WorldWideScience

Sample records for open pit mining

  1. Open pit mining of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    The Jackpile--Paquate Mines of the Anaconda Company are on the Laguna Indian Reservation midway between Grants and Albuquerque, New Mexico. The open pit mining of uranium ore at those mines is conducted in three separate operations (stripping, mining, and ore haul)

  2. 5G in Open-Pit Mines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Caldwell, George; Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    5G will play a pivotal role in the digitization of the industrial sector and is expected to make the best use of every bit of spectrum available. In this light, this paper presents the results of an extensive measurement campaign in two iron-ore open-pit mining complexes, at the 700 MHz and 2.6 GHz...... for the future wireless network design, simulation and performance evaluation. The results show that, in order to comply with ultra-reliable communications (URC) availability requirements, larger shadowing margins will have to be considered in the network planning in open-pit mines, when compared to traditional...

  3. Radio Propagation in Open-pit Mines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Caldwell, George; Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of an extensive measurement campaign performed at two large iron ore mining centers in Brazil at the 2.6 GHz band. Although several studies focusing on radio propagation in underground mines have been published, measurement data and careful analyses for open......-pit mines are still scarce. Our results aim at filling this gap in the literature. The research is motivated by the ongoing mine automation initiatives, where connectivity becomes critical. This paper presents the first set of results comprising measurements under a gamut of propagation conditions. A second...... paper detailing sub-GHz propagation is also in preparation. The results indicate that conventional wisdom is wrong, in other words, radio-frequency (RF) propagation in surface mines can be far more elaborate than plain free-space line-of-sight conditions. Additionally, the old mining adage “no two mines...

  4. Millennium Open Pit Mine, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, on the east bank of the Athabasca River, are found the Steepbank and Millennium mines. These open pit mines produce oil sands that are processed to recover bitumen, and then upgrade it to refinery-ready raw crude oil, and diesel fuel. The ASTER images were acquired September 22, 2000 and July 31, 2007, cover an area of 22.5 x 25.5 km, and are located near 57 degrees north latitude, 111.5 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  5. Open Pit Water Control Safety A Case Of Nchanga Open Pit Mine Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Silwamba C; Chileshe P R K

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mining in Chingola Zambia started underground in 1931 and was catastrophically flooded and closed. The present Nchanga Underground Mine NUG started in 1937. The Nchanga Open Pit NOP mine started in 1955 situated to the west of NUG and partially overlying it. Open pit water control safety operations in the Nchanga-Chingola area have successfully enabled the safe extraction of millions of tonnes of copper ore annually over the past 60 years from NUG mining as well as the NOP. At the st...

  6. Open Pit Water Control Safety A Case Of Nchanga Open Pit Mine Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silwamba C

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mining in Chingola Zambia started underground in 1931 and was catastrophically flooded and closed. The present Nchanga Underground Mine NUG started in 1937. The Nchanga Open Pit NOP mine started in 1955 situated to the west of NUG and partially overlying it. Open pit water control safety operations in the Nchanga-Chingola area have successfully enabled the safe extraction of millions of tonnes of copper ore annually over the past 60 years from NUG mining as well as the NOP. At the start Nchanga mining license surface already had NUG and many watershed divides with the Nchanga and Chingola streams being the main streams feeding into Zambias second largest river Kafue river and 42 of the year was characterised by heavy rains ranging between 800mm to 1300mm per annum. In this paper the presence of very significant amounts of seasonal rain and subsurface water in the mining area was identified as both a curse and a blessing. An excess in seasonal rain and subsurface water would disrupt both open pit and underground mining operations. In order for NOP to be operated successfully stable and free from flooding coping water management tactics were adopted from 1955 to 2015 including 1. Underground mine pump chamber pumping system 2. Piezometer instrumented boreholes 3. Underground mine 1500-ft sub-haulage east borehole dewatering beneath the open pit 4. Nchanga and Chingola stream diversionary tunnel and open drains 5. Nchanga stream causeway and embankment dam in the Matero School Golf Club area 6. Pit perimeter borehole pumping 7. Outer and inner pit perimeter drains and bund walls 8. In-pit ramp side drains 9. In-pit sub-horizontal borehole geo-drains and water and 10. Pit bottom sump pumps. Application of grout curtains along the Vistula River Poland was noted as a possibility in the right circumstances although it had never been used at Nchanga Open Pit. An additional conclusion was that forward health safety and environmental end

  7. Ecological geology environmental assessment of open-pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Shuangfa; Jiang Xue

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, there is a detail description of ecological geology environmental assessment of open-pit mines, including method, process and results. We took ecological geology environmental assessment work on the base of the results of some open-pit mines such as extremely low content magnetite in Hebei Province, inducted and summarized the ecological geology environment quality. The results are reasonable. It provides basic data for the second mines programming in Hebei Province. (authors)

  8. Optimal grade control sampling practice in open-pit mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engström, Karin; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2017-01-01

    Misclassification of ore grades results in lost revenues, and the need for representative sampling procedures in open pit mining is increasingly important in all mining industries. This study evaluated possible improvements in sampling representativity with the use of Reverse Circulation (RC) drill...... sampling compared to manual Blast Hole (BH) sampling in the Leveäniemi open pit mine, northern Sweden. The variographic experiment results showed that sampling variability was lower for RC than for BH sampling. However, the total costs for RC drill sampling are significantly exceeding current costs...... for manual BH sampling, which needs to be compensated for by other benefits to motivate introduction of RC drilling. The main conclusion is that manual BH sampling can be fit-for-purpose in the studied open pit mine. However, with so many mineral commodities and mining methods in use globally...

  9. PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT MINE HIGHWALLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposed, open pit mine highwalls contribute significantly to the production of acid mine drainage (AMD) thus causing environmental concerns upon closure of an operating mine. Available information on the generation of AMD from open-pit mine highwalls is very limit...

  10. Proposed open-pit mine threatens Jasper National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikelcic, S.

    1996-12-31

    Concerns by the Sierra Club, the Alberta Wilderness Association, and other environmental groups about the proposed Cheviot Mine are discussed. Cardinal River Coals, which is owned by Luscar Ltd. and Consolidated Coals of Pittsburgh, is proposing the mining operation, which includes 26 deep open pit mines of which 14 will not be backfilled. The mine extends to within 2 km of Jasper National Park`s border. Concerns about the mine include: disruption of an environmentally sensitive area, interference with grizzly bear movement and bighorn sheep habitat and diet, destruction of flora and fauna, and pollution of two major watersheds. Hearings for the mine commence in January 1997.

  11. Standardized emissions inventory methodology for open-pit mining areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Jose I; Camacho, Dumar A; Huertas, Maria E

    2011-08-01

    There is still interest in a unified methodology to quantify the mass of particulate material emitted into the atmosphere by activities inherent to open-pit mining. For the case of total suspended particles (TSP), the current practice is to estimate such emissions by developing inventories based on the emission factors recommended by the USEPA for this purpose. However, there are disputes over the specific emission factors that must be used for each activity and the applicability of such factors to cases quite different to the ones under which they were obtained. There is also a need for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM(10)) emission inventories and for metrics to evaluate the emission control programs implemented by open-pit mines. To address these needs, work was carried out to establish a standardized TSP and PM(10) emission inventory methodology for open-pit mining areas. The proposed methodology was applied to seven of the eight mining companies operating in the northern part of Colombia, home to the one of the world's largest open-pit coal mining operations (∼70 Mt/year). The results obtained show that transport on unpaved roads is the mining activity that generates most of the emissions and that the total emissions may be reduced up to 72% by spraying water on the unpaved roads. Performance metrics were defined for the emission control programs implemented by mining companies. It was found that coal open-pit mines are emitting 0.726 and 0.180 kg of TSP and PM(10), respectively, per ton of coal produced. It was also found that these mines are using on average 1.148 m(2) of land per ton of coal produced per year.

  12. Heavy Duty Tireman. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColman, Don

    This training outline for heavy duty tiremen, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

  13. Front End Loader Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilow, Bill

    This training outline for front end loader operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  14. Mission-Critical Mobile Broadband Communications in Open Pit Mines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uzeda Garcia, Luis Guilherme; Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Barbosa, Viviane S. B.

    2016-01-01

    that need to be met by the wireless network. This article introduces fundamental concepts behind open-pit mining and discusses why this ever changing environment coupled with strict industrial reliability requirements pose unique challenges to traditional broadband network planning and optimization...

  15. Track Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for track dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  16. Rotary Drill Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilow, Bill

    This training outline for rotary drill operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  17. Haulage Truck Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for haulage truck operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  18. Grader Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilow, Bill

    This training outline for grader operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

  19. Rubber Tire Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for rubber tire dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  20. Shovel Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Larry

    This training outline for shovel operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

  1. Measurement of unattached fractions in open-pit uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.; Wise, K.N.

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary set of measurements of the unattached fraction of potential alpha energy was made at the Ranger open pit uranium uranium mine and the Nabarlek uranium mill. The measurement system, which incorporated a parallel plate diffusion battery and diffuse junction detectors, is described. Results for RaA show a wide variation in the unattached fraction. They range up to 0.76 and are higher than corresponding values for underground mining operations

  2. Prediction of the net radon emission from a model open pit uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Perkins, R.W.; Schwendiman, L.C.; Enderlin, W.I.

    1979-04-01

    Radon emission from a model open pit uranium mining operation has been estimated by applying radon exhalation fluxes measured in an open pit uranium mine to the various areas of the model mine. The model mine was defined by averaging uranium concentrations and production and procedural statistics for eight major open pit uranium mines in the Casper, Wyoming area. The resulting emission rates were 740 Ci/AFR during mining operations and 33 Ci/AFR/yr after abandonment of the mine

  3. Situation and development of uranium open-pit mining techniques in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kaiwen.

    1986-01-01

    The situation of uranium open-pit mining techniques in China is described. The main experiences in production and management are introduced. Meanwhile the suggestions about the further development of uranium open-pit mining techniques are also proposed

  4. Equipment size effects on open pit mining performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Bozorgebrahimi; R.A. Hall; M.A. Morin [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Mining Engineering Department

    2005-03-01

    This paper discusses the exploitation of economies of scale in open pit mining through the use of increasingly larger equipment. It presents a method adopted to evaluate the impact of increased scale on operational performance factors. The work identifies equipment size sensitive variables (ESSVs) in the mine design process that affect the performance of the production process. Data from a set of case studies show that the ESSV influence extends beyond mine production to encompass milling performance, environmental footprint and community impacts. Some ESSVs (such as reliability, tyre costs and productivity) are shown to be related to the current state of equipment technology and their effects are therefore comparable for different mines. Other ESSVs relate to the mine and deposit characteristics; their effects therefore vary from mine to mine. A detailed analytical approach, developed to model the impact of ESSVs, suggests that for truck/shovel operations, the industry may be approaching a situation of diseconomies of scale.

  5. Superficial drainage studies in open-pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira Junior, P.B.; Leite, C.B.B.

    1984-01-01

    Drainage studies concerning large open-pit mining projects can be of vital importance throughout the mining activity itself as they may assist in avoiding activity interruptions due to drainage problems, therefore representing substantial savings. These studies should, in fact, be carried out from the initial activity stages and shall be considered in operational, project and planning decisions in order to optimize results and reduce costs. This specific study presents a drainage study systematization proposal, enphasazing economic decision criteria. The authors comment on studies of this nature developed at the Caldas uranium mine - NUCLEBRAS. (D.J.M.) [pt

  6. Radon and aerosol release from open-pit uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.W.; Nielson, K.K.; Mauch, M.L.

    1982-08-01

    The quantity of 222 Rn (hereafter called radon) released per unit of uranium produced from open pit mining has been determined. A secondary objective was to determine the nature and quantity of airborne particles resulting from mine operations. To accomplish these objectives, a comprehensive study of the release rates of radon and aerosol material to the atmosphere was made over a one-year period from April 1979 to May 1980 at the Morton Ranch Mine which was operated by United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) in partnership with Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The mine is now operated for TVA by Silver King Mines. Morton Ranch Mine was one of five open pit uranium mines studied in central Wyoming. Corroborative measurements were made of radon flux and 226 Ra (hereafter called radium) concentrations of various surfaces at three of the other mines in October 1980 and again at these three mines plus a fourth in April of 1981. Three of these mines are located in the Powder River Basin, about 80 kilometers east by northeast of Casper. One is located in the Shirley Basin, about 60 km south of Casper, and the remaining one is located in the Gas Hills, approximately 100 km west of Casper. The one-year intensive study included simultaneous measurement of several parameters: continuous measurement of atmospheric radon concentration near the ground at three locations, monthly 24-hour radon flux measurements from various surfaces, radium analyses of soil samples collected under each of the flux monitoring devices, monthly integrations of aerosols on dichotomous aerosol samplers, analysis of aerosol samplers for total dust loading, aerosol elemental and radiochemical composition, aerosol elemental composition by particle size, wind speed, wind direction, temperature, barometric pressure, and rainfall

  7. Open pit coal exploitation viability. Margarita mine. Case of study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloza, Julia; Molina, Jorge; Mejia, Humberto

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of financial viability, planning and design for the new coal open pit exploitation for La Margarita mine, with coal-resources estimated on 440.139,7 ton. Dimension, design and economic evaluation were possible by three exploitation methods: (multiple bench, open cast contour, and terraces). Net present values (NVP) were calculated: $c 817,5; $c 518,5 and $c 645,2 respectively for each method (given in million current Colombian pesos $. $c 2380 are equivalent to $us 1) and rate of return (ROR) 78,33%; 34,0% and 38,62% respectively for each method. These indicators served as a parameter to choose the multiple bench method, which should be recalculated because it was necessary to work jointly with two pits and making feasible the project. in addition a general environmental evaluation was done, which is vital for the exploitation. Important impacts on the flower, animals, air, water were found, and measures of control, prevention and mitigation were stated. it is expected that this paper can be useful as a technical-economical support for the development of the open pit exploitation in the margarita mine

  8. Some questions on small uranium open-pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junyi

    1992-01-01

    The experiences of the existing uranium open pits are summarized and the questions in design, erection and production are analyzed. It is important helpful to develop and to design such economical and reasonable small uranium open pits

  9. Mudstone depressurization behaviour in an open pit coal mine, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, G.; Waterhouse, J. [Golder Associates, West Perth, WA (Australia); Crisostomo, J. [PT Adaro Indonesia, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2010-07-01

    Mining activities in the Tutupan mine in Indonesia began in the mid-1990s. The open pit mine's coal seams are interbedded with fine-grained sandstones, mudstones, and carbonaceous mudstones. Slope stability analyses at the pit have integrated hydrogeology with geotechnical engineering analyses to optimize slope designs and reduce the risk of slope failure. This paper discussed the impact of mining and dewatering on mudstone depressurization. Sensors were placed at key points in the mine to obtain data related to the mudstone units. Reductions in pore pressure occurred as a result of groundwater flow away from the observed zones, increases in porosity, and increases in total porosity caused by an expansion of the rock mass as a result of drainage and hydrostatic unloading. Mudstone pore pressure trends with time were interpreted by determining the thickness of the mudstone unit, the presence or absence of known thin sandstone beds, unloading from overhead mining activities, and the position of the mudstone within the sedimentary sequence. The study showed that unloading activities have a significant impact on pore pressure in thick mudstone units, regardless of the depth, thickness, or properties of the unit. Pore pressure within high wall mudstone units typically decreased to values equivalent to the elevation of the unit where it was exposed to dips in a high wall. The dewatering of sandstone units in low walls caused a decline in pore pressure within the thick mudstone units located beneath the sandstones. Differences in primary permeabilities were attributed to greater fracturing in deeper and stronger rock units. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  10. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT HIGHWALLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 26, Prevention of Acid Mine Drainage Generation from Open-Pit Highwalls. The intent of this project was to obtain performance data on the ability of four technologies to prevent the gener...

  11. Numerical modelling of the groundwater inflow to an advancing open pit mine: Kolahdarvazeh pit, Central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Saeed; Doulati Ardejani, Faramarz; Aslani, Soheyla; Baafi, Ernest

    2014-12-01

    The groundwater inflow into a mine during its life and after ceasing operations is one of the most important concerns of the mining industry. This paper presents a hydrogeological assessment of the Irankuh Zn-Pb mine at 20 km south of Esfahan and 1 km northeast of Abnil in west-Central Iran. During mine excavation, the upper impervious bed of a confined aquifer was broken and water at high-pressure flowed into an open pit mine associated with the Kolahdarvazeh deposit. The inflow rates were 6.7 and 1.4 m(3)/s at the maximum and minimum quantities, respectively. Permeability, storage coefficient, thickness and initial head of the fully saturated confined aquifer were 3.5 × 10(-4) m/s, 0.2, 30 m and 60 m, respectively. The hydraulic heads as a function of time were monitored at four observation wells in the vicinity of the pit over 19 weeks and at an observation well near a test well over 21 h. In addition, by measuring the rate of pumping out from the pit sump, at a constant head (usually equal to height of the pit floor), the real inflow rates to the pit were monitored. The main innovations of this work were to make comparison between numerical modelling using a finite element software called SEEP/W and actual data related to inflow and extend the applicability of the numerical model. This model was further used to estimate the hydraulic heads at the observation wells around the pit over 19 weeks during mining operations. Data from a pump-out test and observation wells were used for model calibration and verification. In order to evaluate the model efficiency, the modelling results of inflow quantity and hydraulic heads were compared to those from analytical solutions, as well as the field data. The mean percent error in relation to field data for the inflow quantity was 0.108. It varied between 1.16 and 1.46 for hydraulic head predictions, which are much lower values than the mean percent errors resulted from the analytical solutions (from 1.8 to 5

  12. Open Pit Mining & The Cost of Water Potential Opportunities Towards Sustainable Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Sébastien J.R. Fortin

    2015-01-01

    Mining operations require vast quantities of water to run ore processing facilities and thus have a responsibility to manage this critical resource. Operations are often located in areas of limited water supply, which may create a competitive climate for water consumption. Make-up water for mineral processing can represent a significant portion of production cost for mining companies. While necessary for mining, water in open pits is problematic for extraction activities and leads to increase...

  13. Mining and technological characteristics of future open-pit mine at Brod-Gneotino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasevski, Apostol; Demjanski, Kiril; And others

    2005-01-01

    Development program of Electric Power Company of Macedonia includes to open several pits of coal with aim to prolongate the working period of TPP Bitola, of which one is the bed Brod-Gneotino. This coal bed is characterized with some characteristic mining and technological parameters described in thi paper. (Author)

  14. A method for opening a mine field which is adjacent to a pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishchenko, V.I.; Grebenyuk, V.K.; Kukharev, V.N.; Martynenko, V.P.; Omelnitskiy, A.G.; Sallin, V.I.; Sidorov, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    The method for opening a mine field adjacent to a pit includes the construction of the main and auxiliary opening drifts in the pit and the surface complex of the mine through assembling a support with subsequent filling of them by tailings of the covering rock. In order to increase the productive capacity of the mine, to reduce capital expenditures and to increase the safety of underground operations, a base is first formed from the tailing rock along the front of the open mining operations, from the bottom of the pit at the level of the stratum being opened to the surface with simultaneous layer by layer packing of the cited base, after which the opening drifts are built on this base. The mouth of the main opening drifts and the surface complex of the mine are positioned in the region of the pit.

  15. Prediction of the net radon emission from a model open pit uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Perkins, R.W.; Schwendiman, L.C.; Enderlin, W.I.

    1979-09-01

    Radon emission from a model open pit uranium mining operation has been estimated by applying radon exhalation fluxes measured in an open pit uranium mine to the various areas of the model mine. The model mine was defined by averaging uranium concentrations, mine dimensions, production and procedural statistics for eight major open pit uranium mines in the Casper, Wyoming area. The resulting emission rates were 630 Ci/RRY (1 RRY one = 1000-MW(e) reactor operating for 1 year) during mining operations and 26 Ci/RRY/y after abandoment of the mine assuming 100% recovery of U 3 O 8 from the ore, or 700 Ci/RRY and 29 Ci/RRY/y assuming 90.5% recovery

  16. Influence of the Haizhou Open Pit Coal Mine on the atmospheric flow over Fuxin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, He; Yang, Zhi-Feng; Wang, Xuan

    2004-01-01

    The influence of the Haizhou Open Pit Mine on the atmospheric flow in nearby Fuxin City in China was analyzed with the aid of the steady-state Navier-Stokes equations. The finite element method was used to obtain numerical solutions to these equations. The results showed that the Haizhou Open Pit Coal Mine contributes to the turbulent flow in the Fuxin City and its surroundings. However, when compared with the climatic effects, the open pit mine has a relatively small impact on the atmospheric flow over Fuxin.

  17. Case history of controlling a landslide at Panluo open-pit mine in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zuoan; Yin, Guangzhi; Wan, Ling; Shen, Louyan

    2008-04-01

    Controlling of landsides safely and economically is a great challenge to mine operators because landslides are major geological problems especially in open-pit mines. In this paper, a case history at Panluo open-pit mine is presented in detail to share the experiences and lessons with mine operators. Panluo open-pit mine is located in the southwestern Fujian province of China. It is the largest open-pit iron mine in the Fujian province and was planned in 1965 and is in full operation from 1978. In July 1990, an earthquake of magnitude 5.3 in Taiwan Strait and big rainstorms impacted the mine slope, causing tension cracks and rather large-scale failures, and forming a U-shaped landslide. Total potential volume was estimated to be up to 1.0 × 106 m3. This directly threatened the mine production. In order to protect the mine production and the dwellers’ safety around, a dynamic comprehensive method was implemented including geotechnical investigations, in-situ testing and monitoring, stability analysis, and many mitigation and preventive measures. These measures slowed down the development and further occurrence of the landslide. The results showed that the landslides were still active, it was slowed with the control measures and moved rapidly with rainfall and mining down. However, no catastrophic accidents occurred and the pit mining was continued till it was closed at the elevation of 887 m in 2000. As a successful case of landslide control at an open-pit mine for 10 years, this paper reports the controlling measures in details. These experiences of landslide control may be beneficial to other similar mines for landslide control.

  18. Tectonic fault monitoring at open pit mine at Zarnitsa Kimberlite Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vostrikov, VI; Polotnyanko, NS; Trofimov, AS; Potaka, AA

    2018-03-01

    The article describes application of Karier instrumentation designed at the Institute of Mining to study fracture formation in rocks. The instrumentation composed of three sensors was used to control widening of a tectonic fault intersecting an open pit mine at Zarnitsa Kimberlite Pipe in Yakutia. The monitoring between 28 November and 28 December in 2016 recorded convergence of the fault walls from one side of the open pit mine and widening from the other side. After production blasts, the fault first grows in width and then recovers.

  19. Natural radioactivity in lignite samples from open pit mines “Kolubara”, Serbia – risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Đurašević, M.; Kandić, A.; Stefanović, P.; Vukanac, I.; Šešlak, B.; Milošević, Z.; Marković, T.

    2014-01-01

    Coal as fossil fuel mainly contains naturally occurring radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series and 40 K. Use of coal, primarily in industry, as a result has dispersion of radioactive material from coal in and through air and water. The aim of this study was to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in coal samples from open pit mines “Kolubara” and to evaluate its effect on population health. The results showed that all measured and calculated values were below the limits recommended in international legislation. - Highlights: • Activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in coal samples were determined. • Effect on population health due to the activity of these radionuclides was estimated. • All samples were collected at different locations of the open pit mines “Kolubara”. • All measured and calculated values were below the recommended limits. • There is no enhanced radiation hazard for population nearby open pit mines

  20. Hydrodynamic model of the open-pit mine “Buvač” (Republic of Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papić Petar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Projecting of the dewatering system of the open-pit mine “Buvač” (Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina is based on the use of hydrodynamic model of groundwater regime. Creating the hydrodynamic model of the open-pit mine “Buvač“ was made in phases, which began by basic interpretation of collected data, along with schematization of the groundwater flow and flow conditions, and finally, forming and calibration of model. Hydrodynamic model was created as multilayer model with eight layers. Calibration of the hydrodynamic model is the starting point for making prognosis calculation in order to create the most optimal system of open-pit mine protection from groundwater. The results of model calibration indicated that the rivers Gomjenica and Bistrica, precipitation and inflow from karstified rocks are the primary sources of recharge of the limonite ore body “Buvač”.

  1. A hybrid heuristic algorithm for the open-pit-mining operational planning problem.

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Marcone Jamilson Freitas; Coelho, Igor Machado; Ribas, Sabir; Santos, Haroldo Gambini; Merschmann, Luiz Henrique de Campos

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the Open-Pit-Mining Operational Planning problem with dynamic truck allocation. The objective is to optimize mineral extraction in the mines by minimizing the number of mining trucks used to meet production goals and quality requirements. According to the literature, this problem is NPhard, so a heuristic strategy is justified. We present a hybrid algorithm that combines characteristics of two metaheuristics: Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedures and General Varia...

  2. Risk assessment of occupational groups working in open pit mining: Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Kasap

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In open pit mining it is possible to prevent industrial accidents and the results of industrial accidents such as deaths, physical disabilities and financial loss by implementing risk analyses in advance. If the probabilities of different occupational groups encountering various hazards are determined, workers’ risk of having industrial accidents and catching occupational illnesses can be controlled. In this sense, the aim of this study was to assess the industrial accidents which occurred during open pit coal production in the Turkish Coal Enterprises (TCE Garp Lignite unit between 2005 and 2010 and to analyze the risks using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. The analyses conducted with AHP revealed that the greatest risk in open pit mining is landslides, the most risky occupational group is unskilled labourers and the most common hazards are caused by landslides and transportation/hand tools/falling.

  3. The application of GPS to the deformation monitoring of side slope in open-pit uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yufeng; Pan Jiayong; Zhu Guogen; Wang Fei

    2009-01-01

    GPS has the characters,such as higher accuracy,not influenced by weather and day time. According to actual circumstance of a open pit uranium mine in China. This paper introduces a system to monit the deformation of side sloping and its detail application in a open pit mine. (authors)

  4. An Empirical Study of Propagation Models for Wireless Communications in Open-pit Mines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Caldwell, George; Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio

    2018-01-01

    —In this paper, we investigate the suitability of the propagation models ITU-R 526, Okumura Hata, COST Hata models and Standard Propagation Model (SPM) to predict the path loss in open-pit mines. The models are evaluated by comparing the predicted data with measurements obtained in two operational...

  5. Plant succession patterns on residual open-pit gravel mines deposits Bogota

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo A. Mora Goyes

    1999-01-01

    Based on both: the study of composition and structure of plant communities and the analysis of the physico-chemical characteristics of mining wastes, the initial patterns of primary succession were determined. These patterns were present in three deposits of waste material abandoned during 18, 36 and 120 months respectively. Sue materials were originated in open-pit gravel mines located to the south of Bogota (Colombia). This study pretends to contribute to the knowledge of the meehanlsms of ...

  6. Analysis of the Potential for Use of Floating Photovoltaic Systems on Mine Pit Lakes: Case Study at the Ssangyong Open-Pit Limestone Mine in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyoung Song

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the mining industry has introduced renewable energy technologies to resolve power supply problems at mines operating in polar regions or other remote areas, and to foster substitute industries, able to benefit from abandoned sites of exhausted mines. However, little attention has been paid to the potential placement of floating photovoltaic (PV systems operated on mine pit lakes because it was assumed that the topographic characteristics of open-pit mines are unsuitable for installing any type of PV systems. This study analyzed the potential of floating PV systems on a mine pit lake in Korea to break this misconception. Using a fish-eye lens camera and digital elevation models, a shading analysis was performed to identify the area suitable for installing a floating PV system. The layout of the floating PV system was designed in consideration of the optimal tilt angle and array spacing of the PV panels. The System Advisor Model (SAM by National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA, was used to conduct energy simulations based on weather data and the system design. The results indicated that the proposed PV system could generate 971.57 MWh/year. The economic analysis (accounting for discount rate and a 20-year operational lifetime showed that the net present value would be $897,000 USD, and a payback period of about 12.3 years. Therefore, we could know that the economic effect of the floating PV system on the mine pit lake is relatively higher than that of PV systems in the other abandoned mines in Korea. The annual reduction of greenhouse gas emissions was analyzed and found to be 471.21 tCO2/year, which is twice the reduction effect achieved by forest restoration of an abandoned mine site. The economic feasibility of a floating PV system on a pit lake of an abandoned mine was thus established, and may be considered an efficient reuse option for abandoned mines.

  7. Contributions to the workshop `Residual ponds from open pit brown coal mining`; Beitraege zum Workshop ``Braunkohlebergbaurestseen``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The contributions to the workshop ``Investigations on flooding in residual ponds from open-pit mining`` deal, inter alia, with the hydrochemical development of flushing waters, the stability of the water quality of residual lakes, especially under the impact of land contamination, the influence of brine receipts by flushed residual lakes, and with the microbiological ecology of residual lakes from mining. Furthermore, geophysical studies for demonstrating paths of flow and for calculating the depth and volume of residual lakes from open-pit mining are discussed. (MSK) [Deutsch] Die Beitraege zu dem Workshop `Untersuchungen zu Flutungen in Tagebaurestseen` befassen sich unter anderem mit der hydrochemischen Entwicklung von Flutungsgewaessern, mit der Qualitaetsstabilitaet von Restseewaessern - insbesonders bei Einwirkung von Altlasten - und mit den Einfluessen von Solezufluessen bei Restseeflutung sowie mit Untersuchungen zur mikrobiologischen Oekologie in Bergbaurestseen. Desweiteren werden geophysikalische Untersuchungen zum Nachweis von Fliesswegen und die Tiefen- und Volumenberechnung eines Tagebaurestlochsees erlaeutert. (MSK)

  8. An imperialist competitive algorithm for solving the production scheduling problem in open pit mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mokhtarian Asl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Production scheduling (planning of an open-pit mine is the procedure during which the rock blocks are assigned to different production periods in a way that the highest net present value of the project achieved subject to operational constraints. The paper introduces a new and computationally less expensive meta-heuristic technique known as imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA for long-term production planning of open pit mines. The proposed algorithm modifies the original rules of the assimilation process. The ICA performance for different levels of the control factors has been studied and the results are presented. The result showed that ICA could be efficiently applied on mine production planning problem.

  9. IMPROVING THE ORGANIZATION OF THE SHOVEL-TRUCK SYSTEMS IN OPEN-PIT COAL MINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark KORYAGIN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to reduce idle times of mining trucks and shovels in an open-pit coal mine. A heuristic algorithm for making dispatching decisions in conditions of dynamic allocation of trucks is developed. Priority parameters for choosing the shovel after the end-of-truck unloading are introduced. Also, an algorithm for searching for the optimal priority parameters to satisfy the required efficiency criterion is developed. This algorithm is based on a simulation model of a shovel-truck system. The proposed approach is applicable in terms of the group of shovels with a common dump point in various open-pit coal mines. The importance of this work lies in the fact that the proposed model takes into account the random factors related with the duration of loading and dumping, truck movement, repair of shovels and haul trucks, as well as the duration of periods between repairs.

  10. Contributions to the workshop `Residual ponds from open pit brown coal mining`; Beitraege zum Workshop ``Braunkohlebergbaurestseen``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The contributions to the workshop ``Investigations on flooding in residual ponds from open-pit mining`` deal, inter alia, with the hydrochemical development of flushing waters, the stability of the water quality of residual lakes, especially under the impact of land contamination, the influence of brine receipts by flushed residual lakes, and with the microbiological ecology of residual lakes from mining. Furthermore, geophysical studies for demonstrating paths of flow and for calculating the depth and volume of residual lakes from open-pit mining are discussed. (MSK) [Deutsch] Die Beitraege zu dem Workshop `Untersuchungen zu Flutungen in Tagebaurestseen` befassen sich unter anderem mit der hydrochemischen Entwicklung von Flutungsgewaessern, mit der Qualitaetsstabilitaet von Restseewaessern - insbesonders bei Einwirkung von Altlasten - und mit den Einfluessen von Solezufluessen bei Restseeflutung sowie mit Untersuchungen zur mikrobiologischen Oekologie in Bergbaurestseen. Desweiteren werden geophysikalische Untersuchungen zum Nachweis von Fliesswegen und die Tiefen- und Volumenberechnung eines Tagebaurestlochsees erlaeutert. (MSK)

  11. Functional Quality Criterion of Rock Handling Mechanization at Open-pit Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronov Yuri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Overburden and mining operations at open-pit mines are performed mainly by powerful shovel-truck systems (STSs. One of the main problems of the STSs is a rather low level of their operating quality, mainly due to unjustified over-trucking. In this article, a functional criterion for assessing the qualify of the STS operation at open-pit mines is formulated, derived and analyzed. We introduce the rationale and general principles for the functional criterion formation, its general form, as well as variations for various STS structures: a mixed truck fleet and a homogeneous shovel fleet, a mixed shove! fleet and a homogeneous truck fleet, mixed truck and shovel fleets. The possibility of assessing the quality of the STS operation is of great importance for identifying the main directions for improving their operational performance and operating quality, optimizing the main performance indicators by the qualify criterion, and. as a result, for possible saving of material and technical resources for open-pit mining. Improvement of the quality of the STS operation also allows increasing the mining safety and decreasing the atmosphere pollution - by means of possible reducing of the number of the operating trucks.

  12. Functional Quality Criterion of Rock Handling Mechanization at Open-pit Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronov, Yuri; Voronov, Artyoni

    2017-11-01

    Overburden and mining operations at open-pit mines are performed mainly by powerful shovel-truck systems (STSs). One of the main problems of the STSs is a rather low level of their operating quality, mainly due to unjustified over-trucking. In this article, a functional criterion for assessing the qualify of the STS operation at open-pit mines is formulated, derived and analyzed. We introduce the rationale and general principles for the functional criterion formation, its general form, as well as variations for various STS structures: a mixed truck fleet and a homogeneous shovel fleet, a mixed shove! fleet and a homogeneous truck fleet, mixed truck and shovel fleets. The possibility of assessing the quality of the STS operation is of great importance for identifying the main directions for improving their operational performance and operating quality, optimizing the main performance indicators by the qualify criterion, and. as a result, for possible saving of material and technical resources for open-pit mining. Improvement of the quality of the STS operation also allows increasing the mining safety and decreasing the atmosphere pollution - by means of possible reducing of the number of the operating trucks.

  13. The Key Factors Analysis of Palisades Temperature in Deep Open-pit Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Du, Cuifeng; Jin, Wenbo; Wang, Puyu

    2018-01-01

    In order to study the key factors of palisades temperature field in a deep open-pit mine in the natural environment, the influence of natural factors on the palisades temperature in a deep open-pit mine were analysed based on the principle of heat transfer. Four typical places with different ways of solar radiation were selected to carry out the field test. The results show that solar radiation, atmospheric temperature, and wind speed are three main factors affecting the temperature of palisades and that the direct sunlight plays a leading role. The time period of the sun shining directly on the shady slope of the palisades is short because of blocking effect, whose temperature changes in a smaller scale. At the same time, the sun slope of the palisades suffers from the solar radiation for a long time, whose temperature changes in a larger scale, and the variation is similar to the air temperature.

  14. Stochastic production phase design for an open pit mining complex with multiple processing streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Mohammad Waqar Ali; Dimitrakopoulos, Roussos; van Eldert, Jeroen

    2014-08-01

    In a mining complex, the mine is a source of supply of valuable material (ore) to a number of processes that convert the raw ore to a saleable product or a metal concentrate for production of the refined metal. In this context, expected variation in metal content throughout the extent of the orebody defines the inherent uncertainty in the supply of ore, which impacts the subsequent ore and metal production targets. Traditional optimization methods for designing production phases and ultimate pit limit of an open pit mine not only ignore the uncertainty in metal content, but, in addition, commonly assume that the mine delivers ore to a single processing facility. A stochastic network flow approach is proposed that jointly integrates uncertainty in supply of ore and multiple ore destinations into the development of production phase design and ultimate pit limit. An application at a copper mine demonstrates the intricacies of the new approach. The case study shows a 14% higher discounted cash flow when compared to the traditional approach.

  15. Accuracy of single count methods of WL determination for open-pit uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.; Kennedy, K. N.

    1983-01-01

    A study of single count methods of WL determination was made using a database respresentative of Australian open pit uranium mine conditions. The aim of the study was to check the existence of the optimum time delay coresponding to the Rolle method, to determine the accuracy of the conversion factor for Australian conditions and to examine any systematic use of data bases of representative radon daughter concentration

  16. Open pit mining profit maximization considering selling stage and waste rehabilitation cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttaqin, B. I. A.; Rosyidi, C. N.

    2017-11-01

    In open pit mining activities, determination of the cut-off grade becomes crucial for the company since the cut-off grade affects how much profit will be earned for the mining company. In this study, we developed a cut-off grade determination mode for the open pit mining industry considering the cost of mining, waste removal (rehabilitation) cost, processing cost, fixed cost, and selling stage cost. The main goal of this study is to develop a model of cut-off grade determination to get the maximum total profit. Secondly, this study is also developed to observe the model of sensitivity based on changes in the cost components. The optimization results show that the models can help mining company managers to determine the optimal cut-off grade and also estimate how much profit that can be earned by the mining company. To illustrate the application of the models, a numerical example and a set of sensitivity analysis are presented. From the results of sensitivity analysis, we conclude that the changes in the sales price greatly affects the optimal cut-off value and the total profit.

  17. A New Method for Haul Road Design in Open-Pit Mines to Support Efficient Truck Haulage Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Baek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of a haul road for an open-pit mine can significantly affect the cost associated with hauling ore and waste to the surface. This study proposes a new method for haul road design in open-pit mines to support efficient truck haulage operations. The road layout in open-pit mines was optimized by using raster-based least-cost path analysis, and the resulting zigzag road sections were simplified by applying the Douglas-Peucker algorithm. In addition, the road layout was modified by reflecting the radius of curvature suggested in the road design guides. Finally, a three-dimensional model reflecting the results of the road design was created by combining the road layout modification result with the slope of the open-pit mine and the bench design result. The application of the proposed method to an area containing gold deposits made it possible to design a haul road for open-pit mines such that it supported efficient truck haulage operations; furthermore, the time required for truck movement along the road could be estimated. The proposed method is expected to be useful for planning and designing open-pit mines and to facilitate the improvement of the road design function of existing mining software applications.

  18. Characterization of airborne particles in an open pit mining region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, José I; Huertas, María E; Solís, Dora A

    2012-04-15

    We characterized airborne particle samples collected from 15 stations in operation since 2007 in one of the world's largest opencast coal mining regions. Using gravimetric, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis the samples were characterized in terms of concentration, morphology, particle size distribution (PSD), and elemental composition. All of the total suspended particulate (TSP) samples exhibited a log-normal PSD with a mean of d=5.46 ± 0.32 μm and σ(ln d)=0.61 ± 0.03. Similarly, all particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM(10)) exhibited a log-normal type distribution with a mean of d=3.6 ± 0.38 μm and σ(ln d)=0.55 ± 0.03. XPS analysis indicated that the main elements present in the particles were carbon, oxygen, potassium, and silicon with average mass concentrations of 41.5%, 34.7%, 11.6%, and 5.7% respectively. In SEM micrographs the particles appeared smooth-surfaced and irregular in shape, and tended to agglomerate. The particles were typically clay minerals, including limestone, calcite, quartz, and potassium feldspar. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Plant succession patterns on residual open-pit gravel mines deposits Bogota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. Mora Goyes

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on both: the study of composition and structure of plant communities and the analysis of the physico-chemical characteristics of mining wastes, the initial patterns of primary succession were determined. These patterns were present in three deposits of waste material abandoned during 18, 36 and 120 months respectively. Sue materials were originated in open-pit gravel mines located to the south of Bogota (Colombia. This study pretends to contribute to the knowledge of the meehanlsms of natural restauration of tropical ecosystems subjected to man-borne degradation.

  20. Planning criteria for open pit mines under special consideration of slope stability and controlled blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weise, H

    1986-04-01

    The criteria which influence the economics of a future surface mining operation are discussed; these include the size of the mine and the depth of the deposit. The methods of working are outlined - single bench, multiple bench - and choices of haulage equipment (trucks vs. conveyors) are discussed. For a mine using conveyors, the slope of the open pit will affect the operating cost. Pumps will be required to dewater the strata; it will be necessary to take steps to ensure slope stability. Bucket wheel excavators will be impeded by the presence of consolidated material, which may be best removed by shatter blasting. An example is given of the use of shatter blasting at the Neyveli lignite mine in Tamil Nadu, India. 5 references.

  1. Coal and Open-pit surface mining impacts on American Lands (COAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T. A.; McGibbney, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    Mining is known to cause environmental degradation, but software tools to identify its impacts are lacking. However, remote sensing, spectral reflectance, and geographic data are readily available, and high-performance cloud computing resources exist for scientific research. Coal and Open-pit surface mining impacts on American Lands (COAL) provides a suite of algorithms and documentation to leverage these data and resources to identify evidence of mining and correlate it with environmental impacts over time.COAL was originally developed as a 2016 - 2017 senior capstone collaboration between scientists at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and computer science students at Oregon State University (OSU). The COAL team implemented a free and open-source software library called "pycoal" in the Python programming language which facilitated a case study of the effects of coal mining on water resources. Evidence of acid mine drainage associated with an open-pit coal mine in New Mexico was derived by correlating imaging spectrometer data from the JPL Airborne Visible/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer - Next Generation (AVIRIS-NG), spectral reflectance data published by the USGS Spectroscopy Laboratory in the USGS Digital Spectral Library 06, and GIS hydrography data published by the USGS National Geospatial Program in The National Map. This case study indicated that the spectral and geospatial algorithms developed by COAL can be used successfully to analyze the environmental impacts of mining activities.Continued development of COAL has been promoted by a Startup allocation award of high-performance computing resources from the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE). These resources allow the team to undertake further benchmarking, evaluation, and experimentation using multiple XSEDE resources. The opportunity to use computational infrastructure of this caliber will further enable the development of a science gateway to continue foundational COAL

  2. Peak particle velocity for rockbursts in underground coal mines and for shot-hole explosions in open-pit mines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holub, Karel; Rušajová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2011), s. 104-114 ISSN 1217-8977 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : hole-shot explosion * open-pit mine * peak particle velocity Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.346, year: 2011 http://www.akademiai.com/content/k3u1334gw21u4x27/

  3. A cost comparison study of open pit mining vs. in situ assisted gravity drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, J.; Luhning, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    The twin-well steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process has resulted in breakthrough technology to access previously uneconomical deep-seated oil sands reserves in Alberta, and to provide a very cost-effective and environmentally acceptable method for extracting bitumen from reserves having a minimum of 30 m overburden. In the evaluation of new or improved bitumen recovery technologies for its new North Mine, Syncrude Canada has recognized that SAGD was a potential alternate to the current open pit mining and hot water extraction process. A study was conducted to compare and evaluate bitumen recovery by the two schemes at the North Mine site, scheduled to begin operations in 1996, for the reserves under Syncrude's tailings pond, and at a new grassroots area. Study description and analysis of results are presented for the grassroots case. The assumptions and mining/recovery processes used for the mining or SAGD method are detailed and the advantages and drawbacks of each scheme are noted. Results show that the SAGD unit supply costs are projected to be proportionately lower than the corresponding open pit mining/hot water extraction (OP/X) cost, using a 20-y project life. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the SAGD process is more sensitive to natural gas costs, while the OP/X scheme is more sensitive to power costs. The SAGD process is much less labor-intensive than OP/X and has obvious advantages in terms of tailings disposal and post-mining reclamation. In addition, the underground nature of SAGD operation eliminates adverse effects of the weather on working conditions. 11 figs

  4. Open-pit coal mine production sequencing incorporating grade blending and stockpiling options: An application from an Indian mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Chatterjee, Snehamoy

    2017-05-01

    Production scheduling is a crucial aspect of the mining industry. An optimal and efficient production schedule can increase the profits manifold and reduce the amount of waste to be handled. Production scheduling for coal mines is necessary to maintain consistency in the quality and quantity parameters of coal supplied to power plants. Irregularity in the quality parameters of the coal can lead to heavy losses in coal-fired power plants. Moreover, the stockpiling of coal poses environmental and fire problems owing to low incubation periods. This article proposes a production scheduling formulation for open-pit coal mines including stockpiling and blending opportunities, which play a major role in maintaining the quality and quantity of supplied coal. The proposed formulation was applied to a large open-pit coal mine in India. This contribution provides an efficient production scheduling formulation for coal mines after utilizing the stockpile coal within the incubation periods with the maximization of discounted cash flows. At the same time, consistency is maintained in the quality and quantity of coal to power plants through blending and stockpiling options to ensure smooth functioning.

  5. Natural radioactivity in lignite samples from open pit mines "Kolubara", Serbia--risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ðurašević, M; Kandić, A; Stefanović, P; Vukanac, I; Sešlak, B; Milošević, Z; Marković, T

    2014-05-01

    Coal as fossil fuel mainly contains naturally occurring radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series and (40)K. Use of coal, primarily in industry, as a result has dispersion of radioactive material from coal in and through air and water. The aim of this study was to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in coal samples from open pit mines "Kolubara" and to evaluate its effect on population health. The results showed that all measured and calculated values were below the limits recommended in international legislation. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Landslide phenomena in Dashkesan open pit mines and a rational blasting technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrubko, S A; Kasumov, F K

    1980-01-01

    The reasons for the occurrence of landslides are examined, based on the stability of the surrounding rocks in the presence of a round, cylindrical slip surface. It is recommended that surveying be done to establish the boundaries of dangerous zones and to determine the locations of fracture systems. Finishing off the body of a landslide by exploding a lateral fixing is described, as is finishing off in stages, using lateral progress cycles from the top downwards. Stage blasting of a group of benches with decelaration from the top downwards is also described. A description of preventive measures taken to prevent landslide phenomena in open pit mines is given.

  7. Strategic Mine Planning: A SWOT Analysis Applied to KOV Open Pit Mine in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick May Mukonki

    2017-01-01

    KOV pit (Kamoto Oliveira Virgule) is located 10 km from Kolwezi town, one of the mineral rich town in the Lualaba province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The KOV pit is currently operating under the Katanga Mining Limited (KML), a Glencore-Gecamines (a State Owned Company) join venture. Recently, the mine optimization process provided a life of mine of approximately 10 years withnice pushbacks using the Datamine NPV Scheduler software. In previous KOV pit studies, we recently outlined t...

  8. Hyperspectral analysis for qualitative and quantitative features related to acid mine drainage at a remediated open-pit mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G.; Calvin, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    The exposure of pyrite to oxygen and water in mine waste environments is known to generate acidity and the accumulation of secondary iron minerals. Sulfates and secondary iron minerals associated with acid mine drainage (AMD) exhibit diverse spectral properties in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The use of hyperspectral imagery for identification of AMD mineralogy and contamination has been well studied. Fewer studies have examined the impacts of hydrologic variations on mapping AMD or the unique spectral signatures of mine waters. Open-pit mine lakes are an additional environmental hazard which have not been widely studied using imaging spectroscopy. A better understanding of AMD variation related to climate fluctuations and the spectral signatures of contaminated surface waters will aid future assessments of environmental contamination. This study examined the ability of multi-season airborne hyperspectral data to identify the geochemical evolution of substances and contaminant patterns at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site. The mine is located 24 miles southeast of Lake Tahoe and contains remnant tailings piles and several AMD collection ponds. The objectives were to 1) distinguish temporal changes in mineralogy at a the remediated open-pit sulfur mine, 2) identify the absorption features of mine affected waters, and 3) quantitatively link water spectra to known dissolved iron concentrations. Images from NASA's AVIRIS instrument were collected in the spring, summer, and fall seasons for two consecutive years at Leviathan (HyspIRI campaign). Images had a spatial resolution of 15 meters at nadir. Ground-based surveys using the ASD FieldSpecPro spectrometer and laboratory spectral and chemical analysis complemented the remote sensing data. Temporal changes in surface mineralogy were difficult to distinguish. However, seasonal changes in pond water quality were identified. Dissolved ferric iron and chlorophyll

  9. The potential use of exhausted open pit mine voids as sinks for atmospheric CO2: insights from natural reedbeds and mine water treatment wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Younger, Paul L.; Mayes, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Abandoned surface mine voids are often left to flood, forming pit lakes. Drawing simple but important lessons from experiences with compost-based passive remediation systems for acidic mine waters, an alternative end-use for open pit mine voids is proposed: gradual infilling with organic material, which can serve as a long-term sink for atmospheric CO2, whilst ameliorating or eventually eliminating sustained evaporative water loss and acidic water pollution. Key to the success of this approac...

  10. Public exposure to hazards associated with natural radioactivity in open-pit mining in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darko, E O; Faanu, A; Awudu, A R; Emi-Reynolds, G; Yeboah, J; Oppon, O C; Akaho, E H K

    2010-01-01

    The results of studies carried out on public exposure contribution from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMS) in two open-pit mines in the Western and Ashanti regions of Ghana are reported. The studies were carried out under International Atomic Energy Agency-supported Technical Co-operation Project GHA/9/005. Measurements were made on samples of water, soil, ore, mine tailings and air using gamma spectrometry. Solid-state nuclear track detectors were used for radon concentration measurements. Survey was also carried out to determine the ambient gamma dose rate in the vicinity of the mines and surrounding areas. The effective doses due to external gamma irradiation, ingestion of water and inhalation of radon and ore dusts were calculated for the two mines. The average annual effective dose was found to be 0.30 +/- 0.06 mSv. The result was found to be within the levels published by other countries. The study provides a useful information and data for establishing a comprehensive framework to investigate other mines and develop guidelines for monitoring and control of NORMS in the mining industry and the environment as a whole in Ghana.

  11. Close-out of open pit and waste rock piles of a uranium mine in Guangxi province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lechang; Zhang Zhao; Zhang Guopu; Liu Min

    2012-01-01

    Close-out of projects of a mine in Guangxi province of China includes open pit,east and west waste rock piles, ore transfer station, industrial fields, buildings, ore transporting road, and equipment and conduits. The following remediation limits are introduced: environment penetrating radiation dose rate and 222 Rn flux of open pit and waste rock piles, 226 Ra specific activity of soil and individual dose. Remediation objective and programme are discussed in details. Remediation effects are evaluated. (authors)

  12. Аpplying of Explosives of the Type an-fo and Slurry in the Open Pit Mine "Bucim"

    OpenAIRE

    Dambov, Risto; Nikolic, Miroslav; Dambov, Ilija

    2012-01-01

    In this paper shows the way of application of ANFO and SLURRY bulk explosives and blasting methods that are characteristic for this open pit mine. According to the physical - mechanical characteristics of the working environment and condition of the blast hole are defining some parameters for each series separately. In this open pit are defined 5(five) different working environments - rocks with copper mineralization (0,25%Cu) or rocks waste. According to the effects of blasting are make cert...

  13. Analysis of disposal of uranium mill tailings in a mined out open pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staub, W.P.; Triegel, E.K.

    1978-08-01

    Mined out open pits are presently under consideration as disposal sites for uranium mill tailings. In this method of tailings management, the escape of contaminated liquid into an adjacent aquifer is the principal environmental concern. The modified Bishop Method was used to analyze the structural stability of a clay liner along the highwall and fluid flow models were used to analyze the effect of tailings solutions on groundwater under several operating conditions. The slope stability of a clay liner was analyzed at three stages of operation: (1) near the beginning of construction, (2) when the pit is partially filled with tailings, and (3) at the end of construction. Both clay lined and unlined pits were considered in the fluid flow modeling. Finally, the seepage of tailings solutions through the clay liner was analyzed. Results of the slope stability analysis showed that it would be necessary to construct the clay liner as a modified form of engineered embankment. This embankment would be similar in construction to that of an earthfill dam. It could be constructed on a 1 : 1 slope provided the tailings slurry were managed properly. It would be necessary to maintain the freeboard height between the embankment and tailings at less than 4 m. A partially dewatered sand beach would have to be located adjacent to the embankment. Potential leakage and aquifer contamination was modeled for lined and unlined pits of various designs. Sulfate, and possibly U and Th, are the most likely contaminants. Results from the model showed the clay and soil cement lined pit to be most effective in containing the pollutants

  14. Blasting methods for heterogeneous rocks in hillside open-pit mines with high and steep slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. J.; Chang, Z. G.; Chao, X. H.; Zhao, J. F.

    2017-06-01

    In the arid desert areas in Xinjiang, most limestone quarries are hillside open-pit mines (OPMs) where the limestone is hard, heterogeneous, and fractured, and can be easily broken into large blocks by blasting. This study tried to find effective technical methods for blasting heterogeneous rocks in such quarries based on an investigation into existing problems encountered in actual mining at Hongshun Limestone Quarry in Xinjiang. This study provided blasting schemes for hillside OPMs with different heights and slopes. These schemes involve the use of vertical deep holes, oblique shallow holes, and downslope hole-by-hole sublevel or simultaneous detonation techniques. In each bench, the detonations of holes in a detonation unit occur at intervals of 25-50 milliseconds. The research findings can offer technical guidance on how to blast heterogeneous rocks in hillside limestone quarries.

  15. The Production Measurement Model of Open Pit Mine Based on Truck Operation Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiao-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional production measurement of truck dispatching system in open pit mine has not been effectively expressed by a mathematical model, which brings a negative effect on the subsequent data mining and a compatibility issue to apply the production measurement with fixed assignment of truck. In this study, based on the proposed concept that truck is not only the carrier of transport material, but also act as the bridges and linkages between the loading sites and the unloading sites, a new truck operation diagram was established, which was further developed to a basic data matrix and a production measurement model. The new model allowed to calculatethe production measurement of the transport, loading, unloading, material and etc, respectively, as well as with any calculation in combination of more than one factor as needed.It solved the compatibility issue between conventional production measurement and the production measurement of fixed assignment of truck with good practical results.

  16. Treatment of sulphated water of surface origin produced by an open pit coal mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Campos-Sánchez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to select the most suitable method of treatment of sulfated water produced by an open pit coal mine in Venezuela. Samples of water taken on surface, middle and bottom of water bodies in three areas were subjected to basic, gravimetric, volumetric and colorimetric analysis. The results indicated that the pH is within limits permitted by current environmental regulations, while total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, and sulfates exceed the normed values. The aerobic wetland method was selected as the most efficient for the removal of sulfates, depending on the physicochemical characteristics of the sulphated waters from the mine and because they are systems that use natural energy to purify water, its construction and maintenance costs Is significantly inferior to the conventional treatments and because, being replicas of natural ecosystems, they are integrated to the environment.

  17. Application of 3D Laser Scanning Technology in Inspection and Dynamic Reserves Detection of Open-Pit Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhumin; Wei, Shiyu; Jiang, Jun

    2017-10-01

    The traditional open-pit mine mining rights verification and dynamic reserve detection means rely on the total station and RTK to collect the results of the turning point coordinates of mining surface contours. It resulted in obtaining the results of low precision and large error in the means that is limited by the traditional measurement equipment accuracy and measurement methods. The three-dimensional scanning technology can obtain the three-dimensional coordinate data of the surface of the measured object in a large area at high resolution. This paper expounds the commonly used application of 3D scanning technology in the inspection and dynamic reserve detection of open mine mining rights.

  18. Analysis of disposal of uranium mill tailings in a mined out open pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staub, W.P.; Triegel, E.K.

    1978-01-01

    Mined out open pits are presently under consideration as disposal sites for uranium mill tailings. In this method of tailings management, the escape of contaminated liquid into an adjacent aquifer is the principal environmental concern. The modified Bishop Method was used to analyze the structural stability of a clay liner along the highwall and fluid flow models were used to analyze the effect of tailings solutions on ground water under several operating conditions. Results of the slope stability analysis showed that it would be necessary to construct the clay liner as a modified form of engineered embankment. This embankment would be similar in construction to that of an earthfill dam. It could be constructed on a 1:1 slope provided the tailings slurry were managed properly. It would be necessary to maintain the freeboard height between the embankment and tailings at less than 4 m. A partially dewatered sand beach would have to be located adjacent to the embankment. Potential leakage and aquifer contamination was modeled for lined and unlined pits of various designs. Sulfate, and possibly U and Th, are the most likely contaminants. Results from the model showed the clay and soil cement lined pit to be most effective in containing the pollutants

  19. Limnological and fisheries investigation of the flooded open pit at the Gunnar uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tones, P.I.

    1982-02-01

    The Gunnar uranium mine on the north shore of Lake Athabaska was closed in 1964 and became flooded. This study describes the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water-filled open pit mine. Depth profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen and specific conductivity indicated the presence of five strata in the 110 m-deep lake during the summer. Radionuclides and dissolved salts were concentrated in the deepest layer, where there was almost no dissolved oxygen and living organisms. The concentrations of heavy metals except uranium are generally very low at all depths. Surface levels of radium 226, thorium, uranium and lead 210 are low. There is no surface seepage out of the pit. Bacteria and phytoplankton populations are typical of those found in warm nutrient-rich waters; the total number of species is low, but there is a large number of individuals. No benthic species are present at the bottom or at 82.5 m. Northern pike, common suckers, and longnose suckers were caught; all appeared to be in good condition and larger than individuals of the same age in the neighbouring lakes. Radionuclide levels in their flesh were one to two orders of magnitude greater than background

  20. Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendell, L.I., E-mail: bendell@sfu.ca

    2011-02-15

    Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of 'pulse' toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a 'snap-shot' of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. - Research Highlights: {yields} Archived gizzard samples reveals mining history. {yields} Grit ingestion exposes grouse to cadmium and lead. {yields} Grit selection includes particles enriched in cadmium. {yields} Cadmium enriched particles are of toxicological significance.

  1. Integration of OHS into Risk Management in an Open-Pit Mining Project in Quebec (Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Badri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite undeniable progress, the mining industry remains the scene of serious accidents revealing disregard for occupational health and safety (OHS and leaving open the debate regarding the safety of its employees. The San José mine last collapse near Copiapó, Chile on 5 August 2010 and the 69-day rescue operation that followed in order to save 33 miners trapped underground show the serious consequences of neglecting worker health and safety. The aim of this study was to validate a new approach to integrating OHS into risk management in the context of a new open-pit mining project in Quebec, based on analysis of incident and accident reports, semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and collaborative field observations. We propose a new concept, called hazard concentration, based on the number of hazards and their influence. This concept represents the weighted fraction of each category of hazards related to an undesirable event. The weight of each category of hazards is calculated by AHP, a multicriteria method. The proposed approach included the creation of an OHS database for facilitating expert risk management. Reinforcing effects between hazard categories were identified and all potential risks were prioritized. The results provided the company with a rational basis for choosing a suitable accident prevention strategy for its operational activities.

  2. Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendell, L I

    2011-02-15

    Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of "pulse" toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a "snap-shot" of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimal synthesis of energy supply systems for remote open pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, M.; Romero, A.; Shields, G.; Millar, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    electricity and syngas storage and diesel and biomass bunkering. Within the paper the energy demands for a remote, open pit mining operation located in Northern Ontario are considered as a case study to illustrate the technique and investigations. As expected, for mines close to electricity, natural gas, and diesel distribution infrastructures, the optimal choice is to connect. When a constraint is applied specifying that connection is not possible, as would be for the case exemplified, the optimal choice includes some of the more exotic options for mine site energy supply. - Highlights: •Optimal mine site energy supply methodology is established. •Methodology permits innovative, lower cost, energy supply solutions to be identified. •The methodology allows for electricity and syngas storage and diesel and biomass bunkering. •A remote, open pit mining operation located in Northern Ontario is considered as a case study. •The optimal solution includes some of the more exotic options for mine site energy supply

  4. Efficiency of Low-Profile External Dumping at Open Pit Coal Mining in Kemerovo Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selyukov, Alexey; Ermolaev, Vyacheslav; Kostinez, Irina

    2017-11-01

    Kemerovo region is one of the largest industrial regions of Russia, with a raw material specialization. The rapid growth of the coal industry in recent years has been greatly facilitated by the expansion and development of open pit mining for coal seams extraction, accompanied by an increase in the volumes of overburden and the height of the dumps. There are about 400 objects in the Russian Federation Government Register of Waste Disposal Facilities 80% of which are dumps. Approaches both to external dumping and to the technical stage of reclamation currently contribute to the growth of geomorphic system's instability. Thus, it is proposed to slightly change the approaches to external dumping: the essence consists in the formation of an external dump of overburden, which in future would represent a favorable landscape unit of a flat surface relief used for subsequent differently directed purposes.

  5. Efficiency of Low-Profile External Dumping at Open Pit Coal Mining in Kemerovo Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selyukov Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kemerovo region is one of the largest industrial regions of Russia, with a raw material specialization. The rapid growth of the coal industry in recent years has been greatly facilitated by the expansion and development of open pit mining for coal seams extraction, accompanied by an increase in the volumes of overburden and the height of the dumps. There are about 400 objects in the Russian Federation Government Register of Waste Disposal Facilities 80% of which are dumps. Approaches both to external dumping and to the technical stage of reclamation currently contribute to the growth of geomorphic system's instability. Thus, it is proposed to slightly change the approaches to external dumping: the essence consists in the formation of an external dump of overburden, which in future would represent a favorable landscape unit of a flat surface relief used for subsequent differently directed purposes.

  6. NPV risk simulation of an open pit gold mine project under the O'Hara cost model by using GAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Franco-Sepulveda Giovanni; Campuzano Carlos; Pineda Cindy

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes an open pit gold mine project based on the O'Hara cost model. Hypothetical data is proposed based on different authors that have studied open pit gold projects, and variations are proposed according to the probability distributions associated to key variables affecting the NPV, like production level, ore grade, price of ore, and others, so as to see what if, in a gold open pit mine project of 3000 metric tons per day of ore. Two case scenarios were analyzed to simulate the NPV, one where there is low certainty data available, and the other where the information available is of high certainty. Results based on genetic algorithm metaheuristic simulations, which combine basically Montecarlo simulations provided by the Palisade Risk software, the O'Hara cost model, net smelter return and financial analysis tools offered by Excel are reported, in order to determine to which variables of the project is more sensitive the NPV.

  7. Air quality impact assessment of multiple open pit coal mines in northern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, José I; Huertas, María E; Izquierdo, Sebastián; González, Enrique D

    2012-01-01

    The coal mining region in northern Colombia is one of the largest open pit mining regions of the world. In 2009, there were 8 mining companies in operation with an approximate coal production of ∼70 Mtons/year. Since 2007, the Colombian air quality monitoring network has reported readings that exceed the daily and annual air quality standards for total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm (PM₁₀) in nearby villages. This paper describes work carried out in order to establish an appropriate clean air program for this region, based on the Colombian national environmental authority requirement for modeling of TSP and PM(10) dispersion. A TSP and PM₁₀ emission inventory was initially developed, and topographic and meteorological information for the region was collected and analyzed. Using this information, the dispersion of TSP was modeled in ISC3 and AERMOD using meteorological data collected by 3 local stations during 2008 and 2009. The results obtained were compared to actual values measured by the air quality monitoring network. High correlation coefficients (>0.73) were obtained, indicating that the models accurately described the main factors affecting particle dispersion in the region. The model was then used to forecast concentrations of particulate matter for 2010. Based on results from the model, areas within the modeling region were identified as highly, fairly, moderately and marginally polluted according to local regulations. Additionally, the contribution particulate matter to the pollution at each village was estimated. Using these predicted values, the Colombian environmental authority imposed new decontamination measures on the mining companies operating in the region. These measures included the relocation of three villages financed by the mine companies based on forecasted pollution levels. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Air quality status of an open pit mining area in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaulya, S K

    2005-06-01

    This investigation presents the assessment of ambient air quality carried out at an open pit coal mining area in Orissa state of India. The 24-h average concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM), respirable particulate matter (RPM, particles of less than 10 microm aerodynamic diameter), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) were determined at regular interval throughout one year at 13 monitoring stations in residential area and four stations in mining/industrial area. During the study period, the 24-h and annual average SPM and RPM concentrations exceeded the respective standards set in the Indian ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) protocol in most of the residential and industrial areas. However, the 24-h and annual average concentrations of SO2 and NO(x) were well within the prescribed limit of the NAAQS in both residential and industrial areas. A management strategy is formulated for effective control of particulate matter at source and other mitigative measures are recommended including implementation of green belts around the sensitive areas.

  9. Short-term scheduling of an open-pit mine with multiple objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Michelle; Pearce, Adrian R.; Stuckey, Peter J.

    2017-05-01

    This article presents a novel algorithm for the generation of multiple short-term production schedules for an open-pit mine, in which several objectives, of varying priority, characterize the quality of each solution. A short-term schedule selects regions of a mine site, known as 'blocks', to be extracted in each week of a planning horizon (typically spanning 13 weeks). Existing tools for constructing these schedules use greedy heuristics, with little optimization. To construct a single schedule in which infrastructure is sufficiently utilized, with production grades consistently close to a desired target, a planner must often run these heuristics many times, adjusting parameters after each iteration. A planner's intuition and experience can evaluate the relative quality and mineability of different schedules in a way that is difficult to automate. Of interest to a short-term planner is the generation of multiple schedules, extracting available ore and waste in varying sequences, which can then be manually compared. This article presents a tool in which multiple, diverse, short-term schedules are constructed, meeting a range of common objectives without the need for iterative parameter adjustment.

  10. The mine planning process for an open-pit diamond mining operation - a case study on Letseng diamond mine in Lesotho

    OpenAIRE

    Madowe, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the mine planning process for Letseng diamond mine in the Kingdom of Lesotho, in conjunction with the various software packages used during the process. The major pillars of the long-term mine planning process at Letseng are pit optimization followed by pit design and scheduling. Letseng uses Gemcom Whittle and GEMS for pit optimization and design and Runge XPAC for scheduling. The output of the mine planning process results in the generation of published mineral reserves...

  11. Thermal comfort sustained by cold protective clothing in Arctic open-pit mining-a thermal manikin and questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jussila, Kirsi; Rissanen, Sirkka; Aminoff, Anna; Wahlström, Jens; Vaktskjold, Arild; Talykova, Ljudmila; Remes, Jouko; Mänttäri, Satu; Rintamäki, Hannu

    2017-12-07

    Workers in the Arctic open-pit mines are exposed to harsh weather conditions. Employers are required to provide protective clothing for workers. This can be the outer layer, but sometimes also inner or middle layers are provided. This study aimed to determine how Arctic open-pit miners protect themselves against cold and the sufficiency, and the selection criteria of the garments. Workers' cold experiences and the clothing in four Arctic open-pit mines in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Russia were evaluated by a questionnaire (n=1,323). Basic thermal insulation (I cl ) of the reported clothing was estimated (ISO 9920). The I cl of clothing from the mines were also measured by thermal manikin (standing/walking) in 0.3 and 4.0 m/s wind. The questionnaire showed that the I cl of the selected clothing was on average 1.2 and 1.5 clo in mild (-5 to +5°C) and dry cold (-20 to -10°C) conditions, respectively. The I cl of the clothing measured by thermal manikin was 1.9-2.3 clo. The results show that the Arctic open-pit miners' selected their clothing based on occupational (time outdoors), environmental (temperature, wind, moisture) and individual factors (cold sensitivity, general health). However, the selected clothing was not sufficient to prevent cooling completely at ambient temperatures below -10°C.

  12. A GIS-based, confined aquifer, hypothetical model of ground-water seepage into a former mining open pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, A; Negeed, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater seepage into a former mining site in Egypt is proposed for simulation. This site was used for basalt extraction. After the mining activities had stopped a large open pit was left over and groundwater seeped into the pit forming a lake. The pit has a dimension of approximately 1200 x 600 x 30 m. Because of the lack of field data, several scenarios may be hypothesized to explain the filling of these open pits with water. In this paper, one of these scenarios is studied. It is suggested that this water comes from an underneath confined aquifer. Through fractures in the host rock, water seeped upwards into the open pit. To estimate the rate at which water seeps into the lake, numerical study based on the finite element method is performed. Firstly, geo-referencing of the site was performed using GIS. The boundary of the lake was then digitized and elevation contours was defined. These data was then imported into grid-builder software to generate a two-dimensional triangular mesh which was then used by hydro-geosphere software to build the three-dimensional mesh and solve the problem. It was found that the set of discrete fractures was insufficient to fill the lake in the time span that was actually elapsed to fill up the lake which is on the order of two to three years.

  13. The use of vibration monitoring to record the blasting works impact on buildings surrounding open-pit mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sołtys Anna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection law and geological and mining law require the mineral mining plant to protect its surroundings from the effects of mining operations. This also applies to the negative impact of vibrations induced by blasting works on people and construction facilities. Effective protection is only possible if the level of this impact is known, therefore it is necessary to record it. The thesis formulated in this way has been and continues to be the guiding principle of the research works carried out in the AGH Laboratory of Blasting Work and Environmental Protection. As a result of these works are procedures for conducting preventive activities by open-pit mines in order to minimize the impact of blasting on facilities in the surrounding area. An important element of this activity is the monitoring of vibrations in constructions, which is a source of knowledge for excavation supervisors and engineers performing blasting works, thus contributing to raising the awareness of the responsible operation of the mining plant. Developed in the Laboratory of the Mine's Vibration Monitoring Station (KSMD, after several modernizations, it became a fully automated system for monitoring and recording the impact of blasting works on the surrounding environment. Currently, there are 30 measuring devices in 10 open-pit mines, and additional 8 devices are used to provide periodic measurement and recording services for the mines concerned.

  14. The use of vibration monitoring to record the blasting works impact on buildings surrounding open-pit mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sołtys, Anna; Pyra, Józef; Winzer, Jan

    2018-04-01

    Environmental protection law and geological and mining law require the mineral mining plant to protect its surroundings from the effects of mining operations. This also applies to the negative impact of vibrations induced by blasting works on people and construction facilities. Effective protection is only possible if the level of this impact is known, therefore it is necessary to record it. The thesis formulated in this way has been and continues to be the guiding principle of the research works carried out in the AGH Laboratory of Blasting Work and Environmental Protection. As a result of these works are procedures for conducting preventive activities by open-pit mines in order to minimize the impact of blasting on facilities in the surrounding area. An important element of this activity is the monitoring of vibrations in constructions, which is a source of knowledge for excavation supervisors and engineers performing blasting works, thus contributing to raising the awareness of the responsible operation of the mining plant. Developed in the Laboratory of the Mine's Vibration Monitoring Station (KSMD), after several modernizations, it became a fully automated system for monitoring and recording the impact of blasting works on the surrounding environment. Currently, there are 30 measuring devices in 10 open-pit mines, and additional 8 devices are used to provide periodic measurement and recording services for the mines concerned.

  15. Typical whole body vibration exposure magnitudes encountered in the open pit mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Bryan; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Don

    2009-01-01

    According to recent research, a causal link has been established between occupational exposure to whole body vibration and an increased occurrence of low back pain. To aid in the further development of an in-house health and safety program for a large open pit mining facility interested in reducing back pain among its operators, whole body vibration magnitudes were characterized for a range of jobs. Specifically, thirty-five individual jobs from five different areas across the facility were evaluated for tri-axial acceleration levels during normal operating conditions. Tri-axial acceleration magnitudes were categorized into thirteen job groups. Job groups were ranked according to exposure and compared to the ISO 2631-1 standard for health risk assessment. Three of the thirteen job groups produced tri-axial acceleration magnitudes below the ISO 2631-1 low/moderate health caution limit for a twelve hour exposure. Six of the thirteen job groups produced exposures within the moderate health risk range. Four job groups were found to subject operators to WBV acceleration magnitudes above the moderate/high health caution limit.

  16. Restoration of open pit lignite mining in the former GDR: lessons to be learnt from Zwenkau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegand, U.; Schreck, P.; Schreiter, P.; Lerche, I.; Glaesser, W. [Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle (UFZ), Halle (Germany) Dept. of Hydrogeology

    2003-07-01

    The interactions have been investigated between the near-surface sediments of the sediment dumping at the Zwenkau open pit near Leipzig, used for extraction of lignite, and the produced mining water. These environmental impacts are the legacy of the energy policy of the former GDR. The pyrite oxidation that takes place in the overburden sediments causes the formation of an oxidation front and the pH-value of sediments falls to about 2 to 3 very soon after deposition. The primary mineral contents are destroyed and a considerable number of elements are mobilized that remain locally in the sediment pores. Because of the very weak seepage, rainfall remains in the alluvial areas as so called dump lakes. The dump lakes are very acidic because the rainwater transport the mobilized elements from the surface. Autochthonous and allochthonous formations of secondary minerals have been observed and analysed. A continuously ongoing interaction of exogenous and endogenous effects hinders the hydrological and geochemical equilibrium stabilization. What to do with such a 'moonscape' is considered in the conclusions. 21 refs., 8 figs.

  17. A genetic algorithm approach for open-pit mine production scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aref Alipour

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In an Open-Pit Production Scheduling (OPPS problem, the goal is to determine the mining sequence of an orebody as a block model. In this article, linear programing formulation is used to aim this goal. OPPS problem is known as an NP-hard problem, so an exact mathematical model cannot be applied to solve in the real state. Genetic Algorithm (GA is a well-known member of evolutionary algorithms that widely are utilized to solve NP-hard problems. Herein, GA is implemented in a hypothetical Two-Dimensional (2D copper orebody model. The orebody is featured as two-dimensional (2D array of blocks. Likewise, counterpart 2D GA array was used to represent the OPPS problem’s solution space. Thereupon, the fitness function is defined according to the OPPS problem’s objective function to assess the solution domain. Also, new normalization method was used for the handling of block sequencing constraint. A numerical study is performed to compare the solutions of the exact and GA-based methods. It is shown that the gap between GA and the optimal solution by the exact method is less than % 5; hereupon GA is found to be efficiently in solving OPPS problem.

  18. Transitional phase for small steeply dipping ore bodies from open pit to underground mining:a case study from Scandinavian mining industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Syed Alley; Greberg, Jenny; Schunnesson, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    The transition from open pit to underground mining involves drastically changes in the production system. The equipment for underground mining will change as well as the logistics and the transportation system. Demands of rock stability and control will also change in nature and in equipment needed. At the same time the large investments in underground infrastructure and equipment require short lead times to maintain a high cash flow for the companies. Without proper planning many problems ca...

  19. Nonomuraea indica sp. nov., novel actinomycetes isolated from lime-stone open pit mine, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadri, Syed Raziuddin; Tian, Xin-Peng; Zhang, Jing; Li, Jie; Nie, Guo-Xing; Tang, Shu-Kun; Al Ruwaili, Jamal; Agsar, Dayanand; Li, Wen-Jun; Dastager, Syed G

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, nonmotile actinomycete strain designated DRQ-2(T) was isolated from the soil sample collected from lime-stone open pit mine from the Gulbarga region, Karnataka province, India. Strain DRQ-2(T) was identified as a member of the genus Nonomuraea by a polyphasic approach. Strain DRQ-2(T) could be differentiated from other members of the genus Nonomuraea on the basis of physiology and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of strain DRQ-2(T) showed highest sequence similarity to Nonomuraea muscovyensis DSM 45913(T) (99.1%), N. salmonea DSM 43678(T) (98.2%) and N. maheshkhaliensis JCM 13929(T) with 98.0%, respectively. Chemotaxonomic properties showing predominant menaquinones of MK-9 (H4), MK-9(H2) and MK-9(H6), major polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmono methyl ethanolamine (PME), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), hydroxy-PME (OH-PME), hydroxy PE (OH-PEE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), ninhydrin-positive phosphoglycolipid and unknown phospholipid, fatty acids with major amounts of i-C16:0, ai-C15:0 and ai-C17:0 supported allocation of the strain to the genus Nonomuraea. Results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain DRQ-2(T) from closely related species. The genomic DNA G+C content of the organism was 72.5 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotypic and molecular characteristics, strain DRQ-2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name N. indica sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain DRQ-2(T) (=NCIM 5480(T)= CCTCC AA 209050(T)).

  20. An application of discrete mathematics in the design of an open pit mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caccetta, L.; Giannini, L.M.

    1988-09-01

    The determination of the 'optimum pit limit' of a mine is considered to be a fundamental problem in mine planning as it provides information which is essential in the evaluation of the economic potential of a mineral deposit, and in the formulation of long-, intermediate-, and short-range mine plans. A number of mathematical techniques have been proposed to solve this problem, some of the more elaborate ones posing considerable computational problems. In this paper we discuss the development and implementation of a graph-theoretic technique originally proposed by Lerchs and Grossman. Our implementation strategy involves the use of a dynamic programming technique to 'bound' the optimum. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Geomechanical Assessments of Simultaneous Operation in the Case of Transition from Open Pit to Underground Mine in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedbalski, Zbigniew; Nguyen, Phu Minh Vuong; Widzyk-Capehart, Eleonora

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, for a number of reasons, many open pit mines are considering a transition from Open Pit (OP) to Underground (UG) to remain competitive. In OP-UG transition, UG operation is operated simultaneously with the OP operation for a certain period of time. Guidelines for the simultaneous operation of OP and UG are very difficult to establish, as there are very few case studies available. Yet, because of the OP-UG interactions; the operation has a higher safety, technical and management requirements than the OP or UG methods when considered separately. In Vietnam, Cao Son is one of many OP mines, which decided to change the operational system from OP to UG. Simultaneous operation started in 2015 and will be conducted until 2030 when the OP mine Cao Son ends its mining activities. In this paper, selected geomechanical considerations of the simultaneous operation are presented. A number of numerical modelling calculations using finitedifference software with code FLAC were carried out for calibration process, slope stability analysis and the OP-UG interaction analysis for the Cao Son - Khe Cham II-IV mine. Based on the results obtained from numerical modelling, the geomechanical assessments of simultaneous operation Cao Son - Khe Cham II-IV are discussed in this paper.

  2. A decision support system using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) for the optimal environmental reclamation of an open-pit mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascetin, A.

    2007-04-01

    The selection of an optimal reclamation method is one of the most important factors in open-pit design and production planning. It also affects economic considerations in open-pit design as a function of plan location and depth. Furthermore, the selection is a complex multi-person, multi-criteria decision problem. The group decision-making process can be improved by applying a systematic and logical approach to assess the priorities based on the inputs of several specialists from different functional areas within the mine company. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) can be very useful in involving several decision makers with different conflicting objectives to arrive at a consensus decision. In this paper, the selection of an optimal reclamation method using an AHP-based model was evaluated for coal production in an open-pit coal mine located at Seyitomer region in Turkey. The use of the proposed model indicates that it can be applied to improve the group decision making in selecting a reclamation method that satisfies optimal specifications. Also, it is found that the decision process is systematic and using the proposed model can reduce the time taken to select a optimal method.

  3. DETERMINATION OF OPTIMAL CONTOURS OF OPEN PIT MINE DURING OIL SHALE EXPLOITATION, BY MINEX 5.2.3. PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Ignjatović

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available By examination and determination of optimal solution of technological processes of exploitation and oil shale processing from Aleksinac site and with adopted technical solution and exploitation of oil shale, derived a technical solution that optimize contour of the newly defined open pit mine. In the world, this problem is solved by using a computer program that has become the established standard for quick and efficient solution for this problem. One of the computer’s program, which can be used for determination of the optimal contours of open pit mines is Minex 5.2.3. program, produced in Australia in the Surpac Minex Group Pty Ltd Company, which is applied at the Mining and Metallurgy Institute Bor (no. of licenses are SSI - 24765 and SSI - 24766. In this study, authors performed 11 optimization of deposit geo - models in Minex 5.2.3. based on the tests results, performed in a laboratory for soil mechanics of Mining and Metallurgy Institute, Bor, on samples from the site of Aleksinac deposits.

  4. MINE-NEC - A Game for the Analysis of Regional Water Policies in Open-Pit Lignite Mining Areas: An Improved Implementation for the NEC PC-8201A

    OpenAIRE

    Kaden, S.; Varis, O.

    1986-01-01

    The game MINE was developed for the analysis of regional water policies in open-pit lignite mining areas. It is implemented for a GDR test area. The purpose of the game is above all to teach decision makers and their staff in mining regions in order to get a better understanding of the complex interrelated socio-economic processes with respect t o water management in such regions. The game is designed to be played by five groups of players representing municipal and industrial water supply, a...

  5. Implications of mining practices in an open-pit gold mine for monitoring of a comprehensive test-ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarpe, S.P.; Moran, B.; Goldstein, P.; Glenn, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of an experiment at the Gold Quarry pit, operated by the Newmont Gold Company at Carlin, NV The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data, together with ''ground truth'', from conventional surface blasting activity and to use these data to help determine the effectiveness with which conventional mining blasts can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions

  6. Drillers and mill operators in an open-pit gold mine are at risk for impaired lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnikov, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Occupational studies of associations of exposures with impaired lung function in mining settings are built on exposure assessment and far less often on workplace approach, so the aim of this study was to identify vulnerable occupational groups for early lung function reduction in a cohort of healthy young miners. Data from annual screening lung function tests in gold mining company in Kyrgyzstan were linked to occupations. We compared per cent predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC between occupational groups and tested selected occupations in multivariate regression adjusted for smoking and work duration for the following outcomes: FEV1 open-pit mine for reduced lung function. Occupational medical clinic at site should follow-up workers in these occupations with depth and strongly recommend smoking cessation.

  7. Groundwater age, mixing and flow rates in the vicinity of large open pit mines, Pilbara region, northwestern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Peter; Dogramaci, Shawan; McCallum, James; Hedley, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Determining groundwater ages from environmental tracer concentrations measured on samples obtained from open bores or long-screened intervals is fraught with difficulty because the sampled water represents a variety of ages. A multi-tracer technique (Cl, 14C, 3H, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113 and SF6) was used to decipher the groundwater ages sampled from long-screened production bores in a regional aquifer around an open pit mine in the Pilbara region of northwest Australia. The changes in tracer concentrations due to continuous dewatering over 7 years (2008-2014) were examined, and the tracer methods were compared. Tracer concentrations suggest that groundwater samples are a mixture of young and old water; the former is inferred to represent localised recharge from an adjacent creek, and the latter to be diffuse recharge. An increase in 14C activity with time in wells closest to the creek suggests that dewatering of the open pit to achieve dry mining conditions has resulted in change in flow direction, so that localised recharge from the creek now forms a larger proportion of the pumped groundwater. The recharge rate prior to development, calculated from a steady-state Cl mass balance, is 6 mm/y, and is consistent with calculations based on the 14C activity. Changes in CFC-12 concentrations with time may be related to the change in water-table position relative to the depth of the well screen.

  8. Geotechnical approach for occupational safety risk analysis of critical slope in open pit mining as implication for earthquake hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munirwansyah; Irsyam, Masyhur; Munirwan, Reza P.; Yunita, Halida; Zulfan Usrina, M.

    2018-05-01

    Occupational safety and health (OSH) is a planned effort to prevent accidents and diseases caused by work. In conducting mining activities often occur work accidents caused by unsafe field conditions. In open mine area, there is often a slump due to unstable slopes, which can disrupt the activities and productivity of mining companies. Based on research on stability of open pit slopes conducted by Febrianti [8], the Meureubo coal mine located in Aceh Barat district, on the slope of mine was indicated unsafe slope conditions, it will be continued research on OSH for landslide which is to understand the stability of the excavation slope and the shape of the slope collapse. Plaxis software was used for this research. After analyzing the slope stability and the effect of landslide on OSH with Job Safety Analysis (JSA) method, to identify the hazard to work safety, risk management analysis will be conducted to classified hazard level and its handling technique. This research aim is to know the level of risk of work accident at the company and its prevention effort. The result of risk analysis research is very high-risk value that is > 350 then the activity must be stopped until the risk can be reduced to reach the risk value limit < 20 which is allowed or accepted.

  9. Efficient using of automobile transport for the deep open-pit mines

    OpenAIRE

    Dastan MAHAMBETOV; Bayan RAKISHEV; Galymzhan SAMENOV; Aleksander SŁADKOWSKI

    2013-01-01

    In the paper the method is proposed of substantiation of the major parameters for zones of effective use of automobile transport of different load-carrying capacity by open cast development of the deep deposits. An efficient ratio is determined between the mining and transport equipment by zone-to -zone use.

  10. The planning and operation of open-pit and strip mines: proceedings of an international conference held at the University of Pretoria, 9-13 April 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deetlefs, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book records the proceedings of the second international conference on the theme of planning and operation of open-pit and strip mines. The conference was held in Pretoria during April 1984. The major portion of South African iron ore and copper is mined in open-pit mines. The rapid expansion of the open-pit and strip mining industry has led to the thriving industry of today. Notable areas of growth have been the introduction of capital-intensive machinery such as walking drag-lines, large capacity shovels, in-pit crushers, extensive use of conveyor belts, large haul tracks and ore-dressing plants. Among other areas where corresponding progress has been made are blasting techniques, maintenance planning, computer applications, and large-scale stock-piling of bulk materials. The conference touched on all these subjects under four main headings: mine planning, mining operations, equipment selection and maintenance, and new developments. One paper looks at open-pit production control at Rossing Uranium Limited

  11. Musculoskeletal symptoms and exposure to whole-body vibration among open-pit mine workers in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burström, Lage; Aminoff, Anna; Björ, Bodil; Mänttäri, Satu; Nilsson, Tohr; Pettersson, Hans; Rintamäki, Hannu; Rödin, Ingemar; Shilov, Victor; Talykova, Ljudmila; Vaktskjold, Arild; Wahlström, Jens

    2017-06-19

    This cross-sectional questionnaire study was carried out at 4 open-pit mines in Finland, Norway, Russia and Sweden as part of the MineHealth project. The aim has been to compare the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms between drivers of mining vehicles and non-drivers. The mine workers were asked whether they had suffered from any musculoskeletal symptoms during the previous 12 months in specified body regions, and to grade the severity of these symptoms during the past month. They were also asked about their daily driving of mining vehicles. The questionnaire was completed by 1323 workers (757 vehicle drivers) and the reported prevalence and severity of symptoms were highest for the lower back, followed by pain in the neck, shoulder and upper back. Drivers in the Nordic mines reported fewer symptoms than non-drivers, while for Russian mine workers the results were the opposite of that. The daily driving of mining vehicles had no significant association with the risk of symptoms. Female drivers indicated a higher prevalence of symptoms as compared to male drivers. The study provided only weak support for the hypothesis that drivers of vehicles reported a higher prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms than non-vehicle drivers. There were marked differences in the prevalence of symptoms among workers in various enterprises, even though the nature of the job tasks was similar. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(4):553-564. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  12. A mineral quantification method for wall rocks at open pit mines, and application to the Martha Au-Ag mine, Waihi, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castendyk, Devin N.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Webster, Jenny G.

    2005-01-01

    Pit lakes that result from open pit mining are potential water resources or potential environmental problems, depending on lake water quality. Wall rock mineralogy can affect lake chemistry if surface water inputs and/or groundwater inputs and/or lake water in contact with submerged wall rocks react with the wall rock minerals. This study presents a mineral quantification method to measure the distribution and concentration of wall rock minerals in open pit mines, and applies the method to the Martha epithermal Au-Ag mine, Waihi, New Zealand. Heterogeneous ore deposits, like Martha, require a large number of wall rock samples to accurately define mineral distributions. X-ray diffraction analyses of 125 wall rock samples identified the most abundant minerals in the wall rocks as quartz, adularia, albite, illite, chlorite, kaolinite, pyrite and calcite. Distribution maps of these minerals defined 8 relatively homogenous areas of wall rock referred to as 'mineral associations': weakly-altered, propylitic, fresh-argillic, weathered-argillic, oxidized, potassic, quartz veins, and post-mineralization deposits. X-ray fluorescence, Leco furnace, and neutron activation analyses of 46 representative samples produced the geochemical dataset used to assign quantities of elements to observed minerals, and to calculate average mineral concentrations in each association. Thin-section petrography and calcite concentrations from Sobek acid-digestions confirm the calculated mineralogy, providing validation for the method. Calcite and pyrite concentrations allowed advanced acid-base accounting for each mineral association, identifying 3 potential acid-producing associations and one potential acid-neutralizing association. The results target areas, where detailed hydrologic and kinetic tests would be valuable in the next stage of pit lake evaluation. Detailed understanding of wall rock mineralogy will help strengthen predictions of pit lake water quality

  13. A mineral quantification method for wall rocks at open pit mines, and application to the Martha Au-Ag mine, Waihi, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castendyk, Devin N. [Environmental Science, SGES, University of Auckland, Tamaki Campus, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)]. E-mail: d.castendyk@auckland.ac.nz; Mauk, Jeffrey L. [Geology Department, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Webster, Jenny G. [Environmental Science, SGES, University of Auckland, Tamaki Campus, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2005-01-01

    Pit lakes that result from open pit mining are potential water resources or potential environmental problems, depending on lake water quality. Wall rock mineralogy can affect lake chemistry if surface water inputs and/or groundwater inputs and/or lake water in contact with submerged wall rocks react with the wall rock minerals. This study presents a mineral quantification method to measure the distribution and concentration of wall rock minerals in open pit mines, and applies the method to the Martha epithermal Au-Ag mine, Waihi, New Zealand. Heterogeneous ore deposits, like Martha, require a large number of wall rock samples to accurately define mineral distributions. X-ray diffraction analyses of 125 wall rock samples identified the most abundant minerals in the wall rocks as quartz, adularia, albite, illite, chlorite, kaolinite, pyrite and calcite. Distribution maps of these minerals defined 8 relatively homogenous areas of wall rock referred to as 'mineral associations': weakly-altered, propylitic, fresh-argillic, weathered-argillic, oxidized, potassic, quartz veins, and post-mineralization deposits. X-ray fluorescence, Leco furnace, and neutron activation analyses of 46 representative samples produced the geochemical dataset used to assign quantities of elements to observed minerals, and to calculate average mineral concentrations in each association. Thin-section petrography and calcite concentrations from Sobek acid-digestions confirm the calculated mineralogy, providing validation for the method. Calcite and pyrite concentrations allowed advanced acid-base accounting for each mineral association, identifying 3 potential acid-producing associations and one potential acid-neutralizing association. The results target areas, where detailed hydrologic and kinetic tests would be valuable in the next stage of pit lake evaluation. Detailed understanding of wall rock mineralogy will help strengthen predictions of pit lake water quality.

  14. Development of an on-line coal quality management system in a lignite open pit mine in Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, B. [Montan Bildungs-und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH, Theiben, (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presented a study regarding the development of a coal quality management system (CQMS) for two open pit mines located in Serbia called Tamnava West and Veliki Crljeni. The study was based on on-line measurements, and was commissioned by the public energy corporation Elektroprivreda Srbjie. The purpose of the study was to develop a CQMS that met the quality requirements of the power plants by implementing a rigorous exploration, production planning, and production monitoring system in order to control the production according to certain quality parameters. The paper provided general information and described the initial situation. It also presented an analysis of the necessity to introduce a production monitoring and control system. The setup and layout of a production monitoring and control system based on on-line measurements were outlined, with particular reference to the determination of input parameters for every excavator for the tracking of masses; the simulation of mass tracking and summation of the masses at the transfer points towards the major conveyor; and the monitoring of the output and control of the mass flow according to determined limit values. Recommendations for implementation were also discussed. It was concluded that the newly developed CQMS at Tamnava West open pit mine could be classified as uncomplicated with regard to the quality parameters to be controlled, since currently only calorific value was being controlled. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Study on sand particles creep model and open pit mine landslide mechanism caused by sand fatigue liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Dong-Ning; Wang, Lai-Gui; Zhang, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Shu-Kun

    2017-06-01

    The sand particles in the sand - rock composite slope of the open pit mine occurs creep deformation and fatigue liquefaction under the action of vehicle load vibration and hydraulic gradient, which causes landslide geological disasters and it destroys the surface environment. To reveal the mechanism, a mechanics model based on the model considering the soil structural change with a new “plastic hinge” element is developed, to improve its constitutive and creep curve equations. Data from sand creep experiments are used to identify the parameters in the model and to validate the model. The results show that the mechanical model can describe the rotation progress between the sand particles, disclose the negative acceleration creep deformation stage during the third phase, and require fewer parameters while maintaining accuracy. It provides a new creep model considering rotation to analyze sand creep mechanism, which provides a theoretical basis for revealing the open pit mine landslide mechanism induced by creep deformation and fatigue liquefaction of sandy soil.

  16. Novel approach for extinguishing large-scale coal fires using gas-liquid foams in open pit mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinxiao; Wang, Deming; Qin, Botao; Tian, Fuchao; Shi, Guangyi; Dong, Shuaijun

    2015-12-01

    Coal fires are a serious threat to the workers' security and safe production in open pit mines. The coal fire source is hidden and innumerable, and the large-area cavity is prevalent in the coal seam after the coal burned, causing the conventional extinguishment technology difficult to work. Foams are considered as an efficient means of fire extinguishment in these large-scale workplaces. A noble foam preparation method is introduced, and an original design of cavitation jet device is proposed to add foaming agent stably. The jet cavitation occurs when the water flow rate and pressure ratio reach specified values. Through self-building foaming system, the high performance foams are produced and then infused into the blast drilling holes at a large flow. Without complicated operation, this system is found to be very suitable for extinguishing large-scale coal fires. Field application shows that foam generation adopting the proposed key technology makes a good fire extinguishment effect. The temperature reduction using foams is 6-7 times higher than water, and CO concentration is reduced from 9.43 to 0.092‰ in the drilling hole. The coal fires are controlled successfully in open pit mines, ensuring the normal production as well as the security of personnel and equipment.

  17. Evaluation of groundwater pollution in a mining area using analytical solution: a case study of the Yimin open-pit mine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianxin; Li, Li; Song, Hongqing; Meng, Linglong; Zhang, Shuli; Huang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on using analytical and numerical models to develop and manage groundwater resources, and predict the effects of management measurements in the groundwater system. Movement of contaminants can be studied based on groundwater flow characteristics. This study can be used for prediction of ion concentration and evaluation of groundwater pollution as the theoretical basis. The Yimin open-pit mine is located in the northern part of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. High concentrations of iron and manganese are observed in Yimin open-pit mine because of exploitation and pumping that have increased the concentration of the ions in groundwater. In this study, iron was considered as an index of contamination, and the solute model was calibrated using concentration observations from 14 wells in 2014. The groundwater flow model and analytical solutions were used in this study to forecast pollution concentration and variation trend after calibration. With continuous pumping, contaminants will migrate, and become enriched, towards the wellhead in the flow direction. The concentration of the contaminants and the range of pollution increase with the flow rate increased. The suitable flow rate of single well should be open-pit for the standard value of pollution concentration.

  18. Investigation of aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from an open-pit uranium mine by passive vinyl collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, H.B.; Koperski, J.

    1991-01-01

    Detailed investigations of the aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from the biggest open-pit U mining and milling operation in Australia were carried out. Spatial distributions of the long-lived radionuclides of 238 U series and their origin, i.e., mining and milling operations vs. natural background radiation, have been studied. Horizontal flux, dry deposition, and ground resuspension of the radionuclides were investigated along a 50-km transect in the direction of the prevailing monsoonal winds in the region. The study was performed by means of unconventional 'sticky vinyl' passive dust collectors, occasionally supported by high-volume air filter samplers. The data from the flux measurements show an inverse square to inverse cubic dependence, and the dry deposition exhibits an inverse square dependence, of radionuclide load vs. distance. The pit has been the predominant contributor of long-lived U series radionuclides to the environment within the radius of several kilometers from the operations. An aerial dispersion computer code (LUCIFER), based on a Gaussian plume model, was developed for the project. Experimental data were used as the code input data. Good agreement between the measured data and the normalized computed results was obtained

  19. Development of broadleaved woodland on colliery and open pit coal mines in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, R.N.; McQuire, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    Broadleaved woodland is an important land use and vegetation type in the United Kingdom (UK), and potentially the most effective landscape and restoration treatment for colliery waste tips and open pit coal sites. A field-based national survey of collieries in England and Wales in 1986 and 1987 showed that establishment was satisfactory in only half of the schemes, and growth was deemed satisfactory in less than one-fifth. There are standard forestry practices whereby stock quality can be assured, and herbaceous vegetation controlled or eliminated by the use of herbicides. During the restoration of the site, depending on choice of species, adequate soil water can be provided by the selection of appropriate soil types and thicknesses, and adoption of appropriate soil handling and decompaction practices. The low affinity of the plantations with local and regional types was partly due to the planting of non-native species and partly due to the failure to match species with site and soil characteristics. There is no reason why woodlands of a local and regional character cannot be established by planting the associated species. A matrix of fast-growing tree and/or shrub species should be used to promote early woodland development. These would be removed during normal management which is essential for the ultimate success of the woodland. Planting schemes should also incorporate woodland structural elements and understory and ground flora species. Provided that these measures are fully implemented, significant improvements in establishment, growth, and woodland development on restored sites should be achieved

  20. Long-Term Planning for Open Pits for Mining Sulphide-Oxide Ores in Order to Achieve Maximum Profit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kržanović, Daniel; Conić, Vesna; Stevanović, Dejan; Kolonja, Božo; Vaduvesković, Jovan

    2017-12-01

    Profitable exploitation of mineralised material from the earth's crust is a complex and difficult task that depends on a comprehensive planning process. Answering the question of how to plan production depends on the geometry of the deposit, as well as the concentration, distribution, and type of minerals in it. The complex nature of mineral deposits largely determines the method of exploitation and profitability of mining operations. In addition to unit operating costs and metal prices, the optimal recovery of and achievement of maximum profit from deposits of sulphide-oxide ores also depend, to a significant extent, on the level of technological recovery achieved in the ore processing procedure. Therefore, in defining a long-term development strategy for open pits, special attention must be paid to the selection of an optimal procedure for ore processing in order to achieve the main objective: maximising the Net Present Value (NPV). The effect of using two different processes, flotation processing and hydrometallurgical methods (bioleaching acid leaching), on determining the ultimate pit is shown in the case of the Kraku Bugaresku-Cementacija sulphide-oxide ore deposit in eastern Serbia. Analysis shows that the application of hydrometallurgical methods of processing sulphide-oxide ore achieved an increase in NPV of 20.42%.

  1. Effect of stage development of mining operations on maximization the net present value in long-term planning of open pits

    OpenAIRE

    Kržanović, Daniel; Rajković, Radmilo; Mikić, Miomir; Ljubojev, Milenko

    2014-01-01

    Long-term planning in the mining industry has one main goal: maximizing the value that is realized by excavation and processing of mineral resources. When designing the open pits, determining the stages of development the mining operations, (eng. Pushback) is one of the important factors in the process of long-term production planning. Using the different scientific methods and mathematical algorithms underlying the operation of modern software for strategic planning of production, it is poss...

  2. Open-pit construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The conceptual design of a nuclear power plant accordingly to SR 136, situated in deep open pits in rock near the brink of a plateau and accessible from above as well as horizontally from the receiving stream, was further worked out. The increased backfill covering enables the reactor building to withstand heavier external forces and higher internal pressure caused by contaminated atmosphere in the event of severe hypothetical internal accidents. The leakage of this atmosphere is to be collected in special condensation rooms and another part of it is to be cooled down in these rooms. An outer safety barrier and leakage extraction fans keep this atmosphere substantially enclosed. By that means the consequences of a core melt accident will be reduced considerably. (orig.) [de

  3. THE MEASUREMENT OF SELECTED SOIL PARAMETERS OF FORMER OPEN PIT MINE WITH THE USE OF TRIAXIAL STRESS APPARATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz P. KOGUT

    Full Text Available Identification of geotechnical soil conditions often requires execution of laboratory tests, especially if you want to measure dynamic parameters of the soil. At present, the triaxial shear apparatus is widely applied in determination of the parameters of the soil. On the basis of the soil samples analysis, the examination results provide a wide range of data from basic performance parameters, e.g. internal friction angle and cohesion, to most complex ones like Young’s modulus permanent side effective stress of water samples. Furthermore, the Soil Structure Interaction Laboratory of Cracow University of Technology, has carried out the measurements of propagation of shear waves velocity with the use of bender elements tests. This work presents geotechnical conditions and the analysis of the results, which might be found useful to determine the transportation load parameters of designed S-7 and S-52 routes, as well as overall impact on soil/structure and surrounding areas located over the former clay open-pit mine. The landslides existing in the vicinity of the mine have prompted the authors to take that action.

  4. Bacterial community composition in the water column of a lake formed by a former uranium open pit mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edberg, Frida; Andersson, Anders F; Holmström, Sara J M

    2012-11-01

    Mining of pyrite minerals is a major environmental issue involving both biological and geochemical processes. Here we present a study of an artificial lake of a former uranium open pit mine with the aim to connect the chemistry and bacterial community composition (454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes) in the stratified water column. A shift in the water chemistry from oxic conditions in the epilimnion to anoxic, alkaline, and metal and sulfide-rich conditions in the hypolimnion was corresponded by a strong shift in the bacterial community, with few shared operational taxonomic units (OTU) between the water layers. The epilimnetic bacterial community of the lake (~20 years old) showed similarities to other temperate freshwater lakes, while the hypolimnetic bacterial community showed similarity to extreme chemical environments. The epilimnetic bacterial community had dominance of Actinobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. The hypolimnion displayed a higher bacterial diversity and was dominated by the phototrophic green sulphur bacterium of the genus Chlorobium (ca. 40 % of the total community). Deltaproteobacteria were only represented in the hypolimnion and the most abundant OTUs were affiliated with ferric iron and sulfate reducers of the genus Geobacter and Desulfobulbus, respectively. The chemistry is clearly controlling, especially the hypolimnetic, bacterial community but the community composition also indicates that the bacteria are involved in metal cycling in the lake.

  5. Application of Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) for assessment of occupational heat stress in open-pit mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiri, Parvin; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Golbabaei, Farideh; Dehghan, Somayeh Farhang; Rafieepour, Athena; Mortezapour, Ali Reza; Asghari, Mehdi

    2017-10-07

    The purpose of this article is to examine the applicability of Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) index as an innovative index for evaluating of occupational heat stress in outdoor environments. 175 workers of 12 open-pit mines in Tehran, Iran were selected for this research study. First, the environmental variables such as air temperature, wet-bulb temperature, globe temperature, relative humidity and air flow rate were measured; then UTCI, wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and heat stress index (HSI) indices were calculated. Simultaneously, physiological parameters including heart rate, oral temperature, tympanic temperature and skin temperature of workers were measured. UTCI and WBGT are positively significantly correlated with all environmental parameters (p0.05). Moreover, a strong significant relationship was found between UTCI and WBGT (r=0.95; p<0.001). The significant positive correlations exist between physiological parameters including oral temperature, tympanic and skin temperatures and heart rate and both the UTCI and WBGT indices (p<0.029). The highest correlation coefficient has been found between the UTCI and physiological parameters. Due to the low humidity and air velocity (~<1 m/s) in understudied mines, UTCI index appears to be appropriate to assess the occupational heat stress in these outdoor workplaces.

  6. Field measurements of mixed exposure of operators to radioactive aerosol, gas and quartz in confinement of mining equipment cabs during open-pit mining of high-grade uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, K.; Atiemo, M.A.; Markham, J.W.

    1982-07-01

    A series of field measurements of miners mixed exposure to radon and daughters, uranium ore dust and respirable quartz, was conducted in an open-pit mine in Northern Saskatchewan during 1980-81. Control of radon gas levels in the mining equipment cabs is required. Dust may be reduced by minimizing the resuspension of dust from contaminated surfaces within the cabs

  7. Ergonomics in the arctic - a study and checklist for heavy machinery in open pit mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiman, Arto; Sormunen, Erja; Morris, Drew

    2016-11-22

    Heavy mining vehicle operators at arctic mines have a high risk of discomfort, musculoskeletal disorders and occupational accidents. There is a need for tailored approaches and safety management tools that take into account the specific characteristics of arctic work environments. The aim of this study was to develop a holistic evaluation tool for heavy mining vehicles and operator well-being in arctic mine environments. Data collection was based on design science principles and included literature review, expert observations and participatory ergonomic sessions. As a result of this study, a systemic checklist was developed and tested by eight individuals in a 350-employee mining environment. The checklist includes sections for evaluating vehicle specific ergonomic and safety aspects from a technological point of view and for checking if the work has been arranged so that it can be performed safely and fluently from an employee's point of view.

  8. Energy Consumption in the Process of Excavator-Automobile Complexes Distribution at Kuzbass Open Pit Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panachev Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year worldwide coal mining companies seek to maintain the tendency of the mining machine fleet renewal. Various activities to maintain the service life of already operated mining equipment are implemented. In this regard, the urgent issue is the problem of efficient distribution of available machines in different geological conditions. The problem of “excavator-automobile” complex effective distribution occurs when heavy dump trucks are used in mining. For this reason, excavation and transportation of blasted rock mass are the most labor intensive and costly processes, considering the volume of transported overburden and coal, as well as diesel fuel, electricity, fuel and lubricants costs, consumables for repair works and downtime, etc. Currently, it is recommended to take the number of loading buckets in the range of 3 to 5, according to which the dump trucks are distributed to faces.

  9. Determination of the radioactive aerosols transport coefficients generated in open pit uranium mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo Py Junior, D. de.

    1978-01-01

    The classical atmospheric transport model is applied to uranium mining operations. Among the transport parameters there is one concerned with radioactive decay, but it does not include the radioactive decay series which is the specific case for uranium. Therefore, an extension of the transport theory is developed and tested, giving results greater than the ones obtained with the classical model, as expected. (author)

  10. Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower using abandoned open pit mines: influence of groundwater seepage on the system efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Pumped Storage Hydropower (PSH) plants can be used to manage the production of electrical energy according to the demand. These plants allow storing and generating electricity during low and high demand energy periods, respectively. Nevertheless, PSH plants require a determined topography because two reservoirs located at different heights are needed. At sites where PSH plants cannot be constructed due to topography requirements (flat regions), Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower (UPSH) plants can be used to adjust the electricity production. These plants consist in two reservoirs, the upper one is located at the surface (or at shallow depth) while the lower one is underground (or deeper). Abandoned open pit mines can be used as lower reservoirs but these are rarely isolated. As a consequence, UPSH plants will interact with surrounding aquifers exchanging groundwater. Groundwater seepage will modify hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir affecting global efficiency of the UPSH plant. The influence on the plant efficiency caused by the interaction between UPSH plants and aquifers will depend on the aquifer parameters, underground reservoir properties and pumping and injection characteristics. The alteration of the efficiency produced by the groundwater exchanges, which has not been previously considered, is now studied numerically. A set of numerical simulations are performed to establish in terms of efficiency the effects of groundwater exchanges and the optimum conditions to locate an UPSH plant.

  11. Using radon-222 for tracing groundwater discharge into an open-pit lignite mining lake--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Axel; Schubert, Michael

    2007-12-01

    Groundwater discharge into an open pit lignite mining lake was investigated using radon-222 as a naturally occurring environmental tracer. The chosen study site was a meromictic lake, i.e., a water body that is divided horizontally into two separate layers--the upper mixolimnion (with seasonal mixing) and the lower monimolimnion (without seasonal mixing). For the estimation of groundwater discharge rates into the lake, a simple box model including all radon sinks and sources related to each layer was applied. Two field investigations were performed. During the October campaign, the total groundwater discharge into the lake was found to be 18.9 and 0.7 m(3) d(-1) for the mixolimnion and monimolimnion, respectively. During the December campaign, the groundwater discharge into the mixolimnion was 15.0 m(3) d(-1), whereas no discharge at all was observed into the monimolimnion. Based on the given water volumes, the residence time of lake water was 5.3 years for the monimolimnion and varies between 0.9 and 1.1 years for the mixolimnion. The investigation confirmed radon to be a useful environmental tracer for groundwater and surface water interactions in meromictic lake environments.

  12. Modelling financial risk in open pit mine projects: Implications for strategic decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Sabour, S.A.; Wood, G.

    2009-01-01

    Strategic decisions in the mining industry are made under multiple technical and market uncertainties. Therefore, to reach the best possible decision, based on information available, it is necessary to integrate uncertainty about the input variables and model financial risk of the project's merit measures. However, this rovides few useful insights to decision-makers unless accompanied by modeling management responses to uncertainty resolutions. It is widely acknowledged that conventional deci...

  13. Integrating geological uncertainty in long-term open pit mine production planning by ant colony optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Seyed-Omid; Sattarvand, Javad

    2016-02-01

    Meeting production targets in terms of ore quantity and quality is critical for a successful mining operation. In-situ grade uncertainty causes both deviations from production targets and general financial deficits. A new stochastic optimization algorithm based on ant colony optimization (ACO) approach is developed herein to integrate geological uncertainty described through a series of the simulated ore bodies. Two different strategies were developed based on a single predefined probability value (Prob) and multiple probability values (Pro bnt) , respectively in order to improve the initial solutions that created by deterministic ACO procedure. Application at the Sungun copper mine in the northwest of Iran demonstrate the abilities of the stochastic approach to create a single schedule and control the risk of deviating from production targets over time and also increase the project value. A comparison between two strategies and traditional approach illustrates that the multiple probability strategy is able to produce better schedules, however, the single predefined probability is more practical in projects requiring of high flexibility degree.

  14. Dispersion and bioaccumulation of elements from an open-pit olivine mine in Southwest Greenland assessed using lichens, seaweeds, mussels and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Jens

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated dispersion and bioaccumulation of mining-related elements from an open-pit olivine mine at Seqi in Southwest Greenland (64° N) using lichens (Flavocetraria nivalis), seaweeds (Fucus vesiculosus), mussels (Mytilus edulis) and fish (Myoxocephalus scorpius). The mine operated between 2005 and 2009, and samples were taken every year within a monitoring area 0-17 km from the mine during the period 2004-2011. A total of 46 elements were analysed in the samples. After mining began, highly elevated metal concentrations, especially nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) and cobalt (Co), were observed in lichens relative to pre-mining levels (up to a factor of 130) caused by dust dispersion from the mining activity. Elevated metal concentrations could be measured in lichens in distances up to ~5 km from the mine/ore treatment facility. Moderately elevated concentrations of Ni and Cr (up to a factor of 7) were also observed in seaweeds and mussels but only in close vicinity (<1 km) to the mine. Analyses of fish showed no significant changes in element composition. After mine closure, the elevated metal concentrations in lichens, seaweeds and mussels decreased markedly, and in 2011, significantly elevated metal concentrations could only be measured in lichens and only within a distance of 1 km from the mine.

  15. The use of geotextile tube containers for dewatering the Restigouche open pit zinc mine and settling pond basin in New Brunswick, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douheret [Terratube, Saint-Romuald, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed the use of geotextile tube containers for the dewatering of an open pit zinc mine and settling pond in New Brunswick (NB). The zinc and lead mine closed in 1996 and will be re-opened in 2007. Remediation of the site has been challenged by severe discharge criteria for treated water, as well as by the different types of wastewater produced at the site, which is located in a mountainous area with no impermeable soil. The remediation projects include an open pit cleaning procedure where water is removed and the mine is then desludged. A wastewater treatment plant will then be installed. More than 32,000 m{sup 3} of sludge has accumulated at the bottom of the pit. The zinc content of the sludge was estimated at 2.5 ppm. The water management phase of the project will include batch treatments and the addition of 140 metric tonnes of lime to raise the pH and to precipitate metal ions. The sludge management program included the use of mechanical dewatering, the construction of a storage area, and the use of geocontainers for dewatering and temporary containment. Seventeen geotextile containers were used to reduce the zinc content of the water to less than the 250 ppb authorized by environmental agencies. The containers were changed once every 2 months. tabs., figs.

  16. Cytogenetic instability in populations with residential proximity to open-pit coal mine in Northern Colombia in relation to PM10 and PM2.5 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espitia-Pérez, Lyda; da Silva, Juliana; Espitia-Pérez, Pedro; Brango, Hugo; Salcedo-Arteaga, Shirley; Hoyos-Giraldo, Luz Stella; de Souza, Claudia T; Dias, Johnny F; Agudelo-Castañeda, Dayana; Valdés Toscano, Ana; Gómez-Pérez, Miguel; Henriques, João A P

    2018-02-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that living in proximity to coal mines is correlated with numerous diseases including cancer, and that exposure to PM 10 and PM 2.5 components could be associated with this phenomenon. However, the understanding of the mechanisms by which PM exerts its adverse effects is still incomplete and comes mainly from studies in occupationally exposed populations. The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate DNA damage in lymphocytes assessing the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay (CBMN-cyt) parameters; (2) identify aneugenic or clastogenic effects in lymphocytes of exposed populations using CREST immunostaining for micronuclei; (3) evaluate multi-elemental composition of atmospheric particulate matter; and (4) verify relation between the DNA damage and PM 2.5 and PM 10 levels around the mining area. Analysis revealed a significant increase in micronuclei frequency in binucleated (MNBN) and mononucleated (MNMONO) cells of individuals with residential proximity to open-pit coal mines compared to residents from non-mining areas. Correlation analysis demonstrated a highly significant association between PM 2.5 levels, MNBN frequencies and CREST+ micronuclei induction in exposed residents. These results suggest that PM 2.5 fraction generated in coal mining activities may induce whole chromosome loss (aneuploidy) preferentially, although there are also chromosome breaks. Analysis of the chemical composition of PM 2.5 by PIXE demonstrated that Si, S, K and Cr concentrations varied significantly between coal mining and reference areas. Enrichment factor values (EF) showed that S, Cr and Cu were highly enriched in the coal mining areas. Compared to reference area, mining regions had also higher concentrations of extractable organic matter (EOM) related to nonpolar and polar compounds. Our results demonstrate that PM 2.5 fraction represents the most important health risk for residents living near open-pit mines, underscoring the need for

  17. Optimization models to reduce CO2 emissions and energy consumption of transport in open pit mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpizar, Maria J.; Morales, Nelson; Wiertz, Jaques [Universidad de Chile (Chile)

    2010-07-01

    In the mining industry, approximately 20% of total cost corresponds to material transportation and, in the case of copper, 25% of the total energy consumed for extraction. These high values, together with growing concerns over excess CO2 emissions, have motivated the development of the optimization models discussed in this paper. The objective was to introduce energy and environmental variables into production planning and scheduling. The methodology includes variables that can save transportation energy and models that decrease material rehandling and hence, the cost of transportation. Two types of variables were adapted in the model: environmental and energetic. The advantage, leaving aside the costs and mileage of transportation, was a reduction in emissions of CO2 and in the amount of diesel used. With the inclusion of blending constraints, this model could be used in milling or other such processes. The results are shown using graphs. It worth noting that rehandling decreased, Cu production increased, and the model was able to calculate the extraction sequence over all time horizons.

  18. Protection and restoration of soil in mining operations which disrupt the surface of the earth, with the open pit method of working minerals (problems, obtained data and recommendations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debelak, M.

    1981-01-01

    A critical analysis is made of the current state and the ways to solve the problem of protection and restoration of the sections of the earth's surface and sources of drinking water which can be disrupted with the open pit method of working minerals. The need is advanced for creating a system of coordination and planning of the activity of all the organizations associated with working minerals, restoration operations and inspection of them. The order of preparation for recultivation during mining operations (in particular, storage of the fertile ground) and conducting them after the end of mining are described.

  19. Testing and modeling the influence of reclamation and control methods for reducing nonpoint mercury emissions associated with industrial open pit gold mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthieu B; Gustin, Mae S

    2013-06-01

    Industrial gold mining is a significant source of mercury (Hg) emission to the atmosphere. To investigate ways to reduce these emissions, reclamation and dust and mercury control methods used at open pit gold mining operations in Nevada were studied in a laboratory setting. Using this information along with field data, and building off previous work, total annual Hg emissions were estimated for two active gold mines in northern Nevada. Results showed that capping mining waste materials with a low-Hg substrate can reduce Hg emissions from 50 to nearly 100%. The spraying of typical dust control solutions often results in higher Hg emissions, especially as materials dry after application. The concentrated application of a dithiocarbamate Hg control reagent appears to reduce Hg emissions, but further testing mimicking the actual distribution of this chemical within an active leach solution is needed to make a more definitive assessment.

  20. Pemodelan Penyebaran Batuan Potensial Pembentuk Asam Pada Kawasan Penambangan Batubara Tambang Terbuka Di Muara Lawa, Kabupaten Kutai Barat, Kalimantan Timur (Modeling Distribution of Rock Potential Acid Forming in Open Pit Coal Mining Areas)

    OpenAIRE

    Devy, Shalaho Dina; Hendrayana, Heru; Putra, Dony Prakasa Eka; Sugiharto, Eko

    2016-01-01

    The impact of open pit coal mining is the emergence of Acid Mine Water (AMD) around the mining environment that affect the quality of the mine water, aquatic biota, water and soil quality. Therefore, early information to anticipate these impacts is the identification potential acid rock and distribution model as a guide for the mining plan. Geological and geochemical study of rocks is important in knowing the distribution of rock Potential Acid Formning (PAF) and Non Acid Forming (NAF). Minin...

  1. Detection and Monitoring of Surface Motions in Active Open Pit Iron Mine in the Amazon Region, Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry with TerraSAR-X Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos E. Hartwig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Scatterer interferometry (PSI represents a powerful tool for the detection and monitoring of tiny surface deformations in vast areas, allowing a better understanding of its triggering mechanisms, planning of mitigation measures, as well as to find better solutions for social and environmental issues. However, there is no record hitherto of its use in active open pit mine in tropical rainforest environment. In this paper we evaluate the use of the PSI technique for the detection and monitoring of mine slope deformations in the N4W iron mine and its surroundings, Pará State, Northern Brazil. The PSI processing was performed with 18 ascending SAR scenes of the TerraSAR-X satellite acquired in the dry season of 2012. The results showed a significant number of widely distributed persistent scatterers. It was observed that most of the study area was stable during the time span. Nevertheless, high deformation rates (312 mm/year were mapped over the mine waste piles, but do not offer any hazard, since they are expected displacements of meters in magnitude for these manmade land structures. Additionally, it was mapped tiny deformation rates in both the east and west flanks of pits 1 and 2. The main underlying reasons can be assigned to the accommodation phenomena of very poor rock masses, to the local geometric variations of the slope cuts, to the geological contact between ironstones and the country rocks, to the exploitation activities, as well as to the major geological structures. This study showed the applicability of the PSI technique using TerraSAR-X scenes in active open pit mines in tropical moist environment. However, the PSI technique is not capable in providing real-time warnings, and faces limitations due to SAR viewing geometry. In this sense, we strongly recommend the use of radar scenes acquired in both ascending and descending orbits, which would also provide a more complete understanding of the deformation patterns.

  2. Study of the Rock Mass Failure Process and Mechanisms During the Transformation from Open-Pit to Underground Mining Based on Microseismic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Yang, Tianhong; Bohnhoff, Marco; Zhang, Penghai; Yu, Qinglei; Zhou, Jingren; Liu, Feiyue

    2018-05-01

    To quantitatively understand the failure process and failure mechanism of a rock mass during the transformation from open-pit mining to underground mining, the Shirengou Iron Mine was selected as an engineering project case study. The study area was determined using the rock mass basic quality classification method and the kinematic analysis method. Based on the analysis of the variations in apparent stress and apparent volume over time, the rock mass failure process was analyzed. According to the recent research on the temporal and spatial change of microseismic events in location, energy, apparent stress, and displacement, the migration characteristics of rock mass damage were studied. A hybrid moment tensor inversion method was used to determine the rock mass fracture source mechanisms, the fracture orientations, and fracture scales. The fracture area can be divided into three zones: Zone A, Zone B, and Zone C. A statistical analysis of the orientation information of the fracture planes orientations was carried out, and four dominant fracture planes were obtained. Finally, the slip tendency analysis method was employed, and the unstable fracture planes were obtained. The results show: (1) The microseismic monitoring and hybrid moment tensor analysis can effectively analyze the failure process and failure mechanism of rock mass, (2) during the transformation from open-pit to underground mining, the failure type of rock mass is mainly shear failure and the tensile failure is mostly concentrated in the roof of goafs, and (3) the rock mass of the pit bottom and the upper of goaf No. 18 have the possibility of further damage.

  3. Uranium in mining water of kaolin open pit in Zarów (Lower Silesia); methodology of determination and genetic remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, N D; Wyszomirski, P; Chruściel, E; Ochoński, A

    1999-11-01

    In this paper, a method of determination of uranium 238 and 234 in mining waters of Andrzej kaolin open pit in Zarów (Lower Silesia) is presented. The method is based on independent measurements of alpha and beta radiation intensities by means of a liquid scintillation spectrometer alpha/beta. The initial volume of water sample was 3 dm3, then it was diminished by chemical preparation to 6 cm3, and then 12 cm3 of scintillator was added. The lower limit of detection (for the measurement time of 8 h) for both 234U and 238U amounted to 0.02 Bq/dm3. For determination of the uranium content in ferruginous sediments precipitating from mining waters of the above-mentioned open pit, gamma ray spectrometry was used. The obtained results may be viewed as a contribution to studies on anomalous uranium concentration within this kaolin deposit. The elevated uranium content, in comparison with its average concentration in the Earth crust, is characteristic for parent rocks of Andrzej kaolin deposit, which are granitoids of Strzegom-Sobótka massif. In connection with it, the high uranium content can be observed not only in kaolin and weakly kaolinised granitoids from the deposit in question, but also in mining waters genetically related with them.

  4. Applying persistent scatterer interferometry for surface displacement mapping in the Azul open pit manganese mine (Amazon region) with TerraSAR-X StripMap data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athayde Pinto, Carolina de; Paradella, Waldir Renato; Mura, José Claudio; Gama, Fabio Furlan; Ribeiro dos Santos, Athos; Silva, Guilherme Gregório; Hartwig, Marcos Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The Azul mining complex, located in the Carajás Mineral Province, Amazon region, encompasses the most important manganese mine in Brazil. Vale S.A. company operates three simultaneous open pit excavations (mines 1, 2, and 3) in the area, which are conducted on rock alteration products of low geomechanical quality related to sandstones, siltstones, and a lateritic cover. In order to monitor ground deformation, 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) StripMap images covering the period of March 2012-April 2013 were used in the investigation. An advanced differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (A-DInSAR) approach based on persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) using an interferometric point target analysis algorithm was applied, and the results showed that most of the area was considered stable during the time span of the synthetic aperture radar acquisitions. However, persistent scatterers (PS) with high deformation rates were mapped over a waste pile, probably related to settlements, and also along the north flank of mine 1, indicative of cut slope movements toward the center of the pit. A spatial relationship of geological structures with PS was observed for this sector of the mine, given by PS showing deformation rates concentrated along a structural corridor with faults, fractures, and folds related to the Carajás fault system. Though only ground-based radar measurements for wall benches of mine 1 were available for a short time period of the TSX-1 coverage, the PS movement patterns showed concordance with geotechnical field measurements. The investigation emphasized the important role that satellite-based A-DInSAR can play for deformation monitoring and risk assessment in this kind of mining area.

  5. Important improvement of utilization the available geological reserves of the South mining district deposit in Majdanpek in the new defined optimum contour of the open pit using the Whittle and Gemcom softwares

    OpenAIRE

    Kržanović, Daniel; Žikić, Miodrag; Pantović, Radoje

    2012-01-01

    A significant increase in copper prices on the World Metal Exchange, whose lower limit in the long term will not be under $ 6,000 per ton of cathode copper, and reduction the operating costs of ore mining by introduction the high capacity mining equipment in the production process, requires a new consideration of the open pit South Mining District Majdanpek and defining the new final (optimum) limit of mining for the given techno economic parameters. Using the modern software tools for strate...

  6. Use of overburden rocks from open-pit coal mines and waste coals of Western Siberia for ceramic brick production with a defect-free structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolboushkin, A. Yu; Ivanov, A. I.; Storozhenko, G. I.; Syromyasov, V. A.; Akst, D. V.

    2017-09-01

    The rational technology for the production of ceramic bricks with a defect-free structure from coal mining and processing wastes was developed. The results of comparison of physical and mechanical properties and the structure of ceramic bricks manufactured from overburden rocks and waste coal with traditional for semi-dry pressing mass preparation and according to the developed method are given. It was established that a homogeneous, defect-free brick texture obtained from overburden rocks of open-pit mines and waste coal improves the quality of ceramic wall materials produced by the method of compression molding by more than 1.5 times compared to the brick with a traditional mass preparation.

  7. Tanacetum vulgare as a bioindicator of trace-metal contamination: a study of a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasion, Mateusz; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the possibility of use of Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) as an ecological indicator of metal concentration in a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine in Bełchatów (Poland). Tanacetum vulgare is the only species growing abundantly and spontaneously in the lignite mine waste dumps. Metal concentrations in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and soil were measured in dump sites differing in type and time of reclamation and therefore differing in pollution levels. Tanacetum vulgare appeared to be an accumulator of chromium and iron in roots, whereas highest concentrations of manganese and zinc were found in leaves. A high bioaccumulation factor for cadmium (Cd) was observed in dumps and control sites, indicating that even small amounts of Cd in the environment may result in significant uptake by the plant. The lowest concentrations of metals were found in plants from sites situated on dumps reclaimed with argillaceous limestone.

  8. Comparison between the application of the conventional mine planning and of the direct block scheduling on an open pit mine Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Alves Campos

    Full Text Available Abstract Historically, since the 60's, traditional mine planning consists of several distinct stages: 1 Definition of the ultimate pit - the portion of the blocks that results in the greatest total value; 2 Pushback selection - based on the generation of nested pits, obtained with the change in the value of the ore price; 3 Long-term production scheduling. Although considered quite satisfactory, this methodology presents some flaws: The stages, even if considered individually optimal, may not be when put together. The opportunity cost is not considered and the cut-off is fixed. Due to the recent computational advances, a new technique has been growing and is more reliable: the direct block sequencing. In this methodology, the steps are consolidated into only one process, improving the economic results, reducing the total execution time and obtaining, in fact, an optimal planning. The aim of this work is to compare the results of the two planning methods applied in a database of a Brazilian iron ore mine and to show the real advantages and disadvantages of each one. To solve the direct block sequencing technique, Doppler was used, a tool developed by Delphos Mine Planning Laboratory, located at the University of Chile. The traditional methodology was executed through Whittle software. Lastly, a medium-term scheduling was performed using Deswik software.

  9. Determination of Seismic Safety Zones during the Surface Mining Operation Development in the Case of the “Buvač” Open Pit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Malbasic

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the blasting safety area is a very important step in the process of drilling and blasting works, and the preparation of solid rock materials for loading. Through monitoring and analysis of the negative seismic effects to the objects and infrastructures around and at the mine area, we were able to adapt the drilling and blasting parameters and organization of drilling and blasting operation according to the mining progress so that the affected infrastructures could be protected. This paper analyses the safety distances and model safety zones of drilling and blasting for the period 2013–2018 at the open pit at “Buvač”, Omarska. This mathematical calculation procedure can be used during the whole life of the mine. By monitoring of the blasting seismic influence in first years of the mine's work, as well as by using recorded vibration velocities, mathematical dependence of the important parameters can be defined. Additionally, the level and laws of distribution and intensity of the seismic activity can be defined. On one hand, those are known quantities of the explosive and the distances between blasting location and endangered objects. On the other hand, those are coefficients of the manner of blasting and the environment where blasting is done, K, as well as the coefficient of the weakening of seismic waves as they spread, n. With the usage of the allowed vibration velocities, based on certain safety criteria and mathematical formulas of laws of spreading and intensity of seismic influence for a concrete case, it is possible to calculate explosive quantities and distances, with numerically-defined values of parameter K and n. Minimum distances are calculated based on defined or projected explosive quantities. Additionally, we calculate the maximum allowed explosive quantities based on known distances which can be used based on projected drilling-blasting parameters. For the purpose of the planning of drilling and blasting

  10. The analysis of the Tectonics - SSS - Seismicity System in the 3D-model of the Rasvumchorr Mine - Central Open Pit Natural and Technical System (Khibiny)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirov, Dmitry; Klimov, Sergey; Zhirova, Anzhela; Panteleev, Alexey; Rybin, Vadim

    2017-04-01

    Main hazardous factors during the operation of deposits represent tectonics (structural dislocation), strain and stress state (SSS), and seismicity. The cause and effect relationships in the Fault Tectonics - SSS - Seismicity system were analyzed using a 3D geological and structural Rasvumchorr Mine - Central Open Pit model. This natural and technical system (NTS) has resulted from the development of the world-class apatite-nepheline deposits the Apatite Circus and Rasvumchorr Plateau. The 3D model integrates various spatial data on the earth's surface topography before and after mining, geometry of mines and dumps, SSS measurements and rock pressure, seismicity, fault tectonics and etc. The analysis of the 3D model has clearly demonstrated the localization of three main seismic emanation zones in the areas of maximum anthropogenic variation of the initial rock state, and namely: ore pass zone under the Southern edge of the Central open pit, collapse and joining zone of the Rasvumchorr Mine and NW edge of the open pit, and zone under the Apatite Circus plate - collapse console. And, on the contrary, in the area of a large dump under the underground mine, a perennial seismic minimum zone was identified. The relation of the seismicity and fault tectonics was revealed only in three local sectors near come certain echelon fissures of the Main Fault(MF). No confinement of increased seismicity areas to the MF and other numerous echelon fissures is observed. The same picture occurs towards manifestations of rock pressure. Only an insignificant part of echelon fissures (including low rank of hierarchy) controls hazardous manifestations of rock pressure (dumps, strong deformations of the mine contour, etc.). It is shown that the anthropogenic factor (explosive, geometry and arrangement of mined spaces and collapse console), as well as the time factor significantly change orientation and structure (contrast and heterogeneity) of the stress fields. Time series of natural

  11. Seasonal dynamics of the photosynthetic pigments content in Populus tremula L. leaves at the adaptation on an open-pit coal mine revegetating dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Zagurskaya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal dynamics of the basic photosynthetic pigments (a and b chlorophylls, carotenoids content in the samples of aspen Populus tremula during natural regeneration on a revegetating pit dump of a worked-out coal pit has been studied. The studies were conducted every ten days during the vegetation period in 2015 (June–September on the territory of «Yuzhniy» dump of «Kedrovskiy» open-pit coal mine (Kemerovo region. The pigment content was identified by the means of spectrophotometric detection. The content of photosynthetic pigments in aspen leaves was calculated on oven-dry weight of the leaves, as moisture aspen leaves can greatly vary, and the determination of accuracy of dry matter content higher than the for specific gravity of the sheet. No changes in visible absorption spectrum of acetone extracts indicating pheophytin formation in chlorophylls have been identified. For all variants the larger amount of b chlorophyll was contained in control samples. The largest differences in a/b chlorophylls and chlorophylls/carotenoids ratio were observed in the end of vegetation period. The ratio between a and b chlorophylls of aspen leaves in both cases by the end of the season was considerably lower. The adaptation of aspen photosynthetic system to the revegetating dump conditions was performed due to decrease in the total pigment content and the percent of b chlorophyll in their composition.

  12. Geospatial analysis of residential proximity to open-pit coal mining areas in relation to micronuclei frequency, particulate matter concentration, and elemental enrichment factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espitia-Pérez, Lyda; Arteaga-Pertuz, Marcia; Soto, José Salvador; Espitia-Pérez, Pedro; Salcedo-Arteaga, Shirley; Pastor-Sierra, Karina; Galeano-Páez, Claudia; Brango, Hugo; da Silva, Juliana; Henriques, João A P

    2018-05-03

    During coal surface mining, several activities such as drilling, blasting, loading, and transport produce large quantities of particulate matter (PM) that is directly emitted into the atmosphere. Occupational exposure to this PM has been associated with an increase of DNA damage, but there is a scarcity of data examining the impact of these industrial operations in cytogenetic endpoints frequency and cancer risk of potentially exposed surrounding populations. In this study, we used a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach and Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) methods to perform a spatial and statistical analysis to explore whether exposure to PM 2.5 and PM 10 pollution, and additional factors, including the enrichment of the PM with inorganic elements, contribute to cytogenetic damage in residents living in proximity to an open-pit coal mining area. Results showed a spatial relationship between exposure to elevated concentrations of PM 2.5, PM 10 and micronuclei frequency in binucleated (MNBN) and mononucleated (MNMONO) cells. Active pits, disposal, and storage areas could be identified as the possible emission sources of combustion elements. Mining activities were also correlated with increased concentrations of highly enriched elements like S, Cu and Cr in the atmosphere, corroborating its role in the inorganic elements pollution around coal mines. Elements enriched in the PM 2.5 fraction contributed to increasing of MNBN but seems to be more related to increased MNMONO frequencies and DNA damage accumulated in vivo. The combined use of GIS and IDW methods could represent an important tool for monitoring potential cancer risk associated to dynamically distributed variables like the PM. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Monitoring of surface deformation in open pit mine using DInSAR time-series: a case study in the N5W iron mine (Carajás, Brazil) using TerraSAR-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, José C.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Gama, Fabio F.; Santos, Athos R.; Galo, Mauricio; Camargo, Paulo O.; Silva, Arnaldo Q.; Silva, Guilherme G.

    2014-10-01

    We present an investigation of surface deformation using Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) time-series carried out in an active open pit iron mine, the N5W, located in the Carajás Mineral Province (Brazilian Amazon region), using 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) scenes. This mine has presented a historical of instability and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mine (pit walls) have been done based on ground based radar. Two complementary approaches were used: the standard DInSAR configuration, as an early warning of the slope instability conditions, and the DInSAR timeseries analysis. In order to decrease the topographic phase error a high resolution DEM was generated based on a stereo GeoEye-1 pair. Despite the fact that a DinSAR contains atmospheric and topographic phase artifacts and noise, it was possible to detect deformation in some interferometric pairs, covering pit benches, road ramps and waste piles. The timeseries analysis was performed using the 31 interferometric pairs, which were selected based on the highest mean coherence of a stack of 107 interferograms, presenting less phase unwrapping errors. The time-series deformation was retrieved by the Least-Squares (LS) solution using an extension of the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), with a set of additional weighted constrain on the acceleration deformation. The atmospheric phase artifacts were filtered in the space-time domain and the DEM height errors were estimated based on the normal baseline diversity. The DInSAR time-series investigation showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in the N5W mine located in a tropical rainforest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for alarm, planning and risk assessment.

  14. Exploration on feasibility of using in-situ leaching after explosion on the bottom of Huangfengling open pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zuyuan

    1992-01-01

    According to the situation of mining and the faced problems in Huangfengling open pit, it was proposed to use in-situ leaching after explosion to recover uranium in order to overcome the difficulties with open mining of the deposit and high mining cost. The feasibility and necessity of using in-situ leaching after explosion in Huangfengling open pit was explored

  15. Blasthole sampling (replicate and variographic experiments) in LKAB open pit iron ore mines – fit-for-purpose representativity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engström, Karin; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2017-01-01

    The conclusion from the debate over the last decade in the mining sector is that, for grade control, reverse circulation (RC) drill sampling gives more reliable results due to less sampling problems than blasthole samples. However, by conducting the latter with well-controlled procedures there st...

  16. FUNCTIONS OF HYDROLOGICAL OBJECTS IN THE AREAS OF POST-MINING OPEN PIT “WŁADYSŁAWÓW”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Maria Gilewska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Operated by lignite mine “Adams” coal deposits are located in the upland area of ​​the Turkish, belonging to the South Plains macro-region of Wielkopolska. A feature of this region are not only low rainfall, but also the lack of water reservoirs and large rivers. Mining activity has caused major changes in the hydrological network, not just for liquidation, postpone or reconstruction of riverbeds, but also the creation of new objects that collect water. These include settling the waters “dirty”, as well as reservoirs formed in excavation voids as part of a water reclamation. After the end of coal mining operation of these facilities is dependent on hydrology and hydraulic engineering conditions. This problem will be shown on the example of dirty water clarifier and final excavation undergoing water reclamation opencast mining areas Władysławów. Outcrop ended its activities in 2013. The final excavation is no outflow basin with a capacity of 42 million m3, located within the river basin Topiec constituting the left-hand tributary of the Warta.

  17. Mineralogy and characterization of deposited particles of the aero sediments collected in the vicinity of power plants and the open pit coal mine: Kolubara (Serbia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Željko; Logar, Mihovil; Rosić, Aleksandra

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, particular attention was paid to the presence of aerosol solid particles, which occurred mainly as a result of exploitation and coal combustion in the thermal power plants of the Kolubara basin. Not all of the particles created by this type of anthropogenic pollution have an equal impact on human health, but it largely depends on their size and shape. The mineralogical composition and particle size distribution in the samples of aero sediments were defined. The samples were collected close to the power plant and open pit coal mine, in the winter and summer period during the year 2007. The sampling was performed by using precipitators placed in eight locations within the territory of the Lazarevac municipality. In order to characterize the sedimentary particles, several methods were applied: microscopy, SEM-EDX and X-ray powder diffraction. The concentration of aero sediments was also determined during the test period. Variety in the mineralogical composition and particle size depends on the position of the measuring sites, geology of the locations, the annual period of collecting as well as possible interactions. By applying the mentioned methods, the presence of inhalational and respiratory particles variously distributed in the winter and in the summer period was established. The most common minerals are quartz and feldspar. The presence of gypsum, clay minerals, calcite and dolomite as secondary minerals was determined, as well as the participation of organic and inorganic amorphic matter. The presence of quartz as a toxic mineral has a particular impact on human health.

  18. Interior drains for open pit disposal of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staub, W.P.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptualized interior drainage system is presented for reducing the environmental impact on natural groundwater by disposal of uranium mill tailings in the mined-out open pit. The evaporation/seepage ratio can be increased through the use of interior drains, long-term monitoring of groundwater quality can be eliminated, and the open pit will not require an extensive liner. Other advantages not related to groundwater are: control of fugitive dust and radon emanation during mill operations and timely reclamation after the impoundment is filled with tailings

  19. [Comparison of soil fertility among open-pit mine reclaimed lands in Antaibao regenerated with different vegetation types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Li, Jin-chuan; Yue, Jian-ying; Zhou, Xiao-mei; Guo, Chun-yan; Lu, Ning; Wang, Yu-hong; Yang, Sheng-quan

    2013-09-01

    Re-vegetation is mainly applied into regeneration in opencast mine to improve the soil quality. It is very important to choose feasible vegetation types for soil restoration. In this study, three typical forest restoration types were studied at Antaibao mine, namely, Medicago sativa, mixed forests Pinus taebelaefolius-Robinia pseudoacacia-Caragana korshinskii and Elaeagnus angustifolia-Robinia pseudoacacia-Caragana korshinskii-Hipophae rhamnoides, to determine the nutrient contents and enzyme activities in different soil layers. The results showed that re-vegetation markedly increased soil nutrient contents and the enzyme activities during the restoration process. The nutrient content of soil in the P. taebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii mixed forest field was significantly higher than those in other plots. It was found that the soil of the P. taebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii mixed forest had the highest integrated fertility index values. In conclusion, the restoration effects of the P. zaebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. Korshinskii mixed forest was better than that of E. angustifolia-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii-H. rhamnoides, while M. sativa grassland had the least effect.

  20. Spatiotemporal variability and meteorological control of particulate matter pollution in a large open-pit coal mining region in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Rincon, L. A.; Jimenez-Pizarro, R.; Porras-Diaz, H.

    2012-12-01

    Luis Morales-Rincon (1), Hernan Porras-Diaz (1), Rodrigo Jiménez (2,*) (1) Geomatic Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Santander 680002, Colombia; (2) Air Quality Research Group, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, DC 111321, Colombia *Corresponding author: phone +57-1-316-5000 ext. 14099, fax +57-1-316-5334, e-mail rjimenezp@unal.edu.co The semi-desertic area of Central Cesar, Colombia, produced approximately 44 million tons of coal in 2011. This mining activity has been intensively developed since 2005. There are currently 7 large-scale mining projects in that area. The coal industry has strongly impacted not only the ecosystems, but also the neighboring communities around the coal mines. The main goal of the research work was to characterize spatial and temporal variations of particulate matter (total suspended particulates - TSP - and particulate matter below 10 μm - PM10) as measured at various air quality monitoring stations in Cesar's coal industry region as well as to study the relationship between these variability and meteorological factors. The analysis of the meteorological time series of revealed a complex atmospheric circulation in the region. No clear repetitive diurnal circulation patterns were observed, i.e. statistical mean patterns do not physically represent the actual atmospheric circulation. We attribute this complexity to the interdependence between local and synoptic phenomena over a low altitude, relatively flat area. On the other hand, a comparison of air quality in the mining area with a perimeter station indicates that coal industry in central Cesar has a mayor effect on the levels of particulate matter in the region. Particulate matter concentration is highly variable throughout the year. The strong correlation between TSP and PM10 indicates that secondary aerosols are of minor importance. Furthermore, particle

  1. Handling equipment Selection in open pit mines by using an integrated model based on group decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Yazdani-Chamzini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Process of handling equipment selection is one of the most important and basic parts in the project planning, particularly mining projects due to holding a high charge of the total project's cost. Different criteria impact on the handling equipment selection, while these criteria often are in conflicting with each other. Therefore, the process of handling equipment selection is a complex and multi criteria decision making problem. There are a variety of methods for selecting the most appropriate equipment among a set of alternatives. Likewise, according to the sophisticated structure of the problem, imprecise data, less of information, and inherent uncertainty, the usage of the fuzzy sets can be useful. In this study a new integrated model based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP and fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (FTOPSIS is proposed, which uses group decision making to reduce individual errors. In order to calculate the weights of the evaluation criteria, FAHP is utilized in the process of handling equipment selection, and then these weights are inserted to the FTOPSIS computations to select the most appropriate handling system among a pool of alternatives. The results of this study demonstrate the potential application and effectiveness of the proposed model, which can be applied to different types of sophisticated problems in real problems.

  2. Open-pit coal-mining effects on rice paddy soil composition and metal bioavailability to Oryza sativa L. plants in Cam Pha, northeastern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raul E; Marquez, J Eduardo; Hòa, Hoàng Thị Bích; Gieré, Reto

    2013-11-01

    This study quantified Cd, Pb, and Cu content, and the soil-plant transfer factors of these elements in rice paddies within Cam Pha, Quang Ninh province, northeastern Vietnam. The rice paddies are located at a distance of 2 km from the large Coc Sau open-pit coal mine. Electron microprobe analysis combined with backscattered electron imaging and energy-dispersive spectroscopy revealed a relatively high proportion of carbon particles rimmed by an iron sulfide mineral (probably pyrite) in the quartz-clay matrix of rice paddy soils at 20-30 cm depth. Bulk chemical analysis of these soils revealed the presence of Cd, Cu, and Pb at concentrations of 0.146±0.004, 23.3±0.1, and 23.5±0.1 mg/kg which exceeded calculated background concentrations of 0.006±0.004, 1.9±0.5, and 2.4±1.5 mg/kg respectively at one of the sites. Metals and metalloids in Cam Pha rice paddy soils, including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, were found in concentrations ranging from 0.2±0.1 to 140±3 mg/kg, which were in close agreement with toxic metal contents in mine tailings and Coc Sau coal samples, suggesting mining operations as a major cause of paddy soil contamination. Native and model Oryza sativa L. rice plants were grown in the laboratory in a growth medium to which up to 1.5 mg/kg of paddy soil from Cam Pha was added to investigate the effects on plant growth. A decrease in growth by up to 60% with respect to a control sample was found for model plants, whereas a decrease of only 10% was observed for native (Nep cai hoa vang variety) rice plants. This result suggests an adaptation of native Cam Pha rice plants to toxic metals in the agricultural lands. The Cd, Cu, and Pb contents of the native rice plants from Cam Pha paddies exceeded permitted levels in foods. Cadmium and Pb were highest in the rice plant roots with concentrations of 0.84±0.02 and 7.7±0.3 mg/kg, suggesting an intake of these metals into the rice plant as shown, for example, by Cd and Pb concentrations of 0

  3. CHerenkov detectors In mine PitS (CHIPS) Letter of Intent to FNAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Austin, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Cao, S. V. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Coelho, J. A. B. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States); Davies, G. S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Evans, J. J. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Guzowski, P. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Habig, A. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Holin, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Huang, J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Johnson, R. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); St. John, J. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Kreymer, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kordosky, M. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Lang, K. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Marshak, M. L. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Mehdiyev, R. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Meier, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Miller, W. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Naples, D. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nelson, J. K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Nichol, R. J. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Patterson, R. B. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Paolone, V. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Pawloski, G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Perch, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Pfutzner, M. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Proga, M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Qian, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Radovic, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Sanchez, M. C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Schreiner, S. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Soldner-Rembold, S. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Sousa, A. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Thomas, J. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Vahle, P. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Wendt, C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Whitehead, L. H. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Wojcicki, S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2013-12-30

    This Letter of Intent outlines a proposal to build a large, yet cost-effective, 100 kton fiducial mass water Cherenkov detector that will initially run in the NuMI beam line. The CHIPS detector (CHerenkov detector In Mine PitS) will be deployed in a flooded mine pit, removing the necessity and expense of a substantial external structure capable of supporting a large detector mass. There are a number of mine pits in northern Minnesota along the NuMI beam that could be used to deploy such a detector. In particular, the Wentworth Pit 2W is at the ideal off-axis angle to contribute to the measurement of the CP violating phase. The detector is designed so that it can be moved to a mine pit in the LBNE beam line once that becomes operational.

  4. Determination of optimum production capacity and mine life considering net present value in open pit mining at different overall slope angles

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir Malli; Cagatay Pamukcu; Halil Köse

    2015-01-01

    In modern mining industry, with increasing competitive environment and unit costs, it is necessary to evaluate mineral resources optimally from the aspects of economy, safety and environment. On the other hand, production increase is another reality and obligation for today’s mining operations. The activities related to the extraction of ore deposit consist of risky operations, which are a great hazard for capital investments that will take many years. Therefore, in terms of feasibil...

  5. Reliability Analysis of Drilling Operation in Open Pit Mines / Analiza niezawodności urządzeń wiertniczych wykorzystywanych w kopalniach odkrywkowych

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimdel, M. J.; Ataei, M.; Kakaei, R.; Hoseinie, S. H.

    2013-06-01

    Considering the high investment and operation costs, reliability analysis of mining machineries is essential to achieve a lean operation and to prevent the unwanted stoppages. In open pit mining, drilling, as the initial stage of the exploitation operations, has a significant role in the other stages. Failure of drilling machines causes total delay in blasting operation. In this paper, the reliability of drilling operation has been analyzed using the Markov method. The failure and operation data of four heavy rotary drilling machines in Sarcheshme copper mine in Iran have been used as a case study. Failure rate and repair rate of all machines have been calculated using available data. Then, 16 possible operation states have been defined and the probability of being of drilling fleet in each of the states was calculated using Markov theory. The results showed that there was 77.2% probability that all machines in fleet were in operational condition. It means that, considering 360 working days per year, drilling operation will be in a reliable condition in 277.92 days. Biorąc pod uwagę wysokość kosztów inwestycyjnych a także eksploatacyjnych, przeprowadzenie analizy niezawodności maszyn i urządzeń górniczych jest sprawą kluczową dla zapewnienia sprawnego działania i dla wyeliminowania niepożądanych przestojów. W kopalniach odkrywkowych prace wiertnicze prowadzone w początkowych etapach eksploatacji mają ogromne znaczenie również w późniejszych fazach działalności przedsięwzięcia. Awaria urządzeń wiertniczych powoduje opóźnienia przy pracach strzałowych. W pracy tej przeanalizowano niezawodność urządzeń wiertniczych w oparciu o metodę Markowa. Jako studium przypadku wykorzystano dane zebrane w trakcie eksploatacji i awarii czterech obrotowych urządzeń wiertniczych wykorzystywanych w kopalni rud miedzi Sarcheshme w Iranie. Awaryjność maszyn i zakres oraz częstość napraw obliczono na podstawie dostępnych danych. Zdefiniowano 16

  6. Dewatering of planned Key Lake open pits in northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unland, W.; Holl, N.

    1980-01-01

    The engineering design and experience gained so far with a dewatering system for an open-pit uranium mine planned at Key Lake in Northern Saskatchewan are presented. An extensive unconfined overburden aquifer is hydraulically connected with the underlying Athabasca Formation and basement rocks, both of relatively low hydraulic conductivity. The overburden aquifer is embedded in a bedrock trough, with the deepest depression between the planned pits. Hydrogeological data were used in a numerical dewatering model simulating groundwater flow at different stages of the pit development. Based on the model results, the enginering design had to provide for different pumping rates, varying between 1.0 and 0.21 m 3 /sec. This problem was solved by using a double line pressure system. The design concept for the complete peripheral discharge system and the well design used for 26 dewatering wells are discussed. (auth)

  7. Optimization Of Blasting Design Parameters On Open Pit Bench A Case Study Of Nchanga Open Pits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mwango Bowa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In hard rock mining blasting is the most productive excavation technique applied to fragment insitu rock to the required size for efficient loading and crushing. In order to blast the insitu rock to the desired fragment size blast design parameter such as bench height hole diameter spacing burden hole length bottom charge specific charge and rock factor are considered. The research was carried out as a practical method on Nchanga Open Pits NOP ore Bench to optimize the blasting design parameters that can yield the required fragmentation size thereby reducing the shovel loading times and maximizing efficiency of the subsequent mining unit operations such as hauling and crushing. Fragmentation characteristics such as the mean fragment size were measured by means of a digital measuring tape and predicated using the Kuznetsov equation and rock factor value of ore bench was calculated using Lilly 1986 equations by means of rock characteristics. Traditional blasting design parameters were acquired for NOP and modified using Langerfors and Sharma P.A approaches. Several blast operations were conducted using both traditional and modified blasting design parameters on the same ore bench with the same geological conditions. Loading times of the shovel and fragment sizes were obtained after the blasts from ore bench where both the traditional and modified blasting design parameters were applied. Results show that mean fragment size and loading times were reduced from 51cm and 12minutes to 22cm and 3minutes where traditional and modified blasting design parameters were applied respectively.

  8. Optimization of coal recovery from open pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C; Wolff, S F; Baafi, E Y; Cervantes, J A; Coates, D F

    1979-02-01

    The design techniques of the Pit Slope Manual were successfully applied in a case study concerned with optimizing the design of coal mines. A steeply dipping multiple seam deposit, being mined by the truck-shovel combination, was selected for the study. The criterion for optimum slopes was based on the financial consequences of each design, i.e., the resultant benefits and costs. Three alternative designs were analyzed. The first had an average highwall slope angle of 28 degrees and a final height of 290 m. The second had a 35 degrees slope angle and a 305-m wall height. The third had a 45 degrees slope angle and a 320-m wall height. Trade-off between benefits and increased cost of slope instability inherent in steeper slope angles was analyzed for the entire mine life through computer simulation of actual mining operations. The cost models developed were (1) No Cost, (2) Clean-up, (3) Lost Coal, (4) Early Mining, (5) Mine Abandonment, (6) Increased Haulage, and (7) Haul Road Re-establishment. (8 refs.)

  9. Storage and Management of Open-pit Transportation Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiusheng Du

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aiming at the actual demand of open-pit mine daily production scheduling and positioning monitoring. After extracting data from existing topographic maps and other information, it discusses the feasibility of using this data to establish thematic database. By considering the extensive application of GPS data, utilizing new spatial data types of SQL Server 2008 for data storage and management. Extracting data algorithms such as the node spatial data, the regional boundary and the path are implemented, then spatial data storage and management is also realized. It provides the basis for the production of decision-making and production cost savings.

  10. Application of Surpac and Whittle Software in Open Pit Optimisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of Surpac and Whittle Software in Open Pit Optimisation and Design. ... This paper studies the Surpac and Whittle software and their application in designing an optimised pit. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  11. Monitoring of ground movement in open pit iron mines of Carajás Province (Amazon region) based on A-DInSAR techniques using TerraSAR-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Guilherme Gregório; Mura, José Claudio; Paradella, Waldir Renato; Gama, Fabio Furlan; Temporim, Filipe Altoé

    2017-04-01

    Persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) analysis of a large area is always a challenging task regarding the removal of the atmospheric phase component. This work presents an investigation of ground movement measurements based on a combination of differential SAR interferometry time-series (DTS) and PSI techniques, applied on a large area of extent with open pit iron mines located in Carajás (Brazilian Amazon Region), aiming at detecting linear and nonlinear ground movement. These mines have presented a history of instability, and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mines (pit walls) have been carried out based on ground-based radar and total station (prisms). Using a priori information regarding the topographic phase error and a phase displacement model derived from DTS, temporal phase unwrapping in the PSI processing and the removal of the atmospheric phases can be performed more efficiently. A set of 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) images, acquired during the period from March 2012 to April 2013, was used to perform this investigation. The DTS analysis was carried out on a stack of multilook unwrapped interferograms using an extension of SVD to obtain the least-square solution. The height errors and deformation rates provided by the DTS approach were subtracted from the stack of interferograms to perform the PSI analysis. This procedure improved the capability of the PSI analysis for detecting high rates of deformation, as well as increased the numbers of point density of the final results. The proposed methodology showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in a large mining area, which is located in a rain forest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for planning and risk control.

  12. Structure of energy consumption and improving open-pit dump truck efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptev, V. Yu; Kopteva, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    This paper studies the dynamics of the improvement of wheel type transport vehicles environmental and energy performance in open-pit mines. The paper discloses characteristics of the gas turbine engine with capacity of 1250 hp, mounted on tanks, and technical-economic calculations, confirming reasonability of their use in open-pit dump trucks with the 120 …130-ton loading capacity. The general layout scheme of mechanical transmission with the gas turbine engine is shown.

  13. Software development for geologic information management system on open-pit production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K.; Tian, A.; Ren, Z.; Pang, Y. [China University of Mining and Technomogy, Xuzhou (China). College of Mineral and Energy Resources

    2001-09-01

    A software, including geological data gathering and processing, deposit modelling, reserves calculating and mine map plotting, for geologic information management of open-pit production was developed. Based on the interactive technique, CAD, the object-oriented simulation, and the characteristics of geologic structures, all the geologic information databases and geologic mapping sub-systems have been established for open-pit production, planning and management. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  14. PEMODELAN PENYEBARAN BATUAN POTENSIAL PEMBENTUK ASAM PADA KAWASAN PENAMBANGAN BATUBARA TAMBANG TERBUKA DI MUARA LAWA, KABUPATEN KUTAI BARAT, KALIMANTAN TIMUR (Modeling Distribution of Rock Potential Acid Forming in Open Pit Coal Mining Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalaho Dina Devy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Dampak penambangan batubara tambang terbuka adalah munculnya Air Asam Tambang (AAT di sekitar lingkungan penambangan yang mempengaruhi kualitas air tambang, biota air, kualitas air dan tanah. Oleh karena itu, informasi awal untuk mengantisipasi dampak tersebut, yaitu identifikasi batuan yang berpotensi asam dan memodelkan penyebarannya. Kajian geologi dan mineralogi batuan berperan dalam mengetahui penyebaran batuan Potential Acid Forming (PAF dan Non Acid Forming (NAF. Kawasan tambang yang digunakan sebagai model penelitian berada di Kecamatan Muara Lawa, Kabupaten Kutai Barat, Kalimantan Timur. Hasil dari penelitian mengindikasikan, bahwa dominasi PAF berada di lapisan batu lempung kemudian diikuti batu lanau dan batu pasir dengan penyebaran mengikuti struktur sinklin yang terbatas di lapisan bawah (floor dan lapisan antara (inter burden pada batubara. Sementara itu, batuan NAF menyebar menempati daerah selain batuan PAF. ABSTRACT The impact of open pit coal mining is the emergence of Acid Mine Water (AMD around the mining environment that affect the quality of the mine water, aquatic biota, water and soil quality. Therefore, early information to anticipate these impacts is the identification potential acid rock and distribution model as a guide for the mining plan. Geological and geochemical study of rocks is important in knowing the distribution of rock Potential Acid Formning (PAF and Non Acid Forming (NAF. Mining area which is used as a research model was in Muara Lawa, West Kutai regency, East Kalimantan province. The results of the study indicate, that the dominance of PAF are in layers followed by siltstone, claystone and sandstone with the distribution of rock following the syncline structure in the bottom (floor layer and in the inter-burden layer on coal. Meanwhile, rock NAF spread in areas other than rock PAF.

  15. The pit ventilation features and the design principle of ventilation system in trackless mining uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Wenhui; Zhou Xinghuo; Li Xianjie

    2001-01-01

    According to the pit arrangement features of trackless mining uranium mine, based on the fundamental of radon permeation and control, and analysis of radon pollution characteristics and radon education, the design principle of ventilation system in trackless mining uranium mine has been raised

  16. Modelling open pit shovel-truck systems using the Machine Repair Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, A.; Musingwini, C. [CBH Resources Ltd., Sydney, NSW (Australia). Endeaver Mine

    2007-08-15

    Shovel-truck systems for loading and hauling material in open pit mines are now routinely analysed using simulation models or off-the-shelf simulation software packages, which can be very expensive for once-off or occasional use. The simulation models invariably produce different estimations of fleet sizes due to their differing estimations of cycle time. No single model or package can accurately estimate the required fleet size because the fleet operating parameters are characteristically random and dynamic. In order to improve confidence in sizing the fleet for a mining project, at least two estimation models should be used. This paper demonstrates that the Machine Repair Model can be modified and used as a model for estimating truck fleet size in an open pit shovel-truck system. The modified Machine Repair Model is first applied to a virtual open pit mine case study. The results compare favourably to output from other estimation models using the same input parameters for the virtual mine. The modified Machine Repair Model is further applied to an existing open pit coal operation, the Kwagga Section of Optimum Colliery as a case study. Again the results confirm those obtained from the virtual mine case study. It is concluded that the Machine Repair Model can be an affordable model compared to off-the-shelf generic software because it is easily modelled in Microsoft Excel, a software platform that most mines already use.

  17. Application of Surpac and Whittle Software in Open Pit Optimisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... The deposit has undergone intense weathering, forming an oxidised gold deposit ... total of 82 optimal pit outlines were generated using the 3D Lerchs-Grossmann algorithm. ... are also widely accepted in the mining industry.

  18. Stress state of rock mass under open pit mining in the influence zone of tectonic disturbances (in terms of the Oktorkoi Fault, North Tien Shan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhogulov, KCh; Nikolskaya, OV; Rybin, AK; Kuzikov, SI

    2018-03-01

    The qualitative connection between the crack growth direction and the orientation of the main axes of horizontal deformations in rocks mass in the area of the Boordin gold ore province is revealed. The effect of the rock mass quality (RQD) and contact conditions of crack surfaces on the stability index of pit wall rock mass is evaluated, and the influence of the rock mass quality index on the pit wall stability is determined.

  19. From old lignite mining pits to new lakes. The example of rehabilitation of the former open-cast mining facilities at Berzdorf, Germany; Von alten Gruben zu neuen Seen am Beispiel des Tagebaues Berzdorf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolba, Manfred [LMBV mbH, Sanierungsbereich Lausitz, Senftenberg (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    The Lausitz and Central-German Mining Administration Company (LMBV) is project executor for the largest landscaping construction site in Europe. LMBV rehabilitates former open-cast mining facilities, as well as decommissioned coal-upgrading plants, to provide promising future areas for industrial complexes, and for landscapes that will attract a great number and variety of tourism developments. LMBV executes projects for the elimination of dangers as a result of the rising of groundwater to its former and natural level. In this context, the German Federal States involved in past and present lignite mining support extensive measures for enhancement of the standard of future use at the new lakes in Central Germany and in the Lausitz Region. This presentation shows the rehabilitation activities of LMBV as project executor in a great range of activities, by explaining the rehabilitation and transformation of the former lignite mining facilities in Berzdorf, Germany, in creation of the future Berzdorf Lake. (orig.)

  20. Towards the Development of a Low Cost Airborne Sensing System to Monitor Dust Particles after Blasting at Open-Pit Mine Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Miguel; Gonzalez, Felipe; Fletcher, Andrew; Doshi, Ashray

    2015-08-12

    Blasting is an integral part of large-scale open cut mining that often occurs in close proximity to population centers and often results in the emission of particulate material and gases potentially hazardous to health. Current air quality monitoring methods rely on limited numbers of fixed sampling locations to validate a complex fluid environment and collect sufficient data to confirm model effectiveness. This paper describes the development of a methodology to address the need of a more precise approach that is capable of characterizing blasting plumes in near-real time. The integration of the system required the modification and integration of an opto-electrical dust sensor, SHARP GP2Y10, into a small fixed-wing and multi-rotor copter, resulting in the collection of data streamed during flight. The paper also describes the calibration of the optical sensor with an industry grade dust-monitoring device, Dusttrak 8520, demonstrating a high correlation between them, with correlation coefficients (R(2)) greater than 0.9. The laboratory and field tests demonstrate the feasibility of coupling the sensor with the UAVs. However, further work must be done in the areas of sensor selection and calibration as well as flight planning.

  1. Towards the Development of a Low Cost Airborne Sensing System to Monitor Dust Particles after Blasting at Open-Pit Mine Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alvarado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blasting is an integral part of large-scale open cut mining that often occurs in close proximity to population centers and often results in the emission of particulate material and gases potentially hazardous to health. Current air quality monitoring methods rely on limited numbers of fixed sampling locations to validate a complex fluid environment and collect sufficient data to confirm model effectiveness. This paper describes the development of a methodology to address the need of a more precise approach that is capable of characterizing blasting plumes in near-real time. The integration of the system required the modification and integration of an opto-electrical dust sensor, SHARP GP2Y10, into a small fixed-wing and multi-rotor copter, resulting in the collection of data streamed during flight. The paper also describes the calibration of the optical sensor with an industry grade dust-monitoring device, Dusttrak 8520, demonstrating a high correlation between them, with correlation coefficients (R2 greater than 0.9. The laboratory and field tests demonstrate the feasibility of coupling the sensor with the UAVs. However, further work must be done in the areas of sensor selection and calibration as well as flight planning.

  2. Open-pit production and control at Roessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodson, D.; Rich, C.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years metal prices have been severely depressed and most companies have directed efforts to controlling costs in order to stay in business. Roessing Uranium has consistently kept uranium production cost increases well below the domestic inflation rate and this has been the result of a firm commitment to production and cost control, which is the main theme of this paper. The subject of cost analysis is briefly presented and the paper then gives more technical detail under the main headings of grade control, production control and engineering projects. The main communication channels, which are used to ensure that different departments on the mine are all working for the same objectives, are mentioned. The paper, however, is intended to be a general overview of the engineering aspects of open-pit cost control

  3. Real -time dispatching modelling for trucks with different capacities in open pit mines / Modelowanie w czasie rzeczywistym przewozów ciężarówek o różnej ładowności w kopalni odkrywkowej

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangaran, Daryoush Kaveh; Yasrebi, Amir Bijan; Wetherelt, Andy; Foster, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    Application of fully automated systems for truck dispatching plays a major role in decreasing the transportation costs which often represent the majority of costs spent on open pit mining. Consequently, the application of a truck dispatching system has become fundamentally important in most of the world's open pit mines. Recent experiences indicate that by decreasing a truck's travelling time and the associated waiting time of its associated shovel then due to the application of a truck dispatching system the rate of production will be considerably improved. Computer-based truck dispatching systems using algorithms, advanced and accurate software are examples of these innovations. Developing an algorithm of a computer- based program appropriated to a specific mine's conditions is considered as one of the most important activities in connection with computer-based dispatching in open pit mines. In this paper the changing trend of programming and dispatching control algorithms and automation conditions will be discussed. Furthermore, since the transportation fleet of most mines use trucks with different capacities, innovative methods, operational optimisation techniques and the best possible methods for developing the required algorithm for real-time dispatching are selected by conducting research on mathematical-based planning methods. Finally, a real-time dispatching model compatible with the requirement of trucks with different capacities is developed by using two techniques of flow networks and integer programming.

  4. Oil sands mine pit wall design and performance at Syncrude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R.; Danku, M; Purhar, G. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This study conducted slope stability analyses in order to compare pit performance at an oil sands mine with results from computerized simulations using conventionally known soil parameters. Ranges included fully-drained to fully-saturated piezometric conditions; full-peak strength conditions; fully-softened peak conditions; residual shear strength conditions; and undrained shear strength considerations. Pit wall designs were reviewed and a history of marine clay layers at the mine was presented. Assumed overburden fall-down limits were considered. Shovel overburden slope angles were calculated. An analysis of the review suggested that steeper pit walls provide less room for error and have a higher rate of failures. Incised pleistocene channels, joint and fracture areas as well as higher piezometric level areas also impacted on slope performance. Failed areas influenced ore volumes and led to productivity reductions below 50 per cent. It was concluded that the overburden portions of the oil sands mine ranged between 4H:1V to 5H:1V due to haul roads and the timing of top-bench pushbacks. Future plans for the mine must consider ore inventories, haul road requirements; running surface requirements; and ramping accesses. Future slopes at the oil sands mine will be buttressed with overburden and tailings storage areas, while longer-term slopes will be flattened. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  5. Determination of Seismic Safety Zones during the Surface Mining Operation Development in the Case of the “Buvač” Open Pit

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Malbasic; Lazar Stojanovic

    2018-01-01

    Determination of the blasting safety area is a very important step in the process of drilling and blasting works, and the preparation of solid rock materials for loading. Through monitoring and analysis of the negative seismic effects to the objects and infrastructures around and at the mine area, we were able to adapt the drilling and blasting parameters and organization of drilling and blasting operation according to the mining progress so that the affected infrastructures could be protecte...

  6. Monitoring of Non-Linear Ground Movement in an Open Pit Iron Mine Based on an Integration of Advanced DInSAR Techniques Using TerraSAR-X Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Claudio Mura

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an investigation to determine ground deformation based on an integration of DInSAR Time-Series (DTS and Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI techniques aiming at detecting high rates of linear and non-linear ground movement. The combined techniques were applied in an open pit iron mine located in Carajás Mineral Province (Brazilian Amazon region, using a set of 33 TerraSAR-X-1 images acquired from March 2012 to April 2013 when, due to a different deformation behavior during the dry and wet seasons in the Amazon region, a non-linear deformation was detected. The DTS analysis was performed on a stack of multi-look unwrapped interferograms using an extension of the SVD (Singular Value Decomposition, where a set of additional weighted constraints on the acceleration of the displacement was incorporated to control the smoothness of the time-series solutions, whose objective was to correct the atmospheric phase artifacts. The height errors and the deformation history provided by the DTS technique were used as previous information to perform the PSI analysis. This procedure improved the capability of the PSI technique to detect non-linear movement as well as to increase the numbers of point density of the final results. The results of the combined techniques are presented and compared with total station/prisms and ground-based radar (GBR measurements.

  7. Investigating continuous time open pit dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Askari-Nasab, H.; Frimpong, S.; Szymanski, J.

    2008-01-01

    Current mine production planning, scheduling, and allocation of resources are based on mathematical programming models. In practice, the optimized solution cannot be attained without examining all possible combinations and permutations of the extraction sequence. Operations research methods have limited applications in large-scale surface mining operations because the number of variables becomes too large. The primary objective of this study is to develop and implement a hybrid simulation fra...

  8. The Experience of Using Innovative Artificial Filter Arrays on South Kuzbass Open Pit: Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyulenev Maxim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the detailed example of placement of artificial filter arrays in one of Kuzbass open pits. It is proved that the use of the existing rock dump as an artificial filter array allows cleaning the quarry wastewater to the required parameters. Therefore, for water purification, it is possible to pile a new array as well as to use the existing dump, which will reduce the operating costs and the land consumption of open pit mining operations. Also, a brief methodology for determining the parameters of the artificial filter array is given in the article, taking into account the volume of contaminated water, the degree of its contamination and the location of the filter. The proposed complex of measures significantly improves the geo-ecological situation of mining region.

  9. Treatment of pit water from uranium mining operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouton, A.; Lafforgue, P.; Lyaudet, G.

    1984-01-01

    The pit water from uranium mines is normally treated to eliminate the soluble radium and suspended solids. The radium is precipitated together with the barium sulphate. The latter results from the reaction of barium chloride with an excess of sulphate ions. The suspended solids are flocculated by aluminium salts (chloride, polychloride). If necessary, synthetic flocculants are also used. Certain grades of pit water contain, sometimes incidentally, a few milligrams of uranium per litre. These quantities always remain too low for any direct recovery (treatment by ion exchange resins). By applying certain measures, the preceding processes can also be used to eliminate uranium. The latter is carried away by aluminium hydroxide in a very narrow zone of pH (6 to 7,4) which corresponds to the minimum solubility of the hydroxide. Depending on the characteristic of the water (pH, salinity), use is made either of aluminium sulphate or of sodium aluminate, with an addition of a base in extreme cases. This article gives various examples of applications in the Haute-Vienne, Chardon in Vendee, the Commanderie mine in Vendee, at Cerilly in Allier and at Lodeve in Herault [fr

  10. Decommissioning management of pit water at an uranium mine in Hunan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Renjie

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the influence of mining on groundwater at an uranium mine in Hunan Province, emphatically discusses the managing principles, methods and research works of pit water in decommissioning, and summaries sealing technique, construction management and the effect achieved in management of pit water

  11. Use of abandoned coal/lignite open pits for waste disposal in selected European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libicki, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    The use of abandoned coal/lignite pits as disposal sites for solid waste appears to be a reasonable approach to a difficult problem, especially if they are located close to the waste source. However, a potential for groundwater and soil pollution exists. This issue was discussed by a Group of Experts on Opencast Mining of the UN Economic Commission for Europe because most of the sites are operated by mining companies. This paper contains the major topics of discussion including the significance of the problem, legal aspects, characteristics of the open pits, waste intended for disposal, investigations required to obtain a disposal permit, disposal techniques, protection measures, monitoring environmental impacts, and research trends. A few countries are used as examples

  12. Results of the Promethee Method Application in Selecting the Technological System at the Majdan III Open Pit Mine / Wyniki Zastosowania Metody Promethee do Wyboru Systemu Technologicznego W Kopalni Odkrywkowej Majdan III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujić, Slobodan; Hudej, Marjan; Miljanović, Igor

    2013-12-01

    This paper discusses the application of the PROMETHEE model and the results achieved in practice, following the example of the multi-criteria selection of the technological system at the Majdan III clay mineral raw material open pit mine of the Potisje Company, Republic of Serbia. After the introduction comments, reasons are explained for selecting the new technological system, conditions and limitations for the seven alternative solutions considered are described, mathematical foundation for the PROMETHEE method and a multi-criteria model of the problem in question are presented. The solution with the following structure was ranked first and accepted by the Company management as the best: Bucket chain excavator - Conveyor belts - Spreader (ECS), alongside a decision is made on the acquisition of machinery and system construction. The system was put into operation in 2000. The experience and the data accumulated in the previous twelve years confirm that the decision made on the application of the ECS technology was just, and the conclusion lists the benefits achieved. W artykule omówiono zastosowanie modelu Promethee i przedyskutowano uzyskane w ten sposób wyniki na przykładzie wielokryterialnego wyboru systemu technologicznego do zastosowania w kopalni odkrywkowej minerałów ilastych Majdan III, należącej do przedsiębiorstwa górniczego Potisje (Republika Serbii). Po uwagach wprowadzających przedstawiono powody wyboru nowego ciągu technologicznego, omówiono warunki oraz ograniczenia dla siedmiu alternatywnych rozwiązań, podstawy matematyczne metody Promethee oraz wielokryterialny model zagadnienia. Rozwiązanie uznane za najlepsze i zaaprobowane przez zarząd przedsiębiorstwa zakłada zastosowanie następującego ciągu technologicznego: koparka łancuchowa jednonaczyniowa - przenośniki taśmowe - rozkładarka(system ECS). Podjęto także decyzje odnośnie zakupu sprzętu i instalacji systemu, który uruchomiony został w 2000 roku. Doświadczenia i

  13. Results of the application of persistent scatterers interferometry for surface displacements monitoring in the Azul open pit manganese mine (Carajás Province, Amazon region) using TerraSAR-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Carolina d. A.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Mura, José C.; Gama, Fabio F.; dos Santos, Athos R.; Silva, Guilherme G.

    2014-10-01

    Brazil has 10% of global Mn reserves with its most important mine located in the Amazon region. The Azul deposit is related to sandstones and siltstones of the Águas Claras Formation (Archean), situated in the central portion of the Carajás Strike-Slip System. Vale S.A. mining company operates the Azul mining complex with three simultaneous excavations (mines 1, 2 and 3) conducted on rock materials of low geomechanical qualities. Mining operations are openpit, with 4-8 m-high benches and depth of 80 m. A stack of 19 TerraSAR-X (TSX) images was used for the investigation covering the period of March 20-October 4, 2012. In order to minimize the topography phase error in the interferometric process, a high resolution DEM was generated based on a panchromatic GeoEye-1 stereo pair. Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) analysis was carried out using the IPTA (Interferometric Point Target Analysis) software and led to the detection of 40,193 point-wise persistent scatterers (PS), with an average density of 5,387 PS/km2. It was concluded that most of the mining area can be considered stable during the TSX coverage. High deformation rates related to settlements were mapped over a waste pile, while small deformation rates were detected along the north and south flanks of mine 1and were interpreted as cut slope movements toward the center of the pit. Despite only ground-based radar measurements were available for a short time period during the TSX coverage, and covering a sector of bench walls along the south flank of mine 1, the PSs movement patterns showed concordance with the field measurements. The investigation emphasized the important role that PSI technique can play in planning and risk assessment in this mining area. Monitoring of this type of deformation by PSI can usefully complement other commonly used field geotechnical measurements due to the synoptic SAR coverage over a dense grid, providing ground deformation data independently of field access and with

  14. Metagenomic investigation of the microbial diversity in a chrysotile asbestos mine pit pond, Lowell, Vermont, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather E. Driscoll

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we report on a metagenomics investigation of the microbial diversity in a serpentine-hosted aquatic habitat created by chrysotile asbestos mining activity at the Vermont Asbestos Group (VAG Mine in northern Vermont, USA. The now-abandoned VAG Mine on Belvidere Mountain in the towns of Eden and Lowell includes three open-pit quarries, a flooded pit, mill buildings, roads, and >26 million metric tons of eroding mine waste that contribute alkaline mine drainage to the surrounding watershed. Metagenomes and water chemistry originated from aquatic samples taken at three depths (0.5 m, 3.5 m, and 25 m along the water column at three distinct, offshore sites within the mine's flooded pit (near 44°46′00.7673″, −72°31′36.2699″; UTM NAD 83 Zone 18 T 0695720 E, 4960030 N. Whole metagenome shotgun Illumina paired-end sequences were quality trimmed and analyzed based on a translated nucleotide search of NCBI-NR protein database and lowest common ancestor taxonomic assignments. Our results show strata within the pit pond water column can be distinguished by taxonomic composition and distribution, pH, temperature, conductivity, light intensity, and concentrations of dissolved oxygen. At the phylum level, metagenomes from 0.5 m and 3.5 m contained a similar distribution of taxa and were dominated by Actinobacteria (46% and 53% of reads, respectively, Proteobacteria (45% and 38%, respectively, and Bacteroidetes (7% in both. The metagenomes from 25 m showed a greater diversity of phyla and a different distribution of reads than the two upper strata: Proteobacteria (60%, Actinobacteria (18%, Planctomycetes, (10%, Bacteroidetes (5% and Cyanobacteria (2.5%, Armatimonadetes (<1%, Verrucomicrobia (<1%, Firmicutes (<1%, and Nitrospirae (<1%. Raw metagenome sequence data from each sample reside in NCBI's Short Read Archive (SRA ID: SRP056095 and are accessible through NCBI BioProject PRJNA277916.

  15. Burn Pit Emissions Exposure and Respiratory and Cardiovascular Conditions Among Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit Registry Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jason; Lezama, Nicholas; Gasper, Joseph; Kawata, Jennifer; Morley, Sybil; Helmer, Drew; Ciminera, Paul

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how burn pit emissions exposure is associated with the incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular conditions. We examined the associations between assumed geographic and self-reported burn pit emissions exposure and respiratory and cardiovascular outcomes in participants of the Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit Registry. We found significant dose-response associations for higher risk of self-reported emphysema, chronic bronchitis, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with increased days of deployment within 2 miles of selected burn pits (P-trend = 0.01) and self-reported burn pit smoke exposure (P-trend = 0.0005). We found associations between burn pit emissions exposure and higher incidence of post-deployment self-reported respiratory and cardiovascular conditions, but these findings should be interpreted with caution because the surrogate measurements of burn pit emissions exposure in this analysis may not reflect individual exposure levels.

  16. Selective intake of down-pit water and separating potable water from water-bearing seams at the Rydultowy mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musiolik, H; Sikora, A; Murek, R

    1987-06-01

    Discusses problems of pit water selection. Describes the method of water intake, down-pit transport, pumping the separated potable water and its treatment at the Rydultowy mine. Stresses the usefulness of pit water selection in view of the existing shortage of potable water. Geologic and mining conditions at the mine are described along with the amount of water influx into the mine. Advantages arising from mine water utilization are outlined.

  17. 78 FR 33894 - Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... chemicals and fumes caused by open burn pits. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the proposed... to ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW, Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire.... Title: Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire, VA Form 10-10066. OMB...

  18. Project design of an open pit colliery in Terkidag, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kose

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, first of all, the status of Turkey in terms of energy production and consumption is given and the need to relyon domestic sources, namely lignite deposits, is emphasized rather than importing fuels from abroad. Then, a thorough literature workconcerning open pit design and production planning is explained in detail. On this basis, the project design and production planningof Tekirdag-Saray open pit colliery are conducted. According to the selected production technique, machinery-equipment that willbe utilized in the coal winning system is determined and in the final part, the investment cost and unit production cost regardingthe project are computed and the importance of constructing a power plant in the region operating with domestic fuels is expressed.

  19. Norm Levels in Mine Pit Lakes in South-Western Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjón, G.; Galván, J.; Mantero, J.; Díaz, I.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2015-01-01

    Former mining activities in a pyritic area in south-western Spain have generated mine pits in which underground water and rainwater has accumulated. The accumulated waters have produced oxidation of the pyrite and, consequently, the pit water has become acidic, causing the dissolution of metals and radionuclides of natural origin. The paper discusses the activity concentration levels of uranium isotopes and other radionuclides in water samples and sediments collected from these mine pit lakes. Tributaries of the nearby Odiel River, when crossing the mining area, show low pH values and high concentrations of uranium isotopes due to acid mine drainage. Through the analysis of several isotope activity ratios, the presence of radionuclides in the pit lakes and the influence of these radionuclides on the surrounding area and the Odiel River are evaluated. (author)

  20. The open-pit truck dispatching method based on the completion of production target and the truck flow saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, J.; Sun, X. [Northeastern University, Shenyang (China)

    2007-05-15

    To address current problems in the 'modular dispatch' dynamic programming system widely used in open-pit truck real-time dispatching, two concepts for meeting production targets and truck flow saturation were proposed. Using truck flow programming and taking into account stochastic factors and transportation distance, truck real-time dispatching was optimised. The method is applicable to both shovel-truck match and mismatching and also to empty and heavy truck dispatching. In an open-pit mine the production efficiency could be increased by between 8% and 18%. 6 refs.

  1. Slope Stability Analysis of Waste Dump in Sandstone Open Pit Osielec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Justyna; Cała, Marek; Flisiak, Jerzy; Kolano, Malwina; Kowalski, Michał

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the slope stability analysis for the current as well as projected (final) geometry of waste dump Sandstone Open Pit "Osielec". For the stability analysis six sections were selected. Then, the final geometry of the waste dump was designed and the stability analysis was conducted. On the basis of the analysis results the opportunities to improve the stability of the object were identified. The next issue addressed in the paper was to determine the proportion of the mixture containing mining and processing wastes, for which the waste dump remains stable. Stability calculations were carried out using Janbu method, which belongs to the limit equilibrium methods.

  2. Extensive rill erosion and gullying on abandoned pit mining sites in Lusatia, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunth, Franziska; Kaiser, Andreas; Vláčilová, Markéta; Schindewolf, Marcus; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    As the major economic driver in the province of Lusatia, Eastern Germany, the large open-cast lignite mining sites characterize the landscape and leave vast areas of irreversible changed post-mining landscapes behind. Cost-intensive renaturation projects have been implemented in order to restructure former mine sites into stabile self-sustaining ecosystems and local recreation areas. With considerable expenditure the pits are stabilized, flooded and surrounding areas are restructured. Nevertheless, heavy soil erosion, extensive gullying and slope instability are challenges for the restructuring and renaturation of the abandoned open-cast mining sites. The majority of the sites remain inaccessible to the public due to instable conditions resulting in uncontrolled slides and large gullies. In this study a combined approach of UAV-based aerial imagery, 3D multi-vision surface reconstruction and physically-based soil erosion modelling is carried out in order to document, quantify and better understand the causes of erosion processes on mining sites. Rainfall simulations have been carried out in lausatian post mining areas to reproduce soil detachment processes and observe the responsible mechanisms for the considerable erosion rates. Water repellency and soil sealing by biological crusts were hindering infiltration and consequently increasing runoff rates despite the mainly sandy soil texture. On non-vegetated experimental plots runoff coefficients up to 87 % were measured. In a modelling routine for a major gully catchment regarding a 50 years rainfall event, simulation results reveal runoff coefficients of up to 84% and erosion rates of 118 Mg*ha^-1. At the sediment pass over point 450Mg of sediments enter the surface water bodies. A system response of this order of magnitude were unexpected by the authorities. By applying 3D multi-vision surface reconstruction a model validation is now possible and further may illustrate the great importance of soil conservation

  3. 78 FR 54956 - Agency Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ...: Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire, VA Form 10-10066. Type of Review... services to Open Burn Pit Registry participants and improve VA's ability to understand the health effects... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-NEW] Agency Information Collection (Open Burn...

  4. 78 FR 44625 - Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne... to ``OMB Control No. 2900--NEW, Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire... health effects of service members' exposure to toxic airborne chemicals and fumes caused by open burn...

  5. Study on the application of permeable reactive barriers for remediation of uranium mine pit water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Na'na; Zhu Yucheng

    2012-01-01

    Permeable reactive barrier (PRB) is economical and convenient on in suit remediation of polluted groundwater. In this paper, according to characteristics of uranium mine pit water, laboratory-scale PRB reactors were designed with the mixture of valent iron, active carbon, hydrated lime and quartz sands as reaction media. The feasibility and effectiveness of treating uranium mine pit water by PRB were tested under 3 different proportions of contaminants through dynamic simulation tests, which came out the optimal proportion of contaminants. The result indicated that the remediation effect of reactor B was the best, whose average removal rate to U was up to 99%. The quality of effluent attained the relevant standards, which indicated that the PRB technology is a feasible method for the treatment of uranium mine pit water. (authors)

  6. Preliminary study of realizability of Karazhyra open pit coal fines briquetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deryavko, I.I.; Perepelkin, I.G.; Chuprunov, K.V.

    2001-01-01

    Main properties of brown coals in Karazhyra open pit upper and lower packs are determined. Characteristics of these coals briquette-ability are evaluated. A conceptual possibility to obtain high-quality briquettes from open pit coal fines is shown. (author)

  7. The Three-Dimensional (3D) Numerical Stability Analysis of Hyttemalmen Open-Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cała, Marek; Kowalski, Michał; Stopkowicz, Agnieszka

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to perform the 3D numerical calculations allowing slope stability analysis of Hyttemalmen open pit (location Kirkenes, Finnmark Province, Norway). After a ramp rock slide, which took place in December 2010, as well as some other small-scale rock slope stability problems, it proved necessary to perform a serious stability analyses. The Hyttemalmen open pit was designed with a depth up to 100 m, a bench height of 24 m and a ramp width of 10 m. The rock formation in the iron mining district of Kirkenes is called the Bjornevaten Group. This is the most structurally complicated area connected with tectonic process such as folding, faults and metamorphosis. The Bjornevaten Group is a volcano-sedimentary sequence. Rock slope stability depends on the mechanical properties of the rock, hydro-geological conditions, slope topography, joint set systems and seismic activity. However, rock slope stability is mainly connected with joint sets. Joints, or general discontinuities, are regarded as weak planes within rock which have strength reducing consequences with regard to rock strength. Discontinuities within the rock mass lead to very low tensile strength. Several simulations were performed utilising the RocLab (2007) software to estimate the gneiss cohesion for slopes of different height. The RocLab code is dedicated to estimate rock mass strength using the Hoek-Brown failure criterion. Utilising both the GSI index and the Hoek-Brown strength criterion the equivalent Mohr-Coulomb parameters (cohesion and angle of internal friction) can be calculated. The results of 3D numerical calculations (with FLA3D code) show that it is necessary to redesign the slope-bench system in the Hyttemalmen open pit. Changing slope inclination for lower stages is recommended. The minimum factor of safety should be equal 1.3. At the final planned stage of excavation, the factor of safety drops to 1.06 with failure surface ranging through all of the slopes. In the case

  8. Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.

    1981-02-01

    This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  9. Geochemistry, water balance, and stable isotopes of a “clean” pit lake at an abandoned tungsten mine, Montana, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammons, Christopher H.; Pape, Barbara L.; Parker, Stephen R.; Poulson, Simon R.; Blank, Carrine E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An abandoned open pit mine is now a 30 m deep lake with excellent water quality. • Concentrations of sulfate, nutrients, and most trace metals are extremely low. • Based on water isotopes, the lake is 30% evaporated with a 2.5 yr residence time. • Stable isotopes of DIC and DO track in-lake bio-geochemical processes. • Phytoplankton are active at depths as great as 20 m. - Abstract: The Calvert Mine is a small tungsten-rich (scheelite) skarn deposit in a remote, mountainous region of southwest Montana, USA. The open-pit mine closed in the 1970s and subsequently flooded to form a pit lake that is roughly conical in shape, 30 m deep and 120 m in diameter, with no surface inlet or outlet. The lake is holomictic with a groundwater flow-through hydrology and an estimated residence time of 2.5–5 y. Water isotopes show that the lake is at an approximate steady state with respect to water balance and has experienced 30% evaporation. The lake has a near-neutral pH, exceptional clarity, and extremely low concentrations of nutrients, sulfate, and most metals, including tungsten. Manganese concentrations are slightly elevated and increase with depth towards the sediment–water interface. Despite seasonally anoxic conditions in the deep water, dissolved Fe concentrations are orders of magnitude lower than Mn, suggesting that insufficient organic carbon is present in the sediment of this oligotrophic lake to drive bacterial Fe reduction. Based on stable isotope fingerprinting, diffuse seepage that enters a nearby headwater stream at the base of a large waste-rock pile can be directly linked to the partially evaporated pit lake. However, this seepage has neutral pH and low metal concentrations, and poses no threats to the environment. Stable isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) are used to track the relative importance of photosynthesis and respiration with depth. In summer, a zone of high productivity exists near the

  10. Rehabilitation of residual pits in post-mining area: a goal of Czech brown coal opencast mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, I.

    1997-01-01

    The closure of surface brown coal mines is a complex process with many specific considerations. In the Czech Republic a special project was proposed to analyze the types of environmental disturbance generated by surface mining operations and suggest procedures for the affected areas. It also aims to propose rehabilitation techniques for residual pits, considering their future use for recreational or development purposes. A Chabarovice mine case study demonstrates how to solve the problem of water flooding and utilization of the future residual lake. 2 figs

  11. What Were the Reasons for the Rapid Landslide Occurrence in “Piaseczno” Open Pit? – Analysis of the Landslide Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakóbczyk Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are major natural hazards occurring in opencast mining. The problem of slope stability failure in the existing open pit mines as well as in those which are at a stage of technical closure is current issue in Poland and all over the world. This problem requires conducting in-depth and meaningful analysis which will identify the causes of processes characterized by a very rapid course and large extent.

  12. Simulation Based Investigation of Different Fleet Management Paradigms in Open Pit Mines-A Case Study of Sungun Copper Mine / Symulacje I Badania Różnych Paradygmatów Wykorzystania Floty Pojazdów I Urządzeń W Kopalniach Odkrywkowych. Studium Przypadku: Kopalnia Miedzi W Sungun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Ali Saadatmand; Sattarvand, Javad

    2015-03-01

    Using simulation modeling, different management systems of the open pit mining equipment including non-dispatching, dispatching and blending solutions have been studied for the Sungun copper mine. Developed model has the capability of considering detailed features of both loading and hauling equipment. Productivity assessment scenarios have been established on the constructed model and the outputs revealed the noteworthy impact of the match factor of the trucks to the loaders on the production rate by over 40%. A dispatching simulation model with the objective function of minimizing truck waiting times have been developed and 7.8% improvement obtained by applying a flexible assignment of the trucks for the loaders compared to the fixed assignment system. Finally ore grade blending control unit has been introduced into the model. Getting the advantages of the newly added module it became possible to monitor the portion of material excavated from different operating benches and control truck dispatching rules for keeping the overall ore grade exactly at desired value. Przy użyciu modeli symulacyjnych zbadano różnorodne systemy zarządzania flotą pojazdów i urządzeń w kopalni odkrywkowej (wydawanie dyspozycji przewozu, wstrzymywanie przewozu oraz rozwiązania kwestii mieszania o rud o różnej zawartości pierwiastka użytecznego) na przykładzie kopalni miedzi Sungun. Opracowany model uwzględnia szczegółowe cechy sprzętu przeładunkowego oraz transportowego. Na podstawie modelu opracowano następnie scenariusze oceny wydajności, a wyniki jednoznacznie wykazały wielką wagę odpowiedniego skojarzenia ilości pojazdów i ładowarek. Opracowano model symulacyjny kierowania urządzeń do pracy, jako funkcję celu przyjmujący minimalizacje czasu przestoju ciężarówek. Uzyskano wynik lepszy o 7.8% poprzez elastyczne przydzielania pojazdów do ładowarek w porównaniu do systemu trwałego ich do siebie przypisania. W ostatnim etapie dodano do modelu system

  13. Use of tracers to quantify subsurface flow through a mining pit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schladow, S Geoffrey; Clark, Jordan F

    2008-12-01

    Three independent tracer experiments were conducted to quantify the through-flow of water from Herman Pit, an abandoned mercury (Hg) mine pit adjacent to Clear Lake, California, USA. The tracers used were Rhodamine-WT, sulfur hexafluoride, and a mixture of sulfur hexafluoride and neon-22. The tracers were injected into Herman Pit, a generally well-mixed water body of approximately 81,000 m2, and the concentrations were monitored in the mine pit, observation wells, and the lake for 2-3 months following each injection. The results for all three experiments showed that the tracer arrived at certain observation wells within days of injection. Comparing all the well data showed a highly heterogeneous response, with a small number of wells showing this near-instantaneous response and others taking months before the tracer was detectable. Tracer was also found in the lake on four occasions over a one-month period, too few to infer any pattern but sufficient to confirm the connection of the two water bodies. Using a simple mass balance model it was possible to determine the effective loss rate through advection for each of the tracers and with this to estimate the through-flow rate. The through-flow rate for all three experiments was approximately 630 L/s, at least 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than previous estimates, all of which had been based on geochemical inferences or other indirect measures of the pit through-flow.

  14. Application of a cross-pit bridge conveyor system in mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeindler, R.W. (Krupp Canada Inc., Calgary, Alberta); Fawcett, D.A.

    1981-04-01

    A summary is presented of the report completed by the Coal Mining Research Centre in 1980. This report was of a cross-pit conveyor system applied as an auxillary mining complement to the major stripping unit, a dragline. The purpose of the CMRC report was to evaluate selective mining and replacement of the upper horizons of the strata as an aid in reclamation. These strata were the topsoil, subsoil and glacial till. Past utilization of cross-pit conveyor systems and related engineering studies were assessed. The parameters of the study were based on the mining and geological conditions of the Alberta prairie coal mines. The principal excavator for stripping was a dragline. Excavation of the upper horizons was done by a bucket-wheel excavator discharging onto the cross-pit conveyor. Alternative equipment applications were economically compared. Four cases or geological sections were evaluated in detail. The economics of the alternative mining systems for each of the cases were determined. In all instances, the most economical solution was a tandem system utilizing a dragline with a bucket-wheel excavator/cross-pit conveyor system. For both the CMRC study and a similar US paper, the application of a tandem system provided the lowest annual ownership and operating costs. The tandem system consists of a dragline excavating and casting the majority of the waste or overburden and a BWE/CPCS selectively excavating and replacing the topsoil, subsoil and part of the unconsolidated overburden. The bridge spans and designs are within known technical and economic limits.

  15. Acidic pit lakes. The legacy of coal and metal surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, Walter; Schultze, Martin [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Magdeburg (Germany); Wolkersdorfer, Christian (eds.) [Cape Breton Univ., Sydney, NS (Canada). Industrial Research Chair in Mine Water Remediation and Management; International Mine Water Association, Wendelstein (Germany). General Secretary; Kleinmann, Robert

    2013-07-01

    This monograph provides an international perspective on pit lakes in post-mining landscapes, including the problem of geogenic acidification. Much has been learned during the last decade through research and practical experience on how to mitigate or remediate the environmental problems of acidic pit lakes. In the first part of the book, general scientific issues are presented in 21 contributions from the fields of geo-environmental science, water chemistry, lake physics, lake modeling, and on the peculiar biological features that occur in the extreme habitats of acidic pit lakes. Another chapter provides an overview of methods currently used to remediate acidic pit lakes and treat outflowing acidic water. The second part of the book is a collection of regional surveys of pit lake problems from three European countries and Australia, and case studies of various individual representative lakes. A final case study provides an innovative approach to assessing the economic value of new pit lakes and balancing the costs and benefits, a valuable tool for decision makers.

  16. Open Pit Optimisation and Design: A Stepwise Approach*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... The erstwhile Nkroful Mining Limited (NML) had a concession with an approximate area of 47.84 km2 ... exploration drilling programme executed by NML ..... Strategic Planning ... the Nkroful Gold Mining Project, Western.

  17. Ground movement and deformation due to dewatering and open pit excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, B.; Yang, J.; Zhang, J.

    1996-01-01

    In the application of stochastic medium theory, it is assumed that ground movement process has the property of Markov Process. Based on superposition principle and rock consolidation principle, the ground movement and deformation due to dewatering and open pit excavation can be calculated. The comparison between the field measurements in Morwell Open Pit, Latrobe Valley (Victoria, Australia) and the calculated results shows the validity of the method in this paper. 5 refs

  18. Modern carbonate microbialites from an asbestos open pit pond, Yukon, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, I M; Wilson, S A; Dipple, G M; Southam, G

    2011-03-01

    Microbialites were discovered in an open pit pond at an abandoned asbestos mine near Clinton Creek, Yukon, Canada. These microbialites are extremely young and presumably began forming soon after the mine closed in 1978. Detailed characterization of the periphyton and microbialites using light and scanning electron microscopy was coupled with mineralogical and isotopic analyses to investigate the mechanisms by which these microbialites formed. The microbialites are columnar in form (cm scale), have an internal spherulitic fabric (mm scale), and are mostly made of aragonite, which is supersaturated in the subsaline pond water. Initial precipitation is seen as acicular aragonite crystals nucleating onto microbial biomass and detrital particles. Continued precipitation entombs benthic diatoms (e.g. Brachysira vitrea), filamentous algae (e.g. Oedogonium sp.), dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria. The presence of phototrophs at spherulite centers strongly suggests that these microbes play an important initial role in aragonite precipitation. Substantial growth of individual spherulites occurs abiotically through periodic precipitation of aragonite that forms concentric laminations around spherulite centers while pauses in spherulite growth allow for colonization by microbes. Aragonite associated with biomass (δ(13)C = -4.6‰ VPDB) showed a (13)C-enrichment of 0.8‰ relative to aragonite exhibiting no biomass (δ(13)C = -5.4‰ VPDB), which suggests a modest removal of isotopically light dissolved inorganic carbon by phototrophs. The combination of a low sedimentation rate, high calcification rate, and low microbial growth rate appears to result in the formation of these microbialites. The formation of microbialites at an historic mine site demonstrates that an anthropogenically constructed environment can foster microbial carbonate formation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Application of persistent scatterers interferometry for surface displacements monitoring in N5E open pit iron mine using TerraSAR-X data, in Carajás Province, Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Altoé Temporim

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Carajás Mineral Province, Amazon region, is the most important one in Brazil. Vale S.A. Company has the right to operate in the area of the N5E mine. The work is conducted on rock alteration products of low geomechanical quality related to sandstones, siltstones, and a lateritic cover. In order to monitor ground deformation, 33 TerraSAR-X images covering the period of March 2012-April 2013 were used in the investigation. An interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR approach based on permanent scatterer interferometry (PSI using an interferometric point target analysis algorithm was applied. Results demonstrated that most of the area was considered stable during the time span of the image acquisition. However, persistent scatterers (PSs with high deformation rates were mapped over a landfill probably related to settlements. To validate the PSI data, graphs were generated with the displaced information based on topographic measurements in the field. The graphs showed that the surface deformations during TSX-1 runway coverage are within the miner’s safety threshold and do not present a risk of major problems. The PSI data provided a synoptic and detailed view of the deformation process that affects the mining complex without the need of field campaign or instrumentation.

  20. Utilization of open pit burned household waste ash--a feasibility study in Dhaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Obaidul; Sharif, Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Informal incineration or open pit burning of waste materials is a common practice in the peripheral area of Dhaka, one of the fastest growing mega-cities in the world. This study deals with the effect of open pit burned (i.e. open burned) household waste bottom ash on fired clay bricks. Between 0 to 50% (by weight) of open pit burned household waste bottom ash was mixed with clay to make bricks. The molded specimens were air-dried at room temperature for 24 h and then oven dried at 100 °C for another 24 h to remove the water. The raw bricks were fired in a muffle furnace to a designated temperature (800, 900 and 1000 °C, respectively). The firing behaviour (mechanical strength, water absorption and shrinkage) was determined. The microstructures, phase compositions and leachates were evaluated for bricks manufactured at different firing temperatures. These results demonstrate that open pit burned ash can be recycled in clay bricks. This study also presents physical observations of the incinerated ash particles and determination of the chemical compositions of the raw materials by wet analysis. Open pit burned ash can be introduced easily into bricks up to 20% wt. The concentrations of hazardous components in the leachates were below the standard threshold for inert waste category landfill and their environmental risk during their use-life step can be considered negligible.

  1. Long-term fate and transport of arsenic in an in-pit uranium mine tailings facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldovan, B.; Hendry, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    An important environmental issue facing the uranium mining industry in Saskatchewan is the quantification of the long-term migration of arsenic from its tailings facilities to the adjacent groundwater system. Decommissioning of these arsenic-rich tailings requires that the long-term arsenic source term for the tailings to the groundwater be defined. To meet this need, arsenic-rich uranium mine tailings from one in-pit tailings facility (tailings emplaced in a mined out open pit) were studied in detail. The tailings facility selected for study was the Rabbit Lake in-pit tailings management facility (RLITMF) in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. The tailings body in the RLITMF is 425 m long x 300 m wide x 100 m deep at its center and mill tailings were deposited in layers between 1985 (base) and 2004 (top). Associated with the low-level radioactive tailings is approximately 23,000 tonnes of arsenic. The in-pit design limits solute transport in these fine-grained tailings to diffusion. Because the layers of tailings have varying chemical characteristics (controlled by the ore being milled at the time), the total arsenic concentrations in the layers and their associated pore fluids range from 56 to 9,871 μ/g and 0.24 to 140 mg/l, respectively. As was the case for arsenic, the concentration of iron present in the layers was also variable (ranging from 8,967 to 30,247 μ/g). Synchrotron-based studies show that the arsenic in these tailings is strongly attenuated by adsorption to secondary 2-line ferrihydrite through inner sphere bidentate linkages. Single reservoir diffusion cell testing shows that the effective diffusion coefficient for arsenic in the tailings is 4.5 x 10 -10 m 2 s- 1 . Based on results from our field- and laboratory-based studies, the redistribution (via diffusion) and attenuation (via adsorption) of arsenic in the RLITMF was modelled using a one-dimensional geochemical reactive transport model to provide a source term for arsenic migration from the

  2. Determine Appropriate Post Mining Land Use in Indonesia Coal Mining Using Land Suitability Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Maryati, Sri; Shimada, Hideki; Hamanaka, Akihiro; Sasaoka, Takashi; Matsui, Kikuo

    2012-01-01

    Coal mining industry gives many benefits for Indonesia including contribution in total Indonesian GDP. Most of coal mines in Indonesia are open pit mining method which disturbs large area of land. One of open pit mining impact is damage land and related to soil erosion occurrences it will degrade land by top soil loses. Indonesia Government has issued mine closure regulation to encourage mining industry provide post mining land use. Determination of post mining land use should be considering ...

  3. Open-source tools for data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, Blaz; Demsar, Janez

    2008-03-01

    With a growing volume of biomedical databases and repositories, the need to develop a set of tools to address their analysis and support knowledge discovery is becoming acute. The data mining community has developed a substantial set of techniques for computational treatment of these data. In this article, we discuss the evolution of open-source toolboxes that data mining researchers and enthusiasts have developed over the span of a few decades and review several currently available open-source data mining suites. The approaches we review are diverse in data mining methods and user interfaces and also demonstrate that the field and its tools are ready to be fully exploited in biomedical research.

  4. Radionuclide and metal contamination in pit lakes in former U mining sites in Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skipperud, L.; Rosseland, B.O.; Heier, L.S.; Salbu, B. [Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, Norwegian University of Life Sciences - NMBU (Norway); Stegnar, P. [Josef Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Yunusov, M. [IA Vostokredmet (Tajikistan); Burkitbaev, L.M. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    The uranium mining industry in the USSR was established in the late 1940's - early 1950's in the former Soviet Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan as part of the nuclear weapon program. In most countries, uranium mining is considered a hazardous step of nuclear materials production, both in terms of radiation doses and in the number of people affected. Key problems have been associated with the transport of uranium and its daughters in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, where radionuclides are transferred from air, water, and soils into plants, fish/animals and finally to man. In this paper, special attention is paid to the assessment of radionuclides and metals in Central Asian Pit Lakes. Field works to Kurday, Kasakhstan, and Taboshar, Tajikistan, Pit Lakes have been performed. In addition to sampling of water, fish, sediments, and vegetation, in situ fractionation of water were achieved. The concentrations of U and associated trace metals were enriched in the Kurday Pit Lake and in the artesian water at the Kurday site (U exceeding the WHO guideline value for drinking water), and decreased downstream from the mining area. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were predominantly present as mobile low molecular mass species in waters, while a significant proportion of Cr, Mn and Fe were associated with colloids and particles. Due to oxidation of divalent iron in the artesian ground water upon contact with air, Fe served as scavenger for other elements, and peak concentrations of U, Ra-isotopes, As and Mn were seen. The U concentrations in water from Taboshar Pit Lake (2.0 mg U/L) were higher than waters collected in other areas in Tajikistan. The Pit Lake and the stream water from the tailing mountain were also characterized by elevated concentrations of As, Mo, Mn and Fe, exceeding the WHO recommended values for drinking water. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were present as low molecular mass species in the waters, and are therefore considered

  5. Study of acid mine drainage management with evaluating climate and rainfall in East Pit 3 West Banko coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochyani, Neny

    2017-11-01

    Acid mine drainage is a major problem for the mining environment. The main factor that formed acid mine drainage is the volume of rainfall. Therefore, it is important to know clearly the main climate pattern of rainfall and season on the management of acid mine drainage. This study focuses on the effects of rainfall on acid mine water management. Based on daily rainfall data, monthly and seasonal patterns by using Gumbel approach is known the amount of rainfall that occurred in East Pit 3 West Banko area. The data also obtained the highest maximum daily rainfall on 165 mm/day and the lowest at 76.4 mm/day, where it is known that the rainfall conditions during the period 2007 - 2016 is from November to April so the use of lime is also slightly, While the low rainfall is from May to October and the use of lime will be more and more. Based on calculation of lime requirement for each return period, it can be seen the total of lime and financial requirement for treatment of each return period.

  6. Mining-induced earthquakes monitored during pit closure in the Midlothian Coalfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmayne, D.W.; Richards, J.A.; Wild, P.W. [British Geological Survey, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Global Seismology and Geomagnetism Group

    1998-06-01

    The British Geological Survey installed a seismometer network to monitor earthquakes around Rosslyn Chapel in the Midlothian Coalfield from November 1987 until January 1990. Accurate locations were obtained for 247 events and a close spatial and temporal association with concurrent coal mining, with a rapid decay of earthquake activity following pit closure, was demonstrated, indicating a mining-induced cause. Residual stress from past mining appears to have been an important factor in generating seismicity, and observations indicate that limiting the width of the workings or rate of extraction may significantly reduce or eliminate mining-induced earthquake activity. A frequency-magnitude analysis indicates a relatively high abundance of small events in this coalfield area. The maximum magnitude of a mining-induced earthquake likely to have been experienced during the life of the coalfield (maximum credible magnitude) was 3.0 M-L, although an extreme event (maximum possible magnitude) as large as 3.4 M-L was remotely possible. Significant seismic amplification was observed at Rosslyn Chapel, which is founded on sand and gravel, compared with a nearby bedrock site. As a consequence, relatively small magnitude events caused high, and occasionally damaging, seismic intensities at the chapel.

  7. Assessing Health Outcomes After Environmental Exposures Associated With Open Pit Burning in Deployed US Service Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbeck, Patricia; Hu, Zheng; Mallon, Col Timothy M

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the long-term health impact of environmental exposures associated with open pit burning in deployed US service members. Two hundred individuals deployed to Balad, Iraq, and Bagram, Afghanistan, with known exposure to open pits, were matched to 200 non-deployed service members. Both cohorts were observed for adverse health outcomes after returning from deployment. Slight increased risks were observed for respiratory diseases in the Bagram cohort (adj RR: 1.259), and for cardiovascular disease in the Balad cohort (adj RR: 1.072), but the findings were not significant. The combined deployed cohort showed lower risks for adverse health outcomes, suggesting a healthy deployer effect. In conclusion, this study did not find significantly increased risks for selected health outcomes after burn pit exposure during deployment among two deployed cohorts compared with a non-deployed cohort.

  8. Open data mining for Taiwan's dengue epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, ChienHsing; Kao, Shu-Chen; Shih, Chia-Hung; Kan, Meng-Hsuan

    2018-07-01

    By using a quantitative approach, this study examines the applicability of data mining technique to discover knowledge from open data related to Taiwan's dengue epidemic. We compare results when Google trend data are included or excluded. Data sources are government open data, climate data, and Google trend data. Research findings from analysis of 70,914 cases are obtained. Location and time (month) in open data show the highest classification power followed by climate variables (temperature and humidity), whereas gender and age show the lowest values. Both prediction accuracy and simplicity decrease when Google trends are considered (respectively 0.94 and 0.37, compared to 0.96 and 0.46). The article demonstrates the value of open data mining in the context of public health care. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Restoration of landscapes disrupted by open pit mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuvilov, M.I.; Vasil' kov, Yu.M.

    1982-01-01

    Practical recommendations are given for restoring landscapes which are suitable to the stripped rocks of the ''Korkinskiy'' section of the ''chelyabinskugol''' Union. The creation is proposed of broad terraces on the slopes for forest plantings. By first fulfilling a complex of agrotechnical measures, plantings are designed with consideration of ensuring a forest growth.

  10. COGEMA: Geological exploitation and supervision concerning the open pits of the Herault Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, D.

    1989-01-01

    Cogema mines since 1974 near Lodeve (Herault) the uranium deposits located in the eastern part of the Permian basin of Lodeve. These mining operations are carried out open cast and underground by the Herault Mining Division. The methods used for mining the deposit underground at Mas Lavayre in the most important uranium mine of Western Europe were previously described. The object of the present article is to describe the methods applied to mine the deposits by open cast working, for which it is essential in view of the complex geometry of the mineralizations to have a high-quality geological supervision to ensure a good selective recovery of the ore. 9 figs., 9 refs [fr

  11. Surface mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Leopold; Bruce Rowland; Reed Stalder

    1979-01-01

    The surface mining process consists of four phases: (1) exploration; (2) development; (3) production; and (4) reclamation. A variety of surface mining methods has been developed, including strip mining, auger, area strip, open pit, dredging, and hydraulic. Sound planning and design techniques are essential to implement alternatives to meet the myriad of laws,...

  12. Post-pit optimization strategic alignment

    OpenAIRE

    Breed, M.F.; van Heerden, D.

    2016-01-01

    Successful development of projects or life-of-mine strategies requires an understanding of the relative sensitivity of value drivers such as grade, tonnage, energy costs, direct operational costs, and recoveries. For example, the results could vary significantly depending on the grade strategy, given a specific orebody amenable to open pitting. Pit optimization is a very powerful tool widely used in the industry to determine the pit shell with the most attractive value potential. Based on the...

  13. Modeling and management of pit lake water chemistry 1: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castendyk, D.N.; Eary, L.E.; Balistrieri, L.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of pit lake literature in the context of pit lake predictions. • Review of approaches used to predict pit wall-rock runoff and leachate. • Review of approaches used to generate a pit lake water balance. • Review of approaches used to generate a hydrodynamic prediction. • Review of approaches used to generate a geochemical prediction of a future pit lake. - Abstract: Pit lakes are permanent hydrologic/landscape features that can result from open pit mining for metals, coal, uranium, diamonds, oil sands, and aggregates. Risks associated with pit lakes include local and regional impacts to water quality and related impacts to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Stakeholders rely on predictive models of water chemistry to prepare for and manage these risks. This paper is the first of a two part series on the modeling and management of pit lakes. Herein, we review approaches that have been used to quantify wall-rock runoff geochemistry, wall-rock leachate geochemistry, pit lake water balance, pit lake limnology (i.e. extent of vertical mixing), and pit lake water quality, and conclude with guidance on the application of models within the mine life cycle. The purpose of this paper is to better prepare stakeholders, including future modelers, mine managers, consultants, permitting agencies, land management agencies, regulators, research scientists, academics, and other interested parties, for the challenges of predicting and managing future pit lakes in un-mined areas

  14. Po-210 and Pb-210 in water and fish from Taboshar uranium mining Pit Lake, Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skipperud, L.; Jørgensen, A.G.; Heier, L.S.; Salbu, B.; Rosseland, B.O.

    2013-01-01

    Polonium-210 in water and 210 Pb and 210 Po in different fish organs from 3 different fish species in Taboshar Pit Lake (n = 13), located in the uranium mining area in Tajikistan, and in Kairakkum Reservoir (reference lake, n = 3), have been determined as part of a Joint project between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The average activity concentration of 210 Pb and 210 Po in liver, muscle and bone of Carassius auratus was higher than the concentration in similar tissues of C. carpio and Sander lucioperca from the reference site. The accumulation of 210 Po was higher than for 210 Pb, and the accumulation of 210 Po was highest in the liver of C. auratus (3673 ± 434 Bq kg −1 ww). Although the average activity concentration of 210 Pb in liver and bones of C. auratus from Pit Lake were fairly similar, a huge variation in the liver activity concentrations (25–327 Bq kg −1 ww) was found. The results confirm direct uptake of unsupported 210 Po into the liver, and that the distributions of 210 Po and 210 Pb in fish organs were different. The BCF (L/kg) for 210 Po in bone, liver and muscle clearly demonstrates high accumulation of 210 Po in C. auratus, especially in the liver. The average BCFs of liver, bone and muscle were >1.4 × 10 5 , >2.5 × 10 4 and >1.4 × 10 4 , respectively. All fish in the Pit Lake were found to be in the same trophic level, however, a linear correlation between log 210 Po in liver and δ 15 N could indicate biomagnification of 210 Po in liver of C. auratus. In regards to the recommended Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) for 210 Po, the concentration of 210 Po in muscle tissues of C. auratus is alarming, as there is a high probability for the local population at risk to exceed the recommended ALI through consumption of fish from Taboshar Pit Lake

  15. Exploring droplet impact near a millimetre-sized hole: comparing a closed pit with an open-ended pore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Rianne; Enriquez Paz y Puente, O.R.; van der Meer, Roger M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate drop impact dynamics near closed pits and open-ended pores experimentally. The resulting impact phenomena differ greatly in each case. For a pit, we observe three distinct phenomena, which we denote as a splash, a jet and an air bubble, whose appearance depends on the distance between

  16. Group traction drive as means to increase energy efficiency of lokomotives of open-pit transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipin, D. Ya; Izmerov, O. V.; Bishutin, S. G.; Kobishchanov, V. V.

    2017-10-01

    Questions of possible use of a group drive for locomotives of an open-pit transport are considered. The possibility of a significant reduction of traction costs in the case of a combination of a group traction drive with devices for the non-inertial regulation of the coefficient of friction between the wheel and the rail has been shown, and new patentable solutions have been proposed.

  17. EXPLOITATION OF GLASS SAND ON THE OPEN PIT »VRTLINSKA« (MOSLAVINA, CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Vujec

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of glass sand in Slavonia and Moslavina has a long tradition. The open-pit »Vrtlinska« is-accordirtg to its dimensions and production capacity the biggest one in this regions. Exploitation reserves within this open pit amount about 1 000 000 t glass sand of a very good quality, and the production capacity is 200 000 t yearly according to real needs during design and opening the pit, i. e. before the war. This article discusses geological and geomechanical characteristics of the deposit, as well as the exploitation process, which is considerably matching natural characteristics of the deposit. A more detailed description is given of the planned exploitation phase I above groundwater level which is carried out according to discontinuous system. For the exploitation of the depth part under groundwater level in the phase II, the necessity of further examination of hydrogeological characteristics of the deposit is presented, in order to acquire necessary information on groundwater regime and drainage conditions. Such knowledge will influence the choice of the most appropriate solutions in the exploitation of the depth part of the deposit.

  18. Limno-chemical and microbiology aspects in Uranium Pit Mine Lake (Osamu Utsumi), in Antas and Bortolan reservoirs under the influence of effluent Ore Treatment Unit, Caldas - Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronqui, Leilane B.; Nasciment, Marcos R.L. do; Roque, Claudio V.; Bruschi, Armando; Borba Junior, Palvo J.; Nascimento, Heliana A. F. do, E-mail: leilanebio@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: pmarcos@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: cvroque@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: abruschi@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jouber_borba@hotmail.com, E-mail: hazevedo@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Almeida, Tito C.M. de, E-mail: titoalmeida2008@gmail.com [Universidade do Vale do Itajai (CTT-Mar/UNIVALI), SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas da Terra e do Mar

    2013-07-01

    Due to high natural radioactivity there in Pocos de Caldas Plateau (Minas Gerais State, Brazil) and the existence of the first uranium mine in Brazil (Pit Mine Osamu Utsumi - Mineral Treatment Unit/Brazilian Nuclear Industries, MTU/BNI), which is characterized by an open-pit mine presents as increased environmental liability the formation of acid mine drainage, this study was conducted to evaluate the limno-chemicals and microbiology aspects (protozooplankton and bacterioplankton) belonging to uranium pit mine lake (PM) and evaluate the possible effects of acid effluents treated and discharged by MTU/BNI in Antas reservoir-AR and downstream of this, the Bortolan reservoir-BR. Besides the realization of abiotic and microbiology analysis of protozooplankton and bacterioplankton; was held standardization and deployment of the Fluorescence 'In Situ' Hybridization (FISH) technical using oligonucleotide probes for extremophile Archaea and Bacteria. According to the results, the PM showed the highest values for the chemical variables, lower pH values, lower protozooplankton density, however, protozooplanktonic high biomass showing the presence of tolerant species in this extreme environment. Antas and Bortolan reservoirs showed differences in the abiotic and biotic variables, AR showed suffer greater interference of acid effluents released at P41point and downstream of this at P14 point, lower protozooplankton biomass, lower bacterial density and pollution characteristics of inorganic sources. Using the FISH technique standard in this study to water bodies evaluated, it was possible to detect the presence of the extremophile bacteria of the Archaea domain in the three water bodies. The results of this study contribute to the knowledge of the pit mine lakes limnology which have become a major concern due to increased mining in the open. (author)

  19. Limno-chemical and microbiology aspects in Uranium Pit Mine Lake (Osamu Utsumi), in Antas and Bortolan reservoirs under the influence of effluent Ore Treatment Unit, Caldas - Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronqui, Leilane B.; Nasciment, Marcos R.L. do; Roque, Claudio V.; Bruschi, Armando; Borba Junior, Palvo J.; Nascimento, Heliana A. F. do; Almeida, Tito C.M. de

    2013-01-01

    Due to high natural radioactivity there in Pocos de Caldas Plateau (Minas Gerais State, Brazil) and the existence of the first uranium mine in Brazil (Pit Mine Osamu Utsumi - Mineral Treatment Unit/Brazilian Nuclear Industries, MTU/BNI), which is characterized by an open-pit mine presents as increased environmental liability the formation of acid mine drainage, this study was conducted to evaluate the limno-chemicals and microbiology aspects (protozooplankton and bacterioplankton) belonging to uranium pit mine lake (PM) and evaluate the possible effects of acid effluents treated and discharged by MTU/BNI in Antas reservoir-AR and downstream of this, the Bortolan reservoir-BR. Besides the realization of abiotic and microbiology analysis of protozooplankton and bacterioplankton; was held standardization and deployment of the Fluorescence 'In Situ' Hybridization (FISH) technical using oligonucleotide probes for extremophile Archaea and Bacteria. According to the results, the PM showed the highest values for the chemical variables, lower pH values, lower protozooplankton density, however, protozooplanktonic high biomass showing the presence of tolerant species in this extreme environment. Antas and Bortolan reservoirs showed differences in the abiotic and biotic variables, AR showed suffer greater interference of acid effluents released at P41point and downstream of this at P14 point, lower protozooplankton biomass, lower bacterial density and pollution characteristics of inorganic sources. Using the FISH technique standard in this study to water bodies evaluated, it was possible to detect the presence of the extremophile bacteria of the Archaea domain in the three water bodies. The results of this study contribute to the knowledge of the pit mine lakes limnology which have become a major concern due to increased mining in the open. (author)

  20. Treatment of Iron Tailings at the Forecariah Guinea Mine - Guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... subsidiary of Bellzone Australia, mines and export iron ore. The company uses the open pit system of mining. ... market. The processing technology involves crushing the run of mine (ROM) to ... operation at the plant. Presently ...

  1. A New Methodology for Open Pit Slope Design in Karst-Prone Ground Conditions Based on Integrated Stochastic-Limit Equilibrium Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Cao, Ping; Ma, Guowei; Fan, Wenchen; Meng, Jingjing; Li, Kaihui

    2016-07-01

    Using the Chengmenshan Copper Mine as a case study, a new methodology for open pit slope design in karst-prone ground conditions is presented based on integrated stochastic-limit equilibrium analysis. The numerical modeling and optimization design procedure contain a collection of drill core data, karst cave stochastic model generation, SLIDE simulation and bisection method optimization. Borehole investigations are performed, and the statistical result shows that the length of the karst cave fits a negative exponential distribution model, but the length of carbonatite does not exactly follow any standard distribution. The inverse transform method and acceptance-rejection method are used to reproduce the length of the karst cave and carbonatite, respectively. A code for karst cave stochastic model generation, named KCSMG, is developed. The stability of the rock slope with the karst cave stochastic model is analyzed by combining the KCSMG code and the SLIDE program. This approach is then applied to study the effect of the karst cave on the stability of the open pit slope, and a procedure to optimize the open pit slope angle is presented.

  2. Accelerating the output of technology for auxillary processes in open cast mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matantsev, A.I.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the current state of track-laying operations in open-cut mines is given and their labor intensive nature is noted. The lag in the technological development of mechanization equipment for track laying and repair operations is noted. Results are given from developments by the Scientific Research Institute of Open-Pit Mining Operations in the field of mobile transportation technology and promising modular route design. Also examined are the problems of improving the routing bases in the industry. The absence of factories for manufacturing transportation technology and equipment is reflected most evidently in the technical and cost characteristics of coal production by an open-cut method and requires immediate solution.

  3. Inside report on arrangement progress of an open-air pit for tools and materials of Plutonium Fuel Center, JNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmura, Kenji; Sato, Shunichi; Gunji, Yasutoshi; Sawayama, Takeo; Nogami, Tetsuya; Matsuno, Kazuya; Tominaga, Setsuo; Osawa, Takayasu

    1999-03-01

    In the course of arranging the wasted tools and materials in the open-air pit (B-pit) of Plutonium Fuel Center, JNC, a radioactive contamination occurred on June 25, 1998, on working clothes of an operator. The B-pit was immediately set up as a temporarily radiation-controlled area and the necessary works such as disposing contaminated wastes, decontamination and surface coatings as well as cleaning have been finished on February 2, 1999. The present report describes the main procedure of actual operations, a possible cause of the contamination, and the resulting wastes from the present work amounting to about 250 drums. (Ohno, S.)

  4. Birth outcomes among military personnel after exposure to documented open-air burn pits before and during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlin, Ava Marie S; DeScisciolo, Connie; Sevick, Carter J; Bukowinski, Anna T; Phillips, Christopher J; Smith, Tyler C

    2012-06-01

    To examine birth outcomes in military women and men with potential exposure to documented open-air burn pits before and during pregnancy. Electronic data from the Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry and the Defense Manpower Data Center were used to examine the prevalence of birth defects and preterm birth among infants of active-duty women and men who were deployed within a 3-mile radius of a documented open-air burn pit before or during pregnancy. In general, burn pit exposure at various times in relation to pregnancy and for differing durations was not consistently associated with an increase in birth defects or preterm birth in infants of active-duty military personnel. These analyses offer reassurance to service members that burn pit exposure is not consistently associated with these select adverse infant health outcomes.

  5. Alternative utilization of underground spaces with abandoned mine openings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, So Keul; Cho, Won Jai; Han, Kong Chang; Choi, Sung Oong [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Utilization of the openings of the abandoned mines could be planned by the principal parameters such as location and geotechnical impact. The local governments have not only to lead the each stage of the utilization project from the very beginning of conceptual design up to the construction stage, but also to promote the project for the development of public purpose. The possible tentative candidates for the utilization of the abandoned mine openings which are supported by the local governments could be summarized as follows. a. The Gahak mine of Kwangmyung, Kyunggi: The mine caverns which have been served as the storage of the pickled fishes, could be reexcavated by taking into consideration the geotechnical parameters for the public use such as: 1) Training center for the youth, 2) Fermentation and storehouse of marine products, 3) Sightseeing resort, 4) Sports and leisure complex, 5) Underground parking lot, 6) Underground shopping mall and chilled room storage, 7) Library, concert hall and museum. b. Hamtae mine of Taebaek, Kangwon: The Hambaek main haulage way and its shaft should be investigated in detail in order to find out a possible use as the underground challenging park of the coal mining operation. c. Mines of Boryung and Hongsung, Chungnam: Lots of mine caverns have been used as the storehouse for the pickled shrimp. However, they have to be promoted to a large scale industries. d. Imgok mine of Kwangju and Palbong mine of Jeongeup, Chunbuk: Mine caverns which have been used as the storehouse of pickles, need a detailed investigation for alternative promotion. e. Yongho mine of Pusan Dalsung mine of Taegu: Both of the mines are located near metropolitan communities. Reconstruction of the old mine caverns of the Yongho mine is highly recommended for a public use. The caverns of the Dalsung mine could be utilized as the storage facilities. Detailed geotechnical survey and sit investigation could be suggested to design the recommended facilities for both

  6. 76 FR 19786 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Celatom Mine Expansion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... Vale, Oregon. The Celatom Mine Complex currently consists of three open-pit mines: Kelley Field (on BLM... within the Project Area. Activities under the Proposed Action, including final reclamation, would be... the Project Area include open pit mines, roads within the mine operations areas, and other operations...

  7. Mining project of the Taja Margaritas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez A, O.

    1980-01-01

    A summary of the study of a mining project designed to determine the feasibility of open-pit mining in uranium deposits along the Pena Blanca mountain ridges in Taja Margaritas, is presented. (author)

  8. Integrated open source mine workers compensation system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, L

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the Mine Workers Compensation System developed by the CSIR and Molepe Consulting for the South African Department of Health. Mining activities increase the risk of certain occupational lung diseases. South African legislation...

  9. The open cast mine of Bertholene (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraisse, H.

    1986-01-01

    The uranium deposit is described. Geology, exploration, reserve estimates, mining, mining equipment, utilities storage, environment and safety are presented. In appendixes data are given on drilling, loading and transport [fr

  10. Prospective assessment of chronic multisymptom illness reporting possibly associated with open-air burn pit smoke exposure in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Teresa M; Smith, Tyler C; Jacobson, Isabel G; Boyko, Edward J; Hooper, Tomoko I; Gackstetter, Gary D; Phillips, Christopher J; Smith, Besa

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between chronic multisymptom illness (CMI) and possible exposure to an open-air burn pit at three selected bases among those deployed to operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Chronic multisymptom illness (reporting at least one symptom in at least two of the following symptom constructs: general fatigue; mood and cognition problems; and musculoskeletal discomfort) was assessed, differentiating by potential burn pit exposure, among deployers who completed 2004 and 2007 Millennium Cohort questionnaires. More than 21,000 Cohort participants were deployed in support of the current operations, including more than 3000 participants with at least one deployment within a 3-mile radius of a documented burn pit. After adjusting for covariates, no elevated risk of CMI was observed among those exposed. There was no increase in CMI symptom reporting in those deployed to three selected bases with documented burn pits compared with other deployers.

  11. ON THE PROPAGATION OF OPEN AND COVERED PIT IN 316L STAINLESS STEEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heurtault, Stéphane; Robin, Raphaël; Rouillard, Fabien; Vivier, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The propagation of a single pit was investigated with a flow micro-device. • Both in depth and radial pit propagation were characterized. • The formation of a salt film in the pit was discussed. - Abstract: Pitting corrosion on stainless steel has been widely studied during the last decades, but since it is a stochastic process, it remains difficult to analyze experimentally such a phenomenon. In this work, reproducible single pits were performed on 316L steel by using an experimental setup based on the use of a glass microcapillary to locally supply chloride ions on the steel surface in order to characterize the pit propagation. This original approach allowed obtaining new results about pit propagation. Indeed, it was possible to control the presence of a metallic cap covering the pit by adjusting the experimental parameters (potential – chloride to sulfate ratio – temperature). The presence of this cover was shown to be an important issue concerning the propagation mechanism. It was also possible to study the evolution of both the pit depth and the pit diameter as a function of various parameters. Then, based on the simulation of the current densities at the pit bottom and at the pit aperture, a special attention has been paid for the investigation of the local propagation mechanism.

  12. Survey of nine surface mines in North America. [Nine different mines in USA and Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, L.G.; Brackett, R.D.; Floyd, F.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the information gathered by three mining engineers in a 1980 survey of nine surface mines in the United States and Canada. The mines visited included seven coal mines, one copper mine, and one tar sands mine selected as representative of present state of the art in open pit, strip, and terrace pit mining. The purpose of the survey was to investigate mining methods, equipment requirements, operating costs, reclamation procedures and costs, and other aspects of current surface mining practices in order to acquire basic data for a study comparing conventional and terrace pit mining methods, particularly in deeper overburdens. The survey was conducted as part of a project under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023 titled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  13. An Open Pit Nanofluidic Tool: Localized Chemistry Assisted by Mesoporous Thin Film Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, Magalí; Pierpauli, Karina A; Berli, Claudio L A; Bellino, Martín G

    2017-05-17

    Nanofluidics based on nanoscopic porous structures has emerged as the next evolutionary milestone in the construction of versatile nanodevices with unprecedented applications. However, the straightforward development of nanofluidically interconnected systems is crucial for the production of practical devices. Here, we demonstrate that spontaneous infiltration into supramolecularly templated mesoporous oxide films at the edge of a sessile drop in open air can be used to connect pairs of landmarks. The liquids from the drops can then join through the nanoporous network to guide a localized chemical reaction at the nanofluid-front interface. This method, here named "open-pit" nanofluidics, allows mixing reagents from nanofluidically connected droplet reservoirs that can be used as reactors to conduct reactions and precipitation processes. From the fundamental point of view, the work contributes to unveiling subtle phenomena during spontaneous infiltration of fluids in bodies with nanoscale dimensions such as the front broadening effect and the oscillatory behavior of the infiltration-evaporation front. The approach has distinctive advantages such as easy fabrication, low cost, and facility of scaling up for future development of ultrasensitive detection, controlled nanomaterial synthesis, and novel patterning methods.

  14. Perils of project development on public land open to mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    Conducting a government project on public land open to the general mining laws can result in added costs, legal entanglements, schedule uncertainties, and the potential for unanticipated safety issues and concerns due to interactions with mining claimants. Planning for such projects must include a careful assessment of not only land access needs and restrictions, but also possible scenarios for conflict with activities authorized under the general mining laws throughout the life of the project. It is essential to have a thorough knowledge of the applicable mining laws and how they are currently being interpreted and applied by the responsible regulatory authorities and land managers. The Yucca Mountain Project approach to land access, problems encountered with mining claims filed under the Mining Law of 1872, and the lessons learned from these experiences are discussed in this paper

  15. The 2000/60/EC Water Framework Directive and the Flooding of the Brown Coal Meirama Open Pit (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.

    2009-04-01

    Coal mining in Galicia (NW Spain) has been an important activity which came to an end in December, 2007. Hence, for different reasons, the two large brown coal mines in Galicia (the As Pontes mine, run by ENDESA GENERACIÓN, and the Meirama mine, owned by Lignitos de Meirama, S.A., LIMEISA), have started closure procedures, both of which are considering the flooding of the mine pits to create two large lakes (~8 km2 in As Pontes and ~2 km2 in Meirama). They will be unique in Galicia, a nearly lake-free territory. An important point to consider as regards the flooding of the lignite mine pits in Galicia is how the process of the creation of a body of artificial water will adapt to the strict legal demands put forth in the Water Framework Directive. This problem has been carefully examined by different authors in other countries and it raises the question of the need to adapt sampling surveys to monitor a number of key parameters -priority substances, physical and chemical parameters, biological indicators, etc.- that cannot be overlooked. Flooding, in both cases consider the preferential entrance into the mine holes of river-diverted surface waters, in detriment of ground waters in order to minimize acidic inputs. Although both mines are located in the same hydraulic demarcation (i.e. administrative units that, in Spain, are in charge of the public administration and the enforcement of natural water-related laws) the problems facing the corresponding mine managers are different. In the case of Meirama, the mine hole covers the upper third part of the Barcés river catchment, which is a major source of water for the Cecebre reservoir. That reservoir constitutes the only supply of drinking water for the city of A Coruña (~250.000 inhabitants) and its surrounding towns. In this contribution we will discuss how mine managers and the administration have addressed the uncertainties derived from the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in the particular case of

  16. An improved formulation of the underground mine scheduling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-12

    Jun 12, 2014 ... the mine scheduling optimisation problem for both open pit and ... that involves the iterative solving of the linear programming ... methods is discussed in §4 and the concept of a mining-method-dependent grade tonnage.

  17. Spontaneous revegetation vs. forestry reclamation in post-mining sand pits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebelíková, L.; Řehounková, Klára; Prach, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 14 (2016), s. 13598-13605 ISSN 0944-1344 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/0256 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : sand pits * vegetation * restoration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.741, year: 2016

  18. First experience with Remote Sensing methods and selected sensors in the monitoring of mining areas - a case study of the Belchatow open cast mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajs, Jaroslaw

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents satellite imagery from active SENTINEL-1A and passive SENTINEL-2A/2B sensors for their application in the monitoring of mining areas focused on detecting land changes. Multispectral scenes of SENTINEL-2A/2B have allowed for detecting changes in land-cover near the region of interest (ROI), i.e. the Szczercow dumping site in the Belchatow open cast lignite mine, central Poland, Europe. Scenes from SENTINEL-1A/1B satellite have also been used in the research. Processing of the SLC signal enabled creating a return intensity map in VV polarization. The obtained SAR scene was reclassified and shows a strong return signal from the dumping site and the open pit. This fact may be used in detection and monitoring of changes occurring within the analysed engineering objects.

  19. Toxicity of acid mine pit lake water remediated with limestone and phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neil, L.L.; McCullough, C.D.; Lund, M.A.; Evans, L.H.; Tsvetnenko, Y. [Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    Pit lakes are increasingly common worldwide and have potential to provide many benefits. However, lake water toxicity may require remediation before beneficial end uses can be realised. Three treatments to remediate AMD (pH similar to 4.8) pit lake water containing elevated concentrations of Al and Zn from Collie, Western Australia were tested in mesocosms. Treatments were: (a) limestone neutralisation (L), (b) phosphorus amendment (P), and c) combined limestone neutralisation and phosphorus amendment (L+P). Laboratory bioassays with Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia, Chlorella protothecoides and Tetrahymena thermophila assessed remediation. Limestone neutralisation increased pH and reduced heavy metal concentrations by 98% (Al) to 14% (Mg), removing toxicity to the three test species within 2 months. Phosphorus amendment removed toxicity after 6 months of treatment. However, phosphorus amendment to prior limestone neutralisation failed to reduce toxicity more than limestone neutralisation alone. Low concentrations of both phosphorus and nitrogen appear to limit phytoplankton population growth in all treatments.

  20. Toxicity of acid mine pit lake water remediated with limestone and phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Luke L; McCullough, Clint D; Lund, Mark A; Evans, Louis H; Tsvetnenko, Yuri

    2009-11-01

    Pit lakes are increasingly common worldwide and have potential to provide many benefits. However, lake water toxicity may require remediation before beneficial end uses can be realised. Three treatments to remediate AMD (pH approximately 4.8) pit lake water containing elevated concentrations of Al and Zn from Collie, Western Australia were tested in mesocosms. Treatments were: (a) limestone neutralisation (L), (b) phosphorus amendment (P), and (c) combined limestone neutralisation and phosphorus amendment (L+P). Laboratory bioassays with Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia, Chlorella protothecoides and Tetrahymena thermophila assessed remediation. Limestone neutralisation increased pH and reduced heavy metal concentrations by 98% (Al) to 14% (Mg), removing toxicity to the three test species within 2 months. Phosphorus amendment removed toxicity after 6 months of treatment. However, phosphorus amendment to prior limestone neutralisation failed to reduce toxicity more than limestone neutralisation alone. Low concentrations of both phosphorus and nitrogen appear to limit phytoplankton population growth in all treatments.

  1. WORKSHOP ON THE CHARACTERIZATION, MODELING, REMEDIATION AND MONITORING OF MINING-IMPACTED PIT LAKES, SANDS RGENCY CASINO HOTEL, DOWNTOWN RENO, NV. APRIL 4-6, 2000 (PROGRAM FLYER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this workshop is to provide a forum for the exchange of scientific infomation on current approaches for assessing the characterization, monitoring, treatment and/or remediation of impacts on aquatic ecosystems including pit lakes from mining-related contamination i...

  2. PLANT DIVERSITY OF THE ZHELTOKAMENSKIY OPEN CAST MINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarova T.A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Floristic structure data of soil algae, lichens, mosses, and vascular plants are given. Rare plant species which are protected at the Ukrainian, European, and International levels were revealed. The species list of trees and bushes was conducted. The soil analysis was carried out by such parameters: pH-value, the maintenance of hygroscopic water, the maintenance of mineral substances. Vegetation biomass on the open cast mines sample areas is defined. Ecological analysis of the biotopes of registered algae species was performed. The ecological analysis of the vascular plants species biotopes was carried out.The estimation of the perspective vegetation pattern was suggested for natural restoration of the open cast mines. The plant species are selected according to the ecological and morphological characteristics for plant rehabilitation and planting of open cast mines.

  3. Developing an Ecological Passport for an Open-Pit Dump Truck to Reduce Negative Effect on Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptev, V. Yu; Kopteva, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    Expanding the open-pit dump truck usage areas and the need to transport more and more minerals results in producing more and more powerful open-pit dump trucks, and this all is about environmental problems and potential health risks for the personnel. Harmful gas concentrations in working areas became threatening enough to have the work in some areas completely halted, until the contents of harmful substances in the air, as well as visibility on the roads, get back to norm. The article represents the new methodology for assessing comparatively the efficiency of modern transportation systems with performance and ecology characteristics taken into account, by developing an ecological passport for machines, facilitating design improvements and reducing pollution during operation.

  4. Mining dictionary: underground mining; open-cast mining; preparation and beneficiation; geology of mineral deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goergen, H; Stoll, R D; Vriesen, R D; Welzenberg, B

    1981-01-01

    The dictionary reflects the latest technical developments in the vocabulary of mining methods and the mining industry. Volume I of the dictionary is English to German, Volume II German to English. 36,000 entries are included.

  5. A stochastic mathematical model for determination of transition time in the non-simultaneous case of surface and underground mining

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhtavar, E.; Abdollahisharif, J.; Aminzadeh, A.

    2017-01-01

    This research introduces a stochastic mathematical model that uses open pit long-term production planning on an integrated open pit and underground block model to determine the optimal time for transition from open pit to underground mining. In the model, ore grade is considered a random parameter in objective function and ore grade blending constraints. The objective function is modelled as the maximization of net present value in the mode of non-simultaneous combined open pit and undergroun...

  6. Microstructure of the optic disc pit in open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Jeong; Lee, Eun Ji; Kim, Bo Hyuk; Kim, Tae-Woo

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the structural and clinical characteristics of the optic disc pit (ODP) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) via enhanced depth imaging (EDI) spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Prospective, observational case series. Seventy POAG eyes clinically diagnosed with an ODP via stereo disc photography. Optic discs were scanned using EDI SD-OCT. Serial horizontal and vertical B-scan images covering the optic discs were obtained from each eye. The structural characteristics of the ODP were investigated via 3-dimensional images constructed from the serial B-scans, focusing on the presence of alterations in the contour of the lamina cribrosa (LC) or prelaminar tissue (PLT), in conjunction with associated clinical characteristics. The structural characteristics of the ODP and associated clinical characteristics. In the EDI SD-OCT images, the ODP was viewed as an isolated alteration of the LC (n = 14, 20.0%) or PLT (n = 16, 22.9%) or an alteration of both the LC and PLT (n = 40, 57.1%). Alterations of the LC were located at the mid-periphery near the LC insertion (n = 17) or far periphery adjacent to the LC insertion (n = 37), and the depth of alteration was deep (n = 23), involving nearly full-thickness LC, or shallow (n = 31), with partially visible LC at the base. Fifty-four eyes (77.1%) exhibited parafoveal visual field (VF) defect within 10 degrees of fixation, and in 98.1% of these eyes (53/54) it was spatially associated with the location of ODP. The parafoveal VF defect was more prevalent in eyes with LC alteration than those without (83.3% vs. 56.2%, P = 0.023) and in eyes with deep LC defect than those with shallow defect (95.7% vs. 74.2%, P = 0.036). Disc hemorrhage (32.4% vs. 0.0%, P = 0.008) and peripapillary retinoschisis (18.9 vs. 0.0%, P = 0.055) were more strongly associated with LC alterations located at the far periphery than at the mid-periphery. Enhanced depth imaging SD-OCT facilitated visualization of the varied

  7. Foundations for technical solutions in organizing excavation of open ore pits

    OpenAIRE

    С. И. Фомин

    2016-01-01

    To study stochastic mining technical systems of opencast mines, where parallel to clearly defined values random and indefinite factors operate, probabilistic and statistical techniques are mostly used nowadays. Formally, the task of producing a design solution may, under the conditions of indeterminacy be transformed into an equivalent deterministic problem formulated for a risky situation. Uncertainty in the initial mining, geological and technical-economic information available during t...

  8. Australian opencast-lignite mine Yallourn; Der australische Braunkohlentagebau Yallourn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koscierski, Marcin; Goerlich, Michael [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbaukunde I

    2009-01-15

    This article is about the open pit lignite mine Yallourn, located 150 km southeast of Melbourne (Figure 1). It focuses on the history, the geology and the environment. Furthermore, it describes the new mining method using large carry dozers. The open pit and the power plant are owned by TruEnergy (part of the CLP Group) and the mining activities are carried out in an Alliance with Roche Thiess Linfox (RTL). (orig.)

  9. Estimating disperser abundance using open population models that incorporate data from continuous detection PIT arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzul, Maria C.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Korman, Josh

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag antenna systems continuously detect individually marked organisms at one or more fixed points over long time periods. Estimating abundance using data from autonomous antennae can be challenging, because these systems do not detect unmarked individuals. Here we pair PIT antennae data from a tributary with mark-recapture sampling data in a mainstem river to estimate the number of fish moving from the mainstem to the tributary. We then use our model to estimate abundance of non-native rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss that move from the Colorado River to the Little Colorado River (LCR), the latter of which is important spawning and rearing habitat for federally-endangered humpback chub Gila cypha. We estimate 226 rainbow trout (95% CI: 127-370) entered the LCR from October 2013-April 2014. We discuss the challenges of incorporating detections from autonomous PIT antenna systems into mark-recapture population models, particularly in regards to using information about spatial location to estimate movement and detection probabilities.

  10. PLANT DIVERSITY OF THE ZHELTOKAMENSKIY OPEN CAST MINES

    OpenAIRE

    Yarova T.A.; Yarovyi S. A.; Bren A.G.; Baraboha N. N.; Baraboha A. P.; Vovk O. A.

    2012-01-01

    Floristic structure data of soil algae, lichens, mosses, and vascular plants are given. Rare plant species which are protected at the Ukrainian, European, and International levels were revealed. The species list of trees and bushes was conducted. The soil analysis was carried out by such parameters: pH-value, the maintenance of hygroscopic water, the maintenance of mineral substances. Vegetation biomass on the open cast mines sample areas is defined. Ecological analysis of the biotopes of ...

  11. 77 FR 22609 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Pan Mine Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... business hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Midway Gold US Inc. (Midway) proposes to construct and operate an open-pit gold mining operation, which would include open pits, a heap leach pad, waste rock dumps, and ancillary facilities. The mine would be located in the northern part of the Pancake Mountain Range...

  12. Mining technology and policy issues 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents conference papers on advances in mineral processing, coal mining, communications for mining executives, environmental laws and regulations, exploration philosophy, exploration technology, government controls and the environment, management, mine finance, minerals availability, mine safety, occupational health, open pit mining, the precious metals outlook, public lands, system improvements in processing ores, and underground mining. Topics considered include coal pipelines and saline water, an incentive program for coal mines, sandwich belt high-angle conveyors, the development of a mining company, regulations for radionuclides, contracts for western coal production for Pacific Rim exports, and the control of radon daughters in underground mines

  13. STRESSES AND DEFORMABILITY OF ROCK MASS UPON OPEN PIT EXPLOITATION OF DIMENSION STONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Dunda

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of increased stresses and deformability of rock mass in the quarry of Zečevo (exploitation field of Selca – island of Brač has caused a considerable decrease of usability of mineral raw materials, which put into question the survival of the pit. Therefore the research and measurements of the state of stresses and deformability of rock mass within the pit were carried out. Besides detailed laboratory testings (testings on small samples performed were trial in-situ testings on large samples including the corresponding numerical analyses. The exploitation of dimension stone by sowing regularly shaped rectangular blocks has been proved to be appropriate for in-situ testing of bending strength. The paper presents the results of carried out laboratory testings, in-situ testings of bending strength including measuring of deformations after sowing cuts and numerical analyses by which the possible range of horizontal stresses was determined. Since for the case of massive rocks, for which the continuum concept is applied, there are no specifically defined methods of corrections, presented is a possible relation for correction of input size values based on the carried out laboratory and in-situ testings.

  14. 30 CFR 57.22105 - Smoking and open flames (IV mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 57.22105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22105 Smoking and open...

  15. 30 CFR 57.22104 - Open flames (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....22104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22104 Open flames (I-C...

  16. RATIONALIZATION OF ROAD TRANSPORT PARK FOR THE CARRIAGE OF MINING ROCKS IN THE OPEN MINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga VUYEYKOVA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates causes and conditions of downtime of automobile and excavator complex in iron ore open mines in the structure of the multi-type fleet of dump trucks. The formulas for determining the downtime trucks of different carrying capacity allocated to a single excavator. In this article will find out the regularities of formation wasting time waiting at the loading multi-type structure of the park trucks.

  17. Newly reported lupus and rheumatoid arthritis in relation to deployment within proximity to a documented open-air burn pit in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelly A; Smith, Besa; Granado, Nisara S; Boyko, Edward J; Gackstetter, Gary D; Ryan, Margaret A K; Phillips, Christopher J; Smith, Tyler C

    2012-06-01

    To assess the relationship between possible exposure to smoke from documented open-air burn pits and newly reported lupus and rheumatoid arthritis among Millennium Cohort participants who have deployed in support of operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Prospectively assessed self-reported lupus and rheumatoid arthritis among deployers who completed both 2004-2006 and 2007-2008 questionnaires. After exclusions, more than 18,000 participants were deployed, including more than 3000 participants deployed within a 3-mile radius of a documented burn pit. After adjustment, proximity within 3 miles of a burn pit was not significantly associated with rheumatoid arthritis or lupus in general; however, one location was associated with lupus, although few cases were at this site (n = 2). Results indicate deployers potentially exposed to documented burn pits in the combined three-camp analysis were not at an elevated risk of lupus or rheumatoid arthritis.

  18. The effects of exposure to documented open-air burn pits on respiratory health among deployers of the Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Besa; Wong, Charlene A; Boyko, Edward J; Phillips, Christopher J; Gackstetter, Gary D; Ryan, Margaret A K; Smith, Tyler C

    2012-06-01

    To investigate respiratory illnesses and potential open-air burn pit exposure among Millennium Cohort participants who deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Using multivariable logistic regression, newly reported chronic bronchitis or emphysema, newly reported asthma, and self-reported respiratory symptoms and possible burn pit exposure within 2, 3, or 5 miles were examined among Army and Air Force deployers surveyed in 2004 to 2006 and 2007 to 2008 (n = 22,844). Burn pit exposure within 3 or 5 miles was not associated with respiratory outcomes after statistical adjustment. Increased symptom reporting was observed among Air Force deployers located within 2 miles of Joint Base Balad; however, this finding was marginally significant with no evidence of trend. In general, these findings do not support an elevated risk for respiratory outcomes among personnel deployed within proximity of documented burn pits in Iraq.

  19. Foundations for technical solutions in organizing excavation of open ore pits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. И. Фомин

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To study stochastic mining technical systems of opencast mines, where parallel to clearly defined values random and indefinite factors operate, probabilistic and statistical techniques are mostly used nowadays. Formally, the task of producing a design solution may, under the conditions of indeterminacy be transformed into an equivalent deterministic problem formulated for a risky situation. Uncertainty in the initial mining, geological and technical-economic information available during the design stage may result in changing the principal output characteristics of the opencast mine and undermine its operational efficiency during its exploitation. Lowering the possible economic losses is then possible via designing a stable technological  system. To minimize the degree of indeterminacy one first of all needs to identify the area of potential risk, define the probability of its emergence and assess its potential consequences. In case such consequences may be precluded, a clearer more complete understanding of the problem would promote a better thought through reaction to potential risk in the course of implementing design solutions.

  20. Mixed approach (numerical modeling / equilibrium analysis) for slope stability analysis: development and application to the dams and open pit mining; Une approche mixte (numerique/equilibre limite) pour le calcul de stabilite des ouvrages en terre: developpement et application aux barrages et talus miniers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kourdey, A.

    2002-09-15

    The determination of the sliding surface of slope (dam, slope natural..) is one of the important and complicated problems in geotechnics. The Analyze of stability by the methods of Limit Equilibrium like the method of slices are the most used methods. They are able to determine a safety factor for a geometrically defined failure surface. These methods well adapted to the homogeneous mediums, have been developed a lot but they do not integrate the basic relations of mechanics (stress-strain). The numerical methods are better adapted to mediums having more complexity (effect of water, seismicity, fracturing,..). But, they are seldom used to determine a sliding surface and a safety factor. Each family offers appreciable advantages in the analysis of slope stability. For that purpose, we have developed a method that combines the advantages of the numerical methods as well as those of Limit Equilibrium allowing obtaining a slip surface determined by the calculated constraints. This slip surface may be imposed or better optimized, thus providing a minimal safety factor. Methods of operation research are used to obtain this surface. They are search methods by level, dynamic research.. or both at the same time. We integrated these developments in an existing computer code based on the method of Finite Differences known as FLAC. The stresses are determined for a linear behavior and for nonlinear. Interfaces and graphic tools are also produced to facilitate the analysis of stability. The validity of this approach was carried out for a standard case of slope, we analyzed and compared the results with the methods of Limit Equilibrium. The parametric study shows that this approach takes account of different parameters, which influences stability. We also kept a particular place for the application on real cases presenting slopes of different nature (dams, mining slops,...). (author)

  1. Terlinguacreekite, Hg32+O2 Cl2, a new mineral species from the Perry pit, Mariposa mine, Terlingua mining district, Brewster County, Texas, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew C.; Gault, Robert A.; Paar, W.H.; Cooper, M.A.; Hawthorne, F.C.; Burns, P.C.; Cisneros, S.; Foord, E.E.

    2005-01-01

    Terlinguacreekite, ideally Hg32+O2 Cl2, has a very pronounced subcell that is orthorhombic, space-group choices Imam, Imcm, Ima2 and 12cm, with unit-cell parameters refined from powder data: a 6.737(3), b 25.528(10), c 5.533(2) A??, V951.6(6) A??3, a:b:c 0.2639:1:0.2167, Z=8. The true symmetry, supercell unit-cell parameters, and details regarding the crystal structure are unknown. The strongest nine lines of the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern [d in A?? (I)(subcell hkl)] are: 5.413(30)(011), 4.063(80)(121), 3.201(50)(080), 3.023(50)(161), 2.983(60)(240), 2.858(30)(211), 2.765(50)(002), 2.518(100b)(091, 251) and 2.026(30)(242). The mineral is found in an isolated area measuring approximately 1 ?? 0.5 m in the lower level of the Perry pit, Mariposa mine, Terlingua mining district, Brewster County, Texas (type locality), as mm-sized anhedral dark orange to reddish orange crusts of variable thickness on calcite, and rarely as 0.5 mm-sized aggregates of crystals of the same color. It has also been identified at the McDermitt mine, Humboldt County, Nevada, U.S.A., where it occurs with kleinite and calomel in silicified volcanic rocks and sediments. Terlinguacreekite is a secondary phase, most probably formed from the alteration of primary cinnabar or native mercury. At Terlingua, most crusts are thin, almost cryptocrystalline, with no discernable forms, and are resinous and translucent to opaque. Crystals are up to 0.2 mm in length, subhedral, acicular to prismatic, elongation [001], with a maximum length-to-width ratio of 4:1. They are vitreous, transparent, and some crystals have brightly reflecting faces, which may be {010} and {110}. The streak is yellow, and the mineral is brittle with an uneven fracture, no observable cleavage, and is soft, nonfluorescent under both long- and short-wave ultraviolet light. D (calc.) is 9.899 g/cm3 (empirical formula). Material from the McDermitt mine is reversibly photosensitive, and turns from vivid orange to black in strong

  2. Acid mine drainage: mining and water pollution issues in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The importance of protecting water quality and some of the problems associated with mineral development are described. Negative impacts of mining operations such as sedimentation, water disturbances, and water pollution from waste rock and tailings are considered. Mining wastes, types of water pollution from mining, the legacy of acid mine drainage, predicting acid mine drainage, preventing and mitigating acid mine drainage, examples from the past, and cyanide heap-leaching are discussed. The real costs of mining at the Telkwa open pit coal mine are assessed. British Columbia mines that are known for or are potentially acid generating are shown on a map. 32 refs., 10 figs.

  3. A review on air pollution and various dust models for open cast mines in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangeeth, M.G.; Ahmed, Siraj; Bhagoria, J.L.; Pandit, G.G.

    2010-01-01

    Open cast coal mining continues to create significant environmental problems in India. In particular, this type of mining creates high rates of air pollution SPM, RPM, SO 2 and NO x . In these particulate matter i.e. SPM and RPM is major pollution in the open cast mines. It creates several heath hazards to mine workers and surrounding peoples and high environmental deterioration occurs. Several studies are carried out in the field of air pollution and air quality modeling of open cast projects and many researchers suggested several control measures for the air pollution control in mines. Different dust models FDM, ISC3 are available for prediction and transport of the pollutants. In this paper a review has been studied about air pollution in the open cast mines and dust dispersion models for open cast mines in India. (author)

  4. Leadership and management for an effective radiation protection programme: A study on open cast diamond mining in Lesotho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thetha, Pakeng

    2016-04-01

    Leadership and Management system commitment to safety is recognised as a fundamental component of an organisation's safety culture. This study focuses on how organisations can integrate leadership and management in achieving an effective radiation protection programme (RPP), in Lesotho's diamond mining industry. The study made a comparative analysis of relevant studies made on similar open pit mines and industries around the world. The findings suggest that, leaders and managers should ensure that prior radiological assessment is done in order to streamline the radiation protection programme to satisfy the needs of the individual mining companies thus making it more effective. Furthermore there is a need to ensure that leadership and management are integrated at every level of the organization in the implementation of the RPP. Lesotho Diamond Mining industry has no radiation protection programme in place thus its effectiveness could not be assessed. Leaders and managers should be involved at all levels of the organization from site specific radiological evaluation, design, funding, training and implementation of the RPP. Senior managers, supervisors and workers have the responsibility to ensure the protection of those occupationally exposed the public, the environment and future generations by implementing the RPP effectively and efficiently. (au)

  5. Landslide rehabilitation with geo synthetics in open coal mine Oslomej

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrievski, Ljupcho; Ilievska, Frosina; Ilievski, Darko

    2004-01-01

    In November 2002 stability is violated and landslides are registered in open coal mine Oslomej, Republic of Macedonia. Around the profile IV existing open irrigation channel was interrupted and landslide was extended to the regional way R421 Kicevo - Oslomej. The landslide was classified like big and dangerous, including danger for disruption of the regional road and pipeline Studencica - Oslomej for supplying of thermal power plant Oslomej with technical water. According to the proposed solution, main project design for landslide rehabilitation was prepared with using geo synthetics Stabilenka 200/45. In fill is local soil material which had been placed and compacted in layers, it had formed a composite construction. Stabilenka acts as a reinforcement due to its ability to absorb tensile forces. With the design solution two retaining walls of reinforced soil and complete drainage system of geo composite materials had been constructed This paper deals with details of the design and the construction. (Author)

  6. Formation of Mesoherpetobionts Communities on a Reclamated Coal Open Pit Dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzyanin, Sergey; Eremeeva, Natalya

    2017-11-01

    The structure of the mesoherpetobionts arthropod communities of the reclamated dump of the Krasnobrodsky coal pit (Kemerovo region, Russia) has been studied. It was established that the pioneer grouping of mesoherpetobionts arthropod represented by classes of Chilopoda, Arachnida and Insecta-Ectognatha has been formed on the dump for two years after the soil deposition. From the Arachnida, the species of the order Aranei are the most active in the stocking of the dumps. From the class Chilopoda, the species of Lithobiomorpha appear the first on the dump. Insects from the following three orders, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera and especially Coleoptera take the main part in the expansion of dumps and the formation of primary communities. Among the Coleoptera, the beetles of the family of Carabidae (44 species, dynamic density 22.9 specimens/10 trapped per day) dominate. From them, small or medium-sized species are mainly involved in stocking the dumps. There are significant differences in the complexes of ground dump carabid beetles in comparison with the control group, differing in species composition of dominant species, species richness and species diversity parameters

  7. Ghana Mining Journal - Vol 15, No 1 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... on Post Processed Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) Data – A Case ... Application of Surpac and Whittle Software in Open Pit Optimisation and ... What's on the Minds of Beginner Mining and Related Engineering Students?

  8. Prediction of Backbreak in Open-Pit Blasting Operations Using the Machine Learning Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Manoj; Monjezi, M.

    2013-03-01

    Backbreak is an undesirable phenomenon in blasting operations. It can cause instability of mine walls, falling down of machinery, improper fragmentation, reduced efficiency of drilling, etc. The existence of various effective parameters and their unknown relationships are the main reasons for inaccuracy of the empirical models. Presently, the application of new approaches such as artificial intelligence is highly recommended. In this paper, an attempt has been made to predict backbreak in blasting operations of Soungun iron mine, Iran, incorporating rock properties and blast design parameters using the support vector machine (SVM) method. To investigate the suitability of this approach, the predictions by SVM have been compared with multivariate regression analysis (MVRA). The coefficient of determination (CoD) and the mean absolute error (MAE) were taken as performance measures. It was found that the CoD between measured and predicted backbreak was 0.987 and 0.89 by SVM and MVRA, respectively, whereas the MAE was 0.29 and 1.07 by SVM and MVRA, respectively.

  9. Assessment of erecting nuclear power plants below ground in an open building pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, W.; Altes, J.; Bongartz, R.; David, P.H.; Escherich, K.H.; Kasper, K.; Koschmieder, D.; Roethig, K.D.; Schwarzer, K.; Wolters, J.

    1978-01-01

    The technical feasibility, costs and safety potential of siting a nuclear power plant below ground level have been assessed. The reference plant was a 1,300 MWsub(e) PWR and the siting was based on a 'cut-and-cover' design in soil. The 'cut-and-cover' design enhances the safety potential of the site both with regard to extreme internal accidents and to external impacts inclusive of hostile attack. The measures required to 'harden' the site against these extreme conditions do not cancel each other. The realization of the safety potential is strongly dependent on the reliability of the closure equipment on routes to the atmosphere. These closures represent the remaining vulnerable feature of the design, as all other release paths are through soil which prevents any immediate danger to the public. The concepts considered include partial or complete lowering of the reactor. The thickness of the coverage depends on the degree of protection required and is typically between 8 and 13 m. The essential systems of the above-ground design are unchanged and therefore prior experience and existing designs can be applied. The concepts appear to be technically feasible including, in particular, the large pits and the additional closures; the technical difficulties, however, should not be underestimated. The depth of lowering does not determine the gain in safety because a well designed coverage can act as natural soil. Partial lowering, in fact, appears to be the more economic method. According to the degree of protection and the variations of design, the concepts would cost between 8 and 14% more than the capital cost of an equivalent above-ground plant. The construction time would be extended by 1.4 years for the concepts investigated. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical experiment at Kamaishi mine. Technical note 08-96-01. Measurement data related to excavation of the test pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, T.; Chijimatsu, M.; Sugita, Y.; Ishikawa, H.

    1997-07-01

    It is an important part of the near field performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal to evaluate coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (T-H-M) phenomena, e.g., thermal effects on groundwater flow through rock matrix and water seepage into the buffer material, the generation of swelling pressure of the buffer material, and thermal stresses potentially affecting porosity and fracture apertures of the rock. An in-situ T-H-M experiment named Engineered Barrier Experiment ' has been conducted at the Kamaishi Mine, of which host rock is granodiorite, in order to establish conceptual models of the coupled T-H-M processes and to build confidence in mathematical models and computer codes. In 1995, fourteen boreholes were excavated in order to install the various sensors. After the hydraulic tests, mechanical tests were carried out to obtain the rock properties. After that, a test pit, 1.7 m in diameter and 5.0 m in depth, was excavated. During the excavation, the change of pore pressure, displacement and temperature of rock mass were measured. Furthermore, pit convergence was measured. This note shows the results of mechanical tests and measurement data during the excavation of test pit. (author)

  11. Using Open Web APIs in Teaching Web Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsinchun; Li, Xin; Chau, M.; Ho, Yi-Jen; Tseng, Chunju

    2009-01-01

    With the advent of the World Wide Web, many business applications that utilize data mining and text mining techniques to extract useful business information on the Web have evolved from Web searching to Web mining. It is important for students to acquire knowledge and hands-on experience in Web mining during their education in information systems…

  12. INFLUENCE OF THE TECTONIC FABRIC ON THE OPEN PIT DESING IN THE ¨ZAPREŠIČKI IVANEC¨ NEAR ZAGREB DOLOMITE QUARRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlo Braun

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available In the »Zaprešički Ivanec« dolomite open pit near Zagreb, exploitation is carried out according to data obtained by analysis of the tectonic fabric of the rock massif, by measurement of the longitudinal seismic waves velocity, and effects of the seismic waves provoked blasting. In this article the fundamental data obtained by structural analysis and measurements with their influence on the pit design and the optimization of blasting conditions, are reviewed. Results of the longtime exploitation verify such complex aproach to deposit work-out (the paper is published in Croatian.

  13. Why do Pit-Hours outlive the Pit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.R. Ozturk (Sait); M. van der Wel (Michel); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We study why a majority of trades still happen during the pit hours, i.e. when the trading pit is open, even after the pit ceased to be a liquid and informative venue. We investigate the case of 30-year U.S. Treasury futures using a ten-years-long intraday data set

  14. The influence of drilling process automation on improvement of blasting works quality in open pit mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodlak, Maciej; Dmytryk, Dominik; Mertuszka, Piotr; Szumny, Marcin; Tomkiewicz, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    The article describes the monitoring system of blasthole drilling process called HNS (Hole Navigation System), which was used in blasting works performed by Maxam Poland Ltd. Developed by Atlas Copco's, the HNS system - using satellite data - allows for a very accurate mapping of the designed grid of blastholes. The article presents the results of several conducted measurements of ground vibrations triggered by blasting, designed and performed using traditional technology and using the HNS system and shows first observations in this matter.

  15. The influence of drilling process automation on improvement of blasting works quality in open pit mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodlak Maciej

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the monitoring system of blasthole drilling process called HNS (Hole Navigation System, which was used in blasting works performed by Maxam Poland Ltd. Developed by Atlas Copco's, the HNS system – using satellite data – allows for a very accurate mapping of the designed grid of blastholes. The article presents the results of several conducted measurements of ground vibrations triggered by blasting, designed and performed using traditional technology and using the HNS system and shows first observations in this matter.

  16. Conditions of Antonin seam exploitation in the open pit Druzba near Sokolov with regard to the protection of thermal and mineral water resources in Karlovy Vary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grmela, A.; Sterba, J.

    1997-01-01

    From new structural-tectonic findings concerning the extent and character of the Nove Sedlo fault in the area of the Druzba open pit in the Sokolov Basin, it is evident that it is a form of listric fault of shallow range, ending in an intermediate slip. This finding has a decisive relevance for deciding as to the current placement of the pit in the protection zone of Karlovy Vary's thermal springs. For the purposes of the exploitation of the Antonin seam, it is necessary to create a network of multipurpose bore holes at the bottom of the pit and in front of the working face for the regulation of pressure in the basal aquifer and to ensure unity of monitoring and its complex evaluation on the basis of numerical modelling of the hydrodynamic state of the basal aquifer and the geotechnical processes of the seam's impermeable bedrock. 4 refs

  17. Land degradation due to open cast mines-a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, Ashutosh; Nath, R.

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of open cast mines is increasing day by day in coal production. These open cast mines have direct and visible impacts on land surface. During mining stage, land is damaged and degraded. Excavation of coal and overburden dumping along with other infrastructural development is responsible for this damage and degradation. Impact of land degradation is observed as loss of forest cover, reduction and extinction of wildlife, reduction of agricultural land, destruction of geologic column, soil erosion, hydrological imbalance, socioeconomic problems, etc. in active mining areas. The present paper discusses the extent and impact of land degradation by open cast mining activity in Singrauli coal field. The paper also highlights the extent of land degradation particularly in one of the open cast mining projects of Singrauli coal field. It also suggests certain control measures to minimise the problem. (author)

  18. Solution (in situ leach) mining of uranium: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhaida, A.J. Jr.; Kelly, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    Increases in the demand for and price of uranium have made in-situ mining an attractive alternative to the open-pit and underground U mining methods. Up to 50% of the known ore-bearing sandstone in the western U.S. can be mined using the in-situ mining method. In-situ mining also offers a significant environmental advantage. Restoration of the contaminated groundwater is discussed

  19. Exploitation study of the ore-body ''Tigre III''. Open-cut design and study of high-recovery underground mining method for the Tigre III ore-body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baluszka, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    The paper first carries out an analysis for the purpose of determining the limiting sterile/ore ratio for open-cut and underground mining in the specific filling case of Tigre III. In this connection it considers a high-recovery method of underground mining (involving the use of cemented hydropneumatic chambers), a general mine plan covering access, transport, ventilation and removal of ore as well as auxiliary services relating to the Tigre III ore body as a whole. The costs of this method of mining are determined for purposes of comparison with the open-cut method. Similarly, the limiting sterile/ore ratio is taken as the basis for an analysis of different types of pit and a design suited to the limiting ratio is adopted. As a final solution the paper favours a method which combines open-cut and underground mining. It proposes the use of the open-cut method up to the limiting ratio (in accordance with the pit design chosen) and of underground method (by the filling chamber method) for the rest of the area. (author)

  20. 30 CFR 57.4131 - Surface fan installations and mine openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface fan installations and mine openings. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4131 Surface fan installations... stored within 100 feet of mine openings or within 100 feet of fan installations used for underground...

  1. Solution mining economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunkin, G.G.

    1980-01-01

    The field of application of in-situ solution mining of uranium is described and areas of competition with open pit and underground mining identified. The influence of high interest rates and dollar inflation on present values and rate of return is shown to be minimized by low capitalization and short construction lead times typical of in-situ leaching ventures. A scheme of three major project account divisions is presented and basic parameters necessary for mine planning are listed. 1979 cost ranges and useful methods of estimation of capital and operating costs are given for the in-situ uranium mining method

  2. Gamma radiation at coal mines and sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, I.V.; Kuznetsov, A.T.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of radiation background in coal miner and open pits conditioned by γ-radiation of coals and enclousing rocks containing natural radioactive isotopes ( 40 K, 226 Ra, 232 Th) is analyzed. The data are presented on average content of the above isotopes in coals, hard rocks and earth crest; γ-dose rate in mines and open pits as well as on possible limits and average values of external γ-radiation in mines. It is shown that external γ-radiation is an insignificant factor of radiation hazard in mines and open pits. Systematic monitoring of and accounting for external radiation dose of the personnel are required only in mines where average concentration of 226 Ra exceeds 200 Bqxkg -1 , and that of 232 Th - 150 Bqxkg -1

  3. Radon measurements in mines and dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, M.

    1985-01-01

    Radon measurements using a time integrating passive radon dosemeter (MAKROFOL track etch detector) have been performed in Brazilian and German mines and dwellings. The present state of the measurement technique is summarized. The results are presented together with exposure calculations and dose estimations for occupational exposure in open pit and underground mines and for the general public in houses. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Main trends in scientific-research works during construction and operation of uranium mines and open cuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosinets, V.N.

    1993-01-01

    Consideration is given to main trends in research works during construction and operation of uranium mines and open cuts of Priargunsky mine-chemical association. Develops and introduced principally new design solutions and technologies in the field of open mining, underground mining, as well as in-situ and heap leaching, are described

  5. Chromosomal abnormalities in soft coal open-cast mining workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sram, R.J.; Hola, N.; Kotesovec, F.; Vavra, R.

    1985-12-01

    Chromosome aberration tests on cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes were carried out in two groups of open-cast mining workers engaged in stripping operations (Group I) and digging operations (Group II), in a group of coal cleaning plant workers used as a positive control, and in a group of nonexposed subjects serving as matching controls. Peripheral blood samples in group I and group II miners were collected in March and June of 1984, the antimutagenic potential of long-term prophylactic vitamin administrations (1 g of ascorbic acid given daily for a period of 3 months and 100 mg of vitamin A a day for two 5-day cycles) initiated after the first blood sampling was tested in group II miners. The frequency of aberrant cells (% AB.C.) found in the cultured lymphocytes of group I miners was increased at both times of measurement (2.41% AB.C. and 2.29% AB.C.), in group II miners given the vitamin prophylaxis it dropped significantly (P greater than 0.01) from the initial 3.16% AB.C. in March to 1.77% AB.C. in June, and in the group of coal cleaning plant workers (1.30% AB.C.) it was more or less equal to that of matching controls (1.21% AB.C.). Implicitly, coal dust alone can hardly be made responsible for the rise in % AB.C. It appears that the increase in frequency of chromosome aberrations observed in soft coal open-cast mining workers rather reflects an increased risk of genetic injury due to exposure to ever-present fumes and fire hazards that may give rise to the mutagenic chemicals belonging to a class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The antimutagenic effect of ascorbic acid prophylaxis was characterized by a significant drop in % AB.C. and a speed-up of the lymphocyte cell cycle expressed as the proliferating rate index (PRI) whose value rose from the original 1.41 to 1.69, thus reaching the PRI value of matching controls (1.63).

  6. Assessment of radioactivity associated with a low ore grade open cast mine at Banduhurang, Jharkhand, India and estimation of occupational exposure to the miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, B.K.; Shukla, A.K.; Topno, R.; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.

    2010-01-01

    The study summarizes radiological characteristics of Banduhurang open cast mine which includes qualitative and quantitative behavior of 222 Rn concentration, external gamma radiation level over the mine pit as well as in its adjoining environment, long-lived alpha (LLα) activity concentration associated with the respirable size of ore dust and assessment of dose to the mine workers in 2006-2008. The investigations reveal that geometric means (χg) of measured radon concentration were 36.39, 38.69, 26.64 and 24 Bq m -3 with respective geometric standard deviations (σg) were 1.52, 1.55, 1.36 and 1.68 Bq m -3 and χg of gamma absorbed dose rates were 0.54, 0.64, 0. 45 and 0.15 μGy h -1 with respective σg were 1.63, 1.53, 1.52 and 1.72 μGy h -1 over the mine pit, ore yard, waste yard and in the surrounding environment within a 10 km radius to the mine, respectively. The χg of LLα activity was observed to be 16 mBq m-3 with σg of 1.9 mBq m -3 . The annual mean effective dose equivalent received by the member radiation workers of Banduhurang mine was estimated to 1.41 mSv y -1 , which is about 7% of the prescribed dose limits of 20 mSv y -1 . (author)

  7. Flambeau Mining Corporation, Ladysmith, Rusk County, Wisconsin. Proposed Open Pit Copper Mine and Waste Containment Area, Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-01

    American elm Lonicera tatarica - tartarian honeysuckle Ulmus rubra - slippery elm Siiibucus canadenis - common elder Ulmus thoiii~sii - cork elm ...community borders the marshes and swamps. 2.060 The predominant species are the trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), red maple (Acer rubrum), the elms ...succession. The most numerous trees (in descending order) are: white birch, red maple, aspen, sugar maple, black ash, basswood, elm (Ulmus sp.), hemlock

  8. Power plant waste disposals in open-cast mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herstus, J.; Stastny, J. [AGE s.r.o. - Aplikovana Geotechnika a Ekologie, Thamova (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    High population density in Czech Republic has led, as well as in other countries, to strong NIMBY syndrome influencing the waste disposal location. The largest thermal power plants are situated in neighborhood of extensive open-cast brown coal mines with huge area covered by tipped clayey spoil. Such spoil areas, technically almost useless, are potential space for power giant waste disposal position. There are several limitations, based on specific structural features of tipped clayey spoil, influencing decision to use such area as site for waste disposal. Low shear strength and extremely high compressibility belong to the geotechnical limitations. High permeability of upper ten or more meters of tipped spoil and its changes with applied stress level belongs to transitional features between geotechnical and environmental limitations. The problems of ash and FGD products stabilized interaction with such subgrade represent environmental limitation. The paper reports about the testing procedure developed for thickness and permeability estimation of upper soil layer and gives brief review of laboratory and site investigation results on potential sites from point of view of above mentioned limitations. Also gives an outline how to eliminate the influence of unfavorable conditions.

  9. Cavitation Resistance in Seedless Vascular Plants: The Structure and Function of Interconduit Pit Membranes1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodersen, Craig; Jansen, Steven; Choat, Brendan; Rico, Christopher; Pittermann, Jarmila

    2014-01-01

    Plant water transport occurs through interconnected xylem conduits that are separated by partially digested regions in the cell wall known as pit membranes. These structures have a dual function. Their porous construction facilitates water movement between conduits while limiting the spread of air that may enter the conduits and render them dysfunctional during a drought. Pit membranes have been well studied in woody plants, but very little is known about their function in more ancient lineages such as seedless vascular plants. Here, we examine the relationships between conduit air seeding, pit hydraulic resistance, and pit anatomy in 10 species of ferns (pteridophytes) and two lycophytes. Air seeding pressures ranged from 0.8 ± 0.15 MPa (mean ± sd) in the hydric fern Athyrium filix-femina to 4.9 ± 0.94 MPa in Psilotum nudum, an epiphytic species. Notably, a positive correlation was found between conduit pit area and vulnerability to air seeding, suggesting that the rare-pit hypothesis explains air seeding in early-diverging lineages much as it does in many angiosperms. Pit area resistance was variable but averaged 54.6 MPa s m−1 across all surveyed pteridophytes. End walls contributed 52% to the overall transport resistance, similar to the 56% in angiosperm vessels and 64% in conifer tracheids. Taken together, our data imply that, irrespective of phylogenetic placement, selection acted on transport efficiency in seedless vascular plants and woody plants in equal measure by compensating for shorter conduits in tracheid-bearing plants with more permeable pit membranes. PMID:24777347

  10. Consequences of coal mining and burning in the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin (2). Territorial consequences of coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahlik, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Out of the 1450 km 2 of the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin, the area of the coal-bearing territory is 850 km 2 . The area occupied by the open pits, spoil banks and mines is nearly 27O km 2 , out of which over 90 km 2 have already been recultivated. Predicted mining development scenarios for the region till 2035 are outlined. The extent of mining will decrease gradually, and land will be reclaimed. The abandoned pits will be filled with water and employed for recreation purposes. The specific features of the individual open pit mines are given. The ways to reduce the adverse environmental impacts of mining are outlined; these include, in particular, desulfurization of existing power plants on the one hand, and energy savings associated with a reduction in mining and power generation activities on the other hand. (J.B.)

  11. Correlation of Risk Analysis Method Results with Numerical and Limit Equilibrium Methods in Overall Slope Stability Analysis of Southern Wall of Chadormalu Iron Open Pit Mine-Iran / Korelacja wyników analizy ryzyka z wynikami obliczeń numerycznych oraz wynikami uzyskanymi w oparciu o metodę równowagi granicznej zastosowanych do badania stabilności wyrobiska pochyłego na południowej ścianie odkrywkowej kopalni rud żelaza w chadormalu w Iranie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangari, Kaveh; Paji, Arman Gholinezhad; Behdani, Alireza Siami

    2013-06-01

    Slope stability analysis is one of the most important factors in designing open pit mines. Therefore an optimal slope design that supports both aspects of economy and safety is very significant. There are many different methods in slope stability analysis including empirical, limit equilibrium, block theory, numerical, and probabilistic methods. In this study, to analyze the overall slope stability of southern wall of Chadormalu iron open pit mine three numerical, limit equilibrium and probabilistic methods have been used. Software and methods that is used for analytical investigation in this study are FLAC software for numerical analysis, SLIDE software and circuit failure chart for limit equilibrium analysis and qualitative fault tree and semi-quantitative risk matrix for probabilistic analysis. The results of all above mentioned methods, was a circular failure occurrence in Metasomatite rock zone between 1405 to 1525 m levels. The main factors of failure occurrence in this range were heavily jointing and existing of faults. Safety factors resulted from numerical method; Circular chart method and SLIDE software are 1.16, 1.25 and 1.27 respectively. Regarding instability and safety factors in Metasomatite rock zone, in order to stabilize the given zone, some considerations such as bench angle and height reduction should be planned. In results of risk matrix method this zone was mentioned too as a high risk zone that numerical and limit equilibrium methods confirmed this. Badanie stabilności wyrobiska pochyłego jest jednym z najważniejszych czynników uwzględnianych przy projektowaniu kopalni odkrywkowych. Optymalne zaprojektowanie wyrobiska pochyłego z uwzględnieniem czynników ekonomicznych oraz bezpieczeństwa jest niezmiernie ważne. Istnieje wiele metod badania stabilności wyrobiska pochyłego, między innymi metody empiryczne, metoda równowagi granicznej, teoria bloków oraz metody numeryczne i probabilistyczne. W pracy tej omówiono zastosowanie

  12. Identification of Social and Environmental Conflicts Resulting from Open-Cast Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górniak-Zimroz, Justyna; Pactwa, Katarzyna

    2016-10-01

    Open-cast mining is related to interference in the natural environment. It also affects human health and quality of life. This influence is, among others, dependent on the type of extracted materials, size of deposit, methods of mining and mineral processing, as well as, equally important, sensitivity of the environment within which mining is planned. The negative effects of mining include deformations of land surface or contamination of soils, air and water. What is more, in many cases, mining for minerals leads to clearing of housing and transport infrastructures located within the mining area, a decrease in values of the properties in the immediate vicinity of a deposit, and an increase in stress levels in local residents exposed to noise. The awareness of negative consequences of taking up open-cast mining activity leads to conflicts between a mining entrepreneur and self-government authorities, society or nongovernment organisations. The article attempts to identify potential social and environmental conflicts that may occur in relation to a planned mining activity. The results of the analyses were interpreted with respect to the deposits which were or have been mined. That enabled one to determine which facilities exclude mineral mining and which allow it. The research took the non-energy mineral resources into consideration which are included in the group of solid minerals located in one of the districts of Lower Silesian Province (SW Poland). The spatial analyses used the tools available in the geographical information systems

  13. Radioecological study of the open reservoirs of the North Kazakhstan area uranium-mining deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazymbet, P.K.; Bakhtin, M.M.; Imasheva, B.S.; Bud'ko, O.G.

    2003-01-01

    In the paper the radiological data of open reservoirs in the former uranium-mining enterprise territory and settlements are given. The received data show, that both the Kutunguz river and reservoirs close to uranium-mining enterprise are polluted by radionuclides. On the received data it is possible to assume, that the essential contribution to the Kutunguz river contamination by radioactive substances the acting mine 11 water is giving. (author)

  14. CO{sub 2} in underground openings and mine rescue training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyer, J. [Freiburg Univ. of Mining and Technology (Germany). Inst. of Mining Engineering and Special Civil Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Mine rescue training procedures related to dangerous gases in mines were discussed. Methods of detecting carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in abandoned opening and old adits were presented. High concentrations of CO{sub 2} combine with hemoglobin and lead to a lack of oxygen supply to the inner organs. Nitric acid forms in the alveoli and can lead to injuries or death after a period of 4 to 12 hours. Exposure to very high concentrations of CO{sub 2} can cause people to immediately lose consciousness. CO{sub 2} concentrations in the blood can change pH blood values. Members of mine rescue teams should be equipped with breathing equipment and be between 18 and 40 years old. Training rescue operations should be conducted 4 times per year. While larger mines have their own rescue teams, smaller mines must ensure that guest rescue teams are familiar with their mines. Various mine training activities were reviewed. 5 refs.

  15. Geochemical processes in an acidic mine lake in the Iberian Pyrite Belt: San Telmo pit lake (SW Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Cánovas, Carlos; Nieto Liñán, José Miguel; Olías Álvarez, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This study provides information on the physicochemical processes of water and sediments from San Telmo pit lake. It is a valuable tool to evaluate best treatment remediation options in the long term. This lake has a meromictic nature, is highly acidic (pH of 2.8) and pH- buffered by Fe(III) precipitation. In San Telmo sediments, iron reduction and sulphide oxidation may be thermodynamically favoured due to low pH values in pore waters and the abundance of schwertmannite. The...

  16. A New Algorithm for Determining Ultimate Pit Limits Based on Network Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Asghar Khodayari

    2013-01-01

    One of the main concerns of the mining industry is to determine ultimate pit limits. Final pit is a collection of blocks, which can be removed with maximum profit while following restrictions on the slope of the mine’s walls. The size, location and final shape of an open-pit are very important in designing the location of waste dumps, stockpiles, processing plants, access roads and other surface facilities as well as in developing a production program. There are numerous methods for designing...

  17. Analysis on the influence of rainfall and mine water ratio against pH in East pit 3 West Banko coal mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochyani Neny

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the coal mining area, the pH of mine water is found tend to low and acids. In order to increase the pH, it is important to consider the treatment of acid mine drainage using lime, due the indicators of pollution. This work is focused on the influence of rainfall volume on the pH of acid mine drainage. This research conducted using a ratio of mine water and rainfall water that varies in the 9 (nine conditions, respectively: 1: 1, 1: 2, 1: 3, 1: 4 and 1: 5 and 5: 4, 5: 3 , 5: 2 and 5: 1. The results were then measured and tested with statistical analysis. The ratio of rainfall and mine water showed a significant effect on the pH. The higher of the rainfall lead to increase pH. This condition will affect the water neutralization process using lime where there are some possible differences on dose of lime needed to neutralized the acid mine drainage in the rainy season and dry season.

  18. Information Management of Health and Safety at the Tarkwa Mine of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tarkwa Mine (TM) of Goldfields Ghana Limited (GGL) undertakes open pit mining operations with gold recovery by heap leach technology. As a mine, it is susceptible to health and safety risks in its operations. In spite of health and safety policy and regulations put in place at the TM, there have been reported cases of ...

  19. The Curse of the Gold: Discourses Surrounding the Project of the Largest Pit-mine in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Egresi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, a Canadian company started geological explorations in the Rosia Montana area in the Romanian Carpathians. Two years later it formed a joint-venture with a Romanian state company to exploit what is believed to be Europe´s largest gold reserves. However, as of June 2011 extraction has not started yet and it may never start due to the opposition of numerous NGO´s that have pointed out the environmental, social and economic unsustainability of this mining project. This situation is highly unusual for a country that is hungry for foreign investment especially since up until very recently the state had supported any project promising to revitalize its mining sector. This paper will investigate the changes in the discourses surrounding this mining project taking into consideration the effects of globalization and the effects of Romania´s EU membership after 2007.

  20. The Study Related to the Execution of a Triangulation Network in the Dump of Rovinari Pit, in Order to be Restored to the Economic Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Popescu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The lignite mining extraction within the mining perimeter in Rovinari is carried out through mining works in the open, by using large equipments for the excavation, transport and storage of the mining material. These surfaces are currently being set up in the area of level two of the dump, the west and north-west part of Rovinari pit. In order to carry out the set-up works and of follow-up of the stability of the pit levels it is necessary to maintain the triangulation network.

  1. Shiftable conveyor systems in open-cast mines in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noronha, H S; Patel, J C

    1984-12-01

    The materials handling and earthmoving arrangements are described at the Neyveli lignite mine in Tamil Nadu State, 200 km from Madras, India. The equipment used consists of shiftable conveyors, transfer feeders and drive stations.

  2. Strip mining with hydraulic shover and cross-pit stacker; Tagebau mit hydraulischen Hochloeffelbagger und Direktversturz-Absetzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streck, W. [Dipl.-Ing. Willibald Streck, Boden, Wasser, Rohstoff, Bruehl (Germany)

    2005-09-01

    In the standard strip mining of sedimentary deposits draglines are used for overburden removal. In this paper an alternative is presented which offers significantly lower initial investment costs and equal operating and maintenance costs. It is applicable in certain mining conditions. The stripping system consists of a standard hydraulic shovel excavator loading into a hopper/stacker on crawlers (XPS). With a shovel of 34 m{sup 3} size the stripping height is limited to approximately 15 to 17 m. Cuts of 15 to 20 m width may be worked. The XPS may have a hopper size of 70 m{sup 3} and a discharge boom of 70 m. The system reaches an annual capacity in the range of 12 mill bank m{sup 3}. It compares well with a standard dragline of the Bucyrus W 2000 type. While the operating and maintenance cost per bank m{sup 3} are about the same, the initial investment costs differ drastically, about 16 mill US-Dollar for the shovel/XPS compared to 24 mill US-Dollar for the dragline. In new surface mining projects and under distinct mining conditions the low investment costs and other advantages may balance the limitations of the shovel/XPS system and justify the deviation from the standard stripping dragline. (orig.)

  3. Overburden of lignite mining pits. A problem for the future?; Abraumkippen des Braunkohlenbergbaus. Ein Problem fuer die Zukunft?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, Nils [Erftverband, Bergheim (Germany); Huesener, Dirk [Landesamt fuer Natur, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz NRW, Recklinghausen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Due to the brown coal mining industry, overburden dumps with a total area of approximately 300 square kilometers will develop at the Niederrhein (Federal Republic of Germany) up to the year 2045. The renewed rise of the lowered ground-water level will rise in high sulfate loadings in the next decades. The expected propagation of the registered materials already today is of great interest for long-term water-economical planning.

  4. Using a combination of radiogenic and stable isotopes coupled with hydrogeochemistry, limnometrics and meteorological data in hydrological research of complex underground mine-pit lake systems: The case of Cueva de la Mora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-España, J.; Diez Ercilla, M.; Pérez Cerdán, F.; Yusta, I.

    2012-04-01

    This study presents a combination of radiogenic and stable isotopes (3H, 2H and 18O on pit lake water, and 34S on dissolved sulfate) coupled with bathymetric, meteorological and limnometric investigations, and detailed hydrogeochemical studies to decipher the flooding history and hydrological dynamics of a meromictic and deeply stratified pit lake in SW Spain. The application of these combined techniques has been specially succesful considering the complexity of the studied system, which includes a substantial number of horizontal galleries, shafts and large rooms physically connected to the pit lake. Specific conductance and temperature profiles have depicted a physical structure of the water body which includes four monimolimnetic layers of increasing density with depth. This internal configuration includes m-scale layers separated by sharp transional zones and is rarely observed in natural, fresh water bodies and most other pit lakes. The tritium abundance of the different layers indicate that the deepest water consists in strongly acidified and metal-laden meteoric water infiltrated in the mine system soon after the mine closure in 1971-72. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios of the different layers reflect a sharp stratification with increasing evaporative influence towards the lake surface. The combination of tritium data with the oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of the different layers suggests a model of pit lake formation with an initial stage of flooding (with entrance of highly metal- and sulfate-loaded mine drainage from the underlying mine galleries) that deeply determined the physical structure and meromictic nature of the lake. After reaching the present water level and morphology, the stagnant, anoxic part of pit lake seems to have remained chemically and isotopically unmodified during its 40 year-old history. Although the pit lake receives significant water input during autumn and winter (which in turn provoke significant volumetric increases

  5. Text mining and visualization case studies using open-source tools

    CERN Document Server

    Chisholm, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Text Mining and Visualization: Case Studies Using Open-Source Tools provides an introduction to text mining using some of the most popular and powerful open-source tools: KNIME, RapidMiner, Weka, R, and Python. The contributors-all highly experienced with text mining and open-source software-explain how text data are gathered and processed from a wide variety of sources, including books, server access logs, websites, social media sites, and message boards. Each chapter presents a case study that you can follow as part of a step-by-step, reproducible example. You can also easily apply and extend the techniques to other problems. All the examples are available on a supplementary website. The book shows you how to exploit your text data, offering successful application examples and blueprints for you to tackle your text mining tasks and benefit from open and freely available tools. It gets you up to date on the latest and most powerful tools, the data mining process, and specific text mining activities.

  6. 77 FR 42505 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Long Canyon Mine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ...: Newmont Mining Corporation (Newmont) proposes to construct and operate an open-pit gold mining operation..., and other ancillary facilities. The mine would be located on the eastern side of the Pequop Mountain... activities in this area that were analyzed in two environmental assessments (EA), the NewWest Gold USA Inc...

  7. The Upper Miocene Lake Pannon marl from the Filijala Open Pit (Beočin, northern Serbia: New geological and paleomagnetic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganić Meri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents major lithological, structural, paleontological and paleomagnetic characteristics of the Upper Miocene Pannonian marl in the Filijala Open Pit of the La Farge Cement Plant near Beočin, northern Serbia. Pannonian marl lies between the underlying heterogeneous Sarmatian deposits and the overlying set of Pontian sand beds and Quaternary sediments. The open pit is located on the NE range of Fruška Gora, a horst structure with a core of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Paleogene rocks in a complex structural pattern. Pannonian sediments, which are part of a younger structural stage, deposited on the horst limbs. The Pannonian marl strata dip at angles from 12° to 26° (to the NNW, forming a monocline. The strata deformations are a consequence of radial tectonics and are a potential source of landslides. The many mollusks (7 gastropod and 9 bivalve species and ostracodes (27 species and their biostratigraphical position indicate marl deposition throughout the Pannonian age. A paleomagnetic investigation established that the marl has inconsistent remanent magnetization (with bad statistical parameters, which originates from neoformed magnetite.

  8. Selection of the open pit mining cut-off grade strategy under price uncertainty using a risk based multi-criteria ranking system / Wybór strategii określania warunku opłacalności wydobycia w kopalniach odkrywkowych w warunkach niepewności cen w oparciu o wielokryterialny system rankingowy z uwzględnieniem czynników ryzyka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Yousue; Osanloo, Montza; Esfahanipour, Akbar

    2012-12-01

    Cut-off Grade Strategy (COGS) is a concept that directly influences the financial, technical, economic, environmental, and legal issues in relation to exploitation of a mineral resource. A decision making system is proposed to select the best technically feasible COGS under price uncertainty. In the proposed system both the conventional discounted cash flow and modern simulation based real option valuations are used to evaluate the alternative strategies. Then the conventional expected value criterion and a multiple criteria ranking system were used to rank the strategies based on the two valuation methods. In the multiple criteria ranking system besides the expected value other stochastic orders expressing abilities of strategies in producing extra profits, minimizing losses and achieving the predefined goals of the exploitation strategy are considered. Finally, the best strategy is selected based on the overall average rank of strategies through all ranking systems. The proposed system was examined using the data of Sungun Copper Mine. To assess the merits of the alternatives better, ranking process was done at both high (prevailing economic condition) and low price conditions. Ranking results revealed that at different price conditions and valuation methods, different results would be obtained. It is concluded that these differences are due to the different behavior of the embedded option to close the mine early, which is more likely to be exercised under low price condition rather than high price condition. The proposed system would enhance the quality of decision making process by providing a more informative and certain platform for project evaluation.

  9. SISTEM PENGOLAHAN AIR ASAM TAMBANG PADA WATER POND DAN APLIKASI MODEL ENCAPSULATION IN-PIT DISPOSAL PADA WASTE DUMP TAMBANG BATUBARA (Acid Mine Drainage Treatment System in Water Pond and Application of Encapsulation In-Pit Disposal Model in Waste Dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy R. Erwin Wijaya

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Kegiatan pertambangan batubara umumnya dapat menimbulkan dampak negatif terhadap lingkungan di lokasi penambangan. Salah satu dampak negatif yang signifikan adalah terjadinya pencemaran air asam tambang yang dapat merusak fungsi lingkungan seperti komponen air dan tanah. Umumnya lokasi tambang batubara yang berpotensi besar sebagai sumber terbentuknya air asam tambang adalah kolam penampungan air tambang (water pond dan tempat penimbunan material buangan sulfida (waste dump. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengendalikan rembesan air asam tambang yang berasal dari kolam penampungan air (water pond dan mengurangi terbentuknya air asam tambang pada tempat penimbunan material buangan sulfida (waste dunp. Sistem pengendalian pencemaran air asam tambang meliputi pengolahan air asam tambang (water pond dan pengelolaan material sulfida (waste dump. Metode pengolahan air asam tambang adalah menetralisasi air asam dengan reagen alkali. Reagen alkali yang paling efektif dan ekonomis adalah batugamping (kalsium karbonat. Jumlah batugamping yang dibutuhkan untuk menetralkan air asam lambang pada water pond (5040 m3 sebesar 104,56 kg. Pengelolaan material buangan sulfida (waste dump adalah menerapkan model encapsulation in-pit disposal. Hal ini sangat efektif untuk mencegah terbentuknya air asam tambang. Material perlapisan yang digunakan adalah lempung (clay, karena mempunyai nilai permeabilitas yang sangat kecil yaitu sebesar 2,3148 x 10-9 m/det dan ketersediaannya mencukupi.   ABSTRACT Coal mining activity generally can generate negative impact to environment on mining location. One of the negative impact is contamination of acid mine drainage which able to destroy environment and ecosystem as water and soil. High potency source of acid mine drainage formed on coal mining location are water pond and waste dump. This aim of the research are control of acid mine drainage from water pond and prevention of acid mine drainage formed on the waste dump

  10. A New Algorithm for Determining Ultimate Pit Limits Based on Network Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Khodayari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concerns of the mining industry is to determine ultimate pit limits. Final pit is a collection of blocks, which can be removed with maximum profit while following restrictions on the slope of the mine’s walls. The size, location and final shape of an open-pit are very important in designing the location of waste dumps, stockpiles, processing plants, access roads and other surface facilities as well as in developing a production program. There are numerous methods for designing ultimate pit limits. Some of these methods, such as floating cone algorithm, are heuristic and do not guarantee to generate optimum pit limits. Other methods, like Lerchs–Grossmann algorithm, are rigorous and always generate the true optimum pit limits. In this paper, a new rigorous algorithm is introduced. The main logic in this method is that only positive blocks, which can pay costs of their overlying non-positive blocks, are able to appear in the final pit. Those costs may be paid either by positive block itself or jointly with other positive blocks, which have the same overlying negative blocks. This logic is formulated using a network model as a Linear Programming (LP problem. This algorithm can be applied to two- and three-dimension block models. Since there are many commercial programs available for solving LP problems, pit limits in large block models can be determined easily by using this method.

  11. Characterization of particulate emissions from Australian open-cut coal mines: Toward improved emission estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Claire; Rutherford, Shannon; Agranovski, Igor

    2018-06-01

    Given the significance of mining as a source of particulates, accurate characterization of emissions is important for the development of appropriate emission estimation techniques for use in modeling predictions and to inform regulatory decisions. The currently available emission estimation methods for Australian open-cut coal mines relate primarily to total suspended particulates and PM 10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter available relating to the PM 2.5 (currently available emission estimation techniques, this paper presents results of sampling completed at three open-cut coal mines in Australia. The monitoring data demonstrate that the particulate size fraction varies for different mining activities, and that the region in which the mine is located influences the characteristics of the particulates emitted to the atmosphere. The proportion of fine particulates in the sample increased with distance from the source, with the coarse fraction being a more significant proportion of total suspended particulates close to the source of emissions. In terms of particulate composition, the results demonstrate that the particulate emissions are predominantly sourced from naturally occurring geological material, and coal comprises less than 13% of the overall emissions. The size fractionation exhibited by the sampling data sets is similar to that adopted in current Australian emission estimation methods but differs from the size fractionation presented in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methodology. Development of region-specific emission estimation techniques for PM 10 and PM 2.5 from open-cut coal mines is necessary to allow accurate prediction of particulate emissions to inform regulatory decisions and for use in modeling predictions. Development of region-specific emission estimation techniques for PM 10 and PM 2.5 from open-cut coal mines is necessary to allow accurate prediction of particulate emissions to inform regulatory decisions and for

  12. Uranium mills and mines environmental restoration in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Estevez, C.; Lozano Martinez, F.

    2000-01-01

    ENRESA and ENUSA have dismantled and restored a uranium mill in Andujar (Andalucia), a uranium facility based on open pit mining and plant in La Haba (Extremadura) and 19 old uranium mines in Andalucia and Extremadura. The Andujar Uranium Mill was operated from 1959 to 1981 and has been restorated between 1991 and 1994. The site included the tailings pile and the processing plant. The Haba Uranium Site included the Plant (operating from 1976 to 1999), four open-pit mines (operating from 1966 to 1990), the heaps leaching and the tailings dam and has been restorated between 1992 and 1997. The 19 abandoned uranium mines were developed by underground mining with the exception of two sites, which were operated by open pit mining. Mining operations started around 1959 and were shutdown in 1981. There was a great diversity among the mines, in terms of site conditions. Whereas in some sites there was little trace of the mining works, in other sites large excavations, mining debris piles, abandoned shafs and galeries and remaining surface structures and equipment were encountered. (author)

  13. Improving the extraction-and-loading process in the open mining operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheban A. Yu.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the explosions is the main way to prepare solid rocks for the excavation, and that results in the formation of a rock mass of uneven granulometric composition, which makes it impossible to use a conveyor quarry transport without the preliminary large crushing of the rock mass obtained during the explosion. A way to achieve the greatest technical and economic effect is the full conveyorization of quarry transport, what, in this case, ensures the sequenced-flow of transport operations, automation of management and high labor productivity. The extraction-and-loading machines are the determining factor in the performance of mining and transport machines in the technological flow of the quarry. When extracting a blasted rock mass with single-bucket excavators or loaders working in combination with bottom-hole conveyors, one uses self-propelled crushing and reloading units of various designs to grind large individual parts to fractions of conditioning size. The presence of a crushing and reloading unit in the pit-face along with the excavator requires an additional space for its placement, complicates the maneuvering of the equipment in the pit-face, and increases the number of personnel and the cost of maintaining the extraction-and-reloading operations. The article proposes an improved method for carrying out the extraction-and-loading process, as well as the design of extraction-and-grinding unit based on a quarry hydraulic excavator. The design of the proposed unit makes it possible to convert the cyclic process of scooping the rock mass into the continuous process of its loading on the bottom-hole conveyor. Using the extraction-and-grinding unit allows one to combine the processes of excavation, preliminary crushing and loading of the rock mass, which ensures an increase in the efficiency of mining operations.

  14. Bucket wheel excavators for open-cast mining all over the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durst, W.

    1979-04-01

    A report is given on the use of bucket wheel excavators, spreaders and tripper cars in open-cast mining of brown coal, oilsand and other minerals in Australia, Canada, India, Spain, USA and Yugoslavia as well as on the use of bucket wheel excavators for land reclamation in Singapore.

  15. Openness, transparency and public participation in the governance of uranium mining in Greenland:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelaudeix, Cécile; Basse, Ellen Margrethe; Loukacheva, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the implementation of the principles of openness, transparency and public participation in the decision-making regarding the conditions for uranium mining in Greenland from a legal and political perspective. The time frame covers the period from the exploration for minerals...... before the Second World War to 2016-17 where the current Greenlandic authorities prepared a license for a project of extraction of rare earth elements and uranium in Kvanefjeld. It is shown that the issue of openness, transparency and public participation in Greenland is a long-standing issue...... to it - has impacted the design of governance in Greenland, and that the constraints put today on a full implementation of the legal principles of openness, transparency and public participation in the governance of uranium mining in Greenland, amongst other factors, point to a current hybrid political...

  16. Chapter 2: uranium mines and mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, W.J.

    1983-03-01

    This chapter will be included in a larger ASCE Committee Report. Uranium mining production is split between underground and open pit mines. Mills are sized to produce yellowcake concentrate from hundreds to thousands of tons of ore per day. Miner's health and safety, and environmental protection are key concerns in design. Standards are set by the US Mine Safety and Health Administration, the EPA, NRC, DOT, the states, and national standards organizations. International guidance and standards are extensive and based on mining experience in many nations

  17. Uranium mining wastes, garden exhibition and health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Gerhard; Schmidt, Peter; Hinz, Wilko

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: For more than 40 years the Soviet-German stockholding company SDAG WISMUT mined and milled Uranium in the East of Germany and became up to 1990 the world's third largest Uranium producer. After reunification of Germany, the new found state own company Wismut GmbH was faced with the task of decommissioning and rehabilitation of the mining and milling sites. One of the largest mining areas in the world, that had to be cleaned up, was located close to the municipality of Ronneburg near the City of Gera in Thuringia. After closing the operations of the Ronneburg underground mine and at the 160 m deep open pit mine with a free volume of 84 Mio.m 3 , the open pit and 7 large piles of mine waste, together 112 Mio.m 3 of material, had to be cleaned up. As a result of an optimisation procedure it was chosen to relocate the waste rock piles back into the open pit. After taking this decision and approval of the plan the disposal operation was started. Even though the transport task was done by large trucks, this took 16 years. The work will be finished in 2007, a cover consisting of 40 cm of uncontaminated material will be placed on top of the material, and the re-vegetation of the former open pit area will be established. When in 2002 the City of Gera applied to host the largest garden exhibition in Germany, Bundesgartenschau (BUGA), in 2007, Wismut GmbH supported this plan by offering parts of the territory of the former mining site as an exhibition ground. Finally, it was decided by the BUGA organizers to arrange its 2007 exhibition on grounds in Gera and in the valley adjacent to the former open pit mine, with parts of the remediated area within the fence of the exhibition. (authors)

  18. Characteristics of an open-cut coal mine fire pollution event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisen, Fabienne; Gillett, Rob; Choi, Jason; Fisher, Gavin; Torre, Paul

    2017-02-01

    On 9 February 2014, embers from a nearby grass/shrub fire spotted into an unused part of the Hazelwood open-cut brown coal mine located in the Latrobe Valley of Victoria, Australia and started a fire that spread rapidly and extensively throughout the mine under strong south-westerly winds and burned over a period of 45 days. The close proximity of the town to the coal mine and the low buoyancy of the smoke plume led to the accumulation of dense smoke levels in the township of Morwell (population of 14,000) particularly under south-westerly winds. A maximum daily PM2.5 concentration of 731 μg m-3 and 8-h CO concentration of 33 ppm were measured at Morwell South, the closest residential area located approximately 500 m from the mine. These concentrations were significantly higher than national air quality standards. Air quality monitoring undertaken in the Latrobe Valley showed that smoke from the Hazelwood mine fire affected a wide area, with particle air quality standards also exceeded in Traralgon (population of 25,000) located approximately 13 km from the mine. Pollutant levels were significantly elevated in February, decreased in March once the fire abated and then returned to background levels once the fire was declared safe at the end of March. While the smoke extent was of a similar order of magnitude to other major air pollution events worldwide, a closer look at emissions ratios showed that the open combustion of lignite brown coal in the Hazelwood mine was different to open combustion of biomass, including peat. It suggested that the dominant combustion process was char combustion. While particle and carbon monoxide monitoring started approximately 4 days after the fire commenced when smoke levels were very high, targeted monitoring of air toxics only began on 26 February (17 days after the fire) when smoke levels had subsided. Limited research on emission factors from open-cut coal mine fires make it difficult to assess the likely concentrations of air

  19. Economic evaluation of environmental impacts of open cast mining project - an approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, S.K.; Pathak, K.

    1998-01-01

    Economic valuation of environmental attributes are pragmatic approach to evaluating the impacts and it helps decision makers to arrive at objective decisions on the basis of cost benefit ratio. For determining the physical impact and its quantification, four evaluation methods, namely-market price method, surrogate market price, survey based and cost based approaches are generally used. The present paper reviews the importance of environmental evaluation of impacts of mining and also reviews a few suitable methodologies that could be effectively used for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in open cast mining projects. (author)

  20. Genotoxic effects in wild rodents (Rattus rattus and Mus musculus) in an open coal mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Grethel; Pérez, Lyda Espitia; Linares, Juan Carlos; Hartmann, Andreas; Quintana, Milton

    2007-06-15

    Coal is a mixture of a variety of compounds containing mutagenic and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Exposure to coal is considered as an important non-cellular and cellular source of reactive oxygen species that can induce DNA damage. In addition, spontaneous combustion can occur in coal mining areas, further releasing compounds with detrimental effects on the environment. In this study the comet assay was used to investigate potential genotoxic effects of coal mining activities in peripheral blood cells of the wild rodents Rattus rattus and Mus musculus. The study was conducted in a coal mining area of the Municipio de Puerto Libertador, South West of the Departamento de Cordoba, Colombia. Animals from two areas in the coal mining zone and a control area located in the Municipio de Lorica were investigated. The results showed evidence that exposure to coal results in elevated primary DNA lesions in blood cells of rodents. Three different parameters for DNA damage were assessed, namely, DNA damage index, migration length and percentage damaged cells. All parameters showed statistically significantly higher values in mice and rats from the coal mining area in comparison to the animals from the control area. The parameter "DNA Damage Index" was found to be most sensitive and to best indicate a genotoxic hazard. Both species investigated were shown to be sensitive indicators of environmental genotoxicity caused by coal mining activities. In summary, our study constitutes the first investigation of potential genotoxic effects of open coal mining carried out in Puerto Libertador. The investigations provide a guide for measures to evaluate genotoxic hazards, thereby contributing to the development of appropriate measures and regulations for more careful operations during coal mining.

  1. Mining challenges to deal with the land, forestry and environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simatupang, M.

    1996-01-01

    A summary is given of a report of the IMA Business Commission dealing with mining development planning in Indonesia as related to land matters, forestry and environmental aspects. A summary of land matter management of an open pit coal mine is included

  2. Op-Ug TD Optimizer Tool Based on Matlab Code to Find Transition Depth From Open Pit to Block Caving / Narzędzie Optymalizacyjne Oparte O Kod Matlab Wykorzystane Do Określania Głębokości Przejściowej Od Wydobycia Odkrywkowego Do Wybierania Komorami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtavar, E.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, transition from open pit to block caving has been considered as a challenging problem. For this purpose, the linear integer programing code of Matlab was initially developed on the basis of the binary integer model proposed by Bakhtavar et al (2012). Then a program based on graphical user interface (GUI) was set up and named "Op-Ug TD Optimizer". It is a beneficial tool for simple application of the model in all situations where open pit is considered together with block caving method for mining an ore deposit. Finally, Op-Ug TD Optimizer has been explained step by step through solving the transition from open pit to block caving problem of a case ore deposit. W pracy tej rozważano skomplikowane zagadnienie przejścia od wybierania odkrywkowego do komorowego. W tym celu opracowano kod programowania liniowego w środowisku MATLAB w oparciu o model liczb binarnych zaproponowany przez Bakhtavara (2012). Następnie opracowano program z wykorzystujący graficzny interfejs użytkownika o nazwie Optymalizator Op-Ug TD. Jest to niezwykle cenne narzędzie umożliwiające stosowanie modelu dla wszystkich warunków w sytuacjach gdy rozważamy prowadzenie wydobycia metodą odkrywkową oraz wydobycie komorowe przy eksploatacji złóż rud żelaza. W końcowej części pracy podano szczegółową instrukcję stosowanie programu Optymalizator na przedstawionym przykładzie przejścia od wydobycia rud żelaza metodami odkrywkowymi poprzez wydobycie komorami.

  3. Hydrochemical and geochemical processes in superficial dump sediments in Zwenkau open brown coal mine; Hydro- und geochemische Prozesse in oberflaechennahen Kippensedimenten des Braunkohlentagebaus Zwenkau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegand, U.

    2002-07-01

    The present study was performed as part of a project titled ''Ground and air-based spectrometric studies for the differentiation of reactively altered brown coal open mining areas in Central Germany'' (Project 02 WB 9667/5) which was funded by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research. It was carried out as a cooperation between GeoForschungszentrum Potsdam (GFZ, Potsdam GeoResearch Centre), Deutsches Zentrum for Lust- und Raumfahrt (DLR, German Aerospace Centre), Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF, Society for Applied Remote Sensing) and Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle GmbH (UFZ, Leipzig/Halle Environmental Research Centre). The idea of the project was to calibrate aerial data obtained by means of spectrometric remote sensing methods using conventional petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical analysis. This would provide the mining industry with a powerful method with low time and staff requirement for reliably classifying the vast dump areas produced by open pit mining, accurately assigning findings to location data and thus identifying suitable uses for different sites. The focus of the present study was on characterising hydrochemical and geochemical alterations in dump sediments of the Zwenkau brown coal open mining area south of Leipzig in Central Germany. The collection of these data plays a decisive role in plans for cultivating and assessing the potential hazard to the open mining landscape. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit wurde im Rahmen des BMBF-gefoerderten Projektes 'Luft- und bodengestuetzte spektrometrische Untersuchungen zur Differenzierung reaktiv veraenderter Braunkohlentagebaugebiete in Mitteldeutschland' (Vorhaben 02 WB 9667/5) als Kooperation zwischen dem GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), dem Deutschen Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), der Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF) und dem Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle GmbH (UFZ) angefertigt. Idee des Projektes war

  4. A Comparison of Traditional, Step-Path, and Geostatistical Techniques in the Stability Analysis of a Large Open Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, J. M.; Stead, D.

    2017-04-01

    With the increased drive towards deeper and more complex mine designs, geotechnical engineers are often forced to reconsider traditional deterministic design techniques in favour of probabilistic methods. These alternative techniques allow for the direct quantification of uncertainties within a risk and/or decision analysis framework. However, conventional probabilistic practices typically discretize geological materials into discrete, homogeneous domains, with attributes defined by spatially constant random variables, despite the fact that geological media display inherent heterogeneous spatial characteristics. This research directly simulates this phenomenon using a geostatistical approach, known as sequential Gaussian simulation. The method utilizes the variogram which imposes a degree of controlled spatial heterogeneity on the system. Simulations are constrained using data from the Ok Tedi mine site in Papua New Guinea and designed to randomly vary the geological strength index and uniaxial compressive strength using Monte Carlo techniques. Results suggest that conventional probabilistic techniques have a fundamental limitation compared to geostatistical approaches, as they fail to account for the spatial dependencies inherent to geotechnical datasets. This can result in erroneous model predictions, which are overly conservative when compared to the geostatistical results.

  5. Groundwater monitoring of an open-pit limestone quarry: groundwater characteristics, evolution and their connections to rock slopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eang, Khy Eam; Igarashi, Toshifumi; Fujinaga, Ryota; Kondo, Megumi; Tabelin, Carlito Baltazar

    2018-03-06

    Groundwater flow and its geochemical evolution in mines are important not only in the study of contaminant migration but also in the effective planning of excavation. The effects of groundwater on the stability of rock slopes and other mine constructions especially in limestone quarries are crucial because calcite, the major mineral component of limestone, is moderately soluble in water. In this study, evolution of groundwater in a limestone quarry located in Chichibu city was monitored to understand the geochemical processes occurring within the rock strata of the quarry and changes in the chemistry of groundwater, which suggests zones of deformations that may affect the stability of rock slopes. There are three distinct geological formations in the quarry: limestone layer, interbedded layer of limestone and slaty greenstone, and slaty greenstone layer as basement rock. Although the hydrochemical facies of all groundwater samples were Ca-HCO 3 type water, changes in the geochemical properties of groundwater from the three geological formations were observed. In particular, significant changes in the chemical properties of several groundwater samples along the interbedded layer were observed, which could be attributed to the mixing of groundwater from the limestone and slaty greenstone layers. On the rainy day, the concentrations of Ca 2+ and HCO 3 - in the groundwater fluctuated notably, and the groundwater flowing along the interbedded layer was dominated by groundwater from the limestone layer. These suggest that groundwater along the interbedded layer may affect the stability of rock slopes.

  6. Water from abandoned mines as a heat source: practical experiences of open- and closed-loop strategies, United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, D; Athresh, A; Al-Habaibeh, A; Burnside, N

    2017-01-01

    Pilot heat pump systems have been installed at two former collieries in Yorkshire/Derbyshire, England, to extract heat from mine water. The installations represent three fundamental configurations of heat exchanger. At Caphouse Colliery, mine water is pumped through a heat exchanger coupled to a heat pump and then discharged to waste (an open-loop heat exchange system). The system performs with high thermal efficiency, but the drawbacks are: (1) it can only be operated when mine water is bein...

  7. Cluo: Web-Scale Text Mining System For Open Source Intelligence Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemyslaw Maciolek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount of textual information published on the Internet is considered tobe in billions of web pages, blog posts, comments, social media updates andothers. Analyzing such quantities of data requires high level of distribution –both data and computing. This is especially true in case of complex algorithms,often used in text mining tasks.The paper presents a prototype implementation of CLUO – an Open SourceIntelligence (OSINT system, which extracts and analyzes significant quantitiesof openly available information.

  8. Mine soils associated with open-cast coal mining in Spain: a review; Suelos mineros asociados a la mineria de carbon a cielo abierto en Espana: una revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arranz-Gonzalez, J. C.

    2011-07-01

    The different situations that may be found after the closure of coal mines range from the simple abandonment of pits and spoil tips to areas where reclamation work has led to the creation of artificial soils on a reconstituted surface composed of layers of rock and soil or both types of material. Soils of this type are known as mine soils, amongst which those generated by coal mining have been studied most extensively, both to assess their potential for reclamation and to learn more about their pedogenetic evolution. We present here a review of some of the more important works devoted to this subject. We have found evidence to show that in Spain, just as in other countries, the physical and chemical properties of these anthropogenic soils are changing rapidly and so the mine-soil profiles described can be considered as belonging to very young soils still undergoing incipient but rapid development. We have also found that an analysis of information obtained from the soil parameters of surface samples and its interpretation is of great practical use in restoration processes. Nevertheless, the sampling and description of soil profiles has proved to be of much greater interest, allowing us to reach a clearer understanding of the internal processes and properties that are unique to these types of anthropogenic soil. (Author) 64 refs.

  9. Energy efficient technologies for the mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, B.; Bamber, A.; Weatherwax, T.; Dozdiak, J.; Nadolski, S.; Roufail, R.; Parry, J.; Roufail, R.; Tong, L.; Hall, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Centre for Environmental Research in Minerals, Metals and Materials, Norman B. Keevil Inst. of Mining Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Mining in British Columbia is the second largest industrial electricity consumer. This presentation highlighted methods to help the mining industry reduce their energy requirements by limiting waste and improving efficiency. The measures are aimed at optimizing energy-use and efficiency in mining and processing and identifying opportunities and methods of improving this efficiency. Energy conservation in comminution and beneficiation is a primary focus of research activities at the University of British Columbia (UBC). The objective is to reduce energy usage in metal mines by 20 per cent overall. Open pit copper, gold and molybdenum mines are being targeted. Projects underway at UBC were outlined, with particular reference to energy usage, recovery and alternative energy sources; preconcentration; reducing energy usage from comminution in sorting, high pressure grinding rolls and high speed stirred mills; Hydromet; other energy efficient technologies such as control and flotation; and carbon dioxide sequestration. Studies were conducted at various mining facilities, including mines in Sudbury, Ontario. tabs., figs.

  10. Optic Nerve Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Optic Nerve Pit What is optic nerve pit? An optic nerve pit is a ... may be seen in both eyes. How is optic pit diagnosed? If the pit is not affecting ...

  11. Incidence of social resistance in provincial mining legislation. The cases of Córdoba and Catamarca (2003-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Christel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade in Argentina, the growth of open pit mining has faced strong social resistance and provincial laws prohibiting such activity. This work aims to analyse the ways in which the different subnational political regimes and economic systems impact upon the possibility of incidence of social resistance on provincial mining legislation, looking at the cases of Cordoba and Catamarca.

  12. 78 FR 77706 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Gemfield Mine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... gold mine and associated processing and ancillary facilities. The project would be located on public... media, newspapers and the BLM Web site at: http://www.blm.gov/nv/st/en/fo/battle_mountain_field.html... to construct, operate, reclaim, and close an open pit, heap leach, gold mining operation known as the...

  13. Development of water quality in pit lakes of Lausitz - starting point, state and perspectives; Zur Entwicklung der Wasserbeschaffenheit in den Lausitzer Tagebauseen - Ausgangspunkt, Stand und Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenewald, U. [Brandenburgische Technische Universitaet Cottbus (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Hydrologie und Wasserwirtschaft; Uhlmann, W. [Institut fuer Wasser und Boden Dr. Uhlmann, Dresden (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Extensive open-cast mining activities in the Lusatian mining district left approximately 100 mine pits, which have to be reclaimed according to ecological and economical requirements. Cessation of sump drainage causes the rise of groundwater. Depending on the mineralogy of the sediment passed by rising groundwater the quality of groundwater and water of the connected post-mining lakes develop, locally posing high acidification risks to lake waters. As a countermeasure mine pits are flooded using allochthonous slightly alkaline or neutral surface water of the rivers Spree and Schwarze Elster. Beneficial effects comprise the displacement, the dilution and the chemical compensation of acidic groundwaters. However, low specific discharges, competing utilization demands and climatic factors strongly restrict the amount of regional surface water available for flooding. As a consequence, each individual lake's flooding schedule has to be updated and continuously adjusted to new scientific knowledge, changing demands and availability of water. (orig.)

  14. KEEL 3.0: An Open Source Software for Multi-Stage Analysis in Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Triguero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the 3rd major release of the KEEL Software. KEEL is an open source Java framework (GPLv3 license that provides a number of modules to perform a wide variety of data mining tasks. It includes tools to perform data management, design of multiple kind of experiments, statistical analyses, etc. This framework also contains KEEL-dataset, a data repository for multiple learning tasks featuring data partitions and algorithmsr results over these problems. In this work, we describe the most recent components added to KEEL 3.0, including new modules for semi-supervised learning, multi-instance learning, imbalanced classification and subgroup discovery. In addition, a new interface in R has been incorporated to execute algorithms included in KEEL. These new features greatly improve the versatility of KEEL to deal with more modern data mining problems.

  15. Modern methods of surveyor observations in opencast mining under complex hydrogeological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoltseva, L. A.; Lushpei, V. P.; Mursin, VA

    2017-10-01

    The article considers the possibility of linking the modern methods of surveying security of open mining works to improve industrial safety in the Primorsky Territory, as well as their use in the educational process. Industrial Safety in the management of Surface Mining depends largely on the applied assessment methods and methods of stability of pit walls and slopes of dumps in the complex mining and hydro-geological conditions.

  16. Impact of open manganese mines on the health of children dwelling in the surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duka, Ykateryna D.; Ilchenko, Svetlana I.; Kharytonov, Mykola M.; Vasylyeva, Tetyana L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic manganese (Mn) exposure is a health hazard associated with the mining and processing of Mn ores. Children living in an area with increased environmental exposure to Mn may have symptoms of chronic toxicity that are different from adults who experience occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to compare health outcomes in a pediatric population living near open Mn mines with a group of children from a reference area and then to develop and implement preventive/rehabilitation measures to protect the children in the mining region. Methods: After environmental assessment, a group of 683 children living in a Mn-rich region of Ukraine were screened by clinical evaluation, detection of sIgA (37 children), micronucleus analysis (56 children), and hair Mn content (166 children). Results: Impaired growth and rickets-like skeletal deformities were observed in 33% of the children. This was a significantly higher percentage than in children in the reference region (15%). The children from the Mn-mining region also had increased salivary levels of immunoglobulin A (104.4±14.2 mcg/ml vs. 49.7±6.1 mcg/ml among the controls (p<0.05), increased serum alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor levels (4.93±0.21 g/l compared with 2.91±0.22 g/l for controls; p<0.001) and greater numbers of micronuclei in the mucous cells of the oral cavity (0.070±0.008 vs. 0.012±0.009, p<0.001). Conclusions: These findings indicate the deleterious health consequences of living in a Mn-mining area. Medical rehabilitation programs were conducted and produced positive results, but further validation of their effectiveness is required. The study provided background information to formulate evidence-based decisions about public health in a region of high Mn exposure. PMID:24149028

  17. Geochemical evolution of a high arsenic, alkaline pit-lake in the Mother Lode Gold District, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Kaye S.; Ashley, Roger P.; Bird, Dennis K.

    2009-01-01

    The Harvard orebody at the Jamestown gold mine, located along the Melones fault zone in the southern Mother Lode gold district, California, was mined in an open-pit operation from 1987 to 1994. Dewatering during mining produced a hydrologic cone of depression; recovery toward the premining ground-water configuration produced a monomictic pit lake with alkaline Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4–type pit water, concentrations of As up to 1,200 μg/L, and total dissolved solids (TDS) up to 2,000 mg/L. In this study, pit-wall rocks were mapped and chemically analyzed to provide a context for evaluating observed variability in the composition of the pit-lake waters in relationship to seasonal weather patterns. An integrated hydrogeochemical model of pit-lake evolution based on observations of pit-lake volume, water composition (samples collected between 1998–2000, 2004), and processes occurring on pit walls was developed in three stages using the computer code PHREEQC. Stage 1 takes account of seasonally variable water fluxes from precipitation, evaporation, springs, and ground water, as well as lake stratification and mixing processes. Stage 2 adds CO2fluxes and wall-rock interactions, and stage 3 assesses the predictive capability of the model.Two major geologic units in fault contact comprise the pit walls. The hanging wall is composed of interlayered slate, metavolcanic and metavolcaniclastic rocks, and schists; the footwall rocks are chlorite-actinolite and talc-tremolite schists generated by metasomatism of greenschist-facies mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks. Alteration in the ore zone provides evidence for mineralizing fluids that introduced CO2, S, and K2O, and redistributed SiO2. Arsenian pyrite associated with the alteration weathers to produce goethite and jarosite on pit walls and in joints, as well as copiapite and hexahydrite efflorescences that accumulate on wall-rock faces during dry California summers. All of these pyrite weathering products incorporate arsenic at

  18. Disputes over land and water rights in gold mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltenborg, Didi; Boelens, Rutgerd

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes different visions and positions in a conflict between the developer of an open-pit mine in Mexico and project opponents using the echelons of rights analysis framework, distinguishing four layers of dispute: contested resources; contents of rules and regulations;

  19. Condition for Contur Blasting use on Openpit Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Krsmanovic, I; Dambov, Risto

    2010-01-01

    For purpose of obtaining a stable final slope in open pit mines practice, the most common approach is the contour blasting method and investigation of possible applications of various primary blasting methods for purpose of gaining the optimal techno-economical effects. This paper presents one of the contour blasting methods, drilling and blasting parameters, construction of explosive charges and method of initiation.

  20. Mine planning and scheduling at Ranger Uranium Mine - environmental requirements and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bath, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Ranger Uranium Mines operates an open cut located in the Northern Territory. Strict environmental controls govern all operations and the water management requirements have the greatest impact on mine planning. The two main goals of planning are to provide mill feed and to mine sufficient suitable quality waste rock for ongoing construction of the tailings dam. Early planning concentrated on staged development of the pit to provide access to as much ore as possible for a given amount of development. All waste was considered to be suitable construction material. Grade control of crusher feed was the main problem in planning, as wide variations occur in ore grade over relatively short distances. Water management for the site operates a 'no release' system for contaminated waters. Design storage has proven inadequate, and the open cut has been used as the extra storage. As construction of future stages of the tailings dam requires non-mineralised rock materials which meet specific quality criteria, the mine has had to re-examine long term planning and pit development strategies. This has entailed the collection of much data not required under normal mining conditions, such as the assaying of waste drill core. The overall impact on mine planning of the environmental regulations has been to alter the philosophy of earlier planning, making it necessary to create a new strategy for pit development with the accent on exposing waste

  1. Ensuring the Environmental and Industrial Safety in Solid Mineral Deposit Surface Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoy, Kliment; Rylnikova, Marina; Esina, Ekaterina

    2017-11-01

    The growing environmental pressure of mineral deposit surface mining and severization of industrial safety requirements dictate the necessity of refining the regulatory framework governing safe and efficient development of underground resources. The applicable regulatory documentation governing the procedure of ore open-pit wall and bench stability design for the stage of pit reaching its final boundary was issued several decades ago. Over recent decades, mining and geomechanical conditions have changed significantly in surface mining operations, numerous new software packages and computer developments have appeared, opportunities of experimental methods of source data collection and processing, grounding of the permissible parameters of open pit walls have changed dramatically, and, thus, methods of risk assessment have been perfected [10-13]. IPKON RAS, with the support of the Federal Service for Environmental Supervision, assumed the role of the initiator of the project for the development of Federal norms and regulations of industrial safety "Rules for ensuring the stability of walls and benches of open pits, open-cast mines and spoil banks", which contribute to the improvement of economic efficiency and safety of mineral deposit surface mining and enhancement of the competitiveness of Russian mines at the international level that is very important in the current situation.

  2. French uranium mining sites remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, M.

    2002-01-01

    Following a presentation of the COGEMA's general policy for the remediation of uranium mining sites and the regulatory requirements, the current phases of site remediation operations are described. Specific operations for underground mines, open pits, milling facilities and confining the milled residues to meet long term public health concerns are detailed and discussed in relation to the communication strategies to show and explain the actions of COGEMA. A brief review of the current remediation situation at the various French facilities is finally presented. (author)

  3. Study of application of ERTS-1 imagery to fracture-related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, C. E. (Principal Investigator); Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Russell, O. R.; Amato, R. V.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Numerous fractures are identifiable on the 1:120,000 color infrared photography. Some of these fractures are in the proximity of operating open pit mines and should provide opportunities for field checking and confirmation.

  4. Natural radionuclide content and radiological hazard associated with usage of quartzite sand samples from Ovacik-Silifke-Mersin open pit as building material in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, S; Aykamis, A S; Kiliç, A M

    2009-09-01

    Activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K in quartzite sand samples collected from the Ovacik-Silifke-Mersin open pit located in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey were determined by using a gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The mean activity concentrations of the (238)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K in quartzite sand samples were found as 81.7 +/- 22.9 Bq kg(-1), 6.3 +/- 2.8 Bq kg(-1), 77.5 +/- 24.3 Bq kg(-1)and 140.0 +/- 124.1 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The gamma index (I(gamma)), the internal exposure index (I(alpha)), the indoor absorbed dose rate (D(in)) and the corresponding annual effective dose (H(in)) were evaluated for the public exposure to radiological hazard arising due to the use of quartzite sand samples as building material. The values of I(gamma), I(alpha), D(in) and H(in) ranged from 0.20 to 0.75, with a mean of 0.34 +/- 0.11, 0.23 to 0.77 with a mean of 0.39 +/- 0.12, 58.27 to 201.51 nGy h(-1) with a mean of 93.33 +/- 27.63 nGy h(-1) and 0.29 to 0.99 mSv with a mean of 0.46 +/- 0.14 mSv, respectively.

  5. Developing an open source-based spatial data infrastructure for integrated monitoring of mining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahn, Florian; Knoth, Christian; Prinz, Torsten; Pebesma, Edzer

    2014-05-01

    In all phases of mining campaigns, comprehensive spatial information is an essential requirement in order to ensure economically efficient but also safe mining activities as well as to reduce environmental impacts. Earth observation data acquired from various sources like remote sensing or ground measurements is important e.g. for the exploration of mineral deposits, the monitoring of mining induced impacts on vegetation or the detection of ground subsidence. The GMES4Mining project aims at exploring new remote sensing techniques and developing analysis methods on various types of sensor data to provide comprehensive spatial information during mining campaigns (BENECKE et al. 2013). One important task in this project is the integration of the data gathered (e.g. hyperspectral images, spaceborne radar data and ground measurements) as well as results of the developed analysis methods within a web-accessible data source based on open source software. The main challenges here are to provide various types and formats of data from different sensors and to enable access to analysis and processing techniques without particular software or licensing requirements for users. Furthermore the high volume of the involved data (especially hyperspectral remote sensing images) makes data transfer a major issue in this use case. To engage these problems a spatial data infrastructure (SDI) including a web portal as user frontend is being developed which allows users to access not only the data but also several analysis methods. The Geoserver software is used for publishing the data, which is then accessed and visualized in a JavaScript-based web portal. In order to perform descriptive statistics and some straightforward image processing techniques on the raster data (e.g. band arithmetic or principal component analysis) the statistics software R is implemented on a server and connected via Rserve. The analysis is controlled and executed directly by the user through the web portal and

  6. The flooded pit at Aznalcollar (Seville, Spain) and its use as a dumping site for mine waste; La corta inundada de Aznalcollar y su uso como vertedero de residuos mineros (Sevilla, Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santofimia Pastor, E.; Lopez Pamo, E.; Montero Gonzalez, E.

    2011-07-01

    Since its closure in 1995 and the subsequent failure of the slurry deposit dam in 1998, the Aznalcollar pit has been used as a disposal site for diverse metal-rich materials, such as the polluted soils removed during the cleaning-up of areas along the Guadiamar river together with waste rock, pyrite sludge and ashes deriving from pyrite roasting. At present the pit is partly flooded with a highly acidic (pH 2.7) lake holding some 6 Mm{sup 3} of metal- and sulphate-rich water. Detailed research undertaken in the area during recent years has proved that the dumping of wastes and the inflow of acidic mine waters are having a dramatic effect on the quality of the water in the lake. The greatest effect upon the Aznalcollar lake water was due to the dumping of 1.4 Mm{sup 3} of pyritic wastes during 2005 and 2006. The oxidative dissolution of this mineral has resulted firstly in the total consumption of dissolved oxygen, secondly, a notable increase in electric conductivity (from 8.6 to 12 mS/cm), thirdly, considerable acidification (from pH 4.2 to 2.7) and finally, heating due to the exothermic character of pyrite oxidation. Despite the almost total lack of oxidizing agents such as O{sub 2} and Fe(III) (Fe(III)<5% Fetotal) in the pit lake, pyrite continues to oxidize, producing a concomitant increase in SO{sub 4}{sup 2}- and Fe. (Author) 32 refs.

  7. Temporal Trends in Airborne Dust Concentrations at a Large Chrysotile Mine and its Asbestos-enrichment Factories in the Russian Federation During 1951-2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonfeld, Sara J; Kovalevskiy, Evgeny V; Feletto, Eleonora; Bukhtiyarov, Igor V; Kashanskiy, Sergey V; Moissonier, Monika; Straif, Kurt; McCormack, Valerie A; Schüz, Joachim; Kromhout, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Mining and processing of chrysotile, an established carcinogen, has been undertaken in Asbest, Russian Federation since the late 1800s. Dust concentrations were routinely recorded at the open-pit mine and its asbestos-enrichment factories. We examined the temporal trends in these dust

  8. A hybrid GA-TS algorithm for open vehicle routing optimization of coal mines material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.W.; Ding, C.; Zhu, K.J. [China University of Geoscience, Wuhan (China)

    2011-08-15

    In the open vehicle routing problem (OVRP), the objective is to minimize the number of vehicles and the total distance (or time) traveled. This study primarily focuses on solving an open vehicle routing problem (OVRP) by applying a novel hybrid genetic algorithm and the Tabu search (GA-TS), which combines the GA's parallel computing and global optimization with TS's Tabu search skill and fast local search. Firstly, the proposed algorithm uses natural number coding according to the customer demands and the captivity of the vehicle for globe optimization. Secondly, individuals of population do TS local search with a certain degree of probability, namely, do the local routing optimization of all customer sites belong to one vehicle. The mechanism not only improves the ability of global optimization, but also ensures the speed of operation. The algorithm was used in Zhengzhou Coal Mine and Power Supply Co., Ltd.'s transport vehicle routing optimization.

  9. Environmental compatibility investigation of the Garzweiler II open cast mine project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oster, A.; Gaertner, D.

    1994-01-01

    Based on an EEC directive, the law on the investigation of ecological compatibility came into force in 1990. With the application of these European directives in national law, investigations to determine the ecological compatibility must now be carried out for projects to exploit brown coal. In this connection and in conjunction with the licensing procedure for Garzweiler II, Rheinbraun in 1992 for the first time compiled data on the investigations carried out to determine the ecological compatibility of an open cast mine. The data on these investigations include information on the necessity of the open cast mine and on alternative projects that have been examined, as well as a description of the project in question as regards its nature and extent. As far as the legally specified protected objects are concerned, i.e. people, water, air, nature (animals and plants, soil, climate and landscape) as well as cultural and other material objects, itemized data are furnished on the development and effects of the project and on countermeasures and the planned traffic and transport concept. (orig.) [de

  10. A study of natural recovery in an aquatic ecosystem affected by mining: the Rodrigatos stream (El Bierzo, Leon, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacal, M.; Herrero, T.; Rodriguez, V.; Alberruche, E.; Vadillo, L.

    2009-01-01

    This work takes place into the Bierzo Region, located in northeast of the province of Leon (Spain). In this area numerous open-pit and underground coal mines exist. Some of them are still in activity but almost have been abandoned. In any case, mining implies the presence of coal adits, spoil dumps, tailing dams, and coal-washing plants at the river bank. Most of them persist when mining have finished. (Author)

  11. Remote sensing for investigations of woodlands impacted by lignite open surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilarski, M. [ILV-Fernerkundung GmbH, Teltow (Germany); Lohstraeter, O. [Abteilung Markscheidewesen, MIBRAG mbH, Theissen (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    The development of a long term monitoring concept for post-mining landscapes and mine surroundings as ordered by the company MIBRAG requires different preliminary studies. Objectives of these methodologically oriented analyses presented were the recording of ecologically relevant parameters, their changes and of possible effects caused by the mining activities in the flood plains of 'Weisse Elster' and 'Schnauder' situated between the open surface lignite mines 'Vereinigtes Schleenhain' and 'Profen' south of Leipzig. Besides other information, repeatedly generated satellite data of the SPOT system was prepared for research of various vegetation types, selected by certain criteria for a long term monitoring. The satellite data analysis methodology and research findings are presented. The generation of radiometrical and comparable data records using the atmosphere correction software 'ATCOR' as part of the image processing system 'ERDAS IMAGINE' and the evaluation of the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index NDVI are important parts of the analysis. Based on deciduous woodland maps near the rivers of 'Weisse Elster' and 'Schnauder', which were categorised as ecologically valuable, statistical analyses were made using the vegetation status evaluated by remote sensing. As a result, tendencies of vegetation change are demonstrated. To obtain more details about special relations between vegetation development and remote sensing data, further research is necessary involving spectral features of deciduous plant canopy and their causalities. Future gathering of high-precision geometric and radiometric (digital airborne) data is one way of reaching more detailed information of the objects in question. The high geometric accuracy of digital camera data (by DMC) and the color bands are benefits for the mining company which can now replace regular air-borne surveying made with analogous technology

  12. Simulation of water recovery and its effect on settlement of open-cut coal mine back-fill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naderian, A.R.; Williams, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Open-cut coal mine back-fill usually undergoes significant settlement due to inundation by surface water infiltration and groundwater rise. The rate and magnitude of inundation settlement is difficult to predict and quantify due to the large number of contributing factors. Consequently, none of the available settlement models and theories has been able to successfully describe the inundation settlement occurring in back-filled open-cut coal mines. A combination of laboratory and numerical simulation of settlement is a valuable means of estimating the inundation settlement of back-fill. The settlements predicted by this simulation are in good agreement with previous observations of inundation settlement in open-cut coal mine back-fill. 11 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  13. Evaluation of hydrologic isolation from evidence in mine openings in igneous and metamorphic rocks in the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.D.

    1975-09-01

    Conditions in the mines inspected ranged from very wet to very dry. The Heath Steele Mine certainly provided an example of severe leakage through either the country rock, the ore, or both. By way of contrast, the Brunswick Mine is very dry, particularly at the 2800 foot level. A note of caution is raised by this dissimilarity, inasmuch as the local geologic setting for both mines is very much alike. The Buchans Mine also provided evidence of dry conditions at the depth inspected (3215 ft). The Ming Mine at Baie Verte is also nearly dry with a decrease in water leakage with depth. It seems reasonable to tentatively conclude that mined openings in the rock types investigated (volcanics and sediments metamorphosed to a low or subgreen schist facies and intensely deformed) would provide hydraulic isolation at depths on the order of 2800-3200 feet below the surface or greater. It is disturbing to have found one mine that is very wet at shallow depths and to have received reports of some water problems in shaft construction. This report in conjunction with other more comprehensive studies should provide a point of departure for more detailed studies of the nature and causes of hydraulic isolation provided by igneous and metamorphic rocks. 27 figs

  14. 77 FR 16863 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Mine Mapping and Records of Opening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    .... Using accurate, up-to-date maps during a disaster, mine emergency personnel can locate where miners may... coal mine inspectors, miners and their representatives, operators of adjacent coal mines, and persons... are essential to the planning and safe operation of the mine. In addition, these maps provide a...

  15. Sustainable development of lignite production on open cast mines in Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darko Danicic; Slobodan Mitrovic; Vladimir Pavlovic; Sava Kovacev [Kolubara Metal, Vreoci (Serbia)

    2009-09-15

    Currently operated coalmines in Serbia (Kolubara and Kostolac) have production around 36 million tons of lignite, and over 108 million m{sup 3} of overburden. Consequently, sustainability of lignite production requires cost reduction and environmental protection, as well as capacity increase. In order to rationalise, and increase efficiency of Serbian lignite mines, it is necessary to focus the activities on major issues shown within the triangle of energy policy objectives (security of supply, competitive prices and environmental protection). Production process optimisation singled out several special programs. Equipment revitalization and modernization is necessary taking into account that majority of the currently operated machinery has a life up to 25 years. Production process automation would enable high level of technical operation in the field of open cast mines management. Lack of coal quality uniformity is the permanent problem resulting by great amounts of coal reserves to be used uneconomically. Planning and training at all levels and finally cooperative software for business procedures and work order management. The measures suggested are a key precondition for maintaining competitive position of lignite production on international level. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. The use of earth observation and decision support systems for the restoration of open-cast nickel mines in Evia, central Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganas, A.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Astaras, T.; de Vente, J.; Frogoudakis, E.; Labrinos, N.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a decision support system (DSS) for open mining areas which reflects and simulates the major decision steps of a mining expert (engineer, manager) during the formulation of a restoration plan. The software supports the mining expert to structure the various restoration alternatives

  17. Mining in 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, M.; Hatherly, P.; Gurgenci, H. [Centre for Mining Technology and Equipment (Australia)

    1999-10-01

    New technology in open-pit and underground hard rock mining in 2015 is anticipated in this article, based on a paper presented to the 1998 invitation symposium - 'Technology - Australia's future: new technology for traditional industry', held in Freemantle, WA, 24-25 November 1998. It is expected that essential mining operations of rock breakage and transport and ore processing will still exist but the use of drills, shovels/LHDs and trucks is likely to be replaced by continuous, intelligent, automated mining systems. Rock blasting models need to be fed data on rock properties at each blasthole for high accuracy. The authors believe that in 2015 measurements of rock properties will be a routine part of the drilling process. Blasthole drills will be fitted with a range of mechanical and geophysical sensors. New, non-explosive methods of rock breaking such as oscillating disc cutting, may be available. Mining automation will improve safety and productivity, perhaps with the automation of dragline swing LHDs and trucks may be able to drive themselves, with operators monitoring and intervening when necessary. Performance and machine condition data may be applied to improve equipment design. Australian mining stands to gain by these advances in mining technology. 1 fig., 3 photos.

  18. Determination of heat production zones at open-cast mine dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreck, M.; Nishigaki, M.; Glaser, H.R.; Christoph, G.; Grosswig, S.; Hurtig, E.; Kasch, M.; Kuhn, K.

    1998-01-01

    The chemical processes and their thermal effects taking place inside a dump of an open-cast mine (Cospuden) during a reclamation process were investigated. Fiber-optic-distributed-temperature sensing (DTS) was applied together with a soil ground water monitoring system (SGM-System). An optical fiber was mounted at the entire length of a double-pipe SGM-System. The temperature was measured monthly, along the depth of 50 m, with a spatial resolution of 0.5 m. The system was utilized for the localization of heat production zones in the subsurface, for the determination of the temperature variation's penetration depth from the surface into the soil of the dump and for the determination of the influence of the SGM-System on the subsurface temperature balance. The results were compared with a heat transport model and then interpreted

  19. Renewed mining and reclamation: Imapacts on bats and potential mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, P.E. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Berry, R.D. [Brown-Berry Biological Consulting, Bishop, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Historic mining created new roosting habitat for many bat species. Now the same industry has the potential to adversely impact bats. Contemporary mining operations usually occur in historic districts; consequently the old workings are destroyed by open pit operations. Occasionally, underground techniques are employed, resulting in the enlargement or destruction of the original workings. Even during exploratory operations, historic mine openings can be covered as drill roads are bulldozed, or drills can penetrate and collapse underground workings. Nearby blasting associated with mine construction and operation can disrupt roosting bats. Bats can also be disturbed by the entry of mine personnel to collect ore samples or by recreational mine explorers, since the creation of roads often results in easier access. In addition to roost disturbance, other aspects of renewed mining can have adverse impacts on bat populations, and affect even those bats that do not live in mines. Open cyanide ponds, or other water in which toxic chemicals accumulate, can poison bats and other wildlife. The creation of the pits, roads and processing areas often destroys critical foraging habitat, or change drainage patterns. Finally, at the completion of mining, any historic mines still open may be sealed as part of closure and reclamation activities. The net result can be a loss of bats and bat habitat. Conversely, in some contemporary underground operations, future roosting habitat for bats can be fabricated. An experimental approach to the creation of new roosting habitat is to bury culverts or old tires beneath waste rock. Mining companies can mitigate for impacts to bats by surveying to identify bat-roosting habitat, removing bats prior to renewed mining or closure, protecting non-impacted roost sites with gates and fences, researching to identify habitat requirements and creating new artificial roosts.

  20. Gypsiferous mine water use in irrigation on rehabilitated open-cast mine land: Crop production, soil water and salt balance

    OpenAIRE

    Annandale, J.; Jovanovic, N.; Pretorius, J.; Lorentz, S.; Rethman, N.; Tanner, P.

    2001-01-01

    The use of gypsiferous mine water for irrigation of agricultural crops is a promising technology, which could alleviate a shortage of irrigation water and address the problem of disposal of mine effluent. A field trial was established at Kleinkopje Colliery in Witbank (Mpumalanga Province, South Africa) during the 1997-1998 season. Sugar beans and wheat were irrigated with three center pivots, on both virgin and rehabilitated land. The objectives were to determine crop response to irrigation ...

  1. Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairullah Khan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Opinion mining is an interesting area of research because of its applications in various fields. Collecting opinions of people about products and about social and political events and problems through the Web is becoming increasingly popular every day. The opinions of users are helpful for the public and for stakeholders when making certain decisions. Opinion mining is a way to retrieve information through search engines, Web blogs and social networks. Because of the huge number of reviews in the form of unstructured text, it is impossible to summarize the information manually. Accordingly, efficient computational methods are needed for mining and summarizing the reviews from corpuses and Web documents. This study presents a systematic literature survey regarding the computational techniques, models and algorithms for mining opinion components from unstructured reviews.

  2. Pit Water Storage Ottrupgaard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    The pit water storage, a seasonal thermal storage, was built in 1993 with floating lid and hybrid clay-polymer for pit lining. The storage was leaking severe and solutions were to be found. In the paper solutions for pit lining and floating lids are discussed, cost estimations given and coming...

  3. Monitoring Metal Pollution Levels in Mine Wastes around a Coal Mine Site Using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanliyuksel Yucel, D.; Yucel, M. A.; Ileri, B.

    2017-11-01

    In this case study, metal pollution levels in mine wastes at a coal mine site in Etili coal mine (Can coal basin, NW Turkey) are evaluated using geographical information system (GIS) tools. Etili coal mine was operated since the 1980s as an open pit. Acid mine drainage is the main environmental problem around the coal mine. The main environmental contamination source is mine wastes stored around the mine site. Mine wastes were dumped over an extensive area along the riverbeds, and are now abandoned. Mine waste samples were homogenously taken at 10 locations within the sampling area of 102.33 ha. The paste pH and electrical conductivity values of mine wastes ranged from 2.87 to 4.17 and 432 to 2430 μS/cm, respectively. Maximum Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and Ni concentrations of wastes were measured as 109300, 70600, 309.86, 115.2, 38 and 5.3 mg/kg, respectively. The Al, Fe and Pb concentrations of mine wastes are higher than world surface rock average values. The geochemical analysis results from the study area were presented in the form of maps. The GIS based environmental database will serve as a reference study for our future work.

  4. MONITORING METAL POLLUTION LEVELS IN MINE WASTES AROUND A COAL MINE SITE USING GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sanliyuksel Yucel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this case study, metal pollution levels in mine wastes at a coal mine site in Etili coal mine (Can coal basin, NW Turkey are evaluated using geographical information system (GIS tools. Etili coal mine was operated since the 1980s as an open pit. Acid mine drainage is the main environmental problem around the coal mine. The main environmental contamination source is mine wastes stored around the mine site. Mine wastes were dumped over an extensive area along the riverbeds, and are now abandoned. Mine waste samples were homogenously taken at 10 locations within the sampling area of 102.33 ha. The paste pH and electrical conductivity values of mine wastes ranged from 2.87 to 4.17 and 432 to 2430 μS/cm, respectively. Maximum Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and Ni concentrations of wastes were measured as 109300, 70600, 309.86, 115.2, 38 and 5.3 mg/kg, respectively. The Al, Fe and Pb concentrations of mine wastes are higher than world surface rock average values. The geochemical analysis results from the study area were presented in the form of maps. The GIS based environmental database will serve as a reference study for our future work.

  5. Giving back the land - a look at open-cast mining. [South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    The mining industry, particularly the gold mining industry, has, since 1886, dominated the economic life of South Africa. Revenues from mining have provided the impetus which led to the development of this country from subsistence agriculture to one of industrial power. Coal is South Africa's second largest foreign exchange earner after gold, but opencast mining necessitates the alienation of agricultural land, albeit temporarily. The coal industry is improving the speed, and standards, of land reclamation.

  6. Application of Three Existing Stope Boundary Optimisation Methods in an Operating Underground Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Gamze; Yavuz, Mahmut

    2017-12-01

    The underground mine planning and design optimisation process have received little attention because of complexity and variability of problems in underground mines. Although a number of optimisation studies and software tools are available and some of them, in special, have been implemented effectively to determine the ultimate-pit limits in an open pit mine, there is still a lack of studies for optimisation of ultimate stope boundaries in underground mines. The proposed approaches for this purpose aim at maximizing the economic profit by selecting the best possible layout under operational, technical and physical constraints. In this paper, the existing three heuristic techniques including Floating Stope Algorithm, Maximum Value Algorithm and Mineable Shape Optimiser (MSO) are examined for optimisation of stope layout in a case study. Each technique is assessed in terms of applicability, algorithm capabilities and limitations considering the underground mine planning challenges. Finally, the results are evaluated and compared.

  7. Pit closures - effects and alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stott, A G

    1987-02-01

    During the last decade, British Coal has closed around 100 mines. This article illustrates the effect of pit closures on the colliery's workforce, and the local community and its economy. Working conditions at Newmarket Colliery and the Selby coalfield are compared within the context of British Coal's national transfer market. British Coal's transfer benefits include resettlement payments and mortgage subsidies. The job creation venture of British Coal Enterprise Ltd. has helped to create over 3700 new jobs in 264 projects, involving a total investment of 38 M pounds sterling. The article also discusses deputies' qualifications and prospects for recently qualified management staff, and gives a comparison of losses suffered by the different mining unions.

  8. Sub level open stoping mining method for the Remaja type deposits, Kalan, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumaryanto, A.

    2014-01-01

    and compared respectively as part of Vertical Crater Retreat and Sub Level Stoping mining methods. Actually the latter method is not strictly Sub Level Stoping, because in order to minimize the risk of collapse of the hanging wall, which dips at 65°, the major part of the depleted stope is back filled with the waste and could be called Sub Level Open Stoping. This method has been considered as the more convenient but might be do more for the feasibility study, and slightly modified it in order to make the loading of the broken ore at the bottom of the stope easier and allow earlier back filling in order to increase the hanging wall stability. (author)

  9. Structural characteristics of the acquired optic disc pit and the rate of progressive retinal nerve fiber layer thinning in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hyen; Lee, Eun Ji; Kim, Tae-Woo

    2015-10-01

    The optic disc pit (ODP) has been considered a region of localized susceptibility to the damage of glaucoma. To determine whether the rate of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning differs according to the presence and structural characteristics of an ODP in primary open-angle glaucoma. We performed a prospective case-control study that included 163 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma (83 with an ODP and 80 without an ODP) from Glaucoma Clinic of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Participants were enrolled from the ongoing Investigating Glaucoma Progression Study from January 1, 2012, through May 31, 2014. Mean (SD) follow-up was 3.32 (0.49) years (through May 31, 2014). Optic nerve heads underwent swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) to determine the presence of focal lamina cribrosa alteration and its structural characteristics. Eyes with and without photographic ODPs and corresponding microscopic laminar alterations were assigned to the ODP and non-ODP groups, respectively. The rates of progressive thinning of global and 6 sectoral spectral-domain OCT RNFL thicknesses were determined by linear regression and compared between the 2 groups. We used a general linear model to determine the factors associated with the rate of RNFL thinning; data obtained from September 21, 2009, through May 31, 2014, were used to calculate the rate of RNFL thinning. The relationship between the presence and structural characteristics of ODPs and the rate of progressive OCT RNFL thinning. Thinning of the RNFL was faster in the ODP group than in the non-ODP group in the global (mean [SD], -1.44 [1.31] vs -0.93 [1.10] [95% CI, -0.97 to -0.19] μm/y; P = .008), temporoinferior (mean [SD], -4.17 [4.15] vs -1.97 [3.26] [95% CI, -3.36 to -1.04] μm/y; P < .001), and temporal (mean [SD], -1.92 [2.62] vs -0.89 [1.62] [95% CI, -1.70 to -0.35] μm/y; P = .003) sectors. The rate of RNFL thinning was maximum in the temporoinferior sector (mean [SD], -4

  10. Environmental considerations. Environmental impacts of uranium mining in South Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallus, M.F.

    1977-01-01

    Recent investigations of uranium mining and milling activities in the Grants Mineral Belt of New Mexico revealed serious environmental problems associated with these activities. An investigation was undertaken in the South Texas Uranium Belt to determine whether or not similar or other environmental problems existed. The study describes: (1) the history of uranium mining and milling in South Texas, (2) the area economy and demography, (3) the occurrence of uranium ore and (4) the regulatory aspects of uranium mining and milling in South Texas. The commercial recovery and processing of uranium in this area is described in some detail. Exploration, open pit mining, in-situ solution mining and processing techniques for ''yellowcake'' (U 3 O 8 ), the uranium product of the area, are discussed. The state and federal regulations pertinent to uranium mining and milling are summarized. Finally, the environmental effects of these activities are discussed and conclusions and recommendations are drawn

  11. Opening of stripe mine Oslomej - West as a contribution to exploitation of coal in Kichevo basin and extension of exploitation period of TPP 'Oslomej' (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasovski, Vlade; Milevski, Trifun; Jolev, Slavcho; Panovski, Aleksandar

    1997-01-01

    Coal mining in the open mine 'Oslomej' in Macedonia has started 1980 and its regular coal production is 1,2 x 10 6 t per year. The whole coal produced in this mine is used for the Thermal Power Plant 'Oslomej', whose total installed capacity is 120 MW. Taking into consideration the planned exploitation dynamics, the coal reserves will meet the TPP needs for the next 4-5 years. In order to consolidate the coal reserves in the Kitchevo basin, a previous geologic examinations were carried out. In this paper economic, electro energetic and commercial justification of opening the stripe mine Oslomej - West is analysed

  12. An evaluation of problems arising from acid mine drainage in the vicinity of Shasta Lake, Shasta County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Richard H.; Shay, J.M.; Ferreira, R.F.; Hoffman, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Streams draining the mined areas of massive sulfide ore deposits in the Shasta Mining Districts of northern California are generally acidic and contain large concentrations of dissolved metals, including iron, copper, and zinc. The streams, including Flat, Little Backbone, Spring, West Squaw, Horse, and Zinc Creeks, discharge into Shasta Reservoir and the Sacramento River and have caused numerous fish kills. The sources of pollution are discharge from underground mines, streams that flow into open pits, and streams that flow through pyritic mine dumps where the oxidation of pyrite and other sulfide minerals results in the production of acid and the mobilization of metals. Suggested methods of treatment include the use of air and hydraulic seals in the mines, lime neutralization of mine effluent, channeling of runoff and mine effluent away from mine and tailing areas, and the grading and sealing of mine dumps. A comprehensive preabatement and postabatement program is recommended to evaluate the effects of any treatment method used. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Special method of coal winning in Hambach open-cast mine in 1987 using large machines in tandem operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krug, M; Muellensiefen, K

    1988-05-01

    In 1987 an additional 1,75 Mt coal, which were only overlain by slight layers of overburden, were won from the marginal batter system at Hambach open-cast mine by using a bucket wheel dredger with a daily output of 240 000 m/sup 3/ (solid) and at the same time bringing up the inside dump. During this working method the dredger and the spreader operated with a common belt conveyor in so-called tandem operation. Thanks to the efficient co-operation of the head planning department, field mining department, opencast mine surveying department and rock and soil mechanics department of the head office of the Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke AG, this special coal winning operation could be completed successfully.

  14. Landscape and open-cast mining. Vol. 2. Landschaft und Tagebau. Bd. 2. Planerische Leitbilder und Modelle zur Rekultivierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darmer, G

    1979-01-01

    The 2nd volume is intended to consolidate the cooperation between science and practice, using planning examples and models. In view of the fact that the general public attaches great importance to issues of re-cultivation, and in view of recently issued legal regulations on mining, aiming at the useful recultivation of exploited areas, and also because of the great variety of potential, but very often competitive ways of subsequent utilization, this second volume was published hust on time. The book imparts topical information which can be used practically. It gives instructions to operators of open cast mines, contractors of civil and highway engineering works, and - of course - to contractors of landscape gardening, to landscape planners, to the public administration dealing with mining issues and recultivation, as well as to students of all faculties concerned.

  15. The post-mining context at Decazeville-Firmi concession (Aveyron, France): analysis of impacts resulting from the cessation of pumping at the central shaft. Survey of various scenarios related to the water level of the pit lake in the Grande Decouverte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojean, R.; Franco, N.; Lazarewicz, J.C.; Blachere, A.; Lefort, D.; Sorgi, C.

    2005-01-01

    Within the frame of the Survey related to the cessation of mine workings in Decazeville-Firmi concession, various impacts resulting from the cessation of pumping at the Central Shaft were assessed. Mainly these impacts are related to groundwater behaviour in the abandoned underground coal mines, hydro-chemistry of waters discharged to the environment, ground stability concerns and coal gas emanations. This analysis allowed the choice of the most appropriate elevation of the pit lake level in the Grande Decouverte, with the necessity to continue the pumping. Two main objectives were reached. The elected elevation is high enough to result in a permanent chemical stratification, which allows the pumping of the superficial waters and its discharge to natural watercourses without any treatment. The elected elevation is low enough to avoid any problem of inflow of water or ground stability at some particular places which might have been threatened by the rising of the piezometric level of the mining aquifer. Lastly, the elected elevation of the pit lake allows a quality scenery design around the pit lake. (authors)

  16. The post-mining context at Decazeville-Firmi concession (Aveyron, France): analysis of impacts resulting from the cessation of pumping at the central shaft. Survey of various scenarios related to the water level of the pit lake in the Grande Decouverte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cojean, R. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Institut des Geosciences, Centre de Geologie de l' Ingenieur, UMLV, 77 - Marne-la-Vallee (France); Franco, N. [Charbonnages de France, Dir. Technique Nationale, 42 - Saint-Etienne (France); Lazarewicz, J.C. [Charbonnages de France, Dir. Technique Nationale, 13 - Meyreuil (France); Blachere, A.; Lefort, D. [Bureau d' Etudes CESAME, 42 - Fraisses (France); Sorgi, C. [INERIS, 60 - Verneuil-en-Halatte (France)

    2005-07-01

    Within the frame of the Survey related to the cessation of mine workings in Decazeville-Firmi concession, various impacts resulting from the cessation of pumping at the Central Shaft were assessed. Mainly these impacts are related to groundwater behaviour in the abandoned underground coal mines, hydro-chemistry of waters discharged to the environment, ground stability concerns and coal gas emanations. This analysis allowed the choice of the most appropriate elevation of the pit lake level in the Grande Decouverte, with the necessity to continue the pumping. Two main objectives were reached. The elected elevation is high enough to result in a permanent chemical stratification, which allows the pumping of the superficial waters and its discharge to natural watercourses without any treatment. The elected elevation is low enough to avoid any problem of inflow of water or ground stability at some particular places which might have been threatened by the rising of the piezometric level of the mining aquifer. Lastly, the elected elevation of the pit lake allows a quality scenery design around the pit lake. (authors)

  17. Women miners in developing countries: pit women and others

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt; Martha Macintyre [Australian National University (Australia). Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies

    2006-05-15

    Contrary to their masculine portrayal, mines have always employed women in valuable and productive roles. Yet, pit life continues to be represented as a masculine world of work, legitimizing men as the only mineworkers and large, mechanized, and capitalized operations as the only form of mining. Bringing together a range of case studies of women miners from past and present in Asia, the Pacific Region, Latin America and Africa, this book makes visible the roles and contributions of women as miners. It also highlights the importance of engendering small and informal mining in the developing world as compared to the early European and American mines. The book shows that women are engaged in various kinds of mining and illustrates how gender and inequality are constructed and sustained in the mines, and also how ethnic identities intersect with those gendered identities. Chapters dealing with coal mining include: Introduction: Where life is in the pits (and elsewhere) and gendered; Japanese coal mining: women discovered; Mining gender at work in the Indian collieries: identity construction; Women in the mining industry of contemporary China; Roti do, ya goli do! (give us bread, or give us bullets!): stories of struggles of women workers in Bhowra colliery, India and Globalization and women's work in the mine pits in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. 17 ills.

  18. The present state and future of the development of dimension stone mining in Slovak conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viliam Žiaran

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In comparing to both ores and energetical minerals there are occurences of extremly rich non-methallics minerals on the Slovak territory. These minerals represent very large-scale sortiment with a considerable amount of verified reserves. Reserves of magnesite, salt rock, dolomite, limestone, talc, bentonite, clays and another construction minerals present many possibilities of their industrial utilization. A specific case is the mining of dimension stones such as stable ingeneous,sedimentary and metamorphic rocks that are mined in the open-pit blocks. Applicable to the production of both ingeneous stone and gross stone [3].The open-pit mining and dimension stone processing by the both above mentioned stone productions forms are focused mainly to the external and internal building industry. Despite of the fact that the natural reserves of dimension stone are limited at the Slovak territory, being distributed at large numbers of open-pits mines, from the point of view of the next development of the dimension stone industry its technical and economic vitalitycan be expected. The paper deals with both the technological and ecological mining problems of dimension stone and shows the possibilities how to improve both the works productivity and quality of products including the ecological impacts by the dimension stone mining.

  19. Uranium mining operations in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, J.-M.; Arnaiz, J.; Criado, M.; Lopez, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Empresa Nacional del Uranio, SA (ENUSA) was founded in 1972 to undertake and develop the industrial and procurement activities of the nuclear fuel cycle in Spain. Within the organisation of ENUSA, the Uranium Division is directly responsible for the uranium mining and production operations that have been carried out since 1973 in the area of Ciudad Rodrigo in the province of Salamanca. These activities are based on open pit mining, heap leaching and a hydrometallurgical plant (Elefante) for extracting uranium concentrates from the ore. This plant was shut down in 1993 and a new plant was started up on the same site (Quercus) with a dynamic leaching process. The nominal capacity of the new plant is 950 t U 3 O 8 per year. Because of the historically low uranium prices which have recently prevailed, the plant is currently running at a strategic production rate of 300 t U 3 O 8 per year. From 1981 to 1990, in the area of La Haba (Badajoz province), ENUSA also operated a uranium production site, based on open pit mining, and an experimental extraction plant (Lobo-G). ENUSA is currently decommissioning these installations. This paper describes innovations and improvements that ENUSA has recently introduced in the field of uranium concentrates production with a view to cutting production costs, and to improving the decommissioning and site restoration processes in those sites where production is being shut down or resources have been worked out. (author)

  20. Soil criteria to protect terrestrial wildlife and open-range livestock from metal toxicity at mining sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Karl L; Beyer, W Nelson

    2014-03-01

    Thousands of hard rock mines exist in the western USA and in other parts of the world as a result of historic and current gold, silver, lead, and mercury mining. Many of these sites in the USA are on public lands. Typical mine waste associated with these sites are tailings and waste rock dumps that may be used by wildlife and open-range livestock. This report provides wildlife screening criteria levels for metals in soil and mine waste to evaluate risk and to determine the need for site-specific risk assessment, remediation, or a change in management practices. The screening levels are calculated from toxicity reference values based on maximum tolerable levels of metals in feed, on soil and plant ingestion rates, and on soil to plant uptake factors for a variety of receptors. The metals chosen for this report are common toxic metals found at mining sites: arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc. The resulting soil screening values are well above those developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The difference in values was mainly a result of using toxicity reference values that were more specific to the receptors addressed rather than the most sensitive receptor.

  1. A Data Mining Approach to Reveal Representative Collaboration Indicators in Open Collaboration Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Antonio R.; Boticario, Jesus G.

    2009-01-01

    Data mining methods are successful in educational environments to discover new knowledge or learner skills or features. Unfortunately, they have not been used in depth with collaboration. We have developed a scalable data mining method, whose objective is to infer information on the collaboration during the collaboration process in a…

  2. 78 FR 17713 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Pan Mine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... INFORMATION: Midway Gold US, Inc., (Midway) proposes to construct and operate an open-pit gold mining operation in the northern part of the Pancake Mountain Range, approximately 50 miles west of Ely in White... (May 2004) and the Midway Gold Pan Project Exploration Amendment EA (July 2011). The Draft EIS...

  3. 78 FR 70067 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Pan Mine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ...: Midway Gold US, Inc. (Midway) proposes to construct and operate an open-pit gold mining operation in the northern part of the Pancake Mountain Range, approximately 50 miles west of Ely in White Pine County... Midway Gold Pan Project Exploration Amendment EA (July 2011). The Final EIS describes and analyzes the...

  4. Disputes over land and water rights in gold mining : The case of Cerro de San Pedro, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltenborg, D.; Boelens, R.

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes different visions and positions in a conflict between the developer of an open-pit mine in Mexico and project opponents using the echelons of rights analysis framework, distinguishing four layers of dispute: contested resources; contents of rules and regulations;

  5. Intelligent Mining Engineering Systems in the Structure of Industry 4.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rylnikova Marina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The solution of the problem of improving the human environment and working conditions at mines is based on the provision of the rationale of parameters and conditions for the implementation of an environmentally balanced cycle of comprehensive development of mineral deposits on the basis of the design of mining engineering systems characterized by the minimization of the human factor effect in danger zones of mining operations. In this area, robotized technologies are being developed, machinery and mechanisms with the elements of artificial intelligence, and mining and transport system automatic controls are being put into service throughout the world. In the upcoming decades, mining machines and mechanisms will be virtually industrial robots. The article presents the results of zoning of open-pit and underground mine production areas, as well as mining engineering system of combined development depending on the fact and periodicity of human presence in zones of mining processes. As a surface geotechnology case study, the software structure based on a modular concept is described. The performance philosophy of mining and transport equipment with the elements of artificial intelligence is shown when it is put into service in an open pit.

  6. Intelligent Mining Engineering Systems in the Structure of Industry 4.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylnikova, Marina; Radchenko, Dmitriy; Klebanov, Dmitriy

    2017-11-01

    The solution of the problem of improving the human environment and working conditions at mines is based on the provision of the rationale of parameters and conditions for the implementation of an environmentally balanced cycle of comprehensive development of mineral deposits on the basis of the design of mining engineering systems characterized by the minimization of the human factor effect in danger zones of mining operations. In this area, robotized technologies are being developed, machinery and mechanisms with the elements of artificial intelligence, and mining and transport system automatic controls are being put into service throughout the world. In the upcoming decades, mining machines and mechanisms will be virtually industrial robots. The article presents the results of zoning of open-pit and underground mine production areas, as well as mining engineering system of combined development depending on the fact and periodicity of human presence in zones of mining processes. As a surface geotechnology case study, the software structure based on a modular concept is described. The performance philosophy of mining and transport equipment with the elements of artificial intelligence is shown when it is put into service in an open pit.

  7. Tridimensional modelling and resource estimation of the mining waste piles of São Domingos mine, Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre; Matos, João; Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben

    2016-04-01

    Located in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) northern sector, near the Portuguese/Spanish border, the outcropping São Domingos deposit was mined since Roman time. Between 1854 and 1966 the Mason & Barry Company developed open pit excavation until 120 m depth and underground mining until 420 m depth. The São Domingos subvertical deposit is associated with felsic volcanics and black shales of the IPB Volcano-Sedimentary Complex and is represented by massive sulphide and stockwork ore (py, cpy, sph, ga, tt, aspy) and related supergene enrichment ore (hematite gossan and covellite/chalcocite). Different mine waste classes were mapped around the old open pit: gossan (W1), felsic volcanic and shales (W2), shales (W3) and mining waste landfill (W4). Using the LNEG (Portuguese Geological Survey) CONASA database (company historical mining waste characterization based on 162 shafts and 160 reverse circulation boreholes), a methodology for tridimensional modelling mining waste pile was followed, and a new mining waste resource is presented. Considering some constraints to waste removal, such as the Mina de São Domingos village proximity of the wastes, the industrial and archaeological patrimony (e.g., mining infrastructures, roman galleries), different resource scenarios were considered: unconditioned resources (total estimates) and conditioned resources (only the volumes without removal constraints considered). Using block modelling (SURPAC software) a mineral inferred resource of 2.38 Mt @ 0.77 g/t Au and 8.26 g/t Ag is estimated in unconditioned volumes of waste. Considering all evaluated wastes, including village areas, an inferred resource of 4.0 Mt @ 0.64 g/t Au and 7.30 g/t Ag is presented, corresponding to a total metal content of 82,878 oz t Au and 955,753 oz t Ag. Keywords. São Domingos mine, mining waste resources, mining waste pile modelling, Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal

  8. Perception of the Environmental Degradation of Gold Mining on Socio-Economic Variables in Eastern Cameroon, Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Anselme Kamga; Charles Olufisayo Olatubara; Moses Monday Atteh; Serge Nzali; Adeola Adenikinju; Théodore Yimgnia Mbiatso; Ralain Bryan Ngatcha

    2018-01-01

    Artisanal mining is associated with a number of environmental impacts, including deforestation and land degradation, open pits which pose animal traps and health hazards, and heavy metals contamination of land (water and soil), dust and noise pollution. The study examines the perception of environmental degradation of gold mining sites in eastern Cameroon. Human-environment interaction and distance decay models are the conceptual framework for this study.  This study employed a survey re...

  9. Response of Maize Grown on Overburden Soil in a Coal Mining Area Without Top Soil to Various Compost Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Erry Purnomo

    2015-01-01

    Soil in Kalimantan Island is considered infertile. To obtain a reasonable crop yield a high input fertilizer package should be applied. The situation will be worsening when an open pit system of coal mining adopted. Failure in re-arranging the soil layers can result in decreasing soil fertility compared to original soil prior to mining. This study aimed to determine the improvement of soil fertility of a disposal without top soil by using composts from various sources, namely, the public garb...

  10. Mining in Austria in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, P.

    1994-01-01

    The mineral production of Austria, in 1992 - as far as under the supervision of the Austrian Mine Inspectorate, run up to about 50 million t of solid minerals, 1.2 million t of oil and 1.4 billion m 3 of natural gas. 88% of the solid minerals comprised industrial minerals, 4% metals, 4% salt and 4% coal. The solid minerals were produced by 352 open pits and 15 underground mines. 3 of the operations worked both on surface and underground and one mine is a well field operation. In total around 8000 people were employed in the field of mining and mineral processing. The minerals produced represent a value of about 15 billion Austrian Schillings (about 1.25 billion US $), the major part being the industrial minerals sector with a share of 7 billion Austrian Schillings and oil and gas with around 4 billion Austrian Schillings. The industrial minerals sector does not play only in Austrian an important role, but contributes also remarkably to the world production. This comprises mainly magnesite, talc, kaolin and graphite where Austria produces more than 1% of the world production. Summarizing, it can be said that the future of the Austrian mining sector is quite prosperous, perhaps better than in some other traditional mining countries in Europe, where the change from the coal and base metals sector towards the industrial sector has not come so far. (orig.) [de

  11. Assessment of environmental aspects of uranium mining and milling. Final report, 12 February--7 July 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, A.K.; Meeks, H.C.; Pomeroy, S.E.; Hale, V.Q.

    1976-12-01

    This research program was initiated with the basic objective of making a preliminary assessment of the potential environmental impacts associated with the mining and milling of domestic uranium ores. All forms of pollution except radiation were considered. The program included a review of the characteristics and locations of domestic uranium ore reserves and a review of the conventional methods for mining and milling these ores. Potential environmental impacts associated with the entire cycle from exploration and mining to recovery and production of yellowcake are identified and discussed. Land reclamation aspects are also discussed. The methods currently used for production of yellowcake were divided into four categories - open pit mining-acid leach process, underground mining-acid leach process, underground mining-alkaline leach process, and in-situ mining. These are discussed from the standpoint of typical active mills which were visited during the program. Flowsheets showing specific environmental impacts for each category are provided

  12. 77 FR 40079 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Hycroft Mine Expansion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ...,895 acres, which includes 2,172 acres of new surface disturbance. The existing open pit operation and...; expand four existing open pits; backfill all or portions of three open pits; build a dispatch center and...

  13. Quantification of proportions of different water sources in a mining operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber, Laura; Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric

    2018-04-01

    The water drained in mining operations (galleries, shafts, open pits) usually comes from different sources. Evaluating the contribution of these sources is very often necessary for water management. To determine mixing ratios, a conventional mass balance is often used. However, the presence of more than two sources creates uncertainties in mass balance applications. Moreover, the composition of the end-members is not commonly known with certainty and/or can vary in space and time. In this paper, we propose a powerful tool for solving such problems and managing groundwater in mining sites based on multivariate statistical analysis. This approach was applied to the Cobre Las Cruces mining complex, the largest copper mine in Europe. There, the open pit water is a mixture of three end-members: runoff (RO), basal Miocene (Mb) and Paleozoic (PZ) groundwater. The volume of water drained from the Miocene base aquifer must be determined and compensated via artificial recharging to comply with current regulations. Through multivariate statistical analysis of samples from a regional field campaign, the compositions of PZ and Mb end-members were firstly estimated, and then used for mixing calculations at the open pit scale. The runoff end-member was directly determined from samples collected in interception trenches inside the open pit. The application of multivariate statistical methods allowed the estimation of mixing ratios for the hydrological years 2014-2015 and 2015-2016. Open pit water proportions have changed from 15% to 7%, 41% to 36%, and 44% to 57% for runoff, Mb and PZ end-members, respectively. An independent estimation of runoff based on the curve method yielded comparable results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Tale of two pit lakes: initial results of a three-year study of the Main Zone and Waterline pit lakes near Houston, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusius, John; Pieters, R.; Leung, A.; Whittle, P.; Pedersen, T.; Lawrence, G.; McNee, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Pit lakes are becoming increasingly common in North America as well as in the rest of the world. They are created as openpit mines fill passively with ground water and surface inflows on cessation of mining activity. In many instances, the water quality in these pit lakes does not meet regulatory requirements due to a number of influences. The most important are the oxidation of sulfide minerals and the associated release of acid and metals and the flushing of soluble metals during pit filling. Examples of pit lakes with severe water-quality problems include the Berkeley Pit lake (Butte, MT) and the Liberty Pit lake (Nevada), whose waters are characterized by a pH near 3 and Cu concentrations as high as ~150 mg/L (Miller et al., 1996; Davis and Eary, 1997). The importance of the problem can be seen in the fact that some of these sites in the United States are Superfund sites.

  15. THE IMPACT OF STRUCTURAL, PETROGRAPHIC AND CLIMATIC FACTORS ON THE SLOPE STABILITY IN THE OPEN CAST MINE OF GRADNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Tomašić

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of a complexity of interrelated structural, petrologic and climatic factors that considerably affect the instabilities in the open cast mine of Gradna, near Samobor. The instabilities provoke the slope failures such as slides and slumps of rock material. During the protracted periodical investigations, the relationship among the factors of regional geology, tectonics, structural geology, petrography, engineering geology, rock mechanics and the rock mining technology was observed in the area. The local control of hydrogeologic properties, as well as climatic fluctuations of temperature and precipitation on the slope stability, was also recognized. It turned out that the structural relationships, characteristic of the manifold cataclased dolomite, stimulated the development of local instabilities, particularly during the period of low temperatures affecting the process of ground-water accumulation. When the temperatures are worm, the ground-water circulation is slow, exerting only the small-scale influence on the local instabilities (the paper is published in Croatian.

  16. Investigating pitting in X65 carbon steel using potentiostatic polarisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Sikiru; Hua, Yong; Barker, R.; Neville, A.

    2017-11-01

    Although pitting corrosion in passive materials is generally well understood, the growth of surface pits in actively-corroding materials has received much less attention to date and remains poorly understood. One of the key challenges which exists is repeatedly and reliably generating surface pits in a practical time-frame in the absence of deformation and/or residual stress so that studies on pit propagation and healing can be performed. Another pertinent issue is how to evaluate pitting while addressing general corrosion in low carbon steel. In this work, potentiostatic polarisation was employed to induce corrosion pits (free from deformation or residual stress) on actively corroding X65 carbon steel. The influence of applied potential (50 mV, 100 mV and 150 mV vs open circuit potential) was investigated over 24 h in a CO2-saturated, 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution at 30 °C and pH 3.8. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilised to examine pits, while surface profilometry was conducted to measure pit depth as a function of applied potential over the range considered. Analyses of light pitting (up to 120 μm) revealed that pit depth increased linearly with increase in applied potential. This paper relates total pit volume (measured using white light interferometry) to dissipated charge or total mass loss (using the current response for potentiostatic polarisation in conjunction with Faraday's law). By controlling the potential of the surface (anodic) the extent of pitting and general corrosion could be controlled. This allowed pits to be evaluated for their ability to continue to propagate after the potentiostatic technique was employed. Linear growth from a depth of 70 μm at pH 3.8, 80 °C was demonstrated. The technique offers promise for the study of inhibition of pitting.

  17. ON ETREPRENUERSHIP AT MAIN CLAY PITS AND BRICKYARDS OF CENTRAL CROATIA AT THE END OF 19TH AND BEGINNING OF 20TH CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berislav šebečić

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In central Croatia at the beginning of 20th century, clay pits were mostly managed by individual entrepreneurs, and less by joint stock companies and municipal or district local authorities. Majority of clay pit met the local and regional requirements i.e. demands, and quality products were exported. Exploitation of brickwork clay was carried out from open pits, while potter's, stove-maker's and porcelain clays were exploited from mining shafts and tunnels. From the clay raw material, annual production of minor brickyards amounted to 200-300,000 bricks, and that of major ones was 1-2,000,000 pieces of bricks or roofing-tiles. The number of workers in brickyards and cement works was growing in the first decade of 20th century, while that of potter's and stove-maker's crafts was decreasing. Pottery became a secondary trade in the majority of Croatian and Slavonian counties (the paper is published in Croatian.

  18. Pit membranes of Ephedra resemble gymnosperms more than angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland Dute; Lauren Bowen; Sarah Schier; Alexa Vevon; Troy Best; Maria Auad; Thomas Elder; Pauline Bouche; Steven Jansen

    2014-01-01

    Bordered pit pairs of Ephedra species were characterized using different types of microscopy. Pit membranes contained tori that did not stain for lignin. SEM and AFM views of the torus surface showed no plasmodesmatal openings, but branched, secondary plasmodesmata were occasionally noted using TEM in conjunction with ultrathin sections. The margo consisted of radial...

  19. From deposit modelling to the mine plan engineering guidance in a Greenfield project for the opening of a lignite open-cast mine during the preparation and development phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertling, H.

    2010-01-01

    In order to supply the nearby power plant Elbistan B, a new open-cast mine is being developed at the Collolar Field in Turkey. Initial fieldwork began in mid-2007, followed by overburden removal in early 2008 and lignite production in 2009. Several planning studies have been undertaken in order to prepare and undertake the initial work in just under two years, including the establishment of a geological model as a basis for calculating reserves, and for hydrological and geotechnical calculations, leading to a drainage concept and the formulation of requirements made on the slope stability. This paper presented the framework concept for the modelling and discussed the geological modelling and selection of a suitable development plan. The hydrological calculations and planning of drainage measures were also outlined. The more detailed plans for phase two, including the database for hydro-geological modelling, pumping tests and laboratory tests, ground water modelling, and the dewatering concept were also presented. The paper also discussed the determination of geotechnical parameters, calculation methods, and the slope stabilities at the mining and dumping site. It was concluded that regular comparison to plans and calculations on drainage and slope stability must be conducted when planning and operating a mine. 3 figs.

  20. Methods of rational fuel consumption by the dump trucks in deep pits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Lel’

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The detailed analysis of “consumption Norms of fuel and lubricants...” has been performed. It was approved by the Ministry of transport of the Russian Federation and it is an official document for the valuation and planning of fuel consumption in road transport, including open pits. It was found that the “rate...” was deficient in the specific operating conditions of mining dump trucks and a significant discrepancy with the actual fuel consumption. To the greatest extent, these shortcomings are noticeable in deep pits. In the result of experimental and analytical studies a new method of rationing the diesel fuel consumption of mining dump trucks was developed. It is based on the calculation of fuel consumption for vehicle cycle and bringing the actual path length to the conventional horizontal transportation distances using the criterion of energy. This method requires comprehensive consideration of the design parameters of mining dump trucks – mining and road traffic conditions. As a criterion for evaluating the difficulty of transporting it justifies the use of the coefficient of difficulty of the course, showing how many times the energy consumption in the movement of trucks on the highway exceed the real energy consumption while driving on a horizontal road with the crushed-stone surface of the same length. The formulae are derived to determine the given distance of transportation on the basis of the horizontal equivalent of the vertical movement of the rock mass. It was found that the linear rate of flow of diesel fuel to mileage and transportation work under other equal conditions is determined by two main factors: the distance of transportation of L and the coefficient μ of difficulty of the course. As an example, the calculation of the linear differentiated norms of fuel consumption of dump trucks CAT 785B in an “Udachny” pit AK “ALROSA” (JSC. The developed method provides high accuracy of regulation of diesel fuel

  1. Audit trails in OpenSLEX : paving the road for process mining in healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González López De Murillas, E.; Helm, E.; Reijers, H.A.; Küng, J.; Bursa, M.; Holzinger, A.; Elena Renda, M.; Khuri, S.

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of organizational and medical treatment pro-cesses is crucial for the future development of the healthcare domain. Recent approaches to enable process mining on healthcare data make use of the hospital information systems' Audit Trails. In this work, methods are proposed to integrate

  2. Meaning, function and methods of the recultivation in mining exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Dambov, Risto; Ljatifi, Ejup

    2015-01-01

    With the exploitation of mineral resources is performed degradation and deformation of the relief and the general part of surface of the Earth's crust. Depending on the type of open pit mine, this degradation can be expressed to a lesser or greater extent, and sometimes in several square kilometers. The exploitation of mineral resources is with unbreakable link with the environment. Very often it is said that mining is „enemy No. 1“ for environment. With exploitation comes to degradation of h...

  3. Evaluation of radionuclide contamination in the vicinity of the cunha baixa and quinta do bispo old uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, A.J.S.C.; Neves, L.J.P.F.; Dias, J.M.M.; Barbosa, S.V.T.

    2004-01-01

    The Cunha Baixa and Quinta do Bispo uranium mines were some of the most important exploitations in Portugal and shared a common geological setting, composed of metasedimentary enclaves in hercynian porphyritic granites. The exploitation of Cunha Baixa began as an underground mine and later evolved to an open-pit; Quinta do Bispo was exclusively exploited as an open-pit. Heap leaching techniques were used in both mines to recover uranium from low-grade ores (300-500 ppm). The mining activities produced large amounts of waste, currently deposited in several tailings. To evaluate the degree and extension of the contamination of the environment, the radionuclides of the U-chain, as well as other chemical elements, were measure in samples of water (116), stream sediments (8) and soils (26), collected in the mining area and its vicinity. The activity of the radionuclides in the different environmental compartments is highly variable, and the modelling by multivariate techniques based on discriminant analysis, allow to separate the samples with chemical signature changed by the mine workings from those that only contain the variability imposed by geology or other anthropogenic activities. Mining contamination is mainly restricted to the surroundings of the studied mines and the worst environmental situation occurs in soils close to Cunha Baixa mine, as a result of the illegal use for irrigation of water collected in the wastewater treatment plant, as well as from resurgences in the tailings. (author)

  4. Rapid Evaluation of Radioactive Contamination in Rare Earth Mine Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.

    2017-12-01

    In order to estimate the current levels of environmental radioactivity in Bayan Obo rare earth mine and to study the rapid evaluation methods of radioactivity contamination in the rare earth mine, the surveys of the in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry and gamma dose rate measurement were carried out around the mining area and living area. The in-situ gamma-ray spectrometer was composed of a scintillation detector of NaI(Tl) (Φ75mm×75mm) and a multichannel analyzer. Our survey results in Bayan Obo Mine display: (1) Thorium-232 is the radioactive contamination source of this region, and uranium-238 and potassium - 40 is at the background level. (2) The average content of thorium-232 in the slag of the tailings dam in Bayan Obo is as high as 276 mg/kg, which is 37 times as the global average value of thorium content. (3) We found that the thorium-232 content in the soil in the living area near the mining is higher than that in the local soil in Guyang County. The average thorium-232 concentrations in the mining areas of the Bayan Obo Mine and the living areas of the Bayan Obo Town were 18.7±7.5 and 26.2±9.1 mg/kg, respectively. (4) It was observed that thorium-232 was abnormal distributed in the contaminated area near the tailings dam. Our preliminary research results show that the in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry is an effective approach of fast evaluating rare earths radioactive pollution, not only can the scene to determine the types of radioactive contamination source, but also to measure the radioactivity concentration of thorium and uranium in soil. The environmental radioactive evaluation of rare earth ore and tailings dam in open-pit mining is also needed. The research was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41674111).

  5. Tracing surface water infiltration in fractured rocks with environmental isotopes: a case study of the former Balangero asbestos mine (northern Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacchi, Elisa [University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, Pavia I-27100 (Italy); Bergamini, Massimo; Castellano, Gianpaolo [R.S.A. S.r.l, Viale Copperi 15, Balangero - TO, I-10070 (Italy); Barella, Vittorio [ISO4 S.n.c., Via Valperga Caluso 37, Torino I-10125 (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    A semi-quantitative evaluation of the contribution of lake water to streams, springs, and groundwater circulating in the fractured rocks hosting the former Balangero asbestos mine was performed using stable isotopes of the water molecule. Results indicate that the lake, located in the open pit of the mine, generally contributes less than 30% of water to streams, springs, and groundwater. This contribution is more evident during dry periods, and should be taken into account in the design of remediation plans. (authors)

  6. Pitting corrosion of zirconium in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Shayeb, H.A.; Abd El Wahab, F.M.; Abd Elk Meguid, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    The open circuit potentials of the Zr electrode are followed as a function of time in various aqueous solutions till attainment of steady state values.The results are discussed on the basis of oxide film thickening and repair. Pitting corrosion of Zr was examined in chloride solutions using the potentiodynamic technique. The effect of some inorganic and organic additives was also investigated for inhibiting the pitting corrosion of Zr and the relative performance is presented and discussed. (author). 21 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  7. Radionuclides in sheep grazing near old uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, Joao M.; Malta, M. [Instituto Superior Tecnico/Campus Tecnologico e Nuclear/ (IST/CTN), Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10 - ao km 139,7, - 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Lemos, M.E. [Servicos de Alimentacao e Veterinaria da Regiao Centro, Bairro Na Sra dos Remedios, 6300 Guarda (Portugal); Vala, H.; Esteves, F. [Escola Superior Agraria de Viseu, Quinta da Alagoa, Estrada de Nelas, Ranhados,3500-606 Viseu (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    During the past century extensive uranium mining took place in Portugal for radium and uranium production. Many uranium deposits were mined as open pits and after ore extraction and transportation to milling facilities, mining wastes were left on site. One uranium ore mining site, Boco Mine, was extracted in the 1960's and 70's and mining waste and open pits were left uncovered and non-remediated since closure of uranium mining activities. During the nineties a quarry for sand extraction was operated in the same site and water from a local stream was extensively used in sand sieving. Downstream the mine areas, agriculture soils along the water course are currently used for cattle grazing. Water from this stream, and water wells, soil, pasture and sheep meat were analyzed for radionuclides of the uranium series. The U- series radionuclide {sup 226}Ra was generally the highest in concentrations especially in soil, pasture, and in internal organs of sheep. Ra-226 concentrations averaged 1093±96 Bq/kg (dry weight) in soil, 43±3 Bq/kg (dw) in pasture, and 0.76±0.41 Bq/kg (dw) in muscle tissue of sheep grown there. Other sheep internal organs displayed much higher {sup 226}Ra concentrations, such as the brain and kidneys with 7.7±2.3 Bq/kg (dw) and 28±29 Bq/kg (dw), respectively. Results of tissue sample analysis for sheep grown in a comparison area were 2 to 11 times lower, depending on the tissue. Absorbed radiation doses for internal organs of sheep were computed and may exceed 20 mSv/y in the kidney. Although elevated, this absorbed radiation dose still is below the threshold for biological effects on mammals. Nevertheless, enhanced environmental radioactive contamination mainly due to radium was observed in the area of influence of this legacy uranium mine and there is potential food chain transfer for humans (authors)

  8. Applied Geochemistry Special Issue on Environmental geochemistry of modern mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Robert R.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    in surface water has highlighted the importance of aqueous chemistry, particularly dissolved organic carbon, as described by Smith et al. Stream sediment contamination is another important pathway for affecting aquatic organisms, as reviewed by Besser et al. Understanding and predicting environmental consequences from mining begins with knowing the mineralogy and mineral reactivity of the ore, the wastes, and of secondary minerals formed later. Jamieson et al. review the importance of mineralogical studies in mine planning and remediation. A number of types of site-specific studies are needed to identify environmental risks related to individual mines. Lapakko reviews the general framework of mine waste characterization studies that are integral to the mine planning process. Hageman et al. present a comparative study of several static tests commonly used to characterize mine waste.The mining and ore processing practices employed at a specific mine site will vary on the basis of the commodities being targeted, the geology of the deposit, the geometry of the deposit, and the mining and ore processing methods used. Thus, these factors, in addition to the waste management practices used, can result in a variety of end-member mine waste features, each of which has its own set of challenges. Open pit mines and underground mines require waste rock to be removed to access ore. Waste rock presents unique problems because the rock is commonly mineralized at sub-economic grades and has not been processed to remove potentially problematic minerals, such as pyrite. Amos et al. examine the salient aspects of the geochemistry of waste rock. Mill tailings – the waste material after ore minerals have been removed – are a volumetrically important solid waste at many mine sites. Their fine grain size and the options for their management make their behavior in the environment distinct from that of waste rock. Lindsay et al. describe some of these differences through three case

  9. Invertebrate succession on open coast coal post mining sites in response to the type of restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Hromádková, Šárka

    2014-01-01

    This review deals with development of invertebrates on sites after brown coal mining in response to the type of restoration. When the soil properties are improved, it is then necessary to mitigate negative threats such as landslides and erosion or low pH. The following is an overlap of fertile soil. Soil characteristics can be locally modified by diversifying of plantations of fast and slow growing wood species. After a succession of plants and the subsequent increase in litter layer, the dev...

  10. Screening for microbial markers in Miocene sediment exposed during open-cast brown coal mining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elhottová, Dana; Krištůfek, Václav; Frouz, Jan; Nováková, Alena; Chroňáková, Alica

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 3-4, (2006), s. 459-463 ISSN 0003-6072 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/03/1259; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS600660505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : fatty acids * microfungi * mining Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.964, year: 2006

  11. Surface mining and land reclamation in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nephew, E.A.

    1972-05-01

    Mining and land restoration methods as well as planning and regulatory procedures employed in West Germany to ameliorate environmental impacts from large-scale surface mining are described. The Rhineland coalfield in North Rhine Westphalia contains some 55 billion tons of brown-coal (or lignite), making the region one of Europe's most important energy centers. The lignite is extracted from huge, open-pit mines, resulting in large areas of disturbed land. The German reclamation approach is characterized by planning and carrying out the mining process as one continuum from early planning to final restoration of land and its succeeding use. Since the coalfield is located in a populated region with settlements dating back to Roman times, whole villages lying in the path of the mining operations sometimes have to be evacuated and relocated. Even before mining begins, detailed concepts must be worked out for the new landscape which will follow: the topography, the water drainage system, lakes and forests, and the intended land-use pattern are designed and specified in advance. Early, detailed planning makes it possible to coordinate mining and concurrent land reclamation activities. The comprehensive approach permits treating the overall problem as a whole rather than dealing with its separate aspects on a piecemeal basis.

  12. Grizzly bear diet shifting on reclaimed mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cristescu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial developments and reclamation change habitat, possibly altering large carnivore food base. We monitored the diet of a low-density population of grizzly bears occupying a landscape with open-pit coal mines in Canada. During 2009–2010 we instrumented 10 bears with GPS radiocollars and compared their feeding on reclaimed coal mines and neighboring Rocky Mountains and their foothills. In addition, we compared our data with historical bear diet for the same population collected in 2001–2003, before extensive mine reclamation occurred. Diet on mines (n=331 scats was dominated by non-native forbs and graminoids, while diets in the Foothills and Mountains consisted primarily of ungulates and Hedysarum spp. roots respectively, showing diet shifting with availability. Field visitation of feeding sites (n=234 GPS relocation clusters also showed that ungulates were the main diet component in the Foothills, whereas on reclaimed mines bears were least carnivorous. These differences illustrate a shift to feeding on non-native forbs while comparisons with historical diet reveal emergence of elk as an important bear food. Food resources on reclaimed mines attract bears from wilderness areas and bears may be more adaptable to landscape change than previously thought. The grizzly bear’s ready use of mines cautions the universal view of this species as umbrella indicative of biodiversity.

  13. Uranium mining in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scales, M.

    2006-01-01

    The mines of northern Saskatchewan make Canada the worlds leading uranium producer in Canada supplied 29% of global demand, or 11.60 million tonnes of the metal in 2004. Here are two bright ideas - how to mine an orebody by neither pit nor underground method, and how to mine high-grade ore without miners - that Cogema and Cameco are pursuing in the Athabasca Basin

  14. 30 CFR 57.22103 - Open flames (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22103...

  15. Pits on Ascraeus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    24 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows collapse pits and troughs on the lower northeast flank of the giant martian volcano, Ascraeus Mons. Layers of volcanic rock are evident in some of the pit and valley walls, and boulders the size of houses and trucks that were liberated from these walls by gravity can be seen on the floors of the depressions. Location near: 13.6oN, 102.6oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  16. Hearing Threshold, Loss, Noise Levels and Worker's Profiles of an Open Cast Chromite Mines in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerketta, Sunamani; Gartia, Rajendra; Bagh, Somanath

    2012-10-01

    The aims of the study were to describe the noise levels at an open cast chromite mine in Odisha, India, and the hearing threshold of its workers and to associate their hearing loss with their age, work station and length of employment at the mine. We performed a cross-sectional study of the hearing threshold of chromite mine workers. Audiometric data from 500 subjects was collected at the mines' hospital in the Sukinda Valley of Jajpur, Odisha, India. The latest audiometry data available for the period 2002 to 2008 was used in the analysis. Audiometric screening was performed using an audiometer (TRIVENI TAM-25 6025A) in a quiet environment by qualified technicians, audiologists or physicians. Tests were conducted on the subjects after they had completely rested for 16 hours or more after their day shift. A maximum of 262 subjects (52.4%) were employed in the work zone area and a minimum of 2 subjects (0.4%) had less than 5 years working experience. The age of the subjects ranged from 29 to 59 years and their working experience ranged from 4 to 37 years. The subjects' average mean hearing thresholds at 4, 6 and 8 kHz were 21.53 dBA, 23.40 dBA and 21.90 dBA, respectively. The maximum Leq and L90 levels exceeded the prescribed limits for commercial, residential and silence zones. The maximum Leq levels exceeded 95 dBA for large and medium heavy earth moving machineries (HEMMs), both outside and at the operator's position. Hearing loss due to the subjects' work experience was found to be greater than that attributable to age and workstation. In our study population, the maximum noise levels for large and medium HEMMs and inside the cabins of HEMMs were found to be more than 95 dBA. This indicates that operators in this particular chromite mine at Odisha, India were exposed to noise levels exceeding 95 dBA for more than 10% of the monitoring time. The subjects' hearing loss was also found to increase for every 10-year age interval and that for every 5 years of work

  17. Itataia ore deposit - Caracterization of the massif according alteration/argilization and estimation of material volume inside a pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara e Silva, J.R. de.

    1986-01-01

    This paper sumarizes the geotechnically characterization of the Itataia ore deposit according to the relationship rock alteration/argilization. Through this charaterization it was defined three types of material related to the degree of alteration and argillization: Type I (fresh or pratically fresh and little or monargillized material); Type II (partially altered and argillized material). The new geological syntesis and iformation, together with seismic parameters allowed to a material classification according to the scarificability, and important factor in the costs of an open pit mine. (author) [pt

  18. Analysis of the planned post-mining landscape of MIBRAG's open-cast mines with regard to a possible environmental impact of alteration processes in mixed dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolas, P.; Hofmann, B.

    2010-01-01

    There has been an increasing body of knowledge with regard to hydro- and geochemical alteration processes in overburden dumps and their impact on groundwater quality in lignite mining and reclamation operations associated with post-mining landscapes in Germany. The operators of the MIBRAG mines have examined issues regarding alteration processes and how they affect the environment and which opportunities exist to actively influence the dumping process. The objectives were to counteract any possible negative impact of the alteration processes. Special emphasis was on the impact caused by oxidation of sulfur containing minerals. This paper presented an analysis of the situation at United Schleenhain Mine and how it reflects on the work to date for MIBRAG's mines. A future outlook was also presented. Specifically, the paper discussed the development of the United Schleenhain mine and the post-mining landscape. The potential for discharge of substances was also evaluated along with acidification. 1 tab., 5 figs.

  19. Drill and Blast Performance Evaluation at the Obra Pit of Chirano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the causes of inefficient fragmentation and formation of toes in the Obra pit of Chirano Gold Mines Ltd and recommends best practices in order to produce optimum fragmentation to feed the crusher at a reduced cost and to provide good working pit floors. The methods employed included: drilling ...

  20. Third party testing : new pilot facility for mining processes opens in Fort McKay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, D.

    2007-01-01

    Fort McKay lies 65 kilometres north of Fort McMurray, Alberta and is the centre of operational oilsands mining activity. As such, it was chosen for a pilot testing facility created by the Geneva-based SGS Group. The reputable facility provides an opportunity for mining producers to advance their processes, including environmental performance, by allowing them to test different processes on their own oilsands. The Northern Lights partnership, led by Synenco Energy, was the first client at the facility. Due to outsourcing, clients are not obligated to make substantial capital investment into in-house research. The Northern Lights partnership will be using the facility to test extraction processes on bitumen from its leases. Although the Fort McKay facility is SGS's first venture into the oilsands industry, it operates in more than 140 companies globally, including the mineral industry, and specializes in inspection, verification, testing and certification. SGS took the experience from its minerals extraction business to identify what could be done to help the oilsands industry by using best practices developed from global operations. The facility lies on the Fort McKay industrial park owned by the Fort McKay First Nation. An existing testing facility called McMurray Resources Research and Testing was expanded by the SGS Group to include environmental analysis capabilities. The modular units that lie on 6 acres include refrigerated ore storage to maintain ore integrity; modular ore and materials handling systems; extraction equipment; and, zero discharge process water and waste disposal systems. Froth treatment will be added in the near future to cover the entire upstream side of the mining processing business. A micro-upgrader might be added in the future to manufacture synthetic crude. 3 figs

  1. Third party testing : new pilot facility for mining processes opens in Fort McKay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, D.

    2007-12-15

    Fort McKay lies 65 kilometres north of Fort McMurray, Alberta and is the centre of operational oilsands mining activity. As such, it was chosen for a pilot testing facility created by the Geneva-based SGS Group. The reputable facility provides an opportunity for mining producers to advance their processes, including environmental performance, by allowing them to test different processes on their own oilsands. The Northern Lights partnership, led by Synenco Energy, was the first client at the facility. Due to outsourcing, clients are not obligated to make substantial capital investment into in-house research. The Northern Lights partnership will be using the facility to test extraction processes on bitumen from its leases. Although the Fort McKay facility is SGS's first venture into the oilsands industry, it operates in more than 140 companies globally, including the mineral industry, and specializes in inspection, verification, testing and certification. SGS took the experience from its minerals extraction business to identify what could be done to help the oilsands industry by using best practices developed from global operations. The facility lies on the Fort McKay industrial park owned by the Fort McKay First Nation. An existing testing facility called McMurray Resources Research and Testing was expanded by the SGS Group to include environmental analysis capabilities. The modular units that lie on 6 acres include refrigerated ore storage to maintain ore integrity; modular ore and materials handling systems; extraction equipment; and, zero discharge process water and waste disposal systems. Froth treatment will be added in the near future to cover the entire upstream side of the mining processing business. A micro-upgrader might be added in the future to manufacture synthetic crude. 3 figs.

  2. Sandvik sharpens in-pit crushing focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casteel, K.

    2009-04-15

    Major mining equipment supplier Sandvik Mining and Construction has announced a full-fledged fully mobile crushing plant, the PF300. This is shaping up to be the decade's major addition to the large scale open-cut mining toolkit. The PF300 can be connected to a face conveyor by a loading bridge as well as by belt wagon or transfer conveyor. The article describes design features. 2 figs.

  3. Challenges in radon management at uranium mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulka, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Radon and its radioactive decay products are present some unique challenges to radiation protection professionals working at the uranium mining operations. This paper will detail some examples of these challenges and methods that can be employed to ensure doses to workers and members of the public are kept As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). Examples will be presented for conventional open pit and underground mining and In Situ recovery operations. One of the challenges facing new operations seeking approval is the demonstration that radon and its radioactive decay products sourced from the operations will not adversely impact local populations, Methodologies recently employed in the most recent environmental impact statements from uranium mining companies seeking approval are reviewed. The International Commission of Radiological Protection are currently reviewing the dose conversion factors used radon and its decay products. The challenges this change will present to uranium mining operators are presented.

  4. Polymorphisms in metabolism and repair genes affects DNA damage caused by open-cast coal mining exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espitia-Pérez, Lyda; Sosa, Milton Quintana; Salcedo-Arteaga, Shirley; León-Mejía, Grethel; Hoyos-Giraldo, Luz Stella; Brango, Hugo; Kvitko, Katia; da Silva, Juliana; Henriques, João A P

    2016-09-15

    Increasing evidence suggest that occupational exposure to open-cast coal mining residues like dust particles, heavy metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) may cause a wide range of DNA damage and genomic instability that could be associated to initial steps in cancer development and other work-related diseases. The aim of our study was to evaluate if key polymorphisms in metabolism genes CYP1A1Msp1, GSTM1Null, GSTT1Null and DNA repair genes XRCC1Arg194Trp and hOGG1Ser326Cys could modify individual susceptibility to adverse coal exposure effects, considering the DNA damage (Comet assay) and micronucleus formation in lymphocytes (CBMN) and buccal mucosa cells (BMNCyt) as endpoints for genotoxicity. The study population is comprised of 200 healthy male subjects, 100 open-cast coal-mining workers from "El Cerrejón" (world's largest open-cast coal mine located in Guajira - Colombia) and 100 non-exposed referents from general population. The data revealed a significant increase of CBMN frequency in peripheral lymphocytes of occupationally exposed workers carrying the wild-type variant of GSTT1 (+) gene. Exposed subjects carrying GSTT1null polymorphism showed a lower micronucleus frequency compared with their positive counterparts (FR: 0.83; P=0.04), while BMNCyt, frequency and Comet assay parameters in lymphocytes: Damage Index (DI) and percentage of DNA in the tail (Tail % DNA) were significantly higher in exposed workers with the GSTM1Null polymorphism. Other exfoliated buccal mucosa abnormalities related to cell death (Karyorrhexis and Karyolysis) were increased in GSTT/M1Null carriers. Nuclear buds were significantly higher in workers carrying the CYP1A1Msp1 (m1/m2, m2/m2) allele. Moreover, BMNCyt frequency and Comet assay parameters were significantly lower in exposed carriers of XRCC1Arg194Trp (Arg/Trp, Trp/Trp) and hOGG1Ser326Cys (Ser/Cys, Cys/Cys), thereby providing new data to the increasing evidence about the protective role of these polymorphisms

  5. Analysing the environmental harms caused by coal mining and its protection measures in permafrost regions of Qinghai–Tibet Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The coal mining has brought a series of ecological problems and environmental problems in permafrost regions. Taking Muli coal-mining area as an example, this article attempts to analyse the environmental harms caused by coal mining and its protection measures in permafrost regions of Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. This article analyses the influence of open mining on the surrounding permafrost around the open pit by using the numerical simulation. The results show that (1 based on the interrelation between coal mining and permafrost environment, these main environmental harm include the permafrost change and the natural environment change in cold regions; (2 once the surface temperature rises due to open mining, the permafrost will disappear with the increase of exploitation life. If considering the solar radiation, the climate conditions and the geological condition around the pit edge, the maximum thaw depth will be more than 2 m; (3 the protection measures are proposed to avoid the disadvantage impact on the permafrost environment caused by coal mining. It will provide a scientific basis for the resource development and environment protection in cold regions.

  6. Two-step web-mining approach to study geology/geophysics-related open-source software projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, Knut; Conze, Ronald

    2013-04-01

    Geology/geophysics is a highly interdisciplinary science, overlapping with, for instance, physics, biology and chemistry. In today's software-intensive work environments, geoscientists often encounter new open-source software from scientific fields that are only remotely related to the own field of expertise. We show how web-mining techniques can help to carry out systematic discovery and evaluation of such software. In a first step, we downloaded ~500 abstracts (each consisting of ~1 kb UTF-8 text) from agu-fm12.abstractcentral.com. This web site hosts the abstracts of all publications presented at AGU Fall Meeting 2012, the world's largest annual geology/geophysics conference. All abstracts belonged to the category "Earth and Space Science Informatics", an interdisciplinary label cross-cutting many disciplines such as "deep biosphere", "atmospheric research", and "mineral physics". Each publication was represented by a highly structured record with ~20 short data attributes, the largest authorship-record being the unstructured "abstract" field. We processed texts of the abstracts with the statistics software "R" to calculate a corpus and a term-document matrix. Using R package "tm", we applied text-mining techniques to filter data and develop hypotheses about software-development activities happening in various geology/geophysics fields. Analyzing the term-document matrix with basic techniques (e.g., word frequencies, co-occurences, weighting) as well as more complex methods (clustering, classification) several key pieces of information were extracted. For example, text-mining can be used to identify scientists who are also developers of open-source scientific software, and the names of their programming projects and codes can also be identified. In a second step, based on the intermediate results found by processing the conference-abstracts, any new hypotheses can be tested in another webmining subproject: by merging the dataset with open data from github

  7. CVExplorer: identifying candidate developers by mining and exploring their open source contributions.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greene, GJ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Open source code contributions contain a large amount of technical skill information about developers, which can help to identify suitable candidates for a particular development job and therefore impact the success of a development team. We develop...

  8. Pasture species selection for revegetation of open-cut coal mine areas in central Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidu, B.P.; Harwood, M.R.; Hacker, J.B.; Thumma, B.R.; Mott, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper outlines a successful approach that was followed to evaluate grass and legume accessions for revegetation of low fertility and saline coal mine spoils. At the first stage, using seed collection records (passport data) of the Australian Tropical Forages Genetic Resource Centre, a range of grasses and legumes adapted to low rainfall, clay soils and saline areas were selected. At the second stage, legume seed was germinated in NaCl solutions of 0 to 0.2 M and salinity tolerance was assessed based on germination percentage and seedling vigour. At the third stage, germination of legumes was assessed in pots filled with mine top-soil and spoils to be revegetated. Grasses were not included in stages 2 and 3 as adequate passport data was available to select a range of accession for the 4th stage. The fourth stage of evaluation comprised field trails of 10 grass and 10 legume accessions, on two top-soils and two spoils. A stoloniferous from of Urochloa mosamblicensis was the most promising grass providing up to 20% of ground cover 12 months after establishment. Legumes surviving at the end of the first season were Desmanthus subulatus, D. virgatus and Neptunia dimorphantha on top-soil and Clitoria ternatea, Leucaena leucocephala, and Rhynchosia sublobata on the spoil. Depending on long term survival, grass and legume accessions will be released as cultivars for minesite revegetation purposes. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  9. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products

  10. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  11. Pitting of 3003 aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source is a state-of-the-art synchrotron light source. The storage ring vacuum chamber is fabricated from 6061 extruded Al. Water connections to the vacuum chambers that were fabricated from 3003 Al had developed water leaks, which were subsequently remedied after considerable investigations. Materials subjected to the pitting analysis in this study are 3003, 6061, and 6063 Al

  12. Ergonomics in drivers' cabs on open-cast mining machines; Ergonomie bei Fuehrerstaenden auf Tagebaugeraeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vater, L. [Ergonomie/Gefahrstoffe, Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Senftenberg (Germany)

    2004-08-12

    Ergonomically designed driver's cabs also contribute directly to the increase in safety at work. In the course of the electrical re-design of the open-cast mining machines new drivers' cabs, which eliminate ergonomic deficits, were used. Other important aspects in addition to the improvements in the environmental factors noise, vibration and dust, are in particular the visibility conditions, visualisation of process data and monitoring as well as operating concepts. Taking into account the different types of machine drivers' cabs with a modified basic design and bearing design are used. Optimisation of the installation of the monitors and the basic structuring of the control panels was carried out. In addition to the increase in the effectiveness of control another aim is to minimise faulty operation by the driver when changing machines frequently. (orig.)

  13. Detailed investigation of current transients from metastable pitting events on stainless steel - the transition to stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistorius, P.C.; Burstein, G.T.

    1992-01-01

    Current transients which result from metastable pitting events (on Type 304 stainless steel in an acidic solution containing 1 M Cl - ) are presented. A criterion for the stable growth of open hemispherical pits is developed; the criterion states that the product of current density and pit depth must exceed a certain minimum value, to sustain rapid dissolution. Analysis of the transients from metastable pits shows that these pits fall short of this minimum, as do stable pits initially. The growth of these pits thus requires the presence of another barrier to diffusion, which is thought to be a remnant of the passive film; this forms a flawed cover over the pit mouth. When this cover ruptures under the influence of osmotic pressure, the pit repassivates. Pits growing at higher current densities approach the minimum requirement for stable growth more closely. A ''pitting potential'' results from the effect that metastable pits formed at more positive potentials grow at higher current densities, and are thus more likely to grow into stable pits. The effect of potential on the current density does not result from either activation control or ohmic control; rather, the pits grow under diffusion control. A change, with potential, of the type of pit site which can be activated, causes the potential dependence of the distribution of current densities in metastable pits. Although the distribution of current densities changes with potential, each metastable pit grows under diffusion control with a current density which is independent of the potential; this is confirmed by polarisation tests on growing metastable pits

  14. Language to Completion: Success in an Educational Data Mining Massive Open Online Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott; McNamara, Danielle S.; Baker, Ryan; Wang, Yuan; Paquette, Luc; Barnes, Tiffany; Bergner, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    Completion rates for massive open online classes (MOOCs) are notoriously low, but learner intent is an important factor. By studying students who drop out despite their intent to complete the MOOC, it may be possible to develop interventions to improve retention and learning outcomes. Previous research into predicting MOOC completion has focused…

  15. Text mining in students' course evaluations: Relationships between open-ended comments and quantitative scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sliusarenko, Tamara; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research has been done on student evaluations of teachers and courses based on quantitative data from evaluation questionnaires, but little research has examined students' written responses to open-ended questions and their relationships with quantitative scores. This paper analyzes suc...

  16. Geotechnical design of underground slate mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias Comesaña, C.; Taboada Castro, J.; Arzúa Touriño, J.; Giráldez Pérez, E.; Martín Suárez, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Slate is one of the most important natural materials in Spain, with a potent extractive and processing industry concentrated in the autonomous communities of Galicia, Castile and León. Thanks to its resistance to external agents, its impermeability and its excellent cleavability, slate is used as for roofing and tiling. Almost all the active exploitations in our country where this resource is extracted are open pit mines, where the exploitation ratios have nearly reached their economic limit, making it necessary to look for alternatives that will allow the mining works to be continued. Underground mining is a solution that offers low exploitation ratios, with low spoil generation. The room-and-pillar method with barrier pillars is usually applied for the exploitation of slate deposits. There are several factors to be taken into account when designing a mine (economic, logistical, geotechnical, technical, environmental…), especially for an underground mine. This study focuses on the geotechnical design process of a room-and-pillar underground mine, based on the tributary area theory, the analysis of the tensions in the ground with numerical methods and the choice of an appropriate reinforcement in view of the expected instabilities. This explanation is completed with an example of a design that includes the estimate exploitation rates and production. [es

  17. The need for sustainable technology diffusion in mining: Achieving the use of belt conveyor systems in the German hard-rock quarrying industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Braun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The movement of raw materials can be one of the most challenging tasks in open pit mining, with truck transportation representing the largest factor in mining costs and resulting in major greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. In this study, the transportation methods of bulk materials within German hard-rock open pit mines were investigated. Approximately 450 quarries were studied for their production tonnage, lease areas, mined rock type as well as mining methods and processing equipment. The results demonstrate that 90% of the operations use truck-based transportation methods, with the remainder relying partly or completely on continuous conveyor-based systems. The installation of continuous conveyors compared to trucks represents a real alternative because of reduced dead load, reduced GHG emissions and in many cases even reduced costs. Thus, for in-pit haulage in quarries sustainable technology substitutions exist that are yet to be adopted by the German quarrying industry. As this study shows, in the future the diffusion of sustainable technologies requires site champions and large-scale case studies that demonstrate their successful introduction in the mining value chain.

  18. Research into robotic automation of drilling equipment by the Institute of Mining, UB RAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regotunov, AS; Sukhov, RI

    2018-03-01

    The article discusses the issues connected with the development of instrumentation for the express-determination of strength characteristics of rocks during blasthole drilling in open pit mines. The trial results of the instrumentation are reported in terms of the drilling rate–energy content interrelation determined in the analyses of experimental drilling block data and by the digital model of rock distribution in depth versus drilling complexity index.

  19. A study of the Bienstock-Zuckerberg algorithm, Applications in Mining and Resource Constrained Project Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, Gonzalo; Espinoza, Daniel; Goycoolea, Marcos; Moreno, Eduardo; Queyranne, Maurice; Rivera, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    We study a Lagrangian decomposition algorithm recently proposed by Dan Bienstock and Mark Zuckerberg for solving the LP relaxation of a class of open pit mine project scheduling problems. In this study we show that the Bienstock-Zuckerberg (BZ) algorithm can be used to solve LP relaxations corresponding to a much broader class of scheduling problems, including the well-known Resource Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (RCPSP), and multi-modal variants of the RCPSP that consider batch proc...

  20. Remediation of the closed-down uranium mine in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, P.; Sundblad, B.

    1993-01-01

    During the 1960s uranium was extracted from alum shale deposits at Ranstad in the south of Sweden. This mine was part of the development of a Swedish nuclear power program based on the heavy-water/natural uranium concept. In this report the history of Swedish uranium production is briefly presented as well as the reason for the closing-down of the mine at Ranstad. In 1985 the planning of the restoration of the area started. The aim of the remediation work was to find a permanent solution that excluded the need for any maintenance in the future. The procedures and techniques for remedial action are described for the open pit mine and the mill tailing deposits. As the leachate from the mill tailings was collected and purified, there was no urgent need for action. Investigations could be made to find an effective way for reducing the weathering of the pyrite in the tailings and the authorities concerned could accept the remediation plan after a detailed review. The main part of the plan has now been implemented and many experiences from the performance technique and the significant quality assurance program have been obtained. The old open pit mine has already been transformed into a lake and the mill tailings are covered by a leaktight barrier and a protective layer. The natural environment in the whole area has been reestablished

  1. Water management methodologies from mining and milling activities in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenjo, A.

    2006-01-01

    Mining and Milling activities have been developed in Argentina in several provinces, in order to obtain uranium concentrate. As a result of milling process and mining exploitation, contaminated water remain accumulated in several sites. Methodologies to treat the contaminated water from the different places has been evaluated, at laboratory scale. At Los Gigantes Site, effluents from process containing U, Ra, Mn and NH 4 + , are accumulated in a dam. Precipitation using lime and barium chloride was tested to remove impurities in the effluent. From the same place, contaminated liquid from seepage of tailing containing U and Ra was treated using different permeable reactive barriers (PRB). Some materials, such as zeolite, montmorillonite and iron fine grained (Fe 0 ), to be study as a permeable reactive barrier (PRB), were tested to treat seepage. Glass column 100 cc of capacity, were used to performed the tests. At Sierra Pintada Site, water from mine containing U, Ra and As, are accumulated in a open pit. Anionic resin Amberlite IR 400 to remove uranium, and precipitation using barium chloride and iron sulphate to remove radium and arsenic, were tested to treat water from the open pits. Glass column resin 1000 cc of capacity, and a agitated tank 25 liter of capacity for precipitation, were used to performed the test. Cationic resin, Amberlite IR 120, was tested too, in order to remove radium from water from mine. (author)

  2. Fiscal 1997 technological survey report. Engineer exchange project - coal mine technological field (Advanced coal producing country survey - U.S.A. survey); 1997 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) senshin santankoku chosa. Beikoku chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    While the introduction and adaptation of the Longwall excavation technology were carried forward for coal producing countries in the Pacific region, U.S.A. information was collected by making tours of coal mines in the West and Washington/Colorado/Utah States, with the intention of ascertaining technological trend so as to carry out efficient technological transfer, and for the purpose of replenishing the contents and contributing to the smooth implementation of the engineer exchange project in 'coal mine technological field'. The coal reserves are 400 billion tons, with 840 million tons produced and with 80 million tons exported; not less than 56% of the U.S. domestic electricity rests on coal. Production by open-pit mining is the majority while the output by underground mining is 38%; the Longwall method has increased as a digging method, taking 18% of all digging output. The productivity is 4.24 ton/person per day and ranks as the world highest. The coal mining technological trend in the U.S. can be summarized as follows. The coal mining output in the West is increasing, with the number of mines decreasing, so that the output per mine is increasing. With the output ratio by open-pit mining increasing, the digging method in the mine is being changed to the Longwall. (NEDO)

  3. Midwest Joint Venture high-grade uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredrickson, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    Midwest Joint Venture (MJV) owns a high-grade uranium deposit in northern Saskatchewan. The deposit is located too deep below surface to be mined economically by open pit methods, and as a consequence, present plans are that it will be mined by underground methods. High-grade uranium ore of the type at MJV, encased in weak, highly altered ground and with radon-rich water inflows, has not before been mined by underground methods. The test mining phase of the project, completed in 1989, had three objectives: To evaluate radiation protection requirements associated with the handling of large quantities of radon-rich water and mining high-grade uranium ore in an underground environment; to investigate the quantity and quality of water inflows into the mine; and, to investigate ground conditions in and around the ore zone as an aid in determining the production mining method to be used. With information gained from the test mining project, a mining method for the production mine has been devised. Level plans have been drawn up, ventilation system designed, pumping arrangements made and methods of ore handling considered. All this is to be done in a manner that will be safe for those doing the work underground. Some of the mining methods planned are felt to be unique in that they are designed to cope with mining problems not known to have been encountered before. New problems underground have required new methods to handle them. Remote drilling, blasting, mucking and backfilling form the basis of the planned mining method

  4. Department of Mining and Geotechnics – 50 th Anniversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ïurove Juraj

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mining faculty of the Technical High School in Košice (now BERG Faculty of the Technical University of Košice was found in 1952. In the first years this school consisted only of three Faculties, namely the Faculty of Mining, Faculty of Metallurgy and Faculty of Mechanical Engineering with few of Departments. Teaching and research activities at the Mining Faculty from begining has been based on the staff members of the Mining Department (now Department of Mining and Geotechnics. During the last 50 years Department of Mining has been growing in terms of the number of subject, laboratories, staff members, students etc., and finished their diploma in total 1101 mining engineers At the begin of this period Department was ment to meet the needs of the Slovak mineral industry relating to the education of engineers and research works in the following areas:,underground mining of mineral deposits, open pit mine, stability problems , rock mechanics, design and construction of mines, but now also in computing and information technologies. At present the Department offers courses in various fields of mining and geotechnics, which cover a very wide range of technical problems arising in mining industry and geotechnical praxis, including rescue, fire and safety course. Full-time study at the Department takes five years and leads to a Master´s degree of mining engineering. The study program comprises also an obligatory practical work. The students´practical training is usually divided into 2 terms each of 2-3 weeks duration. In the last semester the students are preparing their Master´s degree thesis.

  5. Fabrication of gravel for concrete in brown-coal mining. The gravel works at Inden; Betonkiesherstellung im Braunkohlentagebau - Das Kieswerk Inden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrams, H.J. [Rheinbraun AG, Abt. Tagebau- und Landschaftsplanung, Koeln (Germany)

    1995-01-01

    The brown-coal open-pit mine is operated by Rheinbraun AG, a Cologne-based company. The mining process offers the possibility to separate gravel and sand from the overburden for marketing, unless they are indispensable for reclaiming the open-pit mine. This combination of raw material production particularly prevents additional landscape consumption by separate gravel dredging and spares the population of an overproportionately densely populated region further inconveniences. Moreover, it helps to save resources. (orig./MSK) [Deutsch] Die Braunkohlengewinnung erfolgt durch die in Koeln ansaessige Rheinbraun AG in Tagebauen. Dabei ergibt sich die Moeglichkeit, im Abraum befindliche Kiese und Sande auszusortieren und dem Markt zuzufuehren, soweit sie nicht zwingend zur Wiedernutzbarmachung des Tagebaus verwendet werden muessen. Durch die Buendelung der Rohstoffgewinnung wird insbesondere der Landschaftsverbrauch durch gesonderte Abgrabungen ausserhalb des Tagebaus und damit verbundene Belastungen der Bevoelkerung in einer ueberdurchschnittlich dicht besiedelten Region verringert. Sie traegt ebenfalls zur Ressourcenschonung bei. (orig./MSK)

  6. Mining Open Datasets for Transparency in Taxi Transport in Metropolitan Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Noulas, Anastasios; Salnikov, Vsevolod; Lambiotte, Renaud; Mascolo, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Uber has recently been introducing novel practices in urban taxi transport. Journey prices can change dynamically in almost real time and also vary geographically from one area to another in a city, a strategy known as surge pricing. In this paper, we explore the power of the new generation of open datasets towards understanding the impact of the new disruption technologies that emerge in the area of public transport. With our primary goal being a more transparent economic landscape for urban...

  7. Modeling the response of the geothermal system at Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea to mine dewatering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzies, A.J. [GeothermEx, Inc., Richmond, CA (United States); Forth, J.L. [Lihir Management Company, Brisbane (Australia)

    1995-03-01

    Lihir Gold, Ltd., with RTZ Corporation, Niugini Mining Ltd. and the Government of Papua New Guinea as major shareholders, plans to mine two contiguous gold orebodies located in the Luise Caldera, Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea. Niugini Mining Ltd. first discovered the deposit, which is believed to be the largest undeveloped gold deposit in the world, in 1982 and detailed exploration was later conducted by Kennecott Corporation (an RTZ subsidiary) who also prepared the plan for mining the deposit. The gold was deposited in the caldera breccias by rising hot fluids from a still active geothermal system to form the orebody which is to be mined in a 2 km x 1.5 km open pit that will ultimately reach a depth of about 220 m below sea level.

  8. Biomass production as renewable energy resource at reclaimed Serbian lignite open-cast mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is the overview of the scope and dynamics of biomass production as a renewable energy source for substitution of coal in the production of electrical energy in the Kolubara coal basin. In order to successfully realize this goal, it was necessary to develop a dynamic model of the process of coal production, overburden dumping and re-cultivation of dumping sites by biomass planting. The results obtained by simulation of the dynamic model of biomass production in Kolubara mine basin until year 2045 show that 6870 hectares of overburden waste dumps will be re-cultivated by biomass plantations. Biomass production modeling point out the significant benefits of biomass production by planting the willow Salix viminalis cultivated for energy purposes. Under these conditions, a 0.6 % participation of biomass at the end of the period of intensive coal production, year 2037, is achieved. With the decrease of coal production to 15 million tons per year, this percentage steeply rises to 1.4 % in 2045. This amount of equivalent tons of coal from biomass can be used for coal substitution in the production of electrical energy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33039

  9. Environmental impact of active and abandoned mines and metal smelters in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Budkovič

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Slovenia has long been known for its numerous mines and ore processing. From the times of the Roman Empire to now, 49 mines and open pits were opened, four of them were large (Idrija, Mežica – Topla, Litija and Žirovski vrh. There were also 25 oreprocessing plants and smelters, which were operating mostly in the vicinity of larger mines (Idrija, Žerjav, Celje. Due to the lack of written sources, we probably haven succeeded in making a complete list of them. There were 33 iron works operating in the vicinity ofmines and open pits, three large ones have further developed and are still operating (Jesenice, Ravne na Koroškem and Štore. As the ore processing capacities have far exceeded the capacities of the Slovenian mining, ore has long been imported and only processed in Slovenia. On the basis of the results of our investigations in the vicinity of larger mines and smelters we estimated that in Slovenia the areas in which critical limit for heavy metal content is exceeded sums up to about 80 km2.

  10. Geochemical characterization of acid mine lakes in northwest Turkey and their effect on the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Deniz Sanliyuksel; Baba, Alper

    2013-04-01

    Mining activity generates a large quantity of mine waste. The potential hazard of mine waste depends on the host mineral. The tendency of mine waste to produce acid mine drainage (AMD) containing potentially toxic metals depends on the amounts of sulfide, carbonate minerals, and trace-element concentrations found in ore deposits. The acid mine process is one of the most significant environmental challenges and a major source of water pollution worldwide. AMD and its effects were studied in northwest Turkey where there are several sedimentary and hydrothermal mineral deposits that have been economically extracted. The study area is located in Can county of Canakkale province. Canakkale contains marine, lagoon, and lake sediments precipitated with volcanoclastics that occurred as a result of volcanism, which was active during various periods from the Upper Eocene to Plio-Quaternary. Can county is rich in coal with a total lignite reserve >100 million tons and contains numerous mines that were operated by private companies and later abandoned without any remediation. As a result, human intervention in the natural structure and topography has resulted in large open pits and deterioration in these areas. Abandoned open pit mines typically fill with water from runoff and groundwater discharge, producing artificial lakes. Acid drainage waters from these mines have resulted in the degradation of surface-water quality around Can County. The average pH and electrical conductivity of acid mine lakes (AMLs) in this study were found to be 3.03 and 3831.33 μS cm(-1), respectively. Total iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) levels were also found to be high (329.77 and 360.67 mg L(-1), respectively). The results show that the concentration of most elements, such as Fe and Al in particular, exceed national and international water-quality standards.

  11. Mining the Geophysical Research Abstracts Corpus: Mapping the impact of Free and Open Source Software on the EGU Divisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Peter; Klump, Jens; Robertson, Jesse

    2015-04-01

    Text mining is commonly employed as a tool in data science to investigate and chart emergent information from corpora of research abstracts, such as the Geophysical Research Abstracts (GRA) published by Copernicus. In this context current standards, such as persistent identifiers like DOI and ORCID, allow us to trace, cite and map links between journal publications, the underlying research data and scientific software. This network can be expressed as a directed graph which enables us to chart networks of cooperation and innovation, thematic foci and the locations of research communities in time and space. However, this approach of data science, focusing on the research process in a self-referential manner, rather than the topical work, is still in a developing stage. Scientific work presented at the EGU General Assembly is often the first step towards new approaches and innovative ideas to the geospatial community. It represents a rich, deep and heterogeneous source of geoscientific thought. This corpus is a significant data source for data science, which has not been analysed on this scale previously. In this work, the corpus of the Geophysical Research Abstracts is used for the first time as a data base for analyses of topical text mining. For this, we used a sturdy and customizable software framework, based on the work of Schmitt et al. [1]. For the analysis we used the High Performance Computing infrastructure of the German Research Centre for Geosciences GFZ in Potsdam, Germany. Here, we report on the first results from the analysis of the continuous spreading the of use of Free and Open Source Software Tools (FOSS) within the EGU communities, mapping the general increase of FOSS-themed GRA articles in the last decade and the developing spatial patterns of involved parties and FOSS topics. References: [1] Schmitt, L. M., Christianson, K.T, Gupta R..: Linguistic Computing with UNIX Tools, in Kao, A., Poteet S.R. (Eds.): Natural Language processing and Text

  12. Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this problem if you are in a high security environment where this is disabled by a network policy. The Registry will work in JavaScript-enabled browsers such as: Google Chrome 17+ Mozilla Firefox 12+ Internet Explorer 10+ Safari 5+ Safari iOS 5+ Android 2.3+ If you are using a compatible ...

  13. Numerical modeling to assess possible influence of the mine openings on far-field in-situ stress measurements at Stripa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, T.; Guvanasen, V.; Littlestone, N.

    1981-03-01

    Finite element analyses were carried out to assess the possible effects of the Stripa mine openings on the in-situ stress measured in a 400-m-deep borehole drilled from the surface. For this assessment, four 2-dimensional cases were modeled. These cases variously included two horizontal sections, and two separate, idealized vertical sections. An iron ore body in the mine was assumed to be completely extracted, thereby providing conservative estimates of stress concentration effects. Since no in-situ stress measurements were made before mining, overburden weight and horizontal stresses measured by hyrodfracturing were assumed to be the pre-mining state of stress. The stress state resulting from excavation of the mine was calculated by the finite element model. In the cases using horizontal sections, the model predicted a stress concentration factor at the borehole of approximately 1.15, which is negligible considering the difficulty of obtaining accurate stress measurements. For the vertical sections the model predicted higher stress concentration factors at depths less than 200 m. This was expected because the vertical sections chosen brought the borehole unrealistically close to the mine openings, thereby leading to overly conservative estimates. In general, deviations in the magnitudes and orientations of the calculated redistributed principal stresses from the assumed pre-mining state of stress were found to be comparable to the scatter of overcoring data. It is, therefore, recommended that, for near-field stress calculations, the vertical stress due to overburden weight and the horizontal stresses measured by hydrofracturing at the borehole be considered the unperturbed far-field in situ state of stress

  14. KARAKTERISTIK AIR ASAM TAMBANG DI LINGKUNGAN TAMBANG PIT 1 BANGKO BARAT, TANJUNG ENIM SUMATERA SELATAN SEBUAH STUDI KASUS ASAM TAMBANG

    OpenAIRE

    Tresnadi, Hidir

    2011-01-01

    In Coal Mine Pit 1, Bangko Barat, Tanjung Enim, South Sumatera mine activity lowered the water pH in the effluent water of the mine. So the Mine Environmet Managemet of PTBA try to raise the pH to meet Kep Men Neg LH No 113 Tahun 2003. This study attempt to characterize the performance of the water treatment,which managed by acid-mine dranage management of the PTBA. Some water samples was taken in the study area, such as the passive treatment in Pit 1 Bangko Barat, rainwater pond near by, lak...

  15. Karakteristik Air Asam Tambang Di Lingkungan Tambang Pit 1 Bangko Barat, Tanjung Enim Sumatera Selatan Sebuah Studi Kasus Asam Tambang

    OpenAIRE

    Tresnadi, Hidir

    2008-01-01

    In Coal Mine Pit 1, Bangko Barat, Tanjung Enim, South Sumatera mine activity lowered the water pH in the effluent water of the mine. So the Mine Environmet Managemet of PTBA try to raise the pH to meet Kep Men Neg LH No 113 Tahun 2003. This study attempt to characterize the performance of the water treatment,which managed by acid-mine dranage management of the PTBA. Some water samples was taken in the study area, such as the passive treatment in Pit 1 Bangko Barat, rainwater pond near by, lak...

  16. Excavating and loading equipment for peat mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, A. V.; Zhigulskaya, A. I.; Yakonovskaya, T. B.

    2017-10-01

    Recently, the issues of sustainable development of Russian regions, related to ensuring energy security, are more urgent than ever. To achieve sustainable development, an integrated approach to the use of local natural resources is needed. Practically in all north regions of the Russian Federation, peat as a local natural resource is widespread, which has a practical application in the area of housing services. The paper presents the evaluation of technologies for open-pit peat mining, as well as analysis of technological equipment for peat production. Special attention is paid to a question of peat materials excavating and loading. The problem of equipment selection in a peat surface mine is complex. Many features, restrictions and criteria need to be considered. Use of low and ultra-low ground pressure excavators and low ground pressure front-end loaders with full-range tires to provide the necessary floatation in the peat bog environment is offered.

  17. Automatic identification in mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puckett, D; Patrick, C [Mine Computers and Electronics Inc., Morehead, KY (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The feasibility of monitoring the locations and vital statistics of equipment and personnel in surface and underground mining operations has increased with advancements in radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. This paper addresses the use of RFID technology, which is relatively new to the mining industry, to track surface equipment in mine pits, loading points and processing facilities. Specific applications are discussed, including both simplified and complex truck tracking systems and an automatic pit ticket system. This paper concludes with a discussion of the future possibilities of using RFID technology in mining including monitoring heart and respiration rates, body temperatures and exertion levels; monitoring repetitious movements for the study of work habits; and logging air quality via personnel sensors. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Uran production at the Drosen mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sittner, Helmar; Duschek, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    In September 1950, SAG Wismuth started the geological and mining work at the area Ronneburg. In the year 1982, the last mine at Drosen took up the underground mining. Still no empirical values were present for the controlling of the underground production. The contribution under consideration reports on first efforts to the determination of geological-qualitative indices of uranium exploitation. At 1st September, 1982, the pits 403 and 415 of the mine Drosen took up the underground mining of uranium

  19. Why can rossing uranium mine keep mining even in low price conditions of uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2004-01-01

    Rossing uranium mine is the only operating uranium mine in the world where the uranium occurs in intrusive alaskite. In the past 10 years, uranium market regressed in the world, uranium production weakened, expenditures of capital for uranium exploration were insufficient. Uranium spot market price rapidly decreased from $111.8/kg U in late 1970's to $22.1/kg U in mid-1990's. Why can Rossing uranium mine mined with traditional underground and open pit operation can keep running even in low price conditions of uranium market? Augumenting research on the deposit, mineral and technology, decreasing production cost and improving selling strategy can not only maintain Rossing's uranium production at present, but also ensure sustainable development in the coming 15 years. Exploration of low-costed uranium deposits is very important. However, obvious economic benefits can be obtained, as Rossing uranium mine does, by augumenting geological-economical research on the known uranium deposits of hard-rock type and by using new techniques to improve the conventional techniques in the uranium mine development. (authors)

  20. Study of pitting corrosion in line-pipe steel under the influence of remanent magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J H; Caleyo, F; Hallen, J M [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN), Zacatenco (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The influence of remanent magnetization on pitting corrosion in line-pipe steels is studied. Pitting corrosion experiments have been carried out on samples of an API 5L grade 52 steel under a magnetization level of the same order of magnitude of the remanent magnetization in the pipeline wall after in-line inspection based on magnetic flux leakage. The samples were magnetized using rings of the same grade as the investigated steel. Immediately after magnetization, the investigated samples were subjected to pitting by immersing them in a solution containing dissolved Cl{sup -} and SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and ions. The pitting experiments were conducted during a seven days period. The pit depth distribution and the maximum pit depth in each sample were recorded and used to conduct extreme value analyses of the pitting process in magnetized and non-magnetized control samples. The statistical assessment of the pitting corrosion data collected during this study shows that the magnetic field reduces the average depth of the pit population and also the extreme pit depth values that can be predicted from the maximum values observed in the magnetized samples in comparison with to the non-magnetized control samples. Scanning electron microscopy observations show that the magnetic field alters the pit morphology by increasing the pit mouth opening. (author)

  1. Hydrological functions of a mine-impacted and natural peatland-dominated watershed, James Bay Lowland

    OpenAIRE

    Leclair, Melissa; Whittington, Pete; Price, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Study region: This study was conducted in Northern Ontario, Canada, in the middle of the Hudson-James Bay. Lowland: one of the world’s largest wetland complexes. Study focus: Northern latitudes are expected to be the most impacted by climate change in the next century and adding to this stressor are increased mineral exploration activities, such as the De Beers Victor Mine, a large open-pit diamond mine. Because of the extremely low relief and presence of marine sediments, horizontal runof...

  2. Hydrogeological site investigation for the efficient remediation of uranium mining sites -- an integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biehler, D.; Jaquet, O.; Croise, J.; Lavanchy, J.-M.

    2002-01-01

    The currently practised remediation of former uranium mines in Eastern Germany involves the flooding of underground and open pit mines, and the stabilization of waste rock dumps and tailings ponds, e.g. by dewatering, covering, improving dams, cleaning effluents. This article presents examples demonstrating that the remediation concepts developed and implemented have failed their targets, resulting in uncontrolled flow behaviour and migration of contaminated water, leading to increased costs and additional threats to the environment. A generic series of steps for an improved remediation management with respect to financial efforts and environmental safety are proposed in terms of an integrated approach. (author)

  3. A collection of open source applications for mass spectrometry data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Óscar; Ovelleiro, David; Gay, Marina; Carrascal, Montserrat; Abian, Joaquin

    2014-10-01

    We present several bioinformatics applications for the identification and quantification of phosphoproteome components by MS. These applications include a front-end graphical user interface that combines several Thermo RAW formats to MASCOT™ Generic Format extractors (EasierMgf), two graphical user interfaces for search engines OMSSA and SEQUEST (OmssaGui and SequestGui), and three applications, one for the management of databases in FASTA format (FastaTools), another for the integration of search results from up to three search engines (Integrator), and another one for the visualization of mass spectra and their corresponding database search results (JsonVisor). These applications were developed to solve some of the common problems found in proteomic and phosphoproteomic data analysis and were integrated in the workflow for data processing and feeding on our LymPHOS database. Applications were designed modularly and can be used standalone. These tools are written in Perl and Python programming languages and are supported on Windows platforms. They are all released under an Open Source Software license and can be freely downloaded from our software repository hosted at GoogleCode. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Quality assessment of mined MSW from an open dumpsite for recycling potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prechthai, Tawach; Padmasri, Maddala; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan [Environmental Engineering and Management Program, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, PO Box 4, Klong Luang Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)

    2008-12-15

    A study on recycling potential was performed on the stabilized municipal solid waste from Nonthaburi dumpsite in Thailand. The waste was excavated and subjected to separation process using trommel screen with screen openings of 25 mm and 50 mm. The screened wastes were classified into three fractions based on the sizes such as fine fraction (<25 mm), medium fraction (25-50 mm) and large fraction (>50 mm). The waste composition, physical and chemical characteristics of each waste fraction were determined to evaluate suitability of waste for recycling. The possible phytotoxicity of waste to be used as compost was explored by conducting seed germination and root elongation test of rice plant (Oryza sativa L.). The dumpsite was observed to be heterogeneous and mainly composed of plastics and soil. The trommel screen, proved to be effective in separating the waste fractions that can be used as feedstock for alternative applications of solid waste, particularly where the metal content of the product is a critical parameter. By screening, approximately 69% of soil was removed from waste and the remaining 31% was found in the waste fractions >50 mm size. The quality of waste fraction >50 mm composed mainly of plastics showed high potential for recycling as refuse derived fuel (RDF) and waste fraction <25 mm with soil as compost. The remaining waste fractions between 25 mm and 50 mm composed of non-combustible waste, which needs to be landfilled. (author)

  5. Effect of heat treatment on pitting corrosion of austenitic Cr-Ni-Mo steels in sodium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefec, R.; Franz, F.; Holecek, A.

    1979-01-01

    The pitting corrosion resistance of Cr17Ni12Mo2,5 type steel under potentiostatic polarization in a sodium chloride solution is adversely affected by previous annealing. The data obtained were systematically dependent on annealing temperature, time and surface roughness. The corrosion current, the number of pits or the mean area of pit opening and the corrosion rate within the pits were increased by previous annealing at 550 to 750 0 C for 1-100 hrs. The highest corrosion rate estimated corresponded to heat treatments provoking severe sensitization to intergranular corrosion. The paercentage area of corrosion pit openings and the estimated pit penetration rates were several times higher for as-machined than for polished surfaces. It can be assumed that pitting corrosion is little affected by the carbon content and that molybdenum depletion of grain-boundary zones is responsible for the reduced pitting resistance of annealed steels. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Restoration of Prime Farmland Disturbed by Mineral Sand Mining in the Upper Coastal Plain of Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Philip D.

    1996-01-01

    Economic deposits of heavy mineral sand were identified in the late 1980's under prime farmland along the Upper Coastal Plain of Virginia. Mining in Virginia will commence in 1997 on the Old Hickory Deposit in Dinwiddie/Sussex Counties. Experiments were established on two mine pits representing two likely pit closure scenarios; regrading the surface with unprocessed subsoil (Pit 1) or filling to the surface with processed material (Pit 3). To evaluate topsoil replacement vs. organic amendment...

  7. Rehabilitation with pasture after open-cut coal mining at three sites in the Bowen Coal Basin of Queensland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coaldrake, J E

    1978-03-01

    Open-cut coal mining in the Bowen Coal Basin leaves piled heaps of overburden, chiefly of a clayey nature, that have high pH, high salinity, and low contents of phosphorus and nitrogen. It is likely that pastures of introduced sub- tropical species can be used as a first stage in rehabilitating these areas, and possibly to convert them into permanent grazing lands. In field experiments the grasses Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Biloela (Buffel grass), Chloris gayana cv. Pioneer (Rhodes grass) and Panicum maximum var. trichoglume cv. Petrie (green panic) all showed satisfactory establishment and growth at two sites out of three tested. There was a clear response to superphosphate, with 400 kg/ha proving better over a two-year period than 100 kg/ha. Responses to nitrogen (as ammonium sulphate and as ammonium nitrate) were variable, and there was no response to gypsum and manganese at the one site tested for them. Of three tropical legumes subjected to limited testing only leucaena leucocephala gave encouraging results.

  8. Performance Measurement of Mining Equipments by Utilizing OEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Elevli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past century, open pit mines have steadily increased their production rate by using larger equipments which requireintensive capital investment. Low commodity prices have forced companies to decrease their unit cost by improving productivity. Oneway to improve productivity is to utilize equipment as effectively as possible. Therefore, the accurate estimation of equipmenteffectiveness is very important so that it can be increased. Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE is a well-known measurementmethod, which combines availability, performance and quality, for the evaluation of equipment effectiveness in manufacturing industry.However, there isn’t any study in literature about how to use this metric for mining equipments such as shovel, truck, drilling machineetc. This paper will discuss the application of OEE to measure effectiveness of mining equipment. It identifies causes of time losses forshovel and truck operations and introduces procedure to record time losses. The procedure to estimate OEE of shovels and trucks hasalso been presented via numerical example.

  9. Optimization of shovel-truck system for surface mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ercelebi, S.G.; Bascetin, A. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

    2009-07-15

    In surface mining operations, truck haulage is the largest item in the operating costs, constituting 50 to 60% of the total. In order to reduce this cost, it is necessary to allocate and dispatch the trucks efficiently. This paper describes shovel and truck operation models and optimization approaches for the allocation and dispatching of trucks under various operating conditions. Closed queuing network theory is employed for the allocation of trucks and linear programming for the purpose of truck dispatching to shovels. A case study was applied for the Orhaneli open Pit Coal Mine in Turkey. This approach would provide the capability of estimating system performance measures (mine throughput, mean number of trucks, mean waiting time, etc.) for planning purposes when the truck fleet is composed of identical trucks. A computational study is presented to show how choosing the optimum number of trucks and optimum dispatching policy affect the cost of moving material in a truck-shovel system.

  10. Simultaneous caving and surface restoration system for oil shale mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allsman, P.T.

    1968-10-01

    A modified caving method is introduced for mining oil shale and simultaneous restoration of the land surface by return of spent shale onto the subsided area. Other methods have been designed to mine the relatively thin richer beds occurring near outcrops in the Piceance Creek Basin of NW. Colorado. Since the discovery of the much thicker beds in the N.-central part of the basin, some attention has focused on in situ and open-pit methods of recovery. Although caving has been recognized as a possible means of mining shale, most people have been skeptical of its success. This stems from the unknown and salient factors of cavability and size of broken rock with caving. Wisdom would seem to dictate that serious evaluation of the caving method be made along with the other methods.

  11. Statistical methods of estimating mining costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K.R.

    2011-01-01

    Until it was defunded in 1995, the U.S. Bureau of Mines maintained a Cost Estimating System (CES) for prefeasibility-type economic evaluations of mineral deposits and estimating costs at producing and non-producing mines. This system had a significant role in mineral resource assessments to estimate costs of developing and operating known mineral deposits and predicted undiscovered deposits. For legal reasons, the U.S. Geological Survey cannot update and maintain CES. Instead, statistical tools are under development to estimate mining costs from basic properties of mineral deposits such as tonnage, grade, mineralogy, depth, strip ratio, distance from infrastructure, rock strength, and work index. The first step was to reestimate "Taylor's Rule" which relates operating rate to available ore tonnage. The second step was to estimate statistical models of capital and operating costs for open pit porphyry copper mines with flotation concentrators. For a sample of 27 proposed porphyry copper projects, capital costs can be estimated from three variables: mineral processing rate, strip ratio, and distance from nearest railroad before mine construction began. Of all the variables tested, operating costs were found to be significantly correlated only with strip ratio.

  12. Decommissioning of facilities for mining and milling or radioactive ores and closeout of residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to Member States in order to assist in planning and implementing the decommissioning/closeout of uranium mine/mill facilities, mines, tailings impoundments, mining debris piles, leach residues and unprocessed ore stockpiles. The report presents an overview of the factors involved in planning and implementing the decommissioning/closeout of uranium mine/mill facilities. The information applies to mines, mills, tailings piles, mining debris piles and leach residues that are present as operational, mothballed or abandoned projects, as well as to future mining and milling projects. The report identifies the major factors that need to be considered in the decommissioning/closeout activities, including regulatory considerations; decommissioning of the mine/mill buildings, structures and facilities; decommissioning/closeout of open pit and underground mines; decommissioning/closeout of tailings impoundments; decommissioning/closeout of mining debris piles, unprocessed ore and other contaminated material such as heap leach piles, in situe leach facilities and contaminated soils; restoration of the site, vicinity properties and groundwater; radiation protection and health and safety considerations; and an assessment of costs and post-decommissioning or post-closeout maintenance and monitoring needs. 55 refs, figs and tabs

  13. Pitting process visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes time-domain simulation of gear pitting damage using animation program. Key frames have been used to create illusion of motion. The animation uses experimental results of high-cycle fatigue of material. The fatigue damage occurs in the nominal creep area on the side of the gear tooth sample loaded with variable-positioned Hertz pressure. By applying the force, the pressure cumulates between two convex surfaces. This phenomenon results in material damage under of curved surfaces in contact. Moreover, further damage has been registered on the surface. This is due to exceeding the elastic-plastic state limit and development of „tabs“. The tabs serve as origin of surface micro cracks powered by shear stress and enclosed grease pressure as well. This deformation and extreme pressures of Pascal law contribute to elongation and growth of the surface micro crack. Non-homogenous parts of material volume support the initialization/development of the micro cracks as well. Resulting visualization of the tooth-side fatigue damage provides clear and easy-to-understand description of the damage development process right from the micro crack initialization to the final fragmentation due to pitting degradation.

  14. Environmental restoration. Stabilization of mining tailing and uranium mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, C.; Carboneras, P.

    1998-01-01

    ENRESA has dismantling a uranium mill facility and restored the site since 1991 to 1994. Since 1997, 19 uranium mines are being re mediated. The Andujar uranium mill was operational since 1959 to 1981. The remedial action plan performed in the Andujar mill site involved stabilizing and consolidating the uranium mill tailings and contaminated materials in place. Mill equipment, building and process facilities have been dismantled and demolished and the resulting metal wastes and debris have been placed in the pile. The tailings mass has been reshape by flattening the side slopes and cover system was placed over the pile. The uranium mines are located in Extremadura and Andalucia. There is a great diversity among the mines in terms of the magnitude of the disturbed areas by mining work and the effects on the environment, including excavations, waste rock piles, abandoned shafts and galleries, and remaining of surface structures and facilities. Remedial measures include the sealing for shafts and openings to prevent collapse of mine workings and subsidence, the dewatering and the open-pit excavation and the treatment of the contaminated waters, the disposal and the stabilization of mining debris piles to prevent dispersion, the placement of a re vegetated cover over the piles to control dust and erosion, and the restoration of the site. (Author)

  15. Copper Tube Pitting in Santa Fe Municipal Water Caused by Microbial Induced Corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Thomas D; Gierke, Casey G; Fredj, Narjes; Boston, Penelope J

    2014-06-05

    Many copper water lines for municipal drinking water in Santa Fe, New Mexico USA, have developed pinhole leaks. The pitting matches the description of Type I pitting of copper, which has historically been attributed to water chemistry and to contaminants on the copper tubing surface. However, more recent studies attribute copper pitting to microbial induced corrosion (MIC). In order to test for microbes, the copper tubing was fixed in hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), then the tops of the corrosion mounds were broken open, and the interior of the corrosion pits were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analysis found that microbes resembling actinobacteria were deep inside the pits and wedged between the crystallographic planes of the corroded copper grains. The presence of actinobacteria confirms the possibility that the cause of this pitting corrosion was MIC. This observation provides better understanding and new methods for preventing the pitting of copper tubing in municipal water.

  16. Copper Tube Pitting in Santa Fe Municipal Water Caused by Microbial Induced Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. Burleigh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many copper water lines for municipal drinking water in Santa Fe, New Mexico USA, have developed pinhole leaks. The pitting matches the description of Type I pitting of copper, which has historically been attributed to water chemistry and to contaminants on the copper tubing surface. However, more recent studies attribute copper pitting to microbial induced corrosion (MIC. In order to test for microbes, the copper tubing was fixed in hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS, then the tops of the corrosion mounds were broken open, and the interior of the corrosion pits were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The analysis found that microbes resembling actinobacteria were deep inside the pits and wedged between the crystallographic planes of the corroded copper grains. The presence of actinobacteria confirms the possibility that the cause of this pitting corrosion was MIC. This observation provides better understanding and new methods for preventing the pitting of copper tubing in municipal water.

  17. Oil sands mining and reclamation cause massive loss of peatland and stored carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Rebecca C.; Bayley, Suzanne E.; Schindler, David W.

    2012-01-01

    We quantified the wholesale transformation of the boreal landscape by open-pit oil sands mining in Alberta, Canada to evaluate its effect on carbon storage and sequestration. Contrary to claims made in the media, peatland destroyed by open-pit mining will not be restored. Current plans dictate its replacement with upland forest and tailings storage lakes, amounting to the destruction of over 29,500 ha of peatland habitat. Landscape changes caused by currently approved mines will release between 11.4 and 47.3 million metric tons of stored carbon and will reduce carbon sequestration potential by 5,734–7,241 metric tons C/y. These losses have not previously been quantified, and should be included with the already high estimates of carbon emissions from oil sands mining and bitumen upgrading. A fair evaluation of the costs and benefits of oil sands mining requires a rigorous assessment of impacts on natural capital and ecosystem services. PMID:22411786

  18. High Angle Mining System. Final research report, Sep 80-Jun 83

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christofferson, D.

    1983-06-01

    Under Bureau of Mines Contract JO-133925, ESD Corporation developed the High Angle Mining System (HAMS) as a method of extracting coal from seams varying widely in thickness and pitch. The system would normally be employed to extract coal lying beyond the economic limit of a strip or open-pit highwall. It is a surface-controlled operation involving no underground personnel. The HAMS can significantly increase the reserve base of coal that can be economically surface mined. A number of open-pit or surface mines which have moderately or steeply pitched seams were visited and studied. Existing technology was reviewed to identify systems or system components which merited further consideration for the development of the HAMS concept. Conventional and innovative approaches based on augering and two approaches based on slackline excavation were developed in sufficient detail to enable comparison on the basis of operational limitation, recovery ratio, productivity, and economy. The slackline excavator concept employing a projectile bucket was selected as the best approach. The capability of economically mining pitched seams of coal with the HAMS was demonstrated.

  19. Exposure of miners' to ore dust and its long-lived α-emitters in Banduhurang open cast uranium mine, Jharkhand, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, B.K.; Topno, R.; Kumar, Rajesh; Sahoo, S.K.; Shukla, A.K.; Puranik, V.D.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring of airborne respirable particulate and its long-lived a -emitters (LLa) of the natural uranium decay series in a highly mechanised open cast uranium mine at Banduhurang is carried out for quantifying the hazard potentials associated with it. Respirable dust in the mine assumes geometric mean (c g ) of 0.71 mg m -3 (AM =0.78 mg m -3 ) and geometric standard deviation (S g ) of 1.5 (A.S.D.=0.30) whereas those for the LLa are 15.97mBq m -3 (A.M. =19.67 mBq m -3 ) and 1.97 (A.S.D.= 12.52) respectively. The specific activity of LLa of respirable dust assumes c g of 22.5 Bq g -1 which is ∼1.9 times higher compared to theoretically computed value for this low ore grade (0.026 U 3 O 8 %) mine. However, the internal radiation exposures attributable to airborne LLa in this mine would constitute merely a small fraction (<1.5%) of annual effective dose limit for mine workers. (author)

  20. Realizing modeling and mapping tools to study the upsurge of noise pollution as a result of open-cast mining and transportation activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhande, Satish K; Jain, Mohindra C; Dhawale, Satyajeet A; Gautam, Rakesh; Bodhe, Ghanshyam L

    2018-01-01

    In open-cast mines, noise pollution has become a serious concern due to the extreme use of heavy earth moving machinery (HEMM). This study is focused to measure and assess the effects of the existing noise levels of major operational mines in the Keonjhar, Sundergadh, and Mayurbhanj districts of Odisha, India. The transportation noise levels were also considered in this study, which was predicted using the modified Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) model. It was observed that noise induced by HEMM such as rock breakers, jackhammers, dumpers, and excavators, blasting noise in the mining terrain, as well as associated transportation noise became a major source of annoyance to the habitants living in proximity to the mines. The noise produced by mechanized mining operations was observed between 74.3 and 115.2 dB(A), and its impact on residential areas was observed between 49.4 and 58.9 dB(A). In addition, the noise contour maps of sound level dispersion were demonstrated with the utilization of advanced noise prediction software tools for better understanding. Finally, the predicted values at residential zone and traffic noise are correlated with observed values, and the coefficient of determination, R 2 , was calculated to be 0.6891 and 0.5967, respectively.