with electric batteries, electric or pneumatic motors or diesel engines), equipment for railway track repair and maintenance, automatic systems for traffic control in underground mines, coal hoppers, coal handling systems for coal hoppers. Equipment developed in Poland since 1970 is discussed. Recommendations for research programs on haulage equipment and coal hoppers are made. 8 refs.

  1. The safety mining theory studying for coal resource in China

    LI Xin-chun; SUN Hong-xing; PENG Hong-jun


    The coal resource has an important role in the energy development strategy in China. Because the coal resources are a kind of non-renewable resources, a kind of exhausting resource, which is limited in quantity, and the exploitation of the recourses are not economized now, so how to realize the sustainable development for coal resource in China is very important. In this paper, two parts were researched to optimize the coal mining. In order to optimize the mining order of different mining areas, the fuzzy logic evaluation was used to build the evaluation system. The economic control theory model was built to realize the proper period to explore the coal recourses for the same mining areas.

  2. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota, E-mail:; Fugiel, Agata, E-mail:; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna, E-mail:; Turek, Marian, E-mail:


    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500 years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment. - Highlights: • A computational LCA model for assessment of coal mining operations • Identification of


    吴基文; 赵志根; 陈资平


    Through site observation and indoor measurements in XieJiaji No.2 Coal Mine in Huainen and Luling Coal Mine in Huaibei, it is discovered that the fragmentation degree are different in different coal seams in same mining district and even in sublevels of the same coal seam, the coal mass structures exist much difference. By analyzing the relationship between the constitution of coal matters and the epigenesis breakage of coal. This paper points out that the internal factor which causes the diversity of the coal mass structure comes from the diversity in the contents of telocollinite and desmocollinite in the vitrinite. The contenet of desmocollinite is higher than that of telocollinite in intact coal seam (sublevel) but the former is less than the later in breaking sublevel, the diversity of constituent content more affects the epigenetic fragmentation degree of coal seam. The content of desrnocollinite proves lower than that of telocollinite in the broken coal seam. The new understanding has directing, and reference for the study of coal petrology, coal mine gas geology and coal methane.

  4. Analysis on safety production in coal mines Henan Province

    KONG Liu-an; ZHANG Wen-yong


    Based on the rigorous situation of safety production in coal mines, the paper analyzed the statistical data of recent accidents indexes in Henan's coal mines. Using investigation and comparison analysis methods, a specified analysis on mining conditions, technical facility level, safety input and vocational quality of workers in Henan's coal mines was conducted. The result indicates that there have been existing such main safety production problems as weak safety management, low-level facilities, inadequate safety input and poor vocational quality and so on. Finally it proposes such reference solutions as to establish and perfect coal mining supervision and management system, to increase safety investment into techniques and facilities and to strengthen workers' safety education and introduction of more high-level professional talents.

  5. Coal mining GPS subsidence monitoring technology and its application

    Wang Jian; Peng Xiangguo; Xu Chang hui


    We proved theoretically that geodetic height,measured with Global Positioning System (GPS),can be applied directly to monitor coal mine subsidence.Based on a Support Vector Machine (SVM) model,we built a regional geoid model with a Gaussian Radial Basis Function (RBF) and the technical scheme for GPS coal mine subsidence monitoring is presented to provide subsidence information for updating the regional Digital Elevation Model (DEM).The theory proposed was applied to monitor mining subsidence in an Inner Mongolia coal mine in China.The scheme established an accurate GPS reference network and a comprehensive leveling conjunction provided the normal height of all GPS control points.According to the case study,the SVM model to establish geoid-model is better than a polynomial fit or a Genetic Algorithm based Back Propagation (GA-BP) neural network.GPS-RTK measurements of coal mine subsidence information can be quickly acquired for updating the DEM.

  6. Study on the forecast method for underground coal mine

    SUN Ji-ping; REN Hui; REN Lan-zhu; WANG Kun


    At present, coal mine fires were for ecasted with some temperature, smog, CO,CO2, etc, however, this method can't meet the requirements for safe production of coal mines in monitoring accuracy and validity. Overcoming these problems of foregone monitoring methods, using multi-parameters which include fire image, smog, CO, CO2, O2, etc,the paper put forward a synthetical analysis monitor with advanced technology of neural network. The research and application of this method has significance in theory and practical value for coal mine fire forecast.

  7. Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems

    Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.


    This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  8. The Economic Impact of Coal Mining in New Mexico

    Peach, James; Starbuck, C.


    The economic impact of coal mining in New Mexico is examined in this report. The analysis is based on economic multipliers derived from an input-output model of the New Mexico economy. The direct, indirect, and induced impacts of coal mining in New Mexico are presented in terms of output, value added, employment, and labor income for calendar year 2007. Tax, rental, and royalty income to the State of New Mexico are also presented. Historical coal production, reserves, and price data are also presented and discussed. The impacts of coal-fired electricity generation will be examined in a separate report.

  9. Seventh symposium on coal mine drainage research. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV



    The Seventh Symposium on Coal Mine Drainage Research, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Seventeen papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Topics covered include chemical reactions of pyrite oxidation and acid formation in spoil banks, abandoned mines, etc., formation of small acid lakes from the drainage and their neutralization by natural and other neutralization measures, trace elements in acid mine drainage, ground water contamination, limnology, effects of surface mined ground reclamation and neutralization, water purification and treatment, mining and coal preparation plant waste disposal, ash and fly ash disposal (to minimize leaching from the wastes), runoff from large coal storage stockpiles during storms (prevention of environmental effects by collection and neutralization by passing through an ash pond). (LTN)

  10. Watermanagement - related and ecological demands on brown-coal mining. A statement of position; Wasserwirtschaftlich-oekologische Forderungen fuer den Braunkohlenabbau. Positionspapier



    This statement of position aims to identify influences exerted before, during and after brown-coal open-pit mining activities and to assess them in general terms from a water-management and ecological viewpoint. The form chosen is that of individual, concise postulates. Each of these is followed by an explanation. To illustrate the great variety of potentially arising problems, the major German brown-coal mining districts Lausitz, eastern Germany, and Lower Rhine are dealt with. A particular characteristic of the eastern German and Lausitz mining districts is that as the demand structure abruptly collapsed early in the 90s, closures became necessary on a large scale without preparatory measures having been taken. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit dem vorliegenden Positionspapier wurde der Versuch unternommen, die Beeinflussungen vor, waehrend und nach dem Abbau von Braunkohle im Tagebaubetrieb inhaltlich zu erfassen und aus wasserwirtschaftlich-oekologischer Sicht verallgemeinernd zu bewerten. Dabei ist die From einzelner kurzgefasster Forderungen gewaehlt worden. Jede dieser Forderungen ist durch eine Erlaeuterung untersetzt. Um die Vielfalt der auftretenden Probleme zu verdeutlichen, werden beispielhaft in einem Anhang die grossen deutschen Braunkohlenreviere in der Lausitz, in Mitteldeutschland und am Niederrhein vorgestellt. Fuer das Mitteldeutsche und das Lausitzer Revier ist besonders anzumerken, dass mit dem schlagartigen Zusammenbruch der Bedarfsstruktur am Anfang der 90er Jahre in grossem Umfang Stillegungen ohne entsprechende Vorarbeiten notwendig wurden. (orig.)

  11. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations.

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Fugiel, Agata; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna; Turek, Marian


    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment.

  12. Application of 3D Visual Techniques in Daliuta Coal Mine


    3D visualization is one of major problems in "Digital Mine" theory and its technological research field. Through the observation of 3D geological models, spatial structural information, connected with the information of production management hidden in geological data, could be detected. In order to meet the requirement of more efficient coal exploration, a case study of geological characters of the Daliuta Coal Mine is presented in which 3D visual models of the ground surface and geologic bodies are established on the basis of data models and data structures of 3D geology modeling. The main conclusions of this study are as follows: (1) Through analysis and organization of spatial discrete data, the drillhole database is designed with the data of the Daliuta mine; the connections amomg drillhole data are realized and displayed in a 3D environment. (2) Combining real data of the Daliuta mine, drillhole visualization is realized in a 3D environment by using the CoalMiner system. (3) The ground surface modeling of the Daliuta coal mine adopted a surface-data model and a TIN data structure. (4) 3D models of coal seams and rock formations of the Daliuta mine are established, which provide a method for the simulation of complex surfaces of geologic bodies. In the end, the models are applied to the Daliuta coal mine and the result shows that better geological effects are obtained.

  13. Roof Rockmass Characterization in an Illinois Underground Coal Mine

    Osouli, Abdolreza; Shafii, Iman


    Among all United States underground coal fields, those in Illinois have the highest rate of roof fall events due to their weak and severely moisture sensitive roof rock units. Rockmass characterization is the key initial step in designing safe and economical roof control measures in underground coal mines. In this study, a performance-based roof rockmass characterization is investigated. The geologic conditions as well as underground mine geographic specifications, roof fall analysis, mining method, utilized supplemental roof control measures, and geotechnical properties of roof rock units were considered to link the roof performance to rockmass characterization. The coal mine roof rating (CMRR) rockmass characterization method was used to evaluate the roof conditions and roof support design for an underground coal mine located in the Illinois Coal Basin. The results of several mine visit mappings, laboratory test results, and geotechnical issues and concerns are presented and discussed. The roof support designs are analyzed based on the rockmass characterization and are compared with the observed performance. This study shows that (1) CMRR index is a reasonable method for characterizing roof rockmass; (2) moisture sensitivity and bedding strengths in the horizontal direction are essential parameters for roof support design in mines with weak roof conditions; and (3) the applicability of the analysis of roof bolt system for roof support design of the studied mine is questionable.

  14. Developing a model of strategic management of coal mining enterprises

    Komissarova Maria Anatolievna


    Full Text Available In article problems of strategic management of the companies of ugledo-happening branch reveal, and the model of strategic management of the coal-mining enterprise taking into account their branch specificity is offered to consideration.

  15. Ground engineering principles and practices for underground coal mining

    Galvin, J M


    This book teaches readers ground engineering principles and related mining and risk management practices associated with underground coal mining. It establishes the basic elements of risk management and the fundamental principles of ground behaviour and then applies these to the essential building blocks of any underground coal mining system, comprising excavations, pillars, and interactions between workings. Readers will also learn about types of ground support and reinforcement systems and their operating mechanisms. These elements provide the platform whereby the principles can be applied to mining practice and risk management, directed primarily to bord and pillar mining, pillar extraction, longwall mining, sub-surface and surface subsidence, and operational hazards. The text concludes by presenting the framework of risk-based ground control management systems for achieving safe workplaces and efficient mining operations. In addition, a comprehensive reference list provides additional sources of informati...

  16. Monitoring light hydrocarbons in Brazilian coal mines and in confined coal samples

    Silva, Rosangela [Pos-Graduation Program in Materials Engineering and Technology, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Pires, Marcal [Pos-Graduation Program in Materials Engineering and Technology, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Faculty of Chemistry, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Azevedo, Carla M.N. [Faculty of Chemistry, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Fagundes, Leandro [P and D Consultoria (Brazil); Garavaglia, Luciane; Gomes, Cleber J.B. [SATC, Associacao Beneficente da Industria Carbonifera de Santa Catarina, CTCL, Technological Center of Clean Coal (Brazil)


    Monitoring light hydrocarbons (LHCs) in coal mines, particularly methane, is important not only because of their implications for global climate change but also for economic and safety reasons. Furthermore, the identification and quantification of LHCs in coal mine air samples and desorbed from confined coal may contribute to a better understanding of coal seam characteristics. The paucity of information about the levels of methane in Brazilian underground coal mines can be attributed to their difficult access and a lack of adequate procedures for correct gas sampling. The aim of this study is to optimize and apply standard gas chromatography procedures to determine LHC levels in the air of coal mines and in confined coal from five mines under operation, three underground (A, B, C) and two surface (D, E) mines, in southern Brazil. The results indicate methane (C{sub 1}) levels varying from 3 ppm to 27% in the atmosphere of the underground mines. Mine A presented high levels of all LHCs analyzed (C{sub 1} to C{sub 5}), while only C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} were detected in mine B, and hydrocarbons ranging from C{sub 1} to C{sub 4} were found in mine C. On the other hand, surface mines presented narrow concentration range for C{sub 1} (3 ppm to 470 ppm) and C{sub 2}-C{sub 3}, with higher levels observed for puncture explosive points. Among LHCs, methane is desorbed in higher concentrations from confined coals and the presence of C{sub 2} was detected in all samples while C{sub 3}-C{sub 5} were only observed in coals from underground mines. These data are consistent with those obtained from the air gas samples collected in the mines under study. Geological events such as faulting and intrusions can accelerate the release of gas or the trapping of large amounts of previously released methane. The LHC emissions from coal mines were found to be highly variable, indicating the need for a comprehensive survey of Brazilian coal mine emissions. (author)

  17. Modern carbonate microbialites from an asbestos open pit pond, Yukon, Canada.

    Power, I M; Wilson, S A; Dipple, G M; Southam, G


    Microbialites were discovered in an open pit pond at an abandoned asbestos mine near Clinton Creek, Yukon, Canada. These microbialites are extremely young and presumably began forming soon after the mine closed in 1978. Detailed characterization of the periphyton and microbialites using light and scanning electron microscopy was coupled with mineralogical and isotopic analyses to investigate the mechanisms by which these microbialites formed. The microbialites are columnar in form (cm scale), have an internal spherulitic fabric (mm scale), and are mostly made of aragonite, which is supersaturated in the subsaline pond water. Initial precipitation is seen as acicular aragonite crystals nucleating onto microbial biomass and detrital particles. Continued precipitation entombs benthic diatoms (e.g. Brachysira vitrea), filamentous algae (e.g. Oedogonium sp.), dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria. The presence of phototrophs at spherulite centers strongly suggests that these microbes play an important initial role in aragonite precipitation. Substantial growth of individual spherulites occurs abiotically through periodic precipitation of aragonite that forms concentric laminations around spherulite centers while pauses in spherulite growth allow for colonization by microbes. Aragonite associated with biomass (δ(13)C = -4.6‰ VPDB) showed a (13)C-enrichment of 0.8‰ relative to aragonite exhibiting no biomass (δ(13)C = -5.4‰ VPDB), which suggests a modest removal of isotopically light dissolved inorganic carbon by phototrophs. The combination of a low sedimentation rate, high calcification rate, and low microbial growth rate appears to result in the formation of these microbialites. The formation of microbialites at an historic mine site demonstrates that an anthropogenically constructed environment can foster microbial carbonate formation.

  18. Characterizing a fractured aquifer in Mexico using geological attributes related to open-pit groundwater

    Herrera, Enrique; Garfias, Jaime


    A multivariable analysis of the Rock Quality Designation ( RQD) and its relation with the hydraulic conductivity of 17 dewatering wells in an open-pit mine (central Mexico) is presented as a tool for groundwater exploration in fractured aquifers. A solid model was constructed with the RQD data using three sizes for each grid cell and four interpolation methods. The inverse-distance method with a small grid gives the best results. The resulting RQD solid model was used to locate 22 pilot holes, on which an air-lift test was performed as a qualitative assessment of their usefulness. The results showed a lower water production (1.8 l/s) in shale that has low alteration, whereas in highly altered shale, breccias, and intrusive rock, the flow rate was 3.9 l/s. This implies an important relationship between the pilot-hole performance, the lithology, and the rock alteration, but it was also found that some fractures or faults, which cannot be detected clearly by the RQD, play an important role in the hydrodynamics of the aquifer. In conclusion, it is necessary to consider all available factors that can help to identify the hydrodynamic behavior of the aquifer because using only RQD data can lead to errors in prospecting for groundwater.

  19. Capture and Use of Coal Mine Ventilation Air Methane

    Deborah Kosmack


    CONSOL Energy Inc., in conjunction with MEGTEC Systems, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, designed, built, and operated a commercial-size thermal flow reversal reactor (TFRR) to evaluate its suitability to oxidize coal mine ventilation air methane (VAM). Coal mining, and particularly coal mine ventilation air, is a major source of anthropogenic methane emissions, a greenhouse gas. Ventilation air volumes are large and the concentration of methane in the ventilation air is low; thus making it difficult to use or abate these emissions. This test program was conducted with simulated coal mine VAM in advance of deploying the technology on active coal mine ventilation fans. The demonstration project team installed and operated a 30,000 cfm MEGTEC VOCSIDIZER oxidation system on an inactive coal mine in West Liberty, WV. The performance of the unit was monitored and evaluated during months of unmanned operation at mostly constant conditions. The operating and maintenance history and how it impacts the implementation of the technology on mine fans were investigated. Emission tests showed very low levels of all criteria pollutants at the stack. Parametric studies showed that the equipment can successfully operate at the design specification limits. The results verified the ability of the TFRR to oxidize {ge}95% of the low and variable concentration of methane in the ventilation air. This technology provides new opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by the reduction of methane emissions from coal mine ventilation air. A large commercial-size installation (180,000 cfm) on a single typical mine ventilation bleeder fan would reduce methane emissions by 11,000 to 22,100 short tons per year (the equivalent of 183,000 to 366,000 metric tonnes carbon dioxide).

  20. 75 FR 20918 - High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Parts 18 and 75 RIN 1219-AB34 High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines Correction In rule document 2010-7309 beginning on page...

  1. The assessment of mine rebound and decanting in deeper coal mines

    Vermeulen, P.D.; Dennis, I. [Inst. for Groundwater Studies, Bloemfontein (South Africa)


    This groundwater and monitoring study of 7 interlinked deep coal collieries in South Africa was conducted to develop analytical and numerical decant models of individual collieries suitable for integration into a single large model. The model will be used to prevent acid mine drainage after mining activities have stopped. The models considered interconnectivity between the mines, the geology of the overburden, the type of mining conducted at each mine, the topography and depth of the mining activities, and the piezometric levels of the mines and involved aquifers. The overburden formations in the studied region consisted of sandstone, shale, interbedded siltstone, mudstone and coal seams. Removal of the coal seams has resulted in the caving of the overlying strata into mined voids. The mining disruptions have resulted in subsidence and recharges of between 5 and 7 percent. The conceptual decant model predicted that piezometric levels of the mine will rise with the storage coefficient value of the mine. The flux from the overlying aquifers will decrease as water levels even out. Any polluted water will need to overcome 4 bar of pressure to to decant. Excess water above the weathered zone in the mines will seep out as normal unpolluted springs at lower points. Results of the numerical modelling study showed that it is unlikely that the collieries will decant, as the piezometric level of the mines will rise with the storage coefficient value of the mine. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Roadway failure and support in a coal seam underlying a previously mined coal seam

    Lu Yinlong; Wang Lianguo; Zhang Bei


    The influence of an upper,mined coal seam on the stability of rock surrounding a roadway in a lower coal seam is examined.The technical problems of roadway control are discussed based on the geological conditions existing in the Liyazhuang Mine No.2 coal seam.The stress distribution and floor failure in the lower works after mining the upper coal is studied through numerical simulations.The failure mechanism of the roof and walls of a roadway located in the lower coal seam is described.The predicted deformation and failure of the roadway for different distances between the two coal seams are used to design two ways of supporting the lower structure.One is a combined support consisting of anchors with a joist steel tent and a combined anchor truss.A field test of the design was performed to good effect.The results have significance for the design of supports for roadways located in similar conditions.

  3. Volume Computation of a Stockpile - a Study Case Comparing GPS and Uav Measurements in AN Open Pit Quarry

    Raeva, P. L.; Filipova, S. L.; Filipov, D. G.


    The following paper aims to test and evaluate the accuracy of UAV data for volumetric measurements to the conventional GNSS techniques. For this purpose, an appropriate open pit quarry has been chosen. Two sets of measurements were performed. Firstly, a stockpile was measured by GNSS technologies and later other terrestrial GNSS measurements for modelling the berms of the quarry were taken. Secondly, the area of the whole quarry including the stockpile site was mapped by a UAV flight. Having considered how dynamic our world is, new techniques and methods should be presented in numerous fields. For instance, the management of an open pit quarry requires gaining, processing and storing a large amount of information which is constantly changing with time. Fast and precise acquisition of measurements regarding the process taking place in a quarry is the key to an effective and stable maintenance. In other words, this means getting an objective evaluations of the processes, using up-to-date technologies and reliable accuracy of the results. Often legislations concerning mine engineering state that the volumetric calculations are to present ±3% accuracy of the whole amount. On one hand, extremely precise measurements could be performed by GNSS technologies, however, it could be really time consuming. On the other hand, UAV photogrammetry presents a fast, accurate method for mapping large areas and calculating stockpiles volumes. The study case was performed as a part of a master thesis.

  4. 77 FR 58170 - Proposed Renewal of Existing Information Collection; Fire Protection (Underground Coal Mines)


    ... (Underground Coal Mines) AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for public... (facsimile). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background Fire protection standards for underground coal mines....1100 requires that each coal mine be provided with suitable firefighting equipment adapted for the...

  5. Tube bundle system: for monitoring of coal mine atmosphere.

    Zipf, R Karl; Marchewka, W; Mohamed, K; Addis, J; Karnack, F


    A tube bundle system (TBS) is a mechanical system for continuously drawing gas samples through tubes from multiple monitoring points located in an underground coal mine. The gas samples are drawn via vacuum pump to the surface and are typically analyzed for oxygen, methane, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. Results of the gas analyses are displayed and recorded for further analysis. Trends in the composition of the mine atmosphere, such as increasing methane or carbon monoxide concentration, can be detected early, permitting rapid intervention that prevents problems, such as a potentially explosive atmosphere behind seals, fire or spontaneous combustion. TBS is a well-developed technology and has been used in coal mines around the world for more than 50 years. Most longwall coal mines in Australia deploy a TBS, usually with 30 to 40 monitoring points as part of their atmospheric monitoring. The primary uses of a TBS are detecting spontaneous combustion and maintaining sealed areas inert. The TBS might also provide mine atmosphere gas composition data after a catastrophe occurs in an underground mine, if the sampling tubes are not damaged. TBSs are not an alternative to statutory gas and ventilation airflow monitoring by electronic sensors or people; rather, they are an option to consider in an overall mine atmosphere monitoring strategy. This paper describes the hardware, software and operation of a TBS and presents one example of typical data from a longwall coal mine.

  6. Mining geophysical methods in service of up-to-date mining and the safety mines at the Oroszlany Coal Mines

    Csokas, J.; Dobroka, M.; Gyulai, A.; Ormos, T.


    The geoelectric sounding method used for detecting tectonic disturbances is described and the coal quality maps obtained with the aid of this method are presented. The determination of calorific value distribution of the coal seams and the tomographic determination of seismic absorptions in practice are also discussed. A brief survey is presented on the geothermic measurement method used for detecting underground water courses. Examples are enumerated from the Oroszlany Coal Mines. The new instruments for geoelectric sounding, for rock surface temperature measurement and underground temperature measurements are described.

  7. 3D geological modeling of surface coal mine based on AutoCAD%基于AutoCAD的露天煤矿三维地质建模

    王金金; 白润才; 刘光伟; 赵浩


    3D geological modeling of surface coal mine is a core component of Digital Mine. The establishment of 3D geological model provides decisions for the estimation and design of Open Pit Coal Mine, and the models have an important guiding significance during the mine' s production and provide more important information for the designers. This paper, by taking specific surface coal mine for example, introduces the technique of 3D geological modeling of surface coal mine based on AutoCAD, builds 3D 3D geological model, displays the 3D geological updates 3D geological model, simulation mining, geological modeling of the mine, applies it in engineering, establishes model in any direction, builds the drilling database, modifies and and so on. The establishment of 3D geological model enables mining engineers in a real three - dimensional environment and in the approach of "human - computer interaction", so as to realize the mining design and mining plan, and so on.%露天煤矿三维地质模型的建立是矿山数字化的核心组成部分.三维地质模型的建立,对矿山的经济评价、采矿设计和生产管理都具有重要的指导意义.以具体露天煤矿为例,介绍了基于AutoCAD的三维地质建模技术,建立了该矿的三维地质模型并将其应用于工程实际,实现了该矿的三维地质模型建立和可视化显示,以及钻孔数据库的建立、模型的修改与实时动态更新、模拟开采等功能,使矿山工程技术人员在一个真三维环境中,利用三维可视化模拟开采技术,以“人机交互”的方式进行露天矿开采设计、生产计划编制等.

  8. Numerical Simulation of Squeezing Failure in a Coal Mine Roadway due to Mining-Induced Stresses

    Gao, Fuqiang; Stead, Doug; Kang, Hongpu


    Squeezing failure is a common failure mechanism experienced in underground coal mine roadways due mainly to mining-induced stresses, which are much higher than the strength of rock mass surrounding an entry. In this study, numerical simulation was carried out to investigate the mechanisms of roadway squeezing using a novel UDEC Trigon approach. A numerical roadway model was created based on a case study at the Zhangcun coal mine in China. Coal extraction using the longwall mining method was simulated in the model with calculation of the mining-induced stresses. The process of roadway squeezing under severe mining-induced stresses was realistically captured in the model. Deformation phenomena observed in field, including roof sag, wall convexity and failed rock bolts are realistically produced in the UDEC Trigon model.

  9. Modeling of Accurate Variable Slope Angles in Open-Pit Mine Design Using Spline Interpolation / Modelowanie Zmiennego Kąta Nachylenia Stoku W Projektowaniu Kopalni Odkrywkowych Za Pomocą Interpolacji Funkcjami Sklejającymi (Metodą Spline'Ów)

    Shishvan, Masoud Soleymani; Sattarvand, Javad


    In this paper a new method of modeling variable slope angles has been presented based on the spline interpolation method. Slope angle modeling and defining precedency of the blocks are the vital parts of almost any open pit optimization algorithm. Traditionally heuristic patterns such as 1:5 or 1:9 have been used to generate slope angles. Cone template based models were later employed in developing variable slope angles. They normally use a linear interpolation process for determination of slope angles between the given directions which leads to sharp and non-realistic pits. The other elliptical alternatives suffer from having limitations in defining slope angles in non-geographical directions. The method is capable to consider any number of slope angles in any desired direction as well as creating quite accurate and realistic pit shapes. Three major types of the spline interpolation including cubic, quadratic and cardinal are tested, however, the cubic form is preferred due to more realistic outcomes. Main steps of the method are described through a numerical case study.

  10. Simulating the Various Subsystems of a Coal Mine

    V. Okolnishnikov


    Full Text Available A set of simulation models of various subsystems of a coal mine was developed with the help of a new visual interactive simulation system of technological processes. This paper contains a brief description of this simulation system and its possibilities. The main possibilities provided by the simulation system are: the quick construction of models from library elements, 3D representation, and the communication of models with actual control systems. These simulation models were developed for the simulation of various subsystems of a coal mine: underground conveyor network subsystems, pumping subsystems and coal face subsystems. These simulation models were developed with the goal to be used as a quality and reliability assurance tool for new process control systems in coal mining.

  11. Study on durability of concrete in coal mine

    ZHANG Yi-shun; JIN Zu-quan; SUN Wei; GUAN Xue-mao


    There are sulfate and chloride ions corrosion and carbonation to concrete in coal mine. Based on taking test of accelerated carbonation, corrosion of 3.5% weight of NaCl solution and 5% weight of Na2SO4 solution of coal mine concretes, durability of concretes which include spray concrete of C20, high performance concretes of C30 and C50and effect of fly ash on durability have been studied. Results suggest that the coal mineral high performance concretes show good resistance capacities of carbonation, sulfate and chloride corrosion to meet the coal mine construction. And the higher the strength grade is,the better the resistance capacity of corrosion of carbonation is, chloride and sulfate.Moreover, fly ash improves resistance capacity of high performance concrete(HPC) to chloride and sulfate but decreases the resistance capacity of C30's to carbonation and average dynamic modulus.


    Ivica M Ristović


    Full Text Available Coal plays a fundamental role in global development, but the coal mining industry exerts impact on the environment, society and economy. Kolubara Coal Company produces about 30 million tonnes of coal, and digs about 70 million m3 of overburden per year. The main result of surface coal is certainly taking agricultural land, so that surface mines, which affect large areas in Kolubara, about 100 hectars a year, causing a number of problems related to the recultivation of degraded area after coal extraction. The lignite extraction through the method of opencast mining in Kolubara is about 60 years old. The previous exploitation usage is characterised by the fact that the disposal of overburden is made non-selectively, whereas the surface solum is not being preserved. The recultivation is carried out in parallel with overburden excavation. It is necessary to preserve the fertile solum through selective excavation in order to bring the soil back to its previous purpose - agricultural production. The objective of this paper is mainly to point out the need for the further expansion of the utilisation of fossil fuels, which in turn reduces the emission of CO2, and thus reduces or prevents global climate changes on Earth. In addition to that, bringing back deteriorated terrains to their previous purpose - agricultural production, or the afforestation - contributes to the maintenance of ecological balance in nature, which then makes coal mining sustainable.

  13. Data transferring network of the Titovi Rudnici coal mines

    Hatunic, E.


    Gives a general survey of modern information and communication systems, highlighting the Yugoslav JUPAK system. Also considered is the need for the application of a modern information and communications system in the Titovi Rudnici coal mines and its integration with the national JUPAK system. The center of communications and information for all Bosnian coal mines should be Sarajevo. The center should be linked by a 460 MHz radio communication system with local transformers at Tuzla, Banja Luka, Mostar and Zenica. The largest, in Tuzla, should start with 256 links for local industrial, mining and commercial concerns. Details of the JUPAK data transfer network (the ERIPAC and EDX-P systems) are presented. The management of the Titovi Rudnici coal mines has not yet chosen an information system. 3 refs.

  14. Application of fuzzy logic for determining of coal mine mechanization



    The fundamental task of mining engineers is to produce more coal at a given level of labour input and material costs,for optimum quality and maximum efficiency.To achieve these goals,it is necessary to automate and mechanize mining operations.Mechanization is an objective that can result in significant cost reduction and higher levels of profitability for underground mines.To analyze the potential of mechanization,some important factors such as seam inclination and thickness,geological disturbances,seam floor conditions and roof conditions should be considered.In this study we have used fuzzy logic,membership functions and created fuzzy rule-based methods and considered the ultimate objective:mechanization of mining.As a case study,the mechanization of the Tazare coal seams in Shahroud area of Iran was investigated.The results show a low potential for mechanization in most of the Tazare coal seams.

  15. Comparison of Methane Drainage Methods Used in Polish Coal Mines

    Szlązak, Nikodem; Borowski, Marek; Obracaj, Dariusz; Swolkień, Justyna; Korzec, Marek


    Methane drainage is used in Polish coal mines in order to reduce mine methane emissions as well as to keep methane concentration in mine workings at safe levels. This article describes methods of methane drainage during mining used in Polish coal mines. The first method involves drilling boreholes from tailgate roadway to an unstressed zone in roof or floor layers of a mined seam. It is the main method used in Polish mining, where both the location of drilled boreholes as well as their parameters are dependent on mining and ventilation systems of longwalls. The second method is based on drilling overlying drainage galleries in seams situated under or over the mined seam. This article compares these methods with regard to their effectiveness under mining conditions in Polish mines. High effectiveness of methane drainage of longwalls with different ventilation and methane drainage systems has been proven. The highest effectiveness of methane drainage has been observed for the system with overlying drainage gallery and with the parallel tailgate roadways. In case of classic U ventilation system of longwall panel, boreholes drilled from the tailgate roadway behind the longwall front are lost.

  16. Study of "3-Step Mining" Subsidence Control in Coal Mining Under Buildings

    GUO Guang-li; ZHA Jian-feng; WU Bin; JIA Xin-guo


    Mining subsidence damage is the main factor of restricting coal mining under buildings. To control or ease effectively the degree of mining subsidence and deformation is essential to resolve this problem. Through analyzing both advantages and disadvantages of some technologies such as mining with stowing, partial extraction and grouting in separated beds of overburden, we used the principle of load replacement and propose a "3-step mining" method, a new pattern of controlling mining subsidence, which consists of: strip mining, i.e. grouting to fill and consolidate the caving zone and retained strip pillar mining. The mechanism of controlling mining subsidence by using the "3-step mining" pattern is analyzed. The effect of the control is numerically simulated. The preliminary analysis shows that the "3-step mining" can effectively control ground subsidence and deformation. By using this method, the ground subsidence factor can be controlled to a value of about 0.25. Coal recovery can reach 80%-90%. Coal mining without removing surface buildings can be realized and the economic loss resulting from ground subsidence can be greatly reduced.

  17. Coal Fields - MO 2015 Closed Non-coal Mine Shafts (SHP)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set contains the locations and descriptions of abandoned non-coal mine shafts in Missouri closed by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (DNR),...

  18. 78 FR 35974 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Rescue Teams; Arrangements for...


    ... Safety and Health Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Rescue Teams... protecting the safety and health of miners. 30 CFR Part 49, Mine Rescue Teams, Subpart B--Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines, sets standards related to the availability of mine rescue teams;...

  19. Influence of different mining layouts on the mechanical properties of coal

    Xie; Heping; Zhao; Xiaoping; Liu; Jianfeng; Zhang; Ru; Xue; Dongjie


    Non-pillar mining,top-coal caving and protected coal seam mining are the most popular mining methods in coal exploitation,and the different mining layouts will change the stress state and failure mechanism of coal in front of the working face.In this paper,mining-induced mechanical behaviors under three mining layouts have been simulated in the laboratory to investigate the effects of mining layouts on the deformation and strength of coal.Furthermore,the coal failure mechanism under different mining layouts is analyzed microscopically.The experimental results indicate that the stage characteristics of the coal deformation are obvious.Under the serial action of non-pillar mining,top-coal caving and protected coal seam mining layouts,the values of radial deformation,volume strain and Poisson's ratio increase,while the peak strength and deformation modulus decrease at the same buried depth,and the peak strength under non-pillar mining,top-coal caving and protected coal seam mining is about 3.0,2.5 and 2.0 times of the initial confining pressure,respectively.The results also indicate that the trend of the coal deformation decreases with the increase of the buried depth under the same mining layout,while the strength and deformation modulus increase,and the failure mechanism under three mining layouts is dominated with shear/tensile failure.

  20. Influence Of different mining layouts on the mechanical properties of coal

    Xie Heping; Zhao Xiaoping; Liu Jianfeng; Zhang Ru; Xue Dongjie


    Non-pillar mining,top-coal caving and protected coal seam mining are the most popular mining methods in coal exploitation,and the different mining layouts will change the stress state and failure mechanism of coal in front of the working face.In this paper,mining-induced mechanical behaviors under three mining layouts have been simulated in the laboratory to investigate the effects of mining layouts on the deformation and strength of coal.Furthermore,the coal failure mechanism under different mining layouts is analyzed microscopically.The experimental results indicate that the stage characteristics of the coal deformation are obvious.Under the serial action of non-pillar mining,top-coal caving and protected coal seam mining layouts,the values of radial deformation,volume strain and Poisson's ratio increase,while the peak strength and deformation modulus decrease at the same buried depth,and the peak strength under non-pillar mining,top-coal caving and protected coal seam mining is about 3.0,2.5 and 2.0 times of the initial confining pressure,respectively.The results also indicate that the trend of the coal deformation decreases with the increase of the buried depth under the same mining layout,while the strength and deformation modulus increase,and the failure mechanism under three mining layouts is dominated with shear/tensile failure.

  1. Environmentally Benign Coal Mining: Target One Billion Tonne Coal Production by CIL by 2019-20

    Gurdeep Singh1,2 and


    Full Text Available Coal is the most abundant fuel resource in India. Coal is the major source of energy and is the principal contributor for the industrial growth of the developing nation like India. Coal is a bridge component in a current, balanced energy group. It is connection for the future as a vital low cost energy solution for achieving sustainability challenges for competing with the developed countries. The largest consumer of coal in India is power sector, and the industrial sector is coming next to power sector. The major consumption of coal in India is in steel plant, cement plant and brick-manufacturing units.52%of primary energy is coal dependent1.About 66% of India's power generation is based upon coal production1. While coal is considered the most significant element for the growth of country, it faces major and massive social and environmental issues. Environmental worries are the most important parameter for the coal industry’s future. In comparison to the other fossil fuels, coal is more pollution causing and less energy efficient. Coal has an important role in fulfillment of current needs. 212.10 Million Tonnes of coal was imported in the financial year 2014-152.The coal demand will be increasing due to increase in electricity demand of the country. Coal India being the largest producer of coal in India has to plan accordingly to fulfill the coal demand of country. A road map for enhancement of coal production up to 1 Billion of coal by 2019-2020 has been prepared by Coal India3. Due to coal mining the key environmental impacts are on air, water, land, forest, biodiversity, and climate etc. The biggest challenge is to put on the innovative technologies in the most efficient and environmentally friendly manner and to solve social issues by taking care of the implementation of rehabilitation and resettlement (R&R.Thrust is now to promote inclusive growth of mining areas by adequate corporate social responsibilities (CSR activities4,5. Thus the

  2. Environmental problems in a coal mining area affected by coal fires --A case study in Ruqigou Coalfield, Ningxia, China


    Ruqigou Coalfield, being one of the most important coal mining areas in China, has suffered coal fire problems for more than one hundred years. Due to coal fires, about 4.513 million tons coal resources has been lost each year, and apart from a large volume of CO2 delivered into air, environmental problems such as land degradation, land pollution and air pollution are also produced. Air pollution, as one related to coal fires, is the most dangerous problems for local people and has already led to vegetation pollution in this area. Land degradation is mainly induced with occurrence of land subsidence, fissures with due to coal mining/coal fires, and debris slide/flow. With development of opencast coal mining, a large volume of waste was produced, which is the major source of land pollution. All these environmental problems are associated with coal mining or coal fires and their comprehensive effects are deterioration of environment.

  3. Private sector coal mining in South Wales 1991-96

    Evans, H.C. [Health and Safety Executive (United Kingdom). HM Inspectorate of Mines, Wales and West England District


    The paper reviews the significant changes that have taken place in private sector coal mines, in South Wales, over a five year period, together with details of individual mine activity. Due consideration is given to health and safety initiative raised at the quarterly held meetings of the Joint Advisory Committee formed by the Mines Inspectorate in 1990. Privatisation, during this period, brought The Coal Authority into being and the new arrangements are briefly reviewed. The role of the Mines Inspectorate is clearly outlined in terms of investigating accidents and incidents, reviewing The Employers` Lability (Compulsory Insurance) Act 1969, formalising lines of communication with the industry and highlighting both its advisory and enforcement roles. The paper was presented to the Wales Branch of the Institution of Mining Engineers, held in Llandarcy, Wales on 5 December 1996. Discussions held after the lecture are included. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. One year water chemistry monitoring of the flooding of the Meirama open pit (NW Spain)

    Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.; Vázquez, A.; Fernández-Bogo, S.


    In December, 2007, after 30 years of operations, the mine of Meirama finished the extraction of brown lignite. Starting in April 2008, the flooding of the open pit has started and this is leading to the formation of a large mining lake (~2 km2 surface and up to 180 m depth) in which surface (river and rain water) and ground waters are involved. Since the beginning of the flooding, lake waters are weekly sampled and analyzed for temperature, pH, redox, EC, TDS, TSS, DO,DIC, DOC, turbidity, alkalinity/acidity as well as nearly 40 inorganic chemical components. Stable water isotopes (deuterium and oxygen) are also being recorded. In order to better understand the dynamic chemical evolution of lake waters, the chemical characteristics of rain water as well as a series of lake tributaries and ground waters are also being measured. Since the beginning of the flooding process, the chemical quality of lake water has experienced an interesting evolution that obeys to a variety of circumstances. The silicic geologic substratum of the catchment determines that both ground and surface waters have a rather low alkalinity. Moreover, the presence of disseminated sulfides (mainly pyrite) within the schistous materials of the mine slopes and internal rock dumps provokes a significant acidic load. From April to October 2008, the lake waters had only the contribution of rain and ground waters. Since the beginning of October, a significant volume of surface waters has been derived to the mine hole. Taking pH as indicator, the first water body had a rather acidic pH (~3) which was progressively amended with the addition of a certain amount of lime to reach an upper value of ~8 by late August. The diminution in the addition of lime up to its elimination, in December, has conducted to the progressive acidification of the lake. At present, an instrumented floating deck is being deployed in the lake. This device will serve as a base point where it is planned to locate a series of

  5. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 2. Interior Coal Province

    Patricoski, M. L.; Daniels, L. K.; Sobek, A. A.


    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Interior Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references, including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographies. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  6. Influence of Geological Structure on Coal and Gas Outburst Occurrences in Turkish Underground Coal Mines

    Esen, Olgun; Özer, Samet Can; Fişne, Abdullah


    Coal and gas outbursts are sudden and violent releases of gas and in company with coal that result from a complex function of geology, stress regime with gas pressure and gas content of the coal seam. The phenomena is referred to as instantaneous outbursts and have occurred in virtually all the major coal producing countries and have been the cause of major disasters in the world mining industry. All structures from faults to joints and cleats may supply gas or lead to it draining away. Most geological structures influence the way in which gas can drain within coal seams. From among all the geological factors two groups can be distinguished: parameters characterising directly the occurrence and geometry of the coal seams; parameters characterising the tectonic disturbances of the coal seams and neighbouring rocks. Also dykes may act as gas barriers. When the production of the coal seam is advanced in mine working areas, these barriers are failed mostly in the weak and mylonitized zones. Geology also plays a very important role in the outburst process. Coal seams of complex geological structure including faults, folds, and fractured rocks are liable to outbursts if coal seams and neighbouring rocks have high gas content level. The purpose of the study is to enlighten the coal industry in Turkey to improving mine safety in underground coal production and decrease of coal and gas outburst events due to increasing depth of mining process. In Turkey; the years between 1969 and 2013, the number of 90 coal and gas outbursts took place in Zonguldak Hard Coal Basin in both Kozlu and Karadon Collieries. In this study the liability to coal and gas outburst of the coal seams are investigated by measuring the strength of coal and the rock pressure. The correlation between these measurements and the event locations shows that the geological structures resulted in 52 events out of 90 events; 19 events close to the fault zones, 25 events thorough the fault zones and 8 events in

  7. The accident analysis of mobile mine machinery in Indian opencast coal mines.

    Kumar, R; Ghosh, A K


    This paper presents the analysis of large mining machinery related accidents in Indian opencast coal mines. The trends of coal production, share of mining methods in production, machinery deployment in open cast mines, size and population of machinery, accidents due to machinery, types and causes of accidents have been analysed from the year 1995 to 2008. The scrutiny of accidents during this period reveals that most of the responsible factors are machine reversal, haul road design, human fault, operator's fault, machine fault, visibility and dump design. Considering the types of machines, namely, dumpers, excavators, dozers and loaders together the maximum number of fatal accidents has been caused by operator's faults and human faults jointly during the period from 1995 to 2008. The novel finding of this analysis is that large machines with state-of-the-art safety system did not reduce the fatal accidents in Indian opencast coal mines.

  8. Present situation and developing trend of coal mine automation and communication technology

    HU Sui-yan


    Introduced developing process of coal mine automation and communicationtechnology, analyzed present features and characteristics of coal mine automation andcommunication technology, and put forward a few key technical problems needed to besolved.

  9. Exploration drilling for pre-mining gas drainage in coal mines

    Shubina, E. A.; Brylin, V. I.; Lukyanov, V. G.; Korotchenko, T. V.


    High natural gas content in coal seams and low gas drainage efficiency are the basic issues to be addressed in order to ensure coal mining safety. A great number of wells being drilled within various gas drainage techniques significantly increase the costs of coal mining and do not reduce the gas content levels within the coal beds up to the required parameters in a short period of time. The integrated approach toward exploration well spacing applied at the stage of project development could make it possible to consider coal seam data to provide more effective gas drainage not only ahead of mining but also during further gas content reduction and commercial production of methane. The comparative analysis of a closely spaced grid of exploration program compiled in accordance with the recommendations on applying mineral reserves classification and inferred resources of coal and shale coal deposits and currently effective stimulation radius proves the necessity and possibility to consider exploration well data for gas drainage. Pre-mining gas drainage could ensure the safety of mining operations.

  10. Analysis of production capacity in coal mining operations. [Hungary

    Csicsay, A.; Moharos, J.


    The longwall mining machines in coal mines are extremely expensive. In the intensive periods of development most of the investments were expended to this machinery but their productivity was found to stay below expectations. After the assessment of the reasons the solution for this problem was sought and new measures were introduced. The analysis covered the survey of the losses and the service times experienced in 19 heavily mechanized longwall mines representing over half of this type in Hungary. Propositions to reduce time and financial losses and to improve the efficiency of mining machines are presented.

  11. Study on regional stratagem for coal mine disasters control and prevention in China

    SHEN Bao-hong; LEI Yi


    The regional strategy study was aimed at coal mine disaster control and pre-vention, which deepens and enriches the macro-strategy of coal mine disaster control and prevention, and provides an important support for the rapid and healthy development of the regional coal industry. The country was divided into 4 regions: Northeast, North, South and Xinqing. In view of the regional status of coal mine disasters, the regulation and de-velopment trend of regional coal mine disasters were analyzed, the outstanding problems and key factors were identified, and the general thoughts on regional coal mine disaster control and prevention were put forward.

  12. A New Methodology for Open Pit Slope Design in Karst-Prone Ground Conditions Based on Integrated Stochastic-Limit Equilibrium Analysis

    Zhang, Ke; Cao, Ping; Ma, Guowei; Fan, Wenchen; Meng, Jingjing; Li, Kaihui


    Using the Chengmenshan Copper Mine as a case study, a new methodology for open pit slope design in karst-prone ground conditions is presented based on integrated stochastic-limit equilibrium analysis. The numerical modeling and optimization design procedure contain a collection of drill core data, karst cave stochastic model generation, SLIDE simulation and bisection method optimization. Borehole investigations are performed, and the statistical result shows that the length of the karst cave fits a negative exponential distribution model, but the length of carbonatite does not exactly follow any standard distribution. The inverse transform method and acceptance-rejection method are used to reproduce the length of the karst cave and carbonatite, respectively. A code for karst cave stochastic model generation, named KCSMG, is developed. The stability of the rock slope with the karst cave stochastic model is analyzed by combining the KCSMG code and the SLIDE program. This approach is then applied to study the effect of the karst cave on the stability of the open pit slope, and a procedure to optimize the open pit slope angle is presented.

  13. Computerized estimation of coal reserves of underground coal mines

    Solymosi, F.; Kiss, J.


    No standardized methodology for long term planning exists in Hungary in the coal industry. A computerized method of coal reserve estimation based on normatives is described. The method has been applied in the Maza-South-Varalja-South region (Transdanubia, South Hungary). The applicability of the method is outlined and the error limit that was missing in coal reserve estimations is suggested to be introduced.

  14. Back-and-forth mining for hard and thick coal seams-research about the mining technology for fully mechanized caving working face of Datong Mine

    JIN Zhi-xin; YU Hong; YU Bin; SONG Hua-ling


    The article introduced the key technology, mining process, and back-and-forth mining method for the caving working face of hard-thick coal seams in Datcng mine, and researched this innovations process, optimized the systemic design and working face outplay, tried to perfect the caving mining technology of hard-thick coal seams further.

  15. Hydrogeological and environmental impact of coal mining, Jharia coalfield, India

    Choubey, V.D. (Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Dept. of Applied Geology)

    The Jharia coalfield is the most important and active mining region in India, it experiences groundwater inflow and affects groundwater levels in overlying aquifers, and it provides the basis for a conceptual model of the hydrogeological impacts of coal mining. The several sandstone aquifers of the overburden are separated by aquitards that limit vertical hydraulic connection, but the inflow responds to seasonal events and seems to be linked to shallow groundwater behaviour. The mine drainage behaviour suggests a hydraulic connection between the mine and the shallower groundwater system. The greatest declines are directly above the panels, with an immediate response to coal mining. The inflow is localized by natural and induced fracture zones and is mostly into recent workings. The groundwater behaviour is controlled by hydraulic property changes caused by mine-induced fracturing. The hydrological and chemical qualities of the shallow groundwater regime in 13 mining collieries in Mukunda Block have been investigated. Water samples were collected from 30 shallow monitoring dug wells. Rainfall, runoff, and infiltration rates have been calculated in the area. The water-quality plottings were used to interpret the distribution of individual chemical parameters and in predicting the water quality. The underground mine water has been classified as: (1) unconfined groundwater in the calcareous siltstone and sandstone - its composition in Na, Ca, SO{sub 4} and Na-MgHCO{sub 3} with moderate total dissolved solids (TDS)200-1480 ppm; (2) the deep groundwater originating from the coal seams and associated sediments in the near-surface environments - this is a Na-HCO{sub 3} water with higher TDS; and (3) spoil dump waters are essentially Na-HCO{sub 3} with high TDS. This article presents some hydrologic results and conclusions relating to the hydrogeological and environmental impacts of the coal mining in the Jharia coalfield. 19 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Uncertainty Representation Method for Open Pit Optimization Results Due to Variation in Mineral Prices

    Jieun Baek


    Full Text Available This study proposes a new method to quantitatively represent the uncertainty existing in open pit optimization results due to variations in mineral prices. After generating multiple mineral prices using Monte Carlo simulation with data on past mineral prices, a probability model that represents the uncertainty was developed by integrating multiple open pit optimization results derived from the mineral prices. The results of applying the proposed method to the copper-zinc deposits showed that significant uncertainty exists in open pit optimization results due to the variation in copper prices. It was also found that the method has a potential as a tool for classifying the estimation results of ore reserve based on confidence level.

  17. 三相泡沫防灭火技术在露天矿的首次应用%First-lime Application of Fire Fighting Technology with Three-phase Foam in Open-pit Coal Mine

    邵光强; 王东禹; 韩佰春; 仲晓星



  18. 平朔安家岭露天煤矿扩能改造工艺选择%Selection of enlarging ability transformation craft in Pingshuoanjialing open-pit coal mine

    贺全超; 杨朝阳; 罗随月; 方涛; 丛山



  19. 75 FR 57849 - Maintenance of Incombustible Content of Rock Dust in Underground Coal Mines


    ... Rock Dust in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION... Safety and Health Act of 1977 in response to the grave danger that miners in underground bituminous coal mines face when accumulations of coal dust are not made inert. MSHA has concluded, from...

  20. Study of monitoring mining subsidence in coal mining area by D-InSAR technology

    PEI Liang; LI Wen-jie; TAN Yang


    Along with the increasing demand for coal and the great importance attached to mine safety,gaining the information of mine surface distortion timely has already become an urgent need to guarantee the safety of mine production.D-InSAR technology is a new measure which can provide the information of surface distortion in mining areas at centimeter level through the processing of SAR image gained from radar satellite.In addition,this technology has the advantage of monitoring large areas with no weather limit.Introduced the basic principle and data processing steps of D-InSAR systematically and acquired the differential interferometry based on case study data.The advantages of D-InSAR and it's usability in monitoring mining subsidence in coal mining areas were proved.

  1. Study of monitoring mining subsidence in coal mining area by D-InSAR technology

    PEI Liang; LI Wen-jie; TAN Yang


    Along with the increasing demand for coal and the great importance attached to mine safety, gaining the information of mine surface distortion timely has already become an urgent need to guarantee the safety of mine production. D-InSAR technology is a new measure which can provide the information of surface distortion in mining areas at centi-meter level through the processing of SAR image gained from radar satellite. In addition, this technology has the advantage of monitoring large areas with no weather limit. Intro-duced the basic principle and data processing steps of D-InSAR systematically and ac-quired the differential interferometry based on case study data. The advantages of D-InSAR and it's usability in monitoring mining subsidence in coal mining areas were proved.


    连传杰; 刘立民; 高闯


    Coal mining under buildings certainly causes surface movement and deformation, therefore, it brings about deformation even fracture for buildings. It is an important task to evaluate correctly the buildings' damage grade caused by coal mining. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, considering some factors of buildings' fracture, has been applied to analyze the masonry structure buildings' damage grade after coal mining in this paper. It provides a scientific basis for buildings' reinforcement before mining and maintenance or compensation after mining.

  3. Coal mine gas monitoring system based on wireless sensor network

    WANG Jian; WANG Ru-lin; WANG Xue-min; SHEN Chuan-he


    Based on the nowadays' is urgent that the gas detection cable communication system must be replaced by the wireless communication systems.The wireless sensors distributed in the environment can achieve the intelligent gas monitoring system.Apply with multilayer data fuse to design working tactics,and import the artificial neural networks to analyze detecting result.The wireless sensors system communicates with the controI center through the optical fiber cable.All the gas sensor nodes distributed in coal mine are combined into an intelligent,flexible structure wireless network system.forming coal mine gas monitoring system based on wireless sensor network.

  4. Design of an internal waste dump within the boundaries of the open pit

    Panov, Zoran; Minov, Kirco; Karanakova Stefanovska, Radmila; Stojanov, Slobodan; Doneva, Blagica


    With the deepening of the open pit, the transport distances for the sterile mass and the ore increased. This paper deals with the formation of an internal waste dump within the boundaries of the open pit. The development of such waste dump should be in function of the space for disposing the waste according to existing situation on the field and the space for dumping. The internal waste dump will be used for permanent dumping and waste storage. Modern methods will be used to asses...

  5. Use of booster fans in underground coal mining to advantage

    Habibi A; Gillies A D S


    A booster fan is an underground main fan which is installed in series with a main surface fan and used to boost the air pressure of the ventilation to overcome mine resistance.Currently booster fans are used in several major coal mining countries including the United Kingdom,Australia,Poland and China.In the United States booster fans are prohibited in coal mines although they are used in several metal and non-metal mines.A study has been undertaken to examine alternatives for ventilating an underground room and pillar coal mine system.A feasibility study of a hypothetical situation has shown that current ventilation facilities are incapable of fulfilling mine air requirements in the future due to increased seam methane levels.A current ventilation network model has been prepared and projected to a mine five years plan.“Ventsim visual” software simulations of different possible ventilation options have been conducted in which varying methane levels are found at working faces.The software can also undertake financial simulations and project present value total costs for the options under study.Several scenarios for improving the ventilation situation such as improving main surface fans,adding intake shafts,adding exhaust shafts and utilizing booster fans have been examined.After taking into account the total capital and operating costs for the five years mine plan the booster fan scenarios are recommended as being the best alternatives for further serious consideration by the mine.The optimum option is a properly sized and installed booster fan system that can be used to create safe work conditions,maintain adequate air quantity with lowest cost,generate a reduction in energy consumption and decrease mine system air leakage.

  6. Arc Export File Of Permitted and Mined Out Coal Areas of the Gulf Coast Coal-Bearing (gulfmines.e00)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains permitted coal mines and mined out areas in the Gulf Coast coal-bearing geology prior to 1998. The data included in the coverage are mine...

  7. Results of geophysical methods in the northern forefield of open-pits Merkur and Brezno

    Dobes, M.; Exner, J.; Matous, J.


    Extensive geophysical surveys have been conducted around the Merkur and Brezno surface mines, Czechoslovakia, with the objective of mapping the coal seam outcrop, studying the extent of Tertiary sediments and volcanites, and investigating the tectonics of the basement rocks. Geoelectric methods, magnetometry and gravimetry were used in the surveys. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Washability analysis of high sulfur coal gangue from a Coal mine in Guizhou

    TANG Yun; DAI Wen-zhi; ZHANG Qin; NIE Guang-hua; CHENG Jiang-guo; TUO Bi-yang; MAO Song; NIU Fang-yin


    Fulfill the screen test and float-and-sink analysis for high sulfur coal gangue from a Guizhou coal mine,analyzed the washability of its tail coal.Seen from the results:most of sulfur in sample is pyrite,the Sulfur content of different particle classification shall be reduced with the decreasing of size and specific gravity,most of sulfur distributed in the coal particles with large-size and high specific gravity.Part of sulfur may be eliminated through special gravity separation,however,most of inorganic sulfur should be removed with the combination of floatation process.

  9. A Study of Rockburst Hazard Evaluation Method in Coal Mine

    Zhijie Wen


    Full Text Available With the increasing of coal mining depth, the mining conditions are deteriorating, and dynamic hazard is becoming more likely to happen. This paper analyzes the relations and differences between rockburst in the coal mine and rockburst in the metal mine. It divides coal mine rockburst into two types including static loading type during roadway excavation process and dynamic loading type during mining face advancing. It proposes the correlation between the formation process of rockburst and the evolution of overlying strata spatial structure of the stope, criterion of rockburst occurrence, new classification, and predictive evaluation method for rockburst hazard that rockburst damage evaluation (RDE = released energy capacity (REC/absorbed energy capacity (AEC. Based on the relationship between RDE value and its corresponding level of rockburst hazard, the rockburst hazard can be divided into five types and evaluation index of each type can be achieved. Then the ongoing rockburst damage level can be classified in one of the five types, and the relative parameters, such as hazard extent, controlling measures also can be achieved. This new quantitative method could not only assess the impacting direction of rockburst occurrence, but also verify the effect of preventive measures for rockburst.

  10. Coal-mine production history from 1984 through 1995 in the Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area (cpmphg)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a point coverage containing 12 years (1984 through 1995) of coal mining history in the Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area. This layer was derived...

  11. Study on coal mines accidents based on the grey relational analysis

    WANG Shuai; ZHANG Jin-long


    The subject investigated the system of people-machine-environment in coal mines. The coal mines working process was researched and the theory of grey system was applied to analyze coal mines safety accidents and those relevant factors. This re-search reveals that this analysis method is easy and highly available and the result is of great credibility, which can not only provide theoretical supports to the quantitative study of coal mines safety accident, but offer basis for coal mines companies' safety management.

  12. Closed-loop prevention and control research of coal mine safety management

    LI Xing-dong; ZHAO Yun-xia; ZHAO Xing-qiang; LU Ying


    According to the current problems of safety management processes in coal mine enterprises, we introduced barrel theory to coal mine safety management, con-structed the closed-loop structure of a coal mine safety management system, and pointed out that efficient safety management lies in three factors: safety quality of all of the staff in coal mine enterprises, weak links in security management systems, and co-operation among departments. After conducting detailed analysis of these three factors, we proposed concrete ways of preventing and controlling potential safety hazards during the process of coal mine production.

  13. Trends of the American coal mining industry and technology development

    Graham, M.J. [Joy Mining Machinery (USA)


    An overview is presented of the USA's coal mining industry, emphasising energy trends and driving forces. The focus of the drive for increased productivity has shifted to technology. Several pieces of high-tech mining equipment produced by Joy Mining Machinery is described. They include: the Joy 12CM27 continuous miner, the Multibolter, the Flexible Conveyor Train, Joy longwall roof supports, Joy armored face conveyors, Joy shearing machines, and Joy Network Architecture (JNA) system for underground machine control and diagnostics. 19 figs., 4 tabs.


    潘一山; 陈德军; 章梦涛


    Based on practical observation in Mentougou Mine, a general law of roof rockburst is put forward. The destabilization theory of roof rockburst has been established. The general laws of microquake premonition and earth sound in roof rockburst is advanced. The relationship between roof rockburst and rockburst of coal body is studied.

  15. Mycobacterium marinum Infection After Exposure to Coal Mine Water.

    Huaman, Moises A; Ribes, Julie A; Lohr, Kristine M; Evans, Martin E


    Mycobacterium marinum infection has been historically associated with exposure to aquariums, swimming pools, fish, or other marine fauna. We present a case of M marinum left wrist tenosynovitis and elbow bursitis associated with a puncture injury and exposure to coal mine water in Illinois.

  16. Ecological consequences of minestone deposition from open coal mines

    Davcheva-Ilcheva, N.G. (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Institute of Applied Mineralogy)


    Describes the largest Bulgarian coal mining field Maritza-Iztok (240 km[sup 2], 700,000 town population). Natural resources and the ecosystem are described. Petrographical composition of the coal deposit is given. Ecological problems that result from mining activity and methods adopted to solve them are presented. The coalfield provides Bulgaria with 74% of its coal, 30% of its electricity and 100% of its briquets. Coal mining waste from the Maritza-Iztok mine amounts to 79.9% of the country's waste. For waste deposition and other purposes, 160 km[sup 2] of land have been expropriated and another 165 km[sup 2] will be expropriated. About 33 km[sup 2] of damaged areas have been recultivated. Dust and noise emissions are considered. Ecological conditions of the region worsen each year by emission from a power station, chemical enterprises and a cement plant. Recommendations are made on how to solve the ecological problems. 2 refs.

  17. Pollution extents of organic substances from a coal gangue dump of Jiulong Coal Mine, China.

    Sun, Y Z; Fan, J S; Qin, P; Niu, H Y


    This paper addresses the distribution and occurrence of harmful organic substances in coal gangue dump from Jiulong Coal Mine and its influence on the environment. The samples were taken from the coal gangue dump and coal waste water stream and analyzed by organic geochemical methods. The results indicate that the coal gangues contain abundant harmful organic substances like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The TOC and sulfur contents of the samples are much higher than those of the background sample except Sample JL7. The contents of organic bulk parameters are relatively high. Ten carcinogenic PAHs were identified and these harmful organic substances have influenced the surrounding area. Along the waste water stream, organic substances pollute at least 1,800 m far from the coal gangue dump.

  18. Pollution extents of organic substances from a coal gangue dump of Jiulong Coal Mine, China

    Sun, Y.Z.; Fan, J.S.; Qin, P.; Niu, H.Y. [Hebei University of Engineering, Handan (China)


    This paper addresses the distribution and occurrence of harmful organic substances in coal gangue dump from Jiulong Coal Mine and its influence on the environment. The samples were taken from the coal gangue dump and coal waste water stream and analyzed by organic geochemical methods. The results indicate that the coal gangues contain abundant harmful organic substances like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The TOC and sulfur contents of the samples are much higher than those of the background sample except Sample JL7. The contents of organic bulk parameters are relatively high. Ten carcinogenic PAHs were identified and these harmful organic substances have influenced the surrounding area. Along the waste water stream, organic substances pollute at least 1,800 m far from the coal gangue dump.

  19. Research on the Factors of Fatigue of Coal Mine Workers and Its Control Measures

    Zhang Jing-Gang


    Full Text Available China is the largest coal producer in the world, it play a important role in the international field of coal production, but due to the frequent occurrence of coal mining accidents, it cause a enormous damage to the state's manpower and material resources. This article on research of the cause of the coal mining accident, it describes the fatigue of the coal mine workers assignment is the main cause of the accident and the threat to the safety of workers, and points out the important factors in ergonomics. MMEC theory is introduced and using for reference MMEC theory, finding out influence the cause of the coal mine worker fatigue, and combined with the relevant laws and regulations system to control and reduce the proposed method of coal mine worker fatigue to reduce and prevent the occurrence of coal mine accidents have some guidance Significance.


    璩世杰; 尚峰华; 李宝辉; 王友成


    结合实例介绍了一种用于露天矿台阶垂直中深孔爆破设计并对爆破破碎效果和爆堆形状分别进行预测和模拟的软件系统——Blast-Code模型。该模型主要由采场地质地形数据库、爆破设计与模拟两大部分构成,前者可以准确和方便快捷地反映采场的地形条件、矿岩物理力学性质及地质构造等信息;后者则依据对爆区地形(包括台阶自由面条件 ) 、爆区内矿岩的物理力学性质与地质构造特征、炸药爆炸性能三类对爆破效果具有直接影响的关键因素的综合定量分析,由计算机自动进行完整的爆破设计,并可对矿岩的破碎效果和爆堆形状进行定量的模拟和预测。Blast-Code模型具有爆破参数选取的人工干预和钻孔爆破成本计算功能,可对多个设计方案进行技术经济对比分析,利于实现优化爆破。%This paper introduces a computer program, the Blast-Code, fo r design and simulation of open-pit blasting operations. In the Blast-Code, a geology and topogr aphy database is developed and used to provide the data on geological conditions , physical pro perties of rocks, topography environment within and nearby the blast. The dat a and the recognized explosive characteristics can be automatically analyzed and a complete design can be carried out with the model. Blast simulation includes prediction of resultant fragmentation in terms of looseness degree, fragment siz e average as well as the 3-D profile and any cross-sectional profile of a muck pile. The Blast-Code model permits interactive parameter selection and calcula ti on of drilling and blasting cost, so that result of different runs of blast desi gn can be compared in terms of the predicted outcome and cost and then an optimu m design can be selected.

  1. New Respirable Dust Suppression Systems for Coal Mines

    XIE Yao-she; FAN Gao-xian; DAI Jun-wei; SONG Xiao-bo


    Dust suppression in coal mines is a worldwide problem which has not been solved effectively. The application of negative pressure secondary dust removal (NPSDR) is a breakthrough in the coal mine safety field. In this paper, NPSDR technology and ultrasonic dust suppression systems are introduced. High pressure water is supplied to the NPSDR device which is mounted on the shearer. A negative pressure field is formed in the device. At the same time, the dusty air around the shearer drum will be sucked into, and purged from, the NPSDR device by the negative pressure field. An ultrasonic dust suppression system uses water and compressed air to produce micron sized droplets which suppress respirable coal dust effectively. The NPSDR technology can be used for shearer dust suppression while ultrasonic dust suppression can be applied in areas such as the transportation positions. These dust suppression methods have the following advantages: high efficiency, wide applicability, simple structure, high reliability and low cost.

  2. Polish legal regulations considering recovery of secondary materials from coal mining dumping grounds

    Gawor Łukasz


    Full Text Available In the article there is presented temporary situation of coal mining dumping grounds in Poland – their inventarization, localization and environmental impacts. The coal mining dumping grounds in Poland are situated in three coal basins: Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Lower Silesian Coal Basin and Lublin Coal Basin. In all mentioned areas occur ca. 270 coal mining waste dumps, covering surface of over 4400 ha. The main environmental impacts connected with dumping grounds are fire hazards, water pollution and a danger of slope sliding. The question of recovery of coal from disposed wastes with regard to legal regulations is discussed. There are presented technical methods of coal recovery considering environmental protection issues. There is a necessity and technical possibility of recovery of coal from the coal-mining waste dumps. The coal recovery reduces hazards of self-ignition and fires of the dump. It is also economically justified. The analysis of required regulations in legal system in Poland for safe exploitation of secondary materials from coal mining dumps is done. Socio-economic aspects of recovery of coal are discussed. The valid legal regulations in Poland regulate the issues connected with coal mining dumping grounds in a very general way. It is necessary to prepare supplements to the legal provisions or new regulations concerning post-mining dumping grounds.

  3. The South Manchurian Railway Company and the Mining Industry: The Case of the Fushun Coal Mine

    Tsu-yu Chen


    Full Text Available Following the Japanese victory over Czarist Russia in the Russo-Japanese War and the signing of the Treaty of Portsmouth in 1905, the southernmost section of the southern branch of the China Far East Railway (Changchun–Port Arthur was transferred to Japanese control. A new, semi-privately held company, the South Manchuria Railway Company (SMR, Mantetsu, was established with 85.6 percent capitalization by the Japanese government and foreign bonds to operate the railroad and to develop settlements (including highways, public health facilities, educational institutions, and industries (coal mines, harbor facilities, electrical power plants, shale oil plants, chemical plants, and restaurants along its route. SMR nonetheless emphasized railway and mining investment. The centerpiece of its mining interests was the Fushun Coal Mine. Starting in 1917, SMR began to prosper, with most profits coming from its coal mines, and it soon spun off subsidiary companies. In this sense, although the factors that influenced development of the Fushun Coal Mine in each period were different, this development still shows continuity of the business management.

  4. Phytoremediation of coal mine spoil dump through integrated biotechnological approach.

    Juwarkar, Asha A; Jambhulkar, Hemlata P


    Field experiment was conducted on mine spoil dump on an area of 10 ha, to restore the fertility and productivity of the coal mine spoil dump using integrated biotechnological approach. The approach involves use of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), as an organic amendment, biofertilizers and mycorrihzal fungi along with suitable plant species. The results of the study indicated that amendment with effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), @ 50 ton/ha improved the physico-chemical properties of coal mine spoil. Due to biofertilizer inoculation different microbial groups such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter and VAM spores, which were practically absent in mine spoil improved greatly. Inoculation of biofertilizer and application of ETP sludge helped in reducing the toxicity of heavy metals such as chromium, zinc, copper, iron, manganese lead, nickel and cadmium, which were significantly reduced to 41%, 43%, 37%, 37%, 34%, 39%, 37% and 40%, respectively, due to the increased organic matter content in the ETP sludge and its alkaline pH (8.10-8.28), at which the metals gets immobilized and translocation of metals is arrested. Thus, amendment and biofertilizer application provided better supportive material for anchorage and growth of the plant on coal mine spoil dump.

  5. Phytoremediation of coal mine spoil dump through integrated biotechnological approach

    Juwarkar, A.A.; Jambhulkar, H.P. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India)


    Field experiment was conducted on mine spoil dump on an area of 10 ha, to restore the fertility and productivity of the coal mine spoil dump using integrated biotechnological approach. The approach involves use of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), as an organic amendment, biofertilizers and mycorrihzal fungi along with suitable plant species. The results of the study indicated that amendment with effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), at 50 ton/ha improved the physico-chemical properties of coal mine spoil. Due to biofertilizer inoculation different microbial groups such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter and VAM spores, which were practically absent in mine spoil improved greatly. Inoculation of biofertilizer and application of ETP sludge helped in reducing the toxicity of heavy metals such as chromium, zinc, copper, iron, manganese lead, nickel and cadmium, which were significantly reduced to 41%, 43%, 37%, 37%, 34%, 39%, 37% and 40%, respectively, due to the increased organic matter content in the ETP sludge and its alkaline pH (8.10-8.28), at which the metals gets immobilized and translocation of metals is arrested. Thus, amendment and biofertilizer application provided better supportive material for anchorage and growth of the plant on coal mine spoil dump.

  6. Abandoned coal mine tunnels: Future heating/power Supply centers

    Luo Pingjia; Chen Ning


    We have studied three plans for re-use of the abandoned mine roadway tunnels as an energy center.These are the thermostat plan,the thermal accumulator plan,and the CAES plan.Calculations show that the thermostat plan can provide over 15,000 m2 of building air-conditioning/heating load for each kilometer of roadway,but electric power is needed to run the system.Numerical research proved that the accumulation of hot water in the roadway for seasonal heating purposes (a temperature swing from 90 to 54 ℃) is a viable possibility.The CAES plan proposes using the discarded coal mine tunnel as a peaking power station with an energy storage density over 7000 kJ/m3.It can be concluded that presently abandoned coal mines could be reformed into future energy centers for a city.

  7. Test studies of gas flow in rock and coal surrounding a mined coal seam

    Lv Youchang


    An analysis of the variation rule of abutment pressure at the mining working face in a single coal seam and the mechanical behavior of surrounding rock during stoping is presented.Consideration of the elastic and plastic deformation zones that develop during the mining process allowed the determination of a relationship between horizontal stress and vertical stress.Based on this,a confined pressure unloading test was conducted by the use of the "gas-containing coal thermo-fluid-solid coupling 3-axis servo seepage" experimental apparatus.Thus,gas flow patterns in the elastic and plastic zones were derived from an experimental point of view.Darcy's law and the Klinkenberg effect were used to derive a gas flow equation for the elastic and plastic stress fields.The study of gas flow phenomena at the working face during coal mining is of great importance for the study of gas migration and enrichment oatterns.

  8. The need for a global robotic response to coal mine rescue

    Dessureault, Sean


    The author writes about the the lack of effective robotic response specifically designed for mine rescue which would improve worker safety and diminish the risk of international embarrassment by governments and industry. An international consortium is needed in which the major coal mining countries and companies contribute to the development, deployment and maintenance of a global robotic coal mine rescue system. This robotic system should be designed to allow transportation, deployment and maintenance of a global robotic coal mine rescue, the author writes.

  9. Effect of coal slurry on the corrosion of coal-mine equipment

    Zhang Qi; Xie Jingxuan; Zhao Wei; Bai Shasha; Zhong Shiteng; Chu Zhenfeng


    The corrosion of coal mine equipment immersed in coal slurry is addressed.The corrosion of low carbon steel samples immersed in coal slurries of different concentrations (80,130,and 180g/L) prepared from coals of different rank (long-flame coal,meager lean coal,and anthracite) and different granularity (0.25-0.5 mm,0.074-0.25 mm,and less than 0.074 mm particle size) was studied by the electrochemical method of polarization curve measurement,controlled potential sweeping,and continuous scanning.The results show that the corrosion rate in an anthracite slurry,where the coal has high coalification,is far greater than corrosion in a long-flame or a meager lean coal slurry.Furthermore the corrosion current,polarization current,and corrosion rate of low carbon steel become larger,and the polarizability becomes smaller,as the coal particle size decreases.The same trend is seen as the concentration of the coal slurry increases.

  10. Impact of Mining Activities on the Air Quality in The Village Nearby a Coal Strip Mine

    Pokorná, Petra; Hovorka, Jan; Brejcha, Jan


    The objective of the presented study was to estimate a share of atmospheric aerosol emitted by coal strip mine on PM10 or PM1-10, mass concentration of aerosol particles values by a nephelometer in the mine. Also, 24 hour aerosol samples for five size fractions were sampled by a personal cascade impactor sampler and viewed by scanning electron microscopy - SEM. Meteorological parameters were also recorded. Average contribution of coarse aerosol, PM1-10, to PM10 was 70% (119 +59 μgm-3) in the mine and 20% (12 + 10 μgm-3) in the village. The SEM revealed solely soil particles in the mine samples but bioaerosol, ash and aggregates of ultrafine particles in the village samples. Databases of hourly elemental and mass concentrations from the two localities were analysed by EPA PMF 5.0. There were revealed following sources/average contribution to local PM10: wood burning/34%, resuspended dust/30%, coal combustion/22%, industry/11% and gypsum/3% in the village while resuspended dust/43%, coal combustion/37%, gypsum/16% and mining technologies/4% in the mine. Based on factor chemical profiles, the mine was found to contribute to PM1-10 and PM10 in the village by 6% and 20%, respectively.

  11. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Points Feature

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  12. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Polygons Feature

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  13. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Inventory Sites 201601

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  14. 基于改进粒子群算法的露天矿运输调度优化%Open-pit hauling dispatching optimization based on improved PSO algorithm

    李勇; 胡乃联; 李国清


    针对露天矿运输调度问题,以运输费用达到最小为目标,构建露天矿运输调度系统的优化数学模型,基于群体智能优化理论,提出用粒子群算法对露天矿运输调度模型进行解算的方法,并在求解过程中设计了带双引子的粒子搜索策略.以MATLAB软件为平台,应用计算机编程技术,实现模型解算.最后,用露天矿实际生产数据验证了带双引子粒子群算法求解露天矿运输调度问题的有效性.%A mathematical model of open-pit hauling dispatching was constructed from the view point of minimizing open-pit transportation cost. Based on the theory of swarm intelligence optimization,a method of using particle swarm optimization algorithm to optimize open-pit mining operation plan was proposed in this paper,and the search strategy with double attractor was designed for particles in the calculation process. With MATLAB software as a computation platform, the model was calculated by using computer programming technology. With taking the actual production data of an open pit mine as an example, the effectiveness for using improved PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization) algorithm to solve open-pit hauling dispatching problem was verified.

  15. Resource requirements and economics of the coal-mining process: a comparative analysis of mines in selected countries

    Astakhov, A.; Gruebler, A.


    This report examines the natural resource requirements and economics of the resource extraction process, taking coal-mining activities as an example. Coal was chosen for the study because it is receiving growing attention as the fossile energy resource with the largest potential to contribute to the world's long-term energy supply. The computerized description of the extraction process is stored in the Coal Mines Data Base (CMDB) which was developed within the framework of this study. The data base currently holds information on 70 mines located in different countries. The analytic approach used is the first of its kind to compare resource requirements and economics of coal mines under such a broad range of geological and socioeconomic conditions. A general model of the factors influencing resource inputs and impacts of the coal-mining process is presented. Then for each of the main mining methods (opencast, conventional underground, and hydraulic underground) the principal geological and technological factors influencing the resource requirements, economics, and environmental impacts, as well as the comparative advantages and disadvantages of each mining method, are discussed. For the three main mining methods the resource requirements (including manpower, energy, materials, and land) and the economics (including construction investments and operating costs) are then quantified and their cost structures (i.e. requirements for the different operations at a mine) are examined in detail using data from coal mines in the USA, the USSR, and other selected coal-producing countries (Australia, Austria, and France).

  16. Prevention and forecasting of rock burst hazards in coal mines

    DOU Lin-ming; LU Cai-ping; MU Zong-long; GAO Ming-shi


    Rock bursts signify extreme behavior in coal mine strata and severely threaten the safety of the lives of miners, as well as the effectiveness and productivity of miners. In our study, an elastic-plastic-brittle model for the deformation and failure of coal/rock was established through theoretical analyses, laboratory experiments and field testing, simulation and other means, which perfectly predict sudden and delayed rock bursts. Based on electromagnetic emission (EME), acoustic emission (AE) and microseism (MS) effects in the process from deformation until impact rupture of coal-rock combination samples, a multi-parameter identification of premonitory technology was formed, largely depending on these three forms of emission. Thus a system of classification for forecasting rock bursts in space and time was established. We have presented the intensity weakening theory for rock bursts and a strong-soft-strong (3S) structural model for controlling the impact on rock surrounding roadways, with the objective of laying a theoretical foundation and establishing references for parameters for the weakening control of rock bursts. For the purpose of prevention, key technical parameters of directional hydraulic fracturing are revealed. Based on these results, as well as those from deep-hole controlled blasting in coal seams and rock, integrated control techniques were established and anti-impact hydraulic props, suitable for roadways subject to hazards from rockbursts have also been developed. These technologies have been widely used in most coal mines in China, subject to these hazards and have achieved remarkable economic and social benefits.

  17. Effect of mining and utilizing bone coal on environment


    The average air -ray dose rates measured from the field, road, bone coal, bone coal cinder and bone coalcinder bricks in the three bone coal mines in westZhejiang Province, are 3.8 102,4.1 102, 7.1 102, 4.0 102and 7.1 102 nGy/h, respectively. The mean contents of238U, 226Ra,232Th and 40K in the bone coal of the three bone coalmines are 2.0 103, 2.1 103, 3.9 101 and6.1 102 Bq/kg, respectively, in the bone coal cinder(BCC)are 1.6 103, 1.6 103, 2.3 101and 4.5 102 Bq/kg, respectively, and in the bone coalcinder brick(BCCB) are 1.2 103, 1.2 103,2.4 101 and 4.0 102 Bq/kg, respectively, and those in thereference soil are 3.4 102, 1.0 102, 4.9 101and 4.9 102 Bq/kg, respectively. Theannual mean of effective dose equivalentfor public living in house buildings made with BCCB near thethree mines is 6.8 mSv.

  18. Planning for reliable coal quality delivery considering geological variability: A case study in polish lignite mining

    Naworyta, W.; Sypniowski, S.; Benndorf, J.


    The aim of coal quality control in coal mines is to supply power plants daily with extracted raw material within certain coal quality constraints. On the example of a selected part of a lignite deposit, the problem of quality control for the runof-mine lignite stream is discussed. The main goal is t


    张和生; 刘邦涛; 周丽霞; 崔春香


    Necessity of land reclamation is discussed, setting out viewpoint of sustainabledevelopment and land connotation and its attribute and combining destroyed forms andcharacteristics of land in coal mining areas. It is pointed out that land reclamation of coal miningareas is basic guarantee of solving contradiction between coal mining areas and countryside,raising life of resident and ensuring regional sustainable development.

  20. Study on land use changes of the coal mining area based on TM image

    WU Wen-bo; YAO Jing; KANG Ting-jun


    Based on the two temporal TM images of 1995 and 2001 of one coal mining area, analyzed the variety information of the coal mining area. Relative registration were done with the two images firstly, then cut out the study area for experimental data, classified the coal mining area using supervised classification in ERDAS, the coal mining area will be divided into five categories as water body, agricultural land, construction land, coal mining area and other land. Make land use change matrix, the result shows that in the six years of 1995 to 2001, the change of the utilize of the land is greatly, the main represent is showed as follows: the area of water body, agricultural land and coal mining land had continually increased, on the contrary, construction area and other decreased. The percentage speed of the construction land is the biggest, the value reach -1.08%. The main reasons is that with the exploitation of the coal mine and the reclaim of the land, the exploitation of the coal mining land make the agricultural land and construction area convert into coal mining land, on the other hand with the backfill of the subsided waterlogged land and the reclaim of the subsided land make the coal mining land convert into agricultural land.

  1. Controlling and Evaluation on High Rock Slope Stability of Open-pit for Ash Storage%露天矿坑灰场岩质高边坡的稳定性评判与治理

    吕言新; 乔卫国; 魏烈昌; 孟庆彬


    Slopes of open-pit mine and ash storage are likely to result in the geological disasters of landslides, collapse, ground deformation and so on, due to its geological structure and mining activities, etc. Laizhou Power Plant is going to use the open-pit of Cangshang gold mine as ash storage field. Therefore, the long-term stability of the slope is of great significance. Through the geological investigation and analysis of open-pit mine slope of Cangshang Mine, the geological and tectonic conditions of ash slopes are summarized. On the basis of field monitoring,the stability of the slopes is analyzed in detail The estimated results can better reflect the actual stability of the open-pit slope. Feasible treatment scheme is put forward according to the engineering practice.%露天矿坑边坡及排土场边坡,由于地质构造、采矿活动等原因极易诱发滑坡、塌陷、地面变形等地质灾害.莱州电厂拟采用仓上金矿矿坑作为灰场,边坡的长期稳定性有着重要的意义.通过对仓上矿坑边坡的工程地质调查与分析,总结了灰场边坡的地质条件和构造情况.在现场监测的基础上,对矿坑边坡的稳定性进行了详细的分析,所得的结果能较理想地反映该矿坑边坡的实际稳定程度,并根据工程的实际情况提出了切实可行的治理方案.

  2. Coal Mine Roadway Stability in Soft Rock: A Case Study

    Shen, Baotang


    Roadway instability has always been a major concern in deep underground coal mines where the surrounding rock strata and coal seams are weak and the in situ stresses are high. Under the high overburden and tectonic stresses, roadways could collapse or experience excessive deformation, which not only endangers mining personnel but could also reduce the functionality of the roadway and halt production. This paper describes a case study on the stability of roadways in an underground coal mine in Shanxi Province, China. The mine was using a longwall method to extract coal at a depth of approximately 350 m. Both the coal seam and surrounding rock strata were extremely weak and vulnerable to weathering. Large roadway deformation and severe roadway instabilities had been experienced in the past, hence, an investigation of the roadway failure mechanism and new support designs were needed. This study started with an in situ stress measurement programme to determine the stress orientation and magnitude in the mine. It was found that the major horizontal stress was more than twice the vertical stress in the East-West direction, perpendicular to the gateroads of the longwall panel. The high horizontal stresses and low strength of coal and surrounding rock strata were the main causes of roadway instabilities. Detailed numerical modeling was conducted to evaluate the roadway stability and deformation under different roof support scenarios. Based on the modeling results, a new roadway support design was proposed, which included an optimal cable/bolt arrangement, full length grouting, and high pre-tensioning of bolts and cables. It was expected the new design could reduce the roadway deformation by 50 %. A field experiment using the new support design was carried out by the mine in a 100 m long roadway section. Detailed extensometry and stress monitorings were conducted in the experimental roadway section as well as sections using the old support design. The experimental section

  3. NV - Assessment of wildlife hazards associated with mine pit lakes

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Several open pit mines in Nevada lower groundwater to mine ore below the water table. After mining, the pits partially fill with groundwater to form pit lakes. Water...

  4. The adjusting mining technology of combining fully mechanized with individual prop, rotating, hilt, irregular form, and double unit face on thin coal seam of Tianchen Mine

    SONG Hua-ling; WEN Guo-feng; LI Jin-ke


    Analyzed the situations and characteristics of thin coal seam mining and its mining technologies, and introduced the mining innovation technology used by Tianchen Coal Mine of Zhaozhuang Coal Company of China. This innovation technology combined the fully mechanized mining with individual props, and the working face of mining is over length, irregular form and double units. The rotational adjusting mining technology on thin coal seam is also practiced in this new mining technology. The detail technologies, such as outlays of working face and ways, mining methods, equipments of cutting, transporting and sporting, have been introduced. So that, using the synthetic and creative mining tech-nologies, Tianchen Coal Mine solves the mining problems of thin coal seam successfully.

  5. Research on New Method of Full-Seam Mining for Gently Inclined Thick Coal Seams

    赵景礼; 郭志飙; 柳慧鹏; 赵立军


    The recovery ratio of top-coal caving mining plays a key role in the development of this mining method. For the proposes to raise the recovery ratio and considering heading advance and roadway maintenance, a new method of full - seam mining for gently inclined thick coal seams is put forward on the basis of a theoretic research and engineering practice.

  6. Characterization of deep ground geothermal field in Jiahe Coal Mine

    Zhang Yi; Guo Dongming; He Manchao; Jiang Yaodong; Yang Qing


    Research into the characteristics of geothermal fields is important for the control of heat damage in mines.Based on measured geothermal data of boreholes from -200 m to -1200 m in a Jiahe Coal Mine,we demonstrate non-linear but increasing relations of both geo-temperatures and geothermal gradients with increases depth.Numerically,we fitted the relationship between geo-temperatures and depth,a first-order exponential decay curve,formulated as:T(h) - -4.975 + 23.08 × exp(-h/1736.1 ).

  7. Straight hole drilling machines for coal mines

    Timonin, VV; Kokoulin, DI; Alekseev, SE; Kubanychbek, B.


    The authors prove the demand for drilling machines capable of making long straight holes in rocks with the strength up to 120 MPa. The paper describes the designed, manufactured and tested down-the-hole hammers for rotary–percussion drilling of long straight directional holes. The hammers have been delivered to Berezovskaya Mine for further trial and commercial operation.

  8. Giant pumps reclaim Chinese coal mines

    Kramp, S.


    Briefly describes the Fangezhuang Mine disaster in 1984, when miners pierced a wall into a flooded underground cavern, releasing tonnes of water into the pit. The German manufacturer KSB was asked to supply 18 submersible pumps to dewater the flooded workings. The pumps were specially built to handle the aggressive, solid-laden floodwater. The pump design is described. 1 fig.

  9. Capital investment at North Bohemian Brown Coal Mines

    Vavrecka, S.


    Various categories of investment are discussed to be undertaken by North Bohemian Brown Coal Mines: State Plan projects, such as new extraction capacity at Most and Vrsany mines; other construction work, such as schools and recreation facilities, housing construction; underground mine workings; equipment and machinery not included in other categories; restoration work, such as the Ervenicky road/rail/water corridor; work to remove obstacles hindering future mining operations. Investments are briefly summarizes since the beginning of the 5th Five Year Plan as being concerned mainly with the shift in emphasis from underground mining to surface mining at 8 large-scale mines (Merkur, Brezno, Vrsany, Sverma, VCSA, Most, VMG, Chabrovice). An analysis of investment procedures conducted in 1980 is briefly discussed, the results of which had 4 main themes: investment control systems should be strengthened, communications between general directorate and individual departments should be improved, links between specialist institutes should be improved and these recommendations should be built into the organizational structure.

  10. Characteristics of in situ stress field at Qingshui coal mine

    Yang Xiaojie; Pang Jiewen; Lou Haopeng; Fan Lipeng


    In this study, the characteristics of geological structure at Qingshui coal mine were analyzed. And the hollow inclusion strain cell overcoring method was used to obtain the in situ stress. The effect of in situ stress on the stability of soft rock roadway was analyzed. The results show that the maximum principal stress is in the horizontal direction with a northeast orientation and has a value of about 1.2–1.9 times larger than gravity; the right side of roadway roof and floor is easily subject to serious deformation and failure, and the in situ stress is found to be a major factor. This paper presents important information for developing countermeasures against the large deformation of the soft rock roadway at Qingshui coal mine.

  11. Training implications of reform in the Australian coal mining industry

    Casey, J. (NSW Coal Association, Sydney, NSW (Australia))


    In 1989 the Australian coal mining industry reached an agreement with the unions to restructure the industry improving efficiency and cost effectiveness. Part of this agreement was the provision of structured and accredited training for employees. The Australian coal mining industry has adopted the National Training Reform Agenda and a new system of competency-based training is currently being implemented across Australia. The aims of the new system are: (1) to improve the level and flexibility of skills in the workforce; to better meet the needs of industry; and to facilitate the progressive introduction of a competency based approach to training. Competency based training places the emphasis on what a person can do in the workplace after training rather than the quantity of training (e.g measured by cost or time spent). The paper describes the new training programme and the development of competency standards.

  12. Environmental impact assessment and selenium transformation in coal mine spoils

    Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.


    This quarterly report addresses the continued field investigation of a selected coal mining site in Oklahoma. Table 1 (appendix) portrays all the data (field measurements) taken at the Henryetta experimental site. An analysis of this data would be useful in providing information for potential Se migration from a coal mining site and the distribution of Se in a soil profile of land reclaimed to its pristine state. Also addressed is the methodology developed (1) for SeO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and SeO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} adsorption on selected soils, (2) leachate migration through a cell column using soil samples from the Henryetta reclamation site, and (3) chemical transformation of SeO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} under harsh chemical and conditions.

  13. Mechanism of Reinforcement on Inwall of Coal Mine Shaft Wall

    Jinlong Liu


    Full Text Available Based on the theory of elasticity, the analytic solution of temperature stress on shaft wall of coal mine with reinforcement on inwall is deduced. It is shown that with the increment of reinforcement stress Pa, the radial compressive stress &sigmar become larger, the vertical compressive stress &sigmaz become less, while the circumferential stress &sigma &theta changed from compressive stress to tensile stress. The stability of shaft wall enhanced with vertical stress reduced by reinforcement on inwall of shaft wall. Compressive steel plate could be used to reinforce the inwall, characterized with low-cost, short time and construction easy. While the intelligent equipment should be developed further to provide everlasting and greater reinforcement on in wall of coal mine shaft wall.

  14. Mechanism of Reinforcement on Inwall of Coal Mine Shaft Wall

    Jinlong Liu; Luwang Chen; Jili Wang


    Based on the theory of elasticity, the analytic solution of temperature stress on shaft wall of coal mine with reinforcement on inwall is deduced. It is shown that with the increment of reinforcement stress Pa, the radial compressive stress &sigmar become larger, the vertical compressive stress &sigmaz become less, while the circumferential stress &sigma &theta changed from compressive stress to tensile stress. The stability of shaft wall enhanced with vertical stress reduced by reinforcement...

  15. Stability of Roadway in Upper Seam of Deep Multiple Rich Gas Coal Seams through Ascending Stress-relief Mining


    The first mining of a protective coal seam through ascending stress-relief mining is one of the most effective techniques for eliminating the risk of coal and gas outburst during the exploitation of multiple coal seams containing high rich gas. However, the difficulty of controlling roadway stability in the upper protected coal seam above the goaf increases greatly after ascending mining. Based on the geological conditions in Guqiao Coal Mine in China, a numerical simulation model is establis...

  16. 77 FR 50165 - Escape and Evacuation Plans for Surface Coal Mines, Surface Facilities and Surface Work Areas of...


    ... Administration. Title: Escape and Evacuation Plans for Surface Coal Mines, Surface Facilities ] and Surface Work... Safety and Health Administration Escape and Evacuation Plans for Surface Coal Mines, Surface Facilities and Surface Work Areas of Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration,...

  17. Coal Mine Accidents in Bangladesh: Its Causes and Remedial Measures



    Full Text Available Barapukuria coal mine (BCM is located at Dinajpur district, NW Bangladesh. Total area is about 6.68 km2 and coal was encountered at a depth ranging between 118 and 509 m. Six major coal seams (seam I to seam VI were identified at BCM, of which, thickest one is the seam-VI (~36 m. The estimated coal reserves is about 390 million tons and of this, nearly 64 million tons of coal is extractable. The annual production of coal is about 1 million ton. In this study several parameters were used to explore minimization of accidents and improvement of coal production in BCM. Considering the geological, hydrological and other technical parameters, longwall mining method is applied for extraction of coal. Longwall retreating mining method is also applied for extraction of coal from single face with the operational area protected by self-advancing hydraulic powered roof support (HPRS system. These supports are moved forward causing the roof behind them to form an extensive abandoned area named goaf, which may lead to collapse with air blast. Coal in BCM is extracted from seam VI, using a multislice Longwall top coal caving method. Average ventilated air composition is ~20.94% oxygen, ~79.00% nitrogen, ~0.04% carbon monoxide, and minor water steam with huge dust. Production of coal was completed from 12 Longwall faces of 1st slice from seam VI. During production period several accidents and troubles within BCM have occurred. Poisonous gases such as carbon monoxide were detected during/after development of 1110 Longwall face, which increases up to 6000 ppm, therefore, sealed-off the face with mining equipments. During the development of belt gate roadway of 1101 Longwall face, maximum temperature and humidity increases up to 37 oC and 100%, respectively. Miners of BCM experienced some difficulties to work in that adverse environment. Air return roadway temperature was always 40 to 41oC in 1101 Longwall face during production period, faces temperature 46o

  18. Detection of Coal Mine Spontaneous Combustion by Fuzzy Inference System

    SUN Ji-ping; SONG Shu; MA Feng-ying; ZHANG Ya-li


    The spontaneous combustion is a smoldering process and characterized by a slow burning speed and a long duration. Therefore, it is a hazard to coal mines. Early detection of coal mine spontaneous combustion is quite difficult because of the complexity of different coal mines. And the traditional threshold discriminance is not suitable for spontaneous combustion detection due to the uncertainty of coalmine combustion. Restrictions of the single detection method will also affect the detection precision in the early time of spontaneous combustion. Although multiple detection methods can be adopted as a complementarity to improve the accuracy of detection, the synthesized method will increase the complicacy of criterion, making it difficult to estimate the combustion. To solve this problem, a fuzzy inference system based on CRI (Compositional Rule of Inference) and fuzzy reasoning method FITA (First Infer Then Aggregate) are presented. And the neural network is also developed to realize the fuzzy inference system. Finally, the effectiveness of the inference system is demonstrated by means of an experiment.

  19. Presentations from the 1992 Coal Mining Impoundment Informational Meeting


    On May 20 and 21, 1992, the MSHA Coal Mining Impoundment Informational Meeting was held at the National Mine Health and Safety Academy in Beckley, West Virginia. Fifteen presentations were given on key issues involved in the design and construction of dams associated with coal mining. The attendees were told that to improve the consistency among the plan reviewers, engineers from the Denver and Pittsburgh Technical Support Centers meet twice annually to discuss specific technical issues. It was soon discovered that the topics being discussed needed to be shared with anyone involved with coal waste dam design, construction, or inspection. The only way to accomplish that goal was through the issuance of Procedure Instruction Letters. The Letters present a consensus of engineering philosophy that could change over time. They do not present policy or carry the force of law. Currently, thirteen position papers have been disseminated and more will follow as the need arises. The individual paper were not even entered into the database.

  20. Monitoring dispatch information system of trucks and shovels in an open pit based on GIS/GPS/GPRS

    GU Qing-hua; LU Cai-wu; LI Fa-ben; WAN Chang-yong


    Using GIS, GPS and GPRS, an intelligent monitoring and dispatch system of trucks and shovels in an open pit has been designed and developed. The system can monitor and dispatch open-pit trucks and shovels and play back their historical paths. An intelligent data algorithm is proposed in a practical application. The algorithm can count the times of deliveries of trucks and loadings of shovels. Experiments on real scenes show that the performance of this system is stable and can satisfy production standards in open pits.

  1. Yampa coal field combined leased areas and mined-out areas, Colorado Plateau (yam*leasg)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are shapefiles and coverages that represent areas of combined State and Federal coal leases and mined-out areas in the Yampa coal field. Yamaleasg contains...

  2. Detection of coal dust in a mine using optical tomography

    Wei Mingsheng; Tong Minming; Hao Jifei; Cai Li; Xu Jie


    A dust concentration imaging system based on optical tomography is proposed to monitor concentration variations of coal dust in a mine.Concentration profiles,rather than just a point value,of coal dust concentrations are the goal of this method.An optical sensor array is employed to realize an optical sensing field of the coal dust concentration during on-line monitoring.A novel image reconstruction algorithm,called the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT),is compared to the well known linear,back projection algorithm (LBP).The SIRT was applied to the present problem and tested by modeling.The disadvantage of the SIRT is a slow speed but some improvements have been made by adding a weighting function that reduces the relative error to 1.7% from 3.1% for 50 iterations.The results of image reconstruction are presented for both simulated and real objects.They prove that the optical tomography technique,based on a multi-source fan projection scheme,can be an effective approach for estimating coal dust distribution.This system can be applied in real time for continuous measurements in a mine.

  3. Coal seam methane distribution and its significance in Pingdingshan mining area

    郭德勇; 周心权; 沈少川; 张晓萍


    A study aimed at the coal seam group E and F in Pingdingshan mining area has been completed. This study is on the relationship of the coal-seam methane reserve to coal thickness, coal rank, coal seam depth, surrounding rock and geological structure and other factors. The study indicates that different geological factor plays different role in controlling the law of coal-seam methane reserve. The coal-seam methane rich area, which was formed because of various factors and comprehensive effect, is the coal and methane outburst-prone area, and also the key area for coal-bed methane recovery. Among all factors, coal seam depth and geological structure is more important factor in affecting coal-seam methane content in Pingdingshan mining area.

  4. Surface movement above an underground coal longwall mine after closure

    Vervoort, André


    The surface movement in an area of about 22 km2 above the underground coal mine of Houthalen was analyzed based on Interferometry with Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements. After its closure in 1992, a residual subsidence was observed over a period of several years, followed by an uplift of the surface above and around the past longwall panels, whereby the rate of movement was, in absolute terms, of the same order for the two types of movements. The processes behind these movements are different. The process of subsidence is caused by the caving of the roof above the mined-out area and is mainly a mechanical stress-deformation process, including time-dependent aspects. However, the process of uplift is most probably caused by the swelling of the clay minerals in the argillaceous rocks in the coal strata after the flooding of the underground workings. Hence, the areas in which there is the greatest risk of damage to the surface infrastructure are not the same for the hazards linked to subsidence and uplift. For example, the zone in which the maximum uplift occurs clearly is at a different location from that of the zone with the maximum residual subsidence. There is no clear sign that the amount of mining underneath affects the residual subsidence, and there is no indication that the process of uplift is linked directly to the mining characteristics. It is more likely that uplift as the result of flooding is initiated at, or close to, the vertical shafts.

  5. Effects of caving-mining ratio on the coal and waste rocks gangue flows and the amount of cyclically caved coal in fully mechanized mining of super-thick coal seams

    Zhang Ningbo; Liu Changyou; Pei Mengsong


    Aimed at determining the appropriate caving–mining ratio for fully mechanized mining of 20 m thick coal seam, this research investigated the effects of caving–mining ratio on the flow fields of coal and waste rocks, amount of cyclically caved coal and top coal loss by means of numerical modeling. The research was based on the geological conditions of panel 8102 in Tashan coal mine. The results indicated the loose coal and waste rocks formed an elliptical zone around the drawpoint. The ellipse enlarged with decreasing caving–mining ratio. And its long axis inclined to the gob gradually became vertical and facil-itating the caving and recovery of top coal. The top coal loss showed a cyclical variation;and the loss cycle was shortened with the decreasing in caving–mining ratio. Moreover, the mean squared error (MSE) of the amount of cyclically caved coal went up with increasing caving–mining ratio, indicating a growing imbalance of amount of cyclically caved coal, which could impede the coordinated mining and caving operations. Finally it was found that a caving–mining ratio of 1:2.51 should be reasonable for the conditions.

  6. Simulation Study and Probe on UWB Wireless Communication in Underground Coal Mine

    WANG Yan-fen; WANG Zheng-gang; YU Hong-zhen


    From an analysis of the status of coal mine underground wireless communication, the application of UWB wireless communication system to underground coal mine is proposed. The basic composition of an UWB communication system and application in underground coal mines are introduced. The analyses show that, because of the transmission power being non-limitted in underground coal mines, the use of UWB in coal mines cannot only realize wireless access services of short distance high rate application for transmission of video monitoring signals, but also realize wireless access services of long distance low rate applications for mobile telephones in underground coal mines and parameters of working conditions monitoring, etc. It is emphasized on the simulation of a TH-PPM UWB communication system with traditional underground broadband model and ground CM1, CM3 model. It is shown that the traditional underground broadband model and ground CM1, CM3 models are not applicable to the UWB communication system in underground coal mines. It is necessary to conduct research on the propagation characteristics of UWB in coal mine tunnels, given the characteristics of the underground environment and to find the appropriate UWB model for underground coal mines.

  7. Land reclamation in the refuse dump of open coal mines and its following ecology principle

    FAN Jun-fu; WANG Xiu-lan


    Through the research on the model of the land reclamation in the refuse dump of Heidaigou open coal mines, it was concerned that ecology was the theoretical basic for the land reclamation of open coal mines. According to the principle of ecological substituting, the land reclamation can be divided into three stages: water and soil conservation,ecological performance and economic performance. Taking the land reclamation in the refuse dump of Heidaigou open coal mines as the practical example, explained the application of the ecological substituting principle on the land reclamation in the open coal mines.


    范维唐; 王成龙; 朱德仁


    This paper describes the state-of-the-art and outlook of coal mining and clean coal echnology in China. As the major mining method,underground mining accounts for 96% of the total production. Among the state own mines, the percentage of mechanized mining reached 71%. A rapid development of high-productive and high-profitable mines,especially those with longwall sublevel caving method, is described. The issues of heavy duty equipment, roof bolting, mine safety are also addressed. The Chinese government is paying more and more attention on the environmental problems inducing from coal mining,processing and utilization. A basic framework of clean coal technology is being formed and a wide range of technology is included.

  9. 78 FR 4165 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Arturo Mine Project...


    ...: Barrick-Dee Mining Venture Inc., proposes to develop the Arturo Mine Project by expansion of the existing open-pit Dee Gold Mine which is currently in closure and reclamation. The Dee Gold Mine is 45...

  10. Brine disposal process for Morcinek coal mine

    Tait, J.H. [Aquatech Services, Inc., Citrus Heights, CA (United States)


    This paper describes the work to develop a commercial brine disposal process for the Morcinek mine, located 45 km south of the city of Katowice in Poland. Currently, brine is discharged into the Odra river and methane from the mine is released into the atmosphere. The process would use the released methane and convert a large percentage of the brine into potable water for commercial use. Thus, the proposed process has two environmental benefits. The brine salinity is about 31,100 ppm. Major brine components are Na (10,300 ppm), Ca (1,170 ppm), Mg (460 ppm), Cl (18,500 ppm) and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (252 ppm). Present in smaller amounts are K, S, Sr, B, Ba and NO{sub 3}. The process integrates a reverse osmosis (RO) unit and a submerged combustion evaporator. Extensive studies made at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory established the pretreatment method of the brine before it enters the RO unit. Without adequate pretreatment, mineral phases in the brine would become super-saturated and would precipitate in the RO unit. The pretreatment consists of first adding sodium carbonate to increase both the pH and the carbonate concentration of the brine. This addition causes precipitation of carbonate solids containing Ca, Mg, Sr, and Ba. After filtration of these precipitates, the fluid is acidified with HCl to prevent precipitation in the RO unit as the brine increases in salinity.

  11. Testing the electrostatic characteristics of polypropylene fabric with metallic yarns, intended for use in coal mines threatened by the explosion hazard. Part 2: Tests in coal mine

    Talarek, M.; Orzech, L.


    The aim of this paper was to assess the electrostatic safety of polypropylene fabric with metallic yarns intended for use in coal mines. Such fabrics have not been used in the Polish mining industry yet. The tests conducted have been divided into two subgroups: laboratory tests and tests in a coal mine. This paper presents the results of tests in a coal mine, where we have focused on the resistance-to-ground in some specific situations. Bags made of fabric at the roadway face were tested, as well as the roll of fabric during transport and carried by a miner. The results obtained allow the reliable assessment of the risk of using fabrics with metallic yarns in the explosive atmosphere which often occurs in coal mines.

  12. Testing the electrostatic characteristics of polypropylene fabric with metallic yarns, intended for use in coal mines threatened by the explosion hazard. Part 2: Tests in coal mine

    Talarek, M; Orzech, L, E-mail: [KOMAG Institute of Mining Technology, Pszczynska 37, 44-101 Gliwice (Poland)


    The aim of this paper was to assess the electrostatic safety of polypropylene fabric with metallic yarns intended for use in coal mines. Such fabrics have not been used in the Polish mining industry yet. The tests conducted have been divided into two subgroups: laboratory tests and tests in a coal mine. This paper presents the results of tests in a coal mine, where we have focused on the resistance-to-ground in some specific situations. Bags made of fabric at the roadway face were tested, as well as the roll of fabric during transport and carried by a miner. The results obtained allow the reliable assessment of the risk of using fabrics with metallic yarns in the explosive atmosphere which often occurs in coal mines.

  13. Application of coal mine dynamic safety management and occupational health and safety management system

    ZHANG Hua; WANG Chun-qiu; CAO Qing-gui; LIU Ye-jiao; LIN Xiao-fei


    A method system was put forward based on the occupational health and safety management system to develop the dynamic safety management of coal mine. It aimed at the problems in the mining safety management and was put in practice in Lingxin coal mine of Ningxia Coal Industry Group Co., Ltd.. And good effect was obtained in safety work. It developed the mining dynamic safety management based on the building of occupational health and safety management system of mining enterprise and its main contents are as follows: timely identification and dynamic control of accident risk, persistent improvement of safety management performance according to the "PDCA" circle.

  14. Introducing Nagasaki Coal Mining Technology Training Center owned by the Mitsui Matsushima Resources Co., Ltd.

    Kumakawa, K. [Mitsui Matsushima Resources Co., Ltd. (Japan)


    The Nagasaki Coal Mine Technology Training Center was established as a facility for 'The Training Project' on coal mine technology following the purchase of part of the mining area owned by the Matsushima Coal Mine which was closed in November 2001. The Training Center is located seaward at Ikeshima approximately 7 km west of the Nishisonogi Peninsula's western coast. Training is provided to personnel from Vietnam and Indonesia in subjects ranging from underground mining safety, exploration surveying and rock drivage, to electrical engineering. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Geotechnical approaches to coal ash content control in mining of complex structure deposits

    Batugin, SA; Gavrilov, VL; Khoyutanov, EA


    Coal deposits having complex structure and nonuniform quality coal reserves require improved processes of production quality control. The paper proposes a method to present coal ash content as components of natural and technological dilution. It is chosen to carry out studies on the western site of Elginsk coal deposit, composed of four coal beds of complex structure. The reported estimates of coal ash content in the beds with respect to five components point at the need to account for such data in confirmation exploration, mine planning and actual mining. Basic means of analysis and control of overall ash content and its components are discussed.

  16. Major research approaches to solve gas-dynamic problems in Donbass coal mines

    Kuzyara, V.I.; Agaphonov, A.V. [Makeyevka State Safety in Mine Research Institute, Makeyevka (Ukraine)


    The number of gas-dynamic events per million tons of coal mined remains great though coal output from underground coal mines in Donetsk basin has dropped. This dictates enhanced research efforts to solve the following gas-dynamic problems: sudden coal, rock and gas outbursts, sudden coal, rock and gas outbursts, sudden squeezing, falls (coal spillage) sudden methane inrushes from the bottom, and bumps. New approaches to solve these problems have been based on modern concepts and ideas of natural mechanisms of the events. Current and future research needs are discussed. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Study on the economic mining method for the close quarter coal seams with thin rock sheet

    勾攀峰; 陈兆强; 员小有


    The paper presents the mining method for the close quarter coal seams with thin rock sheet, that is mining the low coal seam, recovering the top coal seam after putting down the roof rock of the low coal seam. Practice has proved that in recovering the top coal outside the face width after the rock between seams falls naturally or is demolished, the technology is simple, easy to operate and does not make a great demand for technical equipment. In the process of recovering the top coal, the low seam support could not be affected seriously, and two seams mining could be coordinated. Compared with the individual mining method, this mining method can produce a better economic benefit.

  18. Numerical simulation and damage analysis of fissure field evolution law in a single coal seam mining

    Feng; Gao; Xingguang; Liu; Chaofeng; Ge; Hongmei; Cheng


    Based on the different deformation and failure laws of coal and rock materials under tensile or compressive loads,the damage variable was defined to divide three phases from the damage and rupture point of view in order to reveal the fissured field evolution characteristics and spatial distribution of coal and rock in the single coal seam mining with low permeability and rich methane.According to the corresponding damage constitutive equations,the secondary development of the finite element program was completed.The fissures field evolution law of a coal mine with single coal seam mining was calculated and analyzed by this new program and the distribution areas and failure degree of the surrounding coal and rock structures with damage,fissure or rupture are given on the condition of mining.This paper provides a scientific basis for quantitative research and evaluation of the safe simultaneous production of coal and gas.

  19. Mixed approach (numerical modeling / equilibrium analysis) for slope stability analysis: development and application to the dams and open pit mining; Une approche mixte (numerique/equilibre limite) pour le calcul de stabilite des ouvrages en terre: developpement et application aux barrages et talus miniers

    Kourdey, A.


    The determination of the sliding surface of slope (dam, slope natural..) is one of the important and complicated problems in geotechnics. The Analyze of stability by the methods of Limit Equilibrium like the method of slices are the most used methods. They are able to determine a safety factor for a geometrically defined failure surface. These methods well adapted to the homogeneous mediums, have been developed a lot but they do not integrate the basic relations of mechanics (stress-strain). The numerical methods are better adapted to mediums having more complexity (effect of water, seismicity, fracturing,..). But, they are seldom used to determine a sliding surface and a safety factor. Each family offers appreciable advantages in the analysis of slope stability. For that purpose, we have developed a method that combines the advantages of the numerical methods as well as those of Limit Equilibrium allowing obtaining a slip surface determined by the calculated constraints. This slip surface may be imposed or better optimized, thus providing a minimal safety factor. Methods of operation research are used to obtain this surface. They are search methods by level, dynamic research.. or both at the same time. We integrated these developments in an existing computer code based on the method of Finite Differences known as FLAC. The stresses are determined for a linear behavior and for nonlinear. Interfaces and graphic tools are also produced to facilitate the analysis of stability. The validity of this approach was carried out for a standard case of slope, we analyzed and compared the results with the methods of Limit Equilibrium. The parametric study shows that this approach takes account of different parameters, which influences stability. We also kept a particular place for the application on real cases presenting slopes of different nature (dams, mining slops,...). (author)

  20. Mine Reserves Calculation Based on Minex%基于Minex的矿山储量计算



    The calculation of the coal and rock amount is an important basis for compiling mine engineering schedule plan of the open pit, which is the most important work in mining design. Taking Heishan open pit of Xinjiang Houxia coalfield as an example, this paper established the stope model of the first mining area, determined the coal and rock amount in various engineering positions and drew the V - P curve by using Minex 6.0 software, which provided an important basis for mining designers to compile the mining schedule plan and select equipment and mining technology.%煤岩量的计算是露天矿编制矿山工程进度计划的重要依据,是采矿设计中最主要的工作。利用Minex6.0软件,以新疆后峡煤田黑山露天煤矿为例,建立了首采区的采场模型,确定各个工程位置的煤岩量并绘制V—P曲线,为采矿设计人员编制开采进度计划及开采工艺和设备的选择提供了重要的依据,大大提高了采矿设计人员的工作效率。

  1. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2015; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Jahr 2015



    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  2. Coal mine safety achievements in the USA and the contribution of NIOSH research

    Esterhuizen, G.S.; Gurtunca, R.G. [NIOSH, Washington, DC (United States)


    Over the past century coal miner safety and health have seen tremendous improvements: the fatality and injury rates continue to decrease while productivity continues to increase. Many of the hazards that plagued miners in the past, such as coal bumps, methane and coal dust explosions, ground fall accidents and health issues have been significantly reduced. The contribution of NIOSH research includes products for prevention and survival of mine fires, methane control measures, design procedure for underground coal mines, methods for excavation surface controls, methods and procedures for blasting, laser usage in underground mines and prevention of electrocution from overhead power lines that have reduced accidents and injuries in underground coal mines. Health research has produced products such as the personal dust monitor, noise abating technologies and ergonomic solutions for equipment operators. Research priorities at NIOSH are set by considering surveillance statistics, stakeholder inputs and loss control principles. Future research in coal mining is directed towards respiratory diseases, noise-induced hearing loss, repetitive musculoskeletal injuries, traumatic injuries, falls of ground and mine disasters. The recent spate of accidents in coal mines resulted in the Miner Act of 2006, which includes a specific role for NIOSH in future mine safety research and development. The mine safety achievements in the USA reflect the commitment of industry, labour, government and research organizations to improving the safety of the mine worker.

  3. 某露天矿大型排土场降雨入渗条件下的稳定性分析%Stability Analysis of the Large Dump under the Conditions of Rainfall Infiltration in a Open-pit Mine

    解芮; 谭卓英; 王莉


    The stability of a copper mine dump is analyzed under the different conditions such as continually heavy rain and short rainstorm by correcting the traditional limit equilibrium equation and u-sing fluid-solid coupling method.The results show that the safety factor of dump slope declines steady dur-ing the continuous heavy rainfall,while it dropped significantly in earlier period of short rainstorm.The safety factor of eastern part of situation slope is 1.193 without considering rainfall,and it has been re-duced to 1.013 minimum after experiencing the rainfall infiltration,which dose not meet the relevant reg-ulatory reguirements.At the end of the period,only one characteristics part's safety factor is still above 1. 30,the minimum safety factor is reduced to 0.867.It is necessary to take measures of slope strengthening and waterproofing and drainage to prevent instability of dump slope probably caused by rainfall.%通过对传统极限平衡公式进行修正,采用流-固耦合方法,对某铜矿排土场在持续强降雨和短时暴雨等不同降雨入渗条件下的稳定性进行了研究。结果表明:排土场边坡的安全系数在持续强降雨时平稳下降,在短时大暴雨前期下降幅度较大。边坡东部在未考虑降雨时的安全系数为1.193,经历了降雨入渗后安全系数最小为1.013,不能满足相关规范要求,终了时仅有一个特征部位的安全系数处于1.30以上,最小安全系数已降至0.867,应采取边坡加固及防排水措施,以防止降雨可能导致的排土场边坡失稳。

  4. Coal and rock fissure evolution and distribution characteristics of multi-seam mining

    Zhang Dongming; Qi Xiaohan; Yin Guangzhi; Zheng Binbin


    Henan Pingdingshan No.10 mine is prone to both coal and gas outbursts. The E9-10 coal seam is the main coal-producing seam but has poor quality ventilation, thus making it relatively difficult for gas extraction. The F15 coal seam, at its lower section, is not prone to coal and gas outbursts. The average seam separa-tion distance of 150 m is greater than the upper limit for underside protective seam mining. Based on borehole imaging technology for field exploration of coal and rock fracture characteristics and discrete element numerical simulation, we have studied the evolution laws and distribution characteristics of the coal and rock fissure field between these two coal seams. By analysis of the influential effect of group F coal mining on the E9-10 coal seam, we have shown that a number of small fissures also develop in the area some 150 m above the overlying strata. The width and number of the fissures also increase with the extent of mining activity. Most of the fissures develop at a low angle or even parallel to the strata. The results show that the mining of the F15 coal seam has the effect of improving the permeability of the E9-10 coal seam.

  5. Emission and commercial utilization of coal mine methane in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin illustrated by the example of Katowice Coal Holding Company

    Kędzior Sławomir


    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of the release of methane from coal seams and its emission to the atmosphere from the mines of Katowice Coal Holding Company in the years of 1997-2011. This period is characterized by organizational changes in Polish mining industry involving liquidation or a merger of mines, an increase in both the concentration of coal mining activity, and the depth of the exploitation at which the amount of methane in coal seams grows ever larger. The analysis of the variation in the methane emission from the coal mines in that period points out a decline in the intensity of the emission until 2005, probably owing to the liquidation of some mines, later, but in the years of 2006-2010 - a considerable increase in both the absolute methane emission of the mines and the methane emission to the atmosphere despite a dropping coal extraction. This signifies that mining activity takes place in increasingly difficult gas conditions prevailing at great depths. Despite a slight decrease in both the absolute methane emission and methane emission to the atmosphere in 2011, a continuously growing trend of this phenomenon should be expected in the future. A similar tendency is also visible in the whole Upper Silesian Coal Basin, however the methane emission peak falls in 2008. In order to curb the growth of the amount of the emitted methane, it should be commercially utilized. Particularly vital is considering methane as an unconventional resource, following the example of other countries.

  6. Protocols for the remediation of lands impacted by former coal mining operations, Sydney coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Forgeron, S. [Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, Sydney, NS (Canada)


    Abandoned underground coal mines can pose health and safety risks to persons working in close proximity to the former mining operations. This paper described protocols used to address potential coal mining hazards at the Sydney coal field in Nova Scotia (NS). The protocols document was developed by a mine workings group consisting of government agencies, consultants, and the owners of the mine site. Hazards at the mine included unstable ground caused by the collapse of abandoned coal mine workings; unsecured abandoned mine openings; potential accidental discharges of untreated mine waters; and the potential release of hazardous mine gases. A 5 remediation protocol process was established to include (1) information gathering, (2) an initial mine site investigation, (3) a mine workings report, (4) a detailed mine site investigation, and (5) a mine openings remediation. The protocols can be used to identify the potential hazards posed during investigations and remediation activities. 26 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Fuzzy Evaluation of Coal Seam Geological Condition of Fully-Mechanized Face in Ten-Million-Ton Mine


    Based on coal seam geological condition and mining technological characteristic in Jisan Mine, coal seam geological condition is quantitative evaluated by using fuzzy evaluation with the view of coal mining and coalface production. The structure and index system of evaluation factor, the membership functions and weights of evaluation factor, evaluation model and reliability in the coal seam geological conditions are expounded in detail. Eighty-two coalfaces which will be exploited is classified. All of these have provided a theoretical foundation for the selection of coal mining technology and for sustainable development of the coal mine.

  8. Coal Mining vis-â-vis Agriculture in India: A Question of Sustainability

    Sribas Goswami


    Full Text Available Coal mining adversely affects the eco-system as a whole. It is important to conduct suitable assessment studies to learn the potential adverse impact of mining on agriculture. In the subsequent discussions an attempt has been made to clarify the coal mining activities and its residual impact on environment and agricultural activities.The leaseholds for the underground mines are procured from the land lords who grant mining authority the right for underground coal mining. The land for houses, dwellings and the associated activities are purchased piecemeal from different sources while large portion of the surface right remained under the control of farmers and landlords. Underground mining in these areas is conducted with full responsibility of the surface protection by the operators who normally maintain pillars as the natural support to the surface features. Increasing demand for open caste mining process requires huge land. These lands sometime are acquired at the cost of cultivable land. Coal mining has direct impact over agriculture in the study region and residual impacts of mining bring far reaching consequences. The present study is explanatory in nature based on empirical facts collected from various formal sources from Coal India office. The task is to bring out the issues related to coal mining activities and their impact on vegetation and agriculture in adjoining areas in Raniganj and Jharia coalfields in India through this study.

  9. Surface Movement Regularity of Super-Wide Mining Face With Top-Coal Caving

    REN Run-hou


    No.4326 super-wide panel of Wangzhuang Coal Mine ( in which the fully-mechanized top-coal caving longwall mining method was used) was monitored for dynamic characteristic of surface movement. The dynamic surface movement in and after mining was predicted by using the Mining Subsidence Prediction System. The results indicate that after mining, the surface above the super-wide panel reaches a state of full subsidence, making the No.309national highway above the panel be located on the flat bottom of the subsidence basin so that the influence of mining activity in both sides of 4326 panel on the national highway is the smallest.

  10. Hydrochemical and geochemical processes in superficial dump sediments in Zwenkau open brown coal mine; Hydro- und geochemische Prozesse in oberflaechennahen Kippensedimenten des Braunkohlentagebaus Zwenkau

    Wiegand, U.


    The present study was performed as part of a project titled ''Ground and air-based spectrometric studies for the differentiation of reactively altered brown coal open mining areas in Central Germany'' (Project 02 WB 9667/5) which was funded by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research. It was carried out as a cooperation between GeoForschungszentrum Potsdam (GFZ, Potsdam GeoResearch Centre), Deutsches Zentrum for Lust- und Raumfahrt (DLR, German Aerospace Centre), Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF, Society for Applied Remote Sensing) and Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle GmbH (UFZ, Leipzig/Halle Environmental Research Centre). The idea of the project was to calibrate aerial data obtained by means of spectrometric remote sensing methods using conventional petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical analysis. This would provide the mining industry with a powerful method with low time and staff requirement for reliably classifying the vast dump areas produced by open pit mining, accurately assigning findings to location data and thus identifying suitable uses for different sites. The focus of the present study was on characterising hydrochemical and geochemical alterations in dump sediments of the Zwenkau brown coal open mining area south of Leipzig in Central Germany. The collection of these data plays a decisive role in plans for cultivating and assessing the potential hazard to the open mining landscape. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit wurde im Rahmen des BMBF-gefoerderten Projektes 'Luft- und bodengestuetzte spektrometrische Untersuchungen zur Differenzierung reaktiv veraenderter Braunkohlentagebaugebiete in Mitteldeutschland' (Vorhaben 02 WB 9667/5) als Kooperation zwischen dem GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), dem Deutschen Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), der Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF) und dem Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle GmbH (UFZ) angefertigt. Idee des Projektes war

  11. Geotechnical risk management to prevent coal outburst in room-and-pillar mining

    Zhang Peter⇑; Peterson Scott; Neilans Dan; Wade Scott; McGrady Ryan; Pugh Joe


    A coal outburst is a severe safety hazard in room-and-pillar mining under deep cover. It is more likely to occur during pillar retreating. Multi-seam mining dramatically increases the risk of coal outburst within the influence zones created by remnant pillars and gob-solid boundaries. Though coal outburst is gener-ally associated with heavy loading of coal pillars, its occurrence is difficult to predict. Risk management provides a proactive tool to minimize coal outburst in room-and-pillar mining under deep cover. Risk assessment is the first step in identifying and quantifying outburst risk factors. The primary risk factors for coal outburst are overburden depth, roof and floor strength, geological anomalies, mining type, multi-seam mining, and panel width. A risk assessment chart can be used to proactively screen out min-ing sections with high risk of coal outburst for further analysis. Gob-solid boundaries and remnant pillars are critical factors in evaluation of the coal outburst risk of multi-seam mining. Risk identification, risk assessment, geologic influence mapping, geotechnical evaluation, risk analysis, risk mitigation, and mon-itoring are essential elements of coal outburst risk management process. Training is an integral part of risk management for risk identification and communication between all the stakeholders including man-agement, technical and safety personnel, and miners.

  12. Effect of Water Invasion on Outburst Predictive Index of Low Rank Coals in Dalong Mine.

    Jiang, Jingyu; Cheng, Yuanping; Mou, Junhui; Jin, Kan; Cui, Jie


    To improve the coal permeability and outburst prevention, coal seam water injection and a series of outburst prevention measures were tested in outburst coal mines. These methods have become important technologies used for coal and gas outburst prevention and control by increasing the external moisture of coal or decreasing the stress of coal seam and changing the coal pore structure and gas desorption speed. In addition, techniques have had a significant impact on the gas extraction and outburst prevention indicators of coal seams. Globally, low rank coals reservoirs account for nearly half of hidden coal reserves and the most obvious feature of low rank coal is the high natural moisture content. Moisture will restrain the gas desorption and will affect the gas extraction and accuracy of the outburst prediction of coals. To study the influence of injected water on methane desorption dynamic characteristics and the outburst predictive index of coal, coal samples were collected from the Dalong Mine. The methane adsorption/desorption test was conducted on coal samples under conditions of different injected water contents. Selective analysis assessed the variations of the gas desorption quantities and the outburst prediction index (coal cutting desorption index). Adsorption tests indicated that the Langmuir volume of the Dalong coal sample is ~40.26 m3/t, indicating a strong gas adsorption ability. With the increase of injected water content, the gas desorption amount of the coal samples decreased under the same pressure and temperature. Higher moisture content lowered the accumulation desorption quantity after 120 minutes. The gas desorption volumes and moisture content conformed to a logarithmic relationship. After moisture correction, we obtained the long-flame coal outburst prediction (cutting desorption) index critical value. This value can provide a theoretical basis for outburst prediction and prevention of low rank coal mines and similar occurrence conditions

  13. Effect of Water Invasion on Outburst Predictive Index of Low Rank Coals in Dalong Mine.

    Jingyu Jiang

    Full Text Available To improve the coal permeability and outburst prevention, coal seam water injection and a series of outburst prevention measures were tested in outburst coal mines. These methods have become important technologies used for coal and gas outburst prevention and control by increasing the external moisture of coal or decreasing the stress of coal seam and changing the coal pore structure and gas desorption speed. In addition, techniques have had a significant impact on the gas extraction and outburst prevention indicators of coal seams. Globally, low rank coals reservoirs account for nearly half of hidden coal reserves and the most obvious feature of low rank coal is the high natural moisture content. Moisture will restrain the gas desorption and will affect the gas extraction and accuracy of the outburst prediction of coals. To study the influence of injected water on methane desorption dynamic characteristics and the outburst predictive index of coal, coal samples were collected from the Dalong Mine. The methane adsorption/desorption test was conducted on coal samples under conditions of different injected water contents. Selective analysis assessed the variations of the gas desorption quantities and the outburst prediction index (coal cutting desorption index. Adsorption tests indicated that the Langmuir volume of the Dalong coal sample is ~40.26 m3/t, indicating a strong gas adsorption ability. With the increase of injected water content, the gas desorption amount of the coal samples decreased under the same pressure and temperature. Higher moisture content lowered the accumulation desorption quantity after 120 minutes. The gas desorption volumes and moisture content conformed to a logarithmic relationship. After moisture correction, we obtained the long-flame coal outburst prediction (cutting desorption index critical value. This value can provide a theoretical basis for outburst prediction and prevention of low rank coal mines and similar

  14. Integral evaluation of operating quality and the deciding of management strategy in productive coal mines

    ZHAO Jing-li(赵景礼)


    According to overall mean square root of weighted deviation, presented an evaluation model of "geology-technique-social conditions" with a significant index system for the estimation of operating quality in productive coal mines. In the given example, the evaluation result is used to decide management strategy of coal mine, which plays a guiding role in the production.

  15. Effects of Re-vegetation on Herbaceous Species Composition and Biological Soil Crusts Development in a Coal Mine Dumping Site.

    Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Peng; Hu, Yigang; Huang, Lei


    Despite the critical roles of plant species' diversity and biological soil crusts (BSCs) in arid and semi-arid ecosystems, the restoration of the diversity of herbaceous species and BSCs are rarely discussed during the process of vegetation restoration of anthropogenically damaged areas in these regions. In this study, the herbaceous plant species composition, along with the BSCs coverage and thicknesses, was investigated at six different re-vegetation type sites, and the natural vegetation site of the Heidaigou open pit coal mine in China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region was used as a reference. The highest total species richness (16), as well as the species richness (4.4), occurred in the Tree and Herbaceous vegetation type site. The species composition similarities between the restored sites and the reference site were shown to be very low, and ranged from 0.09 to 0.42. Also, among the restored sites, the similarities of the species were fairly high and similar, and ranged from 0.45 to 0.93. The density and height of the re-vegetated woody plants were significantly correlated with the indexes of the diversity of the species. The Shrub vegetation type site showed the greatest total coverage (80%) of BSCs and algae crust coverage (48%). The Shrub and Herbaceous type had the greatest thicknesses of BSCs, with as much as 3.06 mm observed, which was followed by 2.64 mm for the Shrub type. There was a significant correlation observed between the coverage of the total BSCs, and the total vegetation and herbaceous vegetation coverage, as well as between the algae crust coverage and the herbaceous vegetation coverage. It has been suggested that the re-vegetated dwarf woody plant species (such as shrubs and semi-shrubs) should be chosen for the optimal methods of the restoration of herbaceous species diversity at dumping sites, and these should be planted with low density. Furthermore, the effects of vegetation coverage on the colonization and development the BSCs

  16. Natural radioactivity level of associated bone-coal mining area in Zhejiang Province

    YE Ji-Da; ZHENG Hui-Di; SONG Wei-Li; ZENG Guang-Jian; WANG Sha-Ling; WU Zong-Mei


    The geographic distribution, γ-radiation level and specific activity of radionuclides of the bone-coal mines in Zhejiang Province were reported. The weighted average of γ-radiation dose rate of the bone-coal mines is 566 nGy/h for 107 main bone-coal mines. The weighted mean activity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the samples are 949, 918, 34 and 554 Bq/kg for 171 samples of bone-coal, respectively.

  17. Ground control problems and roadheader drivage at Ombilin Coal Mine, Indonesia

    Matsui, K.; Shimada, H.; Furukawa, H. (and others) [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Earth Resources and Mining Engineering


    In 1998, an agreement on the 'Slope Project at Ombilin III' was made between JCOAl (Japan Coal Energy Center) and PTBA. In this project, a development system of an incline was introduced to open a new underground coal mine, or Ombilin III that will begin mining operations in the 2000s to meet the necessary demand for increasing the production of Indonesian domestic coal. This paper discusses the ground control problems and the development performance of two main inclinea at Ombilin Coal Mine. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  18. 75 FR 18500 - Guidance on Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean...


    ... AGENCY Guidance on Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean..., titled Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean Water Act... environmental review of Appalachian surface coal mining operations under the Clean Water Act,...

  19. Variation in gas drainage rate from a coal seam during mining

    Li; Gang; Qi; Qingxin; Li; Hongyan; Fan; Xisheng


    Gas flow patterns during draining of gas from a coal seam during mining are discussed.The coal seam is treated as a dual medium with both pores and cracks.The seepage,diffusion,and desorption processes are treated using a gas flow equation that describes flow around drill holes.MATLAB is used to solve the differential equations.The permeability tracer test results from a mined coal seam are used to study the variation in gas drainage from a coal seam during mining.The results show that mining can increase the permeability of a coal seam,which then increases the gas drainage.There are inflection points in this variation over time.A close relationship between this variation and the rate of change in coal seam permeability is observed.

  20. Study on the economic mining method for the close quarter coal seams with thin rock sheet

    GOU Pan-feng; CHEN Zhao-qiang; YUN Xiao-you


    The paper presents the mining method for the close quarter coal seams with thin rock sheet, that is mining the low coal seam, recovering the top coal seam aft er putting down the roof rock of the low coal seam. Practice has proved that in recovering the top coal outside the face width after the rock between seams fall s naturally or is demolished, the technology is simple, easy to operate and doe s not make a great demand for technical equipment. In the process of recovering t he top coal, the low seam support could not be affected seriously, and two seams mining could be coordinated. Compared with the individual mining method, this m ining method can produce a better economic benefit.

  1. Study on coal mine macro, meso and micro safety management system

    Longkang Wang


    Full Text Available In recent years, the coal mine safety production situation in our country improved year by year, but severe accidents still occurred; the accidents caused great economic loss to the national economy. According to statistical analysis, almost all of the coal mine accidents will expose the hidden danger in before, most of the accidents caused due to safety management not reaching the designated position and the hidden danger management does not take any decision in time. Based on the coal mine safety management holes in our country, the coal mine macro, meso and micro safety management system was established in this paper, which includes meaning and conception of the theories of the macro, meso and micro safety management, and also includes the matching hardware equipment, in order to achieve the hidden danger's closed-loop control and dynamic early warning in the process of coal mine production.

  2. Remote sensing monitoring land use change in Donglutian coal mine, Shuozhou City

    Ye, Baoying; Liu, Ling


    This paper monitored the coal mine exploitation in Donglutian coal mine, Shuozhou city, Shanxi Province. Landsat satellite images from 2008 to 2016 were selected, and then 15m color composite images were obtained through data processing and image fusion. On this basis, the land use map from 2008 to 2016 was obtained using visual interpretation method. Results showed that the main land use type in this area was cropland, unused land and coalmine. Area of cropland and unused land kept decreasing year by year, while coal mine expanded rapidly. The expansion of coal mine concentrated on two time periods: from 2009 to 2010 and from 2012 to 2013. During these two time periods, topsoil stripping was the main exploitation type, while deep mining was the main type for other times. Results also presented that the exploitation number of small coals kept increasing year by year, from the initial number of 26 at 2008 to 42 at 2016.

  3. Treating coal mine drainage with an artificial wetland. [USA - Ohio

    Fennessy, M.S.; Mitsch, W.J. (Ohio State University Columbus, OH (USA). School of Natural Resources)

    A 0.22-ha constructed wetland dominated by Typha latofolia was evaluated for its ability to treat approximately 340 L/min of coal mine drainage from an underground seep in eastern Ohio. Loading of mine drainage to the wetland ranged from 15 to 35 cm/d. Conductivity, pH, manganese, and sulfate were little changed by the wetland. Iron decreased by 50 to 60%, with slightly higher decreases during the growing season. Comparisons are made to a volunteer Typha marsh receiving mine drainage where iron was found to decrease by approximately 89%. Design considerations of loading rates of created wetlands suggest that improved treatment of mine drainage is correlated with longer retention times and lower iron loading rates. Preliminary design criteria for construction of these types of Typha wetlands for removal of iron are suggested as 5 cm/d hydrologic loading and 2 to 40 g Fe/m{sup 2}.d for iron loading, depending on the treatment desired. 34 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Monitoring and control of ventilation in Polish coal mines

    Dziurzynski, W.; Roszkowski, J.; Tobiczyk, J.; Wasilewski, S. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland). Strata Mechanics Research Institute


    In the 1990s, the SMP hazards monitoring and ventilation control systems, based on continuous measurement of air parameters, were put into operation at nearly 30 Polish mines. These systems provide continuous measurement of methane concentration within the range of zero to 100 per cent with automatic switching off of electrical energy immediately after detection of potentially explosive conditions. Early detection of coal spontaneous combustion and open fires is made by continuous measurements of CO, CO{sub 2}, smoke and O{sub 2} content in mine air as well as temperature changes in air and rock mass. The essence of the system is intrinsic safety of all underground instrumentation and uninterrupted central power supply from the surface. All abnormal and critical states are signalled to the mine control room. These trigger alarm and emergency procedures. The computer based ventilation monitoring and control system also performs the function of an expert system for fire detection and underground fire fighting. The mine control operator (dispatcher) makes use of stored data in computer escape route schemes and procedures for the safe withdrawal of miners from hazardous areas. The operator can put in motion intrinsically safe alarm signalling units and banners with programmed messages indicating escape routes. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Coal mining, social injustice and health: a universal conflict of power and priorities.

    Morrice, Emily; Colagiuri, Ruth


    Given the current insatiable demand for coal to build and fuel the world's burgeoning cities the debate about mining-related social, environmental and health injustices remains eminently salient. Furthermore, the core issues appear universally consistent. This paper combines the theoretical base for defining these injustices with reports in the international health literature about the impact of coal mining on local communities. It explores and analyses mechanisms of coal mining related injustice, conflicting priorities and power asymmetries between political and industry interests versus inhabitants of mining communities, and asks what would be required for considerations of health to take precedence over wealth.

  6. Electromagnetic environments in roadways of underground coal mines and a novel testing method


    The electromagnetic environment of laneways in underground coal mines is an important area for the design of new electronic products,as well as a fundamental space for mine monitoring,surveillance,communications and control systems.An investigation of electromagnetic interference in coal mines is essential for the enhancement of performances of these systems.In this study,a new field method is provided in which radiated emission tests in coal mine laneways have been carried out.We conclude that:1) the wirin...

  7. Coal-Mac, Inc. Phoenix No. 1 mine provides wildlife haven. 2007 Wildlife West Virginia Award

    Skinner, A.


    Coal Mac, Inc.'s Harless Wood Industrial Park off Holden 22 Mines Road in Logan Country, West Virginia is an award-winning reclamation site in the mountains frequented by geese, wild turkey, deer and black bears. Orchard grass and rye is a temporary cover for the timothy, clover and other seedlings. The area was mined several years ago. Some 40,000-50,000 tons of coal per month are surfaced mined with the current permit that takes in 1,500-2,000 acres. After removing the coal, valleys are backfilled as part of the mining and reclamation plan. 10 photos.

  8. Technique of coal mining and gas extraction without coal pillar in multi-seam with low permeability

    YUAN Liang


    Aimed at the low mining efficiency in deep multi-seams because of high crustal stress, high gas content, low permeability, the compound "three soft" roof and the trouble-some safety situation encountered in deep level coal exploitation, proposed a new idea of gob-side retaining without a coal-pillar and Y-style ventilation in the first-mined key pres-sure-relieved coal seam and a new method of coal mining and gas extraction. The follow-ing were discovered: the dynamic evolution law of the crannies in the roof is influenced by mining, the formative rule of "the vertical cranny-abundant area" along the gob-side, the distribution of air pressure field in the gob, and the flowing rule of pressure-relieved gas in a Y-style ventilation system. The study also established a theoretic basis for a new mining method of coal mining and gas extraction which is used to extract the pressure-relieved gas by roadway retaining boreholes instead of roadway boreholes. Studied and resolved many difficult key problems, such as, fast roadway retaining at the gob-side without a coal-pillar, Y-style ventilation and extraction of pressure-relieved gas by roadway retaining boreholes, and so on. The study innovated and integrated a whole set of technical sys-tems for coal and pressure relief gas extraction. The method of the pressure-relieved gas extraction by roadway retaining had been successfully applied in 6 typical working faces in the Huainan and Huaibei mining areas. The research can provide a scientific and reliable technical support and a demonstration for coal mining and gas extraction in gaseous deep multi-seams with low permeability.

  9. Mines, Non-Coal (Active), mines, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Mines, Non-Coal (Active) dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as...

  10. Potential effects of surface coal mining on the hydrology of the Bloomfield coal tract, Dawson County, eastern Montana

    Cannon, M.R.


    The Bloomfield coal tract in Dawson County, Montana, contains about 420 million tons of recoverable coal reserves within the Pust coal bed. About 136 million tons of coal within the tract is Federally owned, of which 98 million tons has been identified for potential lease sale. A hydrologic study has been conducted in the potential lease area to describe existing hydrologic systems and to assess potential impacts of surface coal mining on local water resources. Shallow ground-water resources in the tract are limited to sandstone and coal aquifers in the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene age). These shallow aquifers have small values of hydraulic conductivity; yields to wells generally range from 1 to 10 gallons per minute. Water from shallow sandstone and coal aquifers is used primarily for livestock watering and domestic supply. Chemical analyses indicate that water from most shallow aquifers is dominated by calcium and magnesium cations and sulfate and bicarbonate anions. Surface-water resources in the tract consist primarily of small reservoirs used for livestock watering. All streams in the tract are ephemeral, making them unreliable as a source of livestock water. Mining of the Pust coal bed would cause certain impacts on local water resources. About 15 stock and domestic wells and 13 small stock reservoirs would be destroyed by mining. Shallow coal and sandstone aquifers would be permanently removed from parts of the tract. Leaching of soluble salts from mine spoils may cause a long-term degradation of the quality of water in shallow aquifers in or near the coal tract. Impacts on the local water resources could be mitigated by development of alternative ground-water supplies from deeper aquifers in the Fort Union and in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek and Fox Hills Formations. Reservoirs destroyed by mining could be reconstructed during mine reclamation. (USGS)

  11. The study of coal mine equipment's comprehensive evaluation index system and evaluation method

    WANG Xin-hua; SHI Guo-qing


    Equipment management is one of the important parts of business administration of coal. Most of coal mines take no account of their equipment management, and have no comprehensive and effective evaluation index system. Based on the analysis of the equipment evaluation measures of reform and the applications, the paper built up a comprehensive and effective evaluation index system of coal mine equipment, and improved the evaluation method with the use of fuzzy theory, analytic hierarchy process and entropy method.

  12. Studying mathematical model of mine and quarry pneumatic lifting equipment in "skip - guidance devices" systems

    Kitaeva, Mariya Valerievna; Nikolaev, Yu. A.; Taranov, A. V.; Mehtiev, A. D.


    There are two basic ways of mining: open pit and underground in the mining industry: open pit and underground. Underground mining less profitable, however, it is more environmentally friendly. In addition, this method is essentially inevitable due to the fact that the major mineral reserves are at greater depths and in the future will need to solve the problems of development of mineral deposits deep mines. The development of the mining sector and the deepening of mining operations require a ...


    Vlastimil Hudeček


    Full Text Available In the article, degasification methods to drain the gas from the underground parts of coal mines in the Czech Republic are described. The authors are concerned with the possibilities of and new trends in ensuring safety by means of drilling operations. Examples of applications of degasification in mine plants in the Czech Republic, above all in a hard coal deposit in the Ostrava-Karviná Coalfield in the Upper Silesian Basin are presented.

  14. Research results of geotechnical properties of soils at the Podkrušnohorská výsypka dump in Sokolov brown coal field

    Milan MIKOLÁŠ; Štrejbar, Martin; Stavinoha, Josef; Čermák, Ondřej


    Open pit brown coal mining in the Sokolov coal field has been suffering with the lack of a space for overburden rocks dumping from its very beginning. The Podkrušnohorská výsypka dump is situated in a geomorphologically highly broken landscape at the Krušné Hory Mountains foot and northern part of Sokolov Basin divide. Dump rock consists of tuffaceous clays vith minimal specific resistance values QST = 0.5 - 1.0 MPa and cypric clays with minimal specific resistance values QST =...

  15. Distribution pattern and limiting factors of vegetation in coal waste pile of Xinzhuangzi coal mine in Huainan

    CHU Zhao-xia; WANG Shun-chang; WANG Xing-ming


    In China,coal mine spoils have traditionally been dumped in cone-shaped heaps that have the potential to pollute air,soil and water environments.The coal waste pile occupies lots of arable land and endangers the ecological system in the coal mine district.Vegetation restoration is an efficient approach for controlling the environment pollution of coal waste pile,and is also a topic of current interest in restoration ecology and degradation system ecology.This study focused on the distribution pattern and limiting factors of vegetation in coal waste pile of Xinzhuangzi Coal Mine in Huainan.The results show that two stable plant communities (Synodon dactylon+Erigeron bonariensis.L+Setaria viridis community and Humulus scanden+Erigeron bonariensis.L community) exist at the bottom of the pile.Synodon dactylon and Erigeron bonariensis.L have much higher values of summed dominance ratio,which denote that these two species can be used for restoration of coal waste piles.The high levels of pH (8.77) and salinity,low levels of total P and total K in coal mine spoil can be the limiting factors for the residence and growth of vegetation.

  16. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 1. Eastern coal province. [More than 1300 references

    Weiss, N. E.; Sobek, A. A.; Streib, D. L.


    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Eastern Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographices. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  17. Mining pressure monitoring and analysis in fully mechanized backfilling coal mining face-A case study in Zhai Zhen Coal Mine

    ZHANG Qiang; ZHANG Ji-xiong; KANG Tao; SUN Qiang; LI Wei-kang


    Fully mechanized solid backfill mining (FMSBM) technology adopts dense backfill body to support the roof. Based on the distinguishing characteristics and mine pressure control principle in this technology, the basic principles and methods for mining pressure monitoring were analyzed and established. And the characteristics of overburden strata movement were analyzed by monitoring the support resistance of hydraulic support, the dynamic subsidence of immediate roof, the stress of backfill body, the front abutment pressure, and the mass ratio of cut coal to backfilled materials. On-site strata behavior measurements of 7403W solid backfilling working face in Zhai Zhen Coal Mine show that the backfill body can effectively support the overburden load, obviously control the overburden strata movement, and weaken the strata behaviors distinctly. Specific performances are as follows. The support resistance decreases obviously; the dynamic subsidence of immediate roof keeps consistent to the variation of backfill body stress, and tends to be stable after the face retreating to 120-150 m away from the cut. The peak value of front abutment pressure arises at 5-12 m before the operating face, and mass ratio is greater than the designed value of 1.15, which effectively ensures the control of strata movement. The research results are bases for intensively studying basic theories of solid backfill mining strata behaviors and its control, and provide theoretical guidance for engineering design in FMSBM.

  18. Characteristics and applications of gas desorption with excavation disturbances in coal mining

    Jiachen Wang; Renlun Wu; Peng Zhang


    According to the deficiency of experiment system for gas adsorption and desorption in coal mass, a large scale experiment system is developed independently by researchers. This experiment system is composed of primary and auxiliary boxes, power transmission system, mining system, loading system, gas charging system, data monitoring and intelligent acquisition system. The maximum experiment coal consumption is 1200 kg, the mining system is developed to conduct experiment for gas desorption under excavating disturbance, and the plane-charging cribriform ventilation device is developed to realize uniform ventilation for experiment coal sample, which is accord with the actual gas source situation of coal bed. The desorption characteristics of gas in coal are experimentally studied under the conditions of nature and mining using the experiment system. The results show that, compare with nature condition, the permeability of coal and the velocity of gas desorption could significantly increase under the influence of coal pressure relief and destruction caused by mining, and the degree of gas desorption could somewhat increase too. Finally, pressure relief gas extraction of current seam and adjacent seams after mining in a certain coal mine of Yangquan mining area are introduced, and the gas desorption experiment results is verified by analyzing the effect of gas extraction.

  19. The Imposition Environmental Cost-Loading Of Companies Investing In Coal Mining

    Tomi Risman


    Full Text Available The instrument of environment is an effort to prevent environmental problems caused by mining activities both in forms and its nature. The aims of the study are to analyze and understanding the essence of environment cost-loading in order to restore the environment from coal mining activities both when mining taken place and post-mining. The type of research used is a normative-legal research. This research was conducted in the province of South Kalimantan with the consideration that the South Kalimantan is one of the largest coal-producing Provinces in Indonesia. In addition the environment cost-loading for investor in coal mining have the same properties in all coal mining sites in Indonesia. The results of the research indicated that the imposition and environment-cost in investment activity in the field of coal mining can be seen from the two approaches i.e the economic and legal approach. Economic approach is an approach that emphasizes the economic benefits gained by the owner of activities when they comply with the environmental requirements stipulated by laws and environmental regulations. Realizing the importance of environmental cost-loading for the company that manages the coal mining especially for the utilization of prevention of pollution caused by coal mining activity it is necessary to develop an institutional guarantee of recovery from the effects of pollution by establishing fund insurance for environmental restoration as a result of pollution. Thus in order to optimize the implementation of guarantee fund for environmental restoration are specifically utilized for post-mining reclamation then granting the status of Clean and Clear C amp C for coal mining investor must be presupposing the proof of guarantee fund has been placed for environmental restoration post-mining.

  20. The application of GIS in predicting water gushing from sixth coal seam floor in Liuqiao No. 2 coal mine

    Wang, M.; Li, D. [Huainan Mining Institute (China)


    Based on the detailed introduction of the method and procedure of GIS in the prediction of coal floor water influx, the paper establishes a multi-factor water gushing model, predicts water influx divisions taking Liuqiao No. 2 coal mine in North-Anhui as an example. A good result is obtained, and a new way of forecasting water influx from coal floors is provided. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Pneumatic transport of coal at the Miskolci mine

    Gaszner, L.; Szocs, E.


    Due to the full mechanization of coal extraction of the Miskolci mine in Hungary (BNR) which was completed in 1980, in order to fully use the capacity of the mine, a pneumatic transport system was installed in it. The system was jointly designed by Hungarian designers and the Radmark Company (Great Britain). The basic characteristics of the system are: vertical lift height, 308 meters; number of knees of rectangular cross section, 2 by 90 degrees; greatest size of transportable material, 43 millimeters; productivity, 100 tons per hour and established power of the electric drive, 655 kilowatts. The system consists of two parallel lines (each with the cited characteristics). The interior diameter of the pipelines is 350 millimeters. The basic elements of the system are the Root air blasters, the ribbed Radmark dispensers, the dispensing transporters, the pipelines, the electric drive with a control system and settling cyclones. More than 672,000 tons of coal were fed to the surface by the system between September, 1980 and January, 1983. The cost of the capital investments were recouped in nine months of operation of the system due to the additional extraction.

  2. Vegetation Growth Monitoring Under Coal Exploitation Stress by Remote Sensing in the Bulianta Coal Mining Area


    Coal exploitation inevitably damages the natural ecological environment through large scale underground exploitation which exhausts the surrounding areas and is the cause of surface subsidence and cracks.These types of damage seriously lower the underground water table.Deterioration of the environment has certainly an impact on and limits growth of vegetation, which is a very important indicator of a healthy ecological system.Dynamically monitoring vegetation growth under coal exploitation stress by remote sensing technology provides advantages such as large scale coverage, high accuracy and abundant information.A scatter plot was built by a TM (Thematic Mapper) infrared and red bands.A detailed analysis of the distributional characteristics of vegetation pixels has been carried out.Results show that vegetation pixels are affected by soil background pixels, while the distribution of soil pixels presents a linear pattern.Soil line equations were obtained mainly by linear regression.A new band, reflecting vegetation growth, has been obtained based on the elimination of the soil background.A grading of vegetation images was extracted by means of a density slice method.Our analysis indicates that before the exploitation of the Bulianta coal mining area, vegetation growth had gradually reduced; especially intermediate growth vegetation had been transformed into low vegetation.It may have been caused by the deterioration of the brittle environment in the western part of the mining area.All the same, after the start of coal production, vegetation growth has gradually improved, probably due to large scale aerial seeding.Remote sensing interpretation results proved to be consistent with the actual situation on the ground.From our research results we can not conclude that coal exploitation stress has no impact on the growth of vegetation.More detailed research on vegetation growth needs to be analyzed.

  3. Methods for Improving the Tractability of the Block Sequencing Problem for Open Pit Mining


    21 3.1 Defining the Block Sequencing Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3.2 Conceptual Framework ...block sequencing problem and recently more literature is appearing on this topic. Denby and Schofield (1994) use genetic algorithms to simultaneously... knapsack problems help illustrate this principle. First, examine the following problem : max 10x1 + 10x2 + 10x3 (4.9) subject to : 10x1 + 10x2 + 10x3 ≤ 25

  4. Uav-Based Point Cloud Generation for Open-Pit Mine Modelling

    Shahbazi, M.; Sohn, G.; Théau, J.; Ménard, P.


    Along with the advancement of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), improvement of high-resolution cameras and development of vision-based mapping techniques, unmanned aerial imagery has become a matter of remarkable interest among researchers and industries. These images have the potential to provide data with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution for three-dimensional (3D) modelling. In this paper, we present our theoretical and technical experiments regarding the development, implementation and evaluation of a UAV-based photogrammetric system for precise 3D modelling. This system was preliminarily evaluated for the application of gravel-pit surveying. The hardware of the system includes an electric powered helicopter, a 16-megapixels visible camera and inertial navigation system. The software of the system consists of the in-house programs built for sensor calibration, platform calibration, system integration and flight planning. It also includes the algorithms developed for structure from motion (SfM) computation including sparse matching, motion estimation, bundle adjustment and dense matching.

  5. Study on determination of the stable slope configuration for deep open pit mine

    Nai-long ZHU; Shi-xiong ZHANG; Shu-yu YUE


    The space effects of deep pit slope are analyzed by an elastic mechanics principle.The interaction among the critical slide angle,the friction coefficient,the cohesion,and the horizontal radius of the deep pits is derived in this paper.It indicates that the deeper the pit is excavated,the greater the critical slide angle is.Both the theory for reducing stripping waste rock in deep pit and the approach to determining the configuration of the stable slope are developed from the interaction.The theory in this paper comprises the preceding principles of stability analysis of slopes and is suitable for analyzing that of deep pit.

  6. Lean Manufacturing And Productivity Improvement In Coal Mining

    Manoj Ade


    Full Text Available The economic reforms- Liberalization, Privatization, Globalization, (LPG started in 1991 in India. The main objective of the government was to achieve high economic growth and industrialize the nation for the well-being of Indian citizens. Thus Indian market became Global and open market. Coal industry was not an exception to this phenomena of globalization. The improvement in productivity has become need of coal industry to take the competitive advantage of global market.The challenge to the coal Industry is to identify the wastes and meet the market price by maintaining a good profit. The only solution is to reduce total production cost. Lean manufacturing is a systematic approach to identify and eliminate the waste through continuousimprovements and synchronizing the production process to obtain manufacturing excellence. This can be achieved by Lean thinking (to identify and eliminate wastes and Lean production (to improve efficiency and effectiveness of equipment. Earlier the lean manufacturing concept was limited to manufacturing organizationnow it is used invariably in operation industries.In this paper researcher has applied lean manufacturing concept in order to increase productivity and to minimize the production cost of mining.

  7. Numerical simulation of seismic survey in coal mine roadway

    Zhu, G.; Li, G.; Cheng, J. [Chang' an University, Xi' an (China). College of Geological Engineering and Geomatics


    With the staggered-grid high order finite difference wave field simulation method, the elastic wave field caused by explosives with a point source in a coal mine roadway was simulated and different type of waves in the wave field were distinguished. Comparing all three spatial components of the propagation of the waves caused by explosives on or under the roadway at different depths, this indicates that: on the roadway base, the reverberation caused by the top and bottom of the roadway (multiple reflection on the top and bottom of the roadway) is the main disturbing wave in the roadway seismic survey which will seriously disturb the reflection of the deep place coal bed underneath the roadway; at a depth of several metres under the roadway basal bottom boundary, the reverberation disturbing wave is greatly reduced and the reflection caused by deeper coal bed can be clearly detected; high signal-to-noise ratio data can be found with the Y component detector because of the propagation of SH waves; high resolution of seismic data is possible in a roadway. In the model, a cavity 3 metres high and 4 metres wide can be detected underneath the roadway. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Technique of coal mining and gas extraction without coal pillar in multi-seam with low permeability

    Liang Yuan [Huainan Mining (Group) Co. Ltd., Huainan (China)


    Aimed at the low mining efficiency in deep multi-seams because of high crustal stress, high gas content, low permeability, the compound 'three soft' roof and the troublesome safety situation encountered in deep level coal exploitation, a new idea of gob-side retaining without a coal-pillar and Y-style ventilation in the first-mined key pressure-relieved coal seam and a new method of coal mining and gas extraction was proposed. The following were discovered: the dynamic evolution law of the crannies in the roof is influenced by mining, the formative rule of 'the vertical cranny-abundant area' along the gob-side, the distribution of air pressure field in the gob, and the flowing rule of pressure-relieved gas in a Y-style ventilation system. The study also established a theoretic basis for a new mining method of coal mining and gas extraction which is used to extract the pressure-relieved gas by roadway retaining boreholes instead of roadway boreholes. Studied and resolved many difficult key problems, such as, fast roadway retaining at the gob-side without a coalpillar, Y-style ventilation and extraction of pressure-relieved gas by roadway retaining boreholes, and so on. The study innovated and integrated a whole set of technical systems for coal and pressure relief gas extraction. The method of the pressure-relieved gas extraction by roadway retaining had been successfully applied in 6 typical working faces in the Huainan and Huaibei mining areas. The research can provide a scientific and reliable technical support and a demonstration for coal mining and gas extraction in gaseous deep multi-seams with low permeability. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Genotoxic effects in wild rodents (Rattus rattus and Mus musculus) in an open coal mining area.

    León, Grethel; Pérez, Lyda Espitia; Linares, Juan Carlos; Hartmann, Andreas; Quintana, Milton


    Coal is a mixture of a variety of compounds containing mutagenic and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Exposure to coal is considered as an important non-cellular and cellular source of reactive oxygen species that can induce DNA damage. In addition, spontaneous combustion can occur in coal mining areas, further releasing compounds with detrimental effects on the environment. In this study the comet assay was used to investigate potential genotoxic effects of coal mining activities in peripheral blood cells of the wild rodents Rattus rattus and Mus musculus. The study was conducted in a coal mining area of the Municipio de Puerto Libertador, South West of the Departamento de Cordoba, Colombia. Animals from two areas in the coal mining zone and a control area located in the Municipio de Lorica were investigated. The results showed evidence that exposure to coal results in elevated primary DNA lesions in blood cells of rodents. Three different parameters for DNA damage were assessed, namely, DNA damage index, migration length and percentage damaged cells. All parameters showed statistically significantly higher values in mice and rats from the coal mining area in comparison to the animals from the control area. The parameter "DNA Damage Index" was found to be most sensitive and to best indicate a genotoxic hazard. Both species investigated were shown to be sensitive indicators of environmental genotoxicity caused by coal mining activities. In summary, our study constitutes the first investigation of potential genotoxic effects of open coal mining carried out in Puerto Libertador. The investigations provide a guide for measures to evaluate genotoxic hazards, thereby contributing to the development of appropriate measures and regulations for more careful operations during coal mining.

  10. Financial Incentives to Restructure Coal Mining Industry. Comparative Case Study Romania and State of Michigan, U.S.

    Roger HAMLIN


    Full Text Available Former coal mining sites have always raised environmental and economic challenges for the areas where they were located, especially for those communities that were highly dependent on the coal mining industry. The present paper will explore the factors leading to the decline of coal mining industry in Romania and State of Michigan, U.S., the social, economic and environmental impact that occurred after closing coal extractions and the approaches that the two states took to reconstruct the economy of the former mining areas. The paper attempts to make recommendations of financial incentives that can be used to foster the economic redevelopment of former coal mining sites in Romania.

  11. Coal mining in the Netherlands: The need for a proper assessment

    De Jong, T.P.R.


    In the Netherlands several billion tonnes of mineable coal remained after closure of all mines in 1974. Mining activities in Dutch Limburg were suspended relatively early in comparison to surrounding basins, of which only DSK’s Ruhr mines are still producing. In retrospective this saved the costs of

  12. Underground Coal Mining: Relationship between Coal Dust Levels and Pneumoconiosis, in Two Regions of Colombia, 2014

    Torres Rey, Carlos Humberto; Ibañez Pinilla, Milciades; Briceño Ayala, Leonardo; Checa Guerrero, Diana Milena; Morgan Torres, Gloria; Groot de Restrepo, Helena; Varona Uribe, Marcela


    In Colombia, coal miner pneumoconiosis is considered a public health problem due to its irreversibility, high cost on diagnosis, and lack of data related to its prevalence in the country. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of pneumoconiosis in underground coal mining workers in two regions of Colombia. The results showed a 35.9% prevalence of pneumoconiosis in the study group (42.3% in region 1 and 29.9% in region 2). An association was found between a radiologic diagnosis of pneumoconiosis and a medium risk level of exposure to carbon dust (OR: 2.901, 95% CI: 0.937, 8.982), medium size companies (OR: 2.301, 95% CI: 1.260–4.201), length of mining work greater than 25 years (OR: 3.222, 95% CI: 1.806–5.748), and a history of smoking for more than one year (OR: 1.479, 95% CI: 0.938–2.334). These results establish the need to generate an intervention strategy aimed at preventing the identified factors, as well as a timely identification and effective treatment of pneumoconiosis in coal miners, in which the commitment of the General Health and Social Security System and the workers compensation system is ensured. PMID:26366418

  13. Underground Coal Mining: Relationship between Coal Dust Levels and Pneumoconiosis, in Two Regions of Colombia, 2014

    Carlos Humberto Torres Rey


    Full Text Available In Colombia, coal miner pneumoconiosis is considered a public health problem due to its irreversibility, high cost on diagnosis, and lack of data related to its prevalence in the country. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of pneumoconiosis in underground coal mining workers in two regions of Colombia. The results showed a 35.9% prevalence of pneumoconiosis in the study group (42.3% in region 1 and 29.9% in region 2. An association was found between a radiologic diagnosis of pneumoconiosis and a medium risk level of exposure to carbon dust (OR: 2.901, 95% CI: 0.937, 8.982, medium size companies (OR: 2.301, 95% CI: 1.260–4.201, length of mining work greater than 25 years (OR: 3.222, 95% CI: 1.806–5.748, and a history of smoking for more than one year (OR: 1.479, 95% CI: 0.938–2.334. These results establish the need to generate an intervention strategy aimed at preventing the identified factors, as well as a timely identification and effective treatment of pneumoconiosis in coal miners, in which the commitment of the General Health and Social Security System and the workers compensation system is ensured.

  14. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.


    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  15. Stimulation of commercial coal seam methane production aimed at improving mining technology


    The relevance of the current research is due to the urgent need to revise the existing normative bases and procedures involved in intensive development of coal-methane deposits and commercial production of coal seam methane. The article presents the analysis of data on coal production volume and amount of methane emitted into the atmosphere in Kuzbass. There is a need to develop the exploration techniques that would allow implementing pre-mining gas drainage of coal seams and provide the comp...

  16. Analysis of underground fires in Polish hard coal mines



    In the period of the first twenty years after World War II the number of fires in Polish hard coal mines reached annually the value of several thousands of cases. About 80% of fires constituted spontaneous fires. Investigations into the development of new methods of fire hazard prediction and implementation of new methods and means of fire prevention as well as the introduction of prohibition concerning the use of products manufactured of combustible organic materials in underground mine workings re-duced considerably the hazard of underground fire rise. The worked out at the Central Mining Institute (GIG) new method of un-derground fire prediction allows the correct selection of fire prevention means. The introduction into common use of fire-resistant conveyor belts, the main factor giving rise to spontaneous fires, and methods of assessment of their fire resistance eliminated prac-tically the fire hazard. These activities contributed in an efficient way to the reduction of the number of underground fires to a sa-tisfactory level.

  17. Estimation of radon concentrations in coal mines using a hybrid technique calibration curve

    Jamil, K.; Ali, S. [PINSTECH, Islamabad (Pakistan). Radiation Physics Division, Environmental Radiation Group


    A calibration curve was generated using Ra-226 activity concentration measured by a HPGe detector-based gamma-ray spectrometer versus alpha-track-density rate due to radon and its progeny on CR-39 track detector. Using the slops of the experimentally determined curve in the units of Becquerel per kilogram (Bq kg{sup -1}) per unit alpha -track-density per hour (cm{sup -2}h{sup -1}), radon concentrations (Bq m{sup -3}) were estimated using coal samples from various coal mines in two provinces of Pakistan, Punjab and Balochistan. Consequently, radon dose rates were computed in the simulated environment of the coal mines. These results provide only a screening method to indicate the radon dose in coal mines, It was shown that the actual measurements of radon concentrations in the coal mines are in agreement with the estimated radon concentrations using the hybrid-technique calibration curve.

  18. An optimized control of ventilation in coal mines based on artificial neural network

    付华; 邵良杉


    According to the nonlinear and time-dependent features of the ventilation systems for coal mines, a neural network method is applied to control the ventilator for coal mines in real time. The technical processes of coal mine ventilation system are introduced, and the principle of controlling a ventilation fan is also explained in detail. The artificial neutral network method is used to calculate the wind quantity needed by work spots in coal mine on the basis of the data collected by the system, including ventilation conditions, environmental temperatures, humidity, coal dust and the contents of all kinds of poisonous and harmful gases. Then the speed of ventilation fan is controlled according to the required wind which is determined by an overall integration of data. A neural network method is presented for overall optimized solution or the genetic algorithm of simulated annealing.

  19. Mining lore : Chinese labourers in BC's coal mines

    Baldwin, C.


    This article presented a historical review of Chinese labourers in Canada's industries and how they were often exploited and treated poorly. The 1860 gold rush in British Columbia attracted the first labourers from China. More labourers followed, the majority male, to work in the coal mines around Nanaimo. More than half the employees at coal baron Robert Dunsmuir's Wellington mine on Vancouver Island were Chinese labourers who worked under conditions and wages that other miners would not accept. During a large strike at the Wellington Mine in 1883, the striking white miners were replaced with Chinese from Victoria, which contributed to a brewing anti-Chinese sentiment. The striking miners eventually withdrew their demand for higher wages, insisting only that Dunsmuir rid his mine of the Chinese. Dunsmuir refused, held out, and broke the strike. When an anti-immigration bill was passed in 1884 by the British Columbia (BC) Legislative Assembly, the Canadian government stepped in, only to hire thousands of Chinese labourers to work on the railway. Their low wages saved contractors $3 million, making construction economically feasible. However, just a few weeks after blocking BC's anti-immigration bill, the Canadian government passed a Chinese Immigration Act that would come into effect only after construction was completed. The Act restricted and regulated Chinese immigration, and imposed a head tax on any Chinese entering the country, making it unaffordable to bring a wife and family to Canada. When the railroad was completed, thousands of Chinese labourers were left unemployed with nowhere to go. In 1887, an explosion at a Nanaimo mine killed 150 employees. The miners blamed the Chinese, claiming that their lack of English made them a safety hazard. By the early 1920s, the Chinese community in Victoria formed the Chinese Benevolent Association to provide general welfare assistance and oppose discriminatory laws. In 2006, the Canadian government

  20. Research into comprehensive gas extraction technology of single coal seams with low permeability in the Jiaozuo coal mining area

    Fu Jiangwei; Fu Xuehai; Hu Xiao; Chen Li; Ou Jianchun


    For a low permeability single coal seam prone to gas outbursts,pre-drainage of gas is difficult and inefficient,seriously restricting the safety and efficiency of production.Radical measures of increasing gas extraction efficiency are pressure relief and infrared antireflection.We have analyzed the effect of mining conditions and the regularity of mine pressure distribution in front of the working face of a major coal mine of the Jiaozuo Industrial (Group) our test area,studied the width of the depressurization zone in slice mining and analyzed gas efficiency and fast drainage in the advanced stress relaxation zone.On that basis,we further investigated and practiced the exploitation technology of shallow drilling,fan drilling and grid shape drilling at the working face.Practice and our results show that the stress relaxation zone is the ideal region for quick and efficient extraction of gas.By means of an integrated extraction technology,the amount of gas emitted into the zone was greatly reduced,while the risk of dangerous outbursts of coal and gas was lowered markedly.This exploration provides a new way to control for gas in working faces of coal mines with low permeability and risk of gas outbursts of single coal seams in the Jiaozuo mining area.

  1. The mining and burning of coal: effects on health and the environment.

    Castleden, William M; Shearman, David; Crisp, George; Finch, Philip


    Australia's coal conundrum is that all political parties say they are concerned about climate change while sanctioning an unprecedented expansion of coalmining and coal seam gas extraction in Australia. Australia's coal contributes to climate change and its global health impacts. Each phase of coal's lifecycle (mining, disposal of contaminated water and tailings, transportation, washing, combustion, and disposing of postcombustion wastes) produces pollutants that affect human health. Communities in which coalmining or burning occurs have been shown to suffer significant health impacts. The health and climate costs of coal are unseen, and when costs to health systems are included, coal is an expensive fuel.

  2. Applying Rock Engineering Systems (RES approach to Evaluate and Classify the Coal Spontaneous Combustion Potential in Eastern Alborz Coal Mines

    Amir Saffari


    Full Text Available Subject analysis of the potential of spontaneous combustion in coal layers with analytical and numerical methods has been always considered as a difficult task because of the complexity of the coal behavior and the number of factors influencing it. Empirical methods, due to accounting for certain and specific factors, have not accuracy and efficiency for all positions. The Rock Engineering Systems (RES approach as a systematic method for analyzing and classifying is proposed in engineering projects. The present study is concerned with employing the RES approach to categorize coal spontaneous combustion in coal regions. Using this approach, the interaction of parameters affecting each other in an equal scale on the coal spontaneous combustion was evaluated. The Intrinsic, geological and mining characteristics of coal seams were studied in order to identifying important parameters. Then, the main stages of implementation of the RES method i.e. interaction matrix formation, coding matrix and forming a list category were performed. Later, an index of Coal Spontaneous Combustion Potential (CSCPi was determined to format the mathematical equation. Then, the obtained data related to the intrinsic, geological and mining, and special index were calculated for each layer in the case study (Pashkalat coal region, Iran. So, the study offers a perfect and comprehensive classification of the layers. Finally, by using the event of spontaneous combustion occurred in Pashkalat coal region, an initial validation for this systematic approach in the study area was conducted, which suggested relatively good concordance in Pashkalat coal region.

  3. Fault Diagnosis Approach of Local Ventilation System in Coal Mines Based on Multidisciplinary Technology

    GONG Xiao-yan; XUE He; TAO Xin-li; HU Ning


    In order to reduce the probability of fault occurrence of local ventilation system in coal mine and prevent gas from exceeding the standard limit, an approach incorporating the reliability analysis, rough set theory, genetic algorithm (GA), and intelligent decision support system (IDSS) was used to establish and develop a fault diagnosis system of local ventilation in coal mine. Fault tree model was established and its reliability analysis was performed. The algorithms and software of key fault symptom and fault diagnosis rule acquiring were also analyzed and developed. Finally, a prototype system was developed and demonstrated by a mine instance. The research results indicate that the proposed approach in this paper can accurately and quickly find the fault reason in a local ventilation system of coal mines and can reduce difficulty of the fault diagnosis of the local ventilation system, which is significant to decrease gas exploding accidents in coal mines.

  4. Evaluation of remediation of coal mining wastewater by chitosan microspheres using biomarkers

    Benassi, J.C.; Laus, R.; Geremias, R.; Lima, P.L.; Menezes, C.T.B.; Laranjeira, M.C.M.; Wilhelm, D.; Favere, V.T.; Pedrosa, R.C. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil)


    The aim of this work was to evaluate the remediation of mining wastewater effluents by chitosan microspheres using biomarkers of exposure and effect. DNA damage (Comet assay) and several biomarkers of oxidative stress, such as lipoperoxidation levels (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, and contents of reduced glutathione (GSH), were measured in blood and liver of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed for 7, 15, and 30 days to dechlorinated tap water, 10% coal mining wastewater (CMW), and coal mining wastewater treated with chitosan microspheres (RCM). The results obtained indicated that the use of oxidative stress biomarkers were useful tools for the toxicity evaluation of coal mining effluents and also suggest that chitosan microspheres may be used as an alternative approach for remediation of coal mining wastewaters.

  5. Study on comprehensive gas control techniques and practice in coal mines

    LUO Yong; QI Qi


    The origins and main control methods of gas in coal seams were introduced cursorily, and the processes that need to be done in controlling gas, which includes prediction of gas emissions, drainage systems, the means of prevention of gas outbursts, and some suggestions were put forward. The characteristic of different gas emissions and the corresponding counter measures were presented, and a case study of simultaneous extraction of coal and gas in Xieyi Coal Mine was carried out by coal mining and gas extraction without coal-pillar. The field application shows that gas drainage ratio in panel 5121(0) averages about 90% and reaches as high as 95%, which will give beneficial references to gas control in coal mines.

  6. Risk monitoring and early-warning technology of coal mine production

    CAO Qing-gui; ZHANG Hua; LIU Ji-kun; LIU Xiao-rong


    This article was written according to the security information theory and the security cybernetics basic principle, for reducing the accident risk effectively and safeguarding the production safety in coal mine. First, each kind of risk characteristic has carried on the earnest analysis to the coal-mining production process. Then it proposed entire wrap technology system of the risk management and the risk monitoring early warning in the coal-mining production process, and developed the application software-coal mine risk monitoring and the early warning system which runs on the local area network. The coal-mining production risk monitoring and early warning technology system includes risk information gathering, risk identification and management, risk information transmission;saving and analysis, early warning prompt of accident risk, safety dynamic monitoring, and safety control countermeasure and so on. The article specifies implementation method and step of this technology system, and introduces application situations in cooperating mine enterprise, e.g. Xiezhuang coal mine. It may supply the risk management and the accident prevention work of each kind of mine reference.

  7. Development of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for the utilization of coal mine gas

    Groß, B.; Blum, L.; de Haart, L. G. J.; Dengel, A.

    Apart from natural gas there is another important natural source of methane. The so-called coal mine gas is a by-product of the geochemical process of the carbonization of sediments from marsh woods of the Earth's Carboniferous Period. Methane evaporates from the coal and has to be removed out of the active mines where it represents one of the main safety risks. Methane also evaporates in abandoned coal mines. In the federal state Saarland in Germany exists above ground a more than 110 km pipeline for the drained coal mine gas from 12 different sources. The content of methane varies between 25 and 90%, the oxygen content (from air) is in the range up to 10%. This wide range or variation, respectively, of fuel and oxygen content, causes a lot of problems for the use in conventional engines. Therefore the company Evonik New Energies GmbH is interested in using SOFC with coal mine gas as efficient as possible to produce electric power. For that purpose at Forschungszentrum Jülich the available SOFC technology was adapted to the use with coal mine gas and a test facility was designed to operate an SOFC stack (approximately 2 kW electrical power output) together with a pre-reformer. This paper presents the results of the coal mine gas analysis and the effect on the pre-reformer and the fuel cell. The composition of the coal mine gas was determined by means of micro-gas chromatography. The results obtained from preliminary tests using synthetic and real coal mine gas on the pre-reformer and on the fuel cell are discussed.

  8. Key technologies and equipment for a fully mechanized top-coal caving operation with a large mining height at ultra-thick coal seams

    Jinhua Wang; Bin Yu; Hongpu Kang; Guofa Wang; Debing Mao; Yuntao Liang; Pengfei Jiang


    Thick and ultra-thick coal seams are main coal seams for high production rate and high efficiency in Chinese coal mines, which accounts for 44%of the total minable coal reserve. A fully mechanized top-coal caving mining method is a main underground coal extraction method for ultra-thick coal seams. The coal extraction technologies for coal seams less than 14 m thick were extensively used in China. However, for coal seams with thickness greater than 14 m, there have been no reported cases in the world for underground mechanical extraction with safe performance, high efficiency and high coal recovery ratio. To deal with this case, China Coal Technology&Engineering Group, Datong Coal Mine Group, and other 15 organizations in China launched a fundamental and big project to develop coal mining technologies and equipment for coal seams with thicknesses greater than 14 m. After the completion of the project, a coal extraction method was developed for top-coal caving with a large mining height, as well as a ground control theory for ultra-thick coal seams. In addition, the mining technology for top-coal caving with a large mining height, the ground support technology for roadway in coal seams with a large cross-section, and the prevention and control technology for gas and fire hazards were developed and applied. Furthermore, a hydraulic support with a mining height of 5.2 m, a shearer with high reliability, and auxiliary equipment were developed and manufactured. Practical implication on the technologies and equipment developed was successfully completed at the No. 8105 coal face in the Tashan coal mine, Datong, China. The major achievements of the project are summarized as follows:1. A top-coal caving method for ultra-thick coal seams is proposed with a cutting height of 5 m and a top-coal caving height of 15 m. A structural mechanical model of overlying strata called cantilever beam-articulated rock beam is established. Based on the model, the load resistance of the

  9. Numerical Investigation of the Dynamic Mechanical State of a Coal Pillar During Longwall Mining Panel Extraction

    Wang, Hongwei; Jiang, Yaodong; Zhao, Yixin; Zhu, Jie; Liu, Shuai


    This study presents a numerical investigation on the dynamic mechanical state of a coal pillar and the assessment of the coal bump risk during extraction using the longwall mining method. The present research indicates that there is an intact core, even when the peak pillar strength has been exceeded under uniaxial compression. This central portion of the coal pillar plays a significant role in its loading capacity. In this study, the intact core of the coal pillar is defined as an elastic core. Based on the geological conditions of a typical longwall panel from the Tangshan coal mine in the City of Tangshan, China, a numerical fast Lagrangian analysis of continua in three dimensions (FLAC3D) model was created to understand the relationship between the volume of the elastic core in a coal pillar and the vertical stress, which is considered to be an important precursor to the development of a coal bump. The numerical results suggest that, the wider the coal pillar, the greater the volume of the elastic core. Therefore, a coal pillar with large width may form a large elastic core as the panel is mined, and the vertical stress is expected to be greater in magnitude. Because of the high stresses and the associated stored elastic energy, the risk of coal bumps in a coal pillar with large width is greater than for a coal pillar with small width. The results of the model also predict that the peak abutment stress occurs near the intersection between the mining face and the roadways at a distance of 7.5 m from the mining face. It is revealed that the bump-prone zones around the longwall panel are within 7-10 m ahead of the mining face and near the edge of the roadway during panel extraction.

  10. Safety Psychology Applicating on Coal Mine Safety Management Based on Information System

    Hou, Baoyue; Chen, Fei

    In recent years, with the increase of intensity of coal mining, a great number of major accidents happen frequently, the reason mostly due to human factors, but human's unsafely behavior are affected by insecurity mental control. In order to reduce accidents, and to improve safety management, with the help of application security psychology, we analyse the cause of insecurity psychological factors from human perception, from personality development, from motivation incentive, from reward and punishment mechanism, and from security aspects of mental training , and put forward countermeasures to promote coal mine safety production,and to provide information for coal mining to improve the level of safety management.

  11. Neuronet Modelling of the Processes of Budgeting and Use of Labour Resources at Coal Mining Enterprises

    Hlіnska Olha M.


    Full Text Available The article considers issues of efficient budgeting and use of labour resources at coal mining enterprises. It proves expediency of use of modern neuronet, namely, multilayer perceptron, for solution of tasks of modelling the process of budgeting and use of labour resources at coal mining enterprises. It shows that Statistika is the best software package for creation of neuronets of the multilayer perceptron architecture. On the basis of analysis and comparative characteristic the article selects the topology and builds a neuronet model of budgeting and use of labour resources at coal mining enterprises.

  12. Neural Network Based Algorithm and Simulation of Information Fusion in the Coal Mine


    The concepts of information fusion and the basic principles of neural networks are introduced.Neural networks were introduced as a way of building an information fusion model in a coal mine monitoring system.This assures the accurate transmission of the multi-sensor information that comes from the coal mine monitoring systems.The information fusion mode was analyzed.An algorithm was designed based on this analysis and some simulation results were given.Finally, conclusions that could provide auxiliary decision making information to the coal mine dispatching officers were presented.

  13. Water quality of coal deposits and abandoned mines, Saginaw County, Michigan

    Handy, A.H.


    Coal was last mined in Saginaw County, Michigan in 1950. Water from abandoned mines and from undisturbed coal-bearing beds in the Saginaw Formation is highly mineralized and contains high concentrations of iron. Compared to streams in the area, the water contains higher concentrations of at least 15 constituents including boron, phenol, lithium, strontium, and manganese. Water from abandoned mines and coal-bearing beds is a poor source of water for domestic, public, or agricultural uses. Large amounts of this highly mineralized ground water reaching local streams would have a deleterious effect on surface-water quality.

  14. Long-term liablities of coal mining; Ewigkeitslasten im Kohlenbergbau

    Frenz, Walter (ed.) [GDMB Gesellschaft der Metallurgen und Bergleute e.V., Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)


    The closer the end of coal mining in 2018, the more the issue of groundwater re-emergence in the Ruhr area is also being considered. This is especially the case because currently the subject of restitution and liability issues in the area of contaminated sites of the peaceful use of nuclear energy is discussed. In addition, the companies concerned lost considerable value on the stock market. For this reason, the question of whether the financial provisions in the created foundation are sufficient to shoulder the expected responsibilities and measures also arises with regard to coal mining. The question is which measures are to be taken and where damages can occur. Additional impulses are given by the Meggen judgment of the BVerwG of 18.12.2014, which interpreted the responsibility of the mining companies very widely. In the Rhineland, an earthquake hit 2.4 on 22.12.2015 - probably due to a rise in groundwater around the closed opencast mine Bergheim. All these questions are included in the colloquium on economics and environmental law on 26 January 2016. This also includes experiences and problems from other federal states such as Brandenburg and Saxony. [German] Je naeher das Ende des Steinkohlenbergbaus 2018 rueckt, desto eher geraet auch die Frage des Grundwasserwiederanstiegs im Ruhrgebiet ins Blickfeld. Das gilt zumal deshalb, weil aktuell ueber Rueckstellung und Haftungsfragen im Bereich der Altlasten der friedlichen Nutzung der Kernenergie diskutiert wird. Zudem verloren die betroffenen Gesellschaften an der Boerse erheblich an Wert. Daher stellt sich auch in Bezug auf den Steinkohlenbergbau die Frage, ob die finanziellen Rueckstellungen in der geschaffenen Stiftung ausreichen, um die zu erwartenden Verantwortlichkeiten und Massnahmen schultern zu koennen. Vorgelagert ist die Frage, welche Massnahmen zu ergreifen sind und wo Schaeden auftreten koennen. Zusaetzliche Impulse bekommt diese Frage durch das Meggen-Urteil des BVerwG vom 18.12.2014, welches die

  15. Relations between health indicators and residential proximity to coal mining in West Virginia

    Hendryx, M.; Ahern, M.M. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. for Community Medicine


    We used data from a survey of 16493 West Virginians merged with county-level coal production and other covariates to investigate the relations between health indicators and residential proximity to coal mining. Results of hierarchical analyses indicated that high levels of coal production were associated with worse adjusted health status and with higher rates of cardiopulmonary disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, lung disease, and kidney disease. Research is recommended to ascertain the mechanisms, magnitude, and consequences of a community coal-mining exposure effect.

  16. Identifying Catchment-Scale Predictors of Coal Mining Impacts on New Zealand Stream Communities

    Clapcott, Joanne E.; Goodwin, Eric O.; Harding, Jon S.


    Coal mining activities can have severe and long-term impacts on freshwater ecosystems. At the individual stream scale, these impacts have been well studied; however, few attempts have been made to determine the predictors of mine impacts at a regional scale. We investigated whether catchment-scale measures of mining impacts could be used to predict biological responses. We collated data from multiple studies and analyzed algae, benthic invertebrate, and fish community data from 186 stream sites, including un-mined streams, and those associated with 620 mines on the West Coast of the South Island, New Zealand. Algal, invertebrate, and fish richness responded to mine impacts and were significantly higher in un-mined compared to mine-impacted streams. Changes in community composition toward more acid- and metal-tolerant species were evident for algae and invertebrates, whereas changes in fish communities were significant and driven by a loss of nonmigratory native species. Consistent catchment-scale predictors of mining activities affecting biota included the time post mining (years), mining density (the number of mines upstream per catchment area), and mining intensity (tons of coal production per catchment area). Mining was associated with a decline in stream biodiversity irrespective of catchment size, and recovery was not evident until at least 30 years after mining activities have ceased. These catchment-scale predictors can provide managers and regulators with practical metrics to focus on management and remediation decisions.

  17. Post-mining policies and practices in the Eastern USA coal region

    Jeff Skousen; Carl E. Zipper


    Surface coal mines prior to 1950 in the USA were generally left without any reclamation. As government regulations advanced since then, mine operators were required to backfill the area and plant grasses or trees. After the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) was passed in 1977 in the USA, mine operators were required to conduct pre-mining analyses of the site and to designate a land use that could be achieved after mining. Successful reclamation, as needed to satisfy today’s societal demands, requires engineering, design, and purposeful reconstruction of the full mining disturbance, not just its surface, and control of waters leaving the mine site. Effective reclamation on modern American coal mines is fully integrated with the mining operation. A suitable and effective post-mining land use that is sustainable for future generations is crucial to the long-term success and profitability of the mining business and to the future economic benefits of the landowner. Accepted post-mining land uses in the USA are:(1) prime farmland, (2) hay land and pasture, (3) biofuel crops, (4) forestry, (5) wildlife habitat, and (6) building site development. Policies and regulations for each post-mining land use were developed and practices to achieve successful and sustainable land uses were established. Post-mining conditions should provide ecosystem services and produce lands capable of supporting societal needs in the future.

  18. Effects of Poisonous and Harmful Elements Brought about by Coal Mining on Water Environment in Zibo Coal Mine, Shandong Province, China


    Coal resources are very abundant in Zibo, Shandong Province, China. A lot of mining sewages are discharged during the coal mining. The mining sewage is characterized by high ρ(SO2-4), hardness and totally dissolved solids (TDS). Mining sewage in the southern Zibo is acidic, where heavy metals and benzene are detected. The Xiaofu River is polluted when mining sewage flows into it, so that the Mengshan Reservoir is polluted by Xiaofu River. The groundwater is polluted in Zichuan by the leaking of the Xiaofu River. The polluted Xiaofu River is thus used to irrigate the farmland in Mashang-Mengshui zone. The irrigation water affects the quality of shallow groundwater. The laboratory soil column test shows that SO2-4, CI- , Ca2+ and Mg2+ can migrate through vadose soil, especially SO2-4 and CI-.

  19. Integrated positioning for coal mining machinery in enclosed underground mine based on SINS/WSN.

    Fan, Qigao; Li, Wei; Hui, Jing; Wu, Lei; Yu, Zhenzhong; Yan, Wenxu; Zhou, Lijuan


    To realize dynamic positioning of the shearer, a new method based on SINS/WSN is studied in this paper. Firstly, the shearer movement model is built and running regularity of the shearer in coal mining face has been mastered. Secondly, as external calibration of SINS using GPS is infeasible in enclosed underground mine, WSN positioning strategy is proposed to eliminate accumulative error produced by SINS; then the corresponding coupling model is established. Finally, positioning performance is analyzed by simulation and experiment. Results show that attitude angle and position of the shearer can be real-timely tracked by integrated positioning strategy based on SINS/WSN, and positioning precision meet the demand of actual working condition.

  20. Integrated Positioning for Coal Mining Machinery in Enclosed Underground Mine Based on SINS/WSN

    Qigao Fan


    Full Text Available To realize dynamic positioning of the shearer, a new method based on SINS/WSN is studied in this paper. Firstly, the shearer movement model is built and running regularity of the shearer in coal mining face has been mastered. Secondly, as external calibration of SINS using GPS is infeasible in enclosed underground mine, WSN positioning strategy is proposed to eliminate accumulative error produced by SINS; then the corresponding coupling model is established. Finally, positioning performance is analyzed by simulation and experiment. Results show that attitude angle and position of the shearer can be real-timely tracked by integrated positioning strategy based on SINS/WSN, and positioning precision meet the demand of actual working condition.

  1. Width design for gobs and isolated coal pillars based on overall burst-instability prevention in coal mines

    Junfei Zhang; Fuxing Jiang; Sitao Zhu; Lei Zhang


    An investigation was conducted on the overall burst-instability of isolated coal pillars by means of the possibility index diagnosis method (PIDM). First, the abutment pressure calculation model of the gob in side direction was established to derive the abutment pressure distribution curve of the isolated coal pillar. Second, the overall burst-instability ratio of the isolated coal pillars was defined. Finally, the PIDM was utilized to judge the possibility of overall burst-instability and recoverability of isolated coal pillars. The results show that an overall burst-instability may occur due to a large gob width or a small pillar width. If the width of the isolated coal pillar is not large enough, the shallow coal seam will be damaged at first, and then the high abutment pressure will be transferred to the deep coal seam, which may cause an overall burst-instability accident. This approach can be adopted to design widths of gobs and isolated coal pillars and to evaluate whether an existing isolated coal pillar is recoverable in skip-mining mines.

  2. Gas seepage equation of deep mined coal seams and its application

    HU Guo-zhong; WANG Hong-tu; TAN Hai-xiang; FAN Xiao-gang; YUAN Zhi-gang


    In order to obtain a gas seepage law of deep mined coal seams, according to the properties of eoalbed methane seepage in in-situ stress and geothermal temperature fields, the gas seepage equation of deep mined coal seams with the Klinkenberg effect was obtained by confirming the coalbed methane permeability in in-situ stress and geothermal temperature fields. Aimed at the condition in which the coal seams have or do not have an outcrop and outlet on the ground, the application of the gas seepage equation of deep mined coal seams in in-situ stress and geothermal temperature fields on the gas pressure calculation of deep mined coal seams was investigated. The comparison between calculated and measured results indicates that the calculation method of gas pressure, based on the gas seepage equation of deep mined coal seams in in-situ stress and geothermal temperature fields can accurately be identical with the measured values and theoretically perfect the calculation method of gas pressure of deep mined coal seams.

  3. Estimation of radon concentrations in coal mines using a hybrid technique calibration curve.

    Jamil, K; Ali, S


    The results of epidemiological studies in various countries show that radon and its progeny cause carcinogenic effects on mine workers. Therefore, it becomes of paramount importance to monitor radon concentrations and consequently determine the radon dose rates in coal mines for the protection of coal miners. A new calibration curve was obtained for radon concentration estimation using hybrid techniques. A calibration curve was generated using 226Ra activity concentration measured by a HPGe detector-based gamma-ray spectrometer versus alpha-track-density rate due to radon and its progeny on CR-39 track detector. Using the slope of the experimentally determined curve in the units of Becqueral per kilogram (Bq kg-1) per unit alpha-track-density per hour (cm-2 h-1), radon concentrations (Bq m-3) were estimated using coal samples from various coal mines in two provinces of Pakistan, Punjab and Balochistan. Consequently, radon dose rates were computed in the simulated environment of the coal mines. Results of these computations may be considered with a caveat that the method developed in this paper provides only a screening method to indicate the radon dose in coal mines. It has been shown that the actual measurements of radon concentrations in the coal mines are in agreement with the estimated radon concentrations using the hybrid-technique calibration curve.

  4. Suitable retention and recovery technology of floor coal at ends of fully mechanized face with great mining heights

    Zhang Nenghu; WU Qi; Yuan Yong; Bai Qingsheng


    Gateways at faces of great mining heights are mostly driven along the roof of coal seams. For gateway height restrictions, a 1-3 m floor coal is retained, leaving a triangular floor coal at the face ends, causing a loss of coal. In order to improve coal recovery rates and to ensure efficiency of equipment at coal mining faces, we investigated suitable retention methods and recovery technology of floor coal at face ends. The upper floor coal can directly be recovered by a shearer with floor dinting. The lower floor coal is recovered by shearer with floor dinting after advanced floor dinting and retaining a step for protecting coal sides in a haulage gateway. Field practice shows that this method can improve the coal recovery rates at fully mechanized working faces with great mining heights.

  5. Economical Optimization of the Mechanized Longwall Faces with Top Coal Caving Mining, In Horizontal Slices

    Onica, Ilie; Mihăilescu, Viorel; Andrioni, Felicia


    To increase the economic and technical performances of the Jiu Valley hard coal mines, the top coal caving, in horizontal slices, mining methods (Bourbaki methods) were introduced, adapted to the local geo-mining conditions. This mining was successfully experimented by using classical technology, using the individual supports and coal blasting. In the future, it is planned to adopt the mechanized technology, with frame supports and shearers. The mechanized longwall faces with top coal caving mining, in horizontal slices, of coal seam no. 3 could be efficient only if the sizes of the top coal height and the panel length determine a minimum cost of production. Therefore, the goal of this paper is the optimization of these parameters, from a technical and economic point of view, taking into account the general model of the cost function, at the panel level. For that, it was necessary to make a certain sequence of analysis involving: technological unit establishment, purpose function and optimizing model. Thus, there attaining to the mathematical model of the unit cost, after determination of all the individual calculation articles, regarding the preparatory workings, coal face equipments, materials, energy, workforce, etc. Because of the complexity of the obtained technical and economic model, to determine the optimum sizes of the panel length and top coal height, it was necessary to archive a sensitivity analysis of the unit cost function to the main parameters implied into this mathematical model.

  6. USGS compilation of geographic information system (GIS) data representing coal mines and coal-bearing areas in China

    Trippi, Michael H.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Dai, Shifeng; Tewalt, Susan J.; Chou, Chiu-Jung; Trippi, Michael H.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Dai, Shifeng; Tewalt, Susan J.; Chou, Chiu-Jung


    Geographic information system (GIS) information may facilitate energy studies, which in turn provide input for energy policy decisions. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled geographic information system (GIS) data representing the known coal mine locations and coal-mining areas of China as of 2001. These data are now available for download, and may be used in a GIS for a variety of energy resource and environmental studies of China. Province-scale maps were also created to display the point locations of coal mines and the coal-mining areas. In addition, coal-field outlines from a previously published map by Dai and others (2012) were also digitized and are available for download as a separate GIS data file, and shown in a nation-scale map of China. Chemical data for 332 coal samples from a previous USGS study of China and Taiwan (Tewalt and others, 2010) are included in a downloadable GIS point shapefile, and shown on a nation-scale map of China. A brief report summarizes the methodology used for creation of the shapefiles and the chemical analyses run on the samples.

  7. The use of sulphate-reducing bacteria in bioremediation of ex-coal mining soil



    Full Text Available The most serious impact after exploiting coal by opened peat mining is acid mine drainage phenomenon. This is an oxidation of sulphide minerals by releasing sulphate that generate the environment acidity. This study was aimed to observe the ability of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB isolated of sludge paper mills in decreasing the ex-coal mining sulphate content. Before inoculating onto the soil, SRB was incubated in the sterilized organic matter for 4 days. Organic matter inhabited SRB mix with ex-coal mining soil (1:3 v/v. As a control was a series ex-coal mining mixed with non inoculated organic matter (1:3 v/v. The experiment is carried out in randomized complete design in 3 replications, each consist of 5 buckets. All buckets were maintained in saturated water content. Every 5 days for 20 days the sulphate content, pH and Eh were assessed to observe the bioremediation progress. The result shown that SRB was able to reduce 84.25% ex-coal mining sulphate content in 20 days. In consequence, the soil pH was increased from 4.15 to 6.66 during the process. It is recommended that SRB is prospective to be further developed as a sulphate bioremediation agents on ex-coal mining soil.

  8. Applicable conditions for a classification system of aquifer-protective mining in hallow coal seams

    Liu Yude; Zhang Dongsheng; Fan Gangwei; Yan Shoufeng


    Based on the conclusions of domestic and foreign research,we have analyzed the collapse-fall characteristics of overlying strata and the mechanism of aquifer-protective mining in shallow coal seam working faces at the Shendong Mine.We have selected the height of the water-conducting fracture zone in overlying strata as a composite index and established the applicable conditions of aquifer-protective mining in shallow coal seams with a multi-factor synthetic-index classification method.From our calculations and analyses of variance,we used factors such as the overlying strata strength,mining disturbing factors and rock integrity as related factors of the composite index.We have classified the applicable conditions of aquifer-protective mining in shallow coal seams into seven types by comparing the result of the height of water-conducting fractured zones of long-wall and short-wall working faces with the thickness of the bedrock.the thickness of the weathered zone and the size of safety coal-rock pillars.As a result,we propose the preliminary classification system of aquifer-protective mining in shallow coal seams.It can provide a theoretical guidance for safe applications of aquifer-protective mining technology in shallow coal seams under similar conditions.

  9. Thermal load at workstations in the underground coal mining: Results of research carried out in 6 coal mines

    Krzysztof Słota


    Full Text Available Background: Statistics shows that almost half of Polish extraction in underground mines takes place at workstations where temperature exceeds 28°C. The number of employees working in such conditions is gradually increasing, therefore, the problem of safety and health protection is still growing. Material and Methods: In the present study we assessed the heat load of employees at different workstations in the mining industry, taking into account current thermal conditions and work costs. The evaluation of energy cost of work was carried out in 6 coal mines. A total of 221 miners employed at different workstations were assessed. Individual groups of miners were characterized and thermal safety of the miners was assessed relying on thermal discomfort index. Results: The results of this study indicate considerable differences in the durations of analyzed work processes at individual workstations. The highest average energy cost was noted during the work performed in the forehead. The lowest value was found in the auxiliary staff. The calculated index of discomfort clearly indicated numerous situations in which the admissible range of thermal load exceeded the parameters of thermal load safe for human health. It should be noted that the values of average labor cost fall within the upper, albeit admissible, limits of thermal load. Conclusions: The results of the study indicate that in some cases work in mining is performed in conditions of thermal discomfort. Due to high variability and complexity of work conditions it becomes necessary to verify the workers’ load at different workstations, which largely depends on the environmental conditions and work organization, as well as on the performance of workers themselves. Med Pr 2016;67(4:477–498

  10. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to fracture related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry. [Indiana

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Russell, O. R.; Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T. V.


    The author has identified the following significant results. New fracture detail of Indiana has been observed and mapped from ERTS-1 imagery. Studies so far indicate a close relationship between the directions of fracture traces mapped from the imagery, fractures measured on bedrock outcrops, and fractures measured in the underground mines. First hand observations and discussions with underground mine operators indicate good correlation of mine hazard maps prepared from ERTS-1/aircraft imagery and actual roof falls. The inventory of refuse piles/slurry ponds of the coal field of Indiana has identified over 225 such sites from past mining operations. These data will serve the State Legislature in making tax decisions on coal mining which take on increased importance because of the energy crisis.

  11. Determination of Abutment Pressure in Coal Mines with Extremely Thick Alluvium Stratum: A Typical Kind of Rockburst Mines in China

    Zhu, Sitao; Feng, Yu; Jiang, Fuxing


    This paper investigates the abutment pressure distribution in coal mines with extremely thick alluvium stratum (ETAS), which is a typical kind of mines encountering frequent intense rockbursts in China. This occurs due to poor understanding to abutment pressure distribution pattern and the consequent inappropriate mine design. In this study, a theoretical computational model of abutment pressure for ETAS longwall panels is proposed based on the analysis of load transfer mechanisms of key stratum (KS) and ETAS. The model was applied to determine the abutment pressure distribution of LW2302S in Xinjulong Coal Mine; the results of stress and microseismic monitoring verified the rationality of this model. The calculated abutment pressure of LW2302S was also used in the terminal mining line design of LW2301N for rockburst prevention, successfully protecting the main roadway from the adverse influence of the abutment pressure.

  12. Landscape transformation of surface-mined areas in North Bohemian coal basin

    Lorencova, H.; Kaspar, J. [MUS Coal Mining Company j.s.c., Most (Czech Republic)


    Northern Bohemia is the area worst affected by opencast brown coal mining but also the area with good reclamation of damaged land. MUS Coal Mining Company focuses reclaiming activity on restoration of forests, parks or water landscapes to agricultural use. This paper presents two case studies of post-mining activities. First, at the Most opencast mine after early closure, where a lake of 325 ha will be created. Secondly, reclamation of Velebudice overburden waste dump where the main reclamation objective was to establish a hippodrome (82 ha). 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Recent advances in remote coal mining machine sensing, guidance, and teleoperation

    Ralston, J.C.; Hainsworth, D.W.; Reid, D.C.; Anderson, D.L.; McPhee, R.J. [CSIRO Exploration & Minerals, Kenmore, Qld. (Australia)


    Some recent applications of sensing, guidance and telerobotic technology in the coal mining industry are presented. Of special interest is the development of semi or fully autonomous systems to provide remote guidance and communications for coal mining equipment. The use of radar and inertial based sensors are considered in an attempt to solve the horizontal and lateral guidance problems associated with mining equipment automation. Also described is a novel teleoperated robot vehicle with unique communications capabilities, called the Numbat, which is used in underground mine safety and reconnaissance missions.

  14. Grizzly bear diet shifting on reclaimed mines

    Bogdan Cristescu


    Full Text Available Industrial developments and reclamation change habitat, possibly altering large carnivore food base. We monitored the diet of a low-density population of grizzly bears occupying a landscape with open-pit coal mines in Canada. During 2009–2010 we instrumented 10 bears with GPS radiocollars and compared their feeding on reclaimed coal mines and neighboring Rocky Mountains and their foothills. In addition, we compared our data with historical bear diet for the same population collected in 2001–2003, before extensive mine reclamation occurred. Diet on mines (n=331 scats was dominated by non-native forbs and graminoids, while diets in the Foothills and Mountains consisted primarily of ungulates and Hedysarum spp. roots respectively, showing diet shifting with availability. Field visitation of feeding sites (n=234 GPS relocation clusters also showed that ungulates were the main diet component in the Foothills, whereas on reclaimed mines bears were least carnivorous. These differences illustrate a shift to feeding on non-native forbs while comparisons with historical diet reveal emergence of elk as an important bear food. Food resources on reclaimed mines attract bears from wilderness areas and bears may be more adaptable to landscape change than previously thought. The grizzly bear’s ready use of mines cautions the universal view of this species as umbrella indicative of biodiversity.

  15. Selected aspects of disability pensions in black coal mining

    Nowak, K.; Tausz, K. (Glowny Instytut Gornictwa, Katowice (Poland))


    Discusses structure of disability pensions of black coal miners in Poland. A group of 2,950 miners was analyzed in 1987; 1,782 were miners who worked underground. Age structure of disabled miners who worked underground was the following: 17-21 years 1.2%, 22-26 years 7.5%, 27-31 years 11.3%, 32-36 years 16.7%, 37-41 years 17.5%, 42-46 years 20.3%, 47-51 years 16.7%, 52-56 years 6.5%, over 57 years 2.3%. Occupational structure of disabled miners was the following: 45.5% worked at working faces, 29.5% in mine haulage, 9.3% in repair shops, 3.0% in mine shafts, 6.0% at other working places. In 57% of cases the disability was preceded by sickness 91-180 days long, in 38.5% of cases by sickness longer than 180 days. Disease structure was the following: 27.0% blood circulation, 12.6% diseases of osseous or muscular system, 12.8% effects of occupational traumatism or intoxication.

  16. Noise propagation characteristics of underground equipment in coal mines

    CHENG Gen-yin; WEI Zhi-yong; XU Ming; ZHU Yan-yan


    On the basis of the survey of underground noise in Jinggezhuang and Donghuantuo mines,Kailuan Group,noise radiation intensity,noise propagation properties and noise frequency-spectrum characteristics of underground equipment were studied at different work conditions.The result indicates that the noise source intensity surpasses the noise limit requirement of 85 dBA completely.Nearly 70% noise sources exceed the noise limit of 90 dBA,and some are over 100 dBA.Noise attenuation in semi-free field environment on the ground is significantly different from underground far-field environment of noise source in coal mines.Noise of these regions,where staffs are long and highly concentrated,exceeds 85 dBA,the basic noise limit.The noise frequency-spectrum presents the wideband characteristics.Especially in the main frequency of the language communication 500,1 000 and 2 000 Hz,the octave band of noise performs obviously.

  17. Unattached fraction of radon progeny in Polish coal mines

    Skubacz, K.; Chalupnik, S. [Central Mining Institute, Katowice (Poland). Laboratory of Radiometry


    The system of the monitoring of the radiation hazard in Polish underground mines is based on the monitoring of the workplaces. As the routine instrument, a device called ALFA-31is used to measure the radon progeny concentration in air. This unit proceeds together with the cyclone, the separator of the respirable fraction in the dust sampler. The cyclone causes the cut-off of unattached fraction of the short lived radon progeny that can play a very important role in the investigations of the adequate dose from this source of radiation hazard. Measurements of the unattached fraction were done with help of the alpha spectroscopy system and special kind of metal grids called diffusion battery screens that are designated to separate the unattached fraction. Results of the survey show that the average ratio of unattached to attached fractions is at level 3-5% in Polish coal mines. But it may cause the significant increase in the dose equivalent, due to these calculations at least 15-20% in comparison with dose equivalent caused by attached fraction 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Wetlands and coal surface mining: a management handbook with particular reference to the Illinois Basin of the Eastern Interior Coal Region. Research report September 1983-September 1984

    Cardamone, M.A.; Taylor, J.R.; Mitsch, W.J.


    The report outlines management operation for protecting wetlands during the surface mining of coal, particularly for the portion of the Eastern Interior Coal Region that is found in Kentucky, Indiana, and Illinois. The main issues addressed in this manual include: basic information for identifying wetlands; wetland values, and methods used for values assessment; how coal mining can affect wetlands; a method for addressing wetland protection needs and some prevention and mitigation actions; reclamation alternatives, including wetland restoration and the creation of wetlands as alternative ecosystems on mined areas; and general legal and regulatory information concerning wetland protection and surface mining of coal.

  19. Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) of faulting and subsidence at an abandoned coal mine in the Walloon Coal Measures, Queensland, Australia

    Brook, Martin; MacDonald-Creevey, Amanda; Smith, Ben


    As urban and suburban areas expand into previously unoccupied sites, the problem of accurately determining the locations of abandoned mine workings and the possible effects of fault reactivation on surface subsidence becomes more important. Here, we present the results of DC electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) surveys above an abandoned coal mine in the Jurassic Walloon Coal Measures of the Clarence-Moreton Basin, Queensland. Objectives were to: (1) locate the surface entrance to a coal mine access shaft, (2) determine the extent of the mine workings, (3) determine if the workings are open, partly- or fully-collapsed, (4) locate the possible existence of a high angle fault delineating the western extent of the workings. Coal seams were mined underground by the bord-and-pillar technique at the site until the first half of the 20th century to within ~20 m of the ground surface. This has led to ground settlement post-abandonment, with an additional hazard of this stress-redistribution being the possible reactivation of steeply-dipping faults known to pervade the coal measures. After an initial site reconnaissance, desktop study and modelling, it was determined that existing mine plans, maps and records were poorly kept and inaccurate, making a satisfactory geotechnical risk assessment prior to land development and construction difficult. The 2D ERI transects, coupled with boreholes, identified lateral zones of moderate-high resistivity that are interpreted to be partly-collapsed workings. The second key feature identified was a reverse fault that delineated the western edge of the mine workings. The key outcome is that for abandoned mine risk assessment to be optimised, careful integration of geophysical data and direct testing needs to be made.

  20. Computer science in the design of hard coal mines in the People's Republic of China

    Blaszke, J.; Mazurek, A.; Pozor, L.; Wrobel, R.


    Reports on the organization of the Main Coal Planning and Design Office at the Ministry of Coal Industry in Beijing. Discusses the principles of coal resource classification in China and a computer-aided method used for this classification. Reviews computer application in mine design in China, the hardware available at the Main Coal Planning and Design Office and the software developed there. Describes the activities of the Computer Center of the Institute of Mining belonging to the Chinese Academy of Mining and the benefits resulting from cooperation along the lines of mine design with the corresponding Main Office of Mine Study and Design in Katowice, Poland.