WorldWideScience

Sample records for open pit method

  1. A method for opening a mine field which is adjacent to a pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishchenko, V.I.; Grebenyuk, V.K.; Kukharev, V.N.; Martynenko, V.P.; Omelnitskiy, A.G.; Sallin, V.I.; Sidorov, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    The method for opening a mine field adjacent to a pit includes the construction of the main and auxiliary opening drifts in the pit and the surface complex of the mine through assembling a support with subsequent filling of them by tailings of the covering rock. In order to increase the productive capacity of the mine, to reduce capital expenditures and to increase the safety of underground operations, a base is first formed from the tailing rock along the front of the open mining operations, from the bottom of the pit at the level of the stratum being opened to the surface with simultaneous layer by layer packing of the cited base, after which the opening drifts are built on this base. The mouth of the main opening drifts and the surface complex of the mine are positioned in the region of the pit.

  2. Accuracy of single count methods of WL determination for open-pit uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.; Kennedy, K. N.

    1983-01-01

    A study of single count methods of WL determination was made using a database respresentative of Australian open pit uranium mine conditions. The aim of the study was to check the existence of the optimum time delay coresponding to the Rolle method, to determine the accuracy of the conversion factor for Australian conditions and to examine any systematic use of data bases of representative radon daughter concentration

  3. Open-pit construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The conceptual design of a nuclear power plant accordingly to SR 136, situated in deep open pits in rock near the brink of a plateau and accessible from above as well as horizontally from the receiving stream, was further worked out. The increased backfill covering enables the reactor building to withstand heavier external forces and higher internal pressure caused by contaminated atmosphere in the event of severe hypothetical internal accidents. The leakage of this atmosphere is to be collected in special condensation rooms and another part of it is to be cooled down in these rooms. An outer safety barrier and leakage extraction fans keep this atmosphere substantially enclosed. By that means the consequences of a core melt accident will be reduced considerably. (orig.) [de

  4. A New Method for Haul Road Design in Open-Pit Mines to Support Efficient Truck Haulage Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Baek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of a haul road for an open-pit mine can significantly affect the cost associated with hauling ore and waste to the surface. This study proposes a new method for haul road design in open-pit mines to support efficient truck haulage operations. The road layout in open-pit mines was optimized by using raster-based least-cost path analysis, and the resulting zigzag road sections were simplified by applying the Douglas-Peucker algorithm. In addition, the road layout was modified by reflecting the radius of curvature suggested in the road design guides. Finally, a three-dimensional model reflecting the results of the road design was created by combining the road layout modification result with the slope of the open-pit mine and the bench design result. The application of the proposed method to an area containing gold deposits made it possible to design a haul road for open-pit mines such that it supported efficient truck haulage operations; furthermore, the time required for truck movement along the road could be estimated. The proposed method is expected to be useful for planning and designing open-pit mines and to facilitate the improvement of the road design function of existing mining software applications.

  5. Blasting methods for heterogeneous rocks in hillside open-pit mines with high and steep slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. J.; Chang, Z. G.; Chao, X. H.; Zhao, J. F.

    2017-06-01

    In the arid desert areas in Xinjiang, most limestone quarries are hillside open-pit mines (OPMs) where the limestone is hard, heterogeneous, and fractured, and can be easily broken into large blocks by blasting. This study tried to find effective technical methods for blasting heterogeneous rocks in such quarries based on an investigation into existing problems encountered in actual mining at Hongshun Limestone Quarry in Xinjiang. This study provided blasting schemes for hillside OPMs with different heights and slopes. These schemes involve the use of vertical deep holes, oblique shallow holes, and downslope hole-by-hole sublevel or simultaneous detonation techniques. In each bench, the detonations of holes in a detonation unit occur at intervals of 25-50 milliseconds. The research findings can offer technical guidance on how to blast heterogeneous rocks in hillside limestone quarries.

  6. The open-pit truck dispatching method based on the completion of production target and the truck flow saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, J.; Sun, X. [Northeastern University, Shenyang (China)

    2007-05-15

    To address current problems in the 'modular dispatch' dynamic programming system widely used in open-pit truck real-time dispatching, two concepts for meeting production targets and truck flow saturation were proposed. Using truck flow programming and taking into account stochastic factors and transportation distance, truck real-time dispatching was optimised. The method is applicable to both shovel-truck match and mismatching and also to empty and heavy truck dispatching. In an open-pit mine the production efficiency could be increased by between 8% and 18%. 6 refs.

  7. Open pit mining of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    The Jackpile--Paquate Mines of the Anaconda Company are on the Laguna Indian Reservation midway between Grants and Albuquerque, New Mexico. The open pit mining of uranium ore at those mines is conducted in three separate operations (stripping, mining, and ore haul)

  8. Ecological geology environmental assessment of open-pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Shuangfa; Jiang Xue

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, there is a detail description of ecological geology environmental assessment of open-pit mines, including method, process and results. We took ecological geology environmental assessment work on the base of the results of some open-pit mines such as extremely low content magnetite in Hebei Province, inducted and summarized the ecological geology environment quality. The results are reasonable. It provides basic data for the second mines programming in Hebei Province. (authors)

  9. 5G in Open-Pit Mines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Caldwell, George; Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    5G will play a pivotal role in the digitization of the industrial sector and is expected to make the best use of every bit of spectrum available. In this light, this paper presents the results of an extensive measurement campaign in two iron-ore open-pit mining complexes, at the 700 MHz and 2.6 GHz...... for the future wireless network design, simulation and performance evaluation. The results show that, in order to comply with ultra-reliable communications (URC) availability requirements, larger shadowing margins will have to be considered in the network planning in open-pit mines, when compared to traditional...

  10. Prediction of Backbreak in Open-Pit Blasting Operations Using the Machine Learning Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Manoj; Monjezi, M.

    2013-03-01

    Backbreak is an undesirable phenomenon in blasting operations. It can cause instability of mine walls, falling down of machinery, improper fragmentation, reduced efficiency of drilling, etc. The existence of various effective parameters and their unknown relationships are the main reasons for inaccuracy of the empirical models. Presently, the application of new approaches such as artificial intelligence is highly recommended. In this paper, an attempt has been made to predict backbreak in blasting operations of Soungun iron mine, Iran, incorporating rock properties and blast design parameters using the support vector machine (SVM) method. To investigate the suitability of this approach, the predictions by SVM have been compared with multivariate regression analysis (MVRA). The coefficient of determination (CoD) and the mean absolute error (MAE) were taken as performance measures. It was found that the CoD between measured and predicted backbreak was 0.987 and 0.89 by SVM and MVRA, respectively, whereas the MAE was 0.29 and 1.07 by SVM and MVRA, respectively.

  11. A mineral quantification method for wall rocks at open pit mines, and application to the Martha Au-Ag mine, Waihi, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castendyk, Devin N.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Webster, Jenny G.

    2005-01-01

    Pit lakes that result from open pit mining are potential water resources or potential environmental problems, depending on lake water quality. Wall rock mineralogy can affect lake chemistry if surface water inputs and/or groundwater inputs and/or lake water in contact with submerged wall rocks react with the wall rock minerals. This study presents a mineral quantification method to measure the distribution and concentration of wall rock minerals in open pit mines, and applies the method to the Martha epithermal Au-Ag mine, Waihi, New Zealand. Heterogeneous ore deposits, like Martha, require a large number of wall rock samples to accurately define mineral distributions. X-ray diffraction analyses of 125 wall rock samples identified the most abundant minerals in the wall rocks as quartz, adularia, albite, illite, chlorite, kaolinite, pyrite and calcite. Distribution maps of these minerals defined 8 relatively homogenous areas of wall rock referred to as 'mineral associations': weakly-altered, propylitic, fresh-argillic, weathered-argillic, oxidized, potassic, quartz veins, and post-mineralization deposits. X-ray fluorescence, Leco furnace, and neutron activation analyses of 46 representative samples produced the geochemical dataset used to assign quantities of elements to observed minerals, and to calculate average mineral concentrations in each association. Thin-section petrography and calcite concentrations from Sobek acid-digestions confirm the calculated mineralogy, providing validation for the method. Calcite and pyrite concentrations allowed advanced acid-base accounting for each mineral association, identifying 3 potential acid-producing associations and one potential acid-neutralizing association. The results target areas, where detailed hydrologic and kinetic tests would be valuable in the next stage of pit lake evaluation. Detailed understanding of wall rock mineralogy will help strengthen predictions of pit lake water quality

  12. A mineral quantification method for wall rocks at open pit mines, and application to the Martha Au-Ag mine, Waihi, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castendyk, Devin N. [Environmental Science, SGES, University of Auckland, Tamaki Campus, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)]. E-mail: d.castendyk@auckland.ac.nz; Mauk, Jeffrey L. [Geology Department, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Webster, Jenny G. [Environmental Science, SGES, University of Auckland, Tamaki Campus, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2005-01-01

    Pit lakes that result from open pit mining are potential water resources or potential environmental problems, depending on lake water quality. Wall rock mineralogy can affect lake chemistry if surface water inputs and/or groundwater inputs and/or lake water in contact with submerged wall rocks react with the wall rock minerals. This study presents a mineral quantification method to measure the distribution and concentration of wall rock minerals in open pit mines, and applies the method to the Martha epithermal Au-Ag mine, Waihi, New Zealand. Heterogeneous ore deposits, like Martha, require a large number of wall rock samples to accurately define mineral distributions. X-ray diffraction analyses of 125 wall rock samples identified the most abundant minerals in the wall rocks as quartz, adularia, albite, illite, chlorite, kaolinite, pyrite and calcite. Distribution maps of these minerals defined 8 relatively homogenous areas of wall rock referred to as 'mineral associations': weakly-altered, propylitic, fresh-argillic, weathered-argillic, oxidized, potassic, quartz veins, and post-mineralization deposits. X-ray fluorescence, Leco furnace, and neutron activation analyses of 46 representative samples produced the geochemical dataset used to assign quantities of elements to observed minerals, and to calculate average mineral concentrations in each association. Thin-section petrography and calcite concentrations from Sobek acid-digestions confirm the calculated mineralogy, providing validation for the method. Calcite and pyrite concentrations allowed advanced acid-base accounting for each mineral association, identifying 3 potential acid-producing associations and one potential acid-neutralizing association. The results target areas, where detailed hydrologic and kinetic tests would be valuable in the next stage of pit lake evaluation. Detailed understanding of wall rock mineralogy will help strengthen predictions of pit lake water quality.

  13. Some questions on small uranium open-pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junyi

    1992-01-01

    The experiences of the existing uranium open pits are summarized and the questions in design, erection and production are analyzed. It is important helpful to develop and to design such economical and reasonable small uranium open pits

  14. Open Pit Water Control Safety A Case Of Nchanga Open Pit Mine Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silwamba C

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mining in Chingola Zambia started underground in 1931 and was catastrophically flooded and closed. The present Nchanga Underground Mine NUG started in 1937. The Nchanga Open Pit NOP mine started in 1955 situated to the west of NUG and partially overlying it. Open pit water control safety operations in the Nchanga-Chingola area have successfully enabled the safe extraction of millions of tonnes of copper ore annually over the past 60 years from NUG mining as well as the NOP. At the start Nchanga mining license surface already had NUG and many watershed divides with the Nchanga and Chingola streams being the main streams feeding into Zambias second largest river Kafue river and 42 of the year was characterised by heavy rains ranging between 800mm to 1300mm per annum. In this paper the presence of very significant amounts of seasonal rain and subsurface water in the mining area was identified as both a curse and a blessing. An excess in seasonal rain and subsurface water would disrupt both open pit and underground mining operations. In order for NOP to be operated successfully stable and free from flooding coping water management tactics were adopted from 1955 to 2015 including 1. Underground mine pump chamber pumping system 2. Piezometer instrumented boreholes 3. Underground mine 1500-ft sub-haulage east borehole dewatering beneath the open pit 4. Nchanga and Chingola stream diversionary tunnel and open drains 5. Nchanga stream causeway and embankment dam in the Matero School Golf Club area 6. Pit perimeter borehole pumping 7. Outer and inner pit perimeter drains and bund walls 8. In-pit ramp side drains 9. In-pit sub-horizontal borehole geo-drains and water and 10. Pit bottom sump pumps. Application of grout curtains along the Vistula River Poland was noted as a possibility in the right circumstances although it had never been used at Nchanga Open Pit. An additional conclusion was that forward health safety and environmental end

  15. Optimal grade control sampling practice in open-pit mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engström, Karin; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2017-01-01

    Misclassification of ore grades results in lost revenues, and the need for representative sampling procedures in open pit mining is increasingly important in all mining industries. This study evaluated possible improvements in sampling representativity with the use of Reverse Circulation (RC) drill...... sampling compared to manual Blast Hole (BH) sampling in the Leveäniemi open pit mine, northern Sweden. The variographic experiment results showed that sampling variability was lower for RC than for BH sampling. However, the total costs for RC drill sampling are significantly exceeding current costs...... for manual BH sampling, which needs to be compensated for by other benefits to motivate introduction of RC drilling. The main conclusion is that manual BH sampling can be fit-for-purpose in the studied open pit mine. However, with so many mineral commodities and mining methods in use globally...

  16. Application of Surpac and Whittle Software in Open Pit Optimisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of Surpac and Whittle Software in Open Pit Optimisation and Design. ... This paper studies the Surpac and Whittle software and their application in designing an optimised pit. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  17. Open Pit Water Control Safety A Case Of Nchanga Open Pit Mine Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Silwamba C; Chileshe P R K

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mining in Chingola Zambia started underground in 1931 and was catastrophically flooded and closed. The present Nchanga Underground Mine NUG started in 1937. The Nchanga Open Pit NOP mine started in 1955 situated to the west of NUG and partially overlying it. Open pit water control safety operations in the Nchanga-Chingola area have successfully enabled the safe extraction of millions of tonnes of copper ore annually over the past 60 years from NUG mining as well as the NOP. At the st...

  18. Millennium Open Pit Mine, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, on the east bank of the Athabasca River, are found the Steepbank and Millennium mines. These open pit mines produce oil sands that are processed to recover bitumen, and then upgrade it to refinery-ready raw crude oil, and diesel fuel. The ASTER images were acquired September 22, 2000 and July 31, 2007, cover an area of 22.5 x 25.5 km, and are located near 57 degrees north latitude, 111.5 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  19. Protection and restoration of soil in mining operations which disrupt the surface of the earth, with the open pit method of working minerals (problems, obtained data and recommendations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debelak, M.

    1981-01-01

    A critical analysis is made of the current state and the ways to solve the problem of protection and restoration of the sections of the earth's surface and sources of drinking water which can be disrupted with the open pit method of working minerals. The need is advanced for creating a system of coordination and planning of the activity of all the organizations associated with working minerals, restoration operations and inspection of them. The order of preparation for recultivation during mining operations (in particular, storage of the fertile ground) and conducting them after the end of mining are described.

  20. Radio Propagation in Open-pit Mines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Caldwell, George; Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of an extensive measurement campaign performed at two large iron ore mining centers in Brazil at the 2.6 GHz band. Although several studies focusing on radio propagation in underground mines have been published, measurement data and careful analyses for open......-pit mines are still scarce. Our results aim at filling this gap in the literature. The research is motivated by the ongoing mine automation initiatives, where connectivity becomes critical. This paper presents the first set of results comprising measurements under a gamut of propagation conditions. A second...... paper detailing sub-GHz propagation is also in preparation. The results indicate that conventional wisdom is wrong, in other words, radio-frequency (RF) propagation in surface mines can be far more elaborate than plain free-space line-of-sight conditions. Additionally, the old mining adage “no two mines...

  1. Open pit coal exploitation viability. Margarita mine. Case of study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloza, Julia; Molina, Jorge; Mejia, Humberto

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of financial viability, planning and design for the new coal open pit exploitation for La Margarita mine, with coal-resources estimated on 440.139,7 ton. Dimension, design and economic evaluation were possible by three exploitation methods: (multiple bench, open cast contour, and terraces). Net present values (NVP) were calculated: $c 817,5; $c 518,5 and $c 645,2 respectively for each method (given in million current Colombian pesos $. $c 2380 are equivalent to $us 1) and rate of return (ROR) 78,33%; 34,0% and 38,62% respectively for each method. These indicators served as a parameter to choose the multiple bench method, which should be recalculated because it was necessary to work jointly with two pits and making feasible the project. in addition a general environmental evaluation was done, which is vital for the exploitation. Important impacts on the flower, animals, air, water were found, and measures of control, prevention and mitigation were stated. it is expected that this paper can be useful as a technical-economical support for the development of the open pit exploitation in the margarita mine

  2. Optimization Of Blasting Design Parameters On Open Pit Bench A Case Study Of Nchanga Open Pits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mwango Bowa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In hard rock mining blasting is the most productive excavation technique applied to fragment insitu rock to the required size for efficient loading and crushing. In order to blast the insitu rock to the desired fragment size blast design parameter such as bench height hole diameter spacing burden hole length bottom charge specific charge and rock factor are considered. The research was carried out as a practical method on Nchanga Open Pits NOP ore Bench to optimize the blasting design parameters that can yield the required fragmentation size thereby reducing the shovel loading times and maximizing efficiency of the subsequent mining unit operations such as hauling and crushing. Fragmentation characteristics such as the mean fragment size were measured by means of a digital measuring tape and predicated using the Kuznetsov equation and rock factor value of ore bench was calculated using Lilly 1986 equations by means of rock characteristics. Traditional blasting design parameters were acquired for NOP and modified using Langerfors and Sharma P.A approaches. Several blast operations were conducted using both traditional and modified blasting design parameters on the same ore bench with the same geological conditions. Loading times of the shovel and fragment sizes were obtained after the blasts from ore bench where both the traditional and modified blasting design parameters were applied. Results show that mean fragment size and loading times were reduced from 51cm and 12minutes to 22cm and 3minutes where traditional and modified blasting design parameters were applied respectively.

  3. Testing and modeling the influence of reclamation and control methods for reducing nonpoint mercury emissions associated with industrial open pit gold mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthieu B; Gustin, Mae S

    2013-06-01

    Industrial gold mining is a significant source of mercury (Hg) emission to the atmosphere. To investigate ways to reduce these emissions, reclamation and dust and mercury control methods used at open pit gold mining operations in Nevada were studied in a laboratory setting. Using this information along with field data, and building off previous work, total annual Hg emissions were estimated for two active gold mines in northern Nevada. Results showed that capping mining waste materials with a low-Hg substrate can reduce Hg emissions from 50 to nearly 100%. The spraying of typical dust control solutions often results in higher Hg emissions, especially as materials dry after application. The concentrated application of a dithiocarbamate Hg control reagent appears to reduce Hg emissions, but further testing mimicking the actual distribution of this chemical within an active leach solution is needed to make a more definitive assessment.

  4. Influence of the Haizhou Open Pit Coal Mine on the atmospheric flow over Fuxin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, He; Yang, Zhi-Feng; Wang, Xuan

    2004-01-01

    The influence of the Haizhou Open Pit Mine on the atmospheric flow in nearby Fuxin City in China was analyzed with the aid of the steady-state Navier-Stokes equations. The finite element method was used to obtain numerical solutions to these equations. The results showed that the Haizhou Open Pit Coal Mine contributes to the turbulent flow in the Fuxin City and its surroundings. However, when compared with the climatic effects, the open pit mine has a relatively small impact on the atmospheric flow over Fuxin.

  5. Ground movement and deformation due to dewatering and open pit excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, B.; Yang, J.; Zhang, J.

    1996-01-01

    In the application of stochastic medium theory, it is assumed that ground movement process has the property of Markov Process. Based on superposition principle and rock consolidation principle, the ground movement and deformation due to dewatering and open pit excavation can be calculated. The comparison between the field measurements in Morwell Open Pit, Latrobe Valley (Victoria, Australia) and the calculated results shows the validity of the method in this paper. 5 refs

  6. Interior drains for open pit disposal of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staub, W.P.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptualized interior drainage system is presented for reducing the environmental impact on natural groundwater by disposal of uranium mill tailings in the mined-out open pit. The evaporation/seepage ratio can be increased through the use of interior drains, long-term monitoring of groundwater quality can be eliminated, and the open pit will not require an extensive liner. Other advantages not related to groundwater are: control of fugitive dust and radon emanation during mill operations and timely reclamation after the impoundment is filled with tailings

  7. Equipment size effects on open pit mining performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Bozorgebrahimi; R.A. Hall; M.A. Morin [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Mining Engineering Department

    2005-03-01

    This paper discusses the exploitation of economies of scale in open pit mining through the use of increasingly larger equipment. It presents a method adopted to evaluate the impact of increased scale on operational performance factors. The work identifies equipment size sensitive variables (ESSVs) in the mine design process that affect the performance of the production process. Data from a set of case studies show that the ESSV influence extends beyond mine production to encompass milling performance, environmental footprint and community impacts. Some ESSVs (such as reliability, tyre costs and productivity) are shown to be related to the current state of equipment technology and their effects are therefore comparable for different mines. Other ESSVs relate to the mine and deposit characteristics; their effects therefore vary from mine to mine. A detailed analytical approach, developed to model the impact of ESSVs, suggests that for truck/shovel operations, the industry may be approaching a situation of diseconomies of scale.

  8. Optimization of coal recovery from open pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C; Wolff, S F; Baafi, E Y; Cervantes, J A; Coates, D F

    1979-02-01

    The design techniques of the Pit Slope Manual were successfully applied in a case study concerned with optimizing the design of coal mines. A steeply dipping multiple seam deposit, being mined by the truck-shovel combination, was selected for the study. The criterion for optimum slopes was based on the financial consequences of each design, i.e., the resultant benefits and costs. Three alternative designs were analyzed. The first had an average highwall slope angle of 28 degrees and a final height of 290 m. The second had a 35 degrees slope angle and a 305-m wall height. The third had a 45 degrees slope angle and a 320-m wall height. Trade-off between benefits and increased cost of slope instability inherent in steeper slope angles was analyzed for the entire mine life through computer simulation of actual mining operations. The cost models developed were (1) No Cost, (2) Clean-up, (3) Lost Coal, (4) Early Mining, (5) Mine Abandonment, (6) Increased Haulage, and (7) Haul Road Re-establishment. (8 refs.)

  9. Heavy Duty Tireman. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColman, Don

    This training outline for heavy duty tiremen, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

  10. Front End Loader Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilow, Bill

    This training outline for front end loader operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  11. Mission-Critical Mobile Broadband Communications in Open Pit Mines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uzeda Garcia, Luis Guilherme; Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Barbosa, Viviane S. B.

    2016-01-01

    that need to be met by the wireless network. This article introduces fundamental concepts behind open-pit mining and discusses why this ever changing environment coupled with strict industrial reliability requirements pose unique challenges to traditional broadband network planning and optimization...

  12. Track Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for track dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  13. Rotary Drill Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilow, Bill

    This training outline for rotary drill operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  14. Haulage Truck Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for haulage truck operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  15. Grader Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilow, Bill

    This training outline for grader operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

  16. Rubber Tire Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for rubber tire dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  17. Shovel Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Larry

    This training outline for shovel operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

  18. Standardized emissions inventory methodology for open-pit mining areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Jose I; Camacho, Dumar A; Huertas, Maria E

    2011-08-01

    There is still interest in a unified methodology to quantify the mass of particulate material emitted into the atmosphere by activities inherent to open-pit mining. For the case of total suspended particles (TSP), the current practice is to estimate such emissions by developing inventories based on the emission factors recommended by the USEPA for this purpose. However, there are disputes over the specific emission factors that must be used for each activity and the applicability of such factors to cases quite different to the ones under which they were obtained. There is also a need for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM(10)) emission inventories and for metrics to evaluate the emission control programs implemented by open-pit mines. To address these needs, work was carried out to establish a standardized TSP and PM(10) emission inventory methodology for open-pit mining areas. The proposed methodology was applied to seven of the eight mining companies operating in the northern part of Colombia, home to the one of the world's largest open-pit coal mining operations (∼70 Mt/year). The results obtained show that transport on unpaved roads is the mining activity that generates most of the emissions and that the total emissions may be reduced up to 72% by spraying water on the unpaved roads. Performance metrics were defined for the emission control programs implemented by mining companies. It was found that coal open-pit mines are emitting 0.726 and 0.180 kg of TSP and PM(10), respectively, per ton of coal produced. It was also found that these mines are using on average 1.148 m(2) of land per ton of coal produced per year.

  19. Dewatering of planned Key Lake open pits in northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unland, W.; Holl, N.

    1980-01-01

    The engineering design and experience gained so far with a dewatering system for an open-pit uranium mine planned at Key Lake in Northern Saskatchewan are presented. An extensive unconfined overburden aquifer is hydraulically connected with the underlying Athabasca Formation and basement rocks, both of relatively low hydraulic conductivity. The overburden aquifer is embedded in a bedrock trough, with the deepest depression between the planned pits. Hydrogeological data were used in a numerical dewatering model simulating groundwater flow at different stages of the pit development. Based on the model results, the enginering design had to provide for different pumping rates, varying between 1.0 and 0.21 m 3 /sec. This problem was solved by using a double line pressure system. The design concept for the complete peripheral discharge system and the well design used for 26 dewatering wells are discussed. (auth)

  20. Burn Pit Emissions Exposure and Respiratory and Cardiovascular Conditions Among Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit Registry Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jason; Lezama, Nicholas; Gasper, Joseph; Kawata, Jennifer; Morley, Sybil; Helmer, Drew; Ciminera, Paul

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how burn pit emissions exposure is associated with the incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular conditions. We examined the associations between assumed geographic and self-reported burn pit emissions exposure and respiratory and cardiovascular outcomes in participants of the Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit Registry. We found significant dose-response associations for higher risk of self-reported emphysema, chronic bronchitis, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with increased days of deployment within 2 miles of selected burn pits (P-trend = 0.01) and self-reported burn pit smoke exposure (P-trend = 0.0005). We found associations between burn pit emissions exposure and higher incidence of post-deployment self-reported respiratory and cardiovascular conditions, but these findings should be interpreted with caution because the surrogate measurements of burn pit emissions exposure in this analysis may not reflect individual exposure levels.

  1. Situation and development of uranium open-pit mining techniques in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kaiwen.

    1986-01-01

    The situation of uranium open-pit mining techniques in China is described. The main experiences in production and management are introduced. Meanwhile the suggestions about the further development of uranium open-pit mining techniques are also proposed

  2. Investigating continuous time open pit dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Askari-Nasab, H.; Frimpong, S.; Szymanski, J.

    2008-01-01

    Current mine production planning, scheduling, and allocation of resources are based on mathematical programming models. In practice, the optimized solution cannot be attained without examining all possible combinations and permutations of the extraction sequence. Operations research methods have limited applications in large-scale surface mining operations because the number of variables becomes too large. The primary objective of this study is to develop and implement a hybrid simulation fra...

  3. 78 FR 33894 - Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... chemicals and fumes caused by open burn pits. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the proposed... to ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW, Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire.... Title: Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire, VA Form 10-10066. OMB...

  4. Project design of an open pit colliery in Terkidag, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kose

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, first of all, the status of Turkey in terms of energy production and consumption is given and the need to relyon domestic sources, namely lignite deposits, is emphasized rather than importing fuels from abroad. Then, a thorough literature workconcerning open pit design and production planning is explained in detail. On this basis, the project design and production planningof Tekirdag-Saray open pit colliery are conducted. According to the selected production technique, machinery-equipment that willbe utilized in the coal winning system is determined and in the final part, the investment cost and unit production cost regardingthe project are computed and the importance of constructing a power plant in the region operating with domestic fuels is expressed.

  5. Measurement of unattached fractions in open-pit uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.; Wise, K.N.

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary set of measurements of the unattached fraction of potential alpha energy was made at the Ranger open pit uranium uranium mine and the Nabarlek uranium mill. The measurement system, which incorporated a parallel plate diffusion battery and diffuse junction detectors, is described. Results for RaA show a wide variation in the unattached fraction. They range up to 0.76 and are higher than corresponding values for underground mining operations

  6. Numerical modelling of the groundwater inflow to an advancing open pit mine: Kolahdarvazeh pit, Central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Saeed; Doulati Ardejani, Faramarz; Aslani, Soheyla; Baafi, Ernest

    2014-12-01

    The groundwater inflow into a mine during its life and after ceasing operations is one of the most important concerns of the mining industry. This paper presents a hydrogeological assessment of the Irankuh Zn-Pb mine at 20 km south of Esfahan and 1 km northeast of Abnil in west-Central Iran. During mine excavation, the upper impervious bed of a confined aquifer was broken and water at high-pressure flowed into an open pit mine associated with the Kolahdarvazeh deposit. The inflow rates were 6.7 and 1.4 m(3)/s at the maximum and minimum quantities, respectively. Permeability, storage coefficient, thickness and initial head of the fully saturated confined aquifer were 3.5 × 10(-4) m/s, 0.2, 30 m and 60 m, respectively. The hydraulic heads as a function of time were monitored at four observation wells in the vicinity of the pit over 19 weeks and at an observation well near a test well over 21 h. In addition, by measuring the rate of pumping out from the pit sump, at a constant head (usually equal to height of the pit floor), the real inflow rates to the pit were monitored. The main innovations of this work were to make comparison between numerical modelling using a finite element software called SEEP/W and actual data related to inflow and extend the applicability of the numerical model. This model was further used to estimate the hydraulic heads at the observation wells around the pit over 19 weeks during mining operations. Data from a pump-out test and observation wells were used for model calibration and verification. In order to evaluate the model efficiency, the modelling results of inflow quantity and hydraulic heads were compared to those from analytical solutions, as well as the field data. The mean percent error in relation to field data for the inflow quantity was 0.108. It varied between 1.16 and 1.46 for hydraulic head predictions, which are much lower values than the mean percent errors resulted from the analytical solutions (from 1.8 to 5

  7. Case history of controlling a landslide at Panluo open-pit mine in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zuoan; Yin, Guangzhi; Wan, Ling; Shen, Louyan

    2008-04-01

    Controlling of landsides safely and economically is a great challenge to mine operators because landslides are major geological problems especially in open-pit mines. In this paper, a case history at Panluo open-pit mine is presented in detail to share the experiences and lessons with mine operators. Panluo open-pit mine is located in the southwestern Fujian province of China. It is the largest open-pit iron mine in the Fujian province and was planned in 1965 and is in full operation from 1978. In July 1990, an earthquake of magnitude 5.3 in Taiwan Strait and big rainstorms impacted the mine slope, causing tension cracks and rather large-scale failures, and forming a U-shaped landslide. Total potential volume was estimated to be up to 1.0 × 106 m3. This directly threatened the mine production. In order to protect the mine production and the dwellers’ safety around, a dynamic comprehensive method was implemented including geotechnical investigations, in-situ testing and monitoring, stability analysis, and many mitigation and preventive measures. These measures slowed down the development and further occurrence of the landslide. The results showed that the landslides were still active, it was slowed with the control measures and moved rapidly with rainfall and mining down. However, no catastrophic accidents occurred and the pit mining was continued till it was closed at the elevation of 887 m in 2000. As a successful case of landslide control at an open-pit mine for 10 years, this paper reports the controlling measures in details. These experiences of landslide control may be beneficial to other similar mines for landslide control.

  8. Superficial drainage studies in open-pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira Junior, P.B.; Leite, C.B.B.

    1984-01-01

    Drainage studies concerning large open-pit mining projects can be of vital importance throughout the mining activity itself as they may assist in avoiding activity interruptions due to drainage problems, therefore representing substantial savings. These studies should, in fact, be carried out from the initial activity stages and shall be considered in operational, project and planning decisions in order to optimize results and reduce costs. This specific study presents a drainage study systematization proposal, enphasazing economic decision criteria. The authors comment on studies of this nature developed at the Caldas uranium mine - NUCLEBRAS. (D.J.M.) [pt

  9. Proposed open-pit mine threatens Jasper National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikelcic, S.

    1996-12-31

    Concerns by the Sierra Club, the Alberta Wilderness Association, and other environmental groups about the proposed Cheviot Mine are discussed. Cardinal River Coals, which is owned by Luscar Ltd. and Consolidated Coals of Pittsburgh, is proposing the mining operation, which includes 26 deep open pit mines of which 14 will not be backfilled. The mine extends to within 2 km of Jasper National Park`s border. Concerns about the mine include: disruption of an environmentally sensitive area, interference with grizzly bear movement and bighorn sheep habitat and diet, destruction of flora and fauna, and pollution of two major watersheds. Hearings for the mine commence in January 1997.

  10. Storage and Management of Open-pit Transportation Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiusheng Du

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aiming at the actual demand of open-pit mine daily production scheduling and positioning monitoring. After extracting data from existing topographic maps and other information, it discusses the feasibility of using this data to establish thematic database. By considering the extensive application of GPS data, utilizing new spatial data types of SQL Server 2008 for data storage and management. Extracting data algorithms such as the node spatial data, the regional boundary and the path are implemented, then spatial data storage and management is also realized. It provides the basis for the production of decision-making and production cost savings.

  11. Аpplying of Explosives of the Type an-fo and Slurry in the Open Pit Mine "Bucim"

    OpenAIRE

    Dambov, Risto; Nikolic, Miroslav; Dambov, Ilija

    2012-01-01

    In this paper shows the way of application of ANFO and SLURRY bulk explosives and blasting methods that are characteristic for this open pit mine. According to the physical - mechanical characteristics of the working environment and condition of the blast hole are defining some parameters for each series separately. In this open pit are defined 5(five) different working environments - rocks with copper mineralization (0,25%Cu) or rocks waste. According to the effects of blasting are make cert...

  12. Prediction of the net radon emission from a model open pit uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Perkins, R.W.; Schwendiman, L.C.; Enderlin, W.I.

    1979-04-01

    Radon emission from a model open pit uranium mining operation has been estimated by applying radon exhalation fluxes measured in an open pit uranium mine to the various areas of the model mine. The model mine was defined by averaging uranium concentrations and production and procedural statistics for eight major open pit uranium mines in the Casper, Wyoming area. The resulting emission rates were 740 Ci/AFR during mining operations and 33 Ci/AFR/yr after abandonment of the mine

  13. 78 FR 54956 - Agency Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ...: Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire, VA Form 10-10066. Type of Review... services to Open Burn Pit Registry participants and improve VA's ability to understand the health effects... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-NEW] Agency Information Collection (Open Burn...

  14. 78 FR 44625 - Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne... to ``OMB Control No. 2900--NEW, Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire... health effects of service members' exposure to toxic airborne chemicals and fumes caused by open burn...

  15. Open-pit production and control at Roessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodson, D.; Rich, C.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years metal prices have been severely depressed and most companies have directed efforts to controlling costs in order to stay in business. Roessing Uranium has consistently kept uranium production cost increases well below the domestic inflation rate and this has been the result of a firm commitment to production and cost control, which is the main theme of this paper. The subject of cost analysis is briefly presented and the paper then gives more technical detail under the main headings of grade control, production control and engineering projects. The main communication channels, which are used to ensure that different departments on the mine are all working for the same objectives, are mentioned. The paper, however, is intended to be a general overview of the engineering aspects of open-pit cost control

  16. Radon and aerosol release from open-pit uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.W.; Nielson, K.K.; Mauch, M.L.

    1982-08-01

    The quantity of 222 Rn (hereafter called radon) released per unit of uranium produced from open pit mining has been determined. A secondary objective was to determine the nature and quantity of airborne particles resulting from mine operations. To accomplish these objectives, a comprehensive study of the release rates of radon and aerosol material to the atmosphere was made over a one-year period from April 1979 to May 1980 at the Morton Ranch Mine which was operated by United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) in partnership with Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The mine is now operated for TVA by Silver King Mines. Morton Ranch Mine was one of five open pit uranium mines studied in central Wyoming. Corroborative measurements were made of radon flux and 226 Ra (hereafter called radium) concentrations of various surfaces at three of the other mines in October 1980 and again at these three mines plus a fourth in April of 1981. Three of these mines are located in the Powder River Basin, about 80 kilometers east by northeast of Casper. One is located in the Shirley Basin, about 60 km south of Casper, and the remaining one is located in the Gas Hills, approximately 100 km west of Casper. The one-year intensive study included simultaneous measurement of several parameters: continuous measurement of atmospheric radon concentration near the ground at three locations, monthly 24-hour radon flux measurements from various surfaces, radium analyses of soil samples collected under each of the flux monitoring devices, monthly integrations of aerosols on dichotomous aerosol samplers, analysis of aerosol samplers for total dust loading, aerosol elemental and radiochemical composition, aerosol elemental composition by particle size, wind speed, wind direction, temperature, barometric pressure, and rainfall

  17. Mudstone depressurization behaviour in an open pit coal mine, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, G.; Waterhouse, J. [Golder Associates, West Perth, WA (Australia); Crisostomo, J. [PT Adaro Indonesia, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2010-07-01

    Mining activities in the Tutupan mine in Indonesia began in the mid-1990s. The open pit mine's coal seams are interbedded with fine-grained sandstones, mudstones, and carbonaceous mudstones. Slope stability analyses at the pit have integrated hydrogeology with geotechnical engineering analyses to optimize slope designs and reduce the risk of slope failure. This paper discussed the impact of mining and dewatering on mudstone depressurization. Sensors were placed at key points in the mine to obtain data related to the mudstone units. Reductions in pore pressure occurred as a result of groundwater flow away from the observed zones, increases in porosity, and increases in total porosity caused by an expansion of the rock mass as a result of drainage and hydrostatic unloading. Mudstone pore pressure trends with time were interpreted by determining the thickness of the mudstone unit, the presence or absence of known thin sandstone beds, unloading from overhead mining activities, and the position of the mudstone within the sedimentary sequence. The study showed that unloading activities have a significant impact on pore pressure in thick mudstone units, regardless of the depth, thickness, or properties of the unit. Pore pressure within high wall mudstone units typically decreased to values equivalent to the elevation of the unit where it was exposed to dips in a high wall. The dewatering of sandstone units in low walls caused a decline in pore pressure within the thick mudstone units located beneath the sandstones. Differences in primary permeabilities were attributed to greater fracturing in deeper and stronger rock units. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Preliminary study of realizability of Karazhyra open pit coal fines briquetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deryavko, I.I.; Perepelkin, I.G.; Chuprunov, K.V.

    2001-01-01

    Main properties of brown coals in Karazhyra open pit upper and lower packs are determined. Characteristics of these coals briquette-ability are evaluated. A conceptual possibility to obtain high-quality briquettes from open pit coal fines is shown. (author)

  19. PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT MINE HIGHWALLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposed, open pit mine highwalls contribute significantly to the production of acid mine drainage (AMD) thus causing environmental concerns upon closure of an operating mine. Available information on the generation of AMD from open-pit mine highwalls is very limit...

  20. Analysis of disposal of uranium mill tailings in a mined out open pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staub, W.P.; Triegel, E.K.

    1978-08-01

    Mined out open pits are presently under consideration as disposal sites for uranium mill tailings. In this method of tailings management, the escape of contaminated liquid into an adjacent aquifer is the principal environmental concern. The modified Bishop Method was used to analyze the structural stability of a clay liner along the highwall and fluid flow models were used to analyze the effect of tailings solutions on groundwater under several operating conditions. The slope stability of a clay liner was analyzed at three stages of operation: (1) near the beginning of construction, (2) when the pit is partially filled with tailings, and (3) at the end of construction. Both clay lined and unlined pits were considered in the fluid flow modeling. Finally, the seepage of tailings solutions through the clay liner was analyzed. Results of the slope stability analysis showed that it would be necessary to construct the clay liner as a modified form of engineered embankment. This embankment would be similar in construction to that of an earthfill dam. It could be constructed on a 1 : 1 slope provided the tailings slurry were managed properly. It would be necessary to maintain the freeboard height between the embankment and tailings at less than 4 m. A partially dewatered sand beach would have to be located adjacent to the embankment. Potential leakage and aquifer contamination was modeled for lined and unlined pits of various designs. Sulfate, and possibly U and Th, are the most likely contaminants. Results from the model showed the clay and soil cement lined pit to be most effective in containing the pollutants

  1. Application of Surpac and Whittle Software in Open Pit Optimisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... The deposit has undergone intense weathering, forming an oxidised gold deposit ... total of 82 optimal pit outlines were generated using the 3D Lerchs-Grossmann algorithm. ... are also widely accepted in the mining industry.

  2. Slope Stability Analysis of Waste Dump in Sandstone Open Pit Osielec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Justyna; Cała, Marek; Flisiak, Jerzy; Kolano, Malwina; Kowalski, Michał

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the slope stability analysis for the current as well as projected (final) geometry of waste dump Sandstone Open Pit "Osielec". For the stability analysis six sections were selected. Then, the final geometry of the waste dump was designed and the stability analysis was conducted. On the basis of the analysis results the opportunities to improve the stability of the object were identified. The next issue addressed in the paper was to determine the proportion of the mixture containing mining and processing wastes, for which the waste dump remains stable. Stability calculations were carried out using Janbu method, which belongs to the limit equilibrium methods.

  3. Analysis of disposal of uranium mill tailings in a mined out open pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staub, W.P.; Triegel, E.K.

    1978-01-01

    Mined out open pits are presently under consideration as disposal sites for uranium mill tailings. In this method of tailings management, the escape of contaminated liquid into an adjacent aquifer is the principal environmental concern. The modified Bishop Method was used to analyze the structural stability of a clay liner along the highwall and fluid flow models were used to analyze the effect of tailings solutions on ground water under several operating conditions. Results of the slope stability analysis showed that it would be necessary to construct the clay liner as a modified form of engineered embankment. This embankment would be similar in construction to that of an earthfill dam. It could be constructed on a 1:1 slope provided the tailings slurry were managed properly. It would be necessary to maintain the freeboard height between the embankment and tailings at less than 4 m. A partially dewatered sand beach would have to be located adjacent to the embankment. Potential leakage and aquifer contamination was modeled for lined and unlined pits of various designs. Sulfate, and possibly U and Th, are the most likely contaminants. Results from the model showed the clay and soil cement lined pit to be most effective in containing the pollutants

  4. Structure of energy consumption and improving open-pit dump truck efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptev, V. Yu; Kopteva, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    This paper studies the dynamics of the improvement of wheel type transport vehicles environmental and energy performance in open-pit mines. The paper discloses characteristics of the gas turbine engine with capacity of 1250 hp, mounted on tanks, and technical-economic calculations, confirming reasonability of their use in open-pit dump trucks with the 120 …130-ton loading capacity. The general layout scheme of mechanical transmission with the gas turbine engine is shown.

  5. Software development for geologic information management system on open-pit production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K.; Tian, A.; Ren, Z.; Pang, Y. [China University of Mining and Technomogy, Xuzhou (China). College of Mineral and Energy Resources

    2001-09-01

    A software, including geological data gathering and processing, deposit modelling, reserves calculating and mine map plotting, for geologic information management of open-pit production was developed. Based on the interactive technique, CAD, the object-oriented simulation, and the characteristics of geologic structures, all the geologic information databases and geologic mapping sub-systems have been established for open-pit production, planning and management. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Stochastic production phase design for an open pit mining complex with multiple processing streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Mohammad Waqar Ali; Dimitrakopoulos, Roussos; van Eldert, Jeroen

    2014-08-01

    In a mining complex, the mine is a source of supply of valuable material (ore) to a number of processes that convert the raw ore to a saleable product or a metal concentrate for production of the refined metal. In this context, expected variation in metal content throughout the extent of the orebody defines the inherent uncertainty in the supply of ore, which impacts the subsequent ore and metal production targets. Traditional optimization methods for designing production phases and ultimate pit limit of an open pit mine not only ignore the uncertainty in metal content, but, in addition, commonly assume that the mine delivers ore to a single processing facility. A stochastic network flow approach is proposed that jointly integrates uncertainty in supply of ore and multiple ore destinations into the development of production phase design and ultimate pit limit. An application at a copper mine demonstrates the intricacies of the new approach. The case study shows a 14% higher discounted cash flow when compared to the traditional approach.

  7. A GIS-based, confined aquifer, hypothetical model of ground-water seepage into a former mining open pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, A; Negeed, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater seepage into a former mining site in Egypt is proposed for simulation. This site was used for basalt extraction. After the mining activities had stopped a large open pit was left over and groundwater seeped into the pit forming a lake. The pit has a dimension of approximately 1200 x 600 x 30 m. Because of the lack of field data, several scenarios may be hypothesized to explain the filling of these open pits with water. In this paper, one of these scenarios is studied. It is suggested that this water comes from an underneath confined aquifer. Through fractures in the host rock, water seeped upwards into the open pit. To estimate the rate at which water seeps into the lake, numerical study based on the finite element method is performed. Firstly, geo-referencing of the site was performed using GIS. The boundary of the lake was then digitized and elevation contours was defined. These data was then imported into grid-builder software to generate a two-dimensional triangular mesh which was then used by hydro-geosphere software to build the three-dimensional mesh and solve the problem. It was found that the set of discrete fractures was insufficient to fill the lake in the time span that was actually elapsed to fill up the lake which is on the order of two to three years.

  8. Utilization of open pit burned household waste ash--a feasibility study in Dhaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Obaidul; Sharif, Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Informal incineration or open pit burning of waste materials is a common practice in the peripheral area of Dhaka, one of the fastest growing mega-cities in the world. This study deals with the effect of open pit burned (i.e. open burned) household waste bottom ash on fired clay bricks. Between 0 to 50% (by weight) of open pit burned household waste bottom ash was mixed with clay to make bricks. The molded specimens were air-dried at room temperature for 24 h and then oven dried at 100 °C for another 24 h to remove the water. The raw bricks were fired in a muffle furnace to a designated temperature (800, 900 and 1000 °C, respectively). The firing behaviour (mechanical strength, water absorption and shrinkage) was determined. The microstructures, phase compositions and leachates were evaluated for bricks manufactured at different firing temperatures. These results demonstrate that open pit burned ash can be recycled in clay bricks. This study also presents physical observations of the incinerated ash particles and determination of the chemical compositions of the raw materials by wet analysis. Open pit burned ash can be introduced easily into bricks up to 20% wt. The concentrations of hazardous components in the leachates were below the standard threshold for inert waste category landfill and their environmental risk during their use-life step can be considered negligible.

  9. Natural radioactivity in lignite samples from open pit mines “Kolubara”, Serbia – risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Đurašević, M.; Kandić, A.; Stefanović, P.; Vukanac, I.; Šešlak, B.; Milošević, Z.; Marković, T.

    2014-01-01

    Coal as fossil fuel mainly contains naturally occurring radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series and 40 K. Use of coal, primarily in industry, as a result has dispersion of radioactive material from coal in and through air and water. The aim of this study was to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in coal samples from open pit mines “Kolubara” and to evaluate its effect on population health. The results showed that all measured and calculated values were below the limits recommended in international legislation. - Highlights: • Activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in coal samples were determined. • Effect on population health due to the activity of these radionuclides was estimated. • All samples were collected at different locations of the open pit mines “Kolubara”. • All measured and calculated values were below the recommended limits. • There is no enhanced radiation hazard for population nearby open pit mines

  10. Risk assessment of occupational groups working in open pit mining: Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Kasap

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In open pit mining it is possible to prevent industrial accidents and the results of industrial accidents such as deaths, physical disabilities and financial loss by implementing risk analyses in advance. If the probabilities of different occupational groups encountering various hazards are determined, workers’ risk of having industrial accidents and catching occupational illnesses can be controlled. In this sense, the aim of this study was to assess the industrial accidents which occurred during open pit coal production in the Turkish Coal Enterprises (TCE Garp Lignite unit between 2005 and 2010 and to analyze the risks using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. The analyses conducted with AHP revealed that the greatest risk in open pit mining is landslides, the most risky occupational group is unskilled labourers and the most common hazards are caused by landslides and transportation/hand tools/falling.

  11. Prediction of the net radon emission from a model open pit uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Perkins, R.W.; Schwendiman, L.C.; Enderlin, W.I.

    1979-09-01

    Radon emission from a model open pit uranium mining operation has been estimated by applying radon exhalation fluxes measured in an open pit uranium mine to the various areas of the model mine. The model mine was defined by averaging uranium concentrations, mine dimensions, production and procedural statistics for eight major open pit uranium mines in the Casper, Wyoming area. The resulting emission rates were 630 Ci/RRY (1 RRY one = 1000-MW(e) reactor operating for 1 year) during mining operations and 26 Ci/RRY/y after abandoment of the mine assuming 100% recovery of U 3 O 8 from the ore, or 700 Ci/RRY and 29 Ci/RRY/y assuming 90.5% recovery

  12. Hydrodynamic model of the open-pit mine “Buvač” (Republic of Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papić Petar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Projecting of the dewatering system of the open-pit mine “Buvač” (Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina is based on the use of hydrodynamic model of groundwater regime. Creating the hydrodynamic model of the open-pit mine “Buvač“ was made in phases, which began by basic interpretation of collected data, along with schematization of the groundwater flow and flow conditions, and finally, forming and calibration of model. Hydrodynamic model was created as multilayer model with eight layers. Calibration of the hydrodynamic model is the starting point for making prognosis calculation in order to create the most optimal system of open-pit mine protection from groundwater. The results of model calibration indicated that the rivers Gomjenica and Bistrica, precipitation and inflow from karstified rocks are the primary sources of recharge of the limonite ore body “Buvač”.

  13. Treatment of sulphated water of surface origin produced by an open pit coal mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Campos-Sánchez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to select the most suitable method of treatment of sulfated water produced by an open pit coal mine in Venezuela. Samples of water taken on surface, middle and bottom of water bodies in three areas were subjected to basic, gravimetric, volumetric and colorimetric analysis. The results indicated that the pH is within limits permitted by current environmental regulations, while total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, and sulfates exceed the normed values. The aerobic wetland method was selected as the most efficient for the removal of sulfates, depending on the physicochemical characteristics of the sulphated waters from the mine and because they are systems that use natural energy to purify water, its construction and maintenance costs Is significantly inferior to the conventional treatments and because, being replicas of natural ecosystems, they are integrated to the environment.

  14. Exploration on feasibility of using in-situ leaching after explosion on the bottom of Huangfengling open pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zuyuan

    1992-01-01

    According to the situation of mining and the faced problems in Huangfengling open pit, it was proposed to use in-situ leaching after explosion to recover uranium in order to overcome the difficulties with open mining of the deposit and high mining cost. The feasibility and necessity of using in-situ leaching after explosion in Huangfengling open pit was explored

  15. Tectonic fault monitoring at open pit mine at Zarnitsa Kimberlite Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vostrikov, VI; Polotnyanko, NS; Trofimov, AS; Potaka, AA

    2018-03-01

    The article describes application of Karier instrumentation designed at the Institute of Mining to study fracture formation in rocks. The instrumentation composed of three sensors was used to control widening of a tectonic fault intersecting an open pit mine at Zarnitsa Kimberlite Pipe in Yakutia. The monitoring between 28 November and 28 December in 2016 recorded convergence of the fault walls from one side of the open pit mine and widening from the other side. After production blasts, the fault first grows in width and then recovers.

  16. Planning criteria for open pit mines under special consideration of slope stability and controlled blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weise, H

    1986-04-01

    The criteria which influence the economics of a future surface mining operation are discussed; these include the size of the mine and the depth of the deposit. The methods of working are outlined - single bench, multiple bench - and choices of haulage equipment (trucks vs. conveyors) are discussed. For a mine using conveyors, the slope of the open pit will affect the operating cost. Pumps will be required to dewater the strata; it will be necessary to take steps to ensure slope stability. Bucket wheel excavators will be impeded by the presence of consolidated material, which may be best removed by shatter blasting. An example is given of the use of shatter blasting at the Neyveli lignite mine in Tamil Nadu, India. 5 references.

  17. Results of the Promethee Method Application in Selecting the Technological System at the Majdan III Open Pit Mine / Wyniki Zastosowania Metody Promethee do Wyboru Systemu Technologicznego W Kopalni Odkrywkowej Majdan III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujić, Slobodan; Hudej, Marjan; Miljanović, Igor

    2013-12-01

    This paper discusses the application of the PROMETHEE model and the results achieved in practice, following the example of the multi-criteria selection of the technological system at the Majdan III clay mineral raw material open pit mine of the Potisje Company, Republic of Serbia. After the introduction comments, reasons are explained for selecting the new technological system, conditions and limitations for the seven alternative solutions considered are described, mathematical foundation for the PROMETHEE method and a multi-criteria model of the problem in question are presented. The solution with the following structure was ranked first and accepted by the Company management as the best: Bucket chain excavator - Conveyor belts - Spreader (ECS), alongside a decision is made on the acquisition of machinery and system construction. The system was put into operation in 2000. The experience and the data accumulated in the previous twelve years confirm that the decision made on the application of the ECS technology was just, and the conclusion lists the benefits achieved. W artykule omówiono zastosowanie modelu Promethee i przedyskutowano uzyskane w ten sposób wyniki na przykładzie wielokryterialnego wyboru systemu technologicznego do zastosowania w kopalni odkrywkowej minerałów ilastych Majdan III, należącej do przedsiębiorstwa górniczego Potisje (Republika Serbii). Po uwagach wprowadzających przedstawiono powody wyboru nowego ciągu technologicznego, omówiono warunki oraz ograniczenia dla siedmiu alternatywnych rozwiązań, podstawy matematyczne metody Promethee oraz wielokryterialny model zagadnienia. Rozwiązanie uznane za najlepsze i zaaprobowane przez zarząd przedsiębiorstwa zakłada zastosowanie następującego ciągu technologicznego: koparka łancuchowa jednonaczyniowa - przenośniki taśmowe - rozkładarka(system ECS). Podjęto także decyzje odnośnie zakupu sprzętu i instalacji systemu, który uruchomiony został w 2000 roku. Doświadczenia i

  18. A decision support system using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) for the optimal environmental reclamation of an open-pit mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascetin, A.

    2007-04-01

    The selection of an optimal reclamation method is one of the most important factors in open-pit design and production planning. It also affects economic considerations in open-pit design as a function of plan location and depth. Furthermore, the selection is a complex multi-person, multi-criteria decision problem. The group decision-making process can be improved by applying a systematic and logical approach to assess the priorities based on the inputs of several specialists from different functional areas within the mine company. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) can be very useful in involving several decision makers with different conflicting objectives to arrive at a consensus decision. In this paper, the selection of an optimal reclamation method using an AHP-based model was evaluated for coal production in an open-pit coal mine located at Seyitomer region in Turkey. The use of the proposed model indicates that it can be applied to improve the group decision making in selecting a reclamation method that satisfies optimal specifications. Also, it is found that the decision process is systematic and using the proposed model can reduce the time taken to select a optimal method.

  19. Assessing Health Outcomes After Environmental Exposures Associated With Open Pit Burning in Deployed US Service Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbeck, Patricia; Hu, Zheng; Mallon, Col Timothy M

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the long-term health impact of environmental exposures associated with open pit burning in deployed US service members. Two hundred individuals deployed to Balad, Iraq, and Bagram, Afghanistan, with known exposure to open pits, were matched to 200 non-deployed service members. Both cohorts were observed for adverse health outcomes after returning from deployment. Slight increased risks were observed for respiratory diseases in the Bagram cohort (adj RR: 1.259), and for cardiovascular disease in the Balad cohort (adj RR: 1.072), but the findings were not significant. The combined deployed cohort showed lower risks for adverse health outcomes, suggesting a healthy deployer effect. In conclusion, this study did not find significantly increased risks for selected health outcomes after burn pit exposure during deployment among two deployed cohorts compared with a non-deployed cohort.

  20. A cost comparison study of open pit mining vs. in situ assisted gravity drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, J.; Luhning, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    The twin-well steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process has resulted in breakthrough technology to access previously uneconomical deep-seated oil sands reserves in Alberta, and to provide a very cost-effective and environmentally acceptable method for extracting bitumen from reserves having a minimum of 30 m overburden. In the evaluation of new or improved bitumen recovery technologies for its new North Mine, Syncrude Canada has recognized that SAGD was a potential alternate to the current open pit mining and hot water extraction process. A study was conducted to compare and evaluate bitumen recovery by the two schemes at the North Mine site, scheduled to begin operations in 1996, for the reserves under Syncrude's tailings pond, and at a new grassroots area. Study description and analysis of results are presented for the grassroots case. The assumptions and mining/recovery processes used for the mining or SAGD method are detailed and the advantages and drawbacks of each scheme are noted. Results show that the SAGD unit supply costs are projected to be proportionately lower than the corresponding open pit mining/hot water extraction (OP/X) cost, using a 20-y project life. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the SAGD process is more sensitive to natural gas costs, while the OP/X scheme is more sensitive to power costs. The SAGD process is much less labor-intensive than OP/X and has obvious advantages in terms of tailings disposal and post-mining reclamation. In addition, the underground nature of SAGD operation eliminates adverse effects of the weather on working conditions. 11 figs

  1. An Empirical Study of Propagation Models for Wireless Communications in Open-pit Mines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Caldwell, George; Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio

    2018-01-01

    —In this paper, we investigate the suitability of the propagation models ITU-R 526, Okumura Hata, COST Hata models and Standard Propagation Model (SPM) to predict the path loss in open-pit mines. The models are evaluated by comparing the predicted data with measurements obtained in two operational...

  2. Mining and technological characteristics of future open-pit mine at Brod-Gneotino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasevski, Apostol; Demjanski, Kiril; And others

    2005-01-01

    Development program of Electric Power Company of Macedonia includes to open several pits of coal with aim to prolongate the working period of TPP Bitola, of which one is the bed Brod-Gneotino. This coal bed is characterized with some characteristic mining and technological parameters described in thi paper. (Author)

  3. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT HIGHWALLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 26, Prevention of Acid Mine Drainage Generation from Open-Pit Highwalls. The intent of this project was to obtain performance data on the ability of four technologies to prevent the gener...

  4. Modelling open pit shovel-truck systems using the Machine Repair Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, A.; Musingwini, C. [CBH Resources Ltd., Sydney, NSW (Australia). Endeaver Mine

    2007-08-15

    Shovel-truck systems for loading and hauling material in open pit mines are now routinely analysed using simulation models or off-the-shelf simulation software packages, which can be very expensive for once-off or occasional use. The simulation models invariably produce different estimations of fleet sizes due to their differing estimations of cycle time. No single model or package can accurately estimate the required fleet size because the fleet operating parameters are characteristically random and dynamic. In order to improve confidence in sizing the fleet for a mining project, at least two estimation models should be used. This paper demonstrates that the Machine Repair Model can be modified and used as a model for estimating truck fleet size in an open pit shovel-truck system. The modified Machine Repair Model is first applied to a virtual open pit mine case study. The results compare favourably to output from other estimation models using the same input parameters for the virtual mine. The modified Machine Repair Model is further applied to an existing open pit coal operation, the Kwagga Section of Optimum Colliery as a case study. Again the results confirm those obtained from the virtual mine case study. It is concluded that the Machine Repair Model can be an affordable model compared to off-the-shelf generic software because it is easily modelled in Microsoft Excel, a software platform that most mines already use.

  5. The application of GPS to the deformation monitoring of side slope in open-pit uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yufeng; Pan Jiayong; Zhu Guogen; Wang Fei

    2009-01-01

    GPS has the characters,such as higher accuracy,not influenced by weather and day time. According to actual circumstance of a open pit uranium mine in China. This paper introduces a system to monit the deformation of side sloping and its detail application in a open pit mine. (authors)

  6. An Open Pit Nanofluidic Tool: Localized Chemistry Assisted by Mesoporous Thin Film Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, Magalí; Pierpauli, Karina A; Berli, Claudio L A; Bellino, Martín G

    2017-05-17

    Nanofluidics based on nanoscopic porous structures has emerged as the next evolutionary milestone in the construction of versatile nanodevices with unprecedented applications. However, the straightforward development of nanofluidically interconnected systems is crucial for the production of practical devices. Here, we demonstrate that spontaneous infiltration into supramolecularly templated mesoporous oxide films at the edge of a sessile drop in open air can be used to connect pairs of landmarks. The liquids from the drops can then join through the nanoporous network to guide a localized chemical reaction at the nanofluid-front interface. This method, here named "open-pit" nanofluidics, allows mixing reagents from nanofluidically connected droplet reservoirs that can be used as reactors to conduct reactions and precipitation processes. From the fundamental point of view, the work contributes to unveiling subtle phenomena during spontaneous infiltration of fluids in bodies with nanoscale dimensions such as the front broadening effect and the oscillatory behavior of the infiltration-evaporation front. The approach has distinctive advantages such as easy fabrication, low cost, and facility of scaling up for future development of ultrasensitive detection, controlled nanomaterial synthesis, and novel patterning methods.

  7. Application of 3D Laser Scanning Technology in Inspection and Dynamic Reserves Detection of Open-Pit Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhumin; Wei, Shiyu; Jiang, Jun

    2017-10-01

    The traditional open-pit mine mining rights verification and dynamic reserve detection means rely on the total station and RTK to collect the results of the turning point coordinates of mining surface contours. It resulted in obtaining the results of low precision and large error in the means that is limited by the traditional measurement equipment accuracy and measurement methods. The three-dimensional scanning technology can obtain the three-dimensional coordinate data of the surface of the measured object in a large area at high resolution. This paper expounds the commonly used application of 3D scanning technology in the inspection and dynamic reserve detection of open mine mining rights.

  8. Integration of OHS into Risk Management in an Open-Pit Mining Project in Quebec (Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Badri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite undeniable progress, the mining industry remains the scene of serious accidents revealing disregard for occupational health and safety (OHS and leaving open the debate regarding the safety of its employees. The San José mine last collapse near Copiapó, Chile on 5 August 2010 and the 69-day rescue operation that followed in order to save 33 miners trapped underground show the serious consequences of neglecting worker health and safety. The aim of this study was to validate a new approach to integrating OHS into risk management in the context of a new open-pit mining project in Quebec, based on analysis of incident and accident reports, semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and collaborative field observations. We propose a new concept, called hazard concentration, based on the number of hazards and their influence. This concept represents the weighted fraction of each category of hazards related to an undesirable event. The weight of each category of hazards is calculated by AHP, a multicriteria method. The proposed approach included the creation of an OHS database for facilitating expert risk management. Reinforcing effects between hazard categories were identified and all potential risks were prioritized. The results provided the company with a rational basis for choosing a suitable accident prevention strategy for its operational activities.

  9. A genetic algorithm approach for open-pit mine production scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aref Alipour

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In an Open-Pit Production Scheduling (OPPS problem, the goal is to determine the mining sequence of an orebody as a block model. In this article, linear programing formulation is used to aim this goal. OPPS problem is known as an NP-hard problem, so an exact mathematical model cannot be applied to solve in the real state. Genetic Algorithm (GA is a well-known member of evolutionary algorithms that widely are utilized to solve NP-hard problems. Herein, GA is implemented in a hypothetical Two-Dimensional (2D copper orebody model. The orebody is featured as two-dimensional (2D array of blocks. Likewise, counterpart 2D GA array was used to represent the OPPS problem’s solution space. Thereupon, the fitness function is defined according to the OPPS problem’s objective function to assess the solution domain. Also, new normalization method was used for the handling of block sequencing constraint. A numerical study is performed to compare the solutions of the exact and GA-based methods. It is shown that the gap between GA and the optimal solution by the exact method is less than % 5; hereupon GA is found to be efficiently in solving OPPS problem.

  10. Contributions to the workshop `Residual ponds from open pit brown coal mining`; Beitraege zum Workshop ``Braunkohlebergbaurestseen``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The contributions to the workshop ``Investigations on flooding in residual ponds from open-pit mining`` deal, inter alia, with the hydrochemical development of flushing waters, the stability of the water quality of residual lakes, especially under the impact of land contamination, the influence of brine receipts by flushed residual lakes, and with the microbiological ecology of residual lakes from mining. Furthermore, geophysical studies for demonstrating paths of flow and for calculating the depth and volume of residual lakes from open-pit mining are discussed. (MSK) [Deutsch] Die Beitraege zu dem Workshop `Untersuchungen zu Flutungen in Tagebaurestseen` befassen sich unter anderem mit der hydrochemischen Entwicklung von Flutungsgewaessern, mit der Qualitaetsstabilitaet von Restseewaessern - insbesonders bei Einwirkung von Altlasten - und mit den Einfluessen von Solezufluessen bei Restseeflutung sowie mit Untersuchungen zur mikrobiologischen Oekologie in Bergbaurestseen. Desweiteren werden geophysikalische Untersuchungen zum Nachweis von Fliesswegen und die Tiefen- und Volumenberechnung eines Tagebaurestlochsees erlaeutert. (MSK)

  11. An imperialist competitive algorithm for solving the production scheduling problem in open pit mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mokhtarian Asl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Production scheduling (planning of an open-pit mine is the procedure during which the rock blocks are assigned to different production periods in a way that the highest net present value of the project achieved subject to operational constraints. The paper introduces a new and computationally less expensive meta-heuristic technique known as imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA for long-term production planning of open pit mines. The proposed algorithm modifies the original rules of the assimilation process. The ICA performance for different levels of the control factors has been studied and the results are presented. The result showed that ICA could be efficiently applied on mine production planning problem.

  12. The Experience of Using Innovative Artificial Filter Arrays on South Kuzbass Open Pit: Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyulenev Maxim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the detailed example of placement of artificial filter arrays in one of Kuzbass open pits. It is proved that the use of the existing rock dump as an artificial filter array allows cleaning the quarry wastewater to the required parameters. Therefore, for water purification, it is possible to pile a new array as well as to use the existing dump, which will reduce the operating costs and the land consumption of open pit mining operations. Also, a brief methodology for determining the parameters of the artificial filter array is given in the article, taking into account the volume of contaminated water, the degree of its contamination and the location of the filter. The proposed complex of measures significantly improves the geo-ecological situation of mining region.

  13. The Key Factors Analysis of Palisades Temperature in Deep Open-pit Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Du, Cuifeng; Jin, Wenbo; Wang, Puyu

    2018-01-01

    In order to study the key factors of palisades temperature field in a deep open-pit mine in the natural environment, the influence of natural factors on the palisades temperature in a deep open-pit mine were analysed based on the principle of heat transfer. Four typical places with different ways of solar radiation were selected to carry out the field test. The results show that solar radiation, atmospheric temperature, and wind speed are three main factors affecting the temperature of palisades and that the direct sunlight plays a leading role. The time period of the sun shining directly on the shady slope of the palisades is short because of blocking effect, whose temperature changes in a smaller scale. At the same time, the sun slope of the palisades suffers from the solar radiation for a long time, whose temperature changes in a larger scale, and the variation is similar to the air temperature.

  14. IMPROVING THE ORGANIZATION OF THE SHOVEL-TRUCK SYSTEMS IN OPEN-PIT COAL MINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark KORYAGIN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to reduce idle times of mining trucks and shovels in an open-pit coal mine. A heuristic algorithm for making dispatching decisions in conditions of dynamic allocation of trucks is developed. Priority parameters for choosing the shovel after the end-of-truck unloading are introduced. Also, an algorithm for searching for the optimal priority parameters to satisfy the required efficiency criterion is developed. This algorithm is based on a simulation model of a shovel-truck system. The proposed approach is applicable in terms of the group of shovels with a common dump point in various open-pit coal mines. The importance of this work lies in the fact that the proposed model takes into account the random factors related with the duration of loading and dumping, truck movement, repair of shovels and haul trucks, as well as the duration of periods between repairs.

  15. Contributions to the workshop `Residual ponds from open pit brown coal mining`; Beitraege zum Workshop ``Braunkohlebergbaurestseen``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The contributions to the workshop ``Investigations on flooding in residual ponds from open-pit mining`` deal, inter alia, with the hydrochemical development of flushing waters, the stability of the water quality of residual lakes, especially under the impact of land contamination, the influence of brine receipts by flushed residual lakes, and with the microbiological ecology of residual lakes from mining. Furthermore, geophysical studies for demonstrating paths of flow and for calculating the depth and volume of residual lakes from open-pit mining are discussed. (MSK) [Deutsch] Die Beitraege zu dem Workshop `Untersuchungen zu Flutungen in Tagebaurestseen` befassen sich unter anderem mit der hydrochemischen Entwicklung von Flutungsgewaessern, mit der Qualitaetsstabilitaet von Restseewaessern - insbesonders bei Einwirkung von Altlasten - und mit den Einfluessen von Solezufluessen bei Restseeflutung sowie mit Untersuchungen zur mikrobiologischen Oekologie in Bergbaurestseen. Desweiteren werden geophysikalische Untersuchungen zum Nachweis von Fliesswegen und die Tiefen- und Volumenberechnung eines Tagebaurestlochsees erlaeutert. (MSK)

  16. Exploring droplet impact near a millimetre-sized hole: comparing a closed pit with an open-ended pore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Rianne; Enriquez Paz y Puente, O.R.; van der Meer, Roger M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate drop impact dynamics near closed pits and open-ended pores experimentally. The resulting impact phenomena differ greatly in each case. For a pit, we observe three distinct phenomena, which we denote as a splash, a jet and an air bubble, whose appearance depends on the distance between

  17. Plant succession patterns on residual open-pit gravel mines deposits Bogota

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo A. Mora Goyes

    1999-01-01

    Based on both: the study of composition and structure of plant communities and the analysis of the physico-chemical characteristics of mining wastes, the initial patterns of primary succession were determined. These patterns were present in three deposits of waste material abandoned during 18, 36 and 120 months respectively. Sue materials were originated in open-pit gravel mines located to the south of Bogota (Colombia). This study pretends to contribute to the knowledge of the meehanlsms of ...

  18. Group traction drive as means to increase energy efficiency of lokomotives of open-pit transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipin, D. Ya; Izmerov, O. V.; Bishutin, S. G.; Kobishchanov, V. V.

    2017-10-01

    Questions of possible use of a group drive for locomotives of an open-pit transport are considered. The possibility of a significant reduction of traction costs in the case of a combination of a group traction drive with devices for the non-inertial regulation of the coefficient of friction between the wheel and the rail has been shown, and new patentable solutions have been proposed.

  19. Open Pit Mining & The Cost of Water Potential Opportunities Towards Sustainable Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Sébastien J.R. Fortin

    2015-01-01

    Mining operations require vast quantities of water to run ore processing facilities and thus have a responsibility to manage this critical resource. Operations are often located in areas of limited water supply, which may create a competitive climate for water consumption. Make-up water for mineral processing can represent a significant portion of production cost for mining companies. While necessary for mining, water in open pits is problematic for extraction activities and leads to increase...

  20. A hybrid heuristic algorithm for the open-pit-mining operational planning problem.

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Marcone Jamilson Freitas; Coelho, Igor Machado; Ribas, Sabir; Santos, Haroldo Gambini; Merschmann, Luiz Henrique de Campos

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the Open-Pit-Mining Operational Planning problem with dynamic truck allocation. The objective is to optimize mineral extraction in the mines by minimizing the number of mining trucks used to meet production goals and quality requirements. According to the literature, this problem is NPhard, so a heuristic strategy is justified. We present a hybrid algorithm that combines characteristics of two metaheuristics: Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedures and General Varia...

  1. Functional Quality Criterion of Rock Handling Mechanization at Open-pit Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronov Yuri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Overburden and mining operations at open-pit mines are performed mainly by powerful shovel-truck systems (STSs. One of the main problems of the STSs is a rather low level of their operating quality, mainly due to unjustified over-trucking. In this article, a functional criterion for assessing the qualify of the STS operation at open-pit mines is formulated, derived and analyzed. We introduce the rationale and general principles for the functional criterion formation, its general form, as well as variations for various STS structures: a mixed truck fleet and a homogeneous shovel fleet, a mixed shove! fleet and a homogeneous truck fleet, mixed truck and shovel fleets. The possibility of assessing the quality of the STS operation is of great importance for identifying the main directions for improving their operational performance and operating quality, optimizing the main performance indicators by the qualify criterion, and. as a result, for possible saving of material and technical resources for open-pit mining. Improvement of the quality of the STS operation also allows increasing the mining safety and decreasing the atmosphere pollution - by means of possible reducing of the number of the operating trucks.

  2. Functional Quality Criterion of Rock Handling Mechanization at Open-pit Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronov, Yuri; Voronov, Artyoni

    2017-11-01

    Overburden and mining operations at open-pit mines are performed mainly by powerful shovel-truck systems (STSs). One of the main problems of the STSs is a rather low level of their operating quality, mainly due to unjustified over-trucking. In this article, a functional criterion for assessing the qualify of the STS operation at open-pit mines is formulated, derived and analyzed. We introduce the rationale and general principles for the functional criterion formation, its general form, as well as variations for various STS structures: a mixed truck fleet and a homogeneous shovel fleet, a mixed shove! fleet and a homogeneous truck fleet, mixed truck and shovel fleets. The possibility of assessing the quality of the STS operation is of great importance for identifying the main directions for improving their operational performance and operating quality, optimizing the main performance indicators by the qualify criterion, and. as a result, for possible saving of material and technical resources for open-pit mining. Improvement of the quality of the STS operation also allows increasing the mining safety and decreasing the atmosphere pollution - by means of possible reducing of the number of the operating trucks.

  3. EXPLOITATION OF GLASS SAND ON THE OPEN PIT »VRTLINSKA« (MOSLAVINA, CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Vujec

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of glass sand in Slavonia and Moslavina has a long tradition. The open-pit »Vrtlinska« is-accordirtg to its dimensions and production capacity the biggest one in this regions. Exploitation reserves within this open pit amount about 1 000 000 t glass sand of a very good quality, and the production capacity is 200 000 t yearly according to real needs during design and opening the pit, i. e. before the war. This article discusses geological and geomechanical characteristics of the deposit, as well as the exploitation process, which is considerably matching natural characteristics of the deposit. A more detailed description is given of the planned exploitation phase I above groundwater level which is carried out according to discontinuous system. For the exploitation of the depth part under groundwater level in the phase II, the necessity of further examination of hydrogeological characteristics of the deposit is presented, in order to acquire necessary information on groundwater regime and drainage conditions. Such knowledge will influence the choice of the most appropriate solutions in the exploitation of the depth part of the deposit.

  4. Use of abandoned coal/lignite open pits for waste disposal in selected European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libicki, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    The use of abandoned coal/lignite pits as disposal sites for solid waste appears to be a reasonable approach to a difficult problem, especially if they are located close to the waste source. However, a potential for groundwater and soil pollution exists. This issue was discussed by a Group of Experts on Opencast Mining of the UN Economic Commission for Europe because most of the sites are operated by mining companies. This paper contains the major topics of discussion including the significance of the problem, legal aspects, characteristics of the open pits, waste intended for disposal, investigations required to obtain a disposal permit, disposal techniques, protection measures, monitoring environmental impacts, and research trends. A few countries are used as examples

  5. Close-out of open pit and waste rock piles of a uranium mine in Guangxi province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lechang; Zhang Zhao; Zhang Guopu; Liu Min

    2012-01-01

    Close-out of projects of a mine in Guangxi province of China includes open pit,east and west waste rock piles, ore transfer station, industrial fields, buildings, ore transporting road, and equipment and conduits. The following remediation limits are introduced: environment penetrating radiation dose rate and 222 Rn flux of open pit and waste rock piles, 226 Ra specific activity of soil and individual dose. Remediation objective and programme are discussed in details. Remediation effects are evaluated. (authors)

  6. Groundwater age, mixing and flow rates in the vicinity of large open pit mines, Pilbara region, northwestern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Peter; Dogramaci, Shawan; McCallum, James; Hedley, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Determining groundwater ages from environmental tracer concentrations measured on samples obtained from open bores or long-screened intervals is fraught with difficulty because the sampled water represents a variety of ages. A multi-tracer technique (Cl, 14C, 3H, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113 and SF6) was used to decipher the groundwater ages sampled from long-screened production bores in a regional aquifer around an open pit mine in the Pilbara region of northwest Australia. The changes in tracer concentrations due to continuous dewatering over 7 years (2008-2014) were examined, and the tracer methods were compared. Tracer concentrations suggest that groundwater samples are a mixture of young and old water; the former is inferred to represent localised recharge from an adjacent creek, and the latter to be diffuse recharge. An increase in 14C activity with time in wells closest to the creek suggests that dewatering of the open pit to achieve dry mining conditions has resulted in change in flow direction, so that localised recharge from the creek now forms a larger proportion of the pumped groundwater. The recharge rate prior to development, calculated from a steady-state Cl mass balance, is 6 mm/y, and is consistent with calculations based on the 14C activity. Changes in CFC-12 concentrations with time may be related to the change in water-table position relative to the depth of the well screen.

  7. Plant succession patterns on residual open-pit gravel mines deposits Bogota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. Mora Goyes

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on both: the study of composition and structure of plant communities and the analysis of the physico-chemical characteristics of mining wastes, the initial patterns of primary succession were determined. These patterns were present in three deposits of waste material abandoned during 18, 36 and 120 months respectively. Sue materials were originated in open-pit gravel mines located to the south of Bogota (Colombia. This study pretends to contribute to the knowledge of the meehanlsms of natural restauration of tropical ecosystems subjected to man-borne degradation.

  8. Natural radioactivity in lignite samples from open pit mines "Kolubara", Serbia--risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ðurašević, M; Kandić, A; Stefanović, P; Vukanac, I; Sešlak, B; Milošević, Z; Marković, T

    2014-05-01

    Coal as fossil fuel mainly contains naturally occurring radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series and (40)K. Use of coal, primarily in industry, as a result has dispersion of radioactive material from coal in and through air and water. The aim of this study was to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in coal samples from open pit mines "Kolubara" and to evaluate its effect on population health. The results showed that all measured and calculated values were below the limits recommended in international legislation. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Landslide phenomena in Dashkesan open pit mines and a rational blasting technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrubko, S A; Kasumov, F K

    1980-01-01

    The reasons for the occurrence of landslides are examined, based on the stability of the surrounding rocks in the presence of a round, cylindrical slip surface. It is recommended that surveying be done to establish the boundaries of dangerous zones and to determine the locations of fracture systems. Finishing off the body of a landslide by exploding a lateral fixing is described, as is finishing off in stages, using lateral progress cycles from the top downwards. Stage blasting of a group of benches with decelaration from the top downwards is also described. A description of preventive measures taken to prevent landslide phenomena in open pit mines is given.

  10. The Three-Dimensional (3D) Numerical Stability Analysis of Hyttemalmen Open-Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cała, Marek; Kowalski, Michał; Stopkowicz, Agnieszka

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to perform the 3D numerical calculations allowing slope stability analysis of Hyttemalmen open pit (location Kirkenes, Finnmark Province, Norway). After a ramp rock slide, which took place in December 2010, as well as some other small-scale rock slope stability problems, it proved necessary to perform a serious stability analyses. The Hyttemalmen open pit was designed with a depth up to 100 m, a bench height of 24 m and a ramp width of 10 m. The rock formation in the iron mining district of Kirkenes is called the Bjornevaten Group. This is the most structurally complicated area connected with tectonic process such as folding, faults and metamorphosis. The Bjornevaten Group is a volcano-sedimentary sequence. Rock slope stability depends on the mechanical properties of the rock, hydro-geological conditions, slope topography, joint set systems and seismic activity. However, rock slope stability is mainly connected with joint sets. Joints, or general discontinuities, are regarded as weak planes within rock which have strength reducing consequences with regard to rock strength. Discontinuities within the rock mass lead to very low tensile strength. Several simulations were performed utilising the RocLab (2007) software to estimate the gneiss cohesion for slopes of different height. The RocLab code is dedicated to estimate rock mass strength using the Hoek-Brown failure criterion. Utilising both the GSI index and the Hoek-Brown strength criterion the equivalent Mohr-Coulomb parameters (cohesion and angle of internal friction) can be calculated. The results of 3D numerical calculations (with FLA3D code) show that it is necessary to redesign the slope-bench system in the Hyttemalmen open pit. Changing slope inclination for lower stages is recommended. The minimum factor of safety should be equal 1.3. At the final planned stage of excavation, the factor of safety drops to 1.06 with failure surface ranging through all of the slopes. In the case

  11. Inside report on arrangement progress of an open-air pit for tools and materials of Plutonium Fuel Center, JNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmura, Kenji; Sato, Shunichi; Gunji, Yasutoshi; Sawayama, Takeo; Nogami, Tetsuya; Matsuno, Kazuya; Tominaga, Setsuo; Osawa, Takayasu

    1999-03-01

    In the course of arranging the wasted tools and materials in the open-air pit (B-pit) of Plutonium Fuel Center, JNC, a radioactive contamination occurred on June 25, 1998, on working clothes of an operator. The B-pit was immediately set up as a temporarily radiation-controlled area and the necessary works such as disposing contaminated wastes, decontamination and surface coatings as well as cleaning have been finished on February 2, 1999. The present report describes the main procedure of actual operations, a possible cause of the contamination, and the resulting wastes from the present work amounting to about 250 drums. (Ohno, S.)

  12. Birth outcomes among military personnel after exposure to documented open-air burn pits before and during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlin, Ava Marie S; DeScisciolo, Connie; Sevick, Carter J; Bukowinski, Anna T; Phillips, Christopher J; Smith, Tyler C

    2012-06-01

    To examine birth outcomes in military women and men with potential exposure to documented open-air burn pits before and during pregnancy. Electronic data from the Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry and the Defense Manpower Data Center were used to examine the prevalence of birth defects and preterm birth among infants of active-duty women and men who were deployed within a 3-mile radius of a documented open-air burn pit before or during pregnancy. In general, burn pit exposure at various times in relation to pregnancy and for differing durations was not consistently associated with an increase in birth defects or preterm birth in infants of active-duty military personnel. These analyses offer reassurance to service members that burn pit exposure is not consistently associated with these select adverse infant health outcomes.

  13. Influence of lubricant on the pitting capacity of gears. Comparison and discussion of main pitting test methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehn, Bernd-Robert; Oster, Peter; Tobie, Thomas; Hergesell, Maria [Forschungsstelle fuer Zahnraeder und Getriebebau, Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The lubricant in a gearbox should provide a separating lubricating film between the meshing teeth. Furthermore its main task is the evacuation of the developing heat. Hence the lubricant is also an important influence parameter on the pitting life time of gearsets. Due to the constantly rising demands for higher power transmission of gearsets, also higher demands are made against the performance of the lubricants. In order to quantify the capability and to choose the appropriate lubricant for each application, reliable testing methods are necessary. Therefor today different testing methods are available. Two of the main pitting testing methods are the Standard Pittingtest according to FVA 2/IV [2] and its advancement, the Practice Relevant Pittingtest according to FVA 371 [4]. For the Practice Relevant Pittingtest test gears with profile modification and lengthwise crowning are used, which are superfinished. For the introduction of the Practice Relevant Pittingtest into industrial application a round robin test was performed in co-operation with FVA and DGMK. This paper is discussing the today usual testing methods regarding the pitting load capacity of lubricants and their characteristics in comparison. Furthermore the results of the round robin test and further example results, including pictures of typical pittings, are presented. In addition it is demonstrated, how to deal with the results. On the basis of test experience, knowledge from research projects and other examples typical questions concerning the different testing methods are discussed. Thereby essential requirements for reliable and reproducible results are pointed out and possible limits for the application of the test methods are represented. (orig.)

  14. Geomechanical Assessments of Simultaneous Operation in the Case of Transition from Open Pit to Underground Mine in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedbalski, Zbigniew; Nguyen, Phu Minh Vuong; Widzyk-Capehart, Eleonora

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, for a number of reasons, many open pit mines are considering a transition from Open Pit (OP) to Underground (UG) to remain competitive. In OP-UG transition, UG operation is operated simultaneously with the OP operation for a certain period of time. Guidelines for the simultaneous operation of OP and UG are very difficult to establish, as there are very few case studies available. Yet, because of the OP-UG interactions; the operation has a higher safety, technical and management requirements than the OP or UG methods when considered separately. In Vietnam, Cao Son is one of many OP mines, which decided to change the operational system from OP to UG. Simultaneous operation started in 2015 and will be conducted until 2030 when the OP mine Cao Son ends its mining activities. In this paper, selected geomechanical considerations of the simultaneous operation are presented. A number of numerical modelling calculations using finitedifference software with code FLAC were carried out for calibration process, slope stability analysis and the OP-UG interaction analysis for the Cao Son - Khe Cham II-IV mine. Based on the results obtained from numerical modelling, the geomechanical assessments of simultaneous operation Cao Son - Khe Cham II-IV are discussed in this paper.

  15. Novel approach for extinguishing large-scale coal fires using gas-liquid foams in open pit mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinxiao; Wang, Deming; Qin, Botao; Tian, Fuchao; Shi, Guangyi; Dong, Shuaijun

    2015-12-01

    Coal fires are a serious threat to the workers' security and safe production in open pit mines. The coal fire source is hidden and innumerable, and the large-area cavity is prevalent in the coal seam after the coal burned, causing the conventional extinguishment technology difficult to work. Foams are considered as an efficient means of fire extinguishment in these large-scale workplaces. A noble foam preparation method is introduced, and an original design of cavitation jet device is proposed to add foaming agent stably. The jet cavitation occurs when the water flow rate and pressure ratio reach specified values. Through self-building foaming system, the high performance foams are produced and then infused into the blast drilling holes at a large flow. Without complicated operation, this system is found to be very suitable for extinguishing large-scale coal fires. Field application shows that foam generation adopting the proposed key technology makes a good fire extinguishment effect. The temperature reduction using foams is 6-7 times higher than water, and CO concentration is reduced from 9.43 to 0.092‰ in the drilling hole. The coal fires are controlled successfully in open pit mines, ensuring the normal production as well as the security of personnel and equipment.

  16. Research on horizontal displacement monitoring method of deep foundation pit based on laser projecting sensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Xie, Shulin; Zhang, Lixiao; Zhou, Guangyi; Zhao, Xuefeng

    2018-03-01

    A certain level of horizontal displacement will occur during excavation or subsequent construction of deep foundation pit. If the support is improper and the horizontal displacement of the foundation pit is too large, it will cause collapse and even affect the buildings around the foundation pit, which will endanger people's life and property. Therefore, the horizontal displacement monitoring of deep foundation pit becomes more and more important. At present, the electronic total station is often used to monitor the horizontal displacement of the foundation pit, but this monitoring method is expensive, prone to accidental errors, and can not be used for real-time monitoring. Therefore, a method of monitoring the horizontal displacement of deep foundation pit by using laser projection sensing technique is proposed in this paper. The horizontal displacement of the foundation pit is replaced by the displacement of the laser spot emitted by the laser, and the horizontal displacement of the foundation pit can be obtained by identifying the displacement of the laser spot projected on the screen. A series of experiments show that the accuracy of this monitoring method meets the engineering requirements and greatly reduces the cost, which provides a new technology for the displacement monitoring of deep foundation pit.

  17. Open pit mining profit maximization considering selling stage and waste rehabilitation cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttaqin, B. I. A.; Rosyidi, C. N.

    2017-11-01

    In open pit mining activities, determination of the cut-off grade becomes crucial for the company since the cut-off grade affects how much profit will be earned for the mining company. In this study, we developed a cut-off grade determination mode for the open pit mining industry considering the cost of mining, waste removal (rehabilitation) cost, processing cost, fixed cost, and selling stage cost. The main goal of this study is to develop a model of cut-off grade determination to get the maximum total profit. Secondly, this study is also developed to observe the model of sensitivity based on changes in the cost components. The optimization results show that the models can help mining company managers to determine the optimal cut-off grade and also estimate how much profit that can be earned by the mining company. To illustrate the application of the models, a numerical example and a set of sensitivity analysis are presented. From the results of sensitivity analysis, we conclude that the changes in the sales price greatly affects the optimal cut-off value and the total profit.

  18. Long-Term Planning for Open Pits for Mining Sulphide-Oxide Ores in Order to Achieve Maximum Profit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kržanović, Daniel; Conić, Vesna; Stevanović, Dejan; Kolonja, Božo; Vaduvesković, Jovan

    2017-12-01

    Profitable exploitation of mineralised material from the earth's crust is a complex and difficult task that depends on a comprehensive planning process. Answering the question of how to plan production depends on the geometry of the deposit, as well as the concentration, distribution, and type of minerals in it. The complex nature of mineral deposits largely determines the method of exploitation and profitability of mining operations. In addition to unit operating costs and metal prices, the optimal recovery of and achievement of maximum profit from deposits of sulphide-oxide ores also depend, to a significant extent, on the level of technological recovery achieved in the ore processing procedure. Therefore, in defining a long-term development strategy for open pits, special attention must be paid to the selection of an optimal procedure for ore processing in order to achieve the main objective: maximising the Net Present Value (NPV). The effect of using two different processes, flotation processing and hydrometallurgical methods (bioleaching acid leaching), on determining the ultimate pit is shown in the case of the Kraku Bugaresku-Cementacija sulphide-oxide ore deposit in eastern Serbia. Analysis shows that the application of hydrometallurgical methods of processing sulphide-oxide ore achieved an increase in NPV of 20.42%.

  19. Analysis of the Potential for Use of Floating Photovoltaic Systems on Mine Pit Lakes: Case Study at the Ssangyong Open-Pit Limestone Mine in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyoung Song

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the mining industry has introduced renewable energy technologies to resolve power supply problems at mines operating in polar regions or other remote areas, and to foster substitute industries, able to benefit from abandoned sites of exhausted mines. However, little attention has been paid to the potential placement of floating photovoltaic (PV systems operated on mine pit lakes because it was assumed that the topographic characteristics of open-pit mines are unsuitable for installing any type of PV systems. This study analyzed the potential of floating PV systems on a mine pit lake in Korea to break this misconception. Using a fish-eye lens camera and digital elevation models, a shading analysis was performed to identify the area suitable for installing a floating PV system. The layout of the floating PV system was designed in consideration of the optimal tilt angle and array spacing of the PV panels. The System Advisor Model (SAM by National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA, was used to conduct energy simulations based on weather data and the system design. The results indicated that the proposed PV system could generate 971.57 MWh/year. The economic analysis (accounting for discount rate and a 20-year operational lifetime showed that the net present value would be $897,000 USD, and a payback period of about 12.3 years. Therefore, we could know that the economic effect of the floating PV system on the mine pit lake is relatively higher than that of PV systems in the other abandoned mines in Korea. The annual reduction of greenhouse gas emissions was analyzed and found to be 471.21 tCO2/year, which is twice the reduction effect achieved by forest restoration of an abandoned mine site. The economic feasibility of a floating PV system on a pit lake of an abandoned mine was thus established, and may be considered an efficient reuse option for abandoned mines.

  20. Prospective assessment of chronic multisymptom illness reporting possibly associated with open-air burn pit smoke exposure in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Teresa M; Smith, Tyler C; Jacobson, Isabel G; Boyko, Edward J; Hooper, Tomoko I; Gackstetter, Gary D; Phillips, Christopher J; Smith, Besa

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between chronic multisymptom illness (CMI) and possible exposure to an open-air burn pit at three selected bases among those deployed to operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Chronic multisymptom illness (reporting at least one symptom in at least two of the following symptom constructs: general fatigue; mood and cognition problems; and musculoskeletal discomfort) was assessed, differentiating by potential burn pit exposure, among deployers who completed 2004 and 2007 Millennium Cohort questionnaires. More than 21,000 Cohort participants were deployed in support of the current operations, including more than 3000 participants with at least one deployment within a 3-mile radius of a documented burn pit. After adjusting for covariates, no elevated risk of CMI was observed among those exposed. There was no increase in CMI symptom reporting in those deployed to three selected bases with documented burn pits compared with other deployers.

  1. NPV risk simulation of an open pit gold mine project under the O'Hara cost model by using GAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Franco-Sepulveda Giovanni; Campuzano Carlos; Pineda Cindy

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes an open pit gold mine project based on the O'Hara cost model. Hypothetical data is proposed based on different authors that have studied open pit gold projects, and variations are proposed according to the probability distributions associated to key variables affecting the NPV, like production level, ore grade, price of ore, and others, so as to see what if, in a gold open pit mine project of 3000 metric tons per day of ore. Two case scenarios were analyzed to simulate the NPV, one where there is low certainty data available, and the other where the information available is of high certainty. Results based on genetic algorithm metaheuristic simulations, which combine basically Montecarlo simulations provided by the Palisade Risk software, the O'Hara cost model, net smelter return and financial analysis tools offered by Excel are reported, in order to determine to which variables of the project is more sensitive the NPV.

  2. Coal and Open-pit surface mining impacts on American Lands (COAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T. A.; McGibbney, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    Mining is known to cause environmental degradation, but software tools to identify its impacts are lacking. However, remote sensing, spectral reflectance, and geographic data are readily available, and high-performance cloud computing resources exist for scientific research. Coal and Open-pit surface mining impacts on American Lands (COAL) provides a suite of algorithms and documentation to leverage these data and resources to identify evidence of mining and correlate it with environmental impacts over time.COAL was originally developed as a 2016 - 2017 senior capstone collaboration between scientists at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and computer science students at Oregon State University (OSU). The COAL team implemented a free and open-source software library called "pycoal" in the Python programming language which facilitated a case study of the effects of coal mining on water resources. Evidence of acid mine drainage associated with an open-pit coal mine in New Mexico was derived by correlating imaging spectrometer data from the JPL Airborne Visible/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer - Next Generation (AVIRIS-NG), spectral reflectance data published by the USGS Spectroscopy Laboratory in the USGS Digital Spectral Library 06, and GIS hydrography data published by the USGS National Geospatial Program in The National Map. This case study indicated that the spectral and geospatial algorithms developed by COAL can be used successfully to analyze the environmental impacts of mining activities.Continued development of COAL has been promoted by a Startup allocation award of high-performance computing resources from the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE). These resources allow the team to undertake further benchmarking, evaluation, and experimentation using multiple XSEDE resources. The opportunity to use computational infrastructure of this caliber will further enable the development of a science gateway to continue foundational COAL

  3. Limnological and fisheries investigation of the flooded open pit at the Gunnar uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tones, P.I.

    1982-02-01

    The Gunnar uranium mine on the north shore of Lake Athabaska was closed in 1964 and became flooded. This study describes the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water-filled open pit mine. Depth profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen and specific conductivity indicated the presence of five strata in the 110 m-deep lake during the summer. Radionuclides and dissolved salts were concentrated in the deepest layer, where there was almost no dissolved oxygen and living organisms. The concentrations of heavy metals except uranium are generally very low at all depths. Surface levels of radium 226, thorium, uranium and lead 210 are low. There is no surface seepage out of the pit. Bacteria and phytoplankton populations are typical of those found in warm nutrient-rich waters; the total number of species is low, but there is a large number of individuals. No benthic species are present at the bottom or at 82.5 m. Northern pike, common suckers, and longnose suckers were caught; all appeared to be in good condition and larger than individuals of the same age in the neighbouring lakes. Radionuclide levels in their flesh were one to two orders of magnitude greater than background

  4. ON THE PROPAGATION OF OPEN AND COVERED PIT IN 316L STAINLESS STEEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heurtault, Stéphane; Robin, Raphaël; Rouillard, Fabien; Vivier, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The propagation of a single pit was investigated with a flow micro-device. • Both in depth and radial pit propagation were characterized. • The formation of a salt film in the pit was discussed. - Abstract: Pitting corrosion on stainless steel has been widely studied during the last decades, but since it is a stochastic process, it remains difficult to analyze experimentally such a phenomenon. In this work, reproducible single pits were performed on 316L steel by using an experimental setup based on the use of a glass microcapillary to locally supply chloride ions on the steel surface in order to characterize the pit propagation. This original approach allowed obtaining new results about pit propagation. Indeed, it was possible to control the presence of a metallic cap covering the pit by adjusting the experimental parameters (potential – chloride to sulfate ratio – temperature). The presence of this cover was shown to be an important issue concerning the propagation mechanism. It was also possible to study the evolution of both the pit depth and the pit diameter as a function of various parameters. Then, based on the simulation of the current densities at the pit bottom and at the pit aperture, a special attention has been paid for the investigation of the local propagation mechanism.

  5. Efficiency of Low-Profile External Dumping at Open Pit Coal Mining in Kemerovo Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selyukov, Alexey; Ermolaev, Vyacheslav; Kostinez, Irina

    2017-11-01

    Kemerovo region is one of the largest industrial regions of Russia, with a raw material specialization. The rapid growth of the coal industry in recent years has been greatly facilitated by the expansion and development of open pit mining for coal seams extraction, accompanied by an increase in the volumes of overburden and the height of the dumps. There are about 400 objects in the Russian Federation Government Register of Waste Disposal Facilities 80% of which are dumps. Approaches both to external dumping and to the technical stage of reclamation currently contribute to the growth of geomorphic system's instability. Thus, it is proposed to slightly change the approaches to external dumping: the essence consists in the formation of an external dump of overburden, which in future would represent a favorable landscape unit of a flat surface relief used for subsequent differently directed purposes.

  6. Efficiency of Low-Profile External Dumping at Open Pit Coal Mining in Kemerovo Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selyukov Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kemerovo region is one of the largest industrial regions of Russia, with a raw material specialization. The rapid growth of the coal industry in recent years has been greatly facilitated by the expansion and development of open pit mining for coal seams extraction, accompanied by an increase in the volumes of overburden and the height of the dumps. There are about 400 objects in the Russian Federation Government Register of Waste Disposal Facilities 80% of which are dumps. Approaches both to external dumping and to the technical stage of reclamation currently contribute to the growth of geomorphic system's instability. Thus, it is proposed to slightly change the approaches to external dumping: the essence consists in the formation of an external dump of overburden, which in future would represent a favorable landscape unit of a flat surface relief used for subsequent differently directed purposes.

  7. The Production Measurement Model of Open Pit Mine Based on Truck Operation Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiao-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional production measurement of truck dispatching system in open pit mine has not been effectively expressed by a mathematical model, which brings a negative effect on the subsequent data mining and a compatibility issue to apply the production measurement with fixed assignment of truck. In this study, based on the proposed concept that truck is not only the carrier of transport material, but also act as the bridges and linkages between the loading sites and the unloading sites, a new truck operation diagram was established, which was further developed to a basic data matrix and a production measurement model. The new model allowed to calculatethe production measurement of the transport, loading, unloading, material and etc, respectively, as well as with any calculation in combination of more than one factor as needed.It solved the compatibility issue between conventional production measurement and the production measurement of fixed assignment of truck with good practical results.

  8. Effect of stage development of mining operations on maximization the net present value in long-term planning of open pits

    OpenAIRE

    Kržanović, Daniel; Rajković, Radmilo; Mikić, Miomir; Ljubojev, Milenko

    2014-01-01

    Long-term planning in the mining industry has one main goal: maximizing the value that is realized by excavation and processing of mineral resources. When designing the open pits, determining the stages of development the mining operations, (eng. Pushback) is one of the important factors in the process of long-term production planning. Using the different scientific methods and mathematical algorithms underlying the operation of modern software for strategic planning of production, it is poss...

  9. Methods of rational fuel consumption by the dump trucks in deep pits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Lel’

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The detailed analysis of “consumption Norms of fuel and lubricants...” has been performed. It was approved by the Ministry of transport of the Russian Federation and it is an official document for the valuation and planning of fuel consumption in road transport, including open pits. It was found that the “rate...” was deficient in the specific operating conditions of mining dump trucks and a significant discrepancy with the actual fuel consumption. To the greatest extent, these shortcomings are noticeable in deep pits. In the result of experimental and analytical studies a new method of rationing the diesel fuel consumption of mining dump trucks was developed. It is based on the calculation of fuel consumption for vehicle cycle and bringing the actual path length to the conventional horizontal transportation distances using the criterion of energy. This method requires comprehensive consideration of the design parameters of mining dump trucks – mining and road traffic conditions. As a criterion for evaluating the difficulty of transporting it justifies the use of the coefficient of difficulty of the course, showing how many times the energy consumption in the movement of trucks on the highway exceed the real energy consumption while driving on a horizontal road with the crushed-stone surface of the same length. The formulae are derived to determine the given distance of transportation on the basis of the horizontal equivalent of the vertical movement of the rock mass. It was found that the linear rate of flow of diesel fuel to mileage and transportation work under other equal conditions is determined by two main factors: the distance of transportation of L and the coefficient μ of difficulty of the course. As an example, the calculation of the linear differentiated norms of fuel consumption of dump trucks CAT 785B in an “Udachny” pit AK “ALROSA” (JSC. The developed method provides high accuracy of regulation of diesel fuel

  10. A New Methodology for Open Pit Slope Design in Karst-Prone Ground Conditions Based on Integrated Stochastic-Limit Equilibrium Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Cao, Ping; Ma, Guowei; Fan, Wenchen; Meng, Jingjing; Li, Kaihui

    2016-07-01

    Using the Chengmenshan Copper Mine as a case study, a new methodology for open pit slope design in karst-prone ground conditions is presented based on integrated stochastic-limit equilibrium analysis. The numerical modeling and optimization design procedure contain a collection of drill core data, karst cave stochastic model generation, SLIDE simulation and bisection method optimization. Borehole investigations are performed, and the statistical result shows that the length of the karst cave fits a negative exponential distribution model, but the length of carbonatite does not exactly follow any standard distribution. The inverse transform method and acceptance-rejection method are used to reproduce the length of the karst cave and carbonatite, respectively. A code for karst cave stochastic model generation, named KCSMG, is developed. The stability of the rock slope with the karst cave stochastic model is analyzed by combining the KCSMG code and the SLIDE program. This approach is then applied to study the effect of the karst cave on the stability of the open pit slope, and a procedure to optimize the open pit slope angle is presented.

  11. Thermal comfort sustained by cold protective clothing in Arctic open-pit mining-a thermal manikin and questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jussila, Kirsi; Rissanen, Sirkka; Aminoff, Anna; Wahlström, Jens; Vaktskjold, Arild; Talykova, Ljudmila; Remes, Jouko; Mänttäri, Satu; Rintamäki, Hannu

    2017-12-07

    Workers in the Arctic open-pit mines are exposed to harsh weather conditions. Employers are required to provide protective clothing for workers. This can be the outer layer, but sometimes also inner or middle layers are provided. This study aimed to determine how Arctic open-pit miners protect themselves against cold and the sufficiency, and the selection criteria of the garments. Workers' cold experiences and the clothing in four Arctic open-pit mines in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Russia were evaluated by a questionnaire (n=1,323). Basic thermal insulation (I cl ) of the reported clothing was estimated (ISO 9920). The I cl of clothing from the mines were also measured by thermal manikin (standing/walking) in 0.3 and 4.0 m/s wind. The questionnaire showed that the I cl of the selected clothing was on average 1.2 and 1.5 clo in mild (-5 to +5°C) and dry cold (-20 to -10°C) conditions, respectively. The I cl of the clothing measured by thermal manikin was 1.9-2.3 clo. The results show that the Arctic open-pit miners' selected their clothing based on occupational (time outdoors), environmental (temperature, wind, moisture) and individual factors (cold sensitivity, general health). However, the selected clothing was not sufficient to prevent cooling completely at ambient temperatures below -10°C.

  12. STRESSES AND DEFORMABILITY OF ROCK MASS UPON OPEN PIT EXPLOITATION OF DIMENSION STONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Dunda

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of increased stresses and deformability of rock mass in the quarry of Zečevo (exploitation field of Selca – island of Brač has caused a considerable decrease of usability of mineral raw materials, which put into question the survival of the pit. Therefore the research and measurements of the state of stresses and deformability of rock mass within the pit were carried out. Besides detailed laboratory testings (testings on small samples performed were trial in-situ testings on large samples including the corresponding numerical analyses. The exploitation of dimension stone by sowing regularly shaped rectangular blocks has been proved to be appropriate for in-situ testing of bending strength. The paper presents the results of carried out laboratory testings, in-situ testings of bending strength including measuring of deformations after sowing cuts and numerical analyses by which the possible range of horizontal stresses was determined. Since for the case of massive rocks, for which the continuum concept is applied, there are no specifically defined methods of corrections, presented is a possible relation for correction of input size values based on the carried out laboratory and in-situ testings.

  13. Development of broadleaved woodland on colliery and open pit coal mines in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, R.N.; McQuire, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    Broadleaved woodland is an important land use and vegetation type in the United Kingdom (UK), and potentially the most effective landscape and restoration treatment for colliery waste tips and open pit coal sites. A field-based national survey of collieries in England and Wales in 1986 and 1987 showed that establishment was satisfactory in only half of the schemes, and growth was deemed satisfactory in less than one-fifth. There are standard forestry practices whereby stock quality can be assured, and herbaceous vegetation controlled or eliminated by the use of herbicides. During the restoration of the site, depending on choice of species, adequate soil water can be provided by the selection of appropriate soil types and thicknesses, and adoption of appropriate soil handling and decompaction practices. The low affinity of the plantations with local and regional types was partly due to the planting of non-native species and partly due to the failure to match species with site and soil characteristics. There is no reason why woodlands of a local and regional character cannot be established by planting the associated species. A matrix of fast-growing tree and/or shrub species should be used to promote early woodland development. These would be removed during normal management which is essential for the ultimate success of the woodland. Planting schemes should also incorporate woodland structural elements and understory and ground flora species. Provided that these measures are fully implemented, significant improvements in establishment, growth, and woodland development on restored sites should be achieved

  14. Air quality status of an open pit mining area in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaulya, S K

    2005-06-01

    This investigation presents the assessment of ambient air quality carried out at an open pit coal mining area in Orissa state of India. The 24-h average concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM), respirable particulate matter (RPM, particles of less than 10 microm aerodynamic diameter), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) were determined at regular interval throughout one year at 13 monitoring stations in residential area and four stations in mining/industrial area. During the study period, the 24-h and annual average SPM and RPM concentrations exceeded the respective standards set in the Indian ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) protocol in most of the residential and industrial areas. However, the 24-h and annual average concentrations of SO2 and NO(x) were well within the prescribed limit of the NAAQS in both residential and industrial areas. A management strategy is formulated for effective control of particulate matter at source and other mitigative measures are recommended including implementation of green belts around the sensitive areas.

  15. Public exposure to hazards associated with natural radioactivity in open-pit mining in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darko, E O; Faanu, A; Awudu, A R; Emi-Reynolds, G; Yeboah, J; Oppon, O C; Akaho, E H K

    2010-01-01

    The results of studies carried out on public exposure contribution from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMS) in two open-pit mines in the Western and Ashanti regions of Ghana are reported. The studies were carried out under International Atomic Energy Agency-supported Technical Co-operation Project GHA/9/005. Measurements were made on samples of water, soil, ore, mine tailings and air using gamma spectrometry. Solid-state nuclear track detectors were used for radon concentration measurements. Survey was also carried out to determine the ambient gamma dose rate in the vicinity of the mines and surrounding areas. The effective doses due to external gamma irradiation, ingestion of water and inhalation of radon and ore dusts were calculated for the two mines. The average annual effective dose was found to be 0.30 +/- 0.06 mSv. The result was found to be within the levels published by other countries. The study provides a useful information and data for establishing a comprehensive framework to investigate other mines and develop guidelines for monitoring and control of NORMS in the mining industry and the environment as a whole in Ghana.

  16. Short-term scheduling of an open-pit mine with multiple objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Michelle; Pearce, Adrian R.; Stuckey, Peter J.

    2017-05-01

    This article presents a novel algorithm for the generation of multiple short-term production schedules for an open-pit mine, in which several objectives, of varying priority, characterize the quality of each solution. A short-term schedule selects regions of a mine site, known as 'blocks', to be extracted in each week of a planning horizon (typically spanning 13 weeks). Existing tools for constructing these schedules use greedy heuristics, with little optimization. To construct a single schedule in which infrastructure is sufficiently utilized, with production grades consistently close to a desired target, a planner must often run these heuristics many times, adjusting parameters after each iteration. A planner's intuition and experience can evaluate the relative quality and mineability of different schedules in a way that is difficult to automate. Of interest to a short-term planner is the generation of multiple schedules, extracting available ore and waste in varying sequences, which can then be manually compared. This article presents a tool in which multiple, diverse, short-term schedules are constructed, meeting a range of common objectives without the need for iterative parameter adjustment.

  17. Typical whole body vibration exposure magnitudes encountered in the open pit mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Bryan; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Don

    2009-01-01

    According to recent research, a causal link has been established between occupational exposure to whole body vibration and an increased occurrence of low back pain. To aid in the further development of an in-house health and safety program for a large open pit mining facility interested in reducing back pain among its operators, whole body vibration magnitudes were characterized for a range of jobs. Specifically, thirty-five individual jobs from five different areas across the facility were evaluated for tri-axial acceleration levels during normal operating conditions. Tri-axial acceleration magnitudes were categorized into thirteen job groups. Job groups were ranked according to exposure and compared to the ISO 2631-1 standard for health risk assessment. Three of the thirteen job groups produced tri-axial acceleration magnitudes below the ISO 2631-1 low/moderate health caution limit for a twelve hour exposure. Six of the thirteen job groups produced exposures within the moderate health risk range. Four job groups were found to subject operators to WBV acceleration magnitudes above the moderate/high health caution limit.

  18. Restoration of open pit lignite mining in the former GDR: lessons to be learnt from Zwenkau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegand, U.; Schreck, P.; Schreiter, P.; Lerche, I.; Glaesser, W. [Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle (UFZ), Halle (Germany) Dept. of Hydrogeology

    2003-07-01

    The interactions have been investigated between the near-surface sediments of the sediment dumping at the Zwenkau open pit near Leipzig, used for extraction of lignite, and the produced mining water. These environmental impacts are the legacy of the energy policy of the former GDR. The pyrite oxidation that takes place in the overburden sediments causes the formation of an oxidation front and the pH-value of sediments falls to about 2 to 3 very soon after deposition. The primary mineral contents are destroyed and a considerable number of elements are mobilized that remain locally in the sediment pores. Because of the very weak seepage, rainfall remains in the alluvial areas as so called dump lakes. The dump lakes are very acidic because the rainwater transport the mobilized elements from the surface. Autochthonous and allochthonous formations of secondary minerals have been observed and analysed. A continuously ongoing interaction of exogenous and endogenous effects hinders the hydrological and geochemical equilibrium stabilization. What to do with such a 'moonscape' is considered in the conclusions. 21 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Geotechnical approach for occupational safety risk analysis of critical slope in open pit mining as implication for earthquake hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munirwansyah; Irsyam, Masyhur; Munirwan, Reza P.; Yunita, Halida; Zulfan Usrina, M.

    2018-05-01

    Occupational safety and health (OSH) is a planned effort to prevent accidents and diseases caused by work. In conducting mining activities often occur work accidents caused by unsafe field conditions. In open mine area, there is often a slump due to unstable slopes, which can disrupt the activities and productivity of mining companies. Based on research on stability of open pit slopes conducted by Febrianti [8], the Meureubo coal mine located in Aceh Barat district, on the slope of mine was indicated unsafe slope conditions, it will be continued research on OSH for landslide which is to understand the stability of the excavation slope and the shape of the slope collapse. Plaxis software was used for this research. After analyzing the slope stability and the effect of landslide on OSH with Job Safety Analysis (JSA) method, to identify the hazard to work safety, risk management analysis will be conducted to classified hazard level and its handling technique. This research aim is to know the level of risk of work accident at the company and its prevention effort. The result of risk analysis research is very high-risk value that is > 350 then the activity must be stopped until the risk can be reduced to reach the risk value limit < 20 which is allowed or accepted.

  20. Determining the potential independent critical pitting temperature (CPT) by a potentiostatic method using the Avesta Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnvig, P.E.; Bisgard, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    The development of a potentiostatic method for determining the potential independent Critical Pitting Temperature (CPT) using the Avesta Cell is presented. The new potentiostatic method has been used to determine the CPT for austenitic stainless steels. The precision of the potentiostatic method of approximately ±2 C is close to that of the traditional potentiodynamic method. The time required to determine a CPT is much shorter than when using the potentiodynamic method. A CPT is obtained within 1.5 to 3 hours for each specimen. The influence of various experimental parameters such as electrochemical potential, evaluation criteria for the CPT, test area, stabilization time prior to polarization and inert gas purging is described. The lack of sensitivity towards many of these parameters as well as the high reproducibility obtained is associated with fundamentals of the pitting process. It is argued that the potential independent CPT characterizes the stable propagating pitting event as opposed to the potential dependent CPT or pitting potentials, which to a larger extent are affected by the nucleation part of the pitting process

  1. Developing an Ecological Passport for an Open-Pit Dump Truck to Reduce Negative Effect on Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptev, V. Yu; Kopteva, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    Expanding the open-pit dump truck usage areas and the need to transport more and more minerals results in producing more and more powerful open-pit dump trucks, and this all is about environmental problems and potential health risks for the personnel. Harmful gas concentrations in working areas became threatening enough to have the work in some areas completely halted, until the contents of harmful substances in the air, as well as visibility on the roads, get back to norm. The article represents the new methodology for assessing comparatively the efficiency of modern transportation systems with performance and ecology characteristics taken into account, by developing an ecological passport for machines, facilitating design improvements and reducing pollution during operation.

  2. Peak particle velocity for rockbursts in underground coal mines and for shot-hole explosions in open-pit mines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holub, Karel; Rušajová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2011), s. 104-114 ISSN 1217-8977 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : hole-shot explosion * open-pit mine * peak particle velocity Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.346, year: 2011 http://www.akademiai.com/content/k3u1334gw21u4x27/

  3. Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendell, L I

    2011-02-15

    Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of "pulse" toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a "snap-shot" of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendell, L.I., E-mail: bendell@sfu.ca

    2011-02-15

    Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of 'pulse' toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a 'snap-shot' of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. - Research Highlights: {yields} Archived gizzard samples reveals mining history. {yields} Grit ingestion exposes grouse to cadmium and lead. {yields} Grit selection includes particles enriched in cadmium. {yields} Cadmium enriched particles are of toxicological significance.

  5. Optimal synthesis of energy supply systems for remote open pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, M.; Romero, A.; Shields, G.; Millar, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    electricity and syngas storage and diesel and biomass bunkering. Within the paper the energy demands for a remote, open pit mining operation located in Northern Ontario are considered as a case study to illustrate the technique and investigations. As expected, for mines close to electricity, natural gas, and diesel distribution infrastructures, the optimal choice is to connect. When a constraint is applied specifying that connection is not possible, as would be for the case exemplified, the optimal choice includes some of the more exotic options for mine site energy supply. - Highlights: •Optimal mine site energy supply methodology is established. •Methodology permits innovative, lower cost, energy supply solutions to be identified. •The methodology allows for electricity and syngas storage and diesel and biomass bunkering. •A remote, open pit mining operation located in Northern Ontario is considered as a case study. •The optimal solution includes some of the more exotic options for mine site energy supply

  6. Nonomuraea indica sp. nov., novel actinomycetes isolated from lime-stone open pit mine, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadri, Syed Raziuddin; Tian, Xin-Peng; Zhang, Jing; Li, Jie; Nie, Guo-Xing; Tang, Shu-Kun; Al Ruwaili, Jamal; Agsar, Dayanand; Li, Wen-Jun; Dastager, Syed G

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, nonmotile actinomycete strain designated DRQ-2(T) was isolated from the soil sample collected from lime-stone open pit mine from the Gulbarga region, Karnataka province, India. Strain DRQ-2(T) was identified as a member of the genus Nonomuraea by a polyphasic approach. Strain DRQ-2(T) could be differentiated from other members of the genus Nonomuraea on the basis of physiology and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of strain DRQ-2(T) showed highest sequence similarity to Nonomuraea muscovyensis DSM 45913(T) (99.1%), N. salmonea DSM 43678(T) (98.2%) and N. maheshkhaliensis JCM 13929(T) with 98.0%, respectively. Chemotaxonomic properties showing predominant menaquinones of MK-9 (H4), MK-9(H2) and MK-9(H6), major polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmono methyl ethanolamine (PME), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), hydroxy-PME (OH-PME), hydroxy PE (OH-PEE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), ninhydrin-positive phosphoglycolipid and unknown phospholipid, fatty acids with major amounts of i-C16:0, ai-C15:0 and ai-C17:0 supported allocation of the strain to the genus Nonomuraea. Results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain DRQ-2(T) from closely related species. The genomic DNA G+C content of the organism was 72.5 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotypic and molecular characteristics, strain DRQ-2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name N. indica sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain DRQ-2(T) (=NCIM 5480(T)= CCTCC AA 209050(T)).

  7. Air quality impact assessment of multiple open pit coal mines in northern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, José I; Huertas, María E; Izquierdo, Sebastián; González, Enrique D

    2012-01-01

    The coal mining region in northern Colombia is one of the largest open pit mining regions of the world. In 2009, there were 8 mining companies in operation with an approximate coal production of ∼70 Mtons/year. Since 2007, the Colombian air quality monitoring network has reported readings that exceed the daily and annual air quality standards for total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm (PM₁₀) in nearby villages. This paper describes work carried out in order to establish an appropriate clean air program for this region, based on the Colombian national environmental authority requirement for modeling of TSP and PM(10) dispersion. A TSP and PM₁₀ emission inventory was initially developed, and topographic and meteorological information for the region was collected and analyzed. Using this information, the dispersion of TSP was modeled in ISC3 and AERMOD using meteorological data collected by 3 local stations during 2008 and 2009. The results obtained were compared to actual values measured by the air quality monitoring network. High correlation coefficients (>0.73) were obtained, indicating that the models accurately described the main factors affecting particle dispersion in the region. The model was then used to forecast concentrations of particulate matter for 2010. Based on results from the model, areas within the modeling region were identified as highly, fairly, moderately and marginally polluted according to local regulations. Additionally, the contribution particulate matter to the pollution at each village was estimated. Using these predicted values, the Colombian environmental authority imposed new decontamination measures on the mining companies operating in the region. These measures included the relocation of three villages financed by the mine companies based on forecasted pollution levels. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Modern carbonate microbialites from an asbestos open pit pond, Yukon, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, I M; Wilson, S A; Dipple, G M; Southam, G

    2011-03-01

    Microbialites were discovered in an open pit pond at an abandoned asbestos mine near Clinton Creek, Yukon, Canada. These microbialites are extremely young and presumably began forming soon after the mine closed in 1978. Detailed characterization of the periphyton and microbialites using light and scanning electron microscopy was coupled with mineralogical and isotopic analyses to investigate the mechanisms by which these microbialites formed. The microbialites are columnar in form (cm scale), have an internal spherulitic fabric (mm scale), and are mostly made of aragonite, which is supersaturated in the subsaline pond water. Initial precipitation is seen as acicular aragonite crystals nucleating onto microbial biomass and detrital particles. Continued precipitation entombs benthic diatoms (e.g. Brachysira vitrea), filamentous algae (e.g. Oedogonium sp.), dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria. The presence of phototrophs at spherulite centers strongly suggests that these microbes play an important initial role in aragonite precipitation. Substantial growth of individual spherulites occurs abiotically through periodic precipitation of aragonite that forms concentric laminations around spherulite centers while pauses in spherulite growth allow for colonization by microbes. Aragonite associated with biomass (δ(13)C = -4.6‰ VPDB) showed a (13)C-enrichment of 0.8‰ relative to aragonite exhibiting no biomass (δ(13)C = -5.4‰ VPDB), which suggests a modest removal of isotopically light dissolved inorganic carbon by phototrophs. The combination of a low sedimentation rate, high calcification rate, and low microbial growth rate appears to result in the formation of these microbialites. The formation of microbialites at an historic mine site demonstrates that an anthropogenically constructed environment can foster microbial carbonate formation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Efficient using of automobile transport for the deep open-pit mines

    OpenAIRE

    Dastan MAHAMBETOV; Bayan RAKISHEV; Galymzhan SAMENOV; Aleksander SŁADKOWSKI

    2013-01-01

    In the paper the method is proposed of substantiation of the major parameters for zones of effective use of automobile transport of different load-carrying capacity by open cast development of the deep deposits. An efficient ratio is determined between the mining and transport equipment by zone-to -zone use.

  10. Microstructure of the optic disc pit in open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Jeong; Lee, Eun Ji; Kim, Bo Hyuk; Kim, Tae-Woo

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the structural and clinical characteristics of the optic disc pit (ODP) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) via enhanced depth imaging (EDI) spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Prospective, observational case series. Seventy POAG eyes clinically diagnosed with an ODP via stereo disc photography. Optic discs were scanned using EDI SD-OCT. Serial horizontal and vertical B-scan images covering the optic discs were obtained from each eye. The structural characteristics of the ODP were investigated via 3-dimensional images constructed from the serial B-scans, focusing on the presence of alterations in the contour of the lamina cribrosa (LC) or prelaminar tissue (PLT), in conjunction with associated clinical characteristics. The structural characteristics of the ODP and associated clinical characteristics. In the EDI SD-OCT images, the ODP was viewed as an isolated alteration of the LC (n = 14, 20.0%) or PLT (n = 16, 22.9%) or an alteration of both the LC and PLT (n = 40, 57.1%). Alterations of the LC were located at the mid-periphery near the LC insertion (n = 17) or far periphery adjacent to the LC insertion (n = 37), and the depth of alteration was deep (n = 23), involving nearly full-thickness LC, or shallow (n = 31), with partially visible LC at the base. Fifty-four eyes (77.1%) exhibited parafoveal visual field (VF) defect within 10 degrees of fixation, and in 98.1% of these eyes (53/54) it was spatially associated with the location of ODP. The parafoveal VF defect was more prevalent in eyes with LC alteration than those without (83.3% vs. 56.2%, P = 0.023) and in eyes with deep LC defect than those with shallow defect (95.7% vs. 74.2%, P = 0.036). Disc hemorrhage (32.4% vs. 0.0%, P = 0.008) and peripapillary retinoschisis (18.9 vs. 0.0%, P = 0.055) were more strongly associated with LC alterations located at the far periphery than at the mid-periphery. Enhanced depth imaging SD-OCT facilitated visualization of the varied

  11. Study of the Rock Mass Failure Process and Mechanisms During the Transformation from Open-Pit to Underground Mining Based on Microseismic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Yang, Tianhong; Bohnhoff, Marco; Zhang, Penghai; Yu, Qinglei; Zhou, Jingren; Liu, Feiyue

    2018-05-01

    To quantitatively understand the failure process and failure mechanism of a rock mass during the transformation from open-pit mining to underground mining, the Shirengou Iron Mine was selected as an engineering project case study. The study area was determined using the rock mass basic quality classification method and the kinematic analysis method. Based on the analysis of the variations in apparent stress and apparent volume over time, the rock mass failure process was analyzed. According to the recent research on the temporal and spatial change of microseismic events in location, energy, apparent stress, and displacement, the migration characteristics of rock mass damage were studied. A hybrid moment tensor inversion method was used to determine the rock mass fracture source mechanisms, the fracture orientations, and fracture scales. The fracture area can be divided into three zones: Zone A, Zone B, and Zone C. A statistical analysis of the orientation information of the fracture planes orientations was carried out, and four dominant fracture planes were obtained. Finally, the slip tendency analysis method was employed, and the unstable fracture planes were obtained. The results show: (1) The microseismic monitoring and hybrid moment tensor analysis can effectively analyze the failure process and failure mechanism of rock mass, (2) during the transformation from open-pit to underground mining, the failure type of rock mass is mainly shear failure and the tensile failure is mostly concentrated in the roof of goafs, and (3) the rock mass of the pit bottom and the upper of goaf No. 18 have the possibility of further damage.

  12. Assessment of erecting nuclear power plants below ground in an open building pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, W.; Altes, J.; Bongartz, R.; David, P.H.; Escherich, K.H.; Kasper, K.; Koschmieder, D.; Roethig, K.D.; Schwarzer, K.; Wolters, J.

    1978-01-01

    The technical feasibility, costs and safety potential of siting a nuclear power plant below ground level have been assessed. The reference plant was a 1,300 MWsub(e) PWR and the siting was based on a 'cut-and-cover' design in soil. The 'cut-and-cover' design enhances the safety potential of the site both with regard to extreme internal accidents and to external impacts inclusive of hostile attack. The measures required to 'harden' the site against these extreme conditions do not cancel each other. The realization of the safety potential is strongly dependent on the reliability of the closure equipment on routes to the atmosphere. These closures represent the remaining vulnerable feature of the design, as all other release paths are through soil which prevents any immediate danger to the public. The concepts considered include partial or complete lowering of the reactor. The thickness of the coverage depends on the degree of protection required and is typically between 8 and 13 m. The essential systems of the above-ground design are unchanged and therefore prior experience and existing designs can be applied. The concepts appear to be technically feasible including, in particular, the large pits and the additional closures; the technical difficulties, however, should not be underestimated. The depth of lowering does not determine the gain in safety because a well designed coverage can act as natural soil. Partial lowering, in fact, appears to be the more economic method. According to the degree of protection and the variations of design, the concepts would cost between 8 and 14% more than the capital cost of an equivalent above-ground plant. The construction time would be extended by 1.4 years for the concepts investigated. (orig./HP) [de

  13. SQA of finite element method (FEM) codes used for analyses of pit storage/transport packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russel, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the software quality assurance of finite element method codes used for analyses of pit storage and transport projects. This methodology utilizes the ISO 9000-3: Guideline for application of 9001 to the development, supply, and maintenance of software, for establishing well-defined software engineering processes to consistently maintain high quality management approaches.

  14. COGEMA: Geological exploitation and supervision concerning the open pits of the Herault Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, D.

    1989-01-01

    Cogema mines since 1974 near Lodeve (Herault) the uranium deposits located in the eastern part of the Permian basin of Lodeve. These mining operations are carried out open cast and underground by the Herault Mining Division. The methods used for mining the deposit underground at Mas Lavayre in the most important uranium mine of Western Europe were previously described. The object of the present article is to describe the methods applied to mine the deposits by open cast working, for which it is essential in view of the complex geometry of the mineralizations to have a high-quality geological supervision to ensure a good selective recovery of the ore. 9 figs., 9 refs [fr

  15. Study on monitoring of deep foundation pit with SMW engineering method plus anchor cable retaining structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenzhao; Cui, Wenping

    2018-03-01

    The SMW method has many advantages, such as little influence on the surrounding environment, good watertight performance, wide range of application, short construction period, low cost and so on. In this paper, we chose the SMW engineering method combined with anchor cable to support structure in the second phase deep foundation pit of Jinan LuJinDongCheng as the research object, monitored and analysed the horizontal displacement of the pile top, Peripheral surface subsidence and internal force of the anchor cable in the foundation pit. We also discussed the displacement, internal force of anchor cable and the settlement of surrounding environment in the excavation of foundation pit and in different stages of construction. Conclusion:(1)The maximum horizontal displacement of the retaining structure is closely related to the depth and time of excavation, the construction of anchor cable can well limit the deformation of pile body; (2)Groundwater seepage caused by foundation pit dewatering will change the effective stress of soil. The change of groundwater level has an important influence on the working behavior of smw anchor cable supporting structure.

  16. Uranium in mining water of kaolin open pit in Zarów (Lower Silesia); methodology of determination and genetic remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, N D; Wyszomirski, P; Chruściel, E; Ochoński, A

    1999-11-01

    In this paper, a method of determination of uranium 238 and 234 in mining waters of Andrzej kaolin open pit in Zarów (Lower Silesia) is presented. The method is based on independent measurements of alpha and beta radiation intensities by means of a liquid scintillation spectrometer alpha/beta. The initial volume of water sample was 3 dm3, then it was diminished by chemical preparation to 6 cm3, and then 12 cm3 of scintillator was added. The lower limit of detection (for the measurement time of 8 h) for both 234U and 238U amounted to 0.02 Bq/dm3. For determination of the uranium content in ferruginous sediments precipitating from mining waters of the above-mentioned open pit, gamma ray spectrometry was used. The obtained results may be viewed as a contribution to studies on anomalous uranium concentration within this kaolin deposit. The elevated uranium content, in comparison with its average concentration in the Earth crust, is characteristic for parent rocks of Andrzej kaolin deposit, which are granitoids of Strzegom-Sobótka massif. In connection with it, the high uranium content can be observed not only in kaolin and weakly kaolinised granitoids from the deposit in question, but also in mining waters genetically related with them.

  17. Estimating disperser abundance using open population models that incorporate data from continuous detection PIT arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzul, Maria C.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Korman, Josh

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag antenna systems continuously detect individually marked organisms at one or more fixed points over long time periods. Estimating abundance using data from autonomous antennae can be challenging, because these systems do not detect unmarked individuals. Here we pair PIT antennae data from a tributary with mark-recapture sampling data in a mainstem river to estimate the number of fish moving from the mainstem to the tributary. We then use our model to estimate abundance of non-native rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss that move from the Colorado River to the Little Colorado River (LCR), the latter of which is important spawning and rearing habitat for federally-endangered humpback chub Gila cypha. We estimate 226 rainbow trout (95% CI: 127-370) entered the LCR from October 2013-April 2014. We discuss the challenges of incorporating detections from autonomous PIT antenna systems into mark-recapture population models, particularly in regards to using information about spatial location to estimate movement and detection probabilities.

  18. The potential use of exhausted open pit mine voids as sinks for atmospheric CO2: insights from natural reedbeds and mine water treatment wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Younger, Paul L.; Mayes, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Abandoned surface mine voids are often left to flood, forming pit lakes. Drawing simple but important lessons from experiences with compost-based passive remediation systems for acidic mine waters, an alternative end-use for open pit mine voids is proposed: gradual infilling with organic material, which can serve as a long-term sink for atmospheric CO2, whilst ameliorating or eventually eliminating sustained evaporative water loss and acidic water pollution. Key to the success of this approac...

  19. DETERMINATION OF OPTIMAL CONTOURS OF OPEN PIT MINE DURING OIL SHALE EXPLOITATION, BY MINEX 5.2.3. PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Ignjatović

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available By examination and determination of optimal solution of technological processes of exploitation and oil shale processing from Aleksinac site and with adopted technical solution and exploitation of oil shale, derived a technical solution that optimize contour of the newly defined open pit mine. In the world, this problem is solved by using a computer program that has become the established standard for quick and efficient solution for this problem. One of the computer’s program, which can be used for determination of the optimal contours of open pit mines is Minex 5.2.3. program, produced in Australia in the Surpac Minex Group Pty Ltd Company, which is applied at the Mining and Metallurgy Institute Bor (no. of licenses are SSI - 24765 and SSI - 24766. In this study, authors performed 11 optimization of deposit geo - models in Minex 5.2.3. based on the tests results, performed in a laboratory for soil mechanics of Mining and Metallurgy Institute, Bor, on samples from the site of Aleksinac deposits.

  20. Open-pit coal mine production sequencing incorporating grade blending and stockpiling options: An application from an Indian mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Chatterjee, Snehamoy

    2017-05-01

    Production scheduling is a crucial aspect of the mining industry. An optimal and efficient production schedule can increase the profits manifold and reduce the amount of waste to be handled. Production scheduling for coal mines is necessary to maintain consistency in the quality and quantity parameters of coal supplied to power plants. Irregularity in the quality parameters of the coal can lead to heavy losses in coal-fired power plants. Moreover, the stockpiling of coal poses environmental and fire problems owing to low incubation periods. This article proposes a production scheduling formulation for open-pit coal mines including stockpiling and blending opportunities, which play a major role in maintaining the quality and quantity of supplied coal. The proposed formulation was applied to a large open-pit coal mine in India. This contribution provides an efficient production scheduling formulation for coal mines after utilizing the stockpile coal within the incubation periods with the maximization of discounted cash flows. At the same time, consistency is maintained in the quality and quantity of coal to power plants through blending and stockpiling options to ensure smooth functioning.

  1. The use of vibration monitoring to record the blasting works impact on buildings surrounding open-pit mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sołtys Anna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection law and geological and mining law require the mineral mining plant to protect its surroundings from the effects of mining operations. This also applies to the negative impact of vibrations induced by blasting works on people and construction facilities. Effective protection is only possible if the level of this impact is known, therefore it is necessary to record it. The thesis formulated in this way has been and continues to be the guiding principle of the research works carried out in the AGH Laboratory of Blasting Work and Environmental Protection. As a result of these works are procedures for conducting preventive activities by open-pit mines in order to minimize the impact of blasting on facilities in the surrounding area. An important element of this activity is the monitoring of vibrations in constructions, which is a source of knowledge for excavation supervisors and engineers performing blasting works, thus contributing to raising the awareness of the responsible operation of the mining plant. Developed in the Laboratory of the Mine's Vibration Monitoring Station (KSMD, after several modernizations, it became a fully automated system for monitoring and recording the impact of blasting works on the surrounding environment. Currently, there are 30 measuring devices in 10 open-pit mines, and additional 8 devices are used to provide periodic measurement and recording services for the mines concerned.

  2. The use of vibration monitoring to record the blasting works impact on buildings surrounding open-pit mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sołtys, Anna; Pyra, Józef; Winzer, Jan

    2018-04-01

    Environmental protection law and geological and mining law require the mineral mining plant to protect its surroundings from the effects of mining operations. This also applies to the negative impact of vibrations induced by blasting works on people and construction facilities. Effective protection is only possible if the level of this impact is known, therefore it is necessary to record it. The thesis formulated in this way has been and continues to be the guiding principle of the research works carried out in the AGH Laboratory of Blasting Work and Environmental Protection. As a result of these works are procedures for conducting preventive activities by open-pit mines in order to minimize the impact of blasting on facilities in the surrounding area. An important element of this activity is the monitoring of vibrations in constructions, which is a source of knowledge for excavation supervisors and engineers performing blasting works, thus contributing to raising the awareness of the responsible operation of the mining plant. Developed in the Laboratory of the Mine's Vibration Monitoring Station (KSMD), after several modernizations, it became a fully automated system for monitoring and recording the impact of blasting works on the surrounding environment. Currently, there are 30 measuring devices in 10 open-pit mines, and additional 8 devices are used to provide periodic measurement and recording services for the mines concerned.

  3. Development of an on-line coal quality management system in a lignite open pit mine in Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, B. [Montan Bildungs-und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH, Theiben, (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presented a study regarding the development of a coal quality management system (CQMS) for two open pit mines located in Serbia called Tamnava West and Veliki Crljeni. The study was based on on-line measurements, and was commissioned by the public energy corporation Elektroprivreda Srbjie. The purpose of the study was to develop a CQMS that met the quality requirements of the power plants by implementing a rigorous exploration, production planning, and production monitoring system in order to control the production according to certain quality parameters. The paper provided general information and described the initial situation. It also presented an analysis of the necessity to introduce a production monitoring and control system. The setup and layout of a production monitoring and control system based on on-line measurements were outlined, with particular reference to the determination of input parameters for every excavator for the tracking of masses; the simulation of mass tracking and summation of the masses at the transfer points towards the major conveyor; and the monitoring of the output and control of the mass flow according to determined limit values. Recommendations for implementation were also discussed. It was concluded that the newly developed CQMS at Tamnava West open pit mine could be classified as uncomplicated with regard to the quality parameters to be controlled, since currently only calorific value was being controlled. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Study on sand particles creep model and open pit mine landslide mechanism caused by sand fatigue liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Dong-Ning; Wang, Lai-Gui; Zhang, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Shu-Kun

    2017-06-01

    The sand particles in the sand - rock composite slope of the open pit mine occurs creep deformation and fatigue liquefaction under the action of vehicle load vibration and hydraulic gradient, which causes landslide geological disasters and it destroys the surface environment. To reveal the mechanism, a mechanics model based on the model considering the soil structural change with a new “plastic hinge” element is developed, to improve its constitutive and creep curve equations. Data from sand creep experiments are used to identify the parameters in the model and to validate the model. The results show that the mechanical model can describe the rotation progress between the sand particles, disclose the negative acceleration creep deformation stage during the third phase, and require fewer parameters while maintaining accuracy. It provides a new creep model considering rotation to analyze sand creep mechanism, which provides a theoretical basis for revealing the open pit mine landslide mechanism induced by creep deformation and fatigue liquefaction of sandy soil.

  5. ANALYSIS OF THE PIT REMOVAL METHODS IN DIGITAL TERRAIN MODELS OF VARIOUS RESOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Šamanović

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital terrain model (DTM is the base for calculation of the surface runoff under the influence of the gravity (gravity flow in hydrological analysis. It is important to produce hydrologically corrected DTM with the removed natural and artificial depressions to avoid numerical problems in algorithms of the gravity flow. The pit removal procedure changes geomorphometry of the DTM. GIS software packages use pit removal algorithm independently of geomorphmetric features of the analyzed area. In need of minimally modified DTM after the pit removal areas, the carving method (deepen drainage routes and the filling method (fill sink were analyzed on three different geomorphometric areas (bare mountain range, hilly wooded area and the plain area intersected with the network of the drainage canals. The recommendation is given for the choice of geomorphometric least changing DTM algorithm. The input data are raster data of elevation points created by stereoscopic photogrammetry method in 5x5 and 25x25 meter resolution. Differences have been noticed during the process of creating raster data. The recommendation is given for the choice of the most acceptable method for each type of area on the basis of comparison of the original elevation points with the elevation points in created DTM.

  6. The planning and operation of open-pit and strip mines: proceedings of an international conference held at the University of Pretoria, 9-13 April 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deetlefs, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book records the proceedings of the second international conference on the theme of planning and operation of open-pit and strip mines. The conference was held in Pretoria during April 1984. The major portion of South African iron ore and copper is mined in open-pit mines. The rapid expansion of the open-pit and strip mining industry has led to the thriving industry of today. Notable areas of growth have been the introduction of capital-intensive machinery such as walking drag-lines, large capacity shovels, in-pit crushers, extensive use of conveyor belts, large haul tracks and ore-dressing plants. Among other areas where corresponding progress has been made are blasting techniques, maintenance planning, computer applications, and large-scale stock-piling of bulk materials. The conference touched on all these subjects under four main headings: mine planning, mining operations, equipment selection and maintenance, and new developments. One paper looks at open-pit production control at Rossing Uranium Limited

  7. Newly reported lupus and rheumatoid arthritis in relation to deployment within proximity to a documented open-air burn pit in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelly A; Smith, Besa; Granado, Nisara S; Boyko, Edward J; Gackstetter, Gary D; Ryan, Margaret A K; Phillips, Christopher J; Smith, Tyler C

    2012-06-01

    To assess the relationship between possible exposure to smoke from documented open-air burn pits and newly reported lupus and rheumatoid arthritis among Millennium Cohort participants who have deployed in support of operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Prospectively assessed self-reported lupus and rheumatoid arthritis among deployers who completed both 2004-2006 and 2007-2008 questionnaires. After exclusions, more than 18,000 participants were deployed, including more than 3000 participants deployed within a 3-mile radius of a documented burn pit. After adjustment, proximity within 3 miles of a burn pit was not significantly associated with rheumatoid arthritis or lupus in general; however, one location was associated with lupus, although few cases were at this site (n = 2). Results indicate deployers potentially exposed to documented burn pits in the combined three-camp analysis were not at an elevated risk of lupus or rheumatoid arthritis.

  8. The effects of exposure to documented open-air burn pits on respiratory health among deployers of the Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Besa; Wong, Charlene A; Boyko, Edward J; Phillips, Christopher J; Gackstetter, Gary D; Ryan, Margaret A K; Smith, Tyler C

    2012-06-01

    To investigate respiratory illnesses and potential open-air burn pit exposure among Millennium Cohort participants who deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Using multivariable logistic regression, newly reported chronic bronchitis or emphysema, newly reported asthma, and self-reported respiratory symptoms and possible burn pit exposure within 2, 3, or 5 miles were examined among Army and Air Force deployers surveyed in 2004 to 2006 and 2007 to 2008 (n = 22,844). Burn pit exposure within 3 or 5 miles was not associated with respiratory outcomes after statistical adjustment. Increased symptom reporting was observed among Air Force deployers located within 2 miles of Joint Base Balad; however, this finding was marginally significant with no evidence of trend. In general, these findings do not support an elevated risk for respiratory outcomes among personnel deployed within proximity of documented burn pits in Iraq.

  9. Use of overburden rocks from open-pit coal mines and waste coals of Western Siberia for ceramic brick production with a defect-free structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolboushkin, A. Yu; Ivanov, A. I.; Storozhenko, G. I.; Syromyasov, V. A.; Akst, D. V.

    2017-09-01

    The rational technology for the production of ceramic bricks with a defect-free structure from coal mining and processing wastes was developed. The results of comparison of physical and mechanical properties and the structure of ceramic bricks manufactured from overburden rocks and waste coal with traditional for semi-dry pressing mass preparation and according to the developed method are given. It was established that a homogeneous, defect-free brick texture obtained from overburden rocks of open-pit mines and waste coal improves the quality of ceramic wall materials produced by the method of compression molding by more than 1.5 times compared to the brick with a traditional mass preparation.

  10. An application of discrete mathematics in the design of an open pit mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caccetta, L.; Giannini, L.M.

    1988-09-01

    The determination of the 'optimum pit limit' of a mine is considered to be a fundamental problem in mine planning as it provides information which is essential in the evaluation of the economic potential of a mineral deposit, and in the formulation of long-, intermediate-, and short-range mine plans. A number of mathematical techniques have been proposed to solve this problem, some of the more elaborate ones posing considerable computational problems. In this paper we discuss the development and implementation of a graph-theoretic technique originally proposed by Lerchs and Grossman. Our implementation strategy involves the use of a dynamic programming technique to 'bound' the optimum. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Investigation of aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from an open-pit uranium mine by passive vinyl collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, H.B.; Koperski, J.

    1991-01-01

    Detailed investigations of the aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from the biggest open-pit U mining and milling operation in Australia were carried out. Spatial distributions of the long-lived radionuclides of 238 U series and their origin, i.e., mining and milling operations vs. natural background radiation, have been studied. Horizontal flux, dry deposition, and ground resuspension of the radionuclides were investigated along a 50-km transect in the direction of the prevailing monsoonal winds in the region. The study was performed by means of unconventional 'sticky vinyl' passive dust collectors, occasionally supported by high-volume air filter samplers. The data from the flux measurements show an inverse square to inverse cubic dependence, and the dry deposition exhibits an inverse square dependence, of radionuclide load vs. distance. The pit has been the predominant contributor of long-lived U series radionuclides to the environment within the radius of several kilometers from the operations. An aerial dispersion computer code (LUCIFER), based on a Gaussian plume model, was developed for the project. Experimental data were used as the code input data. Good agreement between the measured data and the normalized computed results was obtained

  12. Drillers and mill operators in an open-pit gold mine are at risk for impaired lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnikov, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Occupational studies of associations of exposures with impaired lung function in mining settings are built on exposure assessment and far less often on workplace approach, so the aim of this study was to identify vulnerable occupational groups for early lung function reduction in a cohort of healthy young miners. Data from annual screening lung function tests in gold mining company in Kyrgyzstan were linked to occupations. We compared per cent predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC between occupational groups and tested selected occupations in multivariate regression adjusted for smoking and work duration for the following outcomes: FEV1 open-pit mine for reduced lung function. Occupational medical clinic at site should follow-up workers in these occupations with depth and strongly recommend smoking cessation.

  13. Hyperspectral analysis for qualitative and quantitative features related to acid mine drainage at a remediated open-pit mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G.; Calvin, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    The exposure of pyrite to oxygen and water in mine waste environments is known to generate acidity and the accumulation of secondary iron minerals. Sulfates and secondary iron minerals associated with acid mine drainage (AMD) exhibit diverse spectral properties in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The use of hyperspectral imagery for identification of AMD mineralogy and contamination has been well studied. Fewer studies have examined the impacts of hydrologic variations on mapping AMD or the unique spectral signatures of mine waters. Open-pit mine lakes are an additional environmental hazard which have not been widely studied using imaging spectroscopy. A better understanding of AMD variation related to climate fluctuations and the spectral signatures of contaminated surface waters will aid future assessments of environmental contamination. This study examined the ability of multi-season airborne hyperspectral data to identify the geochemical evolution of substances and contaminant patterns at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site. The mine is located 24 miles southeast of Lake Tahoe and contains remnant tailings piles and several AMD collection ponds. The objectives were to 1) distinguish temporal changes in mineralogy at a the remediated open-pit sulfur mine, 2) identify the absorption features of mine affected waters, and 3) quantitatively link water spectra to known dissolved iron concentrations. Images from NASA's AVIRIS instrument were collected in the spring, summer, and fall seasons for two consecutive years at Leviathan (HyspIRI campaign). Images had a spatial resolution of 15 meters at nadir. Ground-based surveys using the ASD FieldSpecPro spectrometer and laboratory spectral and chemical analysis complemented the remote sensing data. Temporal changes in surface mineralogy were difficult to distinguish. However, seasonal changes in pond water quality were identified. Dissolved ferric iron and chlorophyll

  14. Formation of Mesoherpetobionts Communities on a Reclamated Coal Open Pit Dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzyanin, Sergey; Eremeeva, Natalya

    2017-11-01

    The structure of the mesoherpetobionts arthropod communities of the reclamated dump of the Krasnobrodsky coal pit (Kemerovo region, Russia) has been studied. It was established that the pioneer grouping of mesoherpetobionts arthropod represented by classes of Chilopoda, Arachnida and Insecta-Ectognatha has been formed on the dump for two years after the soil deposition. From the Arachnida, the species of the order Aranei are the most active in the stocking of the dumps. From the class Chilopoda, the species of Lithobiomorpha appear the first on the dump. Insects from the following three orders, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera and especially Coleoptera take the main part in the expansion of dumps and the formation of primary communities. Among the Coleoptera, the beetles of the family of Carabidae (44 species, dynamic density 22.9 specimens/10 trapped per day) dominate. From them, small or medium-sized species are mainly involved in stocking the dumps. There are significant differences in the complexes of ground dump carabid beetles in comparison with the control group, differing in species composition of dominant species, species richness and species diversity parameters

  15. Standard test method for electrochemical critical pitting temperature testing of stainless steels

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for the evaluation of the resistance of stainless steel and related alloys to pitting corrosion based on the concept of the determination of a potential independent critical pitting temperature (CPT). 1.2 This test methods applies to wrought and cast products including but not restricted to plate, sheet, tubing, bar, forgings, and welds, (see Note 1). Note 1—Examples of CPT measurements on sheet, plate, tubing, and welded specimens for various stainless steels can be found in Ref (1). See the research reports (Section 14). 1.3 The standard parameters recommended in this test method are suitable for characterizing the CPT of austenitic stainless steels and other related alloys with a corrosion resistance ranging from that corresponding to solution annealed UNS S31600 (Type 316 stainless steel) to solution annealed UNS S31254 (6 % Mo stainless steel). 1.4 This test method may be extended to stainless steels and other alloys related to stainless steel that have a CPT...

  16. Strategic Mine Planning: A SWOT Analysis Applied to KOV Open Pit Mine in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick May Mukonki

    2017-01-01

    KOV pit (Kamoto Oliveira Virgule) is located 10 km from Kolwezi town, one of the mineral rich town in the Lualaba province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The KOV pit is currently operating under the Katanga Mining Limited (KML), a Glencore-Gecamines (a State Owned Company) join venture. Recently, the mine optimization process provided a life of mine of approximately 10 years withnice pushbacks using the Datamine NPV Scheduler software. In previous KOV pit studies, we recently outlined t...

  17. INFLUENCE OF THE TECTONIC FABRIC ON THE OPEN PIT DESING IN THE ¨ZAPREŠIČKI IVANEC¨ NEAR ZAGREB DOLOMITE QUARRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlo Braun

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available In the »Zaprešički Ivanec« dolomite open pit near Zagreb, exploitation is carried out according to data obtained by analysis of the tectonic fabric of the rock massif, by measurement of the longitudinal seismic waves velocity, and effects of the seismic waves provoked blasting. In this article the fundamental data obtained by structural analysis and measurements with their influence on the pit design and the optimization of blasting conditions, are reviewed. Results of the longtime exploitation verify such complex aproach to deposit work-out (the paper is published in Croatian.

  18. Why do Pit-Hours outlive the Pit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.R. Ozturk (Sait); M. van der Wel (Michel); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We study why a majority of trades still happen during the pit hours, i.e. when the trading pit is open, even after the pit ceased to be a liquid and informative venue. We investigate the case of 30-year U.S. Treasury futures using a ten-years-long intraday data set

  19. Conditions of Antonin seam exploitation in the open pit Druzba near Sokolov with regard to the protection of thermal and mineral water resources in Karlovy Vary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grmela, A.; Sterba, J.

    1997-01-01

    From new structural-tectonic findings concerning the extent and character of the Nove Sedlo fault in the area of the Druzba open pit in the Sokolov Basin, it is evident that it is a form of listric fault of shallow range, ending in an intermediate slip. This finding has a decisive relevance for deciding as to the current placement of the pit in the protection zone of Karlovy Vary's thermal springs. For the purposes of the exploitation of the Antonin seam, it is necessary to create a network of multipurpose bore holes at the bottom of the pit and in front of the working face for the regulation of pressure in the basal aquifer and to ensure unity of monitoring and its complex evaluation on the basis of numerical modelling of the hydrodynamic state of the basal aquifer and the geotechnical processes of the seam's impermeable bedrock. 4 refs

  20. Geospatial analysis of residential proximity to open-pit coal mining areas in relation to micronuclei frequency, particulate matter concentration, and elemental enrichment factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espitia-Pérez, Lyda; Arteaga-Pertuz, Marcia; Soto, José Salvador; Espitia-Pérez, Pedro; Salcedo-Arteaga, Shirley; Pastor-Sierra, Karina; Galeano-Páez, Claudia; Brango, Hugo; da Silva, Juliana; Henriques, João A P

    2018-05-03

    During coal surface mining, several activities such as drilling, blasting, loading, and transport produce large quantities of particulate matter (PM) that is directly emitted into the atmosphere. Occupational exposure to this PM has been associated with an increase of DNA damage, but there is a scarcity of data examining the impact of these industrial operations in cytogenetic endpoints frequency and cancer risk of potentially exposed surrounding populations. In this study, we used a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach and Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) methods to perform a spatial and statistical analysis to explore whether exposure to PM 2.5 and PM 10 pollution, and additional factors, including the enrichment of the PM with inorganic elements, contribute to cytogenetic damage in residents living in proximity to an open-pit coal mining area. Results showed a spatial relationship between exposure to elevated concentrations of PM 2.5, PM 10 and micronuclei frequency in binucleated (MNBN) and mononucleated (MNMONO) cells. Active pits, disposal, and storage areas could be identified as the possible emission sources of combustion elements. Mining activities were also correlated with increased concentrations of highly enriched elements like S, Cu and Cr in the atmosphere, corroborating its role in the inorganic elements pollution around coal mines. Elements enriched in the PM 2.5 fraction contributed to increasing of MNBN but seems to be more related to increased MNMONO frequencies and DNA damage accumulated in vivo. The combined use of GIS and IDW methods could represent an important tool for monitoring potential cancer risk associated to dynamically distributed variables like the PM. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. A Comparison of Vibration and Oil Debris Gear Damage Detection Methods Applied to Pitting Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula J.

    2000-01-01

    Helicopter Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) must provide reliable, real-time performance monitoring of helicopter operating parameters to prevent damage of flight critical components. Helicopter transmission diagnostics are an important part of a helicopter HUMS. In order to improve the reliability of transmission diagnostics, many researchers propose combining two technologies, vibration and oil monitoring, using data fusion and intelligent systems. Some benefits of combining multiple sensors to make decisions include improved detection capabilities and increased probability the event is detected. However, if the sensors are inaccurate, or the features extracted from the sensors are poor predictors of transmission health, integration of these sensors will decrease the accuracy of damage prediction. For this reason, one must verify the individual integrity of vibration and oil analysis methods prior to integrating the two technologies. This research focuses on comparing the capability of two vibration algorithms, FM4 and NA4, and a commercially available on-line oil debris monitor to detect pitting damage on spur gears in the NASA Glenn Research Center Spur Gear Fatigue Test Rig. Results from this research indicate that the rate of change of debris mass measured by the oil debris monitor is comparable to the vibration algorithms in detecting gear pitting damage.

  2. Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower using abandoned open pit mines: influence of groundwater seepage on the system efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Pumped Storage Hydropower (PSH) plants can be used to manage the production of electrical energy according to the demand. These plants allow storing and generating electricity during low and high demand energy periods, respectively. Nevertheless, PSH plants require a determined topography because two reservoirs located at different heights are needed. At sites where PSH plants cannot be constructed due to topography requirements (flat regions), Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower (UPSH) plants can be used to adjust the electricity production. These plants consist in two reservoirs, the upper one is located at the surface (or at shallow depth) while the lower one is underground (or deeper). Abandoned open pit mines can be used as lower reservoirs but these are rarely isolated. As a consequence, UPSH plants will interact with surrounding aquifers exchanging groundwater. Groundwater seepage will modify hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir affecting global efficiency of the UPSH plant. The influence on the plant efficiency caused by the interaction between UPSH plants and aquifers will depend on the aquifer parameters, underground reservoir properties and pumping and injection characteristics. The alteration of the efficiency produced by the groundwater exchanges, which has not been previously considered, is now studied numerically. A set of numerical simulations are performed to establish in terms of efficiency the effects of groundwater exchanges and the optimum conditions to locate an UPSH plant.

  3. THE MEASUREMENT OF SELECTED SOIL PARAMETERS OF FORMER OPEN PIT MINE WITH THE USE OF TRIAXIAL STRESS APPARATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz P. KOGUT

    Full Text Available Identification of geotechnical soil conditions often requires execution of laboratory tests, especially if you want to measure dynamic parameters of the soil. At present, the triaxial shear apparatus is widely applied in determination of the parameters of the soil. On the basis of the soil samples analysis, the examination results provide a wide range of data from basic performance parameters, e.g. internal friction angle and cohesion, to most complex ones like Young’s modulus permanent side effective stress of water samples. Furthermore, the Soil Structure Interaction Laboratory of Cracow University of Technology, has carried out the measurements of propagation of shear waves velocity with the use of bender elements tests. This work presents geotechnical conditions and the analysis of the results, which might be found useful to determine the transportation load parameters of designed S-7 and S-52 routes, as well as overall impact on soil/structure and surrounding areas located over the former clay open-pit mine. The landslides existing in the vicinity of the mine have prompted the authors to take that action.

  4. Bacterial community composition in the water column of a lake formed by a former uranium open pit mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edberg, Frida; Andersson, Anders F; Holmström, Sara J M

    2012-11-01

    Mining of pyrite minerals is a major environmental issue involving both biological and geochemical processes. Here we present a study of an artificial lake of a former uranium open pit mine with the aim to connect the chemistry and bacterial community composition (454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes) in the stratified water column. A shift in the water chemistry from oxic conditions in the epilimnion to anoxic, alkaline, and metal and sulfide-rich conditions in the hypolimnion was corresponded by a strong shift in the bacterial community, with few shared operational taxonomic units (OTU) between the water layers. The epilimnetic bacterial community of the lake (~20 years old) showed similarities to other temperate freshwater lakes, while the hypolimnetic bacterial community showed similarity to extreme chemical environments. The epilimnetic bacterial community had dominance of Actinobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. The hypolimnion displayed a higher bacterial diversity and was dominated by the phototrophic green sulphur bacterium of the genus Chlorobium (ca. 40 % of the total community). Deltaproteobacteria were only represented in the hypolimnion and the most abundant OTUs were affiliated with ferric iron and sulfate reducers of the genus Geobacter and Desulfobulbus, respectively. The chemistry is clearly controlling, especially the hypolimnetic, bacterial community but the community composition also indicates that the bacteria are involved in metal cycling in the lake.

  5. Application of Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) for assessment of occupational heat stress in open-pit mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiri, Parvin; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Golbabaei, Farideh; Dehghan, Somayeh Farhang; Rafieepour, Athena; Mortezapour, Ali Reza; Asghari, Mehdi

    2017-10-07

    The purpose of this article is to examine the applicability of Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) index as an innovative index for evaluating of occupational heat stress in outdoor environments. 175 workers of 12 open-pit mines in Tehran, Iran were selected for this research study. First, the environmental variables such as air temperature, wet-bulb temperature, globe temperature, relative humidity and air flow rate were measured; then UTCI, wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and heat stress index (HSI) indices were calculated. Simultaneously, physiological parameters including heart rate, oral temperature, tympanic temperature and skin temperature of workers were measured. UTCI and WBGT are positively significantly correlated with all environmental parameters (p0.05). Moreover, a strong significant relationship was found between UTCI and WBGT (r=0.95; p<0.001). The significant positive correlations exist between physiological parameters including oral temperature, tympanic and skin temperatures and heart rate and both the UTCI and WBGT indices (p<0.029). The highest correlation coefficient has been found between the UTCI and physiological parameters. Due to the low humidity and air velocity (~<1 m/s) in understudied mines, UTCI index appears to be appropriate to assess the occupational heat stress in these outdoor workplaces.

  6. Using radon-222 for tracing groundwater discharge into an open-pit lignite mining lake--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Axel; Schubert, Michael

    2007-12-01

    Groundwater discharge into an open pit lignite mining lake was investigated using radon-222 as a naturally occurring environmental tracer. The chosen study site was a meromictic lake, i.e., a water body that is divided horizontally into two separate layers--the upper mixolimnion (with seasonal mixing) and the lower monimolimnion (without seasonal mixing). For the estimation of groundwater discharge rates into the lake, a simple box model including all radon sinks and sources related to each layer was applied. Two field investigations were performed. During the October campaign, the total groundwater discharge into the lake was found to be 18.9 and 0.7 m(3) d(-1) for the mixolimnion and monimolimnion, respectively. During the December campaign, the groundwater discharge into the mixolimnion was 15.0 m(3) d(-1), whereas no discharge at all was observed into the monimolimnion. Based on the given water volumes, the residence time of lake water was 5.3 years for the monimolimnion and varies between 0.9 and 1.1 years for the mixolimnion. The investigation confirmed radon to be a useful environmental tracer for groundwater and surface water interactions in meromictic lake environments.

  7. Musculoskeletal symptoms and exposure to whole-body vibration among open-pit mine workers in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burström, Lage; Aminoff, Anna; Björ, Bodil; Mänttäri, Satu; Nilsson, Tohr; Pettersson, Hans; Rintamäki, Hannu; Rödin, Ingemar; Shilov, Victor; Talykova, Ljudmila; Vaktskjold, Arild; Wahlström, Jens

    2017-06-19

    This cross-sectional questionnaire study was carried out at 4 open-pit mines in Finland, Norway, Russia and Sweden as part of the MineHealth project. The aim has been to compare the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms between drivers of mining vehicles and non-drivers. The mine workers were asked whether they had suffered from any musculoskeletal symptoms during the previous 12 months in specified body regions, and to grade the severity of these symptoms during the past month. They were also asked about their daily driving of mining vehicles. The questionnaire was completed by 1323 workers (757 vehicle drivers) and the reported prevalence and severity of symptoms were highest for the lower back, followed by pain in the neck, shoulder and upper back. Drivers in the Nordic mines reported fewer symptoms than non-drivers, while for Russian mine workers the results were the opposite of that. The daily driving of mining vehicles had no significant association with the risk of symptoms. Female drivers indicated a higher prevalence of symptoms as compared to male drivers. The study provided only weak support for the hypothesis that drivers of vehicles reported a higher prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms than non-vehicle drivers. There were marked differences in the prevalence of symptoms among workers in various enterprises, even though the nature of the job tasks was similar. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(4):553-564. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  8. PIT-tagging method for small fishes: A case study using sandeel ( Ammodytes tobianus )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michelle Grace Pinto; Deurs, Mikael van; Butts, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags are commonly used to assess fish movement for use in fisheries management. Here, we investigated physiological and behavioral effects of tagging on sandeels (Ammodytes tobianus) using PIT tags constituting 2.1 ± 0.9% of their body weight. Swimming stamina...

  9. Cavitation Resistance in Seedless Vascular Plants: The Structure and Function of Interconduit Pit Membranes1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodersen, Craig; Jansen, Steven; Choat, Brendan; Rico, Christopher; Pittermann, Jarmila

    2014-01-01

    Plant water transport occurs through interconnected xylem conduits that are separated by partially digested regions in the cell wall known as pit membranes. These structures have a dual function. Their porous construction facilitates water movement between conduits while limiting the spread of air that may enter the conduits and render them dysfunctional during a drought. Pit membranes have been well studied in woody plants, but very little is known about their function in more ancient lineages such as seedless vascular plants. Here, we examine the relationships between conduit air seeding, pit hydraulic resistance, and pit anatomy in 10 species of ferns (pteridophytes) and two lycophytes. Air seeding pressures ranged from 0.8 ± 0.15 MPa (mean ± sd) in the hydric fern Athyrium filix-femina to 4.9 ± 0.94 MPa in Psilotum nudum, an epiphytic species. Notably, a positive correlation was found between conduit pit area and vulnerability to air seeding, suggesting that the rare-pit hypothesis explains air seeding in early-diverging lineages much as it does in many angiosperms. Pit area resistance was variable but averaged 54.6 MPa s m−1 across all surveyed pteridophytes. End walls contributed 52% to the overall transport resistance, similar to the 56% in angiosperm vessels and 64% in conifer tracheids. Taken together, our data imply that, irrespective of phylogenetic placement, selection acted on transport efficiency in seedless vascular plants and woody plants in equal measure by compensating for shorter conduits in tracheid-bearing plants with more permeable pit membranes. PMID:24777347

  10. Transitional phase for small steeply dipping ore bodies from open pit to underground mining:a case study from Scandinavian mining industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Syed Alley; Greberg, Jenny; Schunnesson, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    The transition from open pit to underground mining involves drastically changes in the production system. The equipment for underground mining will change as well as the logistics and the transportation system. Demands of rock stability and control will also change in nature and in equipment needed. At the same time the large investments in underground infrastructure and equipment require short lead times to maintain a high cash flow for the companies. Without proper planning many problems ca...

  11. What Were the Reasons for the Rapid Landslide Occurrence in “Piaseczno” Open Pit? – Analysis of the Landslide Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakóbczyk Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are major natural hazards occurring in opencast mining. The problem of slope stability failure in the existing open pit mines as well as in those which are at a stage of technical closure is current issue in Poland and all over the world. This problem requires conducting in-depth and meaningful analysis which will identify the causes of processes characterized by a very rapid course and large extent.

  12. The use of geotextile tube containers for dewatering the Restigouche open pit zinc mine and settling pond basin in New Brunswick, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douheret [Terratube, Saint-Romuald, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed the use of geotextile tube containers for the dewatering of an open pit zinc mine and settling pond in New Brunswick (NB). The zinc and lead mine closed in 1996 and will be re-opened in 2007. Remediation of the site has been challenged by severe discharge criteria for treated water, as well as by the different types of wastewater produced at the site, which is located in a mountainous area with no impermeable soil. The remediation projects include an open pit cleaning procedure where water is removed and the mine is then desludged. A wastewater treatment plant will then be installed. More than 32,000 m{sup 3} of sludge has accumulated at the bottom of the pit. The zinc content of the sludge was estimated at 2.5 ppm. The water management phase of the project will include batch treatments and the addition of 140 metric tonnes of lime to raise the pH and to precipitate metal ions. The sludge management program included the use of mechanical dewatering, the construction of a storage area, and the use of geocontainers for dewatering and temporary containment. Seventeen geotextile containers were used to reduce the zinc content of the water to less than the 250 ppb authorized by environmental agencies. The containers were changed once every 2 months. tabs., figs.

  13. Evaluation of groundwater pollution in a mining area using analytical solution: a case study of the Yimin open-pit mine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianxin; Li, Li; Song, Hongqing; Meng, Linglong; Zhang, Shuli; Huang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on using analytical and numerical models to develop and manage groundwater resources, and predict the effects of management measurements in the groundwater system. Movement of contaminants can be studied based on groundwater flow characteristics. This study can be used for prediction of ion concentration and evaluation of groundwater pollution as the theoretical basis. The Yimin open-pit mine is located in the northern part of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. High concentrations of iron and manganese are observed in Yimin open-pit mine because of exploitation and pumping that have increased the concentration of the ions in groundwater. In this study, iron was considered as an index of contamination, and the solute model was calibrated using concentration observations from 14 wells in 2014. The groundwater flow model and analytical solutions were used in this study to forecast pollution concentration and variation trend after calibration. With continuous pumping, contaminants will migrate, and become enriched, towards the wellhead in the flow direction. The concentration of the contaminants and the range of pollution increase with the flow rate increased. The suitable flow rate of single well should be open-pit for the standard value of pollution concentration.

  14. Mineralogy and characterization of deposited particles of the aero sediments collected in the vicinity of power plants and the open pit coal mine: Kolubara (Serbia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Željko; Logar, Mihovil; Rosić, Aleksandra

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, particular attention was paid to the presence of aerosol solid particles, which occurred mainly as a result of exploitation and coal combustion in the thermal power plants of the Kolubara basin. Not all of the particles created by this type of anthropogenic pollution have an equal impact on human health, but it largely depends on their size and shape. The mineralogical composition and particle size distribution in the samples of aero sediments were defined. The samples were collected close to the power plant and open pit coal mine, in the winter and summer period during the year 2007. The sampling was performed by using precipitators placed in eight locations within the territory of the Lazarevac municipality. In order to characterize the sedimentary particles, several methods were applied: microscopy, SEM-EDX and X-ray powder diffraction. The concentration of aero sediments was also determined during the test period. Variety in the mineralogical composition and particle size depends on the position of the measuring sites, geology of the locations, the annual period of collecting as well as possible interactions. By applying the mentioned methods, the presence of inhalational and respiratory particles variously distributed in the winter and in the summer period was established. The most common minerals are quartz and feldspar. The presence of gypsum, clay minerals, calcite and dolomite as secondary minerals was determined, as well as the participation of organic and inorganic amorphic matter. The presence of quartz as a toxic mineral has a particular impact on human health.

  15. An AFM-based pit-measuring method for indirect measurements of cell-surface membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Chen, Yuan; Chen, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Air drying induced the transformation of cell-surface membrane vesicles into pits. • An AFM-based pit-measuring method was developed to measure cell-surface vesicles. • Our method detected at least two populations of cell-surface membrane vesicles. - Abstract: Circulating membrane vesicles, which are shed from many cell types, have multiple functions and have been correlated with many diseases. Although circulating membrane vesicles have been extensively characterized, the status of cell-surface membrane vesicles prior to their release is less understood due to the lack of effective measurement methods. Recently, as a powerful, micro- or nano-scale imaging tool, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been applied in measuring circulating membrane vesicles. However, it seems very difficult for AFM to directly image/identify and measure cell-bound membrane vesicles due to the similarity of surface morphology between membrane vesicles and cell surfaces. Therefore, until now no AFM studies on cell-surface membrane vesicles have been reported. In this study, we found that air drying can induce the transformation of most cell-surface membrane vesicles into pits that are more readily detectable by AFM. Based on this, we developed an AFM-based pit-measuring method and, for the first time, used AFM to indirectly measure cell-surface membrane vesicles on cultured endothelial cells. Using this approach, we observed and quantitatively measured at least two populations of cell-surface membrane vesicles, a nanoscale population (<500 nm in diameter peaking at ∼250 nm) and a microscale population (from 500 nm to ∼2 μm peaking at ∼0.8 μm), whereas confocal microscopy only detected the microscale population. The AFM-based pit-measuring method is potentially useful for studying cell-surface membrane vesicles and for investigating the mechanisms of membrane vesicle formation/release

  16. Seasonal dynamics of the photosynthetic pigments content in Populus tremula L. leaves at the adaptation on an open-pit coal mine revegetating dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Zagurskaya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal dynamics of the basic photosynthetic pigments (a and b chlorophylls, carotenoids content in the samples of aspen Populus tremula during natural regeneration on a revegetating pit dump of a worked-out coal pit has been studied. The studies were conducted every ten days during the vegetation period in 2015 (June–September on the territory of «Yuzhniy» dump of «Kedrovskiy» open-pit coal mine (Kemerovo region. The pigment content was identified by the means of spectrophotometric detection. The content of photosynthetic pigments in aspen leaves was calculated on oven-dry weight of the leaves, as moisture aspen leaves can greatly vary, and the determination of accuracy of dry matter content higher than the for specific gravity of the sheet. No changes in visible absorption spectrum of acetone extracts indicating pheophytin formation in chlorophylls have been identified. For all variants the larger amount of b chlorophyll was contained in control samples. The largest differences in a/b chlorophylls and chlorophylls/carotenoids ratio were observed in the end of vegetation period. The ratio between a and b chlorophylls of aspen leaves in both cases by the end of the season was considerably lower. The adaptation of aspen photosynthetic system to the revegetating dump conditions was performed due to decrease in the total pigment content and the percent of b chlorophyll in their composition.

  17. MINE-NEC - A Game for the Analysis of Regional Water Policies in Open-Pit Lignite Mining Areas: An Improved Implementation for the NEC PC-8201A

    OpenAIRE

    Kaden, S.; Varis, O.

    1986-01-01

    The game MINE was developed for the analysis of regional water policies in open-pit lignite mining areas. It is implemented for a GDR test area. The purpose of the game is above all to teach decision makers and their staff in mining regions in order to get a better understanding of the complex interrelated socio-economic processes with respect t o water management in such regions. The game is designed to be played by five groups of players representing municipal and industrial water supply, a...

  18. Copper Tube Pitting in Santa Fe Municipal Water Caused by Microbial Induced Corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Thomas D; Gierke, Casey G; Fredj, Narjes; Boston, Penelope J

    2014-06-05

    Many copper water lines for municipal drinking water in Santa Fe, New Mexico USA, have developed pinhole leaks. The pitting matches the description of Type I pitting of copper, which has historically been attributed to water chemistry and to contaminants on the copper tubing surface. However, more recent studies attribute copper pitting to microbial induced corrosion (MIC). In order to test for microbes, the copper tubing was fixed in hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), then the tops of the corrosion mounds were broken open, and the interior of the corrosion pits were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analysis found that microbes resembling actinobacteria were deep inside the pits and wedged between the crystallographic planes of the corroded copper grains. The presence of actinobacteria confirms the possibility that the cause of this pitting corrosion was MIC. This observation provides better understanding and new methods for preventing the pitting of copper tubing in municipal water.

  19. Copper Tube Pitting in Santa Fe Municipal Water Caused by Microbial Induced Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. Burleigh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many copper water lines for municipal drinking water in Santa Fe, New Mexico USA, have developed pinhole leaks. The pitting matches the description of Type I pitting of copper, which has historically been attributed to water chemistry and to contaminants on the copper tubing surface. However, more recent studies attribute copper pitting to microbial induced corrosion (MIC. In order to test for microbes, the copper tubing was fixed in hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS, then the tops of the corrosion mounds were broken open, and the interior of the corrosion pits were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The analysis found that microbes resembling actinobacteria were deep inside the pits and wedged between the crystallographic planes of the corroded copper grains. The presence of actinobacteria confirms the possibility that the cause of this pitting corrosion was MIC. This observation provides better understanding and new methods for preventing the pitting of copper tubing in municipal water.

  20. Implications of mining practices in an open-pit gold mine for monitoring of a comprehensive test-ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarpe, S.P.; Moran, B.; Goldstein, P.; Glenn, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of an experiment at the Gold Quarry pit, operated by the Newmont Gold Company at Carlin, NV The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data, together with ''ground truth'', from conventional surface blasting activity and to use these data to help determine the effectiveness with which conventional mining blasts can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions

  1. Qinshan CANDU project open top construction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrunik, K.J.; Wittann, K.; Khan, A.; Ricciuti, R.; Ivanov, A.; Chen, S.

    2003-01-01

    The significant schedule reductions achieved on the Qinshan CANDU Project were due in large part to the incorporation of advanced construction technologies in project design and delivery. For the Qinshan Project, a number of key advantages were realized through the use of the 'Open Top' construction method. This paper discusses the Qinshan Phase III CANDU Project Open Top implementation method. The Open Top method allowed major equipment to be installed simply, via the use of a Very Heavy Lift (VHL) crane and permitted the use of large-scale modularization. The advantages of Open Top construction, such as simplified access, more flexible project scheduling, improved construction safety and quality, and reduced labours are presented. The large-scale modularization of the Reactor Building Dousing System and the Open Top installation method and advantages relative to traditional CANDU 6 construction practices are also presented. Finally, major improvements for future CANDU plant construction using the Open Top method are discussed. (author)

  2. Detection and Monitoring of Surface Motions in Active Open Pit Iron Mine in the Amazon Region, Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry with TerraSAR-X Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos E. Hartwig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Scatterer interferometry (PSI represents a powerful tool for the detection and monitoring of tiny surface deformations in vast areas, allowing a better understanding of its triggering mechanisms, planning of mitigation measures, as well as to find better solutions for social and environmental issues. However, there is no record hitherto of its use in active open pit mine in tropical rainforest environment. In this paper we evaluate the use of the PSI technique for the detection and monitoring of mine slope deformations in the N4W iron mine and its surroundings, Pará State, Northern Brazil. The PSI processing was performed with 18 ascending SAR scenes of the TerraSAR-X satellite acquired in the dry season of 2012. The results showed a significant number of widely distributed persistent scatterers. It was observed that most of the study area was stable during the time span. Nevertheless, high deformation rates (312 mm/year were mapped over the mine waste piles, but do not offer any hazard, since they are expected displacements of meters in magnitude for these manmade land structures. Additionally, it was mapped tiny deformation rates in both the east and west flanks of pits 1 and 2. The main underlying reasons can be assigned to the accommodation phenomena of very poor rock masses, to the local geometric variations of the slope cuts, to the geological contact between ironstones and the country rocks, to the exploitation activities, as well as to the major geological structures. This study showed the applicability of the PSI technique using TerraSAR-X scenes in active open pit mines in tropical moist environment. However, the PSI technique is not capable in providing real-time warnings, and faces limitations due to SAR viewing geometry. In this sense, we strongly recommend the use of radar scenes acquired in both ascending and descending orbits, which would also provide a more complete understanding of the deformation patterns.

  3. Standard test methods for pitting and crevice corrosion resistance of stainless steels and related alloys by use of ferric Chloride solution

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the determination of the resistance of stainless steels and related alloys to pitting and crevice corrosion (see Terminology G 15) when exposed to oxidizing chloride environments. Six procedures are described and identified as Methods A, B, C, D, E, and F. 1.1.1 Method A—Ferric chloride pitting test. 1.1.2 Method B—Ferric chloride crevice test. 1.1.3 Method C—Critical pitting temperature test for nickel-base and chromium-bearing alloys. 1.1.4 Method D—Critical crevice temperature test for nickel-base and chromium-bearing alloys. 1.1.5 Method E—Critical pitting temperature test for stainless steels. 1.1.6 Method F—Critical crevice temperature test for stainless steels. 1.2 Method A is designed to determine the relative pitting resistance of stainless steels and nickel-base, chromium-bearing alloys, whereas Method B can be used for determining both the pitting and crevice corrosion resistance of these alloys. Methods C, D, E and F allow for a rankin...

  4. The Upper Miocene Lake Pannon marl from the Filijala Open Pit (Beočin, northern Serbia: New geological and paleomagnetic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganić Meri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents major lithological, structural, paleontological and paleomagnetic characteristics of the Upper Miocene Pannonian marl in the Filijala Open Pit of the La Farge Cement Plant near Beočin, northern Serbia. Pannonian marl lies between the underlying heterogeneous Sarmatian deposits and the overlying set of Pontian sand beds and Quaternary sediments. The open pit is located on the NE range of Fruška Gora, a horst structure with a core of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Paleogene rocks in a complex structural pattern. Pannonian sediments, which are part of a younger structural stage, deposited on the horst limbs. The Pannonian marl strata dip at angles from 12° to 26° (to the NNW, forming a monocline. The strata deformations are a consequence of radial tectonics and are a potential source of landslides. The many mollusks (7 gastropod and 9 bivalve species and ostracodes (27 species and their biostratigraphical position indicate marl deposition throughout the Pannonian age. A paleomagnetic investigation established that the marl has inconsistent remanent magnetization (with bad statistical parameters, which originates from neoformed magnetite.

  5. Development of a method of heat treatment of metals in soaking pits in the bar-rolling shop of the Belarusian metallurgical works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'yachenko, Yu. V.; Ho Juituuan; Steblov, A.B.

    1995-01-01

    The problem of constructing a method for heat treatment of metals in soaking pits is considered and solved. Procedures of optimum heating and cooling of blanks are presented. Results of numerical calculations are given

  6. Imaging and Information Processing of Pitting-Corroded Aluminum Alloy Panels with Surface Metrology Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    positioned outside the sealed chamber by passing extension cables through the bulkhead in the chamber. Temperature and relative humidity were acquired at...inside the chamber was varied in temperature and humidity to promote corrosion. Panels 1-3 were removed 133, 209 and 286 hours from the experiment...indicated that, the nucleated pits, as those general non- visible ones in Panel 1, usually took regular morphological forms, such as hemi-spherical, near

  7. Métodos para predição de bitter pit em maçãs 'Fuji' e 'Braeburn' Methods for bitter pit prediction in Fuji and Braeburn apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sestari

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos foram conduzidos com objetivo de avaliar a eficiência de métodos para predição da ocorrência de bitter pit em maçãs 'Fuji' e 'Braeburn' em duas épocas de amostragem. Os frutos, provenientes de seis pomares distintos, três para cada cultivar, foram coletados antecipadamente (20 dias em relação à colheita e na data prevista para a colheita comercial. Os métodos de predição utilizados foram: a infiltração dos frutos com solução 0,10M MgCl2 mais 0,01% Tween-20 e 0,4M de sorbitol; b imersão dos frutos em solução com 2500nL L-1 de ethephon mais 0,01% Tween-20. Os frutos foram armazenados em atmosfera controlada (AC por cinco meses mais 12 dias, a 20°C, simulando a incidência real de bitter pit em armazenamento comercial. Cada tratamento foi constituído por quatro repetições de 25 frutos. A incidência e severidade de bitter pit, prevista por ambos os métodos foi semelhante à ocorrência real de bitter pit após o armazenamento em atmosfera controlada para cada uma das cultivares utilizadas, quando os frutos foram amostrados antecipadamente em relação à colheita comercial. Na avaliação realizada com frutos amostrados na colheita comercial, nenhum dos métodos foi capaz de prever a incidência de bitter pit após o armazenamento de maneira confiável. Para ambas as cultivares, a infiltração com magnésio e a imersão dos frutos em ethephon só são eficientes na predição da incidência de bitter pit em frutos coletados 20 dias antes da colheita comercial.Experiments were carried out with objective to evaluate the efficiency of methods for bitter pit prediction in 'Fuji' and 'Braeburn' apples sampled at two harvest dates. Fruits from 6 orchards, three for each cultivar, were sampled earlier (20 days before harvest and at commercial harvest date. The prediction methods assessed were: infiltration of apples with 0.10M MgCl2 solution containing 0.01% Tween-20 and 0.4M sorbitol; and immersion of fruits in 2

  8. Tanacetum vulgare as a bioindicator of trace-metal contamination: a study of a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasion, Mateusz; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the possibility of use of Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) as an ecological indicator of metal concentration in a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine in Bełchatów (Poland). Tanacetum vulgare is the only species growing abundantly and spontaneously in the lignite mine waste dumps. Metal concentrations in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and soil were measured in dump sites differing in type and time of reclamation and therefore differing in pollution levels. Tanacetum vulgare appeared to be an accumulator of chromium and iron in roots, whereas highest concentrations of manganese and zinc were found in leaves. A high bioaccumulation factor for cadmium (Cd) was observed in dumps and control sites, indicating that even small amounts of Cd in the environment may result in significant uptake by the plant. The lowest concentrations of metals were found in plants from sites situated on dumps reclaimed with argillaceous limestone.

  9. Cytogenetic instability in populations with residential proximity to open-pit coal mine in Northern Colombia in relation to PM10 and PM2.5 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espitia-Pérez, Lyda; da Silva, Juliana; Espitia-Pérez, Pedro; Brango, Hugo; Salcedo-Arteaga, Shirley; Hoyos-Giraldo, Luz Stella; de Souza, Claudia T; Dias, Johnny F; Agudelo-Castañeda, Dayana; Valdés Toscano, Ana; Gómez-Pérez, Miguel; Henriques, João A P

    2018-02-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that living in proximity to coal mines is correlated with numerous diseases including cancer, and that exposure to PM 10 and PM 2.5 components could be associated with this phenomenon. However, the understanding of the mechanisms by which PM exerts its adverse effects is still incomplete and comes mainly from studies in occupationally exposed populations. The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate DNA damage in lymphocytes assessing the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay (CBMN-cyt) parameters; (2) identify aneugenic or clastogenic effects in lymphocytes of exposed populations using CREST immunostaining for micronuclei; (3) evaluate multi-elemental composition of atmospheric particulate matter; and (4) verify relation between the DNA damage and PM 2.5 and PM 10 levels around the mining area. Analysis revealed a significant increase in micronuclei frequency in binucleated (MNBN) and mononucleated (MNMONO) cells of individuals with residential proximity to open-pit coal mines compared to residents from non-mining areas. Correlation analysis demonstrated a highly significant association between PM 2.5 levels, MNBN frequencies and CREST+ micronuclei induction in exposed residents. These results suggest that PM 2.5 fraction generated in coal mining activities may induce whole chromosome loss (aneuploidy) preferentially, although there are also chromosome breaks. Analysis of the chemical composition of PM 2.5 by PIXE demonstrated that Si, S, K and Cr concentrations varied significantly between coal mining and reference areas. Enrichment factor values (EF) showed that S, Cr and Cu were highly enriched in the coal mining areas. Compared to reference area, mining regions had also higher concentrations of extractable organic matter (EOM) related to nonpolar and polar compounds. Our results demonstrate that PM 2.5 fraction represents the most important health risk for residents living near open-pit mines, underscoring the need for

  10. The 2000/60/EC Water Framework Directive and the Flooding of the Brown Coal Meirama Open Pit (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.

    2009-04-01

    Coal mining in Galicia (NW Spain) has been an important activity which came to an end in December, 2007. Hence, for different reasons, the two large brown coal mines in Galicia (the As Pontes mine, run by ENDESA GENERACIÓN, and the Meirama mine, owned by Lignitos de Meirama, S.A., LIMEISA), have started closure procedures, both of which are considering the flooding of the mine pits to create two large lakes (~8 km2 in As Pontes and ~2 km2 in Meirama). They will be unique in Galicia, a nearly lake-free territory. An important point to consider as regards the flooding of the lignite mine pits in Galicia is how the process of the creation of a body of artificial water will adapt to the strict legal demands put forth in the Water Framework Directive. This problem has been carefully examined by different authors in other countries and it raises the question of the need to adapt sampling surveys to monitor a number of key parameters -priority substances, physical and chemical parameters, biological indicators, etc.- that cannot be overlooked. Flooding, in both cases consider the preferential entrance into the mine holes of river-diverted surface waters, in detriment of ground waters in order to minimize acidic inputs. Although both mines are located in the same hydraulic demarcation (i.e. administrative units that, in Spain, are in charge of the public administration and the enforcement of natural water-related laws) the problems facing the corresponding mine managers are different. In the case of Meirama, the mine hole covers the upper third part of the Barcés river catchment, which is a major source of water for the Cecebre reservoir. That reservoir constitutes the only supply of drinking water for the city of A Coruña (~250.000 inhabitants) and its surrounding towns. In this contribution we will discuss how mine managers and the administration have addressed the uncertainties derived from the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in the particular case of

  11. Determination of Seismic Safety Zones during the Surface Mining Operation Development in the Case of the “Buvač” Open Pit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Malbasic

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the blasting safety area is a very important step in the process of drilling and blasting works, and the preparation of solid rock materials for loading. Through monitoring and analysis of the negative seismic effects to the objects and infrastructures around and at the mine area, we were able to adapt the drilling and blasting parameters and organization of drilling and blasting operation according to the mining progress so that the affected infrastructures could be protected. This paper analyses the safety distances and model safety zones of drilling and blasting for the period 2013–2018 at the open pit at “Buvač”, Omarska. This mathematical calculation procedure can be used during the whole life of the mine. By monitoring of the blasting seismic influence in first years of the mine's work, as well as by using recorded vibration velocities, mathematical dependence of the important parameters can be defined. Additionally, the level and laws of distribution and intensity of the seismic activity can be defined. On one hand, those are known quantities of the explosive and the distances between blasting location and endangered objects. On the other hand, those are coefficients of the manner of blasting and the environment where blasting is done, K, as well as the coefficient of the weakening of seismic waves as they spread, n. With the usage of the allowed vibration velocities, based on certain safety criteria and mathematical formulas of laws of spreading and intensity of seismic influence for a concrete case, it is possible to calculate explosive quantities and distances, with numerically-defined values of parameter K and n. Minimum distances are calculated based on defined or projected explosive quantities. Additionally, we calculate the maximum allowed explosive quantities based on known distances which can be used based on projected drilling-blasting parameters. For the purpose of the planning of drilling and blasting

  12. Real -time dispatching modelling for trucks with different capacities in open pit mines / Modelowanie w czasie rzeczywistym przewozów ciężarówek o różnej ładowności w kopalni odkrywkowej

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangaran, Daryoush Kaveh; Yasrebi, Amir Bijan; Wetherelt, Andy; Foster, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    Application of fully automated systems for truck dispatching plays a major role in decreasing the transportation costs which often represent the majority of costs spent on open pit mining. Consequently, the application of a truck dispatching system has become fundamentally important in most of the world's open pit mines. Recent experiences indicate that by decreasing a truck's travelling time and the associated waiting time of its associated shovel then due to the application of a truck dispatching system the rate of production will be considerably improved. Computer-based truck dispatching systems using algorithms, advanced and accurate software are examples of these innovations. Developing an algorithm of a computer- based program appropriated to a specific mine's conditions is considered as one of the most important activities in connection with computer-based dispatching in open pit mines. In this paper the changing trend of programming and dispatching control algorithms and automation conditions will be discussed. Furthermore, since the transportation fleet of most mines use trucks with different capacities, innovative methods, operational optimisation techniques and the best possible methods for developing the required algorithm for real-time dispatching are selected by conducting research on mathematical-based planning methods. Finally, a real-time dispatching model compatible with the requirement of trucks with different capacities is developed by using two techniques of flow networks and integer programming.

  13. INEL cold test pit demonstration of improvements in information derived from non-intrusive geophysical methods over buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Under contract between US DOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Blackhawk Geosciences Division of Coleman Research Corporation (BGD-CRC), geophysical investigations were conducted to improve the detection of buried wastes. Over the Cold Test Pit (CTP) at INEL, data were acquired with multiple sensors on a dense grid. Over the CTP the interpretations inferred from geophysical data are compared with the known placement of various waste forms in the pit. The geophysical sensors employed were magnetics, frequency and time domain electromagnetics, and ground penetrating radar. Also, because of the high data density acquired, filtering and other data processing and imaging techniques were tested. After completion and analysis of the survey and interpretation over the CTP, the second phase of investigation consisted of testing geophysical methods over the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The sections of the ICPP surveyed are underlain by a complex network of buried utility lines of different dimensions and composition, and with placement at various depths up to 13 ft. Further complications included many metallic objects at the surface, such as buildings, reinforced concrete pads, and debris. Although the multiple geophysical sensor approach mapped many buried utilities, they mapped far from all utilities shown on the facility drawings. This report consists of data collected from these geophysical surveys over the ICPP

  14. Field measurements of mixed exposure of operators to radioactive aerosol, gas and quartz in confinement of mining equipment cabs during open-pit mining of high-grade uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, K.; Atiemo, M.A.; Markham, J.W.

    1982-07-01

    A series of field measurements of miners mixed exposure to radon and daughters, uranium ore dust and respirable quartz, was conducted in an open-pit mine in Northern Saskatchewan during 1980-81. Control of radon gas levels in the mining equipment cabs is required. Dust may be reduced by minimizing the resuspension of dust from contaminated surfaces within the cabs

  15. Comparison between the application of the conventional mine planning and of the direct block scheduling on an open pit mine Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Alves Campos

    Full Text Available Abstract Historically, since the 60's, traditional mine planning consists of several distinct stages: 1 Definition of the ultimate pit - the portion of the blocks that results in the greatest total value; 2 Pushback selection - based on the generation of nested pits, obtained with the change in the value of the ore price; 3 Long-term production scheduling. Although considered quite satisfactory, this methodology presents some flaws: The stages, even if considered individually optimal, may not be when put together. The opportunity cost is not considered and the cut-off is fixed. Due to the recent computational advances, a new technique has been growing and is more reliable: the direct block sequencing. In this methodology, the steps are consolidated into only one process, improving the economic results, reducing the total execution time and obtaining, in fact, an optimal planning. The aim of this work is to compare the results of the two planning methods applied in a database of a Brazilian iron ore mine and to show the real advantages and disadvantages of each one. To solve the direct block sequencing technique, Doppler was used, a tool developed by Delphos Mine Planning Laboratory, located at the University of Chile. The traditional methodology was executed through Whittle software. Lastly, a medium-term scheduling was performed using Deswik software.

  16. Applying persistent scatterer interferometry for surface displacement mapping in the Azul open pit manganese mine (Amazon region) with TerraSAR-X StripMap data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athayde Pinto, Carolina de; Paradella, Waldir Renato; Mura, José Claudio; Gama, Fabio Furlan; Ribeiro dos Santos, Athos; Silva, Guilherme Gregório; Hartwig, Marcos Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The Azul mining complex, located in the Carajás Mineral Province, Amazon region, encompasses the most important manganese mine in Brazil. Vale S.A. company operates three simultaneous open pit excavations (mines 1, 2, and 3) in the area, which are conducted on rock alteration products of low geomechanical quality related to sandstones, siltstones, and a lateritic cover. In order to monitor ground deformation, 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) StripMap images covering the period of March 2012-April 2013 were used in the investigation. An advanced differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (A-DInSAR) approach based on persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) using an interferometric point target analysis algorithm was applied, and the results showed that most of the area was considered stable during the time span of the synthetic aperture radar acquisitions. However, persistent scatterers (PS) with high deformation rates were mapped over a waste pile, probably related to settlements, and also along the north flank of mine 1, indicative of cut slope movements toward the center of the pit. A spatial relationship of geological structures with PS was observed for this sector of the mine, given by PS showing deformation rates concentrated along a structural corridor with faults, fractures, and folds related to the Carajás fault system. Though only ground-based radar measurements for wall benches of mine 1 were available for a short time period of the TSX-1 coverage, the PS movement patterns showed concordance with geotechnical field measurements. The investigation emphasized the important role that satellite-based A-DInSAR can play for deformation monitoring and risk assessment in this kind of mining area.

  17. The mine planning process for an open-pit diamond mining operation - a case study on Letseng diamond mine in Lesotho

    OpenAIRE

    Madowe, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the mine planning process for Letseng diamond mine in the Kingdom of Lesotho, in conjunction with the various software packages used during the process. The major pillars of the long-term mine planning process at Letseng are pit optimization followed by pit design and scheduling. Letseng uses Gemcom Whittle and GEMS for pit optimization and design and Runge XPAC for scheduling. The output of the mine planning process results in the generation of published mineral reserves...

  18. Crystallographic orientation study of silicon steels using X-ray diffraction, electrons diffraction and the Etch Pit method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Hamilta de Oliveira

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study is the microstructural and crystallographic orientation of Fe-3%Si steel. The silicon steel shows good electrical properties and it is used in the nuclear and electrical power fields. The studied steel was supplied by Cia. Acos Especiais Itabira S/A - ACESITA. The material was received in the hot compressed condition, in one or two passes. The hot compressing temperatures used were 900, 1000 and 1100 deg C with soaking times ranging from 32 to 470 s. The material preferential crystallographic orientation was evaluated in every grain of the samples. The characterization techniques used were: scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using the etch pit method; X ray diffraction using the Laue back-reflection method; orientation imaging microscopy (OIM). Microstructural characterization in terms of grain size measurement and mean number of grains in the sample were also undertaken. The Laue method was found an easy technique to access crystallographic orientation of this work polycrystalline samples 2.5 mm average grain size. This was due to the inability to focus the X-rays on a single grain of the material. The scanning electron microscopy showed microcavities left by the etch pit method, which allowed the observation of the crystallographic orientation of each grain from the samples. No conclusive grain crystallographic orientation was possible to obtain by the OIM technique due to the non-existing rolling direction. A more extensive work with the OIM technique must be undertaken on the Fe-3%Si with oriented grains and non oriented grains. (author)

  19. Correlation of Risk Analysis Method Results with Numerical and Limit Equilibrium Methods in Overall Slope Stability Analysis of Southern Wall of Chadormalu Iron Open Pit Mine-Iran / Korelacja wyników analizy ryzyka z wynikami obliczeń numerycznych oraz wynikami uzyskanymi w oparciu o metodę równowagi granicznej zastosowanych do badania stabilności wyrobiska pochyłego na południowej ścianie odkrywkowej kopalni rud żelaza w chadormalu w Iranie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangari, Kaveh; Paji, Arman Gholinezhad; Behdani, Alireza Siami

    2013-06-01

    Slope stability analysis is one of the most important factors in designing open pit mines. Therefore an optimal slope design that supports both aspects of economy and safety is very significant. There are many different methods in slope stability analysis including empirical, limit equilibrium, block theory, numerical, and probabilistic methods. In this study, to analyze the overall slope stability of southern wall of Chadormalu iron open pit mine three numerical, limit equilibrium and probabilistic methods have been used. Software and methods that is used for analytical investigation in this study are FLAC software for numerical analysis, SLIDE software and circuit failure chart for limit equilibrium analysis and qualitative fault tree and semi-quantitative risk matrix for probabilistic analysis. The results of all above mentioned methods, was a circular failure occurrence in Metasomatite rock zone between 1405 to 1525 m levels. The main factors of failure occurrence in this range were heavily jointing and existing of faults. Safety factors resulted from numerical method; Circular chart method and SLIDE software are 1.16, 1.25 and 1.27 respectively. Regarding instability and safety factors in Metasomatite rock zone, in order to stabilize the given zone, some considerations such as bench angle and height reduction should be planned. In results of risk matrix method this zone was mentioned too as a high risk zone that numerical and limit equilibrium methods confirmed this. Badanie stabilności wyrobiska pochyłego jest jednym z najważniejszych czynników uwzględnianych przy projektowaniu kopalni odkrywkowych. Optymalne zaprojektowanie wyrobiska pochyłego z uwzględnieniem czynników ekonomicznych oraz bezpieczeństwa jest niezmiernie ważne. Istnieje wiele metod badania stabilności wyrobiska pochyłego, między innymi metody empiryczne, metoda równowagi granicznej, teoria bloków oraz metody numeryczne i probabilistyczne. W pracy tej omówiono zastosowanie

  20. The analysis of the Tectonics - SSS - Seismicity System in the 3D-model of the Rasvumchorr Mine - Central Open Pit Natural and Technical System (Khibiny)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirov, Dmitry; Klimov, Sergey; Zhirova, Anzhela; Panteleev, Alexey; Rybin, Vadim

    2017-04-01

    Main hazardous factors during the operation of deposits represent tectonics (structural dislocation), strain and stress state (SSS), and seismicity. The cause and effect relationships in the Fault Tectonics - SSS - Seismicity system were analyzed using a 3D geological and structural Rasvumchorr Mine - Central Open Pit model. This natural and technical system (NTS) has resulted from the development of the world-class apatite-nepheline deposits the Apatite Circus and Rasvumchorr Plateau. The 3D model integrates various spatial data on the earth's surface topography before and after mining, geometry of mines and dumps, SSS measurements and rock pressure, seismicity, fault tectonics and etc. The analysis of the 3D model has clearly demonstrated the localization of three main seismic emanation zones in the areas of maximum anthropogenic variation of the initial rock state, and namely: ore pass zone under the Southern edge of the Central open pit, collapse and joining zone of the Rasvumchorr Mine and NW edge of the open pit, and zone under the Apatite Circus plate - collapse console. And, on the contrary, in the area of a large dump under the underground mine, a perennial seismic minimum zone was identified. The relation of the seismicity and fault tectonics was revealed only in three local sectors near come certain echelon fissures of the Main Fault(MF). No confinement of increased seismicity areas to the MF and other numerous echelon fissures is observed. The same picture occurs towards manifestations of rock pressure. Only an insignificant part of echelon fissures (including low rank of hierarchy) controls hazardous manifestations of rock pressure (dumps, strong deformations of the mine contour, etc.). It is shown that the anthropogenic factor (explosive, geometry and arrangement of mined spaces and collapse console), as well as the time factor significantly change orientation and structure (contrast and heterogeneity) of the stress fields. Time series of natural

  1. Optic Nerve Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Optic Nerve Pit What is optic nerve pit? An optic nerve pit is a ... may be seen in both eyes. How is optic pit diagnosed? If the pit is not affecting ...

  2. Reliability Analysis of Drilling Operation in Open Pit Mines / Analiza niezawodności urządzeń wiertniczych wykorzystywanych w kopalniach odkrywkowych

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimdel, M. J.; Ataei, M.; Kakaei, R.; Hoseinie, S. H.

    2013-06-01

    Considering the high investment and operation costs, reliability analysis of mining machineries is essential to achieve a lean operation and to prevent the unwanted stoppages. In open pit mining, drilling, as the initial stage of the exploitation operations, has a significant role in the other stages. Failure of drilling machines causes total delay in blasting operation. In this paper, the reliability of drilling operation has been analyzed using the Markov method. The failure and operation data of four heavy rotary drilling machines in Sarcheshme copper mine in Iran have been used as a case study. Failure rate and repair rate of all machines have been calculated using available data. Then, 16 possible operation states have been defined and the probability of being of drilling fleet in each of the states was calculated using Markov theory. The results showed that there was 77.2% probability that all machines in fleet were in operational condition. It means that, considering 360 working days per year, drilling operation will be in a reliable condition in 277.92 days. Biorąc pod uwagę wysokość kosztów inwestycyjnych a także eksploatacyjnych, przeprowadzenie analizy niezawodności maszyn i urządzeń górniczych jest sprawą kluczową dla zapewnienia sprawnego działania i dla wyeliminowania niepożądanych przestojów. W kopalniach odkrywkowych prace wiertnicze prowadzone w początkowych etapach eksploatacji mają ogromne znaczenie również w późniejszych fazach działalności przedsięwzięcia. Awaria urządzeń wiertniczych powoduje opóźnienia przy pracach strzałowych. W pracy tej przeanalizowano niezawodność urządzeń wiertniczych w oparciu o metodę Markowa. Jako studium przypadku wykorzystano dane zebrane w trakcie eksploatacji i awarii czterech obrotowych urządzeń wiertniczych wykorzystywanych w kopalni rud miedzi Sarcheshme w Iranie. Awaryjność maszyn i zakres oraz częstość napraw obliczono na podstawie dostępnych danych. Zdefiniowano 16

  3. A New Algorithm for Determining Ultimate Pit Limits Based on Network Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Khodayari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concerns of the mining industry is to determine ultimate pit limits. Final pit is a collection of blocks, which can be removed with maximum profit while following restrictions on the slope of the mine’s walls. The size, location and final shape of an open-pit are very important in designing the location of waste dumps, stockpiles, processing plants, access roads and other surface facilities as well as in developing a production program. There are numerous methods for designing ultimate pit limits. Some of these methods, such as floating cone algorithm, are heuristic and do not guarantee to generate optimum pit limits. Other methods, like Lerchs–Grossmann algorithm, are rigorous and always generate the true optimum pit limits. In this paper, a new rigorous algorithm is introduced. The main logic in this method is that only positive blocks, which can pay costs of their overlying non-positive blocks, are able to appear in the final pit. Those costs may be paid either by positive block itself or jointly with other positive blocks, which have the same overlying negative blocks. This logic is formulated using a network model as a Linear Programming (LP problem. This algorithm can be applied to two- and three-dimension block models. Since there are many commercial programs available for solving LP problems, pit limits in large block models can be determined easily by using this method.

  4. Pitting corrosion of Inconel 600 in chloride and sulfate solutions at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Mingyu; Yu Geping

    1993-01-01

    Pitting corrosion of Inconel 600 was examined in chloride and sulfate solutions through usage of potentiodynamic polarization techniques. The effects of chloride and sulfate concentration were investigated in the range of 0.0001 to 0.1 M. Increasing chloride concentrations resulted in active shifts of the pit nucleation potential. Immunity to pitting corrosion was evident at a chloride level below 0.005 M. Increasing sulfate concentrations resulted in improved pitting resistance of Inconel 600 in chloride solutions. Detrimental effects associated with pitting were evident with low-level sulfate being added to dilute chloride media. The density of pits increased with increasing chloride concentrations or temperature between room temperature and 70 C. Systematic trends for the depth of pits were not evident. The observations of pitting corrosion in open immersion were consistent with those in polarization methods. Corrosion products contained in the pits were enriched in nickel, chromium and iron with a small amount of titanium and silicon. The enrichment of chlorine or sulfur was still, however, not found. (orig.)

  5. Dispersion and bioaccumulation of elements from an open-pit olivine mine in Southwest Greenland assessed using lichens, seaweeds, mussels and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Jens

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated dispersion and bioaccumulation of mining-related elements from an open-pit olivine mine at Seqi in Southwest Greenland (64° N) using lichens (Flavocetraria nivalis), seaweeds (Fucus vesiculosus), mussels (Mytilus edulis) and fish (Myoxocephalus scorpius). The mine operated between 2005 and 2009, and samples were taken every year within a monitoring area 0-17 km from the mine during the period 2004-2011. A total of 46 elements were analysed in the samples. After mining began, highly elevated metal concentrations, especially nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) and cobalt (Co), were observed in lichens relative to pre-mining levels (up to a factor of 130) caused by dust dispersion from the mining activity. Elevated metal concentrations could be measured in lichens in distances up to ~5 km from the mine/ore treatment facility. Moderately elevated concentrations of Ni and Cr (up to a factor of 7) were also observed in seaweeds and mussels but only in close vicinity (<1 km) to the mine. Analyses of fish showed no significant changes in element composition. After mine closure, the elevated metal concentrations in lichens, seaweeds and mussels decreased markedly, and in 2011, significantly elevated metal concentrations could only be measured in lichens and only within a distance of 1 km from the mine.

  6. Post-pit optimization strategic alignment

    OpenAIRE

    Breed, M.F.; van Heerden, D.

    2016-01-01

    Successful development of projects or life-of-mine strategies requires an understanding of the relative sensitivity of value drivers such as grade, tonnage, energy costs, direct operational costs, and recoveries. For example, the results could vary significantly depending on the grade strategy, given a specific orebody amenable to open pitting. Pit optimization is a very powerful tool widely used in the industry to determine the pit shell with the most attractive value potential. Based on the...

  7. A Comparison of Traditional, Step-Path, and Geostatistical Techniques in the Stability Analysis of a Large Open Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, J. M.; Stead, D.

    2017-04-01

    With the increased drive towards deeper and more complex mine designs, geotechnical engineers are often forced to reconsider traditional deterministic design techniques in favour of probabilistic methods. These alternative techniques allow for the direct quantification of uncertainties within a risk and/or decision analysis framework. However, conventional probabilistic practices typically discretize geological materials into discrete, homogeneous domains, with attributes defined by spatially constant random variables, despite the fact that geological media display inherent heterogeneous spatial characteristics. This research directly simulates this phenomenon using a geostatistical approach, known as sequential Gaussian simulation. The method utilizes the variogram which imposes a degree of controlled spatial heterogeneity on the system. Simulations are constrained using data from the Ok Tedi mine site in Papua New Guinea and designed to randomly vary the geological strength index and uniaxial compressive strength using Monte Carlo techniques. Results suggest that conventional probabilistic techniques have a fundamental limitation compared to geostatistical approaches, as they fail to account for the spatial dependencies inherent to geotechnical datasets. This can result in erroneous model predictions, which are overly conservative when compared to the geostatistical results.

  8. Stress state of rock mass under open pit mining in the influence zone of tectonic disturbances (in terms of the Oktorkoi Fault, North Tien Shan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhogulov, KCh; Nikolskaya, OV; Rybin, AK; Kuzikov, SI

    2018-03-01

    The qualitative connection between the crack growth direction and the orientation of the main axes of horizontal deformations in rocks mass in the area of the Boordin gold ore province is revealed. The effect of the rock mass quality (RQD) and contact conditions of crack surfaces on the stability index of pit wall rock mass is evaluated, and the influence of the rock mass quality index on the pit wall stability is determined.

  9. Important improvement of utilization the available geological reserves of the South mining district deposit in Majdanpek in the new defined optimum contour of the open pit using the Whittle and Gemcom softwares

    OpenAIRE

    Kržanović, Daniel; Žikić, Miodrag; Pantović, Radoje

    2012-01-01

    A significant increase in copper prices on the World Metal Exchange, whose lower limit in the long term will not be under $ 6,000 per ton of cathode copper, and reduction the operating costs of ore mining by introduction the high capacity mining equipment in the production process, requires a new consideration of the open pit South Mining District Majdanpek and defining the new final (optimum) limit of mining for the given techno economic parameters. Using the modern software tools for strate...

  10. Pemodelan Penyebaran Batuan Potensial Pembentuk Asam Pada Kawasan Penambangan Batubara Tambang Terbuka Di Muara Lawa, Kabupaten Kutai Barat, Kalimantan Timur (Modeling Distribution of Rock Potential Acid Forming in Open Pit Coal Mining Areas)

    OpenAIRE

    Devy, Shalaho Dina; Hendrayana, Heru; Putra, Dony Prakasa Eka; Sugiharto, Eko

    2016-01-01

    The impact of open pit coal mining is the emergence of Acid Mine Water (AMD) around the mining environment that affect the quality of the mine water, aquatic biota, water and soil quality. Therefore, early information to anticipate these impacts is the identification potential acid rock and distribution model as a guide for the mining plan. Geological and geochemical study of rocks is important in knowing the distribution of rock Potential Acid Formning (PAF) and Non Acid Forming (NAF). Minin...

  11. Handling equipment Selection in open pit mines by using an integrated model based on group decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Yazdani-Chamzini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Process of handling equipment selection is one of the most important and basic parts in the project planning, particularly mining projects due to holding a high charge of the total project's cost. Different criteria impact on the handling equipment selection, while these criteria often are in conflicting with each other. Therefore, the process of handling equipment selection is a complex and multi criteria decision making problem. There are a variety of methods for selecting the most appropriate equipment among a set of alternatives. Likewise, according to the sophisticated structure of the problem, imprecise data, less of information, and inherent uncertainty, the usage of the fuzzy sets can be useful. In this study a new integrated model based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP and fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (FTOPSIS is proposed, which uses group decision making to reduce individual errors. In order to calculate the weights of the evaluation criteria, FAHP is utilized in the process of handling equipment selection, and then these weights are inserted to the FTOPSIS computations to select the most appropriate handling system among a pool of alternatives. The results of this study demonstrate the potential application and effectiveness of the proposed model, which can be applied to different types of sophisticated problems in real problems.

  12. Natural radionuclide content and radiological hazard associated with usage of quartzite sand samples from Ovacik-Silifke-Mersin open pit as building material in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, S; Aykamis, A S; Kiliç, A M

    2009-09-01

    Activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K in quartzite sand samples collected from the Ovacik-Silifke-Mersin open pit located in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey were determined by using a gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The mean activity concentrations of the (238)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K in quartzite sand samples were found as 81.7 +/- 22.9 Bq kg(-1), 6.3 +/- 2.8 Bq kg(-1), 77.5 +/- 24.3 Bq kg(-1)and 140.0 +/- 124.1 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The gamma index (I(gamma)), the internal exposure index (I(alpha)), the indoor absorbed dose rate (D(in)) and the corresponding annual effective dose (H(in)) were evaluated for the public exposure to radiological hazard arising due to the use of quartzite sand samples as building material. The values of I(gamma), I(alpha), D(in) and H(in) ranged from 0.20 to 0.75, with a mean of 0.34 +/- 0.11, 0.23 to 0.77 with a mean of 0.39 +/- 0.12, 58.27 to 201.51 nGy h(-1) with a mean of 93.33 +/- 27.63 nGy h(-1) and 0.29 to 0.99 mSv with a mean of 0.46 +/- 0.14 mSv, respectively.

  13. A New Algorithm for Determining Ultimate Pit Limits Based on Network Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Asghar Khodayari

    2013-01-01

    One of the main concerns of the mining industry is to determine ultimate pit limits. Final pit is a collection of blocks, which can be removed with maximum profit while following restrictions on the slope of the mine’s walls. The size, location and final shape of an open-pit are very important in designing the location of waste dumps, stockpiles, processing plants, access roads and other surface facilities as well as in developing a production program. There are numerous methods for designing...

  14. INEL cold test pit demonstration of improvements in information derived from non-intrusive geophysical methods over buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this research project were to lay the foundation for further improvement in the use of geophysical methods for detection of buried wastes, and to increase the information content derived from surveys. Also, an important goal was to move from mere detection to characterization of buried wastes. The technical approach to achieve these objectives consisted of: (1) Collect a data set of high spatial density; (2) Acquire data with multiple sensors and integrate the interpretations inferred from the various sensors; (3) Test a simplified time domain electromagnetic system; and (4) Develop imaging and display formats of geophysical data readily understood by environmental scientists and engineers. The breadth of application of this work is far reaching. Not only are uncontrolled waste pits and trenches, abandoned underground storage tanks, and pipelines found throughout most US DOE facilities, but also at military installations and industrial facilities. Moreover, controlled land disposal sites may contain ''hot spots'' where drums and hazardous material may have been buried. The technologies addressed by the R ampersand D will benefit all of these activities

  15. RPC gas recovery by open loop method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Avinash

    2009-01-01

    RPC detectors require to be flushed with small but continuous flow of gas mixture. Dealing with large number of detectors, gas consumption to very large volumes. Gas flow is a running expense and constituent gases are too expensive to be treated as consumables. Exhaust gas mixture from detectors is a potential environmental hazard if discharged directly into the atmosphere. Storage of gases on a large scale also leads to inventory- and safety-related problems. A solution to these problems is the recovery and reuse of exhaust gas mixture from RPC detectors. Close loop method employs recirculation of exhausted gas mixture after purification, analysis and addition of top-up quantities. In open loop method, under consideration here, individual component gases are separated from gas mixture and reused as source. During open loop process, gases liquefiable at low pressures are separated from ones liquefiable at high pressure. The gas phase components within each group are successively separated by either fractional condensation or gravity separation. Gas mixture coming from RPC exhaust is first desiccated by passage through molecular sieve adsorbent type (3A+4A). Subsequent scrubbing over basic activated alumina removes toxic and acidic contaminants such as S 2 F 10 produced during corona (arcing) discharge. In the first stage of separation isobutane and freon are concentrated by diffusion and liquefied by fractional condensation by cooling upto -30 deg. C. Liquefied gases are returned to source tanks. In the second stage of separation, argon and sulphur hexafluoride, the residual gases, are concentrated by settling due to density difference. SF 6 is stored for recovery by condensation at high pressure while argon is further purified by thermal cracking of crossover impurities at 1000 deg. C followed by wet scrubbing.

  16. RPC gas recovery by open loop method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Avinash [Alpha Pneumatics, 11, Krishna Kutir, Madanlal Dhigra Road, Panch Pakhadi (India)], E-mail: alpha_pneumatics@hotmail.com

    2009-05-01

    RPC detectors require to be flushed with small but continuous flow of gas mixture. Dealing with large number of detectors, gas consumption to very large volumes. Gas flow is a running expense and constituent gases are too expensive to be treated as consumables. Exhaust gas mixture from detectors is a potential environmental hazard if discharged directly into the atmosphere. Storage of gases on a large scale also leads to inventory- and safety-related problems. A solution to these problems is the recovery and reuse of exhaust gas mixture from RPC detectors. Close loop method employs recirculation of exhausted gas mixture after purification, analysis and addition of top-up quantities. In open loop method, under consideration here, individual component gases are separated from gas mixture and reused as source. During open loop process, gases liquefiable at low pressures are separated from ones liquefiable at high pressure. The gas phase components within each group are successively separated by either fractional condensation or gravity separation. Gas mixture coming from RPC exhaust is first desiccated by passage through molecular sieve adsorbent type (3A+4A). Subsequent scrubbing over basic activated alumina removes toxic and acidic contaminants such as S{sub 2}F{sub 10} produced during corona (arcing) discharge. In the first stage of separation isobutane and freon are concentrated by diffusion and liquefied by fractional condensation by cooling upto -30 deg. C. Liquefied gases are returned to source tanks. In the second stage of separation, argon and sulphur hexafluoride, the residual gases, are concentrated by settling due to density difference. SF{sub 6} is stored for recovery by condensation at high pressure while argon is further purified by thermal cracking of crossover impurities at 1000 deg. C followed by wet scrubbing.

  17. Detection - NIR, Luminescence and Other Rapid Methods-Pit Falls and Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trudil, D.

    2007-01-01

    The proliferation of rapid, on-site biological detectors over the last 15 years has caused confusion within the user community and in some cases a diversion of resources. There remains no panacea; all systems have issues and no system provides the total answer. In 1995, with much enthusiasm, members of a US National Lab presented a mock-up of a hand held Biological Detector. This system, compared to a 'Tricorder' from science fiction, was envisioned to be available within 5 years. It would be able to scan a substance and within minutes provide an answer. Clearly that remains the goal of detector programs, but unfortunately science is the limiting factor. There are technologies, such as fluorescence and luminescence that provide minimally acceptable results when utilizing a defined bio-air sample. Many of these systems are also expensive, limiting their utility. But when these FLAPS, BARTS, BAWS, BioLerts and other are challenged with dirty or non-aerosol samples, they begin to have problems. With the relatively high cost of test kits, the significant number of potential hoax or negative samples; the issue of usefulness versus performance versus cost has further complicated the environment. Consequently, the utilization of cost effective, simple screening systems is needed for on site use. The current trend is to determine cost effective approaches to triage samples prior to in depth analysis. Therefore, a pH test, protein strip and Bioluminescence screen can indicate threat/non-threat prior to in-depth analysis. Experiences from 2001/2002 indicate over 90% of the first responder events are hoax related. Adapting the paradigm, screening out negatives become a priority. Near Infra Red (NIR) has been utilized in chemical agent detection and has been recently utilized to identify powders, salts, sugars and numerous potential hoax samples. The system is a non-destructive screening method that can be integrated with other technologies as a front end triage system

  18. INEL cold test pit demonstration of improvements in information derived from non-intrusive geophysical methods over buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Under Contract between US DOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Blackhawk Geosciences Division of Coleman Research Corporation (BGD-CRC), geophysical investigations were conducted to improve the detection of buried wastes. Site characterization is a costly and time consuming process with the most costly components being drilling, sampling, and chemical analysis of samples. There is a focused effort at US DOE and other agencies to investigate methodologies that reduce costs and shorten the time between characterization and clean-up. These methodologies take the form of employing non-invasive (geophysical) and minimal invasive (e.g., cone penetrometer driving) techniques of characterization, and implementing a near real-time, rational decision-making process (Expedited Site Characterization). Over the Cold Test Pit (CTP) at INEL, data were acquired with multiple sensors on a dense grid. Over the CTP the interpretations inferred from geophysical data are compared with the known placement of various waste forms in the pit. The geophysical sensors employed were magnetics, frequency and time domain electromagnetics, and ground penetrating radar. Also, because of the high data density acquired, filtering and other data processing and imaging techniques were tested. The conclusions derived from the geophysical surveys were that pit boundaries, berms between cells within the pit, and individual objects placed in the pit were best mapped by the new Geonics EM61 time domain EM metal detector. Part of the reason for the effectiveness of the time domain metal detector is that objects buried in the pit are dominantly metallic. Also, the utility of geophysical data is significantly enhanced by dimensional and 3-dimensional imaging formats. These images will particularly assist remediation engineers in visualizing buried wastes

  19. EIS pitting temperature determination of A182 nickel based alloy in simulated BWR environment containing dilute seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavigne, Olivier; Shoji, Tetsuo; Takeda, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Stable pitting events in function of the temperature are monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. • The pitting temperature for the nickel based alloy A182 in solution containing 450 ppm Cl − is defined as above 160 °C. • The presented method can be applied for others passive alloys as stainless steel in solution containing aggressive anions. - Abstract: A method based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements to monitor the pitting temperature of passive alloys in a given media is developed in this communication. The pitting corrosion behavior of the nickel based alloy 182 in water containing 450 ppm by weight of chloride is presented in this study. The analysis of the EIS fit parameters from the proposed equivalent electrical circuit allows to determine the temperature from which stable pitting event occurs at open circuit potential. For the A182 sample this temperature is measured above 160 °C

  20. Op-Ug TD Optimizer Tool Based on Matlab Code to Find Transition Depth From Open Pit to Block Caving / Narzędzie Optymalizacyjne Oparte O Kod Matlab Wykorzystane Do Określania Głębokości Przejściowej Od Wydobycia Odkrywkowego Do Wybierania Komorami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtavar, E.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, transition from open pit to block caving has been considered as a challenging problem. For this purpose, the linear integer programing code of Matlab was initially developed on the basis of the binary integer model proposed by Bakhtavar et al (2012). Then a program based on graphical user interface (GUI) was set up and named "Op-Ug TD Optimizer". It is a beneficial tool for simple application of the model in all situations where open pit is considered together with block caving method for mining an ore deposit. Finally, Op-Ug TD Optimizer has been explained step by step through solving the transition from open pit to block caving problem of a case ore deposit. W pracy tej rozważano skomplikowane zagadnienie przejścia od wybierania odkrywkowego do komorowego. W tym celu opracowano kod programowania liniowego w środowisku MATLAB w oparciu o model liczb binarnych zaproponowany przez Bakhtavara (2012). Następnie opracowano program z wykorzystujący graficzny interfejs użytkownika o nazwie Optymalizator Op-Ug TD. Jest to niezwykle cenne narzędzie umożliwiające stosowanie modelu dla wszystkich warunków w sytuacjach gdy rozważamy prowadzenie wydobycia metodą odkrywkową oraz wydobycie komorowe przy eksploatacji złóż rud żelaza. W końcowej części pracy podano szczegółową instrukcję stosowanie programu Optymalizator na przedstawionym przykładzie przejścia od wydobycia rud żelaza metodami odkrywkowymi poprzez wydobycie komorami.

  1. Near-field microwave detection of corrosion precursor pitting under thin dielectric coatings in metallic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, D.; Zoughi, R.; Austin, R.; Wood, N.; Engelbart, R.

    2003-01-01

    Detection of corrosion precursor pitting on metallic surfaces under various coatings and on bare metal is of keen interest in evaluation of aircraft fuselage. Near-field microwave nondestructive testing methods, utilizing open-ended rectangular waveguides and coaxial probes, have been used extensively for detection of surface flaws in metals, both on bare metal and under a dielectric coating. This paper presents the preliminary results of using microwave techniques to detect corrosion precursor pitting under paint and primer, applique and on bare metal. Machined pits of 500 μm diameter were detected using open-ended rectangular waveguides at V-Band under paint and primer and applique, and on bare metal. Using coaxial probes, machined pits with diameters down to 150 μm on bare metal were also detected. Relative pit size and density were shown on a corrosion-pitted sample using open-ended rectangular waveguides at frequencies of 35 GHz to 70 GHz. The use of Boeing's MAUS TM scanning systems provided improved results by alleviating standoff variation and scanning artifact. Typical results of this investigation are also presented

  2. Pit Water Storage Ottrupgaard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    The pit water storage, a seasonal thermal storage, was built in 1993 with floating lid and hybrid clay-polymer for pit lining. The storage was leaking severe and solutions were to be found. In the paper solutions for pit lining and floating lids are discussed, cost estimations given and coming...

  3. Modeling and management of pit lake water chemistry 1: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castendyk, D.N.; Eary, L.E.; Balistrieri, L.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of pit lake literature in the context of pit lake predictions. • Review of approaches used to predict pit wall-rock runoff and leachate. • Review of approaches used to generate a pit lake water balance. • Review of approaches used to generate a hydrodynamic prediction. • Review of approaches used to generate a geochemical prediction of a future pit lake. - Abstract: Pit lakes are permanent hydrologic/landscape features that can result from open pit mining for metals, coal, uranium, diamonds, oil sands, and aggregates. Risks associated with pit lakes include local and regional impacts to water quality and related impacts to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Stakeholders rely on predictive models of water chemistry to prepare for and manage these risks. This paper is the first of a two part series on the modeling and management of pit lakes. Herein, we review approaches that have been used to quantify wall-rock runoff geochemistry, wall-rock leachate geochemistry, pit lake water balance, pit lake limnology (i.e. extent of vertical mixing), and pit lake water quality, and conclude with guidance on the application of models within the mine life cycle. The purpose of this paper is to better prepare stakeholders, including future modelers, mine managers, consultants, permitting agencies, land management agencies, regulators, research scientists, academics, and other interested parties, for the challenges of predicting and managing future pit lakes in un-mined areas

  4. Open-pit coal-mining effects on rice paddy soil composition and metal bioavailability to Oryza sativa L. plants in Cam Pha, northeastern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raul E; Marquez, J Eduardo; Hòa, Hoàng Thị Bích; Gieré, Reto

    2013-11-01

    This study quantified Cd, Pb, and Cu content, and the soil-plant transfer factors of these elements in rice paddies within Cam Pha, Quang Ninh province, northeastern Vietnam. The rice paddies are located at a distance of 2 km from the large Coc Sau open-pit coal mine. Electron microprobe analysis combined with backscattered electron imaging and energy-dispersive spectroscopy revealed a relatively high proportion of carbon particles rimmed by an iron sulfide mineral (probably pyrite) in the quartz-clay matrix of rice paddy soils at 20-30 cm depth. Bulk chemical analysis of these soils revealed the presence of Cd, Cu, and Pb at concentrations of 0.146±0.004, 23.3±0.1, and 23.5±0.1 mg/kg which exceeded calculated background concentrations of 0.006±0.004, 1.9±0.5, and 2.4±1.5 mg/kg respectively at one of the sites. Metals and metalloids in Cam Pha rice paddy soils, including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, were found in concentrations ranging from 0.2±0.1 to 140±3 mg/kg, which were in close agreement with toxic metal contents in mine tailings and Coc Sau coal samples, suggesting mining operations as a major cause of paddy soil contamination. Native and model Oryza sativa L. rice plants were grown in the laboratory in a growth medium to which up to 1.5 mg/kg of paddy soil from Cam Pha was added to investigate the effects on plant growth. A decrease in growth by up to 60% with respect to a control sample was found for model plants, whereas a decrease of only 10% was observed for native (Nep cai hoa vang variety) rice plants. This result suggests an adaptation of native Cam Pha rice plants to toxic metals in the agricultural lands. The Cd, Cu, and Pb contents of the native rice plants from Cam Pha paddies exceeded permitted levels in foods. Cadmium and Pb were highest in the rice plant roots with concentrations of 0.84±0.02 and 7.7±0.3 mg/kg, suggesting an intake of these metals into the rice plant as shown, for example, by Cd and Pb concentrations of 0

  5. Structural characteristics of the acquired optic disc pit and the rate of progressive retinal nerve fiber layer thinning in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hyen; Lee, Eun Ji; Kim, Tae-Woo

    2015-10-01

    The optic disc pit (ODP) has been considered a region of localized susceptibility to the damage of glaucoma. To determine whether the rate of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning differs according to the presence and structural characteristics of an ODP in primary open-angle glaucoma. We performed a prospective case-control study that included 163 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma (83 with an ODP and 80 without an ODP) from Glaucoma Clinic of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Participants were enrolled from the ongoing Investigating Glaucoma Progression Study from January 1, 2012, through May 31, 2014. Mean (SD) follow-up was 3.32 (0.49) years (through May 31, 2014). Optic nerve heads underwent swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) to determine the presence of focal lamina cribrosa alteration and its structural characteristics. Eyes with and without photographic ODPs and corresponding microscopic laminar alterations were assigned to the ODP and non-ODP groups, respectively. The rates of progressive thinning of global and 6 sectoral spectral-domain OCT RNFL thicknesses were determined by linear regression and compared between the 2 groups. We used a general linear model to determine the factors associated with the rate of RNFL thinning; data obtained from September 21, 2009, through May 31, 2014, were used to calculate the rate of RNFL thinning. The relationship between the presence and structural characteristics of ODPs and the rate of progressive OCT RNFL thinning. Thinning of the RNFL was faster in the ODP group than in the non-ODP group in the global (mean [SD], -1.44 [1.31] vs -0.93 [1.10] [95% CI, -0.97 to -0.19] μm/y; P = .008), temporoinferior (mean [SD], -4.17 [4.15] vs -1.97 [3.26] [95% CI, -3.36 to -1.04] μm/y; P < .001), and temporal (mean [SD], -1.92 [2.62] vs -0.89 [1.62] [95% CI, -1.70 to -0.35] μm/y; P = .003) sectors. The rate of RNFL thinning was maximum in the temporoinferior sector (mean [SD], -4

  6. Characterization of etch pit formation via the Everson-etching method on CdZnTe crystal surfaces from the bulk to the nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teague, Lucile C.; Duff, Martine C.; Cadieux, James R.; Soundararajan, Raji; Shick, Charles R.; Lynn, Kelvin G.

    2011-01-01

    A combination of atomic force microscopy, optical microscopy, and mass spectrometry was employed to study CdZnTe crystal surface and used etchant solution following exposure of the CdZnTe crystal to the Everson etch solution. We discuss the results of these studies in relationship to the initial surface preparation methods, the performance of the crystals as radiation spectrometers, the observed etch pit densities, and the chemical mechanism of surface etching. Our results show that the surface features that are exposed to etchants result from interactions with the chemical components of the etchants as well as pre-existing mechanical polishing.

  7. Soil-pit Method for Distribution and Leaching Loss of Nitrogen in Winter Wheat’s Soil, Weishan Irrigation District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Erni; Xu, Lirong; Wang, Rongzhen

    2018-01-01

    Unreasonable application of irrigation and fertilizer will cause the waste of water and nitrogen and environmental pollution. In this paper, a series of soil-pit experiments were carried out to study the distribution and leaching loss of nitrogen in winter wheat’s soil. The results showed that NO3 - concentration at 20-80cm depth mainly responded to fertilizer application at the beginning of field experiment, but the amount of irrigation became the dominant factor with the growth of winter wheat. It is noteworthy that the distribution of NO3 - was mainly affected by the amount of fertilizer applied at the depth of 120-160cm in the whole period of growth of winter wheat. The accumulation position of NH4 + was deepened as the amount of irrigation increased, however, the maximum aggregation depth of ammonium nitrogen was no more than 80cm owing to its poor migration. It can be concluded that the influence of irrigation amount on the concentration of NH4 + in soil solution was more obvious than that of fertilizer. Compared with fertilizer, the amount of irrigation played a leading role in the utilization ratio of nitrogen and the yield of winter wheat. In summary, the best water and fertilizer treatment occurred in No.3 soil-pit, which meant that the middle amount of water and fertilizer could get higher wheat yield and less nitrogen leaching losses in the study area.

  8. The open method of coordination in vocational education and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of EU modes of governance within the Copenhagen Process with a specific focus on the Open Method of Coordination.......Analysis of EU modes of governance within the Copenhagen Process with a specific focus on the Open Method of Coordination....

  9. Validity of a New Quantitative Evaluation Method that Uses the Depth of the Surface Imprint as an Indicator for Pitting Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogo, Haruki; Murata, Jun; Murata, Shin; Higashi, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the validity of a practical evaluation method for pitting edema by comparing it to other methods, including circumference measurements and ultrasound image measurements. Fifty-one patients (102 legs) from a convalescent ward in Maruyama Hospital were recruited for study 1, and 47 patients (94 legs) from a convalescent ward in Morinaga Hospital were recruited for study 2. The relationship between the depth of the surface imprint and circumferential measurements, as well as the relationship between the depth of the surface imprint and the thickness of the subcutaneous soft tissue on an ultrasonogram, were analyzed using a Spearman correlation coefficient by rank. There was no significant relationship between the surface imprint depth and circumferential measurements. However, there was a significant relationship between the depth of the surface imprint and the thickness of the subcutaneous soft tissue as measured on an ultrasonogram (correlation coefficient 0.736). Our findings suggest that our novel evaluation method for pitting edema, based on a measurement of the surface imprint depth, is both valid and useful.

  10. Monitoring of surface deformation in open pit mine using DInSAR time-series: a case study in the N5W iron mine (Carajás, Brazil) using TerraSAR-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, José C.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Gama, Fabio F.; Santos, Athos R.; Galo, Mauricio; Camargo, Paulo O.; Silva, Arnaldo Q.; Silva, Guilherme G.

    2014-10-01

    We present an investigation of surface deformation using Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) time-series carried out in an active open pit iron mine, the N5W, located in the Carajás Mineral Province (Brazilian Amazon region), using 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) scenes. This mine has presented a historical of instability and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mine (pit walls) have been done based on ground based radar. Two complementary approaches were used: the standard DInSAR configuration, as an early warning of the slope instability conditions, and the DInSAR timeseries analysis. In order to decrease the topographic phase error a high resolution DEM was generated based on a stereo GeoEye-1 pair. Despite the fact that a DinSAR contains atmospheric and topographic phase artifacts and noise, it was possible to detect deformation in some interferometric pairs, covering pit benches, road ramps and waste piles. The timeseries analysis was performed using the 31 interferometric pairs, which were selected based on the highest mean coherence of a stack of 107 interferograms, presenting less phase unwrapping errors. The time-series deformation was retrieved by the Least-Squares (LS) solution using an extension of the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), with a set of additional weighted constrain on the acceleration deformation. The atmospheric phase artifacts were filtered in the space-time domain and the DEM height errors were estimated based on the normal baseline diversity. The DInSAR time-series investigation showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in the N5W mine located in a tropical rainforest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for alarm, planning and risk assessment.

  11. OpenBEM - An open source Boundary Element Method software in Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2010-01-01

    OpenBEM is a collection of open source programs for solving the Helmholtz Equation using the Boundary Element Method. The collection is written in Matlab by the authors and contains codes for dealing with exterior and interior problems in two or three dimensions as well as implementation of axi...... with examples of its use. Previous research results where OpenBEM was employed will be mentioned....

  12. Radiochemical methods. Analytical chemistry by open learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geary, W.J.; James, A.M. (ed.)

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the analytical uses of radioactive isotopes within the context of radiochemistry as a whole. It is designed for scientists with relatively little background knowledge of the subject. Thus the initial emphasis is on developing the basic concepts of radioactive decay, particularly as they affect the potential usage of radioisotopes. Discussion of the properties of various types of radiation, and of factors such as half-life, is related to practical considerations such as counting and preparation methods, and handling/disposal problems. Practical aspects are then considered in more detail, and the various radioanalytical methods are outlined with particular reference to their applicability. The approach is 'user friendly' and the use of self assessment questions allows the reader to test his/her understanding of individual sections easily. For those who wish to develop their knowledge further, a reading list is provided.

  13. Pitting corrosion as a mixed system: coupled deterministic-probabilistic simulation of pit growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Israr B. M.; Fonna, S.; Pidaparti, R.

    2018-05-01

    Stochastic behavior of pitting corrosion poses a unique challenge in its computational analysis. However, it also stems from electrochemical activity causing general corrosion. In this paper, a framework for corrosion pit growth simulation based on the coupling of the Cellular Automaton (CA) and Boundary Element Methods (BEM) is presented. The framework assumes that pitting corrosion is controlled by electrochemical activity inside the pit cavity. The BEM provides the prediction of electrochemical activity given the geometrical data and polarization curves, while the CA is used to simulate the evolution of pit shapes based on electrochemical activity provided by BEM. To demonstrate the methodology, a sample case of local corrosion cells formed in pitting corrosion with varied dimensions and polarization functions is considered. Results show certain shapes tend to grow in certain types of environments. Some pit shapes appear to pose a higher risk by being potentially significant stress raisers or potentially increasing the rate of corrosion under the surface. Furthermore, these pits are comparable to commonly observed pit shapes in general corrosion environments.

  14. Advantages and limitations for users of double pit pour-flush latrines: a qualitative study in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruqe Hussain

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rural Bangladesh, India and elsewhere, pour-flush pit latrines are the most common sanitation system. When a single pit latrine becomes full, users must empty it themselves and risk exposure to fresh feces, pay an emptying service to remove pit contents or build a new latrine. Double pit pour-flush latrines may serve as a long-term sanitation option including high water table areas because the pits do not need to be emptied immediately and the excreta decomposes into reusable soil. Methods Double pit pour-flush latrines were implemented in rural Bangladesh for ‘hardcore poor’ households by a national NGO, BRAC. We conducted interviews, focus groups, and spot checks in two low-income, rural areas of Bangladesh to explore the advantages and limitations of using double pit latrines compared to single pit latrines. Results The rural households accepted the double pit pour-flush latrine model and considered it feasible to use and maintain. This latrine design increased accessibility of a sanitation facility for these low-income residents and provided privacy, convenience and comfort, compared to open defecation. Although a double pit latrine is more costly and requires more space than a single pit latrine the households perceived this sanitation system to save resources, because households did not need to hire service workers to empty pits or remove decomposed contents themselves. In addition, the excreta decomposition process produced a reusable soil product that some households used in homestead gardening. The durability of the latrine superstructures was a problem, as most of the bamboo-pole superstructure broke after 6–18 months of use. Conclusions Double pit pour-flush latrines are a long-term improved sanitation option that offers users several important advantages over single pit pour-flush latrines like in rural Bangladesh which can also be used in areas with high water table. Further research can provide an

  15. Towards the Development of a Low Cost Airborne Sensing System to Monitor Dust Particles after Blasting at Open-Pit Mine Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Miguel; Gonzalez, Felipe; Fletcher, Andrew; Doshi, Ashray

    2015-08-12

    Blasting is an integral part of large-scale open cut mining that often occurs in close proximity to population centers and often results in the emission of particulate material and gases potentially hazardous to health. Current air quality monitoring methods rely on limited numbers of fixed sampling locations to validate a complex fluid environment and collect sufficient data to confirm model effectiveness. This paper describes the development of a methodology to address the need of a more precise approach that is capable of characterizing blasting plumes in near-real time. The integration of the system required the modification and integration of an opto-electrical dust sensor, SHARP GP2Y10, into a small fixed-wing and multi-rotor copter, resulting in the collection of data streamed during flight. The paper also describes the calibration of the optical sensor with an industry grade dust-monitoring device, Dusttrak 8520, demonstrating a high correlation between them, with correlation coefficients (R(2)) greater than 0.9. The laboratory and field tests demonstrate the feasibility of coupling the sensor with the UAVs. However, further work must be done in the areas of sensor selection and calibration as well as flight planning.

  16. Towards the Development of a Low Cost Airborne Sensing System to Monitor Dust Particles after Blasting at Open-Pit Mine Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alvarado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blasting is an integral part of large-scale open cut mining that often occurs in close proximity to population centers and often results in the emission of particulate material and gases potentially hazardous to health. Current air quality monitoring methods rely on limited numbers of fixed sampling locations to validate a complex fluid environment and collect sufficient data to confirm model effectiveness. This paper describes the development of a methodology to address the need of a more precise approach that is capable of characterizing blasting plumes in near-real time. The integration of the system required the modification and integration of an opto-electrical dust sensor, SHARP GP2Y10, into a small fixed-wing and multi-rotor copter, resulting in the collection of data streamed during flight. The paper also describes the calibration of the optical sensor with an industry grade dust-monitoring device, Dusttrak 8520, demonstrating a high correlation between them, with correlation coefficients (R2 greater than 0.9. The laboratory and field tests demonstrate the feasibility of coupling the sensor with the UAVs. However, further work must be done in the areas of sensor selection and calibration as well as flight planning.

  17. Investigating pitting in X65 carbon steel using potentiostatic polarisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Sikiru; Hua, Yong; Barker, R.; Neville, A.

    2017-11-01

    Although pitting corrosion in passive materials is generally well understood, the growth of surface pits in actively-corroding materials has received much less attention to date and remains poorly understood. One of the key challenges which exists is repeatedly and reliably generating surface pits in a practical time-frame in the absence of deformation and/or residual stress so that studies on pit propagation and healing can be performed. Another pertinent issue is how to evaluate pitting while addressing general corrosion in low carbon steel. In this work, potentiostatic polarisation was employed to induce corrosion pits (free from deformation or residual stress) on actively corroding X65 carbon steel. The influence of applied potential (50 mV, 100 mV and 150 mV vs open circuit potential) was investigated over 24 h in a CO2-saturated, 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution at 30 °C and pH 3.8. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilised to examine pits, while surface profilometry was conducted to measure pit depth as a function of applied potential over the range considered. Analyses of light pitting (up to 120 μm) revealed that pit depth increased linearly with increase in applied potential. This paper relates total pit volume (measured using white light interferometry) to dissipated charge or total mass loss (using the current response for potentiostatic polarisation in conjunction with Faraday's law). By controlling the potential of the surface (anodic) the extent of pitting and general corrosion could be controlled. This allowed pits to be evaluated for their ability to continue to propagate after the potentiostatic technique was employed. Linear growth from a depth of 70 μm at pH 3.8, 80 °C was demonstrated. The technique offers promise for the study of inhibition of pitting.

  18. OpenPSTD : The open source implementation of the pseudospectral time-domain method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, T.; Hornikx, M.C.J.; Borkowski, B.

    2014-01-01

    An open source implementation of the pseudospectral time-domain method for the propagation of sound is presented, which is geared towards applications in the built environment. Being a wavebased method, PSTD captures phenomena like diffraction, but maintains efficiency in processing time and memory

  19. OpenPSTD : The open source pseudospectral time-domain method for acoustic propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornikx, M.C.J.; Krijnen, T.F.; van Harten, L.

    2016-01-01

    An open source implementation of the Fourier pseudospectral time-domain (PSTD) method for computing the propagation of sound is presented, which is geared towards applications in the built environment. Being a wave-based method, PSTD captures phenomena like diffraction, but maintains efficiency in

  20. Pit membranes of Ephedra resemble gymnosperms more than angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland Dute; Lauren Bowen; Sarah Schier; Alexa Vevon; Troy Best; Maria Auad; Thomas Elder; Pauline Bouche; Steven Jansen

    2014-01-01

    Bordered pit pairs of Ephedra species were characterized using different types of microscopy. Pit membranes contained tori that did not stain for lignin. SEM and AFM views of the torus surface showed no plasmodesmatal openings, but branched, secondary plasmodesmata were occasionally noted using TEM in conjunction with ultrathin sections. The margo consisted of radial...

  1. Integration of OpenMC methods into MAMMOTH and Serpent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerby, Leslie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Idaho State Univ., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); DeHart, Mark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tumulak, Aaron [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-09-01

    OpenMC, a Monte Carlo particle transport simulation code focused on neutron criticality calculations, contains several methods we wish to emulate in MAMMOTH and Serpent. First, research coupling OpenMC and the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) has shown promising results. Second, the utilization of Functional Expansion Tallies (FETs) allows for a more efficient passing of multiphysics data between OpenMC and MOOSE. Both of these capabilities have been preliminarily implemented into Serpent. Results are discussed and future work recommended.

  2. Open Method of Co-Ordination for Demoi-Cracy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Radaelli, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Under which conditions does the open method of co-ordination match the standards for demoi-cracy? To answer this question, we need some explicit standards about demoi-cracy. In fact, open co-ordination serves three different but interrelated purposes in European Union policy: to facilitate...... convergence; to support learning processes; and to encourage exploration of policy innovation. By intersecting standards and purposes, we find open co-ordination is neither inherently ‘good’ nor ‘bad’ for demoi-cracy, as it depends on how it has been put into practice. Therefore, we qualify the answer...

  3. Monitoring of ground movement in open pit iron mines of Carajás Province (Amazon region) based on A-DInSAR techniques using TerraSAR-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Guilherme Gregório; Mura, José Claudio; Paradella, Waldir Renato; Gama, Fabio Furlan; Temporim, Filipe Altoé

    2017-04-01

    Persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) analysis of a large area is always a challenging task regarding the removal of the atmospheric phase component. This work presents an investigation of ground movement measurements based on a combination of differential SAR interferometry time-series (DTS) and PSI techniques, applied on a large area of extent with open pit iron mines located in Carajás (Brazilian Amazon Region), aiming at detecting linear and nonlinear ground movement. These mines have presented a history of instability, and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mines (pit walls) have been carried out based on ground-based radar and total station (prisms). Using a priori information regarding the topographic phase error and a phase displacement model derived from DTS, temporal phase unwrapping in the PSI processing and the removal of the atmospheric phases can be performed more efficiently. A set of 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) images, acquired during the period from March 2012 to April 2013, was used to perform this investigation. The DTS analysis was carried out on a stack of multilook unwrapped interferograms using an extension of SVD to obtain the least-square solution. The height errors and deformation rates provided by the DTS approach were subtracted from the stack of interferograms to perform the PSI analysis. This procedure improved the capability of the PSI analysis for detecting high rates of deformation, as well as increased the numbers of point density of the final results. The proposed methodology showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in a large mining area, which is located in a rain forest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for planning and risk control.

  4. Pitting corrosion of zirconium in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Shayeb, H.A.; Abd El Wahab, F.M.; Abd Elk Meguid, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    The open circuit potentials of the Zr electrode are followed as a function of time in various aqueous solutions till attainment of steady state values.The results are discussed on the basis of oxide film thickening and repair. Pitting corrosion of Zr was examined in chloride solutions using the potentiodynamic technique. The effect of some inorganic and organic additives was also investigated for inhibiting the pitting corrosion of Zr and the relative performance is presented and discussed. (author). 21 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  5. Pits on Ascraeus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    24 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows collapse pits and troughs on the lower northeast flank of the giant martian volcano, Ascraeus Mons. Layers of volcanic rock are evident in some of the pit and valley walls, and boulders the size of houses and trucks that were liberated from these walls by gravity can be seen on the floors of the depressions. Location near: 13.6oN, 102.6oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  6. Monitoring of Non-Linear Ground Movement in an Open Pit Iron Mine Based on an Integration of Advanced DInSAR Techniques Using TerraSAR-X Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Claudio Mura

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an investigation to determine ground deformation based on an integration of DInSAR Time-Series (DTS and Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI techniques aiming at detecting high rates of linear and non-linear ground movement. The combined techniques were applied in an open pit iron mine located in Carajás Mineral Province (Brazilian Amazon region, using a set of 33 TerraSAR-X-1 images acquired from March 2012 to April 2013 when, due to a different deformation behavior during the dry and wet seasons in the Amazon region, a non-linear deformation was detected. The DTS analysis was performed on a stack of multi-look unwrapped interferograms using an extension of the SVD (Singular Value Decomposition, where a set of additional weighted constraints on the acceleration of the displacement was incorporated to control the smoothness of the time-series solutions, whose objective was to correct the atmospheric phase artifacts. The height errors and the deformation history provided by the DTS technique were used as previous information to perform the PSI analysis. This procedure improved the capability of the PSI technique to detect non-linear movement as well as to increase the numbers of point density of the final results. The results of the combined techniques are presented and compared with total station/prisms and ground-based radar (GBR measurements.

  7. Detecting pits in tart cherries by hyperspectral transmission imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianwei; Lu, Renfu

    2004-11-01

    The presence of pits in processed cherry products causes safety concerns for consumers and imposes potential liability for the food industry. The objective of this research was to investigate a hyperspectral transmission imaging technique for detecting the pit in tart cherries. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire transmission images from individual cherry fruit for four orientations before and after pits were removed over the spectral region between 450 nm and 1,000 nm. Cherries of three size groups (small, intermediate, and large), each with two color classes (light red and dark red) were used for determining the effect of fruit orientation, size, and color on the pit detection accuracy. Additional cherries were studied for the effect of defect (i.e., bruises) on the pit detection. Computer algorithms were developed using the neural network (NN) method to classify the cherries with and without the pit. Two types of data inputs, i.e., single spectra and selected regions of interest (ROIs), were compared. The spectral region between 690 nm and 850 nm was most appropriate for cherry pit detection. The NN with inputs of ROIs achieved higher pit detection rates ranging from 90.6% to 100%, with the average correct rate of 98.4%. Fruit orientation and color had a small effect (less than 1%) on pit detection. Fruit size and defect affected pit detection and their effect could be minimized by training the NN with properly selected cherry samples.

  8. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products

  9. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  10. Pitting of 3003 aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source is a state-of-the-art synchrotron light source. The storage ring vacuum chamber is fabricated from 6061 extruded Al. Water connections to the vacuum chambers that were fabricated from 3003 Al had developed water leaks, which were subsequently remedied after considerable investigations. Materials subjected to the pitting analysis in this study are 3003, 6061, and 6063 Al

  11. Evaluation of the open vial method in the radon measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez del Rio, H.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F.

    2014-10-01

    The open vial method is a simple technique, under-utilized but that take advantage of the great radon solubility in organic solvents, therefore applies in the measurement of the radon concentration exhaled in soil. The method consists on the exposition to the gas radon of an open vial with scintillating solution. An integral mathematical model for indoors that describes the emanation processes and gas radon exhalation was developed, as well as the radon dissolution in the scintillation liquid, besides obtaining the characteristic parameters of the experimental system proposed for the radon concentration calculation exhaled by soils. Two experimental arrangements were designed with exposition cameras of 12 and 6 L and quantity of different soil. The open vial was prepared with a mixture of 8 ml of deionized water and 12 ml of scintillation liquid OptiPhase Hi Safe 3 in polyethylene vials; the measurements of the dissolved radon were carried out in scintillation liquid equipment. As a result, on average 2.0% of the exhaled radon is dissolved in the open vial and the dissolved fraction is independent of the experimental arrangement. Also was observed that the exposition time does not affect the radon dissolution significantly, in correspondence with the reported in the literature. (Author)

  12. Detailed investigation of current transients from metastable pitting events on stainless steel - the transition to stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistorius, P.C.; Burstein, G.T.

    1992-01-01

    Current transients which result from metastable pitting events (on Type 304 stainless steel in an acidic solution containing 1 M Cl - ) are presented. A criterion for the stable growth of open hemispherical pits is developed; the criterion states that the product of current density and pit depth must exceed a certain minimum value, to sustain rapid dissolution. Analysis of the transients from metastable pits shows that these pits fall short of this minimum, as do stable pits initially. The growth of these pits thus requires the presence of another barrier to diffusion, which is thought to be a remnant of the passive film; this forms a flawed cover over the pit mouth. When this cover ruptures under the influence of osmotic pressure, the pit repassivates. Pits growing at higher current densities approach the minimum requirement for stable growth more closely. A ''pitting potential'' results from the effect that metastable pits formed at more positive potentials grow at higher current densities, and are thus more likely to grow into stable pits. The effect of potential on the current density does not result from either activation control or ohmic control; rather, the pits grow under diffusion control. A change, with potential, of the type of pit site which can be activated, causes the potential dependence of the distribution of current densities in metastable pits. Although the distribution of current densities changes with potential, each metastable pit grows under diffusion control with a current density which is independent of the potential; this is confirmed by polarisation tests on growing metastable pits

  13. openPSTD: The open source pseudospectral time-domain method for acoustic propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornikx, Maarten; Krijnen, Thomas; van Harten, Louis

    2016-06-01

    An open source implementation of the Fourier pseudospectral time-domain (PSTD) method for computing the propagation of sound is presented, which is geared towards applications in the built environment. Being a wave-based method, PSTD captures phenomena like diffraction, but maintains efficiency in processing time and memory usage as it allows to spatially sample close to the Nyquist criterion, thus keeping both the required spatial and temporal resolution coarse. In the implementation it has been opted to model the physical geometry as a composition of rectangular two-dimensional subdomains, hence initially restricting the implementation to orthogonal and two-dimensional situations. The strategy of using subdomains divides the problem domain into local subsets, which enables the simulation software to be built according to Object-Oriented Programming best practices and allows room for further computational parallelization. The software is built using the open source components, Blender, Numpy and Python, and has been published under an open source license itself as well. For accelerating the software, an option has been included to accelerate the calculations by a partial implementation of the code on the Graphical Processing Unit (GPU), which increases the throughput by up to fifteen times. The details of the implementation are reported, as well as the accuracy of the code.

  14. Construction of a long-distance, sharply curved underground sewerage system by the pit/drift continuous shielding method. Construction of the Arakawa trunk line by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government; Juo renzoku shield koho ni yoru chokyori kyukyokusen seko. Tokyoto gesuidokyoku Arakawa kansen koji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagashima, Y.; Okai, F.; Akasaka, J.

    1998-06-25

    The problems encountered in construction of sewarage systems in urban areas are reduced pitting sites, and construction of deeper, longer-distance and more sharply curved systems, resulting from overpopulation both on and under the ground. The Arakawa trunk line, constructed by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, is to connect the existing Mikawashima sewage plant to Higashioku Sewage Purification Center now under construction, 2400m in total length, 40m as pit depth and 15m in the minimum curvature R, and needs shielding works for segment external forms of 4700mm. The construction method employed is the pit/drift continuous shielding method, which allows continuous works from a pit to drift by a single shielding machine. The machine is equipped with a spherical body holding a drift shielding machine built in a pit shielding machine, to excavate a pit to a given depth, and then a drift after turning the spherical body by 90deg. Each pit is equipped with a lift and each drift with an adequate system to move the segments. Bag-equipped segments are used for sharp curves. The pit/drift shielding method has been already applied to 5 cases, including the Arakawa trunk line construction, centered by those for sewarage systems. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  15. Pitting of malaria parasites and spherocyte formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gichuki Charity W

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high prevalence of spherocytes was detected in blood smears of children enrolled in a case control study conducted in the malaria holoendemic Lake Victoria basin. It was speculated that the spherocytes reflect intraerythrocytic removal of malarial parasites with a concurrent removal of RBC membrane through a process analogous to pitting of intraerythrocytic inclusion bodies. Pitting and re-circulation of RBCs devoid of malaria parasites could be a host mechanism for parasite clearance while minimizing the anaemia that would occur were the entire parasitized RBC removed. The prior demonstration of RBCs containing ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (pf 155 or RESA but no intracellular parasites, support the idea of pitting. Methods An in vitro model was developed to examine the phenomenon of pitting and spherocyte formation in Plasmodium falciparum infected RBCs (iRBC co-incubated with human macrophages. In vivo application of this model was evaluated using blood specimens from patients attending Kisumu Ditrict Hospital. RBCs were probed with anti-RESA monoclonal antibody and a DNA stain (propidium iodide. Flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy was used to compare RBCs containing both the antigen and the parasites to those that were only RESA positive. Results Co-incubation of iRBC and tumor necrosis factor-alpha activated macrophages led to pitting (14% ± 1.31% macrophages with engulfed trophozoites as opposed to erythrophagocytosis (5.33% ± 0.95% (P Conclusion It is proposed that in malaria holoendemic areas where prevalence of asexual stage parasites approaches 100% in children, RBCs with pitted parasites are re-circulated and pitting may produce spherocytes.

  16. Pit Viper strikes at the Hanford site. Pit maintenance using robotics at the Hanford Tank Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder-Smith, Lynne

    2002-01-01

    The Pit Viper--a remote operations waste retrieval system--was developed to replace manual operations in the valve pits of waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The system consists of a typical industrial backhoe fitted with a robotic manipulator arm and is operated remotely from a control trailer located outside of the tank farm. Cameras mounted to the arm and within the containment tent allow the operator to view the entire pit area and operate the system using a joystick. The arm's gripper can grasp a variety of tools that allow personnel to perform cleaning, debris removal, and concrete repair tasks--a more efficient and less dose-intensive process than the previous 'long-pole' method. The project team overcame a variety of obstacles during development and testing of the Pit Viper system, and deployment occurred in Hanford Tank C-104 in December 2001

  17. PEMODELAN PENYEBARAN BATUAN POTENSIAL PEMBENTUK ASAM PADA KAWASAN PENAMBANGAN BATUBARA TAMBANG TERBUKA DI MUARA LAWA, KABUPATEN KUTAI BARAT, KALIMANTAN TIMUR (Modeling Distribution of Rock Potential Acid Forming in Open Pit Coal Mining Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalaho Dina Devy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Dampak penambangan batubara tambang terbuka adalah munculnya Air Asam Tambang (AAT di sekitar lingkungan penambangan yang mempengaruhi kualitas air tambang, biota air, kualitas air dan tanah. Oleh karena itu, informasi awal untuk mengantisipasi dampak tersebut, yaitu identifikasi batuan yang berpotensi asam dan memodelkan penyebarannya. Kajian geologi dan mineralogi batuan berperan dalam mengetahui penyebaran batuan Potential Acid Forming (PAF dan Non Acid Forming (NAF. Kawasan tambang yang digunakan sebagai model penelitian berada di Kecamatan Muara Lawa, Kabupaten Kutai Barat, Kalimantan Timur. Hasil dari penelitian mengindikasikan, bahwa dominasi PAF berada di lapisan batu lempung kemudian diikuti batu lanau dan batu pasir dengan penyebaran mengikuti struktur sinklin yang terbatas di lapisan bawah (floor dan lapisan antara (inter burden pada batubara. Sementara itu, batuan NAF menyebar menempati daerah selain batuan PAF. ABSTRACT The impact of open pit coal mining is the emergence of Acid Mine Water (AMD around the mining environment that affect the quality of the mine water, aquatic biota, water and soil quality. Therefore, early information to anticipate these impacts is the identification potential acid rock and distribution model as a guide for the mining plan. Geological and geochemical study of rocks is important in knowing the distribution of rock Potential Acid Formning (PAF and Non Acid Forming (NAF. Mining area which is used as a research model was in Muara Lawa, West Kutai regency, East Kalimantan province. The results of the study indicate, that the dominance of PAF are in layers followed by siltstone, claystone and sandstone with the distribution of rock following the syncline structure in the bottom (floor layer and in the inter-burden layer on coal. Meanwhile, rock NAF spread in areas other than rock PAF.

  18. Comparison of six different methods of cleaning and preparing occlusal fissure surface before placement of pit and fissure sealant: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim & Objectives : The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the microleakage of pit and fissure sealants after using six different preparation techniques: (a brush, (b pumice slurry application, (c bur, (d air polishing, (e air abrasion, and (f longer etching time. Material & Method : The study was conducted on 60 caries-free first premolars extracted for orthodontic purpose. These teeth were randomly assigned to six groups of 10 teeth each. Teeth were prepared using one of six occlusal surface treatments prior to placement of Clinpro" 3M ESPE light-cured sealant. The teeth were thermocycled for 500 cycles and stored in 0.9% normal saline. Teeth were sealed apically and coated with nail varnish 1 mm from the margin and stained in 1% methylene blue for 24 hours. Each tooth was divided buccolingually parallel to the long axis of the tooth, yielding two sections per tooth for analysis. The surfaces were scored from 0 to 2 for the extent of microleakage. Statistical Analysis : Results obtained for microleakage were analyzed by using t-tests at sectional level and chi-square test and analysis of variance (ANOVA at the group level. Results : The results of round bur group were significantly superior when compared to all other groups. The application of air polishing and air abrasion showed better results than pumice slurry, bristle brush, and longer etching time. Round bur group was the most successful cleaning and preparing technique. Air polishing and air abrasion produced significantly less microleakage than traditional pumice slurry, bristle brush, and longer etching time.

  19. Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this problem if you are in a high security environment where this is disabled by a network policy. The Registry will work in JavaScript-enabled browsers such as: Google Chrome 17+ Mozilla Firefox 12+ Internet Explorer 10+ Safari 5+ Safari iOS 5+ Android 2.3+ If you are using a compatible ...

  20. Interacting Effects Induced by Two Neighboring Pits Considering Relative Position Parameters and Pit Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfang Huang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For pre-corroded aluminum alloy 7075-T6, the interacting effects of two neighboring pits on the stress concentration are comprehensively analyzed by considering various relative position parameters (inclination angle θ and dimensionless spacing parameter λ and pit depth (d with the finite element method. According to the severity of the stress concentration, the critical corrosion regions, bearing high susceptibility to fatigue damage, are determined for intersecting and adjacent pits, respectively. A straightforward approach is accordingly proposed to conservatively estimate the combined stress concentration factor induced by two neighboring pits, and a concrete application example is presented. It is found that for intersecting pits, the normalized stress concentration factor Ktnor increases with the increase of θ and λ and always reaches its maximum at θ = 90°, yet for adjacent pits, Ktnor decreases with the increase of λ and the maximum value appears at a slight asymmetric location. The simulations reveal that Ktnor follows a linear and an exponential relationship with the dimensionless depth parameter Rd for intersecting and adjacent cases, respectively.

  1. Applicability of transfer tensor method for open quantum system dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelzinis, Andrius; Rybakovas, Edvardas; Valkunas, Leonas

    2017-12-21

    Accurate simulations of open quantum system dynamics is a long standing issue in the field of chemical physics. Exact methods exist, but are costly, while perturbative methods are limited in their applicability. Recently a new black-box type method, called transfer tensor method (TTM), was proposed [J. Cerrillo and J. Cao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 110401 (2014)]. It allows one to accurately simulate long time dynamics with a numerical cost of solving a time-convolution master equation, provided many initial system evolution trajectories are obtained from some exact method beforehand. The possible time-savings thus strongly depend on the ratio of total versus initial evolution lengths. In this work, we investigate the parameter regimes where an application of TTM would be most beneficial in terms of computational time. We identify several promising parameter regimes. Although some of them correspond to cases when perturbative theories could be expected to perform well, we find that the accuracy of such approaches depends on system parameters in a more complex way than it is commonly thought. We propose that the TTM should be applied whenever system evolution is expected to be long and accuracy of perturbative methods cannot be ensured or in cases when the system under consideration does not correspond to any single perturbative regime.

  2. Exploitation study of the ore-body ''Tigre III''. Open-cut design and study of high-recovery underground mining method for the Tigre III ore-body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baluszka, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    The paper first carries out an analysis for the purpose of determining the limiting sterile/ore ratio for open-cut and underground mining in the specific filling case of Tigre III. In this connection it considers a high-recovery method of underground mining (involving the use of cemented hydropneumatic chambers), a general mine plan covering access, transport, ventilation and removal of ore as well as auxiliary services relating to the Tigre III ore body as a whole. The costs of this method of mining are determined for purposes of comparison with the open-cut method. Similarly, the limiting sterile/ore ratio is taken as the basis for an analysis of different types of pit and a design suited to the limiting ratio is adopted. As a final solution the paper favours a method which combines open-cut and underground mining. It proposes the use of the open-cut method up to the limiting ratio (in accordance with the pit design chosen) and of underground method (by the filling chamber method) for the rest of the area. (author)

  3. Study of pitting corrosion in line-pipe steel under the influence of remanent magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J H; Caleyo, F; Hallen, J M [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN), Zacatenco (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The influence of remanent magnetization on pitting corrosion in line-pipe steels is studied. Pitting corrosion experiments have been carried out on samples of an API 5L grade 52 steel under a magnetization level of the same order of magnitude of the remanent magnetization in the pipeline wall after in-line inspection based on magnetic flux leakage. The samples were magnetized using rings of the same grade as the investigated steel. Immediately after magnetization, the investigated samples were subjected to pitting by immersing them in a solution containing dissolved Cl{sup -} and SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and ions. The pitting experiments were conducted during a seven days period. The pit depth distribution and the maximum pit depth in each sample were recorded and used to conduct extreme value analyses of the pitting process in magnetized and non-magnetized control samples. The statistical assessment of the pitting corrosion data collected during this study shows that the magnetic field reduces the average depth of the pit population and also the extreme pit depth values that can be predicted from the maximum values observed in the magnetized samples in comparison with to the non-magnetized control samples. Scanning electron microscopy observations show that the magnetic field alters the pit morphology by increasing the pit mouth opening. (author)

  4. Liquid waste processing from TRIGA spent fuel storage pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchtela, Karl

    1988-01-01

    At the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities and also at other facilities running TRIGA reactors, storage pits for spent fuel elements are installed. During the last revision procedure, the reactor group of the Atominstitute decided to refill the storage pits and to get rid of any contaminated storage pit water. The liquid radioactive waste had been pumped to polyethylene vessels for intermediate storage before decontamination and release. The activity concentration of the storage pit water at the Aominstitute after a storage period of several years was about 40 kBq/l, the total amount of liquid in the storage pits was about 0.25 m 3 . It was attempted to find a simple and inexpensive method to remove especially the radioactive Cesium from the waste solution. Different methods for decontamination like distillation, precipitation and ion exchange are discussed

  5. Effect of heat treatment on pitting corrosion of austenitic Cr-Ni-Mo steels in sodium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefec, R.; Franz, F.; Holecek, A.

    1979-01-01

    The pitting corrosion resistance of Cr17Ni12Mo2,5 type steel under potentiostatic polarization in a sodium chloride solution is adversely affected by previous annealing. The data obtained were systematically dependent on annealing temperature, time and surface roughness. The corrosion current, the number of pits or the mean area of pit opening and the corrosion rate within the pits were increased by previous annealing at 550 to 750 0 C for 1-100 hrs. The highest corrosion rate estimated corresponded to heat treatments provoking severe sensitization to intergranular corrosion. The paercentage area of corrosion pit openings and the estimated pit penetration rates were several times higher for as-machined than for polished surfaces. It can be assumed that pitting corrosion is little affected by the carbon content and that molybdenum depletion of grain-boundary zones is responsible for the reduced pitting resistance of annealed steels. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Pitting process visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes time-domain simulation of gear pitting damage using animation program. Key frames have been used to create illusion of motion. The animation uses experimental results of high-cycle fatigue of material. The fatigue damage occurs in the nominal creep area on the side of the gear tooth sample loaded with variable-positioned Hertz pressure. By applying the force, the pressure cumulates between two convex surfaces. This phenomenon results in material damage under of curved surfaces in contact. Moreover, further damage has been registered on the surface. This is due to exceeding the elastic-plastic state limit and development of „tabs“. The tabs serve as origin of surface micro cracks powered by shear stress and enclosed grease pressure as well. This deformation and extreme pressures of Pascal law contribute to elongation and growth of the surface micro crack. Non-homogenous parts of material volume support the initialization/development of the micro cracks as well. Resulting visualization of the tooth-side fatigue damage provides clear and easy-to-understand description of the damage development process right from the micro crack initialization to the final fragmentation due to pitting degradation.

  7. OPEN METHOD OF COORDINATION AND EUROPEAN COOPERATION OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEGĂROIU CARINA-ELENA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical 3-level model used to analyse the Open Method of Coordination belongs to a “rational” view of the international cooperation. Although considered to be a far too simplistic framework to be able to accurately describe a highly complex phenomenon, it does justice to the idea that actors have predetermined preferences in specific areas and they systematically act in order to achieve those priorities within the constraints of an institutional system. According to this hypothesis, the OMC has been analysed by breaking the process down into three stages (i.e. the influence of the internal structure, the intergovernmental negotiation model and the institutional choice. Detailed theories have been used to describe each stage (e.g. neoliberalism, neorealism, neofunctionalism, institutionalism, but also abiding by the overall rational context. In conclusion, these elements will be amassed in order to create a comprehensive explanation of this complex phenomenon.

  8. Pitting Corrosion Topography Characteristics and Evolution Laws of LC4 Aluminum Alloy in Service Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Zhiguo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft aluminum alloy is easy to initiate pitting corrosion in the service environment, the pitting corrosion topography characteristics could directly affect the fatigue mechanical property of structure material. In order to obtain the pitting corrosion topography characteristics of LC4 aluminum alloy in the service environment, the accelerated corrosion test was carried out along the accelerated corrosion test environment spectrum which imitated the service environment spectrum, and the corrosion topography characteristic parameters of corrosion pit depth H,corrosion pit surface length L and corrosion pit surface width W were defined respectively. During the corrosion test process,the three parameters of typical corrosion pit were successively measured in different equivalent corrosion years for obtaining the corrosion pit damage size data, then the data were analysed through the statistics method and fractal theory. Further more in order to gain the pit topography characteristics in the same equivalent corrosion year and the topography evolution laws during different equivalent corrosion years were gained. The analysis results indicate that LC4 aluminum alloy corrosion pit topography characteristics in the service environment include the following:firstly, the pit topography characteristic parameters conform to the lognormal distributions in the same equivalent corrosion years; secondly,the pit topography characteristic parameters gradually reflect the fractal feature in accordance with the equivalent corrosion year increment, and the pits tend to be shallow, long and moderate wide topography character.

  9. Stochastic models for predicting pitting corrosion damage of HLRW containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshall, G.A.

    1991-10-01

    Stochastic models for predicting aqueous pitting corrosion damage of high-level radioactive-waste containers are described. These models could be used to predict the time required for the first pit to penetrate a container and the increase in the number of breaches at later times, both of which would be useful in the repository system performance analysis. Monte Carlo implementations of the stochastic models are described, and predictions of induction time, survival probability and pit depth distributions are presented. These results suggest that the pit nucleation probability decreases with exposure time and that pit growth may be a stochastic process. The advantages and disadvantages of the stochastic approach, methods for modeling the effects of environment, and plans for future work are discussed

  10. PIT Tagging Anurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, Brome

    2008-01-01

    The following video demonstrates a procedure to insert a passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag under the skin of an anuran (frog or toad) for research and monitoring purposes. Typically, a 12.5 mm tag (0.5 in.) is used to uniquely identify individual anurans as smal as 40 mm (1.6 in.) in length from snout to vent. Smaller tags are also available and allow smaller anurans to be tagged. The procedure does not differ for other sizes of tages or other sizes of anurans. Anyone using this procedure should ensure that the tag is small enough to fit easily behind the sacral hump of the anuran, as shown in this video.

  11. Methods & tools for publishing & reusing linked open statistical data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, Efthimios; Kalampokis, Evangelos; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Krimmer, Robert; Tarabanis, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    The number of open data available for reuse is rapidly increasing. A large number of these data are numerical thus can be easily visualized. Linked open data technology enables easy reuse and linking of data residing in di.erent locations. In this workshop, we will present a number of

  12. Computational Methods for Physical Model Information Management: Opening the Aperture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, F.; Kirgoeze, R.; Gagne, D.; Calle, D.; Murray, J.; Crowley, J.

    2015-01-01

    The volume, velocity and diversity of data available to analysts are growing exponentially, increasing the demands on analysts to stay abreast of developments in their areas of investigation. In parallel to the growth in data, technologies have been developed to efficiently process, store, and effectively extract information suitable for the development of a knowledge base capable of supporting inferential (decision logic) reasoning over semantic spaces. These technologies and methodologies, in effect, allow for automated discovery and mapping of information to specific steps in the Physical Model (Safeguard's standard reference of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle). This paper will describe and demonstrate an integrated service under development at the IAEA that utilizes machine learning techniques, computational natural language models, Bayesian methods and semantic/ontological reasoning capabilities to process large volumes of (streaming) information and associate relevant, discovered information to the appropriate process step in the Physical Model. The paper will detail how this capability will consume open source and controlled information sources and be integrated with other capabilities within the analysis environment, and provide the basis for a semantic knowledge base suitable for hosting future mission focused applications. (author)

  13. Corrosion pit depth extreme value prediction from limited inspection data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najjar, D.; Bigerelle, M.; Iost, A.; Bourdeau, L.; Guillou, D.

    2004-01-01

    Passive alloys like stainless steels are prone to localized corrosion in chlorides containing environments. The greater the depth of the localized corrosion phenomenon, the more dramatic the related damage that can lead to a structure weakening by fast perforation. In practical situations, because measurements are time consuming and expensive, the challenge is usually to predict the maximum pit depth that could be found in a large scale installation from the processing of a limited inspection data. As far as the parent distribution of pit depths is assumed to be of exponential type, the most successful method was found in the application of the statistical extreme-value analysis developed by Gumbel. This study aims to present a new and alternative methodology to the Gumbel approach with a view towards accurately estimating the maximum pit depth observed on a ferritic stainless steel AISI 409 subjected to an accelerated corrosion test (ECC1) used in automotive industry. This methodology consists in characterising and modelling both the morphology of pits and the statistical distribution of their depths from a limited inspection dataset. The heart of the data processing is based on the combination of two recent statistical methods that avoid making any choice about the type of the theoretical underlying parent distribution of pit depths: the Generalized Lambda Distribution (GLD) is used to model the distribution of pit depths and the Bootstrap technique to determine a confidence interval on the maximum pit depth. (authors)

  14. pitting corrosion susceptibility pitting corrosion susceptibility of aisi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    2DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, BENIN- CITY, EDO STATE, NIGERIA. E-mail addresses: ... fluids and aggressive chemicals. Pitting corrosion ... the kitchen, food manufacturing and dispensing and.

  15. Complex molecular orbital method: open-shell theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendekovic, J.

    1976-01-01

    A singe-determinant open-shell formalism for complex molecular orbitals is developed. An iterative algorithm for solving the resulting secular equations is constructed. It is based on a sequence of similarity transformations and matrix triangularizations

  16. Single pit propagation on austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heurtault, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical characterization of metastable events such as pitting corrosion of stainless steel in chloride electrolyte remains complex because many individual processes may occur simultaneously on the alloy surface. To overcome these difficulties, an experimental setup, the flow micro-device, has been developed to achieve the initiation of a single pit and to propagate the single pit in three dimensions. In this work, we take advantage of such a device in order to revisit the pitting process on a 316L stainless steel in a chloride - sulphate bulk. In a first step, the time evolution of the pit geometry (depth, radius) and the chemical evolution of the pit solution investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy have shown that the pit depth propagation depends on the formation of a metal chloride and sulphate gel in the pit solution, and is controlled by the metallic cations diffusion from the pit bottom to the pit mouth. The pit radius growth is defined by the initial surface de-passivation, by the presence of a pit cover and by the gel development in the solution. all of these phenomena are function of applied potential and chemical composition of the solution. In a last step, it was demonstrated that a critical chloride concentration is needed in order to maintain the pit propagation. This critical concentration slightly increases with the pit depth. From statistical analysis performed on identical experiments, a zone diagram showing the pit stability as a function of the chloride concentration and the pit dimensions was built. (author) [fr

  17. Open Online Research: Developing Software and Method for Collaborative Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bröer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the potentials of web-based collaboration, in 2014, a group of social scientists, students and information specialists started tinkering with software and methodology for open online collaborative research. The results of their research led to a gathering of academics at the #ethnography Conference Amsterdam 2014, where new material was collected, shared and collaboratively interpreted. Following the conference, they continued to develop software and methodology. In this contribution, we report on the aims, methodology, inspiring examples, caveats and results from testing several prototypes of open online research software. We conclude that open online collaborative interpretation is both feasible and desirable. Dialogue and reflexivity, we hold, are able to transcend separated perspectives and stimulate agreement on a set of distinct interpretations; they simultaneously respect the multiplicity of understandings of social phenomena whilst bringing order into this diversity. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs160327

  18. Herniation pits of the femur neck: incidence and radiologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jae Hyun; Suh, Jin Suk; Lee, Hye Yeon

    1994-01-01

    In order to assess the incidence and radiologic findings of herniation pit of the femur neck in Korean. In 152 macerated femurs of 88 cadavers, and randomly selected 115 hips of 70 patients, the presence of herniation pit was determined by using fluoroscopy and radiography. It was then examined by CT for inspection of overlying surface and its opening was confirmed by inserting thin steal wire under the fluoroscopic guidance. Seventeen herniation pits in 15 macerated femurs of 13 cadavers were noted. (14.8%, 13/88). Two of 13 individuals showed bilaterality. All lesions were found only in males. Six herniation pit in 6 femurs of 6 patients (8.6%, 6/70) were also noted. All lesions were on anterosuperior aspect of femur neck. Plain radiographs of macerated femurs revealed well marginated and thin sclerosis in 15 lesions. Of all 23 lesions, CT showed cortical breakdown in 3, and overlying cortical thickening in 8. In 15 macerated femurs, roughed area of cortex was found in anterosuperior aspect of femur in all cases, and tiny openings(diameter less than 1 mm) related to cystic lesions were confirmed in 9 lesions. The incidence of herniation pits was 14.8% in 88 cadaver, and 8.6% in 70 patients. All were males

  19. Dependence of Crystallographic Orientation on Pitting Corrosion Behavior of Ni-Fe-Cr Alloy 028

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, LiNa; Szpunar, Jerzy A.; Dong, JianXin; Ojo, Olanrewaju A.; Wang, Xu

    2018-03-01

    The influence of crystallographic orientation on the pitting corrosion behavior of Ni-Fe-Cr alloy 028 was studied using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), potentiodynamic polarization technique, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that there is anisotropy of pitting corrosion that strongly depends on crystallographic orientation of the surface plane. The distribution of pit density in a standard stereographic triangle indicates that the crystallographic planes close to {100} are more prone to pitting corrosion compared to planes {110} and {111}. The surface energy calculation of (001) and (111) shows that the plane with a high atomic packing density has a low surface energy with concomitant strong resistance to pitting corrosion. A correlation function between crystallographic orientation and pitting corrosion susceptibility suggests a method that not only predicts the pitting resistance of known textured materials, but also could help to improve corrosion resistance by controlling material texture.

  20. A Bayesian approach to modeling and predicting pitting flaws in steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, X.-X.; Mao, D.; Pandey, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Steam generators in nuclear power plants have experienced varying degrees of under-deposit pitting corrosion. A probabilistic model to accurately predict pitting damage is necessary for effective life-cycle management of steam generators. This paper presents an advanced probabilistic model of pitting corrosion characterizing the inherent randomness of the pitting process and measurement uncertainties of the in-service inspection (ISI) data obtained from eddy current (EC) inspections. A Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation-based Bayesian method, enhanced by a data augmentation technique, is developed for estimating the model parameters. The proposed model is able to predict the actual pit number, the actual pit depth as well as the maximum pit depth, which is the main interest of the pitting corrosion model. The study also reveals the significance of inspection uncertainties in the modeling of pitting flaws using the ISI data: Without considering the probability-of-detection issues and measurement errors, the leakage risk resulted from the pitting corrosion would be under-estimated, despite the fact that the actual pit depth would usually be over-estimated.

  1. Open-geometry Fourier modal method: modeling nanophotonic structures in infinite domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häyrynen, Teppo; de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Gregersen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    We present an open-geometry Fourier modal method based on a new combination of open boundary conditions and an efficient k-space discretization. The open boundary of the computational domain is obtained using basis functions that expand the whole space, and the integrals subsequently appearing due...

  2. Modeling open nanophotonic systems using the Fourier modal method: Generalization to 3D Cartesian coordinates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häyrynen, Teppo; Østerkryger, Andreas Dyhl; de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz

    2017-01-01

    Recently, an open geometry Fourier modal method based on a new combination ofan open boundary condition and a non-uniform $k$-space discretization wasintroduced for rotationally symmetric structures providing a more efficientapproach for modeling nanowires and micropillar cavities [J. Opt. Soc. A...... moreaccurate and efficient modeling of open 3D nanophotonic structures....

  3. Use of the Paid Open Access Option in Hybrid Open Access Journals in Agriculture: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Kocher

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We explore the use and usefulness of the hybrid open access publishing model in agricultural sciences using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. To ascertain the level of usage of the paid open access option in hybrid open access journals in agriculture, we studied the agriculture-related journals published by six commercial publishers. These publishers offer authors the option of paying a fee, often close to $3,000 per article, to make their article immediately freely available, usually with a Creative Commons license. We defined agriculture broadly but also assigned each journal to a subspecialty (e.g., animal science in order to see if there were differences based on these subdivisions. For each journal we gathered data for 2014-2015 and noted the total number of research articles and the number of those that were made freely available by authors paying the open access fee. To give context to our results we also surveyed local faculty in agricultural sciences, asking their reasons for considering the paid open access options and the sources of the funds to pay for it. Survey respondents were asked about their academic position and rank to see if there were differences to be noted. We also investigated the findability of the open access articles, noting if each individual publisher offered a way to easily locate all the freely available articles in a particular journal and if there are other avenues to easily locate these articles.

  4. Stochastic modeling of pitting corrosion: A new model for initiation and growth of multiple corrosion pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valor, A.; Caleyo, F.; Alfonso, L.; Rivas, D.; Hallen, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, a new stochastic model capable of simulating pitting corrosion is developed and validated. Pitting corrosion is modeled as the combination of two stochastic processes: pit initiation and pit growth. Pit generation is modeled as a nonhomogeneous Poisson process, in which induction time for pit initiation is simulated as the realization of a Weibull process. In this way, the exponential and Weibull distributions can be considered as the possible distributions for pit initiation time. Pit growth is simulated using a nonhomogeneous Markov process. Extreme value statistics is used to find the distribution of maximum pit depths resulting from the combination of the initiation and growth processes for multiple pits. The proposed model is validated using several published experiments on pitting corrosion. It is capable of reproducing the experimental observations with higher quality than the stochastic models available in the literature for pitting corrosion

  5. Stochastic modeling of pitting corrosion: A new model for initiation and growth of multiple corrosion pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valor, A. [Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de La Habana, San Lazaro y L, Vedado, 10400 Havana (Cuba); Caleyo, F. [Departamento de Ingenieria, Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico)]. E-mail: fcaleyo@gmail.com; Alfonso, L. [Departamento de Ingenieria, Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico); Rivas, D. [Departamento de Ingenieria, Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico); Hallen, J.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria, Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico)

    2007-02-15

    In this work, a new stochastic model capable of simulating pitting corrosion is developed and validated. Pitting corrosion is modeled as the combination of two stochastic processes: pit initiation and pit growth. Pit generation is modeled as a nonhomogeneous Poisson process, in which induction time for pit initiation is simulated as the realization of a Weibull process. In this way, the exponential and Weibull distributions can be considered as the possible distributions for pit initiation time. Pit growth is simulated using a nonhomogeneous Markov process. Extreme value statistics is used to find the distribution of maximum pit depths resulting from the combination of the initiation and growth processes for multiple pits. The proposed model is validated using several published experiments on pitting corrosion. It is capable of reproducing the experimental observations with higher quality than the stochastic models available in the literature for pitting corrosion.

  6. Detection of Pitting in Gears Using a Deep Sparse Autoencoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhi Qu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper; a new method for gear pitting fault detection is presented. The presented method is developed based on a deep sparse autoencoder. The method integrates dictionary learning in sparse coding into a stacked autoencoder network. Sparse coding with dictionary learning is viewed as an adaptive feature extraction method for machinery fault diagnosis. An autoencoder is an unsupervised machine learning technique. A stacked autoencoder network with multiple hidden layers is considered to be a deep learning network. The presented method uses a stacked autoencoder network to perform the dictionary learning in sparse coding and extract features from raw vibration data automatically. These features are then used to perform gear pitting fault detection. The presented method is validated with vibration data collected from gear tests with pitting faults in a gearbox test rig and compared with an existing deep learning-based approach.

  7. Investigation of Stress Concentration and Casing Strength Degradation Caused by Corrosion Pits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Downhole casing and tubing are subjected to corrosion in many cases because of the exposure to corrosive environment. A more serious problem is that pitting corrosion occurs in the casing inner surface. Meanwhile, downhole strings are subjected to various forms of mechanical loads, for example, internal pressure load, external collapse load, or both. These loads acting on the corrosion pits will cause stress concentration and degrade the casing strength. Thus, it is essential to evaluate the stress concentration degree reasonably. The SCF (stress concentration factor is usually used to characterize the degree of stress concentration induced by corrosion pits. This paper presented a comparison on the SCFs regarding the analytical method for a single pit and experimental method for double pits. The results show that the SCF of a single pit depends mainly on the depth of the corrosion pit; however, the SCF of the double pits strongly depends on the pits distance. A correction factor of 1.3 was recommended in the double pits SCF prediction model.

  8. Pitting of Incoloy 800 in presence of CuII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, G.L.; Alvarez, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    The pitting behaviour of Incoloy 800 in presence of Cu II ions, at 60 degrees C and 280 degrees C was studied by long term exposition of specimens in aqueous cupric chloride solutions. At 60 degrees C experiments were performed in aerated (7 ppm O 2 ) and deaerated solutions containing 500, 1000, 2000, 10000 and 20000 ppm CuCl 2 . At 280 degrees C experiments were performed in deaerated 20 ppm, 50 ppm and 100 ppm CuCl 2 solutions. During each experiment the open circuit potential of the alloy was measured as a function of time. After corrosion test the specimens were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy for the presence of pits. In another set of experiments potentiodynamic anodic polarization curves were used to determine the pitting potential of Incoloy 800 in deaerated NaCl solutions at chloride concentrations and pH values corresponding to those possessed by solutions containing 20 ppm to 20000 ppm CuCl 2 . At 60 degrees C pitting was observed in those solutions where the CuCl 2 concentration is higher than 1000 ppm. At 280 degrees C pitting was found in the specimens exposed to those solutions where the CuCl 2 concentration was higher than 20 ppm. (author). 3 refs

  9. Statistical characterization of pitting corrosion process and life prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, A.K.; Younas, M.

    1995-01-01

    In order to prevent corrosion failures of machines and structures, it is desirable to know in advance when the corrosion damage will take place, and appropriate measures are needed to mitigate the damage. The corrosion predictions are needed both at development as well as operational stage of machines and structures. There are several forms of corrosion process through which varying degrees of damage can occur. Under certain conditions these corrosion processes at alone and in other set of conditions, several of these processes may occur simultaneously. For a certain type of machine elements and structures, such as gears, bearing, tubes, pipelines, containers, storage tanks etc., are particularly prone to pitting corrosion which is an insidious form of corrosion. The corrosion predictions are usually based on experimental results obtained from test coupons and/or field experiences of similar machines or parts of a structure. Considerable scatter is observed in corrosion processes. The probabilities nature and kinetics of pitting process makes in necessary to use statistical method to forecast the residual life of machine of structures. The focus of this paper is to characterization pitting as a time-dependent random process, and using this characterization the prediction of life to reach a critical level of pitting damage can be made. Using several data sets from literature on pitting corrosion, the extreme value modeling of pitting corrosion process, the evolution of the extreme value distribution in time, and their relationship to the reliability of machines and structure are explained. (author)

  10. Effects of selected water chemistry variables on copper pitting propagation in potable water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Hung; Taxen, Claes; Williams, Keith; Scully, John

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The effects of water composition on pit propagation kinetics on Cu were separated from pit initiation and stabilization using the artificial pit method in a range of dilute HCO 3 - , SO 4 2- and Cl - -containing waters. → The effective polarization and Ohmic resistance of pits were lower in SO4 2- -containing solutions and greater in Cl - -containing solutions. → Relationship between the solution composition and the corrosion product identity and morphology were found. → These, in turn controlled the corrosion product Ohmic resistance and subsequently the pit growth rate. - Abstract: The pit propagation behavior of copper (UNS C11000) was investigated from an electrochemical perspective using the artificial pit method. Pit growth was studied systematically in a range of HCO 3 - , SO 4 2- and Cl - containing-waters at various concentrations. Pit propagation was mediated by the nature of the corrosion products formed both inside and over the pit mouth (i.e., cap). Certain water chemistry concentrations such as those high in sulfate were found to promote fast pitting that could be sustained over long times at a fixed applied potential but gradually stifled in all but the lowest concentration solutions. In contrast, Cl - containing waters without sulfate ions resulted in slower pit growth and eventual repassivation. These observations were interpreted through understanding of the identity, amount and porosity of corrosion products formed inside and over pits. These factors controlled their resistive nature as characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A finite element model (FEM) was developed which included copper oxidation kinetics, transport by migration and diffusion, Cu(I) and Cu(II) solid corrosion product formation and porosity governed by equilibrium thermodynamics and a saturation index, as well as pit current and depth of penetration. The findings of the modeling were in good agreement with artificial pit experiments

  11. Mathematical Flow Determination in Open Channel by Method of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper grid method of continues forward characteristics and rectangular grid broken backward characteristics is presented, for the solution of saint Venant equations for free surface flow. The method yield depth and velocity hydrographs at predetermined distances from which depths and velocity are obtained.

  12. Catalysts and methods for ring opening metathesis polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrock, Richard Royce; Autenrieth, Benjamin

    2018-04-03

    The present invention, among other things, provides highly syndiotactic poly(dicyclopentadiene) and/or hydrogenated poly(dicyclopentadiene), compositions thereof, and compounds and methods for preparing the same. In some embodiments, a provided compound is a compound of formula I, II or III. In some embodiments, a provided method comprises providing a compound of formula I, II or III.

  13. A heterogeneous computing accelerated SCE-UA global optimization method using OpenMP, OpenCL, CUDA, and OpenACC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Guangyuan; He, Xiaoyan; Ding, Liuqian; Li, Jiren; Liang, Ke; Hong, Yang

    2017-10-01

    The shuffled complex evolution optimization developed at the University of Arizona (SCE-UA) has been successfully applied in various kinds of scientific and engineering optimization applications, such as hydrological model parameter calibration, for many years. The algorithm possesses good global optimality, convergence stability and robustness. However, benchmark and real-world applications reveal the poor computational efficiency of the SCE-UA. This research aims at the parallelization and acceleration of the SCE-UA method based on powerful heterogeneous computing technology. The parallel SCE-UA is implemented on Intel Xeon multi-core CPU (by using OpenMP and OpenCL) and NVIDIA Tesla many-core GPU (by using OpenCL, CUDA, and OpenACC). The serial and parallel SCE-UA were tested based on the Griewank benchmark function. Comparison results indicate the parallel SCE-UA significantly improves computational efficiency compared to the original serial version. The OpenCL implementation obtains the best overall acceleration results however, with the most complex source code. The parallel SCE-UA has bright prospects to be applied in real-world applications.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Interactions between Corrosion Pits on Stainless Steel under Loading Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Haitao; Han, En-Hou

    2017-01-01

    The interactions between corrosion pits on stainless steel under loading conditions are studied by using a cellular automata model coupled with finite element method at a mesoscopic scale. The cellular automata model focuses on a metal/film/electrolyte system, including anodic dissolution, passivation, diffusion of hydrogen ions and salt film hydrolysis. The Chopard block algorithm is used to improve the diffusion simulation efficiency. The finite element method is used to calculate the stress concentration on the pit surface during pit growth, and the effect of local stress and strain on anodic current is obtained by using the Gutman model, which is used as the boundary conditions of the cellular automata model. The transient current characteristics of the interactions between corrosion pits under different simulation factors including the breakdown of the passive film at the pit mouth and the diffusion of hydrogen ions are analyzed. The analysis of the pit stability product shows that the simulation results are close to the experimental conclusions.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Interactions between Corrosion Pits on Stainless Steel under Loading Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haitao; Han, En-Hou [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China)

    2017-04-15

    The interactions between corrosion pits on stainless steel under loading conditions are studied by using a cellular automata model coupled with finite element method at a mesoscopic scale. The cellular automata model focuses on a metal/film/electrolyte system, including anodic dissolution, passivation, diffusion of hydrogen ions and salt film hydrolysis. The Chopard block algorithm is used to improve the diffusion simulation efficiency. The finite element method is used to calculate the stress concentration on the pit surface during pit growth, and the effect of local stress and strain on anodic current is obtained by using the Gutman model, which is used as the boundary conditions of the cellular automata model. The transient current characteristics of the interactions between corrosion pits under different simulation factors including the breakdown of the passive film at the pit mouth and the diffusion of hydrogen ions are analyzed. The analysis of the pit stability product shows that the simulation results are close to the experimental conclusions.

  16. Clinico epidemiological study of pitted keratolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naik Chandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pitted keratolysis is a common dermatological condition. However, very few studies are available on the clinical characteristics and epidemiological features of this disorder from India and abroad. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients from rural area of Kolar at Sri R.L.J.H. and S.N.R. Hospital, presenting with clinically distinctive lesions of pitted keratolysis were included in the study. Cases were interviewed with particular emphasis on triggering factors and findings were recorded. Investigations like Gram′s stain, culture studies, Wood′s ultraviolet light examination, histopathology etc, was done in selected cases to ascertain the clinical diagnosis. Results: Age of the patients varied from 20 to 40 years in 52% with male preponderance in 82% of cases. Duration of the disease varied from 15 days to five years, most of the patients were bare-footed farmers (62% of cases. Hyperhidrosis and pruritus were most frequently observed symptoms in 70% and 60% of patients. Most of the patients presented with the characteristic pits which varied from 1 to 50 in number in 56 % of cases, located predominantly on the pressure bearing areas in 92% of cases and depth of the pits varied from 1 to 2 mm in 60% of cases. Associated skin conditions recorded in present study were fissuring of soles in 38%, psoriasis 10%, dermatophyte infections in 6%, planter warts 6% and Corynebacterial triad and corn in 2% of patients each. Discussion: Affection of bare-footed individuals, male preponderance, presence of hyperhidrosis and occurrence of lesions over pressure bearing areas of soles, observed in the present study were consistent with earlier studies on the subject. However, pruritus as commonest presenting symptom reported by 60% patients in the present study, has not been documented in the previous studies. Conclusion: Pitted keratolysis is fairly common in bare footed male farmers of rural India. The condition is predominantly seen over the

  17. A predictive approach to fitness-for-service assessment of pitting corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekari, Elahe; Khan, Faisal; Ahmed, Salim

    2016-01-01

    Pitting corrosion is a localized corrosion that often causes leak and failure of process components. The aim of this work is to present a new fitness-for-service (FFS) assessment methodology for process equipment to track and predict pitting corrosion. In this methodology, pit density is modeled using a non-homogenous Poisson process and induction time for pit initiation is simulated as the realization of a Weibull process. The non-homogenous Markov process is used to estimate maximum pit depth, considering that only the current state of the damage influences its future development. Subsequently, the distributions of the operating pressure and the estimated burst pressure of the defected component are integrated with Monte Carlo simulations and First Order Second Moment (FOSM) method to calculate the reliability index and probability of failure. This methodology provides a more realistic failure assessment and enables consideration of uncertainty associated with estimating pit characteristics. The practical application of the proposed model is demonstrated using a piping case study. - Highlights: • A new model to estimate maximum pit depth and pit density as two main pit characteristics. • Integrating maximum pit depth with failure analysis considering allowable pressure of defected component. • Time dependent failure analysis to determine the remaining life.

  18. Slicer Method Comparison Using Open-source 3D Printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariffin, M. K. A. Mohd; Sukindar, N. A.; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Jaafar, C. N. A.; Ismail, M. I. S.

    2018-01-01

    Open-source 3D printer has been one of the popular choices in fabricating 3D models. This technology is easily accessible and low in cost. However, several studies have been made to improve the performance of this low-cost technology in term of the accuracy of the parts finish. This study is focusing on the selection of slicer mode between CuraEngine and Slic3r. The effect on this slicer has been observe in terms of accuracy and surface visualization. The result shows that if the accuracy is the top priority, CuraEngine is the better option to use as contribute more accuracy as well as less filament is needed compared to the Slice3r. Slice3r may be very useful for complicated parts such as hanging structure due to excessive material which act as support material. The study provides basic platform for the user to have an idea which option to be used in fabricating 3D model.

  19. The use of different techniques for determination of pitting corrosion potential of austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskelinen, P.; Forsen, O.; Onnela, J.; Ylaesaari, S.; Haenninen, H.

    1992-01-01

    Three different techniques for pitting corrosion potential measurement on austenitic stainless steel (Fe18Cr10Ni) were compared: conventional polarization method, a new Avesta electrochemical corrosion measurement cell and a scratch technique. Special attention was paid to the effects of crevice corrosion during pitting corrosion potential measurement and to their elimination. Development of a rapid test technique for reliable pitting corrosion potential determination was aimed at and resulted from comparison of the different techniques

  20. A Comprehensive Pitting Study of High Velocity Oxygen Fuel Inconel 625 Coating by Using Electrochemical Testing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Akbar; Khan, Sajid Ullah

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, Inconel 625 was coated on a mild steel substrate using a high velocity oxygen fuel coating process. The pitting propensity of the coating was tested by using open circuit potential versus time, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation, and scanning electrochemical microscopy. The pitting propensity of the coating was compared with bulk Inconel 625 alloy. The results confirmed that there were regions of different electrochemical activities on the coating which have caused pitting corrosion.

  1. Experimental Stress Analysis at Railway Inspection Pit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicuşor Laurentiu Zaharia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Railway inspection pits are used in railway halls. The purpose of inspection pits is to allow the working under the vehicle. Inspection pits can be found in locomotive depots, factories etc. The new design for a inspection pit in a railway hall involve tests in purpose of homologations the railway infrastructure. Before the homologation committee meeting, tests are made; after the test, a testing report is made which it will be part at homologation documents.

  2. A Method of Effective Quarry Water Purifying Using Artificial Filtering Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyulenev, M.; Garina, E.; Khoreshok, A.; Litvin, O.; Litvin, Y.; Maliukhina, E.

    2017-01-01

    The development of open pit mining in the large coal basins of Russia and other countries increases their negative impact on the environment. Along with the damage of land and air pollution by dust and combustion gases of blasting, coal pits have a significant negative impact on water resources. Polluted quarry water worsens the ecological situation on a much larger area than covered by air pollution and land damage. This significantly worsens the conditions of people living in cities and towns located near the coal pits, and complicates the subsequent restoration of the environment, irreversibly destroying the nature. Therefore, the research of quarry wastewater purifying is becoming an important mater for scholars of technical colleges and universities in the regions with developing open-pit mining. This paper describes the method of determining the basic parameters of the artificial filtering arrays formed on coal pits of Kuzbass (Western Siberia, Russia), and gives recommendations on its application.

  3. Device and method for treatment of openings in vascular and septal walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Pooja; Wilson, Thomas S.; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2017-06-06

    A device, system and method for treatment of an opening in vascular and/or septal walls including patent foramen ovale. The device has wings/stops on either end, an axis core covered in a shape memory foam and is deliverable via a catheter to the affected opening, finally expanding into a vascular or septal opening where it is held in place by the expandable shape memory stops or wings.

  4. Pitting Corrosion of Ni3(Si,Ti Intermetallic Compound at Various Chloride Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadang Priyotomo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The pitting corrosion of Ni3(Si,Ti intermetallic compound was investigated as function of chloride concentration by using electrochemical method and scanning electron microscope in sodium chloride solutions at 293 K.  In addition, the pitting corrosion of type C276 alloy was also studied under the same experimental condition for comparison.  The pitting potential obtained for the intermetallic compound decreased with increasing chloride concentration.  The specific pitting potential and pitting potential of Ni3(Si,Ti were lower than those of C276 alloy, which means that the pitting corrosion resistance of C276 alloy was higher than that of Ni3(Si,Ti.

  5. Assessment of Concrete Repair Techniques for Radiologically-Contaminated Tank Farm Pump and Valve Pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the scope of Project W-314, ''Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations,'' the condition of pump and valve pit walls and floors is being assessed, and repairs made as needed, to support upgrading the infrastructure necessary to safely transfer tank waste for treatment. Flaws in the surfaces of the pits (e.g., concrete crack/faults, protective coating deterioration) must be repaired to ensure containment integrity and to facilitate future decontamination of the pits. This engineering study presents a cost/risk/benefit evaluation of concrete and protective coating repair methods in pump and valve pits using various manual and remote tool systems

  6. Equipment Selection by using Fuzzy TOPSIS Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Mahmut

    2016-10-01

    In this study, Fuzzy TOPSIS method was performed for the selection of open pit truck and the optimal solution of the problem was investigated. Data from Turkish Coal Enterprises was used in the application of the method. This paper explains the Fuzzy TOPSIS approaches with group decision-making application in an open pit coal mine in Turkey. An algorithm of the multi-person multi-criteria decision making with fuzzy set approach was applied an equipment selection problem. It was found that Fuzzy TOPSIS with a group decision making is a method that may help decision-makers in solving different decision-making problems in mining.

  7. Restoration of the analytically reconstructed OpenPET images by the method of convex projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashima, Hideaki; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Katsunuma, Takayuki; Suga, Mikio [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering; Kinouchi, Shoko [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Chiba Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering; Obi, Takashi [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering; Kudo, Hiroyuki [Tsukuba Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Systems and Information Engineering

    2011-07-01

    We have proposed the OpenPET geometry which has gaps between detector rings and physically opened field-of-view. The image reconstruction of the OpenPET is classified into an incomplete problem because it does not satisfy the Orlov's condition. Even so, the simulation and experimental studies have shown that applying iterative methods such as the maximum likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) algorithm successfully reconstruct images in the gap area. However, the imaging process of the iterative methods in the OpenPET imaging is not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analytically analyze the OpenPET imaging and estimate implicit constraints involved in the iterative methods. To apply explicit constraints in the OpenPET imaging, we used the method of convex projections for restoration of the images reconstructed by the analytical way in which low-frequency components are lost. Numerical simulations showed that the similar restoration effects are involved both in the ML-EM and the method of convex projections. Therefore, the iterative methods have advantageous effect of restoring lost frequency components of the OpenPET imaging. (orig.)

  8. Novel Door-opening Method for Six-legged Robots Based on Only Force Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Jun; Gao, Feng; Pan, Yang

    2017-09-01

    Current door-opening methods are mainly developed on tracked, wheeled and biped robots by applying multi-DOF manipulators and vision systems. However, door-opening methods for six-legged robots are seldom studied, especially using 0-DOF tools to operate and only force sensing to detect. A novel door-opening method for six-legged robots is developed and implemented to the six-parallel-legged robot. The kinematic model of the six-parallel-legged robot is established and the model of measuring the positional relationship between the robot and the door is proposed. The measurement model is completely based on only force sensing. The real-time trajectory planning method and the control strategy are designed. The trajectory planning method allows the maximum angle between the sagittal axis of the robot body and the normal line of the door plane to be 45º. A 0-DOF tool mounted to the robot body is applied to operate. By integrating with the body, the tool has 6 DOFs and enough workspace to operate. The loose grasp achieved by the tool helps release the inner force in the tool. Experiments are carried out to validate the method. The results show that the method is effective and robust in opening doors wider than 1 m. This paper proposes a novel door-opening method for six-legged robots, which notably uses a 0-DOF tool and only force sensing to detect and open the door.

  9. EVALUATION OF THE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF INNOVATIVE WATER MAIN REHABILITATION TECHNOLOGIES VS. OPEN CUT METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major benefit of trenchless rehabilitation technologies touted by many practitioners when comparing their products with tradition open cut construction methods is lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. In an attempt to verify these claims, multiple tools have been dev...

  10. Crystal defects observed by the etch-pit method and their effects on Schottky-barrier-diode characteristics on (\\bar{2}01) β-Ga2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasu, Makoto; Oshima, Takayoshi; Hanada, Kenji; Moribayashi, Tomoya; Hashiguchi, Akihiro; Oishi, Toshiyuki; Koshi, Kimiyoshi; Sasaki, Kohei; Kuramata, Akito; Ueda, Osamu

    2017-09-01

    A pixel array of vertical Schottky-barrier diodes (SBDs) was fabricated and measured on the surface of a (\\bar{2}01) β-Ga2O3 single crystal. Subsequently, etch pits and patterns were observed on the same surface. Three types of etch pits were discovered: (1) a line-shaped etch pattern originating from a void and extending toward the [010] direction, (2) an arrow-shaped etch pit whose arrow’s head faces toward the [102] direction and, (3) a gourd-shaped etch pit whose point head faces toward the [102] direction. Their average densities were estimated to be 5 × 102, 7 × 104, and 9 × 104 cm-2, respectively. We confirmed no clear relationship between the leakage current in SBDs and these crystalline defects. Such results are obtained because threading dislocations run mainly in the [010] growth direction and do not go through the (\\bar{2}01) sample plate.

  11. The pitting resistance of AISI 316 stainless steel passivated in diluted nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    The pitting resistance of AISI 316 stainless steel after passivation in diluted nitric acid was studied in comparison with that of non-passivated specimens. The passivation treatment increased the pitting potential but decreased the resistance to crevice corrosion under open circuit conditions in aerated sea water. Immersion in the nitric acid solution was found to remove the sulphide inclusions from the metal surface, thus eliminating the most susceptible sites for attack. In the absence of sulphide particles pitting nucleated at aluminium-rich oxides. (author)

  12. Open Fireplaces. A method to prevent smoking from open fires; Oeppna Spisar. Metod som foerhindrar oeppna spisar att ryka in

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soedergren, David

    2007-04-15

    The primary purpose of this thesis is to account for a new method of limiting the risk of smoke leaking out from the open fireplace into the room. The improved functionality is obtained by adding a turnplate to the open fireplace mounted horizontally inside the lower edge at the hood of the open fire. The streams of smoke and air, which are cold of the contact with the cool surfaces in the stove, have a tendency to fall down along the inside of the hood and continue out into the room. The stream is stopped and redirected back up into the chimney by the turnplate. The development of the method is based on measuring of temperatures and air flows in a monitored fireplace. Tests have been carried out partially in a test fireplace in full scale and partially in a model of the test fireplace at the scale 1:2. The model fireplace is made in glass which makes it possible to study and photograph the streams of smoke inside of the fireplace and oil fog has been used for the demonstration. Temperatures on surfaces and gases in the fireplace have been measured during different periods of time. These measurements have shown that the greatest risk for backwards floating air currents occurs directly after having lit the fire and during some hour after that. It is during this time the temperatures in the fireplace will rise. Measurements and also film-recordings have therefore been concentrated to these periods of time. The heat gain from the fire has been measured in connection to the tests. The distribution of the heat through radiation and convection based on the temperature measurements is shown

  13. Decommissioning management of pit water at an uranium mine in Hunan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Renjie

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the influence of mining on groundwater at an uranium mine in Hunan Province, emphatically discusses the managing principles, methods and research works of pit water in decommissioning, and summaries sealing technique, construction management and the effect achieved in management of pit water

  14. Drill and Blast Performance Evaluation at the Obra Pit of Chirano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the causes of inefficient fragmentation and formation of toes in the Obra pit of Chirano Gold Mines Ltd and recommends best practices in order to produce optimum fragmentation to feed the crusher at a reduced cost and to provide good working pit floors. The methods employed included: drilling ...

  15. OpenMDAO: Framework for Flexible Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis and Optimization Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Christopher M.; Gray, Justin S.

    2012-01-01

    The OpenMDAO project is underway at NASA to develop a framework which simplifies the implementation of state-of-the-art tools and methods for multidisciplinary design, analysis and optimization. Foremost, OpenMDAO has been designed to handle variable problem formulations, encourage reconfigurability, and promote model reuse. This work demonstrates the concept of iteration hierarchies in OpenMDAO to achieve a flexible environment for supporting advanced optimization methods which include adaptive sampling and surrogate modeling techniques. In this effort, two efficient global optimization methods were applied to solve a constrained, single-objective and constrained, multiobjective version of a joint aircraft/engine sizing problem. The aircraft model, NASA's nextgeneration advanced single-aisle civil transport, is being studied as part of the Subsonic Fixed Wing project to help meet simultaneous program goals for reduced fuel burn, emissions, and noise. This analysis serves as a realistic test problem to demonstrate the flexibility and reconfigurability offered by OpenMDAO.

  16. A Statistical Study on the Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure on Metastable Pitting Corrosion of X70 Pipeline Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zixuan; Kan, Bo; Li, Jinxu; Qiao, Lijie; Volinsky, Alex A; Su, Yanjing

    2017-11-14

    Hydrostatic pressure effects on pitting initiation and propagation in X70 steel are investigated by evaluating metastable pitting probability using electrochemical methods and immersion corrosion tests in containing chlorine ion solution. Potentiodynamic tests indicated that hydrostatic pressure can decrease the breakdown potential and lead to a reduced transpassivity region. Metastable test results revealed that hydrostatic pressure can increase metastable pitting formation frequency and promote stabilization of metastable pitting growth. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results indicate that Hydrostatic pressure decreases the charge transfer resistance and increases the dissolution rate within the cavities. Corrosion test results also indicated that pitting initiation and propagation are accelerated by hydrostatic pressure. Result validity was verified by evaluating metastable pitting to predict pitting corrosion resistance.

  17. Free vibration characteristics analysis of rectangular plate with rectangular opening based on Fourier series method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Minhao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Plate structures with openings are common in many engineering structures. The study of the vibration characteristics of such structures is directly related to the vibration reduction, noise reduction and stability analysis of an overall structure. This paper conducts research into the free vibration characteristics of a thin elastic plate with a rectangular opening parallel to the plate in an arbitrary position. We use the improved Fourier series to represent the displacement tolerance function of the rectangular plate with an opening. We can divide the plate into an eight zone plate to simplify the calculation. We then use linear springs, which are uniformly distributed along the boundary, to simulate the classical boundary conditions and the boundary conditions of the boundaries between the regions. According to the energy functional and variational method, we can obtain the overall energy functional. We can also obtain the generalized eigenvalue matrix equation by studying the extremum of the unknown improved Fourier series expansion coefficients. We can then obtain the natural frequencies and corresponding vibration modes of the rectangular plate with an opening by solving the equation. We then compare the calculated results with the finite element method to verify the accuracy and effectiveness of the method proposed in this paper. Finally, we research the influence of the boundary condition, opening size and opening position on the vibration characteristics of a plate with an opening. This provides a theoretical reference for practical engineering application.

  18. Results of the application of persistent scatterers interferometry for surface displacements monitoring in the Azul open pit manganese mine (Carajás Province, Amazon region) using TerraSAR-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Carolina d. A.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Mura, José C.; Gama, Fabio F.; dos Santos, Athos R.; Silva, Guilherme G.

    2014-10-01

    Brazil has 10% of global Mn reserves with its most important mine located in the Amazon region. The Azul deposit is related to sandstones and siltstones of the Águas Claras Formation (Archean), situated in the central portion of the Carajás Strike-Slip System. Vale S.A. mining company operates the Azul mining complex with three simultaneous excavations (mines 1, 2 and 3) conducted on rock materials of low geomechanical qualities. Mining operations are openpit, with 4-8 m-high benches and depth of 80 m. A stack of 19 TerraSAR-X (TSX) images was used for the investigation covering the period of March 20-October 4, 2012. In order to minimize the topography phase error in the interferometric process, a high resolution DEM was generated based on a panchromatic GeoEye-1 stereo pair. Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) analysis was carried out using the IPTA (Interferometric Point Target Analysis) software and led to the detection of 40,193 point-wise persistent scatterers (PS), with an average density of 5,387 PS/km2. It was concluded that most of the mining area can be considered stable during the TSX coverage. High deformation rates related to settlements were mapped over a waste pile, while small deformation rates were detected along the north and south flanks of mine 1and were interpreted as cut slope movements toward the center of the pit. Despite only ground-based radar measurements were available for a short time period during the TSX coverage, and covering a sector of bench walls along the south flank of mine 1, the PSs movement patterns showed concordance with the field measurements. The investigation emphasized the important role that PSI technique can play in planning and risk assessment in this mining area. Monitoring of this type of deformation by PSI can usefully complement other commonly used field geotechnical measurements due to the synoptic SAR coverage over a dense grid, providing ground deformation data independently of field access and with

  19. The OpenMOC method of characteristics neutral particle transport code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, William; Shaner, Samuel; Li, Lulu; Forget, Benoit; Smith, Kord

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An open source method of characteristics neutron transport code has been developed. • OpenMOC shows nearly perfect scaling on CPUs and 30× speedup on GPUs. • Nonlinear acceleration techniques demonstrate a 40× reduction in source iterations. • OpenMOC uses modern software design principles within a C++ and Python framework. • Validation with respect to the C5G7 and LRA benchmarks is presented. - Abstract: The method of characteristics (MOC) is a numerical integration technique for partial differential equations, and has seen widespread use for reactor physics lattice calculations. The exponential growth in computing power has finally brought the possibility for high-fidelity full core MOC calculations within reach. The OpenMOC code is being developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to investigate algorithmic acceleration techniques and parallel algorithms for MOC. OpenMOC is a free, open source code written using modern software languages such as C/C++ and CUDA with an emphasis on extensible design principles for code developers and an easy to use Python interface for code users. The present work describes the OpenMOC code and illustrates its ability to model large problems accurately and efficiently

  20. Kinetics of growth of semi-spheric pittings in the vicinity repassivation potential depending on bulk concentration of activator anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frejman, L.I.

    1985-01-01

    A general case of semi-spheric pittings development in aqueous solutions of electrolyte of NaCl or LiCl type at different values of C 0 , usually studied in the range approximately equal to 10 -5 -10 -3 g-ionxcm -3 (approximately equal to 10 -2 -10 0 g-ionxl -1 ), has been analyzed. On the basis of experimental data on participation of anion-activators and water molecules in the process of metal dissolution in pitting, and using the previously obtained equations, kinetics of open and closed semi-spheric pittings during galvanostatic anode polarization in neutral chloride solutions with different volumetric concentration of Cl - -ions (C 0 ) has been considered. In a general case the process kinetics is described by a complex equation, the boundary, more simple forms of which, correspond to the initial (A) and subsequent (B) stages of open pitting development, or to certain stable conditions of closed pitting development

  1. Cause of pitting in beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    Light microscopy, bare-film radiography, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, electron microprobe and physical testing were used to examine beryllium specimens exhibiting a stratified, pitted, pattern after chemical milling. The objective was to find the cause of this pattern. Specimens were found to have voids in excess of density specification allowances. These voids are attributed, at least in part, to the sublimation of beryllium fluoride during the vacuum hot pressing operation. The origin of the pattern is attributed to these voids and etching out of fines and associated impurities. Hot isostatic pressing with a subsequent heat treatment close residual porosity and dispersed impurities enough to correct the problem

  2. Computer simulation of pitting potential measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laycock, N.J.; Noh, J.S.; White, S.P.; Krouse, D.P.

    2005-01-01

    A deterministic model for the growth of single pits in stainless steel has been combined with a purely stochastic model of pit nucleation. Monte-Carlo simulations have been used to compare the predictions of this model with potentiodynamic experimental measurements of the pitting potential. The quantitative agreement between model and experiment is reasonable for both 304 and 316 stainless steel, and the effects of varying surface roughness, solution chloride concentration and potential sweep rate have been considered

  3. Spontaneous Resolution of Optic Disc Pit Maculopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathy, Koushik

    2017-01-01

    I read with interest the article reporting spontaneous resolution of optic disc pit maculopathy in a boy.1 Though the presence of an optic disc pit and associated macular involvement is undoubted in the presented case, the provided optical coherence tomography (OCT) does not clearly show typical intraretinal schisis (Figure 1B)1 at multiple retinal levels which may communicate with the pit. Instead, it shows a sub-internal limiting membrane (sub-ILM) cavity. Such cavities are known to occur f...

  4. Structures of Bordered Pits Potentially Contributing to Isolation of a Refilled Vessel from Negative Xylem Pressure in Stems of Morus australis Poir.: Testing of the Pit Membrane Osmosis and Pit Valve Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooeda, Hiroki; Terashima, Ichiro; Taneda, Haruhiko

    2017-02-01

    Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanism preventing the refilling vessel water from being drained to the neighboring functional vessels under negative pressure. The pit membrane osmosis hypothesis proposes that the xylem parenchyma cells release polysaccharides that are impermeable to the intervessel pit membranes into the refilling vessel; this osmotically counteracts the negative pressure, thereby allowing the vessel to refill. The pit valve hypothesis proposes that gas trapped within intervessel bordered pits isolates the refilling vessel water from the surrounding functional vessels. Here, using the single-vessel method, we assessed these hypotheses in shoots of mulberry (Morus australis Poir.). First, we confirmed the occurrence of xylem refilling under negative pressure in the potted mulberry saplings. To examine the pit membrane osmosis hypothesis, we estimated the semi-permeability of pit membranes for molecules of various sizes and found that the pit membranes were not semi-permeable to polyethylene glycol of molecular mass osmosis mechanism in mulberry would be unrealistically large. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A Geometric Correction Method of Plane Image Based on OpenCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaopeng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Using OpenCV, a geometric correction method of plane image from single grid image in a state of unknown camera position is presented. The method can remove the perspective and lens distortions from an image. The method is simple and easy to implement, and the efficiency is high. Experiments indicate that this method has high precision, and can be used in some domains such as plane measurement.

  6. Implementation of the Lattice Boltzmann Method on Heterogeneous Hardware and Platforms using OpenCL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEKIC, P. M.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM has become an alternative method for computational fluid dynamics with a wide range of applications. Besides its numerical stability and accuracy, one of the major advantages of LBM is its relatively easy parallelization and, hence, it is especially well fitted to many-core hardware as graphics processing units (GPU. The majority of work concerning LBM implementation on GPU's has used the CUDA programming model, supported exclusively by NVIDIA. Recently, the open standard for parallel programming of heterogeneous systems (OpenCL has been introduced. OpenCL standard matures and is supported on processors from most vendors. In this paper, we make use of the OpenCL framework for the lattice Boltzmann method simulation, using hardware accelerators - AMD ATI Radeon GPU, AMD Dual-Core CPU and NVIDIA GeForce GPU's. Application has been developed using a combination of Java and OpenCL programming languages. Java bindings for OpenCL have been utilized. This approach offers the benefits of hardware and operating system independence, as well as speeding up of lattice Boltzmann algorithm. It has been showed that the developed lattice Boltzmann source code can be executed without modification on all of the used hardware accelerators. Performance results have been presented and compared for the hardware accelerators that have been utilized.

  7. Roundtrip matrix method for calculating the leaky resonant modes of open nanophotonic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mørk, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We present a numerical method for calculating quasi-normal modes of open nanophotonic structures. The method is based on scattering matrices and a unity eigenvalue of the roundtrip matrix of an internal cavity, and we develop it in detail with electromagnetic fields expanded on Bloch modes...

  8. Modeling open nanophotonic systems using the Fourier modal method: generalization to 3D Cartesian coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häyrynen, Teppo; Osterkryger, Andreas Dyhl; de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Gregersen, Niels

    2017-09-01

    Recently, an open geometry Fourier modal method based on a new combination of an open boundary condition and a non-uniform k-space discretization was introduced for rotationally symmetric structures, providing a more efficient approach for modeling nanowires and micropillar cavities [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A33, 1298 (2016)JOAOD61084-752910.1364/JOSAA.33.001298]. Here, we generalize the approach to three-dimensional (3D) Cartesian coordinates, allowing for the modeling of rectangular geometries in open space. The open boundary condition is a consequence of having an infinite computational domain described using basis functions that expand the whole space. The strength of the method lies in discretizing the Fourier integrals using a non-uniform circular "dartboard" sampling of the Fourier k space. We show that our sampling technique leads to a more accurate description of the continuum of the radiation modes that leak out from the structure. We also compare our approach to conventional discretization with direct and inverse factorization rules commonly used in established Fourier modal methods. We apply our method to a variety of optical waveguide structures and demonstrate that the method leads to a significantly improved convergence, enabling more accurate and efficient modeling of open 3D nanophotonic structures.

  9. Water quality in gravel pits in the Bratislava area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flakova, R.; Rohacikova, A.; Zenisova, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The gravel pits around Bratislava have an esthetic, urban and recreational function. Open water table areas are in a direct contact with the air and acquire some characteristics of the surface water. The quality of open water table is much more susceptible to pollution than that of groundwater. Wet and dry deposition, water inflow from the surrounding surface, unmanageable sewerage effluents, solid and liquid wastes, but also the water birds contribute to the pollution. The Department of Hydrogeology has monitored the water quality in six gravel pits (Cunovo, Drazdiak, Strkovec, Pasienky, Zlate Piesky, Vajnory) since 1976 with an an interruption between 1988 - 1993. Two sampling per year have been made since 1994 and after 1998 the analyses have been supplemented by Na, K, Fe, Mn, by oxygen regime parameters, by trace elements (As, Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) and by organic pollutants. As regards the oxygen regime, the water quality pits is very good. The anthropogenic influence is expressed mainly by the increased contents of sulfates and chlorides. Most problematic trace elements are the mercury and vanadium (Drazdiak, Zlate Piesky and Vajnory). (authors)

  10. Critical pitting temperature for Type 254 SMO stainless steel in chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Meguid, E.A.; Abd El Latif, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The variation with time of the open circuit potential of high molybdenum containing stainless steel (Type 254 SMO) was measured in 4% sodium chloride solution in the temperatures range 30-100 deg. C. The plot of steady state potentials as function of temperature showed an inflection at 50 deg. C, attributed to the decrease of oxygen solubility in test solution above 50 deg. C. Potentiodynamic cycling anodic polarization technique was used to determine the critical pitting potential (E pit ) and the critical protection potential (E prot ) of the steel in 4-30% NaCl solutions at temperatures between 30 and 100 deg. C. By plotting the two values versus solution temperature, the corresponding critical pitting (CPT) and the critical protection (CPrT) temperatures were determined. Both parameters decreased with increasing chloride content. Above the CPT, E pit and E prot decreased linearly with log[Cl - ]. The addition of bromide ions to the solution shifted both E pit and E prot towards positive values. In 4% NaCl, E pit increased linearly with pH in the range 1-10. The combined effect of chloride ion concentration and pH on the morphology of the pits was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) following potentiodynamic cycling anodic polarization

  11. Valuing urban open space using the travel-cost method and the implications of measurement error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanauer, Merlin M; Reid, John

    2017-08-01

    Urbanization has placed pressure on open space within and adjacent to cities. In recent decades, a greater awareness has developed to the fact that individuals derive multiple benefits from urban open space. Given the location, there is often a high opportunity cost to preserving urban open space, thus it is important for both public and private stakeholders to justify such investments. The goals of this study are twofold. First, we use detailed surveys and precise, accessible, mapping methods to demonstrate how travel-cost methods can be applied to the valuation of urban open space. Second, we assess the degree to which typical methods of estimating travel times, and thus travel costs, introduce bias to the estimates of welfare. The site we study is Taylor Mountain Regional Park, a 1100-acre space located immediately adjacent to Santa Rosa, California, which is the largest city (∼170,000 population) in Sonoma County and lies 50 miles north of San Francisco. We estimate that the average per trip access value (consumer surplus) is $13.70. We also demonstrate that typical methods of measuring travel costs significantly understate these welfare measures. Our study provides policy-relevant results and highlights the sensitivity of urban open space travel-cost studies to bias stemming from travel-cost measurement error. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of cracks and pitting corrosion on residual ultimate strength of stiffened plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jing

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] Ships and offshore platforms serve in the harsh sea environment for a long time. Cracks and pitting corrosion will occur in such a structure and the damage will affect its ultimate strength.[Methods] To investigate the influence of cracks and pitting corrosion on ultimate bearing capacity, the ultimate strength of a structure under axial compression is studied by using a nonlinear finite element. The mesh size of a stiffened plate with cracks and pitting corrosion is first discussed. Then the influence of the relative positions of cracks and pitting corrosion, number of corrosion points and crack length impact on the residual ultimate strength of damaged stiffened plates is discussed via a series of calculations.[Results] The results indicate that the increase in crack length and pitting corrosion significantly decreases the ultimate strength of a stiffened plate. [Conclusions] This provides a useful reference for designing and maintaining ships and offshore structures in their life cycles.

  13. Open-switch fault detection method of an NPC converter for wind turbine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, June-Seok; Lee, Kyo-Beum; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    In wind turbine generation (WTG) systems, the neutral-point-clamped (NPC) topology is widely used as the part of a back-to-back converter since the three-level NPC topology has more advantages than the conventional two-level inverter especially for high power. There are twelve switches in the NPC......-switch detection method of the NPC converter is different from that of the NPC inverter due to the different current paths of the NPC converter. This paper proposes the open-switch fault detection method of the NPC converter connected the permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). Moreover, the open...

  14. The Influences of Artificial Aging Temperature and Time on Pitting Susceptibility of SiCp/ AA2024 MMCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. K.; Jo, C. J.; Kwon, B. H.; Hwang, W. S.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of artificial aging temperature and time were investigated on the pitting behaviors of SiCp/ AA2024 composites through measuring the changes of open circuit potential, pitting potential, and repassivation potential in a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. And, the influence of microstructure on the pitting susceptibility was studied by measurement of TEM images. AA2024 Al alloy and 15vol%SiCp/ AA2024 composites were fabricated by vacuum hot pressing and hot extrusion with an extrusion ratio of 25 : 1. They were solutionized at 495 .deg. C for 4 hours, and aged at 130, 150, 170, and 190 .deg. C for 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 hours. In aerated 3.5% NaCl solutions, the open circuit potential and pitting potential of both AA2024 alloy and composites were similar each other, and pitting occurred immediately at immersed condition. The pitting potential was decreased with increasing aging temperature and time. Also, the repassivation potential of SiCp/ AA2024 composites was decreased as increasing aging temperature and time. It was concluded that formation and growth of S' and S phase by artificial aging promoted the pitting susceptibility of SiCp/ AA2024 composites because these phases, easily soluble by forming galvanic couples with substrate Al alloy, served as preferential sites for nucleation of pits

  15. Compromises in orchestra pit design: A ten-year trench war in The Royal Theatre, Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders Christian; Mortensen, Bo

    1998-01-01

    of opera finally opened the way for a new renovation of the pit, which solved most of the problems. The paper describes the many lessons learned during the ten-year period in which the authors were involved with the case as acoustic consultants. Questions of how pit configuration influences mutual hearing......The ``old stage'' of The Royal Theatre in Copenhagen-a classical horseshoe theatre with an almost flat audience floor and four balcony levels—is the primary opera and ballet theatre in Denmark. In the early 1980s the orchestra pit was enlarged and its size made flexible. However, in the following...... years this new flexibility caused a formal battle between the orchestra, the singers, and management, because each group had different interests as to how the pit should be configured for each new production. In the 1990s, increased concern about the musicians' hearing and the increase in the popularity...

  16. From old lignite mining pits to new lakes. The example of rehabilitation of the former open-cast mining facilities at Berzdorf, Germany; Von alten Gruben zu neuen Seen am Beispiel des Tagebaues Berzdorf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolba, Manfred [LMBV mbH, Sanierungsbereich Lausitz, Senftenberg (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    The Lausitz and Central-German Mining Administration Company (LMBV) is project executor for the largest landscaping construction site in Europe. LMBV rehabilitates former open-cast mining facilities, as well as decommissioned coal-upgrading plants, to provide promising future areas for industrial complexes, and for landscapes that will attract a great number and variety of tourism developments. LMBV executes projects for the elimination of dangers as a result of the rising of groundwater to its former and natural level. In this context, the German Federal States involved in past and present lignite mining support extensive measures for enhancement of the standard of future use at the new lakes in Central Germany and in the Lausitz Region. This presentation shows the rehabilitation activities of LMBV as project executor in a great range of activities, by explaining the rehabilitation and transformation of the former lignite mining facilities in Berzdorf, Germany, in creation of the future Berzdorf Lake. (orig.)

  17. Speed, Acceleration, Chameleons and Cherry Pit Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Likar, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the mechanics of cherry pit projectiles and ends with showing the similarity between cherry pit launching and chameleon tongue projecting mechanisms. The whole story is written as an investigation, following steps that resemble those typically taken by scientists and can therefore serve as an illustration of scientific…

  18. Burning/Rubble Pits: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, L.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Marine, I.W.

    1987-03-01

    The Burning/Rubble Pits, located near each of the major operating areas at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), began collecting burnable waste in 1951. The waste was incinerated monthly. All Burning/Rubble Pits are currently closed except for Burning/Rubble Pit 131-1R, which has not been backfilled but is inactive. No soil cores from the Burning/Rubble Pits have been analyzed. There are four groundwater monitoring wells located around each of the pits, which have been sampled quarterly since 1984. The closure options considered for the Burning/Rubble Pits are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated. An evaluation of the environmental impacts from the Burning/Rubble Pits indicates that the relative risks to human health and ecosystems for the postulated closure options are low. The ecological assessment shows that the effects of any closure activities on river water quality and wildlife would be insignificant. The cost estimates show the waste removal and closure option to be the most expensive for all of the pits. 38 refs., 35 figs., 47 tabs

  19. Accountability Quality Shuffler Measurements on Pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinard, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    Pits have generally been treated as accountable units that are intact if merely present and they are excluded from the more demanding nondestructive assay requirements. As pits begin to flow into disposition streams, there may be more incentive to measure the masses of their fissile components for accountability purposes. This Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) Lifecycle Project has explored some ways in which such measurements may be done successfully. The active neutron instrument called a shuffler has been used to measure a variety of actual pits, and a calculational technique has been developed to accurately predict such count rates. Passive multiplicity counting has previously been applied to pits for determining their plutonium contents. This combination of measurement and calculational techniques provide powerful and accurate tools for determining the fissile contents of pits with the quality needed for accountability purposes

  20. PIT 9 Project: A private sector initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.W.; Hughes, F.P.; Burton, B.N.

    1993-01-01

    The Pit 9 Comprehensive Demonstration is intended to demonstrate a cost-effective approach to remediate an Idaho National Engineering Lab. (INEL) waste disposal pit through a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Interim Action. The remediation will include additional requirements, if needed, to provide high confidence that only minor additional work would be necessary to accomplish the final closure as part of the overall final closure strategy for the INEL's Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). Pit 9 is an inactive waste disposal pit located in the northeastern corner of the SDA at the INEL's Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). It covers approximately 1 acre. The waste within Pit 9 is primarily transuranic waste generated at the Rocky Flats Plant and additional wastes, both hazardous and low-level radioactive, from generators at the INEL

  1. Pit closures - effects and alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stott, A G

    1987-02-01

    During the last decade, British Coal has closed around 100 mines. This article illustrates the effect of pit closures on the colliery's workforce, and the local community and its economy. Working conditions at Newmarket Colliery and the Selby coalfield are compared within the context of British Coal's national transfer market. British Coal's transfer benefits include resettlement payments and mortgage subsidies. The job creation venture of British Coal Enterprise Ltd. has helped to create over 3700 new jobs in 264 projects, involving a total investment of 38 M pounds sterling. The article also discusses deputies' qualifications and prospects for recently qualified management staff, and gives a comparison of losses suffered by the different mining unions.

  2. Is Playing in the Pit Really the Pits?: Pain, Strength, Music Performance Anxiety, and Workplace Satisfaction in Professional Musicians in Stage, Pit, and Combined Stage/Pit Orchestras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Dianna T; Driscoll, Tim; Ackermann, Bronwen J

    2016-03-01

    Typically, Australian orchestral musicians perform on stage, in an orchestra pit, or in a combination of both workplaces. This study explored a range of physical and mental health indicators in musicians who played in these different orchestra types to ascertain whether orchestra environment was a risk factor affecting musician wellbeing. Participants comprised 380 full-time orchestral musicians from the eight major state orchestras in Australia comprised of two dedicated pit orchestras, three stage-only symphonic orchestras, and three mixed stage/pit orchestras. Participants completed a physical assessment and a range of self-report measures assessing performance-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD), physical characteristics including strength and perceived exertion, and psychological health, including music performance anxiety (MPA), workplace satisfaction, and bullying. Physical characteristics and performance-related musculoskeletal profiles were similar for most factors on the detailed survey completed by orchestra members. The exceptions were that pit musicians demonstrated greater shoulder and elbow strength, while mixed-workload orchestra musicians had greater flexibility Significantly more exertion was reported by pit musicians when rehearsing and performing. Stage/pit musicians reported less physical exertion when performing in the pit compared with performing on stage. Severity of MPA was significantly greater in pit musicians than mixed orchestra musicians. Pit musicians also reported more frequent bullying and lower job satisfaction compared with stage musicians. There were few differences in the objective physical measures between musicians in the different orchestra types. However, pit musicians appear more psychologically vulnerable and less satisfied with their work than musicians from the other two orchestra types. The physical and psychological characteristics of musicians who perform in different orchestra types have not been adequately

  3. New diagnostic technology and hidden pits and fissures caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy in pits and fissures caries detection is of paramount importance in dental caries primary and secondary prevention. A combination of visual examination and probing is currently the mainstay of occlusal caries diagnosis. Unfortunately, these types of inspection alone may leave a certain number of pit and fissure caries undetected. The Vista Cam iX fluorescence camera (Durr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany is a novel dental diagnostic tool for quantitative assessment of dental caries with high specificity for carious lesions detection. In the presented cases photographic images, representing the visual diagnostic approach, are applied as integration to VistaCam iX Proof images. A step-by-step sequence of inspection and assessment of operative treatment need is presented in a case of hidden pit and fissure caries on a permanent molar. Based on the reported case, it could be observed that VistaCam iX Proof shows promising results in hidden pits and fissures caries detection and could be considered a non-invasive examination method that facilitate the detection of early lesions and a potential diagnostic aid.

  4. Bitter pit in apples: pre- and postharvest factors: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemrić, T.; Fruk, I.; Fruk, M.; Radman, S.; Sinkovič, L.; Fruk, G.

    2016-01-01

    Bitter pit is a physiological disorder that significantly reduces the quality of apples. Although it has been detected since the beginning of the last century, still there is little known about the mechanism of its occurrence. According to numerous studies, bitter pit is formed as a result of calcium deficiency in the fruit. Some authors cite the high concentration of gibberellins, later in the production season, most probably caused by excessive activity of the roots, as the chief causative factor. Beside Ca, there are several factors that can also contribute to its development, like imbalance among some mineral elements (N, P, K and Mg), cultivar, rootstock, the ratio of vegetative and generative growth, post-harvest treatments and the storage methods. There are some prediction models available that can estimate the risk of bitter pit in apples, but even those are not always reliable. The aim of this review was to encompass the pre and postharvest factors which cause bitter pit and point out the directions for solving this problem.

  5. Bitter pit in apples: pre- and postharvest factors: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jemrić, T.; Fruk, I.; Fruk, M.; Radman, S.; Sinkovič, L.; Fruk, G.

    2016-07-01

    Bitter pit is a physiological disorder that significantly reduces the quality of apples. Although it has been detected since the beginning of the last century, still there is little known about the mechanism of its occurrence. According to numerous studies, bitter pit is formed as a result of calcium deficiency in the fruit. Some authors cite the high concentration of gibberellins, later in the production season, most probably caused by excessive activity of the roots, as the chief causative factor. Beside Ca, there are several factors that can also contribute to its development, like imbalance among some mineral elements (N, P, K and Mg), cultivar, rootstock, the ratio of vegetative and generative growth, post-harvest treatments and the storage methods. There are some prediction models available that can estimate the risk of bitter pit in apples, but even those are not always reliable. The aim of this review was to encompass the pre and postharvest factors which cause bitter pit and point out the directions for solving this problem.

  6. Plantar pitted keratolysis: a study from non-risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Feride Kaptanoglu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Pitted keratolysis is an acquired, superficial bacterial infection of the skin which is characterized by typical malodor and pits in the hyperkeratotic areas of the soles. It is more common in barefooted people in tropical areas, or those who have to wear occlusive shoes, such as soldiers, sailors and athletes. In this study, we evaluated 41 patients who had been diagnosed with plantar pitted keratolysis. The patients were of high socioeconomic status, were office-workers, and most had a university degree. Malodor and plantar hyperhydrosis were the most frequently reported symptoms. The weight-bearing metatarsal parts of the feet were those most affected. Almost half the women in the study gave a history of regular pedicure and foot care in a spa salon. Mean treatment duration was 19 days. All patients were informed about the etiology of the disease, predisposing factors and preventive methods. Recurrences were observed in only 17% of patients during the one year follow-up period. This study emphasizes that even malodorous feet among non-risk city dwellers may be a sign of plantar pitted keratolysis. A study of the real incidence of the disease in a large population-based series is needed.

  7. The kinetics of pitting corrosion of carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, G.P.; Taylor, K.J.; Sooi, Z.

    1988-02-01

    The development of an improved statistical method for analysing pit growth data to take account of the difference in area of laboratory specimens and full sized high level nuclear waste containers is described. Statistical analysis of data from pit growth experiments with large area (460 cm 2 ) plates of BS 4360 steel have indicated that the depth distributions correlate most closely with a limited distribution function. This correlation implies that previous statistical analyses to estimate the maximum pit depths in full size containers, which were made using unlimited distribution functions, will be pessimistic. An evaluation of the maximum feasible pitting period based on estimating the period during which the oxygen diffusion flux is sufficient to stabilise a passive film on carbon steel containers has indicated that this is of the order of 125 years rather than the full 1000 year container life. The estimate is sensitive to the value of the leakage current assumed to flow through the passive film, and therefore work is planned to measure this accurately in relevant granitic environments. (author)

  8. The Open Method of Coordination and the Implementation of the Bologna Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Amelia; Amaral, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the authors argue that the use of the Open Method of Coordination (OMC) in the implementation of the Bologna process presents coordination problems that do not allow for the full coherence of the results. As the process is quite complex, involving three different levels (European, national and local) and as the final actors in the…

  9. Comparative analysis of methods and tools for open and closed fuel cycles modeling: MESSAGE and DESAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, A.A.; Korovin, Yu.A.; Murogov, V.M.; Fedorova, E.V.; Fesenko, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Comparative analysis of optimization and simulation methods by the example of MESSAGE and DESAE programs is carried out for nuclear power prospects and advanced fuel cycles modeling. Test calculations for open and two-component nuclear power and closed fuel cycle are performed. Auxiliary simulation-dynamic model is developed to specify MESSAGE and DESAE modeling approaches difference. The model description is given [ru

  10. Nickel contact sensitivity in the guinea pig. An efficient open application test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G D; Rohold, A E; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1992-01-01

    Nickel contact sensitivity was successfully induced in guinea pigs using an open epicutaneous application method. Immediately after pretreatment with 1% aqueous sodium lauryl sulfate, upper back skin was treated daily for 4 weeks with 0.3%-3% nickel sulfate in either a 1% lanolin cream (Vaseline, p...

  11. Parallel Resolved Open Source CFD-DEM: Method, Validation and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hager

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the following paper the authors present a fully parallelized Open Source method for calculating the interaction of immersed bodies and surrounding fluid. A combination of computational fluid dynamics (CFD and a discrete element method (DEM accounts for the physics of both the fluid and the particles. The objects considered are relatively big compared to the cells of the fluid mesh, i.e. they cover several cells each. Thus this fictitious domain method (FDM is called resolved. The implementation is realized within the Open Source framework CFDEMcOupling (www.cfdem.com, which provides an interface between OpenFOAM® based CFD-solvers and the DEM software LIGGGHTS (www.liggghts.com. While both LIGGGHTS and OpenFOAM® were already parallelized, only a recent improvement of the algorithm permits the fully parallel computation of resolved problems. Alongside with a detailed description of the method, its implementation and recent improvements, a number of application and validation examples is presented in the scope of this paper.

  12. Improved open-sun drying method for local swamp rice in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “Kaiso” and “Supa” are the main local swamp-rice (Oryza Sativa) varieties currently grown in Uganda mainly by smallholder farmers on small gardens (0.5 – 2ha). Due to lack of mechanized drying equipment and owing to the low volumes of their harvests, these farmers use open-sun drying methods, where the paddy is ...

  13. Spatial statistics of pitting corrosion patterning: Quadrat counts and the non-homogeneous Poisson process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez de la Cruz, J.; Gutierrez, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a stochastic analysis of spatial point patterns as effect of localized pitting corrosion. The Quadrat Counts method is studied with two empirical pit patterns. The results are dependent on the quadrat size and bias is introduced when empty quadrats are accounted for the analysis. The spatially inhomogeneous Poisson process is used to improve the performance of the Quadrat Counts method. The latter combines Quadrat Counts with distance-based statistics in the analysis of pit patterns. The Inter-Event and the Nearest-Neighbour statistics are here implemented in order to compare their results. Further, the treatment of patterns in irregular domains is discussed

  14. Membership determination of open clusters based on a spectral clustering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin-Hua

    2018-06-01

    We present a spectral clustering (SC) method aimed at segregating reliable members of open clusters in multi-dimensional space. The SC method is a non-parametric clustering technique that performs cluster division using eigenvectors of the similarity matrix; no prior knowledge of the clusters is required. This method is more flexible in dealing with multi-dimensional data compared to other methods of membership determination. We use this method to segregate the cluster members of five open clusters (Hyades, Coma Ber, Pleiades, Praesepe, and NGC 188) in five-dimensional space; fairly clean cluster members are obtained. We find that the SC method can capture a small number of cluster members (weak signal) from a large number of field stars (heavy noise). Based on these cluster members, we compute the mean proper motions and distances for the Hyades, Coma Ber, Pleiades, and Praesepe clusters, and our results are in general quite consistent with the results derived by other authors. The test results indicate that the SC method is highly suitable for segregating cluster members of open clusters based on high-precision multi-dimensional astrometric data such as Gaia data.

  15. Selective intake of down-pit water and separating potable water from water-bearing seams at the Rydultowy mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musiolik, H; Sikora, A; Murek, R

    1987-06-01

    Discusses problems of pit water selection. Describes the method of water intake, down-pit transport, pumping the separated potable water and its treatment at the Rydultowy mine. Stresses the usefulness of pit water selection in view of the existing shortage of potable water. Geologic and mining conditions at the mine are described along with the amount of water influx into the mine. Advantages arising from mine water utilization are outlined.

  16. Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of AlN on sapphire with low etch pit density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleske, D. D.; Figiel, J. J.; Alliman, D. L.; Gunning, B. P.; Kempisty, J. M.; Creighton, J. R.; Mishima, A.; Ikenaga, K.

    2017-06-01

    Using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy, methods were developed to achieve AlN films on sapphire with low etch pit density (EPD). Key to this achievement was using the same AlN growth recipe and only varying the pre-growth conditioning of the quartz-ware. After AlN growth, the quartz-ware was removed from the growth chamber and either exposed to room air or moved into the N2 purged glove box and exposed to H2O vapor. After the quartz-ware was exposed to room air or H2O, the AlN film growth was found to be more reproducible, resulting in films with (0002) and (10-12) x-ray diffraction (XRD) rocking curve linewidths of 200 and 500 arc sec, respectively, and EPDs < 100 cm-2. The EPD was found to correlate with (0002) linewidths, suggesting that the etch pits are associated with open core screw dislocations similar to GaN films. Once reproducible AlN conditions were established using the H2O pre-treatment, it was found that even small doses of trimethylaluminum (TMAl)/NH3 on the quartz-ware surfaces generated AlN films with higher EPDs. The presence of these residual TMAl/NH3-derived coatings in metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) systems and their impact on the sapphire surface during heating might explain why reproducible growth of AlN on sapphire is difficult.

  17. A Systematic Literature Review on relationship between agile methods and Open Source Software Development methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Gandomani, Taghi Javdani; Zulzalil, Hazura; Ghani, Abdul Azim Abdul; Sultan, Abu Bakar Md

    2013-01-01

    Agile software development methods (ASD) and open source software development methods (OSSD) are two different approaches which were introduced in last decade and both of them have their fanatical advocators. Yet, it seems that relation and interface between ASD and OSSD is a fertile area and few rigorous studies have been done in this matter. Major goal of this study was assessment of the relation and integration of ASD and OSSD. Analyzing of collected data shows that ASD and OSSD are able t...

  18. Pitting resistance and mechanism of TiN-coated Inconel 600 in 100 C NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In, C.B.; Kim, J.S.; Chun, S.S.; Lee, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    TiN films were deposited on Inconel 600 by PACVD method using a gaseous mixture of TiCl 4 , N 2 , H 2 and Ar, and their pitting resistance and mechanism in 100 C NaCl solution were investigated. Anodic polarization measurement of TiN-coated Inconel 600 was compared with that of bare Inconel 600. TiN-coated Inconel 600 has a higher E np and a lower pit depth than bare Inconel 600. It also shows a smaller pit aspect ratio due to the concentration of the corrosion in the Inconel 600 contacted with the TiN film. When the Inconel 600 has a rough surface, E np decreases and the pit density increases to a great extent. However, E corr , pit depth and pit aspect ratio are not affected. ((orig.))

  19. Camera calibration method of binocular stereo vision based on OpenCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wanzhen; Dong, Xiaona

    2015-10-01

    Camera calibration, an important part of the binocular stereo vision research, is the essential foundation of 3D reconstruction of the spatial object. In this paper, the camera calibration method based on OpenCV (open source computer vision library) is submitted to make the process better as a result of obtaining higher precision and efficiency. First, the camera model in OpenCV and an algorithm of camera calibration are presented, especially considering the influence of camera lens radial distortion and decentering distortion. Then, camera calibration procedure is designed to compute those parameters of camera and calculate calibration errors. High-accurate profile extraction algorithm and a checkboard with 48 corners have also been used in this part. Finally, results of calibration program are presented, demonstrating the high efficiency and accuracy of the proposed approach. The results can reach the requirement of robot binocular stereo vision.

  20. A numerical study of under-deposit pitting corrosion in sour petroleum pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Z.; Sand, K.W.; Teevens, P.J. [Broadsword Corrosion Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Insufficient fluid velocity in petroleum pipelines can lead to the deposit of sand, corrosion products, and non-corrosion products on the pipe's metal surface, which in turn can lead to pitting corrosion. There is currently no reliable means of detecting and preventing the pitting process. This paper presented a computerized simulation tool that used the finite element method to model mass transfer-governed internal pitting corrosion under solids deposition in sour petroleum pipelines. The computational domain consisted of a hemispherical pit and a thin stagnant solution film under a surface deposit. The moving mesh method was used to track pitting growth. A Poisson equation was used to determine aqueous path migration of ions. Pitting corrosion rates were estimated using the Nernst-Planck equation. The model was used to predict the effects of different operating parameters on pitting corrosion rates. The model can be used to develop pigging and in-line-inspection (ILI) procedures. 35 refs., 2 tabs., 16 figs.

  1. Inspecting a research reactor's control rod surface for pitting using a machine vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuhiro, Akira T.; Vadakattu, Shreekanth

    2005-01-01

    Inspection for pits on the control rod is performed to study the degradation of the control rod material which helps estimating the service life of the control rod at UMR nuclear reactor (UMRR). This inspection task is visually inspected and recorded subjectively. The conventional visual inspection to identify pits on the control rod surface can be automated using machine vision technique. Since the in-service control rods were not available to capture images and measure number of pits and size of the pits, the applicability of machine vision method was applied on SAE 1018 steel coupons immersed in oxygen saturated de-ionized water at 30deg, 50deg and 70deg. Images were captured after each test cycle at different light intensity to reveal surface topography of the coupon surface and analyzed for number of pits and pit size using EPIX XCAP-Std software. The captured and analyzed images provided quantitative results for the steel coupons and demonstrated that the method can be applied for identifying pits on control rod surface in place of conventional visual inspection. (author)

  2. Pitting corrosion on a copper canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermansson, H.P.; Beverskog, B.

    1996-02-01

    It is demonstrated that normal pitting can occur during oxidizing conditions in the repository. It is also concluded that a new theory for pitting corrosion has to be developed, as the present theory is not in accordance with all practical and experimental observations. A special variant of pitting, based on the growth of sulfide whiskers, is suggested to occur during reducing conditions. However, such a mechanism needs to be demonstrated experimentally. A simple calculational model of canister corrosion was developed based on the results of this study. 69 refs, 3 figs

  3. High-uniformity centimeter-wide Si etching method for MEMS devices with large opening elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yuki; Tohyama, Yukiya; Inagaki, Shunsuke; Takiguchi, Mikio; Ono, Tomoki; Lebrasseur, Eric; Mita, Yoshio

    2018-04-01

    We propose a compensated mesh pattern filling method to achieve highly uniform wafer depth etching (over hundreds of microns) with a large-area opening (over centimeter). The mesh opening diameter is gradually changed between the center and the edge of a large etching area. Using such a design, the etching depth distribution depending on sidewall distance (known as the local loading effect) inversely compensates for the over-centimeter-scale etching depth distribution, known as the global or within-die(chip)-scale loading effect. Only a single DRIE with test structure patterns provides a micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) designer with the etched depth dependence on the mesh opening size as well as on the distance from the chip edge, and the designer only has to set the opening size so as to obtain a uniform etching depth over the entire chip. This method is useful when process optimization cannot be performed, such as in the cases of using standard conditions for a foundry service and of short turn-around-time prototyping. To demonstrate, a large MEMS mirror that needed over 1 cm2 of backside etching was successfully fabricated using as-is-provided DRIE conditions.

  4. An open source cryostage and software analysis method for detection of antifreeze activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lørup Buch, Johannes; Ramløv, H

    2016-01-01

    AFP could reliably be told apart from controls after only two minutes of recrystallisation. The goal of providing a fast, cheap and easy method for detecting antifreeze proteins in solution was met, and further development of the system can be followed at https://github.com/pechano/cryostage.......The aim of this study is to provide the reader with a simple setup that can detect antifreeze proteins (AFP) by inhibition of ice recrystallisation in very small sample sizes. This includes an open source cryostage, a method for preparing and loading samples as well as a software analysis method...

  5. CHerenkov detectors In mine PitS (CHIPS) Letter of Intent to FNAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Austin, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Cao, S. V. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Coelho, J. A. B. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States); Davies, G. S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Evans, J. J. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Guzowski, P. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Habig, A. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Holin, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Huang, J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Johnson, R. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); St. John, J. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Kreymer, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kordosky, M. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Lang, K. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Marshak, M. L. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Mehdiyev, R. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Meier, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Miller, W. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Naples, D. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nelson, J. K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Nichol, R. J. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Patterson, R. B. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Paolone, V. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Pawloski, G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Perch, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Pfutzner, M. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Proga, M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Qian, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Radovic, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Sanchez, M. C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Schreiner, S. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Soldner-Rembold, S. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Sousa, A. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Thomas, J. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Vahle, P. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Wendt, C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Whitehead, L. H. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Wojcicki, S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2013-12-30

    This Letter of Intent outlines a proposal to build a large, yet cost-effective, 100 kton fiducial mass water Cherenkov detector that will initially run in the NuMI beam line. The CHIPS detector (CHerenkov detector In Mine PitS) will be deployed in a flooded mine pit, removing the necessity and expense of a substantial external structure capable of supporting a large detector mass. There are a number of mine pits in northern Minnesota along the NuMI beam that could be used to deploy such a detector. In particular, the Wentworth Pit 2W is at the ideal off-axis angle to contribute to the measurement of the CP violating phase. The detector is designed so that it can be moved to a mine pit in the LBNE beam line once that becomes operational.

  6. Evaluation of Wheel Loaders in Open Pit Marble Quarrying by Using the AHP and Topsis Approaches / Ocena pracy ładowarki na podwoziu kołowym w odkrywkowej kopalni marmuru w oparciu o metody AHP i topsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, Mete; Topaloǧlu, Şeyda; Malli, Tahir

    2013-03-01

    The marble mining in Turkey has been rising since the early 80's. In relation to that, the marble income has become noticeably bigger than those of other mining sectors. In recent years, marble and natural stone export composes half of the total mine export with a value of two billion dollars. This rapid development observed in marble operation has increased the importance of mining economics, income-expenditure balance and cost analysis. The most important cost elements observed in marble quarrying are machinery and equipment, labor costs and geological structures of the field. The aim of this study is to is to propose a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) approach to evaluate the wheel loader alternatives and select the best loader under multiple criteria. A two-step methodology based on two MCDM methods, which are namely the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), are used in the evaluation procedure. More precisely, AHP is applied to determine the relative weights of evaluation criteria and TOPSIS is applied to rank the wheel loader alternatives. The proposed approach also provides a relatively simple and very well suited decision making tool for this type of decision making problems.

  7. The United States pit disassembly and conversion project -- Meeting the MOX fuel specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, T.O.; James, C.A.; Kolman, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    The US is actively involved in demonstrating the disassembly of nuclear weapons pits to an unclassified form readied for disposition. The MOX option is the most likely path forward for plutonium that originated from nuclear weapon pits. The US demonstration line for pit disassembly and conversion is known as ARIES, the advanced recovery and integrated extraction system. The ARIES demonstration line is being used to gather data in an integrated fashion of the technologies needed for pit disassembly and conversion. These activities include the following modules: pit bisection, hydride-dehydride, oxide conversion, canning, electrolytic decontamination, and nondestructive assay (NDA). Pit bisection swages in a pit in half. Hydride-dehydride converts the pit plutonium metal to an unclassified metal button. To convert the plutonium metal to an oxide the US is investigating a number of options. The primary oxide conversion approach involves variations of combining plutonium hydriding and subsequent oxidation. Another approach is to simply oxidize the metal under controlled conditions-direct metal oxidation (DMO). To remove the gallium from the plutonium oxide, a thermal distillation approach is being used. These pyrochemical approaches will substantially reduce the wastes produced for oxide conversion of weapon plutonium, compared to traditional aqueous processing. The packaging of either the plutonium metal or oxide to long term storage criteria involves the canning and electrolytic decontamination modules. The NDA suite of instruments is then used to assay the material in the containers, which enables international verification without the need to open the containers and repackage them. All of these processes are described

  8. Pitting Corrosion of Ni3(Si,Ti+2Cr Intermetallic Compound at Various Chloride Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadang Priyotomo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pitting corrosion of Ni3(Si,Ti with 2 at% Cr containing two regions of a Ni3(Si,Ti single-phase of L12 structure and a mixture phase of of (L12 +Niss was investigated as function of chloride concentrations by using a polarization method, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy in neutral sodium chloride solutions at 293 K.  The pitting corrosion of Ni3(Si,Ti with and without the addition of aluminium and type C276 alloy were also studied under the same experimental condition for the comparison.  The pitting potential obtained for the Ni3(Si,Ti with 2 at% Cr decreased with increasing chloride concentration.  The specific pitting potentials and the pitting potentials were decreased in the order of C276 alloy > Ni3(Si,Ti > Ni3(Si,Ti + 2Cr > Ni3(Si,Ti + 4Al, which means that the pitting corrosion resistance of Ni3(Si,Ti with 2 at% Cr was higher than Ni3(Si,Ti with 4 at% Al, but lower than that of Ni3(Si,Ti.  A critical chloride concentration of Ni3(Si,Ti with 2 at% Cr was found to be higher than that of Ni3(Si,Ti with at% Al. In addition, the presence of high concentration for oxygen indicates the occurrence of pit formation.

  9. Pitting Corrosion of Ni3(Si,Ti+4Al Intermetallic Compound at Various Chloride Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadang Priyotomo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The pitting corrosion of Ni3(Si,Ti with 4 at% Al consisting of two regions of a Ni3(Si,Ti single-phase of L12 structure and two phases of L12 and fcc Niss was investigated as function of chloride concentrations by using electrochemical method, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy in neutral sodium chloride solutions at 293 K.  In addition, the pitting corrosion of Ni3(Si,Ti and  type C276 alloy were also studied under the same experimental condition for comparison.  The pitting potential obtained for the Ni3(Si,Ti with 4 at%Al decreased with increasing chloride concentration.  The specific pitting potential and pitting potential of Ni3(Si,Ti with 4at%, Ni3(Si,Ti and C276 were the lowest, the moderate and the highest, respectively, which means that the pitting corrosion resistance of Ni3(Si,Ti was higher than Ni3(Si,Ti with 4at% Al, but lower than that of C276.  A critical chloride concentration of Ni3(Si,Ti with 4at% Al was found to be lower than that of Ni3(Si,Ti.  The Pitting corrosion of Ni3(Si,Ti with 4at% Al occurred in the two phase mixture (L12 + Niss.

  10. Stochastic modeling of inspection uncertainties and applications to pitting flaws in steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, D.; Yuan, X.-X.; Pandey, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Steam generators (SG) are a major pressure retaining component of great safety significance in nuclear power plants. Due to various manufacturing, operation and maintenance activities, as well as material interaction with the surrounding chemical environment, the SG tubes have been subject to a number of degradation modes. Among them, the under-deposit pitting corrosion at outside surfaces of the SG tubes just on top of the tubesheet support plates has had a serious impact on the integrity of the SG tubes. This paper presents an advanced probabilistic model of pitting corrosion characterizing the inherent randomness of the pitting process and measurement uncertainties of the in-service inspection (ISI) data obtained from eddy current (EC) inspections. A Bayesian method based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation is developed for estimating the model parameters. The proposed model is able to predict the actual pit number, the actual pit depth as well as the maximum pit depth, which is the main interest of the pitting corrosion model. (author)

  11. AHAR: Part 1 - PIT Estimates of Homelessness

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report outlines the key findings of the 2014 Point-In-Time (PIT) and Housing Inventory (HIC) counts conducted in January 2014. Specifically, this report...

  12. Project Development Specification for Valve Pit Manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    Establishes the performance, design development, and test requirements for the valve pit manifolds. The system engineering approach was used to develop this document in accordance with the guidelines laid out in the Systems Engineering Management Plan for Project W-314

  13. Analysis of traversable pits model to make intelligent wheeled vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Abbasi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the issue of passing wheeled vehicles from pits is discussed. The issue is modeled by defining the limits of passing wheeled vehicles. The proposed model has been studied based on changes in the effective parameters. Finally, in order to describe the problem, the proposed model has been solved for wheeled vehicles based on the effective parameters by using one of the numerical methods.

  14. Pitting corrosion of copper. Further model studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taxen, C.

    2002-08-01

    The work presented in this report is a continuation and expansion of a previous study. The aim of the work is to provide background information about pitting corrosion of copper for a safety analysis of copper canisters for final deposition of radioactive waste. A mathematical model for the propagation of corrosion pits is used to estimate the conditions required for stationary propagation of a localised anodic corrosion process. The model uses equilibrium data for copper and its corrosion products and parameters for the aqueous mass transport of dissolved species. In the present work we have, in the model, used a more extensive set of aqueous and solid compounds and equilibrium data from a different source. The potential dependence of pitting in waters with different compositions is studied in greater detail. More waters have been studied and single parameter variations in the composition of the water have been studied over wider ranges of concentration. The conclusions drawn in the previous study are not contradicted by the present results. However, the combined effect of potential and water composition on the possibility of pitting corrosion is more complex than was realised. In the previous study we found what seemed to be a continuous aggravation of a pitting situation by increasing potentials. The present results indicate that pitting corrosion can take place only over a certain potential range and that there is an upper potential limit for pitting as well as a lower. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the model gives meaningful predictions of the minimum pitting potential also when relatively large errors in the input parameters are allowed for

  15. Pit 9 project: A private sector initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.W.; Hughes, F.P.; Burton, B.N.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses the Pit 9 Comprehensive Demonstration which is intended to demonstrate a cost-effective approach to remediate an Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) waste disposal pit through a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Interim Action. The remediation will include additional requirements, if needed, to provide high confidence that only minor additional work would be necessary to accomplish the final closure as part of the overall final closure strategy for the INEL's Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA)

  16. Oxygen pitting failure of a bagasse boiler tube

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyes, AM

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Examination of a failed roof tube from a bagasse boiler showed transverse through-cracks and extensive pitting. The pitting was typically oxygen induced pitting and numerous fatigue cracks had started within these pits. It is highly probable...

  17. Statistical study by digitalized image analysis of pitting corrosion of an AISI 304 type stainless steel in chloride environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacome, Isabelle

    1994-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the pitting corrosion of an AISI 304-type stainless steel in chloride environment, a phenomenon which is generally considered as comprising two main steps: pit initiation with local degradation of the passive film, and pit growth. By using a technique of analysis of digitalized images, the process is observed in situ and both steps are monitored. A statistical study of the initiation of all the noticed pits is performed. After a bibliographical survey on the pitting corrosion process, its mechanisms and the influence of different parameters, the author presents the studied material and the experimental methods, reports the investigation of the pitting corrosion process in potentiostatic mode over a wide range of potentials in order to study all the types of pits, discusses the influence of potential on pit initiation and growth, reports the study of the influence of hydrodynamic conditions and of ageing in solution on the different parameters, reports the analysis of passive films by photoelectron spectroscopy, and the study of the influence of an inhibitor (molybdate ions) on both steps of pitting corrosion [fr

  18. W-12 valve pit decontamination demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, C.E.; Parfitt, J.E.; Patton, B.D.

    1995-12-01

    Waste tank W-12 is a tank in the ORNL Low-Level Liquid Waste (LLLW) system that collected waste from Building 3525. Because of a leaking flange in the discharge line from W-12 to the evaporator service tank (W-22) and continual inleakage into the tank from an unknown source, W-12 was removed from service to comply with the Federal Facilities Agreement requirement. The initial response was to decontaminate the valve pit between tank W-12 and the evaporator service tank (W-22) to determine if personnel could enter the pit to attempt repair of the leaking flange. Preventing the spread of radioactive contamination from the pit to the environment and to other waste systems was of concern during the decontamination. The drain in the pit goes to the process waste system; therefore, if high-level liquid waste were generated during decontamination activities, it would have to be removed from the pit by means other than the available liquid waste connection. Remote decontamination of W-12 was conducted using the General Mills manipulator bridge and telescoping trolley and REMOTEC RM-10 manipulator. The initial objective of repairing the leaking flange was not conducted because of the repair uncertainty and the unknown tank inleakage. Rather, new piping was installed to empty the W-12 tank that would bypass the valve pit and eliminate the need to repair the flange. The radiological surveys indicated that a substantial decontamination factor was achieved

  19. Determination of antenna factors using a three-antenna method at open-field test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuzawa, Hiroshi; Tejima, Teruo; Harima, Katsushige; Morikawa, Takao

    1992-09-01

    Recently NIST has used the three-antenna method for calibration of the antenna factor of an antenna used for EMI measurements. This method does not require the specially designed standard antennas which are necessary in the standard field method or the standard antenna method, and can be used at an open-field test site. This paper theoretically and experimentally examines the measurement errors of this method and evaluates the precision of the antenna-factor calibration. It is found that the main source of the error is the non-ideal propagation characteristics of the test site, which should therefore be measured before the calibration. The precision of the antenna-factor calibration at the test site used in these experiments, is estimated to be 0.5 dB.

  20. Extrusion Process by Finite Volume Method Using OpenFoam Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos Martins, Marcelo; Tonini Button, Sergio; Divo Bressan, Jose; Ivankovic, Alojz

    2011-01-01

    The computational codes are very important tools to solve engineering problems. In the analysis of metal forming process, such as extrusion, this is not different because the computational codes allow analyzing the process with reduced cost. Traditionally, the Finite Element Method is used to solve solid mechanic problems, however, the Finite Volume Method (FVM) have been gaining force in this field of applications. This paper presents the velocity field and friction coefficient variation results, obtained by numerical simulation using the OpenFoam Software and the FVM to solve an aluminum direct cold extrusion process.

  1. A method for data handling numerical results in parallel OpenFOAM simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    nd Vasile Pârvan Ave., 300223, TM Timişoara, Romania, alin.anton@cs.upt.ro (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Faculty of Automatic Control and Computing, Politehnica University of Timişoara, 2nd Vasile Pârvan Ave., 300223, TM Timişoara, Romania, alin.anton@cs.upt.ro (Romania))" >Anton, Alin; th Mihai Viteazu Ave., 300221, TM Timişoara (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Center for Advanced Research in Engineering Science, Romanian Academy – Timişoara Branch, 24th Mihai Viteazu Ave., 300221, TM Timişoara (Romania))" >Muntean, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Parallel computational fluid dynamics simulations produce vast amount of numerical result data. This paper introduces a method for reducing the size of the data by replaying the interprocessor traffic. The results are recovered only in certain regions of interest configured by the user. A known test case is used for several mesh partitioning scenarios using the OpenFOAM toolkit ® [1]. The space savings obtained with classic algorithms remain constant for more than 60 Gb of floating point data. Our method is most efficient on large simulation meshes and is much better suited for compressing large scale simulation results than the regular algorithms

  2. A method for data handling numerical results in parallel OpenFOAM simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, Alin [Faculty of Automatic Control and Computing, Politehnica University of Timişoara, 2" n" d Vasile Pârvan Ave., 300223, TM Timişoara, Romania, alin.anton@cs.upt.ro (Romania); Muntean, Sebastian [Center for Advanced Research in Engineering Science, Romanian Academy – Timişoara Branch, 24" t" h Mihai Viteazu Ave., 300221, TM Timişoara (Romania)

    2015-12-31

    Parallel computational fluid dynamics simulations produce vast amount of numerical result data. This paper introduces a method for reducing the size of the data by replaying the interprocessor traffic. The results are recovered only in certain regions of interest configured by the user. A known test case is used for several mesh partitioning scenarios using the OpenFOAM toolkit{sup ®}[1]. The space savings obtained with classic algorithms remain constant for more than 60 Gb of floating point data. Our method is most efficient on large simulation meshes and is much better suited for compressing large scale simulation results than the regular algorithms.

  3. Calculation Of Recycle And Open Cycle Nuclear Fuel Cost Using Lagistase Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djoko Birmano, Moch

    2002-01-01

    . To be presented the calculation of recycle and open cycle nuclear fuel cost for LWR type that have net power of 600 MWe. This calculation using LEGECOST method developed by IAEA which have characteristics,where i.e. money is stated in constant money (no inflation),discount rate is equalized with interest rate and not consider tax and depreciation.As a conclusion is that open cycle nuclear fuel cost more advantage because it is cheaper than recycle nuclear fuel cost. This is caused that at present, reprocessing process disadvantage because it has not found yet more efficient and cheaper method, besides price of fresh uranium is still cheap. In future, the cost of recycle nuclear fuel cycle will be more competitive toward the cost of open nuclear fuel cycle if is found technology of reprocessing process that more advance, efficient and cheap. Increase of Pu use for reactor fuel especially MOX type will rise Pu price that finally will decrease the cost of recycle nuclear fuel cycle

  4. Open Pit Optimisation and Design: A Stepwise Approach*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... The erstwhile Nkroful Mining Limited (NML) had a concession with an approximate area of 47.84 km2 ... exploration drilling programme executed by NML ..... Strategic Planning ... the Nkroful Gold Mining Project, Western.

  5. Characterization of airborne particles in an open pit mining region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, José I; Huertas, María E; Solís, Dora A

    2012-04-15

    We characterized airborne particle samples collected from 15 stations in operation since 2007 in one of the world's largest opencast coal mining regions. Using gravimetric, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis the samples were characterized in terms of concentration, morphology, particle size distribution (PSD), and elemental composition. All of the total suspended particulate (TSP) samples exhibited a log-normal PSD with a mean of d=5.46 ± 0.32 μm and σ(ln d)=0.61 ± 0.03. Similarly, all particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM(10)) exhibited a log-normal type distribution with a mean of d=3.6 ± 0.38 μm and σ(ln d)=0.55 ± 0.03. XPS analysis indicated that the main elements present in the particles were carbon, oxygen, potassium, and silicon with average mass concentrations of 41.5%, 34.7%, 11.6%, and 5.7% respectively. In SEM micrographs the particles appeared smooth-surfaced and irregular in shape, and tended to agglomerate. The particles were typically clay minerals, including limestone, calcite, quartz, and potassium feldspar. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Restoration of landscapes disrupted by open pit mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuvilov, M.I.; Vasil' kov, Yu.M.

    1982-01-01

    Practical recommendations are given for restoring landscapes which are suitable to the stripped rocks of the ''Korkinskiy'' section of the ''chelyabinskugol''' Union. The creation is proposed of broad terraces on the slopes for forest plantings. By first fulfilling a complex of agrotechnical measures, plantings are designed with consideration of ensuring a forest growth.

  7. A probability distribution model of tooth pits for evaluating time-varying mesh stiffness of pitting gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yaguo; Liu, Zongyao; Wang, Delong; Yang, Xiao; Liu, Huan; Lin, Jing

    2018-06-01

    Tooth damage often causes a reduction in gear mesh stiffness. Thus time-varying mesh stiffness (TVMS) can be treated as an indication of gear health conditions. This study is devoted to investigating the mesh stiffness variations of a pair of external spur gears with tooth pitting, and proposes a new model for describing tooth pitting based on probability distribution. In the model, considering the appearance and development process of tooth pitting, we model the pitting on the surface of spur gear teeth as a series of pits with a uniform distribution in the direction of tooth width and a normal distribution in the direction of tooth height, respectively. In addition, four pitting degrees, from no pitting to severe pitting, are modeled. Finally, influences of tooth pitting on TVMS are analyzed in details and the proposed model is validated by comparing with a finite element model. The comparison results show that the proposed model is effective for the TVMS evaluations of pitting gears.

  8. Corrections for hysteresis curves for rare earth magnet materials measured by open magnetic circuit methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yasuaki

    1996-01-01

    The methods for testing permanent magnets stipulated in the usual industrial standards are so-called closed magnetic circuit methods which employ a loop tracer using an iron-core electromagnet. If the coercivity exceeds the highest magnetic field generated by the electromagnet, full hysteresis curves cannot be obtained. In the present work, magnetic fields up to 15 T were generated by a high-power water-cooled magnet, and the magnetization was measured by an induction method with an open magnetic circuit, in which the effect of a demagnetizing field should be taken into account. Various rare earth magnets materials such as sintered or bonded Sm-Co and Nd-Fe-B were provided by a number of manufacturers. Hysteresis curves for cylindrical samples with 10 nm in diameter and 2 mm, 3.5 mm, 5 mm, 14 mm or 28 mm in length were measured. Correction for the demagnetizing field is rather difficult because of its non-uniformity. Roughly speaking, a mean demagnetizing factor for soft magnetic materials can be used for the correction, although the application of this factor to hard magnetic material is hardly justified. Thus the dimensions of the sample should be specified when the data obtained by the open magnetic circuit method are used as industrial standards. (author)

  9. Advantages and limitations for users of double pit pour-flush latrines: a qualitative study in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Faruqe; Clasen, Thomas; Akter, Shahinoor; Bawel, Victoria; Luby, Stephen P; Leontsini, Elli; Unicomb, Leanne; Barua, Milan Kanti; Thomas, Brittany; Winch, Peter J

    2017-05-25

    In rural Bangladesh, India and elsewhere, pour-flush pit latrines are the most common sanitation system. When a single pit latrine becomes full, users must empty it themselves and risk exposure to fresh feces, pay an emptying service to remove pit contents or build a new latrine. Double pit pour-flush latrines may serve as a long-term sanitation option including high water table areas because the pits do not need to be emptied immediately and the excreta decomposes into reusable soil. Double pit pour-flush latrines were implemented in rural Bangladesh for 'hardcore poor' households by a national NGO, BRAC. We conducted interviews, focus groups, and spot checks in two low-income, rural areas of Bangladesh to explore the advantages and limitations of using double pit latrines compared to single pit latrines. The rural households accepted the double pit pour-flush latrine model and considered it feasible to use and maintain. This latrine design increased accessibility of a sanitation facility for these low-income residents and provided privacy, convenience and comfort, compared to open defecation. Although a double pit latrine is more costly and requires more space than a single pit latrine the households perceived this sanitation system to save resources, because households did not need to hire service workers to empty pits or remove decomposed contents themselves. In addition, the excreta decomposition process produced a reusable soil product that some households used in homestead gardening. The durability of the latrine superstructures was a problem, as most of the bamboo-pole superstructure broke after 6-18 months of use. Double pit pour-flush latrines are a long-term improved sanitation option that offers users several important advantages over single pit pour-flush latrines like in rural Bangladesh which can also be used in areas with high water table. Further research can provide an understanding of the comparative health impacts and effectiveness of the model

  10. Tank Riser Pit Decontamination System (Pit Viper) Return on Investment and Break-Even Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Joan K.; Weimar, Mark R.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Fassbender, Linda L.; Hernandez, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed the cost benefit of Pit Viper deployment for 80 tank farm pits between October 1, 2003 and September 30, 2012 under the technical baseline for applicable double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) projects. After this assessment had been completed, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL) and Office of River Protection (ORP) published the Hanford Performance Management Plan (August 2003), which accelerated the schedule for SST retrieval. Then, DOE/CH2M HILL contract modification M064 (October 2002) and The Integrated Mission Acceleration Plan (March 2003) further accelerated SST retrieval and closure schedules. Twenty-six to 40 tanks must be retrieved by 2006. Thus the schedule for SST pit entries is accelerated and the number of SST pit entries is increased. This study estimates the return on investment (ROI) and the number of pits where Pit Viper deployment would break even or save money over current manual practices. The results of the analysis indicate a positive return on the federal investment for deployment of the Pit Viper provided it is used on a sufficient number of pits

  11. Baseline Risk Assessment for the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits and Rubble Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This document provides an overview of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a description of the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (BRPs) and Rubble Pit (RP) unit. It also describes the objectives and scope of the baseline risk assessment (BRA).

  12. Pitting corrosion of friction stir welded aluminum alloy thick plate in alkaline chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Weifeng; Liu Jinhe; Zhu Hongqiang

    2010-01-01

    The pitting corrosion of different positions (Top, Middle and Bottom) of weld nugget zone (WNZ) along thickness plate in friction stir welded 2219-O aluminum alloy in alkaline chloride solution was investigated by using open circuit potential, cyclic polarization, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscope. The results indicate that the material presents significant passivation, the top has highest corrosion potential, pitting potential and re-passivation potential compared with the bottom and base material. With the increase of traverse speed from 60 to 100 mm/min or rotary speed from 500 to 600 rpm, the corrosion resistance decreases.

  13. Method of adiabatic modes in studying problems of smoothly irregular open waveguide structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevastianov, L. A.; Egorov, A. A.; Sevastyanov, A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Basic steps in developing an original method of adiabatic modes that makes it possible to solve the direct and inverse problems of simulating and designing three-dimensional multilayered smoothly irregular open waveguide structures are described. A new element in the method is that an approximate solution of Maxwell’s equations is made to obey “inclined” boundary conditions at the interfaces between themedia being considered. These boundary conditions take into account the obliqueness of planes tangent to nonplanar boundaries between the media and lead to new equations for coupled vector quasiwaveguide hybrid adiabatic modes. Solutions of these equations describe the phenomenon of “entanglement” of two linear polarizations of an irregular multilayered waveguide, the appearance of a new mode in an entangled state, and the effect of rotation of the polarization plane of quasiwaveguide modes. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated by considering the example of numerically simulating a thin-film generalized waveguide Lüneburg lens.

  14. CB3PMF - Thermohidraulic analysis using the open lateral boundary method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, R.C.; Andrade, G.G. de

    1985-01-01

    A calculation method for the thermohydraulic analysis of a nuclear reator having a large number of sub-channels is presented. The method uses the open lateral boundary which mantains the influence of the external boundaries of the channel under study and adds to the external face of the channel physical model important characteristcs that other computational models identify only at the sub-channel level. This permits to keep the mixture characteristics that exist between the channel under analysis and the neighboring ones from the previous step. This method is shown be valid, reliable and applicable to the steady state thermohydraulic analysis and permits greater flexibility in the application of coefficients and correlations. The additional computing time is negligible compared to the information obtained. (F.E.) [pt

  15. Evaluation of remote delivery of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT technology to mark large mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W David Walter

    Full Text Available Methods to individually mark and identify free-ranging wildlife without trapping and handling would be useful for a variety of research and management purposes. The use of Passive Integrated Transponder technology could be an efficient method for collecting data for mark-recapture analysis and other strategies for assessing characteristics about populations of various wildlife species. Passive Integrated Transponder tags (PIT have unique numbered frequencies and have been used to successfully mark and identify mammals. We tested for successful injection of PIT and subsequent functioning of PIT into gelatin blocks using 4 variations of a prototype dart. We then selected the prototype dart that resulted in the least depth of penetration in the gelatin block to assess the ability of PIT to be successfully implanted into muscle tissue of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus post-mortem and long-term in live, captive Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus. The prototype dart with a 12.7 mm (0.5 inch needle length and no powder charge resulted in the shallowest mean (± SD penetration depth into gelatin blocks of 27.0 mm (± 5.6 mm with 2.0 psi setting on the Dan-Inject CO(2-pressured rifle. Eighty percent of PIT were successfully injected in the muscle mass of white-tailed deer post-mortem with a mean (± SD penetration depth of 22.2 mm (± 3.8 mm; n = 6. We injected PIT successfully into 13 live, captive elk by remote delivery at about 20 m that remained functional for 7 months. We successfully demonstrated that PIT could be remotely delivered in darts into muscle mass of large mammals and remain functional for >6 months. Although further research is warranted to fully develop the technique, remote delivery of PIT technology to large mammals is possible using prototype implant darts.

  16. The Open Method of Coordination and the New Governance Patterns in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana; Jacobsson, Kerstin

    2004-01-01

    tradition in the EU, and looks at how the three dominant logics of co-ordination are linked to diverse modes of hte IMC. The subsequent sections focus on teh potential impact of the OMC on the policy and politics dimensions of the EU. Theoretically inspired assumptions about policy learning and partial......The aim of this article is to establish an analytical framework for studying the impact of the open method of coordination (OMC) on three levels of political action within the EU, namely the policy, politics and polity. First, the article examines the novelties of the OMC vis-à-vis the soft law...

  17. Open-Source Sequence Clustering Methods Improve the State Of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylova, Evguenia; Navas-Molina, Jose A; Mercier, Céline; Xu, Zhenjiang Zech; Mahé, Frédéric; He, Yan; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Rognes, Torbjørn; Caporaso, J Gregory; Knight, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Sequence clustering is a common early step in amplicon-based microbial community analysis, when raw sequencing reads are clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to reduce the run time of subsequent analysis steps. Here, we evaluated the performance of recently released state-of-the-art open-source clustering software products, namely, OTUCLUST, Swarm, SUMACLUST, and SortMeRNA, against current principal options (UCLUST and USEARCH) in QIIME, hierarchical clustering methods in mothur, and USEARCH's most recent clustering algorithm, UPARSE. All the latest open-source tools showed promising results, reporting up to 60% fewer spurious OTUs than UCLUST, indicating that the underlying clustering algorithm can vastly reduce the number of these derived OTUs. Furthermore, we observed that stringent quality filtering, such as is done in UPARSE, can cause a significant underestimation of species abundance and diversity, leading to incorrect biological results. Swarm, SUMACLUST, and SortMeRNA have been included in the QIIME 1.9.0 release. IMPORTANCE Massive collections of next-generation sequencing data call for fast, accurate, and easily accessible bioinformatics algorithms to perform sequence clustering. A comprehensive benchmark is presented, including open-source tools and the popular USEARCH suite. Simulated, mock, and environmental communities were used to analyze sensitivity, selectivity, species diversity (alpha and beta), and taxonomic composition. The results demonstrate that recent clustering algorithms can significantly improve accuracy and preserve estimated diversity without the application of aggressive filtering. Moreover, these tools are all open source, apply multiple levels of multithreading, and scale to the demands of modern next-generation sequencing data, which is essential for the analysis of massive multidisciplinary studies such as the Earth Microbiome Project (EMP) (J. A. Gilbert, J. K. Jansson, and R. Knight, BMC Biol 12:69, 2014, http

  18. NELL-1 increases pre-osteoblast mineralization using both phosphate transporter Pit1 and Pit2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Catherine M. [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza,7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Zhang, Xinli; James, Aaron W.; Mari Kim, T.; Sun, Nichole [Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Wu, Benjamin [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza,7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ting, Kang [Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Soo, Chia, E-mail: bsoo@ucla.edu [UCLA and Orthopaedic Hospital Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and the Orthopaedic, Hospital Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles, 2641 Charles E. Young Dr. South, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 accelerates extracellular matrix mineralization in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 significantly increases intracellular inorganic phosphate levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 positively regulates osteogenesis but not proliferation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 regulates inorganic phosphate transporter activity. -- Abstract: NELL-1 is a potent osteoinductive molecule that enhances bone formation in multiple animal models through currently unidentified pathways. In the present manuscript, we hypothesized that NELL-1 may regulate osteogenic differentiation accompanied by alteration of inorganic phosphate (Pi) entry into the osteoblast via sodium dependent phosphate (NaPi) transporters. To determine this, MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were cultured in the presence of recombinant human (rh)NELL-1 or rhBMP-2. Analysis was performed for intracellular Pi levels through malachite green staining, Pit-1 and Pit-2 expression, and forced upregulation of Pit-1 and Pit-2. Results showed rhNELL-1 to increase MC3T3-E1 matrix mineralization and Pi influx associated with activation of both Pit-1 and Pit-2 channels, with significantly increased Pit-2 production. In contrast, Pi transport elicited by rhBMP-2 showed to be associated with increased Pit-1 production only. Next, neutralizing antibodies against Pit-1 and Pit-2 completely abrogated the Pi influx effect of rhNELL-1, suggesting rhNELL-1 is dependent on both transporters. These results identify one potential mechanism of action for rhNELL-1 induced osteogenesis and highlight a fundamental difference between NELL-1 and BMP-2 signaling.

  19. NELL-1 increases pre-osteoblast mineralization using both phosphate transporter Pit1 and Pit2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, Catherine M.; Zhang, Xinli; James, Aaron W.; Mari Kim, T.; Sun, Nichole; Wu, Benjamin; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► NELL-1 accelerates extracellular matrix mineralization in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. ► NELL-1 significantly increases intracellular inorganic phosphate levels. ► NELL-1 positively regulates osteogenesis but not proliferation in MC3T3-E1 cells. ► NELL-1 regulates inorganic phosphate transporter activity. -- Abstract: NELL-1 is a potent osteoinductive molecule that enhances bone formation in multiple animal models through currently unidentified pathways. In the present manuscript, we hypothesized that NELL-1 may regulate osteogenic differentiation accompanied by alteration of inorganic phosphate (Pi) entry into the osteoblast via sodium dependent phosphate (NaPi) transporters. To determine this, MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were cultured in the presence of recombinant human (rh)NELL-1 or rhBMP-2. Analysis was performed for intracellular Pi levels through malachite green staining, Pit-1 and Pit-2 expression, and forced upregulation of Pit-1 and Pit-2. Results showed rhNELL-1 to increase MC3T3-E1 matrix mineralization and Pi influx associated with activation of both Pit-1 and Pit-2 channels, with significantly increased Pit-2 production. In contrast, Pi transport elicited by rhBMP-2 showed to be associated with increased Pit-1 production only. Next, neutralizing antibodies against Pit-1 and Pit-2 completely abrogated the Pi influx effect of rhNELL-1, suggesting rhNELL-1 is dependent on both transporters. These results identify one potential mechanism of action for rhNELL-1 induced osteogenesis and highlight a fundamental difference between NELL-1 and BMP-2 signaling.

  20. Restoration of Secondary Containment in Double Shell Tank (DST) Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHEN, E.J.

    2000-10-05

    Cracks found in many of the double-shell tank (DST) pump and valve pits bring into question the ability of the pits to provide secondary containment and remain in compliance with State and Federal regulations. This study was commissioned to identify viable options for maintain/restoring secondary containment capability in these pits. The basis for this study is the decision analysis process which identifies the requirements to be met and the desired goals (decision criteria) that each option will be weighed against. A facilitated workshop was convened with individuals knowledgeable of Tank Farms Operations, engineering practices, and safety/environmental requirements. The outcome of this workshop was the validation or identification of the critical requirements, definition of the current problem, identification and weighting of the desired goals, baselining of the current repair methods, and identification of potential alternate solutions. The workshop was followed up with further investigations into the potential solutions that were identified in the workshop and through other efforts. These solutions are identified in the body of this report. Each of the potential solutions were screened against the list of requirements and only those meeting the requirements were considered viable options. To expand the field of viable options, hybrid concepts that combine the strongest features of different individual approaches were also examined. Several were identified. The decision analysis process then ranked each of the viable options against the weighted decision criteria, which resulted in a recommended solution. The recommended approach is based upon installing a sprayed on coating system.

  1. Restoration of Secondary Containment in Double Shell Tank (DST) Pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHEN, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    Cracks found in many of the double-shell tank (DST) pump and valve pits bring into question the ability of the pits to provide secondary containment and remain in compliance with State and Federal regulations. This study was commissioned to identify viable options for maintain/restoring secondary containment capability in these pits. The basis for this study is the decision analysis process which identifies the requirements to be met and the desired goals (decision criteria) that each option will be weighed against. A facilitated workshop was convened with individuals knowledgeable of Tank Farms Operations, engineering practices, and safety/environmental requirements. The outcome of this workshop was the validation or identification of the critical requirements, definition of the current problem, identification and weighting of the desired goals, baselining of the current repair methods, and identification of potential alternate solutions. The workshop was followed up with further investigations into the potential solutions that were identified in the workshop and through other efforts. These solutions are identified in the body of this report. Each of the potential solutions were screened against the list of requirements and only those meeting the requirements were considered viable options. To expand the field of viable options, hybrid concepts that combine the strongest features of different individual approaches were also examined. Several were identified. The decision analysis process then ranked each of the viable options against the weighted decision criteria, which resulted in a recommended solution. The recommended approach is based upon installing a sprayed on coating system

  2. Remediation of flare pit soils using supercritical fluid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, V.; Guigard, S.E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2005-09-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to examine the ability of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to remove petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) from two flare pit soils in Alberta. SFE is a technology for remediation of contaminated soils. In order to determine the optimal extraction conditions and to understand the effects of pressure, temperature, supercritical carbon dioxide flow rate, soil type, and extraction time on the extraction efficiency of SFE, extractions were performed on two flare pit soils at various pressures and temperatures. Chemicals in the study included diesel oil, SAE 10-30W motor oil, n-decane, hexadecane, tetratriacontane and pentacontane. The best extraction conditions were defined as conditions that result in a treated soil with a PHC concentration that meets the regulatory guidelines of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment in the Canada-wide standard for PHC is soil. The study results indicate that the efficiency of the SFE process is solvent-density dependent for the conditions studied. The highest extraction efficiency for both soils was obtained at conditions of 24.1 MPa and 40 degrees C. An increase in pressure at a fixed temperature led to an increase in the extraction efficiency while an increase in temperature at a fixed pressure led to a decrease in the extraction efficiency. The treated soils were observed to be lighter in colour, drier, and grainier than the soil prior to extraction. It was concluded that SFE is an effective method for remediating flare pit soils. 63 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  3. Image features of herniation pit of the femoral neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuezhe; Li Guangming; Wang Cunli; Wang Guimin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate imaging appearances of herniation pit of the femoral neck. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the X-ray, CT and MRI findings of 9 patients with herniation pit of the femoral neck. All nine patients were male with the age ranging from 21 to 73 years. They had pain in the hip from two months to two years duration. Results: The bilateral hips were affected in six patients, the right hips in the other 3 patients. Of the nine patients, X-ray plain films (2 cases), CT scanning(6 cases), and MR scanning (5 cases ) were performed. The size of the lesions ranged from 0.5 cm x 0.6 cm to 1.0 cm x 1.5 cm, located in the anterosuperior portion of the femoral neck (n=7) or anteroinferior portion (n=2). X-ray plain films showed an osteolytic lesion surrounded by a sclerotic rim. CT scanning showed the lesion just below the cortex of the femoral neck surrounded by a rim of sclerosis or associated with a small cortical break in two patients. MR scanning showed low signal intensity in five patients on T 1 WI and high signal intensity surrounded by a rim of low signal intensity (n=3) or low signal intensity (n=2) on T 2 WI, and high signal intensity on fat suppression MR image. A small joint effusion was observed in two cases on T 2 WI. Conclusion: The CT and MRI findings of herniation pit of the femoral neck are characteristic, it is useful in defining the diagnosis of the herniation pit of the femoral neck. (authors)

  4. A generic statistical methodology to predict the maximum pit depth of a localized corrosion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrah, A.; Bigerelle, M.; Guillemot, G.; Najjar, D.; Iost, A.; Nianga, J.-M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We propose a methodology to predict the maximum pit depth in a corrosion process. → Generalized Lambda Distribution and the Computer Based Bootstrap Method are combined. → GLD fit a large variety of distributions both in their central and tail regions. → Minimum thickness preventing perforation can be estimated with a safety margin. → Considering its applications, this new approach can help to size industrial pieces. - Abstract: This paper outlines a new methodology to predict accurately the maximum pit depth related to a localized corrosion process. It combines two statistical methods: the Generalized Lambda Distribution (GLD), to determine a model of distribution fitting with the experimental frequency distribution of depths, and the Computer Based Bootstrap Method (CBBM), to generate simulated distributions equivalent to the experimental one. In comparison with conventionally established statistical methods that are restricted to the use of inferred distributions constrained by specific mathematical assumptions, the major advantage of the methodology presented in this paper is that both the GLD and the CBBM enable a statistical treatment of the experimental data without making any preconceived choice neither on the unknown theoretical parent underlying distribution of pit depth which characterizes the global corrosion phenomenon nor on the unknown associated theoretical extreme value distribution which characterizes the deepest pits. Considering an experimental distribution of depths of pits produced on an aluminium sample, estimations of maximum pit depth using a GLD model are compared to similar estimations based on usual Gumbel and Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) methods proposed in the corrosion engineering literature. The GLD approach is shown having smaller bias and dispersion in the estimation of the maximum pit depth than the Gumbel approach both for its realization and mean. This leads to comparing the GLD approach to the GEV one

  5. A method for determining the radius of an open cluster from stellar proper motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Néstor; Alfaro, Emilio J.; López-Martínez, Fátima

    2018-04-01

    We propose a method for calculating the radius of an open cluster in an objective way from an astrometric catalogue containing, at least, positions and proper motions. It uses the minimum spanning tree in the proper motion space to discriminate cluster stars from field stars and it quantifies the strength of the cluster-field separation by means of a statistical parameter defined for the first time in this paper. This is done for a range of different sampling radii from where the cluster radius is obtained as the size at which the best cluster-field separation is achieved. The novelty of this strategy is that the cluster radius is obtained independently of how its stars are spatially distributed. We test the reliability and robustness of the method with both simulated and real data from a well-studied open cluster (NGC 188), and apply it to UCAC4 data for five other open clusters with different catalogued radius values. NGC 188, NGC 1647, NGC 6603, and Ruprecht 155 yielded unambiguous radius values of 15.2 ± 1.8, 29.4 ± 3.4, 4.2 ± 1.7, and 7.0 ± 0.3 arcmin, respectively. ASCC 19 and Collinder 471 showed more than one possible solution, but it is not possible to know whether this is due to the involved uncertainties or due to the presence of complex patterns in their proper motion distributions, something that could be inherent to the physical object or due to the way in which the catalogue was sampled.

  6. Study of the pitting effects during the pre-ignition plasma–propellant interaction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, Yuhua; Li, Xingwen; Wu, Jian; Jia, Shenli; Zhao, Weiyu; Murphy, Anthony B

    2016-01-01

    The propellant ignition mechanism has become a central issue in the electrothermal chemical (ETC) launch technology, and the pre-ignition plasma–propellant interactions are critical in determining the ignition characteristics. In this work, both an open-air ablation test and an interrupted burning test are conducted for three different propellants. A fused silica window, which is transparent in all relevant wavelengths, is utilized to investigate the role of the plasma radiation. Surface pitting of the propellants after interaction with the plasma is analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of pits on the plasma ignition is then studied and a possible formation mechanism of pits is proposed. The input heat flux and the surface temperature of the propellants are obtained by solving a pre-ignition plasma–propellant interaction model. The results shed light on the pre-ignition plasma ignition mechanisms and will assist in the development of propellants for an ETC launcher. (paper)

  7. Developing new methods for the mono-end functionalization of living ring opening metathesis polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbinger, Andreas F M

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present a review of our recent results in one area of research we are involved in. All research efforts in our group focus on functional polymers and new ways of gaining higher levels of control with regard to the placement of functional groups within these polymers. Here, the living ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) will be reviewed for which end-functionalization methods had been rare until very recently. Polymers carrying particular functional groups only at the chain-ends are, however, very interesting for a variety of industrial and academic applications. Polymeric surfactants and polymer-protein conjugates are two examples for the former and polymer-β-sheet-peptide conjugates one example for the latter. The functionalization of macroscopic or nanoscopic surfaces often relies on mono-end functional polymers. Complex macromolecular architectures are often constructed from macromolecules carrying exactly one functional group at their chain- end. The ring opening metathesis polymerization is particularly interesting in this context as it is one of the most functional group tolerant polymerization methods known. Additionally, high molecular weight polymers are readily accessible with this technique, a feature that living radical polymerizations often struggle to achieve. Finding new ways of functionalizing the polymer chain-end of ROMP polymers has therefore been a task long overdue. Here, we present our contribution to this area of research.

  8. Surgical treatment of chronic sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus. Open method versus primary closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kareem, Tayeb S.

    2006-01-01

    Objective was to study the comparison between the primary closure and open technique after excision of chronic sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus. A randomized study was designed and 77 patients with chronic sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus were included in this study. This study took place in Rizgary Teaching Hospital, Erbil, Kurdistan, Iraq, from January 1997 to August 2003. The patients were separated into 2 groups; Group A (37 patients) were treated by open method (excision and healing by secondary intention) and Group B (40 patients) for whom primary midline suturing was performed after excision of the pilonidal sinus. The follow up ranged from 1.5-5.5 years (mean 4.16) was through outpatient visits. The Student t test was applied for statistical analysis for the operating time, hospital-stay, time off from work and wound healing time; and the results show extremely significant differences between the 2 groups (p<0.0001). The statistical analysis of the total number of postoperative complications of both techniques showed a significant difference (p=0.0401), while the differences were insignificant for each complication when analyzed separately. Excision and primary closure for chronic sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus is superior to excision and healing by secondary intention. We believe that primary midline suturing is a useful method for management of chronic sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus. (author)

  9. "A Comparison of Several Methods in a Rock Slope Stability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This researchuses the mentioned methods and principles in the stability analysis of some rock slopes in an open pit mine in Syria, that is Khneifees phosphate mine. The importance of this researchis that it shows the role of kinematical analysis in minimizing efforts when verifying the safety of rock slopes in site, and when ...

  10. Spontaneous Resolution of Optic Disc Pit Maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Tripathy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available I read with interest the article reporting spontaneous resolution of optic disc pit maculopathy in a boy.1 Though the presence of an optic disc pit and associated macular involvement is undoubted in the presented case, the provided optical coherence tomography (OCT does not clearly show typical intraretinal schisis (Figure 1B1 at multiple retinal levels which may communicate with the pit. Instead, it shows a sub-internal limiting membrane (sub-ILM cavity. Such cavities are known to occur following the resolution of sub-ILM bleed due to various cause including Valsalva retinopathy,2 Terson syndrome, and also in some retinitis3 cases.4 In fact, some of these cavities may simulate a neurosensory retinal detachment or central serous chorioretinopathy on cursory clinical examination.5 To confirm that the features of the current patient1 are indeed related to the optic disc pit, it is necessary for the authors to provide an OCT scan which shows a connection of the presented cavity with the optic disc pit. Also, clear OCT scans of the fovea, both at presentation and at final follow-up would help our understanding of the visual recovery of the patient. The interval between the presenting (28 June 2012 OCT and final OCT (30 Nov 2012 is 5 months and not 6 months as described in the manuscript. For an effective comparison, both the presenting and final OCT scans should have been taken using either horizontal or vertical orientation over the macula. Though the spontaneous resolution of optic disc pit maculopathy is possible, visual recovery in usually unlikely and in such cases an alternate diagnosis needs to be excluded.

  11. Image-based method for monitoring of crack opening on masonry and concrete using Mobile Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Martins

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an automatic method based on the computing vision, implemented in a mobile platform, to inspect cracks in masonry and concrete. The developed algorithm for image processing performs this task from images of the cracks evolution. The contribution of this paper is the development of a mobile tool with quick response aiming to assist technicians in periodic visits when monitoring the crack opening in masonry and concrete. The obtained results show, successfully, the dimensional alterations of cracks detected by mobile phone in a faster and accurate way compared with the conventional measurement technique. Regardless the irregular shape of the cracks, the proposed method has the advantage of producing results statistically significant in measurement repetition by decreasing the subjectivity inherent to manual measurement technique.

  12. National Nanotechnology Laboratory (LNNano) open facilities for scientific community: new methods for polymeric materials characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Cristiane A.; Santos, Ramon H.Z. dos; Bernardes, Juliana S.; Gouveia, Rubia F.

    2015-01-01

    National Nanotechnology Laboratory (LNNano) at the National Center for Energy and Materials (CNPEM) presents open facilities for scientific public in some areas. In this work will be discussed the facilities for mainly the polymeric community, as well as new methods for the characterization. Low density polyethylene (LDPE) surfaces were characterized by X-ray microtomography and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results obtained by microtomography have shown that these surfaces present different contrasts when compared with the bulk. These differences are correlated with the formation of an oxidized layer at the polymer surface, which consequently have a greater X-ray attenuation. This hypothesis is confirmed by XPS, which shows LDPE surface layers are richer in carbonyl, carboxyl and vinyl groups than the bulk. This work presents that microtomography can be used as a new method for detection and characterization of polymer surface oxidation. (author)

  13. Resistance to pitting corrosion in ferritic and austenitic/ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bouvier, O.

    1995-01-01

    Stainless steel tubes carrying raw water are potentially vulnerable to pitting corrosion. With a view to minimizing the corrosion risk in the river-water-cooled condensers at PWR power plant, a study was conducted to determine initiation conditions and incubation durations for pitting corrosion in stagnant water. As a result, condenser tubes in Z2 CI 18 (439) or Z2 CT 18-10 (304L) steels were phased out in favour of Z2 CND 16-32 (316L) stainless steel. The same question can be yield for other applications and especially for all types of exchangers for use in electrical applications. This study sought to assess alternative methods for estimating pitting corrosion, and to check the results of these methods against the actual behaviour of studied steels. The study covered ferritic steels (439, 444, 290Mo), austenitic steel (316L) and austenitic/ferritic steels (Uranus 35N, 45N, 47N, 52N). Two approaches were adopted: laboratory tests to compare pitting corrosion risks on different materials, and tests for characterizing the behaviour of steels exposed to river water. The study begins with a laboratory tests that yield an arbitrary parameter for quantifying pitting corrosion resistance. One method involves measuring the pitting temperature in an aggressive ferric chloride solution. Other methods measure the pitting potential, either statistically (Multipit method) or deterministically (polarization curve). We then go on to discuss tests under simulated life-like conditions, involving repeated immersions in water from the Seine. (author). 9 refs., 13 figs, 9 tabs

  14. Effects of pH and chloride concentration on pitting corrosion of AA6061 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, B.; Saidi, D.; Benzaid, A.; Hadji, S.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of pH solution and chloride (Cl - ) ion concentration on the corrosion behaviour of alloy AA6061 immersed in aqueous solutions of NaCl have been investigated using measurements of weight loss, potentiodynamic polarisation, linear polarisation, cyclic polarisation experiment combined with open circuit potential transient technique and optical or scanning electron microscopy. The corrosion behaviour of the AA6061 aluminum alloy was found to be dependant on the pH and chloride concentration [NaCl] of solution. In acidic or slightly neutral solutions, general and pitting corrosion occurred simultaneously. In contrast, exposure to alkaline solutions results in general corrosion. Experience revealed that the alloy AA6061 was susceptible to pitting corrosion in all chloride solution of concentration ranging between 0.003 wt% and 5.5 wt% NaCl and an increase in the chloride concentration slightly shifted both the pitting E pit and corrosion E cor potentials to more active values. In function of the conditions of treatment, the sheets of the alloy AA6061 undergo two types of localised corrosion process, leading to the formation of hemispherical and crystallographic pits. Polarisation resistance measurements in acidic (pH = 2) and alkaline chloride solutions (pH = 12) which are in good agreement with those of weight loss, show that the corrosion kinetic is minimised in slightly neutral solutions (pH = 6)

  15. Canister Storage Building Receiving Pit Modification Informal Design Verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRIEG, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    The design for modifications to the CSB Cask Receiving pit guides was verified by the informal design verification (meeting) method on August 9, 2000. The invited list of attendees and the meeting attendance sheet are included in attachment 1. The design modifications that were reviewed are documented in ECN 654484 (attachment 2). The requirement that the design is to be verified against is to ''center the transportation cask sufficiently to allow installation of the guide funnel on the cask (± 0.25 inches or less)''. The alternatives considered are detailed in attachment 3. Alternative number 4, ''Modify The Pit Guides'', was determined to be the preferred alternative primarily due to considerations of simplicity, reliability, and low cost. Alternative 1, ''Rotate the impact Absorber 180 o '', was successfully performed but was considered a temporary fix that was not acceptable for a long term operational mode. The requirement to position the receiving crane accurately enough to lower the transportation cask into the pit with the redesigned guides was discussed and considered to be achievable without undue effort from the operator. The tolerance on the OD of the transfer cask was discussed (± 1/8 inch) relative to the clearance with the guides. As-built dimensions for the cask OD will be looked at to verify sufficient clearance exists with the maximum cask OD. The final design thickness of the shims under the guides will be based on the as-built cask OD dimensions and field measurements between the pit guides. The need for a ''plastic'' cover for the guides was discussed and deemed unnecessary. Thermal growth of the cask OD was calculated at 3-5 mils and considered insignificant. The possibility of reducing the OD of the guide funnel was reviewed but this was considered impractical due to the requirement for the MCO to miss the edge of the funnel in case of a MCO drop. One of the transportation casks have the lift trunions installed 3/8 inch off center. This is

  16. Acidic pit lakes. The legacy of coal and metal surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, Walter; Schultze, Martin [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Magdeburg (Germany); Wolkersdorfer, Christian (eds.) [Cape Breton Univ., Sydney, NS (Canada). Industrial Research Chair in Mine Water Remediation and Management; International Mine Water Association, Wendelstein (Germany). General Secretary; Kleinmann, Robert

    2013-07-01

    This monograph provides an international perspective on pit lakes in post-mining landscapes, including the problem of geogenic acidification. Much has been learned during the last decade through research and practical experience on how to mitigate or remediate the environmental problems of acidic pit lakes. In the first part of the book, general scientific issues are presented in 21 contributions from the fields of geo-environmental science, water chemistry, lake physics, lake modeling, and on the peculiar biological features that occur in the extreme habitats of acidic pit lakes. Another chapter provides an overview of methods currently used to remediate acidic pit lakes and treat outflowing acidic water. The second part of the book is a collection of regional surveys of pit lake problems from three European countries and Australia, and case studies of various individual representative lakes. A final case study provides an innovative approach to assessing the economic value of new pit lakes and balancing the costs and benefits, a valuable tool for decision makers.

  17. The effect of precipitated carbides on the pitting corrosion of 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Jai-Hyun; Kim, Kwan-Hun

    1985-01-01

    In order to investigate the relation between the pitting corrosion and precipitated carbides, the heat treatment of specimens was carried out in two ways: Solution treatment and carbides precipitation treatment. The experiment was focused on the polarization curves of specimens immersed in HCL solution and on the microscopic analysis of the corroded specimens through a potentiodynamic method. It was found out that the intergranular and pitting corrosion occurred remarkably in 0.1N and 1N KCL solution when carbides were precipitated around the grain boundary of the 304 stain steel. The intergranular corrosion was noticed in the region of passivation and the pitting was prominent in the region of passivation break-down. The distribution of pits on the solution treated 304 stainless steel was random, while that of pits on carbides precipitated specimen was concentrated around the grain boundary in 0.1N and 1N HCL solution. It was ascertained that the pitting resistance of the solution treated 304 stainless steel was better than that of carbides precipitated specimen. (Author)

  18. Pitting corrosion susceptibility study of zirconium alloys in the presence of the chloride ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulescu, M.; Pirvan, I.; Velciu, L.

    1997-01-01

    Pitting corrosion mechanism is specific to metal/aggressive environment systems. The influence of both components of the process was thoroughly investigated. After reviewing the principal steps of the pitting corrosion and of the electrochemical reactions associated, there were presented the physico-chemical methods used for the determination of the corrosion pitting parameters completed with the metallographic techniques of investigation of the attacked surfaces. Reported are the results of determinations of the pit initiation (E np ) and pit passivation (E pp ) potentials in the systems Zy-4 (Zr)/ Cl - provided from the following solutions: HCl, FeCl 3 , NaCl and LiCl. In the case of the last two solutions, the measurements were carried out also in the range of alkaline pH values. It was also determined the dependence of E np and E pp potential on the Cl - ions concentration in NaCl and HCl solutions, and also the reaction order 'n' in presence of several chloride concentration. Finally, on the basis of the experimental data, we established the kinetic characteristics specific to different steps of pitting. (authors)

  19. The PIT-trap-A "model-free" bootstrap procedure for inference about regression models with discrete, multivariate responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warton, David I; Thibaut, Loïc; Wang, Yi Alice

    2017-01-01

    Bootstrap methods are widely used in statistics, and bootstrapping of residuals can be especially useful in the regression context. However, difficulties are encountered extending residual resampling to regression settings where residuals are not identically distributed (thus not amenable to bootstrapping)-common examples including logistic or Poisson regression and generalizations to handle clustered or multivariate data, such as generalised estimating equations. We propose a bootstrap method based on probability integral transform (PIT-) residuals, which we call the PIT-trap, which assumes data come from some marginal distribution F of known parametric form. This method can be understood as a type of "model-free bootstrap", adapted to the problem of discrete and highly multivariate data. PIT-residuals have the key property that they are (asymptotically) pivotal. The PIT-trap thus inherits the key property, not afforded by any other residual resampling approach, that the marginal distribution of data can be preserved under PIT-trapping. This in turn enables the derivation of some standard bootstrap properties, including second-order correctness of pivotal PIT-trap test statistics. In multivariate data, bootstrapping rows of PIT-residuals affords the property that it preserves correlation in data without the need for it to be modelled, a key point of difference as compared to a parametric bootstrap. The proposed method is illustrated on an example involving multivariate abundance data in ecology, and demonstrated via simulation to have improved properties as compared to competing resampling methods.

  20. Electrochemical tests for pitting and crevice corrosion susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postlethwaite, J.

    1983-01-01

    Passive metals are being considered as container materials for the disposal of nuclear waste by deep burial. Localized corrosion is a potential problem and electrochemical techniques have an important role in the assessment of the susceptibility of these container materials to crevice and pitting corrosion. This paper critically reviews both the theoretical background and the experimental details of the electrochemical test methods presently used in both industrial and scientific studies of localized corrosion in both halide and non-halide solutions and identifies those areas where theory and experimental behaviour are in agreement and those areas for which there is neither well established theory nor an experimental test method

  1. An optimal open/closed-loop control method with application to a pre-stressed thin duralumin plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimpalli, Sruthi Raju

    The excessive vibrations of a pre-stressed duralumin plate, suppressed by a combination of open-loop and closed-loop controls, also known as open/closed-loop control, is studied in this thesis. The two primary steps involved in this process are: Step (I) with an assumption that the closed-loop control law is proportional, obtain the optimal open-loop control by direct minimization of the performance measure consisting of energy at terminal time and a penalty on open-loop control force via calculus of variations. If the performance measure also involves a penalty on closed-loop control effort then a Fourier based method is utilized. Step (II) the energy at terminal time is minimized numerically to obtain optimal values of feedback gains. The optimal closed-loop control gains obtained are used to describe the displacement and the velocity of open-loop, closed-loop and open/closed-loop controlled duralumin plate.

  2. Markov Chain Models for the Stochastic Modeling of Pitting Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Valor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The stochastic nature of pitting corrosion of metallic structures has been widely recognized. It is assumed that this kind of deterioration retains no memory of the past, so only the current state of the damage influences its future development. This characteristic allows pitting corrosion to be categorized as a Markov process. In this paper, two different models of pitting corrosion, developed using Markov chains, are presented. Firstly, a continuous-time, nonhomogeneous linear growth (pure birth Markov process is used to model external pitting corrosion in underground pipelines. A closed-form solution of the system of Kolmogorov's forward equations is used to describe the transition probability function in a discrete pit depth space. The transition probability function is identified by correlating the stochastic pit depth mean with the empirical deterministic mean. In the second model, the distribution of maximum pit depths in a pitting experiment is successfully modeled after the combination of two stochastic processes: pit initiation and pit growth. Pit generation is modeled as a nonhomogeneous Poisson process, in which induction time is simulated as the realization of a Weibull process. Pit growth is simulated using a nonhomogeneous Markov process. An analytical solution of Kolmogorov's system of equations is also found for the transition probabilities from the first Markov state. Extreme value statistics is employed to find the distribution of maximum pit depths.

  3. Parturition pit: the bony imprint of vaginal birth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArthur, Tatum A.; Meyer, Isuzu; Jackson, Bradford; Pitt, Michael J.; Larrison, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate for pits along the dorsum of the pubic body in females and compare the presence/absence of these pits to vaginal birth data. We retrospectively reviewed females with vaginal birth data who underwent pelvic CT. The presence of pits along the dorsum of the pubic body, pit grade (0 = not present; 1 = faintly imperceptible; 2 = present; 3 = prominent), and the presence of osteitis condensans ilii, preauricular sulcus, and sacroiliac joint vacuum phenomenon were assessed on imaging. Musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded to the birth data evaluated the CTs. 48 males were also evaluated for the presence of pits. 482 female patients underwent CT pelvis and 171 were excluded due to lack of vaginal birth data. Of the 311 study patients, 262 had prior vaginal birth(s) and 194 had pits on CT. Only 7 of the 49 patients without prior vaginal birth had pits. There was a statistically significant association between vaginal birth and presence of pits (p < 0.0001). Patients with more prominent pits (grades 2/3) had a greater number of vaginal births. As vaginal deliveries increased, the odds of having parturition pits greatly increased, adjusting for age and race at CT (p < 0.0001). No males had pits. Our study indicates that parturition pits are associated with prior vaginal birth and should be considered a characteristic of the female pelvis. The lytic appearance of prominent pits on imaging can simulate disease and create a diagnostic dilemma for interpreting radiologists. (orig.)

  4. On the detection of corrosion pit interactions using two-dimensional spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrah, Adil; Nianga, Jean-Marie; Iost, Alain; Guillemot, Gildas; Najjar, Denis

    2010-01-01

    A statistical methodology for detecting pits interactions based on a two-dimensional spectral analysis is presented. This method can be used as a tool for the exploratory analysis of spatial point patterns and can be advanced as an alternative of classical methods based on distance. One of the major advantages of the spectral analysis approach over the use of classical methods is its ability to reveal more details about the spatial structure like the scale for which pits corrosion can be considered as independent. Furthermore, directional components of pattern can be investigated. The method is validated in a first time using numerical simulations on random, regular and aggregated structures. The density of pits, used in the numerical simulations, corresponds to that assessed from a corroded aluminium sheet. In a second time, this method is applied to verify the independence of the corrosion pits observed on the aforementioned aluminium sheet before applying the Gumbel theory to determine the maximum pit depth. Indeed, the property of independence is a prerequisite of the Gumbel theory which is one of the most frequently used in the field of safety and reliability.

  5. Uniform and pitting corrosion events induced by SCN- anions on Al alloys surfaces and the effect of UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Mohammed A.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the alloying elements on the uniform and pitting corrosion processes of Al-6061, Al-4.5%Cu, Al-7.5%Cu, Al-6%Si and Al-12%Si alloys was studied in 0.50 M KSCN solution at 25 o C. Open-circuit potential, Tafel polarization, linear polarization resistance (LPR) and ICP-AES measurements were used to study the uniform corrosion process on the surfaces of the tested alloys. Cyclic polarization, potentiostatic current-time transients and impedance techniques were employed for pitting corrosion studies. Obtained results were compared with pure Al. Passivation kinetics of the tested Al samples were also studied as a function of applied potential, [SCN - ] and sample composition by means of potentiostatic current transients. The induction time, after which the growth of stable pits occurs, decreased with increasing applied potential and [SCN - ]. Regarding to uniform corrosion, alloyed Cu was found to enhance the corrosion rate, while alloyed Si suppressed it. Alloying elements of the tested samples diminished pitting attack to an extent depending on the percentage of the alloying element in the sample. Among the investigated materials, Al-Si alloys exhibited the highest corrosion resistance towards uniform and pitting corrosion processes in KSCN solutions. The passive and dissolution behaviour of Al was also studied under the conditions of continuous illumination (300-450 nm) based on cyclic polarization and potentiostatic techniques. The incident photons had a little influence on pit initiation and a marked effect on pit growth. These explained in terms of a photo-induced modification of the passive film formed on the anode surface, which render it more resistant to pitting. The effects of UV photons energy and period of illumination on the morphology of the pitted surfaces were also studied.

  6. Retrospective Analysis of Mosh-Pit-Related Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsten, Andrew M; Tennyson, Joseph; Weisberg, Stacy

    2017-12-01

    Moshing is a violent form of dancing found world-wide at rock concerts, festivals, and electronic dance music events. It involves crowd surfing, shoving, and moving in a circular rotation. Moshing is a source of increased morbidity and mortality. The goal of this study was to report epidemiologic information on patient presentation rate (PPR), transport to hospital rate (TTHR), and injury patterns from patients who participated in mosh-pits. Materials and Methods Subjects were patrons from mosh-pits seeking medical care at a single venue. The events reviewed were two national concert tours which visited this venue during their tour. The eight distinct events studied occurred between 2011 and 2014. Data were collected retrospectively from prehospital patient care reports (PCRs). A single Emergency Medical Service (EMS) provided medical care at this venue. The following information was gathered from each PCR: type of injury, location of injury, treatment received, alcohol or drug use, Advanced Life Support/ALS interventions required, age and gender, disposition, minor or parent issues, as well as type of activity engaged in when injured. Attendance for the eight events ranged from 5,100 to 16,000. Total patient presentations ranged from 50 to 206 per event. Patient presentations per ten thousand (PPTT) ranged from 56 to 130. The TTHR per 10,000 ranged from seven to 20. The mean PPTT was 99 (95% CI, 77-122) and the median was 98. The mean TTHR was 16 (95% CI, 12-29) and the median TTHR was 17. Patients presenting from mosh-pits were more frequently male (57.6%; Psurfing was the next most significant, accounting for 20% of presentations. The most common body part injured was the head (64% of injuries). This retrospective review of mosh-pit-associated injury patterns demonstrates a high rate of injuries and presentations for medical aid at the evaluated events. General moshing was the most commonly associated activity and the head was the most common body part injured

  7. Measurement of exhalation rate of radon and radon concentration in air using open vial method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Kimiko; Ishii, Tadashi.

    1991-01-01

    It was recognized that more than half of total exposure dose on human subject is caused by radon and its decay products which originate from naturally occurring radioactive substances (1988 UNSCEAR). Since then the exhalation of radon from the ground surface has received increasing attention. The authors have developed a new method for the determination of radon in natural water using toluene extraction of radon and applying a liquid scintillation counter of an integral counting technique which is able to get the absolute counting of radon. During these studies, the authors found out that when a counting vial containing of Liquid scintillator (LS)-toluene solution, without a lid, is exposed to the atmosphere for a while, dissolution of radon clearly occurs due to high solubility of radon into toluene layer. To extend this finding for the determination of radon in the atmosphere, the authors devised a new method to actively collect the atmosphere containing radon in a glass bottle by discharging a definite amount of water in it, which is named as open-vial dynamic method. The radon concentration can be easily calculated after the necessary corrections such as the partition coefficient and others. Applying proposed method to measure the radon exhalation rate from the ground surface and radon concentration in air of the dwelling environment, radioactive mineral spring zone and various geological formation such as granitic or sedimentary rocks. (author)

  8. A Comparison of underground opening support design methods in jointed rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharavi, M.; Shafiezadeh, N.

    2008-01-01

    It is of great importance to consider long-term stability of rock mass around the openings of underground structure. during design, construction and operation of the said structures in rock. In this context. three methods namely. empirical. analytical and numerical have been applied to design and analyze the stability of underground infrastructure at the Siah Bisheh Pumping Storage Hydro-Electric Power Project in Iran. The geological and geotechnical data utilized in this article were selected and based on the preliminary studies of this project. In the initial stages of design. it was recommended that, two methods of rock mass classification Q and rock mass rating should be utilized for the support system of the underground cavern. Next, based on the structural instability, the support system was adjusted by the analytical method. The performance of the recommended support system was reviewed by the comparison of the ground response curve and rock support interactions with surrounding rock mass, using FEST03 software. Moreover, for further assessment of the realistic rock mass behavior and support system, the numerical modeling was performed utilizing FEST03 software. Finally both the analytical and numerical methods were compared, to obtain satisfactory results complimenting each other

  9. First experience with Remote Sensing methods and selected sensors in the monitoring of mining areas - a case study of the Belchatow open cast mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajs, Jaroslaw

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents satellite imagery from active SENTINEL-1A and passive SENTINEL-2A/2B sensors for their application in the monitoring of mining areas focused on detecting land changes. Multispectral scenes of SENTINEL-2A/2B have allowed for detecting changes in land-cover near the region of interest (ROI), i.e. the Szczercow dumping site in the Belchatow open cast lignite mine, central Poland, Europe. Scenes from SENTINEL-1A/1B satellite have also been used in the research. Processing of the SLC signal enabled creating a return intensity map in VV polarization. The obtained SAR scene was reclassified and shows a strong return signal from the dumping site and the open pit. This fact may be used in detection and monitoring of changes occurring within the analysed engineering objects.

  10. The Application of Foundation Pit Monitoring Technology to the Excavation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The foundation pit monitoring plays an important role in the foundation pit supporting projects especially in those deep foundation pit projects. Through the whole monitoring of the foundation pit construction from the excavation to the backfill, we can learn about the forcing and deforming process of the foundation pit supporting system, and grasp the impact of external condition changes on the foundation pit. This paper takes a project in Jinan as an example to establish a specific monitoring program, and then conducts the analysis and evaluation of the monitoring data; the real-time grasp of the foundation pit deformation and internal force changes can help to further ensure the security status of the foundation pit, thus better guiding the construction.

  11. Pit slope manual chapter 3. Mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyenge, M.; Herget, G.

    1977-01-01

    Guidance is given on the procedures required to obtain adequate knowledge of the mechanical properties of the soils and rocks which constitute the walls of the pit. The reason why certain data is necessary is explained and the tests required to obtain these data are described.

  12. The cuisine of the Pitted Ware Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Persson, Per

    The Pitted Ware Culture is a Middle Neolithic culture in southwestern Scandinavia. It appears about thousand years after the introduction of agriculture to this area. In some regions, it is characterized by an almost fully “Mesolithic” economy with a heavy reliance on seal hunting. In Djursland, ...

  13. Extracting Valuable Data from Classroom Trading Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Theodore C.; Kwok, Eugene

    2005-01-01

    How well does competitive theory explain the outcome in experimental markets? The authors examined the results of a large number of classroom trading experiments that used a pit-trading design found in Experiments with Economic Principles, an introductory economics textbook by Bergstrom and Miller. They compared experimental outcomes with…

  14. Evaluation of PIT-tagging in cyprinids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Brodersen, J.; Brönmark, C.

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory and field experiments were used to investigate how different marking procedures, with 23 mm PIT (passive integrated transponders) - tags. affected mortality, body condition and tag expulsion in small roach Rutilus rutilus and rudd Scardinus erythrophthalmus (117 to 163 mm total length...

  15. COPPER PITTING CORROSION: A CASE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Localized or pitting corrosion of copper pipes used in household drinking-water plumbing is a problem for many water utilities and their customers. Extreme attack can lead to pinhole water leaks that may result in water damage, mold growth, and costly repairs. Water quality has b...

  16. Modelling the filling rate of pit latrines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-18

    Sep 18, 2012 ... the transfer of water into and out of the pit, biological trans- formations, and pathogen die-off (Buckley et al., 2008). .... formations that consumed or generated it. However, the age distribution of the originally deposited unbiodegradable mate- rial depends only on the deposition history, as it undergoes no.

  17. Badges to Acknowledge Open Practices: A Simple, Low-Cost, Effective Method for Increasing Transparency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallory C Kidwell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Beginning January 2014, Psychological Science gave authors the opportunity to signal open data and materials if they qualified for badges that accompanied published articles. Before badges, less than 3% of Psychological Science articles reported open data. After badges, 23% reported open data, with an accelerating trend; 39% reported open data in the first half of 2015, an increase of more than an order of magnitude from baseline. There was no change over time in the low rates of data sharing among comparison journals. Moreover, reporting openness does not guarantee openness. When badges were earned, reportedly available data were more likely to be actually available, correct, usable, and complete than when badges were not earned. Open materials also increased to a weaker degree, and there was more variability among comparison journals. Badges are simple, effective signals to promote open practices and improve preservation of data and materials by using independent repositories.

  18. Development of a visible light transmission (VLT) measurement system using an open-path optical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurulain, S.; Manap, H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes about a visible light transmission (VLT) measurement system using an optical method. VLT rate plays an important role in order to determine the visibility of a medium. Current instrument to measure visibility has a gigantic set up, costly and mostly fails to function at low light condition environment. This research focuses on the development of a VLT measurement system using a simple experimental set-up and at a low cost. An open path optical technique is used to measure a few series of known-VLT thin film that act as sample of different visibilities. This measurement system is able to measure the light intensity of these thin films within the visible light region (535-540 nm) and the response time is less than 1s.

  19. The detection of leakages in open reservoirs by the radioisotope sorption method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarczyk, A.; Wierzchnicki, R.; Urbanski, T.; Chmielewski, A.G.; Szpilowski, S.

    1992-01-01

    Location of leakages in large hydro-engineering plants and industrial water reservoirs is of great importance from view-point of both safety and economy of their exploitation. Large variety of water reservoirs encountered in hydro-engineering and industry calls for adaptation of investigation methods to their specific features. In the paper a number of methodological variants of known radiotracer technique developed at the INCT is presented. They are intended to detect and locate leakages in hydro-engineering reservoirs and dams as well as large open industrial tanks. The radioisotopes Au-198 and In-133 m being used for that purpose show excellent sorption characteristic on typical construction materials users to build such objects. (author). 8 refs, 8 figs

  20. Pit Study, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1999) [pit_study_LOSCO_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The 'Pit Study' was meant to identify the remnants of former oil extraction sites which pose the threat of creating an oil spill. These remnants include many other...

  1. 77 FR 61053 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods... Service Methods Project Committee will be held Tuesday, November 13, 2012, at 2:00 p.m. Eastern Time via...

  2. 77 FR 47166 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods... Service Methods Project Committee will be held Tuesday, September 11, 2012, at 2 p.m. Eastern Time via...

  3. 77 FR 8328 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods... Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will be held Tuesday, March 13, 2012, at 2 p.m...

  4. 76 FR 78342 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods... Service Methods Project Committee will be held Tuesday, January 10, 2012, at 2 p.m. Eastern Time via...

  5. 77 FR 2611 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods... Service Methods Project Committee will be held Tuesday, February 14, 2012, at 2 p.m. Eastern Time via...

  6. Method of adiabatic modes in studying problems of smoothly irregular open waveguide structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevastianov, L. A., E-mail: sevast@sci.pfu.edu.ru [Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation); Egorov, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Sevastyanov, A. L. [Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2013-02-15

    Basic steps in developing an original method of adiabatic modes that makes it possible to solve the direct and inverse problems of simulating and designing three-dimensional multilayered smoothly irregular open waveguide structures are described. A new element in the method is that an approximate solution of Maxwell's equations is made to obey 'inclined' boundary conditions at the interfaces between themedia being considered. These boundary conditions take into account the obliqueness of planes tangent to nonplanar boundaries between the media and lead to new equations for coupled vector quasiwaveguide hybrid adiabatic modes. Solutions of these equations describe the phenomenon of 'entanglement' of two linear polarizations of an irregular multilayered waveguide, the appearance of a new mode in an entangled state, and the effect of rotation of the polarization plane of quasiwaveguide modes. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated by considering the example of numerically simulating a thin-film generalized waveguide Lueneburg lens.

  7. Nutritional Methods to Decrease N Losses from Open-Dirt Feedlots in Nebraska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galen E. Erickson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N losses from cattle feedlots are of concern due to loss of valuable N and enrichment of the atmospheric N pool. Nutritional methods to decrease such losses would have economic and environmental benefits. One method to decrease N losses is by increasing carbon (C on the pen surface. The most cost effective method of decreasing N losses with C may be feeding diets lower in digestibility compared to adding C directly to pens. Therefore, three experiments evaluated feeding corn bran (which is less digestible than corn as either 0, 15, or 30% of the diet. The 15- and 30%-bran diets increase organic matter (OM excretion by approximately 0.5 and 1.0 kg per steer per day, respectively. Compared with no bran, feeding 15 and 30% decreased feed efficiency by 7.8 and 10.4%, respectively. Nutrient balance was assessed in two trials from October through May and in one trial from June to September. During the trials from October to May, N losses were decreased by 14.5 and 20.7% for the 15- and 30%-bran diets compared with no bran. Feeding 15 or 30% bran did not influence N losses in the experiment from June to September. Increasing the C:N ratio of manure prior to cleaning open-dirt feedlots had variable results depending on time of year.

  8. Laboratory protocols for testing the efficacy of commercial pit latrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is considerable national interest in the use of commercial microbially derived products for controlling the rate of accumulation of the contents of pit latrines. Manufacturers claim that some of these products can reduce accumulation rates, prevent the pit from ever filling up, or even result in decreases in pit contents ...

  9. Modeling sludge accumulation rates in lined pit latrines in slum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yvonne

    should include geo-physical characterization of soil and drainage of pit latrine sites so as ... Key words: Faecal, sludge accumulation rates, slum areas, lined pit latrines. .... Value and its unit Source .... overall quality of the models had to be assessed by validation on ..... Sanitation partnership series: Bringing pit emptying out.

  10. Congenital pits of the optic nerve head and retinochoroidal colobomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G C; Augsburger, J J

    1980-07-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with bilateral retinochoroidal colobomas associated with an inferonasal congenital pit of the optic nerve head in each eye. Different theories on the origin of such pits are discussed. This case supports the theory that some congenital optic pits occur as a result of failure of closure of the superior end of the embryonic fissure.

  11. Laparoscopic, robotic and open method of radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puliyath Geetha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Over the last two decades, numerous studies have indicated the feasibility of minimally invasive surgery for early cervical cancer without compromising the oncological outcome. Objective : Systematic literature review and meta analysis aimed at evaluating the outcome of laparoscopic and robotic radical hysterectomy (LRH and RRH and comparing the results with abdominal radical hysterectomy (ARH. Search Strategy : Medline, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library and Reference lists were searched for articles published until January 31 st 2011, using the terms radical hysterectomy, laparoscopic radical hysterectomy, robotic radical hysterectomy, surgical treatment of cervical cancer and complications of radical hysterectomy. Selection Criteria : Studies that reported outcome measures of radical hysterectomy by open method, laparoscopic and robotic methods were selected. Data collection and analysis: Two independent reviewers selected studies, abstracted and tabulated the data and pooled estimates were obtained on the surgical and oncological outcomes. Results : Mean sample size, age and body mass index across the three types of RH studies were similar. Mean operation time across the three types of RH studies was comparable. Mean blood loss and transfusion rate are significantly higher in ARH compared to both LRH and RRH. Duration of stay in hospital for RRH was significantly less than the other two methods. The mean number of lymph nodes obtained, nodal metastasis and positive margins across the three types of RH studies were similar. Post operative infectious morbidity was significantly higher among patients who underwent ARH compared to the other two methods and a higher rate of cystotomy in LRH. Conclusions : Minimally invasive surgery especially robotic radical hysterectomy may be a better and safe option for surgical treatment of cervical cancer. The laparoscopic method is not free from complications. However, experience of surgeon may

  12. Geochemical evolution of a high arsenic, alkaline pit-lake in the Mother Lode Gold District, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Kaye S.; Ashley, Roger P.; Bird, Dennis K.

    2009-01-01

    The Harvard orebody at the Jamestown gold mine, located along the Melones fault zone in the southern Mother Lode gold district, California, was mined in an open-pit operation from 1987 to 1994. Dewatering during mining produced a hydrologic cone of depression; recovery toward the premining ground-water configuration produced a monomictic pit lake with alkaline Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4–type pit water, concentrations of As up to 1,200 μg/L, and total dissolved solids (TDS) up to 2,000 mg/L. In this study, pit-wall rocks were mapped and chemically analyzed to provide a context for evaluating observed variability in the composition of the pit-lake waters in relationship to seasonal weather patterns. An integrated hydrogeochemical model of pit-lake evolution based on observations of pit-lake volume, water composition (samples collected between 1998–2000, 2004), and processes occurring on pit walls was developed in three stages using the computer code PHREEQC. Stage 1 takes account of seasonally variable water fluxes from precipitation, evaporation, springs, and ground water, as well as lake stratification and mixing processes. Stage 2 adds CO2fluxes and wall-rock interactions, and stage 3 assesses the predictive capability of the model.Two major geologic units in fault contact comprise the pit walls. The hanging wall is composed of interlayered slate, metavolcanic and metavolcaniclastic rocks, and schists; the footwall rocks are chlorite-actinolite and talc-tremolite schists generated by metasomatism of greenschist-facies mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks. Alteration in the ore zone provides evidence for mineralizing fluids that introduced CO2, S, and K2O, and redistributed SiO2. Arsenian pyrite associated with the alteration weathers to produce goethite and jarosite on pit walls and in joints, as well as copiapite and hexahydrite efflorescences that accumulate on wall-rock faces during dry California summers. All of these pyrite weathering products incorporate arsenic at

  13. Open charcoal chamber method for mass measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapalov, Andrey; Kovler, Konstantin; Miklyaev, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Radon exhalation rate from the soil surface can serve as an important criterion in the evaluation of radon hazard of the land. Recently published international standard ISO 11665-7 (2012) is based on the accumulation of radon gas in a closed container. At the same time since 1998 in Russia, as a part of engineering and environmental studies for the construction, radon flux measurements are made using an open charcoal chamber for a sampling duration of 3–5 h. This method has a well-defined metrological justification and was tested in both favorable and unfavorable conditions. The article describes the characteristics of the method, as well as the means of sampling and measurement of the activity of radon absorbed. The results of the metrological study suggest that regardless of the sampling conditions (weather, the mechanism and rate of radon transport in the soil, soil properties and conditions), uncertainty of method does not exceed 20%, while the combined standard uncertainty of radon exhalation rate measured from the soil surface does not exceed 30%. The results of the daily measurements of radon exhalation rate from the soil surface at the experimental site during one year are reported. - Highlights: • Radon exhalation rate from the soil surface area of 32 cm"2 can be measured at level of 10 mBq/(m"2s) at the uncertainty ≤30%. • The method has a metrological justification. • No need to consider climate conditions, soil properties and conditions, mechanism and rate of radon transport in the soil.

  14. A Progressive Buffering Method for Road Map Update Using OpenStreetMap Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyong Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Web 2.0 enables a two-way interaction between servers and clients. GPS receivers become available to more citizens and are commonly found in vehicles and smart phones, enabling individuals to record and share their trajectory data on the Internet and edit them online. OpenStreetMap (OSM makes it possible for citizens to contribute to the acquisition of geographic information. This paper studies the use of OSM data to find newly mapped or built roads that do not exist in a reference road map and create its updated version. For this purpose, we propose a progressive buffering method for determining an optimal buffer radius to detect the new roads in the OSM data. In the next step, the detected new roads are merged into the reference road maps geometrically, topologically, and semantically. Experiments with OSM data and reference road maps over an area of 8494 km2 in the city of Wuhan, China and five of its 5 km × 5 km areas are conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the method. It is shown that the OSM data can add 11.96% or a total of 2008.6 km of new roads to the reference road maps with an average precision of 96.49% and an average recall of 97.63%.

  15. Standard test method for crack-tip opening displacement (CTOD) fracture toughness measurement

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of critical crack-tip opening displacement (CTOD) values at one or more of several crack extension events, and may be used to measure cleavage crack initiation toughness for materials that exhibit a change from ductile to brittle behavior with decreasing temperature, such as ferritic steels. This test method applies specifically to notched specimens sharpened by fatigue cracking. The recommended specimens are three-point bend [SE(B)], compact [C(T)], or arc-shaped bend [A(B)] specimens. The loading rate is slow and influences of environment (other than temperature) are not covered. The specimens are tested under crosshead or clip gage displacement controlled loading. 1.1.1 The recommended specimen thickness, B, for the SE(B) and C(T) specimens is that of the material in thicknesses intended for an application. For the A(B) specimen, the recommended depth, W, is the wall thickness of the tube or pipe from which the specimen is obtained. Superficial surface machini...

  16. Analysis of BY-106 pump pit cover plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1994-01-01

    A new cover for the pump pit of Tank 241-BY-106 has been designed to allow the rotary core exhauster to be hooked up without requiring pit entry, riser modification, or equipment removal. The new pit cover is necessary to allow installation of two risers for reducing exposure, contamination, and waste. Computer analysis indicates that the safety margin of the pit cover plate with two risers is adequate. The computer stress model and input files are attached. The pit cover plate is a replacement for an existing plate; therefore seismic and wind loads were considered for the plate only

  17. METHOD OF COMPENSATING LOADS FOR SOLVING OF A PROBLEM OF UNSYMMETRIC BENDING OF INFINITE ICE SLAB WITH CIRCULAR OPENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B. Koreneva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Unsymmetric flexure of an infinite ice slab with circular opening is under examination. The men-tioned construction is considered as an infinite plate of constant thickness resting on an elastic subgrade which properties are described by Winkler’s model. The plate’s thickness is variable in the area ajoining to the opening. Method of compensating loads is used. Basic and compensating solutions are received. The obtained solutions are produced in closed form in terms of Bessel functions.

  18. Effects of inserted depth of wall penetration on basal stability of foundation pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aizhao; Shen, Hao; Sun, Jinguo

    2017-05-01

    Evaluation of basal heave stability is one of important design checks for excavations in soft clays. The commonly used classical calculation method based on limit equilibrium theory and the safety coefficient formula recommended by the current code, do not consider the influence of supporting structure of foundation pit depth heave stability, which results in conservative. Considering the wall stiffness and strength, the effective stress changes in different depth of soil, the frictional resistance between the retaining wall and the passive zone, the vertical shear resistance of the soil behind the wall and other factors. The modified safety factor calculation formula of foundation pit stability is presented, comparison analysis of calculation method combined with examples. The calculation results show that the safety factor of foundation pit stability is improved considering the influence of supporting structure depth, the calculation results are more reasonable.

  19. Testing of intergranular and pitting corrosion in sensitized welded joints of austenitic stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bore V. Jegdic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pitting corrosion resistance and intergranular corrosion of the austenitic stainless steel X5Cr Ni18-10 were tested on the base metal, heat affected zone and weld metal. Testing of pitting corrosion was performed by the potentiodynamic polarization method, while testing of intergranular corrosion was performed by the method of electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation with double loop. The base metal was completely resistant to intergranular corrosion, while the heat affected zone showed a slight susceptibility to intergranular corrosion. Indicators of pitting corrosion resistance for the weld metal and the base metal were very similar, but their values are significantly higher than the values for the heat affected zone. This was caused by reduction of the chromium concentration in the grain boundary areas in the heat affected zone, even though the carbon content in the examined stainless steel is low (0.04 wt. % C.

  20. Simulation Based Investigation of Different Fleet Management Paradigms in Open Pit Mines-A Case Study of Sungun Copper Mine / Symulacje I Badania Różnych Paradygmatów Wykorzystania Floty Pojazdów I Urządzeń W Kopalniach Odkrywkowych. Studium Przypadku: Kopalnia Miedzi W Sungun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Ali Saadatmand; Sattarvand, Javad

    2015-03-01

    Using simulation modeling, different management systems of the open pit mining equipment including non-dispatching, dispatching and blending solutions have been studied for the Sungun copper mine. Developed model has the capability of considering detailed features of both loading and hauling equipment. Productivity assessment scenarios have been established on the constructed model and the outputs revealed the noteworthy impact of the match factor of the trucks to the loaders on the production rate by over 40%. A dispatching simulation model with the objective function of minimizing truck waiting times have been developed and 7.8% improvement obtained by applying a flexible assignment of the trucks for the loaders compared to the fixed assignment system. Finally ore grade blending control unit has been introduced into the model. Getting the advantages of the newly added module it became possible to monitor the portion of material excavated from different operating benches and control truck dispatching rules for keeping the overall ore grade exactly at desired value. Przy użyciu modeli symulacyjnych zbadano różnorodne systemy zarządzania flotą pojazdów i urządzeń w kopalni odkrywkowej (wydawanie dyspozycji przewozu, wstrzymywanie przewozu oraz rozwiązania kwestii mieszania o rud o różnej zawartości pierwiastka użytecznego) na przykładzie kopalni miedzi Sungun. Opracowany model uwzględnia szczegółowe cechy sprzętu przeładunkowego oraz transportowego. Na podstawie modelu opracowano następnie scenariusze oceny wydajności, a wyniki jednoznacznie wykazały wielką wagę odpowiedniego skojarzenia ilości pojazdów i ładowarek. Opracowano model symulacyjny kierowania urządzeń do pracy, jako funkcję celu przyjmujący minimalizacje czasu przestoju ciężarówek. Uzyskano wynik lepszy o 7.8% poprzez elastyczne przydzielania pojazdów do ładowarek w porównaniu do systemu trwałego ich do siebie przypisania. W ostatnim etapie dodano do modelu system

  1. Optic disc pit with sectorial retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikoglu-Yilmaz, Melike; Taskapili, Muhittin; Yilmaz, Tolga; Teke, Mehmet Yasin

    2013-01-01

    Sectorial retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and optic disc pit (ODP) are rare clinical conditions. We present a 40-year-old woman with a history of mild night blindness and decreased vision in the right eye for about 5 years. Fundus examination revealed retinal pigmentary changes in the superior and inferotemporal sectors covering the macula and reduced arterial calibre and ODP at the temporal edge of the optic disc. In addition, fundus autofluorescence, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and multifocal electroretinogram scans confirmed these clinical findings. Visual acuity was decreased due to an atrophic-appearing foveal lesion. No intervention was suggested because of the poor visual potential. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to describe coexistent optic disc pit and sectorial RP in the superior and inferotemporal sectors covering the macula in the same eye with figures.

  2. Optic Disc Pit with Sectorial Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Balikoglu-Yilmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sectorial retinitis pigmentosa (RP and optic disc pit (ODP are rare clinical conditions. We present a 40-year-old woman with a history of mild night blindness and decreased vision in the right eye for about 5 years. Fundus examination revealed retinal pigmentary changes in the superior and inferotemporal sectors covering the macula and reduced arterial calibre and ODP at the temporal edge of the optic disc. In addition, fundus autofluorescence, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and multifocal electroretinogram scans confirmed these clinical findings. Visual acuity was decreased due to an atrophic-appearing foveal lesion. No intervention was suggested because of the poor visual potential. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to describe coexistent optic disc pit and sectorial RP in the superior and inferotemporal sectors covering the macula in the same eye with figures.

  3. Treatment of a mud pit by bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdalović, Jelena; Đurić, Aleksandra; Miletić, Srdjan; Ilić, Mila; Milić, Jelena; Vrvić, Miroslav M

    2016-08-01

    The mud generated from oil and natural gas drilling, presents a considerable ecological problem. There are still insufficient remedies for the removal and minimization of these very stable emulsions. Existing technologies that are in use, more or less successfully, treat about 20% of generated waste drilling mud, while the rest is temporarily deposited in so-called mud pits. This study investigated in situ bioremediation of a mud pit. The bioremediation technology used in this case was based on the use of naturally occurring microorganisms, isolated from the contaminated site, which were capable of using the contaminating substances as nutrients. The bioremediation was stimulated through repeated inoculation with a zymogenous microbial consortium, along with mixing, watering and biostimulation. Application of these bioremediation techniques reduced the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons from 32.2 to 1.5 g kg(-1) (95% degradation) during six months of treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. 77 FR 37101 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and...

  5. 77 FR 40411 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and...

  6. 77 FR 21157 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and...

  7. 77 FR 55525 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and...

  8. Morphological Response of a Mud Capped Dredge Pit in Western Louisiana After Sand Excavation for Barrier Island Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaux, P. A.; Xu, K.; Bentley, S. J.; Li, C.; Miner, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Sand resources play a crucial role in supporting tourism, maintaining coastal ecosystems, and protecting property and infrastructure. Mud capped dredge pits (MCDPs) are created when paleochannel sand, covered by muddy shelf overburden, is excavated for restoration purposes; such paleochannels are one significant sand resource for coastal barrier protection. However, our knowledge of MCDPs is limited. To improve understanding of their morphological behavior, a dredge pit called Peveto Channel (PC) offshore of Holly Beach, LA, was studied in 2016. Our study consisted of a survey using multiple geophysical methods, including multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, subbottom profiling, and magnetometry. Results indicate that PC has undergone 100% infilling since dredging occurred. Although the pit is filled up, analyses indicate the newly deposited material is unconsolidated and has yet to equilibrate to the ambient seafloor conditions. The surface of the pit area is pockmarked and uneven, likely caused by degassing processes and differential consolidation. Sidescan sonar images confirm that the pit walls have experienced little to no lateral erosion and are well preserved. The results from this survey and from historical surveys conducted in 2003 (a few months after dredging), 2004, 2006, and 2007 are compared to previously constructed numerical models used to predict the behavior of dredge pits. To our knowledge, PC is the only filled-up offshore dredge pit in coastal Louisiana. Thus the findings of this study provide new long-term information for regulatory policies and the feasibility of MCDPs as sand resources in the future.

  9. [The relationship between activity and gene expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and peel pitting in 'Fengjie' navel orange fruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-Guo; Gao, Xue; Fan, Jing; Yang, Ying-Wu; Li, Dao-Gao; Kanellis, Angelos K

    2006-06-01

    Citrus fruit is prone to develop peel pitting during development and storage, which greatly decreases its fresh market value because of the deterioration of the peel. In the present study, we have examined the effect of different temperatures (15 degrees C and 4 degrees C), waxing and mechanical damage on the changes in the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and the incidence of peel pitting in 'Fengjie' navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) fruits. The expression levels of PAL2, PAL6 genes in the peel during the development of peel pitting have been investigated through semi-quantitative PCR method. The incidence of peel pitting was greatly enhanced by waxing and mechanical damage and was decreased in lower temperature storage (4 degrees C) (Fig.1). Waxing and mechanical damage might be the important factors inducing peel pitting and suitable low temperature could decrease the incidence of this disease. The PAL activity increased during the whole storage period in accordance with the development of this pitting (Fig.2). The expression levels of PAL2 and PAL6 genes in damaged peel were higher than those in healthy peel and the expression of PAL2 is much more higher than that of PAL6 (Figs.4 and 5). The results suggested that the enzyme activity of PAL, along with the expression of PAL2 gene is highly related to this peel pitting occurred on 'Fengjie' navel orange fruits.

  10. Optic Disc Pit with Sectorial Retinitis Pigmentosa

    OpenAIRE

    Balikoglu-Yilmaz, Melike; Taskapili, Muhittin; Yilmaz, Tolga; Teke, Mehmet Yasin

    2013-01-01

    Sectorial retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and optic disc pit (ODP) are rare clinical conditions. We present a 40-year-old woman with a history of mild night blindness and decreased vision in the right eye for about 5 years. Fundus examination revealed retinal pigmentary changes in the superior and inferotemporal sectors covering the macula and reduced arterial calibre and ODP at the temporal edge of the optic disc. In addition, fundus autofluorescence, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, ...

  11. Pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooyen, D.; Bandy, R.

    A pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel comprises 17 to 28 wt. % chromium, 15 to 26 wt. % nickel, 5 to 8 wt. % molybdenum, and 0.3 to 0.5 wt. % nitrogen, the balance being iron, unavoidable impurities, minor additions made in the normal course of melting and casting alloys of this type, and may optionally include up to 10 wt. % of manganese, up to 5 wt. % of silicon, and up to 0.08 wt. % of carbon.

  12. Validity and cost-effectiveness of methods for screening of primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fröschl, Barbara

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: About 950,000 people are affected by glaucoma in Germany, about 50% of which are undiagnosed. The German Ophthalmological Society and the German Association of Ophthalmologists recommend a screening for glaucoma according to their guidelines. The Federal Joint Committee disapproved a glaucoma-screening program on expense of the compulsory health insurance in 2004. Scientific background: Primary open angle glaucoma is diagnosed by evaluation of the optic disc, the retinal fibre layer and the visual field. The main examinations are ophthalmoscopy, scanning laser polarimetry, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, retinal thickness analysis and optical coherence tomography. Scotomas are diagnosed by perimetry (standard automated perimetry, short wavelength automated perimetry and frequency doubling perimetry. The intraocular pressure is the most important treatable risk factor and is measured by (contact or non-contact tonometry. Research questions: The aim of this HTA-report is to investigate the diagnostic validity and cost effectiveness of diagnostic techniques or combinations of these methods with respect to the use in a screening setting in Germany. Methods: A systematic literature research was performed in 35 international databases and yielded 2602 articles. Overall 57 publications were included for assessment, according to predefined selection criteria. Results: The 55 medical articles deal mainly with frequency doubling perimetry, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and scanning laser polarimetry. Few articles cover short wavelength automated perimetry, tonometry and ophalmocopic evaluations by ophthalmologists. The quality of the papers is generally low, as far as the evidence in respect of screening is concerned. No single method exists with both, high sensitivity and high specificity for screening purpose. Data are also not sufficient to recommend combinations of methods. Only two economic models on cost

  13. Sub level open stoping mining method for the Remaja type deposits, Kalan, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumaryanto, A.

    2014-01-01

    and compared respectively as part of Vertical Crater Retreat and Sub Level Stoping mining methods. Actually the latter method is not strictly Sub Level Stoping, because in order to minimize the risk of collapse of the hanging wall, which dips at 65°, the major part of the depleted stope is back filled with the waste and could be called Sub Level Open Stoping. This method has been considered as the more convenient but might be do more for the feasibility study, and slightly modified it in order to make the loading of the broken ore at the bottom of the stope easier and allow earlier back filling in order to increase the hanging wall stability. (author)

  14. Machine vision method for online surface inspection of easy open can ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Perfecto; Pastoriza, Vicente; Santamaría, Miguel

    2006-10-01

    Easy open can end manufacturing process in the food canning sector currently makes use of a manual, non-destructive testing procedure to guarantee can end repair coating quality. This surface inspection is based on a visual inspection made by human inspectors. Due to the high production rate (100 to 500 ends per minute) only a small part of each lot is verified (statistical sampling), then an automatic, online, inspection system, based on machine vision, has been developed to improve this quality control. The inspection system uses a fuzzy model to make the acceptance/rejection decision for each can end from the information obtained by the vision sensor. In this work, the inspection method is presented. This surface inspection system checks the total production, classifies the ends in agreement with an expert human inspector, supplies interpretability to the operators in order to find out the failure causes and reduce mean time to repair during failures, and allows to modify the minimum can end repair coating quality.

  15. Hermite regularization of the lattice Boltzmann method for open source computational aeroacoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogi, F; Malaspinas, O; Chopard, B; Bonadonna, C

    2017-10-01

    The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is emerging as a powerful engineering tool for aeroacoustic computations. However, the LBM has been shown to present accuracy and stability issues in the medium-low Mach number range, which is of interest for aeroacoustic applications. Several solutions have been proposed but are often too computationally expensive, do not retain the simplicity and the advantages typical of the LBM, or are not described well enough to be usable by the community due to proprietary software policies. An original regularized collision operator is proposed, based on the expansion of Hermite polynomials, that greatly improves the accuracy and stability of the LBM without significantly altering its algorithm. The regularized LBM can be easily coupled with both non-reflective boundary conditions and a multi-level grid strategy, essential ingredients for aeroacoustic simulations. Excellent agreement was found between this approach and both experimental and numerical data on two different benchmarks: the laminar, unsteady flow past a 2D cylinder and the 3D turbulent jet. Finally, most of the aeroacoustic computations with LBM have been done with commercial software, while here the entire theoretical framework is implemented using an open source library (palabos).

  16. A Novel Open Tubular Capillary Electrochromatographic Method for Differentiating the DNA Interaction Affinity of Environmental Contaminants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia D'Ulivo

    Full Text Available The interaction of chemicals with DNA may lead to genotoxicity, mutation or carcinogenicity. A simple open tubular capillary electrochromatographic method is proposed to rapidly assess the interaction affinity of three environmental contaminants (1,4-phenylenediamine, pyridine and 2,4-diaminotoluene to DNA by measuring their retention in the capillaries coated with DNA probes. DNA oligonucleotide probes were immobilized on the inner wall of a fused silica capillary that was first derivatized with 3-(aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES. The difference in retention times and factors was considered as the difference in interaction affinity of the contaminants to the DNA probes. The interaction of the contaminants with both double-stranded (dsDNA and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA coatings was compared. Retention factors of 1,4-phenylenediamine, pyridine and 2,4-diaminotoluene in the capillary coated with ssDNA probe were 0.29, 0.42, and 0.44, respectively. A similar trend was observed in the capillary coated with dsDNA, indicating that 2,4-diaminotoluene has the highest affinity among the three contaminants. The relative standard deviation (RSD for the retention factors was in the range of 0.05-0.69% (n = 3. The results demonstrated that the developed technique could be applied for preliminary screening purpose to provide DNA interaction affinity information of various environmental contaminants.

  17. Experiences in the parallelization of the discrete ordinates method using OpenMP and MPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pautz, A. [TUV Hannover/Sachsen-Anhalt e.V. (Germany); Langenbuch, S. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The method of Discrete Ordinates is in principle parallelizable to a high degree, since the transport 'mesh sweeps' are mutually independent for all angular directions. However, in the well-known production code Dort such a type of angular domain decomposition has to be done on a spatial line-byline basis, causing the parallelism in the code to be very fine-grained. The construction of scalar fluxes and moments requires a large effort for inter-thread or inter-process communication. We have implemented two different parallelization approaches in Dort: firstly, we have used a shared-memory model suitable for SMP (Symmetric Multiprocessor) machines based on the standard OpenMP. The second approach uses the well-known Message Passing Interface (MPI) to establish communication between parallel processes running in a distributed-memory environment. We investigate the benefits and drawbacks of both models and show first results on performance and scaling behaviour of the parallel Dort code. (authors)

  18. Experiences in the parallelization of the discrete ordinates method using OpenMP and MPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautz, A.; Langenbuch, S.

    2003-01-01

    The method of Discrete Ordinates is in principle parallelizable to a high degree, since the transport 'mesh sweeps' are mutually independent for all angular directions. However, in the well-known production code Dort such a type of angular domain decomposition has to be done on a spatial line-byline basis, causing the parallelism in the code to be very fine-grained. The construction of scalar fluxes and moments requires a large effort for inter-thread or inter-process communication. We have implemented two different parallelization approaches in Dort: firstly, we have used a shared-memory model suitable for SMP (Symmetric Multiprocessor) machines based on the standard OpenMP. The second approach uses the well-known Message Passing Interface (MPI) to establish communication between parallel processes running in a distributed-memory environment. We investigate the benefits and drawbacks of both models and show first results on performance and scaling behaviour of the parallel Dort code. (authors)

  19. Public open space, physical activity, urban design and public health: Concepts, methods and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Mavoa, Suzanne; Villanueva, Karen; Sugiyama, Takemi; Badland, Hannah; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Owen, Neville; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-05-01

    Public open spaces such as parks and green spaces are key built environment elements within neighbourhoods for encouraging a variety of physical activity behaviours. Over the past decade, there has been a burgeoning number of active living research studies examining the influence of public open space on physical activity. However, the evidence shows mixed associations between different aspects of public open space (e.g., proximity, size, quality) and physical activity. These inconsistencies hinder the development of specific evidence-based guidelines for urban designers and policy-makers for (re)designing public open space to encourage physical activity. This paper aims to move this research agenda forward, by identifying key conceptual and methodological issues that may contribute to inconsistencies in research examining relations between public open space and physical activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A method for unsupervised change detection and automatic radiometric normalization in multispectral data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Canty, Morton John

    2011-01-01

    Based on canonical correlation analysis the iteratively re-weighted multivariate alteration detection (MAD) method is used to successfully perform unsupervised change detection in bi-temporal Landsat ETM+ images covering an area with villages, woods, agricultural fields and open pit mines in North...... to carry out the analyses is available from the authors' websites....