WorldWideScience

Sample records for open phase comparison

  1. Comparison between open phase fault of arc suppression coil and single phase to earth fault in coal mine distribution network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-bo; WANG Chong-lin

    2008-01-01

    When, in a coal mine distribution network whose neutral point is grounded by an arc suppression coil (ASC), a fault occurs in the ASC, compensation cannot be properly realized. Furthermore, it can damage the safe and reliable run of the network.We first introduce a three-phase five-column arc suppression coil (TPFCASC) and discuss its autotracking compensation theory.Then we compare the single phase to ground fault of the coal mine distribution network with an open phase fault at the TPFCASC using the Thévenin theory, the symmetrical-component method and the complex sequence network respectively. The results show that, in both types of faults, zero-sequence voltage of the network will appear and the maximum magnitude of this zero-sequence voltage is different in both faults. Based on this situation, a protection for the open phase fault at the TPFCASC should be estab-lished.

  2. The Organizational Phase of Project Open Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Donald; Weaver, Shari

    The Yale University Library is now organized to move ahead with Project Open Book, the conversion of 10,000 books from microfilm to digital imagery. In the first phase of the Project--the organizational phase--a Steering Committee was established that included several faculty members, and a project team was created. In addition, Yale conducted a…

  3. Comparison of the effectiveness and safety of cefpodoxime and ciprofloxacin in acute exacerbation of chronic suppurative otitis media: A randomized, open-labeled, phase IV clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To compare the effectiveness and safety of cefpodoxime and ciprofloxacin for the treatment of mild to moderate cases of acute exacerbation of chronic suppurative otitis media (AECSOM. Materials and Methods : Adult patients diagnosed with AECSOM were screened and patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were randomized to receive either cefpodoxime 200 mg twice daily or ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice daily orally for 7 days. The primary outcome of this randomized, open-labeled, phase IV clinical trial (Registration Number - CTRI/2011/10/002079 was clinical success rate at day 14 visit and the secondary outcome was incidence of adverse events (AEs. Forty-six patients were enrolled: 23 in the cefpodoxime group and 23 in the ciprofloxacin group. Results : The clinical success rates were 95.6% in the cefpodoxime group versus 90.9% in the ciprofloxacin group. These rates are comparable, but no statistically significant difference was observed between the groups. Few mild and self-limiting AEs were observed and the tolerability of both the drugs was also good. Conclusion : The results of this randomized, open-labeled phase IV clinical trial showed that a 7-day course of cefpodoxime is therapeutically comparable to ciprofloxacin in terms of both clinical effectiveness and safety for the treatment of patients with AECSOM.

  4. Phase transitions in open quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, C; Rotter, I

    1999-01-01

    We consider the behaviour of open quantum systems in dependence on the coupling to one decay channel by introducing the coupling parameter $\\alpha$ being proportional to the average degree of overlapping. Under critical conditions, a reorganization of the spectrum takes place which creates a bifurcation of the time scales with respect to the lifetimes of the resonance states. We derive analytically the conditions under which the reorganization process can be understood as a second-order phase transition and illustrate our results by numerical investigations. The conditions are fulfilled e.g. for a picket fence with equal coupling of the states to the continuum. Energy dependencies within the system are included. We consider also the generic case of an unfolded Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble. In all these cases, the reorganization of the spectrum occurs at the critical value $\\alpha_{crit}$ of the control parameter globally over the whole energy range of the spectrum. All states act cooperatively.

  5. Trinity Phase 2 Open Science: CTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggirello, Kevin Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vogler, Tracy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    CTH is an Eulerian hydrocode developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to solve a wide range of shock wave propagation and material deformation problems. Adaptive mesh refinement is also used to improve efficiency for problems with a wide range of spatial scales. The code has a history of running on a variety of computing platforms ranging from desktops to massively parallel distributed-data systems. For the Trinity Phase 2 Open Science campaign, CTH was used to study mesoscale simulations of the hypervelocity penetration of granular SiC powders. The simulations were compared to experimental data. A scaling study of CTH up to 8192 KNL nodes was also performed, and several improvements were made to the code to improve the scalability.

  6. Vector Control of Three-Phase Induction Motor with Two Stator Phases Open-Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hesam Asgari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Variable frequency drives are used to provide reliable dynamic systems and significant reduction in usage of energy and costs of the induction motors. Modeling and control of faulty or an unbalanced three-phase induction motor is obviously different from healthy three-phase induction motor. Using conventional vector control techniques such as Field-Oriented Control (FOC for faulty three-phase induction motor, results in a significant torque and speed oscillation. This research presented a novel method for vector control of three-phase induction motor under fault condition (two-phase open circuit fault. The proposed method for vector control of faulty machine is based on rotor FOC method. A comparison between conventional and modified controller shows that the modified controller has been significantly reduced the torque and speed oscillations.

  7. Comparison of the acute-phase response after laparoscopic versus open aortobifemoral bypass surgery: a substudy of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krog AH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Anne H Krog,1,2 Mehdi Sahba,3 Erik M Pettersen,4 Irene Sandven,5 Per M Thorsby,1,6 Jørgen J Jørgensen,1,2 Jon O Sundhagen,2 Syed SS Kazmi2 1Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, 2Department of Vascular Surgery, Division of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, 3Department of Vascular Surgery, Østfold Central Hospital, Fredrikstad, 4Department of Vascular Surgery, Sørlandet Hospital HF, Kristiansand, 5Oslo Center for Biostatistics and Epidemiology (OCBE, 6Hormone Laboratory, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway Purpose: Minimally invasive surgical techniques have been shown to reduce the inflammatory response related to a surgical procedure. The main objective of our study was to measure the inflammatory response in patients undergoing a totally laparoscopic versus open aortobifemoral bypass surgery. This is the first randomized trial on subjects in this population.Patients and methods: This is a substudy of a larger randomized controlled multicenter trial (Norwegian Laparoscopic Aortic Surgery Trial. Thirty consecutive patients with severe aortoiliac occlusive disease eligible for aortobifemoral bypass surgery were randomized to either a totally laparoscopic (n=14 or an open surgical procedure (n=16. The inflammatory response was measured by perioperative monitoring of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-8, and C-reactive protein (CRP at six different time points.Results: The inflammatory reaction caused by the laparoscopic procedure was reduced compared with open surgery. IL-6 was significantly lower after the laparoscopic procedure, measured by comparing area under the curve (AUC, and after adjusting for the confounding effect of coronary heart disease (P=0.010. The differences in serum levels of IL-8 and CRP did not reach statistical significance.Conclusion: In this substudy of a randomized controlled trial comparing laparoscopic and open aortobifemoral bypass

  8. International comparisons of Foundation Phase number domain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    curriculum for the preparation of Foundation Phase teachers in mathematics. This state of affairs is ... (Graham-Jolly, 2009) – and the teaching approach was behaviouristic ..... open coding, we searched for anything relevant that would fit under ...

  9. A Group-Period Phase Comparison Method Based on Equivalent Phase Comparison Frequency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Bao-Qiang; ZHOU Wei; DONG Shao-Feng; ZHOU Hai-Niu

    2009-01-01

    Based on the principle of equivalent phase comparison frequency, we propose a group-period phase comparison method. This method can be used to reveal the inherent relations between periodic signals and the change laws of the phase difference. If these laws are applied in the processing of the mutual relations between frequency signals, phase comparison can be accomplished without frequency normalization. Experimental results show that the method can enhance the measurement resolution to 10-13/s in the time domain.

  10. Sequence Comparison: Close and Open problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenzini, Gabriele; Cerrai, P.; Freguglia, P.

    1997-01-01

    Comparing sequences is a very important activity both in computer science and in a many other areas as well. For example thank to text editors, everyone knows the particular instance of a sequence comparison problem knonw as ``string mathcing problem''. It consists in searching a given work eventual

  11. Sequence Comparison: Close and Open problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenzini, Gabriele; Cerrai, P.; Freguglia, P.

    Comparing sequences is a very important activity both in computer science and in a many other areas as well. For example thank to text editors, everyone knows the particular instance of a sequence comparison problem knonw as ``string mathcing problem''. It consists in searching a given work

  12. Adiabatic Berry Phase and Hannay Angle for Open Paths

    CERN Document Server

    Pati, A K

    1998-01-01

    We obtain the adiabatic Berry phase by defining a generalised gauge potential whose line integral gives the phase holonomy for arbitrary evolutions of parameters. Keeping in mind that for classical integrable systems it is hardly clear how to obtain open-path Hannay angle, we establish a connection between the open-path Berry phase and Hannay angle by using the parametrised coherent state approach. Using the semiclassical wavefunction we analyse the open-path Berry phase and obtain the open-path Hannay angle. Further, by expressing the adiabatic Berry phase in terms of the commutator of instantaneous projectors with its differential and using Wigner representation of operators we obtain the Poisson bracket between distribution function and its differential. This enables us to talk about the classical limit of the phase holonomy which yields the angle holonomy for open-paths. An operational definition of Hannay angle is provided based on the idea of classical limit of quantum mechanical inner product. A probab...

  13. Parallel multiphase field simulations with OpenPhase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegeler, Marvin; Shchyglo, Oleg; Kamachali, Reza Darvishi; Monas, Alexander; Steinbach, Ingo; Sutmann, Godehard

    2017-06-01

    The open-source software project OpenPhase allows the three-dimensional simulation of microstructural evolution using the multiphase field method. The core modules of OpenPhase and their implementation as well as their parallelization for a distributed-memory setting are presented. Especially communication and load-balancing strategies are discussed. Synchronization points are avoided by an increased halo-size, i.e. additional layers of ghost cells, which allow multiple stencil operations without data exchange. Load-balancing is considered via graph-partitioning and sub-domain decomposition. Results are presented for performance benchmarks as well as for a variety of applications, e.g. grain growth in polycrystalline materials, including a large number of phase fields as well as Mg-Al alloy solidification.

  14. Phase Radiation Characteristics of an Open-Ended Circular Waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shishkova, A.V.; Pivnenko, Sergiy; Kim, O.S.

    2002-01-01

    Analytic expressions for phase radiation characteristics of a semi-infinite open-ended circular waveguide regardless of its aperture size and operating frequency have been obtained making use of the rigorous Weinstein's theory. The analysis of phase radiation patterns has been carried out...... for the dominant mode (TE11) as well as for the high order modes TM01 and TE01, both for a single and multimode propagation. The measurement of radiation characteristics of an open-ended circular waveguide has been carried out at the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility. It is shown...

  15. Phase radiation characteristics of an open-ended circular waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shishkova, Anna; Pivnenko, Sergey; Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2007-01-01

    General analytical expressions are derived for the far-field amplitude and phase radiation patterns of an open-ended circular waveguide (OE-CWG) regardless of its radius or the operation frequency for the dominant and symmetric higher-order excitation modes. The derivation is based on the rigorous...... solution to the problem of diffraction at an open end of a waveguide proposed by Weinstein. The near-field amplitude and phase patterns of an OE-CWG are then calculated using the spherical wave expansion technique. The measurement of the radiation pattern of an OE-CWG was carried out to verify the validity...

  16. Model of Three-Limb Three-Phase Transformer Based on Nonlinear Open Circuit Characteristic with Experimental Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the realization of a three-phase transformer model based on a non-linear open-circuit characteristic. The proposed model is based on the fact that in case of a star connection with a neutral wire on the primary windings for all three phases, the applied voltage presents phase voltage and line (phase currents are magnetization currents. These variables are available for measuring and it is easy to obtain three non-linear open circuit characteristics. The results of simulations and a comparison with references and experimental results verified this approach.

  17. Collectivity, Phase Transitions and Exceptional Points in Open Quantum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Heiss, W D; Rotter, I

    1998-01-01

    Phase transitions in open quantum systems, which are associated with the formation of collective states of a large width and of trapped states with rather small widths, are related to exceptional points of the Hamiltonian. Exceptional points are the singularities of the spectrum and eigenfunctions, when they are considered as functions of a coupling parameter. In the present paper this parameter is the coupling strength to the continuum. It is shown that the positions of the exceptional points (their accumulation point in the thermodynamical limit) depend on the particular type and energy dependence of the coupling to the continuum in the same way as the transition point of the corresponding phase transition.

  18. Open-Loop Wide-Bandwidth Phase Modulation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Nidhi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever-increasing growth in the bandwidth of wireless communication channels requires the transmitter to be wide-bandwidth and power-efficient. Polar and outphasing transmitter topologies are two promising candidates for such applications, in future. Both these architectures require a wide-bandwidth phase modulator. Open-loop phase modulation presents a viable solution for achieving wide-bandwidth operation. An overview of prior art and recent approaches for phase modulation is presented in this paper. Phase quantization noise cancellation was recently introduced to lower the out-of-band noise in a digital phase modulator. A detailed analysis on the impact of timing and quantization of the cancellation signal is presented. Noise generated by the transmitter in the receive band frequency poses another challenge for wide-bandwidth transmitter design. Addition of a noise transfer function notch, in a digital phase modulator, to reduce the noise in the receive band during phase modulation is described in this paper.

  19. Sensorless speed control of a five-phase induction machine under open-phase condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Morsy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, multiphase machines have been promoted as competitors to their three-phase counterparts in high-power safety-critical drive applications. Among numerous advantages of multiphase induction machine (IM drives, self-starting and operation under open phase(s stand as the most salient features. With open phase(s, optimal current control provides disturbance- free operation given a set of objective functions. Although hysteresis current control was merely employed in the literature as it offers a simple controller structure to control the remaining healthy phases, it is not suitable for high-power applications. In the literature, multiple synchronous reference frame (dq control can be an alternative; however, it requires back and forth transformations with several calculations and additional sophistication. In this paper, a simple technique employing adaptive proportional resonant (PR current controllers is presented to control a five-phase IM under open-phase conditions. Results for both volt/hertz (V/f and field oriented control (FOC systems are presented. Moreover, sensorless operation under fault condition is also demonstrated by estimating the machine speed using a rotor flux-based model reference adaptive system (MRAS speed estimator. The proposed controllers are experimentally verified and compared. Although FOC provides better dynamic performance, V/f control offers a simpler control structure and a lower number of PR controllers.

  20. Comparison of open-source visual analytics toolkits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harger, John R.; Crossno, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of the first stage of a two-stage evaluation of open source visual analytics packages. This stage is a broad feature comparison over a range of open source toolkits. Although we had originally intended to restrict ourselves to comparing visual analytics toolkits, we quickly found that very few were available. So we expanded our study to include information visualization, graph analysis, and statistical packages. We examine three aspects of each toolkit: visualization functions, analysis capabilities, and development environments. With respect to development environments, we look at platforms, language bindings, multi-threading/parallelism, user interface frameworks, ease of installation, documentation, and whether the package is still being actively developed.

  1. Comparison of Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy with Open Surgery for Adrenal Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsun-Shuan Wang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of laparoscopy in the management of adrenal tumors is well established. However, there are very few head-to-head comparisons between laparoscopic and open methods at the same institution. We retrospectively evaluated the operative and postoperative parameters of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal tumors and compared the results with those of traditional open adrenalectomy. Eighty-eight patients with adrenal tumors underwent adrenalectomy between January 1997 and October 2008 at our institute. Clinical data were retrospectively collected after assigning the patients into Group I (n = 51, who underwent the laparoscopic method, and Group II (n = 37, who underwent the traditional open method, by reviewing the patients' charts and related data. Patients in Group I experienced significantly less blood loss (88.6 ± 93.0 mL vs. 321.4 ± 265.4mL, p < 0.01, shorter hospital stay (6.7 ± 4.3 days vs. 11.3 ± 5.4 days, p < 0.01 and earlier oral intake (1.5 ± 0.6 daysvs. 2.2 ± 0.8 days, p < 0.01 postoperatively. In Group I, eight patients had adrenal tumors larger than 6 cm and no statistically significant differences were found compared with the other patients in Group I. Two patients in Group I had malignancies and no local or port site recurrence was found at regular follow-up. There was no mortality in either group. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe, effective and minimally invasive approach with the advantages of better cosmesis, less blood loss, shorter hospital stay and more rapid recovery. We recommend that laparoscopic adrenalectomy is considered as the gold standard procedure for adrenal tumors, irrespective of whether the tumor is benign or malignant.

  2. What’s in a name? A comparison of ‘open government’ definitions across seven Open Government Partnership members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Francoli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available No longer restricted to access to information laws and accountability measures, “open government” is now associated with a broad range of goals and functions, including public participation, open data, the improvement of public services and government efficiency. The 59 country strong Open Government Partnership (OGP suggests that consensus on the value of open government is emerging amongst public officials. Similarly, academics have shown a renewed interest in open government as they discuss, debate and critique the meaning and role of open government reforms today. Yet, despite the diverse aims and tools characterizing contemporary open government, public officials and academics typically approach the subject as a cohesive unit of analysis, making sweeping—and generally non-empirical—claims about its implications, without accounting for the homegrown flavours that may characterize open government in practice. Simply put, the practice and study of contemporary open government suffers a lack of definitional clarity: what exactly is open government today, and how does it vary across governments? In response to these questions, this paper analyses the content of open government policy documents in seven OGP member states (Azerbaijan, Brazil, Canada, Netherlands, Kenya, United Kingdom, and the United States, providing the first systematic, empirically-grounded multi-country comparison of contemporary open government. The paper suggests where the term departs from and retains its original meaning, and how its definition varies across different governments

  3. What’s in a name? A comparison of ‘open government’ definitions across seven Open Government Partnership members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Clarke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available No longer restricted to access to information laws and accountability measures, “open government” is now associated with a broad range of goals and functions, including public participation, open data, the improvement of public services and government efficiency. The 59 country strong Open Government Partnership (OGP suggests that consensus on the value of open government is emerging amongst public officials. Similarly, academics have shown a renewed interest in open government as they discuss, debate and critique the meaning and role of open government reforms today. Yet, despite the diverse aims and tools characterizing contemporary open government, public officials and academics typically approach the subject as a cohesive unit of analysis, making sweeping—and generally non-empirical—claims about its implications, without accounting for the homegrown flavours that may characterize open government in practice. Simply put, the practice and study of contemporary open government suffers a lack of definitional clarity: what exactly is open government today, and how does it vary across governments? In response to these questions, this paper analyses the content of open government policy documents in seven OGP member states (Azerbaijan, Brazil, Canada, Netherlands, Kenya, United Kingdom, and the United States, providing the first systematic, empirically-grounded multi-country comparison of contemporary open government. The paper suggests where the term departs from and retains its original meaning, and how its definition varies across different governments

  4. Open Access in Turkey and Comparison with Other Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Karasözen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of open access journals and institutional repositories, as a product of open access movement has grown rapidly in recent years. Open access research articles remove the barriers in accessing scientific research results and accelerate the communication among the scientist worldwide. In many countries the number of institutional archives and open access journal are increasing. In this article, the recent developments in open access journals, institutional repositories and open courseware in Turkey are summarized and compared with some countries. A sample mandatory institutional repository policy document is given with some suggestion for establishing open access in Turkey.

  5. Head-to-head comparison of aggressive conventional therapy and three biological treatments and comparison of two de-escalation strategies in patients who respond to treatment: study protocol for a multicenter, randomized, open-label, blinded-assessor, phase 4 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinatsi, Daniel; Heiberg, Marte S; Rudin, Anna; Nordström, Dan; Haavardsholm, Espen A; Gudbjornsson, Bjorn; Østergaard, Mikkel; Uhlig, Till; Grondal, Gerdur; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; van Vollenhoven, Ronald; Hetland, Merete L

    2017-04-04

    New targeted therapies and improved treatment strategies have dramatically improved the outcomes of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, it is unknown whether different early aggressive interventions can induce stable remission or a low-active disease state that can be maintained with conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (csDMARD) therapy, and whether they differ in efficacy and safety. The Nordic Rheumatic Diseases Strategy Trials And Registries (NORD-STAR) study will assess and compare (1) the proportion of patients who achieve remission in a head-to-head comparison between csDMARD plus glucocorticoid therapy and three different biological DMARD (bDMARD) therapies with different modes of action and (2) two de-escalation strategies in patients who respond to first-line therapy. In a pragmatic, 80-160-week, multicenter, randomized, open-label, assessor-blinded, phase 4 study, 800 patients with early RA (symptom duration less than 24 months) are randomized 1:1:1:1 to one of four different treatment arms: (1) aggressive csDMARD therapy with methotrexate + sulphasalazine + hydroxychloroquine + i.a. glucocorticoids (arm 1A) or methotrexate + prednisolone p.o. (arm 1B), (2) methotrexate + certolizumab-pegol, (3) methotrexate + abatacept, or (4) methotrexate + tocilizumab. The primary clinical endpoint is the proportion of patients reaching Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) remission at week 24. Patients in stable remission over 24 consecutive weeks enter part 2 of the study earliest after 48 weeks. Patients not achieving sustained CDAI remission over 24 consecutive weeks, exit the study after 80 weeks. In part 2, patients are re-randomized to two different de-escalation strategies, either immediate or delayed (after 24 weeks) tapering, followed by cessation of study medication. All patients remain on stable doses of methotrexate. The primary clinical endpoint in part 2 is the proportion of patients

  6. Comparison of concept recognizers for building the Open Biomedical Annotator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nigam H; Bhatia, Nipun; Jonquet, Clement; Rubin, Daniel; Chiang, Annie P; Musen, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    The National Center for Biomedical Ontology (NCBO) is developing a system for automated, ontology-based access to online biomedical resources (Shah NH, et al.: Ontology-driven indexing of public datasets for translational bioinformatics. BMC Bioinformatics 2009, 10(Suppl 2):S1). The system's indexing workflow processes the text metadata of diverse resources such as datasets from GEO and ArrayExpress to annotate and index them with concepts from appropriate ontologies. This indexing requires the use of a concept-recognition tool to identify ontology concepts in the resource's textual metadata. In this paper, we present a comparison of two concept recognizers – NLM's MetaMap and the University of Michigan's Mgrep. We utilize a number of data sources and dictionaries to evaluate the concept recognizers in terms of precision, recall, speed of execution, scalability and customizability. Our evaluations demonstrate that Mgrep has a clear edge over MetaMap for large-scale service oriented applications. Based on our analysis we also suggest areas of potential improvements for Mgrep. We have subsequently used Mgrep to build the Open Biomedical Annotator service. The Annotator service has access to a large dictionary of biomedical terms derived from the United Medical Language System (UMLS) and NCBO ontologies. The Annotator also leverages the hierarchical structure of the ontologies and their mappings to expand annotations. The Annotator service is available to the community as a REST Web service for creating ontology-based annotations of their data. PMID:19761568

  7. Guided tooth eruption: Comparison of open and closed eruption techniques in labially impacted maxillary canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M londhe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: After third molars, the maxillary canines are the most commonly impacted permanent teeth and one-third of these are labial impactions. Impacted canines often require orthodontic guidance in the eruption. This study was conducted to assess the posttreatment results of surgically exposed and orthodontically aligned labially impacted maxillary canines comparing two different surgical techniques. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two phases, a surgical phase and an orthodontic phase. In surgical phase, events during surgical exposure and recovery of 31 patients with labially impacted maxillary canine were recorded. Patients were managed with open and closed eruption technique. The assessment included comparison of two techniques of surgical exposure, postoperative pain, mobility, vitality, periodontal health, level of impaction, and duration of orthodontic treatment. Results: The postoperative recovery was longer after open eruption than close eruption technique (P = 0.000. Postoperative pain experienced by patients was similar, but regression of pain was faster in closed eruption technique. The mean surgical time for open eruption technique was lesser when compared with closed eruption technique (P = 0.000. The total duration of orthodontic treatment was directly dependent upon the level of impaction, with deeper level of impaction having longer duration of orthodontic treatment. The mobility and vitality of guided canine was similar in both techniques. Conclusion: The closed eruption technique was a longer surgical procedure, but the postoperative pain regression was faster. The duration of orthodontic treatment was longer with deeper level of impaction. The closed eruption surgical techniques provide better periodontal tissues around the guided erupted teeth.

  8. A new phase comparison pilot protection based on wavelet transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ying; TAI Neng-ling; YU Wei-yong

    2006-01-01

    Current phase comparison based pilot protection had been generally utilized as primary protection of the transmission lines in China from the 1950's to the 1980's. Conventional phase comparison pilot protection has a long phase comparison time, which results in a longer fault-clearing time. This paper proposes a new current phase comparison. pilot protection scheme that is based on non-power frequency fault current component.The phase of the fourth harmonic current of each end of the protected line has been abstracted by utilizing complex wavelet transformation and then compared in order to determine whether the inner fault occurs or not. This way can greatly decrease fault-clearing time and improve performances of this pilot protection when fault occurs under the heavy-load current and asymmetrical operation conditions. Many EMTP simulations have verified theproposed scheme's correctness and effectiveness.

  9. Open access versus subscription journals: a comparison of scientific impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Bo-Christer; Solomon, David

    2012-07-17

    In the past few years there has been an ongoing debate as to whether the proliferation of open access (OA) publishing would damage the peer review system and put the quality of scientific journal publishing at risk. Our aim was to inform this debate by comparing the scientific impact of OA journals with subscription journals, controlling for journal age, the country of the publisher, discipline and (for OA publishers) their business model. The 2-year impact factors (the average number of citations to the articles in a journal) were used as a proxy for scientific impact. The Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) was used to identify OA journals as well as their business model. Journal age and discipline were obtained from the Ulrich's periodicals directory. Comparisons were performed on the journal level as well as on the article level where the results were weighted by the number of articles published in a journal. A total of 610 OA journals were compared with 7,609 subscription journals using Web of Science citation data while an overlapping set of 1,327 OA journals were compared with 11,124 subscription journals using Scopus data. Overall, average citation rates, both unweighted and weighted for the number of articles per journal, were about 30% higher for subscription journals. However, after controlling for discipline (medicine and health versus other), age of the journal (three time periods) and the location of the publisher (four largest publishing countries versus other countries) the differences largely disappeared in most subcategories except for journals that had been launched prior to 1996. OA journals that fund publishing with article processing charges (APCs) are on average cited more than other OA journals. In medicine and health, OA journals founded in the last 10 years are receiving about as many citations as subscription journals launched during the same period. Our results indicate that OA journals indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus are

  10. CompaGB: An open framework for genome browsers comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiapello Hélène

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tools to visualize and explore genomes hold a central place in genomics and the diversity of genome browsers has increased dramatically over the last few years. It often turns out to be a daunting task to compare and choose a well-adapted genome browser, as multidisciplinary knowledge is required to carry out this task and the number of tools, functionalities and features are overwhelming. Findings To assist in this task, we propose a community-based framework based on two cornerstones: (i the implementation of industry promoted software qualification method (QSOS adapted for genome browser evaluations, and (ii a web resource providing numerous facilities either for visualizing comparisons or performing new evaluations. We formulated 60 criteria specifically for genome browsers, and incorporated another 65 directly from QSOS's generic section. Those criteria aim to answer versatile needs, ranging from a biologist whose interest primarily lies into user-friendly and informative functionalities, a bioinformatician who wants to integrate the genome browser into a wider framework, or a computer scientist who might choose a software according to more technical features. We developed a dedicated web application to enrich the existing QSOS functionalities (weighting of criteria, user profile with features of interest to a community-based framework: easy management of evolving data, user comments... Conclusions The framework is available at http://genome.jouy.inra.fr/CompaGB. It is open to anyone who wishes to participate in the evaluations. It helps the scientific community to (1 choose a genome browser that would better fit their particular project, (2 visualize features comparatively with easily accessible formats, such as tables or radar plots and (3 perform their own evaluation against the defined criteria. To illustrate the CompaGB functionalities, we have evaluated seven genome browsers according to the implemented methodology

  11. A Performance Comparison of CUDA and OpenCL

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Kamran; Dickson, Neil G.; Hamze, Firas

    2010-01-01

    CUDA and OpenCL are two different frameworks for GPU programming. OpenCL is an open standard that can be used to program CPUs, GPUs, and other devices from different vendors, while CUDA is specific to NVIDIA GPUs. Although OpenCL promises a portable language for GPU programming, its generality may entail a performance penalty. In this paper, we use complex, near-identical kernels from a Quantum Monte Carlo application to compare the performance of CUDA and OpenCL. We show that when using NVID...

  12. A Performance Comparison of CUDA and OpenCL

    CERN Document Server

    Karimi, Kamran; Hamze, Firas

    2010-01-01

    CUDA and OpenCL offer two different interfaces for programming GPUs. OpenCL is an open standard that can be used to program CPUs, GPUs, and other devices from different vendors, while CUDA is specific to NVIDIA GPUs. Although OpenCL promises a portable language for GPU programming, its generality may entail a performance penalty. In this paper, we compare the performance of CUDA and OpenCL using complex, near-identical kernels. We show that when using NVIDIA compiler tools, converting a CUDA kernel to an OpenCL kernel involves minimal modifications. Making such a kernel compile with ATI's build tools involves more modifications. Our performance tests measure and compare data transfer times to and from the GPU, kernel execution times, and end-to-end application execution times for both CUDA and OpenCL.

  13. Comparison of microalgae cultivation in photobioreactor, open raceway pond, and a two-stage hybrid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh R Narala

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of intensive fossil fuel usage and CO2 accumulation in the environment, research is targeted towards sustainable alternate bioenergy that can suffice the growing need for fuel and also that leaves a minimal carbon footprint. Oil production from microalgae can potentially be carried out more efficiently, leaving a smaller footprint and without competing for arable land or biodiverse landscapes. However, current algae cultivation systems and lipid induction processes must be significantly improved and are threatened by contamination with other algae or algal grazers. To address this issue, we have developed an efficient two-stage cultivation system using the marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. This hybrid system combines exponential biomass production in positive pressure air lift-driven bioreactors with a separate synchronized high-lipid induction phase in nutrient deplete open raceway ponds. A comparison to either bioreactor or open raceway pond cultivation system suggests that this process potentially leads to significantly higher productivity of algal lipids. Nutrients are only added to the closed bioreactors while open raceway ponds have turnovers of only a few days, thus reducing the issue of microalgal grazers.

  14. A Comparison of Phase II Study Strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sally Hunsberger; Yingdong Zhao; Richard Simon

    2009-01-01

    .... In this article, we compare different phase II study strategies to determine the most efficient drug development path in terms of number of patients and length of time to conclusion of drug efficacy on overall survival...

  15. Differentiating between Distance/Open Education Systems: Parameters for Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri-Rozenblit, Sarah

    1993-01-01

    Suggests eight parameters as criteria for describing and comparing distance education/open learning institutions: target population, dimensions of openness, organizational structure, design and development of learning materials, use of advanced technology, teaching/tutoring system, student support systems, and interinstitutional collaboration. (35…

  16. Hexuple-Inverter Configuration for Multilevel Nine-Phase Symmetrical Open-Winding Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padmanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Maroti, Pandav Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Hexuple-inverter configuration for multilevel nine-phase symmetrical open-winding ac converter is articulated in this work. Power modular unit consists of six classical three-phase voltage source inverters (VSI). Each VSI includes one bi-directional device (MOSFET/IGBT) per each phase and link...

  17. Hexuple-Inverter Configuration for Multilevel Nine-Phase Symmetrical Open-Winding Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padmanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Maroti, Pandav Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Hexuple-inverter configuration for multilevel nine-phase symmetrical open-winding ac converter is articulated in this work. Power modular unit consists of six classical three-phase voltage source inverters (VSI). Each VSI includes one bi-directional device (MOSFET/IGBT) per each phase and link to...

  18. A Rotational Pressure-Correction Scheme for Incompressible Two-Phase Flows with Open Boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, S; Wang, X

    2016-01-01

    Two-phase outflows refer to situations where the interface formed between two immiscible incompressible fluids passes through open portions of the domain boundary. We present several new forms of open boundary conditions for two-phase outflow simulations within the phase field framework, as well as a rotational pressure correction based algorithm for numerically treating these open boundary conditions. Our algorithm gives rise to linear algebraic systems for the velocity and the pressure that involve only constant and time-independent coefficient matrices after discretization, despite the variable density and variable viscosity of the two-phase mixture. By comparing simulation results with theory and the experimental data, we show that the method produces physically accurate results. We also present numerical experiments to demonstrate the long-term stability of the method in situations where large density contrast, large viscosity contrast, and backflows occur at the two-phase open boundaries.

  19. Biomechanical comparison of open and arthroscopic Latarjet procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Borges, Johanna; Agneskirchner, Jens D; Bobrowitsch, Evgenij; Patzer, Thilo; Struck, Melena; Smith, Tomas; Wellmann, Mathias

    2013-04-01

    To biomechanically compare the effectiveness of the standard open and arthroscopic techniques of the Latarjet procedure to address a critical anterior glenoid defect in combination with a capsular insufficiency. Translation testing of 12 human cadaveric shoulder specimens was performed in a robot-assisted setup under 3 different conditions: (1) intact/vented shoulder joint, (2) combined anterior glenoid bone and capsular defect, and (3) open and arthroscopic Latarjet procedures. Testing was performed for each condition in 2 test positions: 60° of glenohumeral abduction with neutral rotation (ABD position) and 60° of abduction and external rotation (ABER position). Each position was tested with a passive humerus load of 30 N in the anterior, inferior, and anteroinferior directions. Translational movement of the humeral head was evaluated with and without the application of a 10-N load to the conjoint tendon (CJT). In the ABD position, translations after the open Latarjet procedure significantly differed from the arthroscopic technique in the anterior and anteroinferior directions when testing was performed with loading of the CJTs (CJT loading). Without CJT loading, the open Latarjet technique showed significantly lower translations in the anterior, inferior (P = .004), and anteroinferior (P = .001) testing directions in the ABD position. In the ABER position, the arthroscopic procedure showed no significant difference compared with the standard open procedure. We found a superior stabilization effect of the open Latarjet technique in the ABD position. The difference is ascribed to the anterior capsular repair, which was performed within the open technique and omitted during the arthroscopic procedure. The reduction of translation in a pure abduction position of the arm is more effectively performed with a conventional open Latarjet technique that includes a capsular repair. In combined ABER position, there was no difference found between the open and

  20. Comparison of anaesthetic cost in open and laparoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-04

    Apr 4, 2014 ... appendectomy operations conducted as open and laparoscopically, changes may occur in time in market conditions of drugs, patent rights, legal ..... Schirmer BD, Dix J. Cost effectiveness of laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  1. COMPARISON OF OPEN-SOURCE PAAS ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Krishna Varma Nandimandalam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a widely used technology with three basic service models such as Software as a Service (SaaS, Platform as a Service (PaaS, and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS. This paper focuses on the PaaS model. Open source PaaS model provides choice of cloud, developer framework and application service. In this paper detailed study of four open PaaS packages such as AppScale, Cloud Foundry, Cloudify, and OpenShift are explained with the considerable architectural component aspects. We also explained some other PaaS packages like Stratos, Stakato and mOSAIC briefly. In this paper we present the comparative study of major open PaaS packages.

  2. Comparison of open-source linear programming solvers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gearhart, Jared Lee; Adair, Kristin Lynn; Durfee, Justin David.; Jones, Katherine A.; Martin, Nathaniel; Detry, Richard Joseph

    2013-10-01

    When developing linear programming models, issues such as budget limitations, customer requirements, or licensing may preclude the use of commercial linear programming solvers. In such cases, one option is to use an open-source linear programming solver. A survey of linear programming tools was conducted to identify potential open-source solvers. From this survey, four open-source solvers were tested using a collection of linear programming test problems and the results were compared to IBM ILOG CPLEX Optimizer (CPLEX) [1], an industry standard. The solvers considered were: COIN-OR Linear Programming (CLP) [2], [3], GNU Linear Programming Kit (GLPK) [4], lp_solve [5] and Modular In-core Nonlinear Optimization System (MINOS) [6]. As no open-source solver outperforms CPLEX, this study demonstrates the power of commercial linear programming software. CLP was found to be the top performing open-source solver considered in terms of capability and speed. GLPK also performed well but cannot match the speed of CLP or CPLEX. lp_solve and MINOS were considerably slower and encountered issues when solving several test problems.

  3. Open versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A comparison of postoperative pulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazee, R C; Roberts, J W; Okeson, G C; Symmonds, R E; Snyder, S K; Hendricks, J C; Smith, R W

    1991-01-01

    Upper abdominal surgery is associated with characteristic changes in pulmonary function which increase the risk of lower lobe atelectasis. Sixteen patients undergoing open cholecystectomy and 20 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were prospectively evaluated by pulmonary function tests (forced vital capacity [FVC], forced expiratory volume [FEV-1], and forced expiratory flow [FEF] 25% to 75%) before operation and on the morning after surgery to determine if the laparoscopic technique lessens the pulmonary risk. Fraction of the baseline pulmonary function was calculated by dividing the postoperative pulmonary function by the preoperative pulmonary function and multiplying by 100%. Postoperative FVC measured 52% of preoperative function for open cholecystectomy and 73% for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p = 0.002). Postoperative FEV-1 measured 53% of baseline function for open cholecystectomy and 72% for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p = 0.006). Postoperative FEF 25% to 75% measured 53% for open cholecystectomy and 81% for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p = 0.07). It is concluded that laparoscopic cholecystectomy offers improved pulmonary function compared to the open technique. PMID:1828139

  4. A comparison of two IPv4/IPv6 transition mechanisms - OpenVPN and IVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Cong Tuan; Tran, Quang Anh; Jiang, Frank

    2012-09-01

    This document presents a comparison of two IPv4/IPv6 transition mechanisms. They are OpenVPN and IVI. Meanwhile OpenVPN is based on tunneling technology, IVI is a stateless IPv4/IPv6 translation technique which is developed by China Education and Research Network (CERNET). This research focus on the quantitative and qualitative comparison of these two main mechanisms; how they are applied in practical situation by the Internet Service Providers, as well as their advantages and drawbacks.

  5. Experimental study on transient behavior of semi-open two-phase thermosyphon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱华; 王建新; 张巧惠; 屠传经

    2004-01-01

    An experimental system was set up to measure the temperature, pressure, heat transfer rate and mass flow rate in a semi-open two-phase thermosyphon. The behaviors of a semi-open two-phase thermosyphon during startup, shutdown and lack of water were studied to get complete understanding of its thermal characteristics. The variation of wall temperature, heat-exchange condition and pressure fluctuations of semi-open two-phase thermosyphons showed that the startup of SOTPT needs about 60-70 min; the startup speed of SOTPT is determined by the startup speed of the condensation section; the average pressure in the heat pipe is equal to the environmental pressure usually; the shutdown of SOTPT needs about 30-50min; a semi-open two-phase thermosyphon has good response to lack of water accident.

  6. Acoustic design of open plan schools and comparison of requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Petersen, Claus; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    between groups and satisfac¬tory speech intelligibility internally in groups. This paper describes the newest Danish requirements and recommendations for such open plan areas and presents the design, measurements and subjective evaluation of two newer Danish schools. According to the users, the general......In the Nordic countries several new schools have open plan areas for teaching and group work. However, to optimize learning efficiency for pupils and working conditions for teachers and to reduce noise levels, such spaces require special acoustic design to obtain sufficient sound attenuation...

  7. Evidence-Based Comparison of Robotic and Open Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T. Lowrance

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid adoption of robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP has occurred despite a lack of high-quality evidence demonstrating its oncologic advantages, safety, or cost effectiveness compared with open radical retropubic prostatectomy (ORP. This review examines the current literature comparing ORP and RALP, focusing on perioperative, oncologic, functional, and economic outcomes.

  8. Comparison of two-phase and three-phase methanol synthesis processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Graaf, G.H; Beenackers, A.A C M

    1996-01-01

    A comparison is made between the ICI (two-phase) methanol synthesis process and a three-phase slurry process based on a multi-stage agitated reactor. The process calculations are based on a complete reactor system consisting of the reactor itself, a recycling system and a gas-liquid separator. The b

  9. Comparison of two-phase and three-phase methanol synthesis processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Graaf, G.H; Beenackers, A.A C M

    1996-01-01

    A comparison is made between the ICI (two-phase) methanol synthesis process and a three-phase slurry process based on a multi-stage agitated reactor. The process calculations are based on a complete reactor system consisting of the reactor itself, a recycling system and a gas-liquid separator. The

  10. PHASE NOISE COMPARISON OF SHORT PULSE LASER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukui Zhang; Stephen Benson; John Hansknecht; David Hardy; George Neil; Michelle D. Shinn

    2006-08-27

    This paper describes phase noise measurements of several different laser systems that have completely different gain media and configurations including a multi-kW free-electron laser. We will focus on state-of-the-art short pulse lasers, especially drive lasers for photocathode injectors. Phase noise comparison of the FEL drive laser, electron beam and FEL laser output also will be presented.

  11. Windows open for highly tunable magnetostructural phase transitions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Y.

    2016-07-18

    An attempt was made to tailor the magnetostructural transitions over a wide temperature range under the principle of isostructural alloying. A series of wide Curie-temperature windows (CTWs) with a maximal width of 377 K between 69 and 446 K were established in the Mn1− yCoyNiGe1− xSix system. Throughout the CTWs, the magnetic-field-induced metamagnetic behavior and giant magnetocaloric effects are obtained. The (Mn,Co)Ni(Ge,Si) system shows great potential as multifunctional phase-transition materials that work in a wide range covering liquid-nitrogen and above water-boiling temperatures. Moreover, general understanding of isostructural alloying and CTWs constructed in (Mn,Co)Ni(Ge,Si) as well as (Mn,Fe)Ni(Ge,Si) is provided.

  12. Comparison of open-access vancomycin dosing websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewel, N P

    2017-04-01

    There are many methods for dosing vancomycin. The purpose of this commentary was to compare open-access vancomycin dosing websites with Vancomycin-Calculator.com and describe how body weight can affect their pharmacokinetic (PK) calculations. A vancomycin dosing website, Vancomycin-Calculator.com, was developed to improve the dosing practice at our health system. Nine other vancomycin dosing calculators were identified, including three open-access websites. Each website uses a different dosing method. Most of the websites calculated similar doses for patients with normal body weight. Vancomycin-Calculator.com was the only website to calculate practical doses for obese patients, and it calculated higher daily doses for underweight patients compared to other websites. Vancomycin-Calculator.com is an open-access vancomycin dosing website that was developed using the Bauer PK method. Compared with three other websites, PK calculations resulted in significant differences for underweight and obese patients. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. A novel double quad-inverter configuration for multilevel twelve-phase open-winding converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padmanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wheeler, Patrick William

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a novel proposal of double quad-inverter configuration for multilevel twelve-phase open-winding ac converter. Modular power units are developed from reconfigured eight classical three-phase voltage source inverters (VSIs). Each VSI has one additional bi-directional switching ...

  14. Three-phase multilevel inverter configuration for open-winding high power application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wheeler, Patrick William

    2015-01-01

    This paper work exploits a new dual open-winding three-phase multilevel inverter configuration suitable for high power medium-voltage applications. Modular structure comprised of standard three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) along with one additional bi-directional semiconductor device (MOSF...

  15. Comparison of anaesthetic cost in open and laparoscopic appendectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, I; Ozer, A B; Kilinc, M; Bayar, M K; Erhan, O L

    2014-01-01

    Appendectomy is generally conducted as open or by laparoscopic surgical techniques under general anesthesia. This study aims to compare the anesthetic costs of the patients, who underwent open or laparoscopic appendectomy under general anesthesia. The design is retrospective and records of 379 patients who underwent open or laparoscopic appendectomy under general anesthesia, falling under the category of I-III risk group according to the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification between the years 2011 and 2013, and aged 18-77. Open (Group I) or laparoscopic (Group II) appendectomy operation under general anesthesia were evaluated retrospectively by utilizing hospital automation and anesthesia observation records. This study evaluated the anesthesia time of the patients and total costs (Turkish Lira ₺, US dollar $) of anesthetic agents used (induction, maintenance), necessary medical materials (connecting line, endotracheal tube, airway, humidifier, branule, aspiration probe), and intravenously administered fluids were evaluated. We used Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (SPSS version 17.0) for statistical analysis. Of the patients, 237 were males (62.53%) and 142 were females (37.47%). Anesthesia time limits were established as 70.30 ± 30.23 minute in Group I and 74.92 ± 31.83 minute in Group II. Mean anesthesia administration cost per patient was found to be 78.79 ± 30.01₺ (39.16 ± 14.15$) in Group I and 83.09 ± 26.85₺ (41.29 ± 13.34$) in Group II (P > 0.05). A correlation was observed between cost and operation times (P = 0.002, r = 0.158). Although a statistical difference was not established in this study in terms of time and costs in appendectomy operations conducted as open and laparoscopically, changes may occur in time in market conditions of drugs, patent rights, legal regulations, and prices. Therefore, we believe that it would be beneficial to update and revise cost analyses from time to time.

  16. Comparison of tracking algorithms implemented in OpenCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janku Peter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision is very progressive and modern part of computer science. From scientific point of view, theoretical aspects of computer vision algorithms prevail in many papers and publications. The underlying theory is really important, but on the other hand, the final implementation of an algorithm significantly affects its performance and robustness. For this reason, this paper tries to compare real implementation of tracking algorithms (one part of computer vision problem, which can be found in the very popular library OpenCV. Moreover, the possibilities of optimizations are discussed.

  17. Comparison of patrons of hotels with early opening and standard hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D I

    1986-02-01

    A comparison was made of 72 men who were patrons in hotels with 6 A.M. or 7 A.M. opening, with a control group of 87 men interviewed in nearby hotels with 10 A.M. opening. The two groups were very similar on biographical characteristics, yet the men in the early-opening group consumed significantly more alcohol, had more drinking sessions, spent longer in drinking, and had significantly higher SMAST scores. The early opening was apparently facilitating problem drinking.

  18. Phase 1 Validation Testing and Simulation for the WEC-Sim Open Source Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehl, K.; Michelen, C.; Gunawan, B.; Bosma, B.; Simmons, A.; Lomonaco, P.

    2015-12-01

    WEC-Sim is an open source code to model wave energy converters performance in operational waves, developed by Sandia and NREL and funded by the US DOE. The code is a time-domain modeling tool developed in MATLAB/SIMULINK using the multibody dynamics solver SimMechanics, and solves the WEC's governing equations of motion using the Cummins time-domain impulse response formulation in 6 degrees of freedom. The WEC-Sim code has undergone verification through code-to-code comparisons; however validation of the code has been limited to publicly available experimental data sets. While these data sets provide preliminary code validation, the experimental tests were not explicitly designed for code validation, and as a result are limited in their ability to validate the full functionality of the WEC-Sim code. Therefore, dedicated physical model tests for WEC-Sim validation have been performed. This presentation provides an overview of the WEC-Sim validation experimental wave tank tests performed at the Oregon State University's Directional Wave Basin at Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory. Phase 1 of experimental testing was focused on device characterization and completed in Fall 2015. Phase 2 is focused on WEC performance and scheduled for Winter 2015/2016. These experimental tests were designed explicitly to validate the performance of WEC-Sim code, and its new feature additions. Upon completion, the WEC-Sim validation data set will be made publicly available to the wave energy community. For the physical model test, a controllable model of a floating wave energy converter has been designed and constructed. The instrumentation includes state-of-the-art devices to measure pressure fields, motions in 6 DOF, multi-axial load cells, torque transducers, position transducers, and encoders. The model also incorporates a fully programmable Power-Take-Off system which can be used to generate or absorb wave energy. Numerical simulations of the experiments using WEC-Sim will be

  19. Open-phase operating modes of power flow control topologies in a Smart Grid Distribution Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astashev, M. G.; Novikov, M. A.; Panfilov, D. I.; Rashitov, P. A.; Remizevich, T. V.; Fedorova, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    The power flow regulating circuit node in an alternating current system is reviewed. The circuit node is accomplished based on a thyristor controlled phase angle regulator (TCPAR) with controlled thyristor switch. Research results of the individual phase control of the output voltage for the TCPAR are presented. Analytical expressions for the overvoltage factor calculation in the thyristor switch circuit for open-phase operating modes are received. Based on evaluation of overvoltage in operational and emergency modes, the implementability conditions of the individual phase control of the output voltage are determined. Under these conditions, maximal performance and complete controllability are provided.

  20. Vector Control of Three-Phase Induction Motor with Two Stator Phases Open-Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Hesam Asgari; Mohammad Jannati; Tole Sutikno; Nik Rumzi Nik Idris

    2015-01-01

    Variable frequency drives are used to provide reliable dynamic systems and significant reduction in usage of energy and costs of the induction motors. Modeling and control of faulty or an unbalanced three-phase induction motor is obviously different from healthy three-phase induction motor. Using conventional vector control techniques such as Field-Oriented Control (FOC) for faulty three-phase induction motor, results in a significant torque and speed oscillation. This research presented a no...

  1. Differential clock comparisons with phase-locked local oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Hume, David B

    2015-01-01

    We develop protocols that circumvent the laser noise limit in the stability of optical clock comparisons by synchronous probing of two clocks using phase-locked local oscillators. This allows for probe times longer than the laser coherence time, avoids the Dick effect, and supports Heisenberg-limited scaling of measurement precision. We present a model for such frequency comparisons and develop numerical simulations of the protocol with realistic noise sources. This provides a route to reduce frequency ratio measurement durations by more than an order of magnitude as clock inaccuracies reach 1x10^-18.

  2. A comparison of observables for solid-solid phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smilowitz, Laura B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Henson, Bryan F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romero, Jerry J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The study of solid-solid phase transformations is hindered by the difficulty of finding a volumetric probe to use as a progress variable. Solids are typically optically opaque and heterogeneous. Over the past several years, second harmonic generation (SHG) has been used as a kinetic probe for a solid-solid phase transition in which the initial and final phases have different symmetries. Bulk generation of SHG is allowed by symmetry only in noncentrosymmetric crystallographic space groups. For the organic energetic nitramine octahydro-1,3 ,5,7 -tetranitro-1,3 ,5,7 -tatrazocine (HMX), the beta phase is centro symmetric (space group P2{sub 1}/c) and the delta phase iS noncentrosymmetric (space group P6{sub 1}22) making SHG an extremely sensitive, essentially zero background probe of the phase change progress. We have used SHG as a tool to follow the progress of the transformation from beta to delta phase during the solid-solid transformation. However, kinetic models of the transformation derived using different observables from several other groups have differed, showing later onset for the phase change and faster progression to completion. In this work, we have intercompared several techniques to understand these differences. The three techniques discussed are second harmonic generation, Raman spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The progress of the beta to delta phase transition in HMX observed with each of these different probes will be discussed and advantages and disadvantages of each technique described. This paper compares several different observables for use in measuring the kinetics of solid-solid phase transitions. Relative advantages and disadvantages for each technique are described and a direct comparison of results is made for the beta to delta polymorphic phase transition of the energetic nitramine, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tatrazocine.

  3. Comparison of Two Detection Combination Algorithms for Phased Array Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    weapon guidance. It can also be used effectively for secure communications [1]. In an MFR, the radar surveillance plays a critical role to optimize the...horizon/surface search, detection confirmation, multi-target tracking and cued search. The simulated radar has an aperture of 1 m2. The antennas...Comparison of Two Detection Combination Algorithms for Phased Array Radars Zhen Ding and Peter Moo Wide Area Surveillance Radar Group Radar

  4. Coagulation, inflammatory, and stress responses in a randomized comparison of open and laparoscopic repair of recurrent inguinal hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahr, H B; Bendix, J; Ahlburg, P;

    2006-01-01

    with recurrent inguinal hernia were randomized to OR under local anesthesia (n = 30) or LR under general anesthesia (n = 31). The magnitude of the surgical trauma was assessed by measuring markers of coagulation (prothrombin fragment 1 + 2), endothelial activation (von Willebrand factor), inflammation......BACKGROUND: In previous comparisons of inflammatory and stress responses to open (OR) and laparoscopic (LR) hernia repair, all operations were performed under general anesthesia. Since local anesthesia is widely used for OR, a comparison of this approach with LR seemed relevant. METHODS: Patients...... in both groups, with the CRP increase being significantly greater in the OR group. The other markers did not increase significantly. CONCLUSION: The acute phase response was more pronounced after OR, even when this was done under local anesthesia. Both techniques seemed rather atraumatic....

  5. Comparison of SKR phases with magnetic field phases after Saturn equinox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Georg; Kurth, William; Ye, Shengyi; Gurnett, Donald; Groene, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    The varying periodicity of Saturn kilometric radiation (SKR), magnetic field perturbations, and other rotational phenomena in Saturn's magnetosphere have been measured by various Cassini instruments for several years. While SKR clearly showed two periods attributed to the northern and southern hemisphere before Saturn equinox (August 2009), its behavior is more intricate afterwards. Northern and southern SKR have similar periods and phases from March 2010 until February 2011 and from August 2011 until June 2012, which is partly in disagreement with periods obtained from the magnetic field measurements. We will show that further insight into this problem can be obtained by a direct comparison of the SKR phases with magnetic field phases, with all phases ideally being displayed with respect to a common guide phase. After the application of certain phase shifts it is possible to bring the phases of the three magnetic field components (radial, azimuthal, co-latitudinal) into a good agreement with the SKR phase of the corresponding hemisphere. We will mathematically prove that it is the co-latitudinal magnetic field component that needs to be tracked during time intervals of similar northern and southern SKR periods and phases. Not taking this special case into account leads to the differences between SKR periods and magnetic field periods. Furthermore, no correction of the SKR phases with respect to the local time of the spacecraft is needed and SKR can be treated like a clock-like source, whereas the rotating magnetic field perturbations are corrected for the position of Cassini.

  6. A Novel Multilevel Quad-Inverter Configuration for Quasi Six-Phase Open-Winding Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padmanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wheeler, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This paper developed a novel quad-inverter configuration for multilevel six-phase asymmetrical open-winding AC converter. Proposal found to be suited for (low-voltage/high-current) applications such as AC tractions and `More-Electric Aircraft' propulsion systems. Modular power circuit comprises o...

  7. Comparison сharacreristics of optrons with an open optical channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvets O. H.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work characteristics of industrial optical sensors for objects positioning in space are considered. Comparison of their parameters with the parameters of the angular-linear displacement sensor designed has been made. Methods for optimization parameters of sensors with an open optical channel are proposed.

  8. AUPress: A Comparison of an Open Access University Press with Traditional Presses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreal, Rory; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2011-01-01

    This study is a comparison of AUPress with three other traditional (non-open access) Canadian university presses. The analysis is based on the rankings that are correlated with book sales on Amazon.com and Amazon.ca. Statistical methods include the sampling of the sales ranking of randomly selected books from each press. The results of one-way…

  9. AUPress: A Comparison of an Open Access University Press with Traditional Presses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreal, Rory; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2011-01-01

    This study is a comparison of AUPress with three other traditional (non-open access) Canadian university presses. The analysis is based on the rankings that are correlated with book sales on Amazon.com and Amazon.ca. Statistical methods include the sampling of the sales ranking of randomly selected books from each press. The results of one-way…

  10. Survey and comparison for Open and closed sources in cloud computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Kamal Salih

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a new technology widely studied in recent years. Now there are many cloud platforms both in industry and in academic circle. How to understand and use these platforms is a big issue. A detailed comparison has been presented in this paper focused on the aspects such as the architecture, characteristics, application and so on. To know the differences between open source and close source in cloud environment we mention some examples for Software-as-a-Service, Platform-as-a-Service, and Infrastructure-as-a-Service. We made comparison between them. Before conclusion we demonstrate some convergences and differences between open and closed platform, but we realized open source should be the best option

  11. An improved fault tolerant for a five-phase induction machine under open gate transistor faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhussien A. Mahmoud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Of the different outstanding merits of multiphase machines is their ability to run steadily with some phases open. Commonly, optimal current control (OCC to remaining healthy phases is usually engaged to ensure a certain optimization criterion. Most of the available literature investigates the fault case where one of the motor phases is completely disconnected due to a failure in one of the inverter legs. To maintain pre-fault operating conditions, the machine experiences a 53% increase in the total copper loss; otherwise, the machine should be deloaded. Under open gate fault condition of one of the upper or lower switching devices, the corresponding switch will be open, while the other switch in the same leg can be still used to enhance the machine performance under this case. This paper proposes an improved control strategy to optimize a five-phase induction motor drive under a gate failure of one of the inverter switching devices using a half cycle optimal current control (HCOCC technique. When compared with a conventional OCC, the proposed controller can effectively reduce the excessive copper loss by 50%, improve efficiency, and decrease the corresponding derating factor. The proposed controller is verified using a five-phase induction machine based on a simulation case study using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  12. A Novel Multilevel Quad-Inverter Configuration for Quasi Six-Phase Open-Winding Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padmanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wheeler, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    -level modulation (MSCFM) algorithm is developed in this work and easy for implementing in real digital processors. The proposed modulation algorithm is capable of generating, 5-level voltages at each output of four VSI as one equivalent to multilevel inverter. The total power is among the four DC sources......This paper developed a novel quad-inverter configuration for multilevel six-phase asymmetrical open-winding AC converter. Proposal found to be suited for (low-voltage/high-current) applications such as AC tractions and `More-Electric Aircraft' propulsion systems. Modular power circuit comprises...... of standard four three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) and each connected to the open-end windings. Each VSIs are incorporated with one bi-directional switching device (MOSFET/IGBT) per phase and two capacitors with neutral point connected. Further, an original modified single carrier five...

  13. Open-Phase Fault Tolerance Techniques of Five-Phase Dual-Rotor Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-phase motors are gaining more attention due to the advantages of good fault tolerance capability and high power density, etc. By applying dual-rotor technology to multi-phase machines, a five-phase dual-rotor permanent magnet synchronous motor (DRPMSM is researched in this paper to further promote their torque density and fault tolerance capability. It has two rotors and two sets of stator windings, and it can adopt a series drive mode or parallel drive mode. The fault-tolerance capability of the five-phase DRPMSM is researched. All open circuit fault types and corresponding fault tolerance techniques in different drive modes are analyzed. A fault-tolerance control strategy of injecting currents containing a certain third harmonic component is proposed for five-phase DRPMSM to ensure performance after faults in the motor or drive circuit. For adjacent double-phase faults in the motor, based on where the additional degrees of freedom are used, two different fault-tolerance current calculation schemes are adopted and the torque results are compared. Decoupling of the inner motor and outer motor is investigated under fault-tolerant conditions in parallel drive mode. The finite element analysis (FMA results and co-simulation results based on Simulink-Simplorer-Maxwell verify the effectiveness of the techniques.

  14. Determination of phase equilibria in confined systems by open pore cell Monte Carlo method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Minoru T; Tanaka, Hideki

    2013-02-28

    We present a modification of the molecular dynamics simulation method with a unit pore cell with imaginary gas phase [M. Miyahara, T. Yoshioka, and M. Okazaki, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8124 (1997)] designed for determination of phase equilibria in nanopores. This new method is based on a Monte Carlo technique and it combines the pore cell, opened to the imaginary gas phase (open pore cell), with a gas cell to measure the equilibrium chemical potential of the confined system. The most striking feature of our new method is that the confined system is steadily led to a thermodynamically stable state by forming concave menisci in the open pore cell. This feature of the open pore cell makes it possible to obtain the equilibrium chemical potential with only a single simulation run, unlike existing simulation methods, which need a number of additional runs. We apply the method to evaluate the equilibrium chemical potentials of confined nitrogen in carbon slit pores and silica cylindrical pores at 77 K, and show that the results are in good agreement with those obtained by two conventional thermodynamic integration methods. Moreover, we also show that the proposed method can be particularly useful for determining vapor-liquid and vapor-solid coexistence curves and the triple point of the confined system.

  15. The Open-System Dicke-Model Quantum Phase Transition with a Sub-Ohmic Bath

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, D

    2015-01-01

    We show that the critical exponent of a quantum phase transition in a damped-driven open system is determined by the spectral density function of the reservoir. We consider the open-system variant of the Dicke model, where the driven boson mode and also the large N-spin couple to independent reservoirs at zero temperature. The critical exponent, which is $1$ if there is no spin-bath coupling, decreases below 1 when the spin couples to a sub-Ohmic reservoir.

  16. Field-oriented control of five-phase induction motor with open-end stator winding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listwan Jacek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of the five-phase squirrel-cage induction motor and the system of the dual five-phase voltage source inverter have been presented. The control methods and control systems of the field-oriented control of the five-phase induction motor with an open-end stator winding are described. The structures of the direct fieldoriented control system (DFOC and the Indirect Field-oriented control system (IFOC with PI controllers in outer and inner control loops are analyzed. A method of space vector modulation used to control the system of the dual five-phase voltage source inverter has been discussed. The results of simulation studies of the field-oriented control methods are presented. Comparative analysis of the simulation results was carried out.

  17. New customizable phased array UT instrument opens door for furthering research and better industrial implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Gavin; Ginzel, Robert

    2014-02-01

    Phased array UT as an inspection technique in itself continues to gain wide acceptance. However, there is much room for improvement in terms of implementation of Phased Array (PA) technology for every unique NDT application across several industries (e.g. oil and petroleum, nuclear and power generation, steel manufacturing, etc.). Having full control of the phased array instrument and customizing a software solution is necessary for more seamless and efficient inspections, from setting the PA parameters, collecting data and reporting, to the final analysis. NDT researchers and academics also need a flexible and open platform to be able to control various aspects of the phased array process. A high performance instrument with advanced PA features, faster data rates, a smaller form factor, and capability to adapt to specific applications, will be discussed.

  18. New customizable phased array UT instrument opens door for furthering research and better industrial implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dao, Gavin [Advanced OEM Solutions, 8044 Montgomery Road 700, Cincinnati OH 45236 (United States); Ginzel, Robert [Eclipse Scientific, 97 Randall, Waterloo, Ontario N2V 1C5 (Canada)

    2014-02-18

    Phased array UT as an inspection technique in itself continues to gain wide acceptance. However, there is much room for improvement in terms of implementation of Phased Array (PA) technology for every unique NDT application across several industries (e.g. oil and petroleum, nuclear and power generation, steel manufacturing, etc.). Having full control of the phased array instrument and customizing a software solution is necessary for more seamless and efficient inspections, from setting the PA parameters, collecting data and reporting, to the final analysis. NDT researchers and academics also need a flexible and open platform to be able to control various aspects of the phased array process. A high performance instrument with advanced PA features, faster data rates, a smaller form factor, and capability to adapt to specific applications, will be discussed.

  19. Optimized Carrier Based Multilevel Generated Modified Dual Three-Phase Open-Winding Inverter for Medium Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padmanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wheeler, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel carrier based multilevel modulation for modified dual three-phase open-winding inverter applicable for low-voltage/high-current applications. A standard three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) is connected across the open-winding of both ends of the motor. Each VSI i...

  20. Effects of relative phase on transient evolution in an open resonant ladder-type atomic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yan-Ling; Liu Zhong-Bo; Wang Lei; Tong Dian-Min; Fan Xi-Jun

    2009-01-01

    In an open ladder-type resonant atomic system, variation in relative phase between probe and driving fields does not affect the transient evolution of populations, but it has remarkable effects on gain and dispersion of the probe field. No matter whether an incoherent pump is present or absent, transient and stationary gains without inversion (GWI) always can be obtained by choosing an appropriate value of the relative phase. When the incoherent pump is absent, the values of transient and stationary GWIs are much larger and the time interval required to reach the stationary value is longer than those when the incoherent pump is present. Varying the exit rate and the ratio between injection rates can obviously change the phase-dependent GWI. In addition, in the transient evolution process, the phenomenon of high dispersion (refractive index) without absorption occurs at some values of relative phase. In the corresponding closed system, the stationary GWI can be obtained by choosing an appropriate value of relative phase only when incoherent pump exists, moreover the gain is smaller than that in the open system.

  1. Numerical Predictions of Mode Reflections in an Open Circular Duct: Comparison with Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Hixon, Ray

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Broadband Aeroacoustic Stator Simulation code was used to compute the acoustic field for higher-order modes in a circular duct geometry. To test the accuracy of the results computed by the code, the duct was terminated by an open end with an infinite flange or no flange. Both open end conditions have a theoretical solution that was used to compare with the computed results. Excellent comparison for reflection matrix values was achieved after suitable refinement of the grid at the open end. The study also revealed issues with the level of the mode amplitude introduced into the acoustic held from the source boundary and the amount of reflection that occurred at the source boundary when a general nonreflecting boundary condition was applied.

  2. Auditory phase and frequency discrimination: a comparison of nine procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, C D; Macmillan, N A

    1979-02-01

    Two auditory discrimination tasks were thoroughly investigated: discrimination of frequency differences from a sinusoidal signal of 200 Hz and discrimination of differences in relative phase of mixed sinusoids of 200 Hz and 400 Hz. For each task psychometric functions were constructed for three observers, using nine different psychophysical measurement procedures. These procedures included yes-no, two-interval forced-choice, and various fixed- and variable-standard designs that investigators have used in recent years. The data showed wide ranges of apparent sensitivity. For frequency discrimination, models derived from signal detection theory for each psychophysical procedure seem to account for the performance differences. For phase discrimination the models do not account for the data. We conclude that for some discriminative continua the assumptions of signal detection theory are appropriate, and underlying sensitivity may be derived from raw data by appropriate transformations. For other continua the models of signal detection theory are probably inappropriate; we speculate that phase might be discriminable only on the basis of comparison or change and suggest some tests of our hypothesis.

  3. Dynamic modeling of the microalgae cultivation phase for energy production in open raceway ponds and flat panel photobioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eMarsullo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic model of microalgae cultivation phase is presented in this work. Two cultivation technologies are taken into account: the open raceway pond and the flat panel photobioreactor. For each technology, the model is able to evaluate the microalgae areal and volumetric productivity and the energy production and consumption. Differently from the most common existing models in literature, which deal with a specific part of the overall cultivation process, the model presented here includes all physical and chemical quantities that mostly affect microalgae growth: the equation of the specific growth rate for the microalgae is influenced by CO2 and nutrients concentration in the water, light intensity, temperature of the water in the reactor and by the microalgae species being considered. All these input parameters can be tuned to obtain reliable predictions. A comparison with experimental data taken from the literature shows that the predictions are consistent, slightly overestimating the productivity in case of closed photobioreactor. The results obtained by the simulation runs are consistent with those found in literature, being the areal productivity for the open raceway pond between 50 and 70 t/(ha*year in Southern Spain (Sevilla and Brazil (Petrolina and between 250 and 350 t/(ha*year for the flat panel photobioreactor in the same locations.

  4. Research on the Comparison Analyses of Three-Phase Discrete and Integrated LC Filters in Three-Phase PV Inverter

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In three-phase photovoltaic (PV) system, three-phase filter inductors are important part for the output electrical power quality. The comparison analyses of three-phase discrete filter inductors and two kinds of three-phase integrated filter inductors in three-phase PV inverter are proposed. Firstly, the three-phase PV inverter operation with discrete filter inductors is analyzed, and the design of discrete filter inductors is given; then operation of the three-phase PV inverter with three-ph...

  5. Cilk++与OpenMP并行模型性能比较%Performance comparison of Cilk++ and OpenMP PACA models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊

    2012-01-01

    构造了两种并行蚁群算法模型,在单机多核下实现了Cilk++并行蚁群算法及OpenMP并行蚁群算法,并应用于真实路网车辆路径问题(Vehicle Routing Problem,VRP)对两者进行了实验对比.实验结果表明,OpenMP模型的并行性能与问题规模有较大关系,OpenMP并行蚁群算法与基于winapi多线程的并行蚁群算法相比效率相近.Cilk++模型在双核下性能优于OpenMP模型,四核下不及OpenMP模型.%Two parallel ant colony algorithm (PACA) models are structured. Cilk++-based PACA and OpenMP-based PACA were realized under single machine with multi-core. The real road vehicle routing problem (VRP) was used to make a experimental comparison for both of the algorithms. Experimental, show that OpenMP model is related to VRP size, and the running efficiency of OpenMP-based PACA is similar to that of Winapi-based PACA. CilkH-h model in the case of double-kernel is better than OpenMP model, but in the case of four-kernel is inferior to OpenMP model.

  6. Robot-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy in obese and morbidly obese women: surgical technique and comparison with open surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, Barbara; Lönnerfors, Celine; Persson, Jan

    2011-11-01

    Comparison of surgical results on obese patients undergoing hysterectomy by robot-assisted laparoscopy or laparotomy. University hospital. All women (n=114) with a BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) who underwent a simple hysterectomy as the main surgical procedure between November 2005 and November 2009 were identified. Robot-assisted procedures (n=50) were separated into an early (learning phase) and a late (consolidated phase) group; open hysterectomy was considered an established method. Relevant data was retrieved from prospective protocols (robot) or from computerized patient charts (laparotomy) until 12 months after surgery. Complications leading to prolonged hospital stay, readmission/reoperation, intravenous antibiotic treatment or blood transfusion were considered significant. The surgical technique used for morbidly obese patients is described. Women in the late robot group (n=25) had shorter inpatient time (1.6 compared to 3.8 days, plaparoscopic hysterectomy in a consolidated phase in obese women is associated with shorter hospital stay, less bleeding and fewer complications compared to laparotomy but, apart from women with BMI ≥35, a longer operative time. © 2011 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2011 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Research on the Comparison Analyses of Three-Phase Discrete and Integrated LC Filters in Three-Phase PV Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In three-phase photovoltaic (PV system, three-phase filter inductors are important part for the output electrical power quality. The comparison analyses of three-phase discrete filter inductors and two kinds of three-phase integrated filter inductors in three-phase PV inverter are proposed. Firstly, the three-phase PV inverter operation with discrete filter inductors is analyzed, and the design of discrete filter inductors is given; then operation of the three-phase PV inverter with three-phase integrated five-limb magnetic core filter inductors is analyzed, the design of integrated filter inductors with five-limb magnetic core is given, then the operation of three-phase PV inverter with three-phase integrated three-limb magnetic core filter inductors is analyzed, and the design of integrated filter inductors with three limbs magnetic core is given. The conclusion of comparison between three-phase discrete filter inductors and two kinds of three-phase integrated filter inductors is done; it means that the three-phase discrete filter inductors can achieve better output electrical power quality with lower power density and three-phase integrated filter inductors can achieve higher power density with lower output electrical power quality. Finally, the experiment results are given to compare the volume and filter effect of three kinds of filter inductors in three-phase PV inverter.

  8. Evaluation of software maintain ability with open EHR - a comparison of architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalag, Koray; Yang, Hong Yul; Tempero, Ewan; Warren, James R

    2014-11-01

    To assess whether it is easier to maintain a clinical information system developed using open EHR model driven development versus mainstream methods. A new open source application (GastrOS) has been developed following open EHR's multi-level modelling approach using .Net/C# based on the same requirements of an existing clinically used application developed using Microsoft Visual Basic and Access database. Almost all the domain knowledge was embedded into the software code and data model in the latter. The same domain knowledge has been expressed as a set of open EHR Archetypes in GastrOS. We then introduced eight real-world change requests that had accumulated during live clinical usage, and implemented these in both systems while measuring time for various development tasks and change in software size for each change request. Overall it took half the time to implement changes in GastrOS. However it was the more difficult application to modify for one change request, suggesting the nature of change is also important. It was not possible to implement changes by modelling only. Comparison of relative measures of time and software size change within each application highlights how architectural differences affected maintain ability across change requests. The use of open EHR model driven development can result in better software maintain ability. The degree to which open EHR affects software maintain ability depends on the extent and nature of domain knowledge involved in changes. Although we used relative measures for time and software size, confounding factors could not be totally excluded as a controlled study design was not feasible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of minimally invasive transspinous and open approaches for thoracolumbar intradural-extramedullary spinal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raygor, Kunal P; Than, Khoi D; Chou, Dean; Mummaneni, Praveen V

    2015-08-01

    OBJECT Spinal tumor resection has historically been performed via open approaches, although minimally invasive approaches have recently been found to be effective in small cohort series. The authors compare surgical characteristics and clinical outcomes of surgery in patients undergoing mini-open and open approaches for intradural-extramedullary tumor resection. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed 65 consecutive intradural-extramedullary tumor resections performed at their institution from 2007 to 2014. Patients with cervical tumors or pathology demonstrating neurofibroma were excluded (n = 14). The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test and Pearson chi-square test were used to compare continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, with significance set at p Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) score, preoperative symptom duration, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status class, tumor size, or tumor location. There was no statistically significant difference between groups with respect to the duration of the operation or extent of resection, but the mean estimated blood loss was significantly lower in the minimally invasive surgery (MIS) cohort (142 vs 320 ml, p meningioma. There were no statistically significant differences in length of hospitalization, ASIA score improvement, complication rate, or recurrence rate. The mean duration of follow-up was 2 years for the MIS group and 1.6 years for the open surgery group. CONCLUSIONS This is one of the largest comparisons of minimally invasive and open approaches to the resection of thoracolumbar intradural-extramedullary tumors. With well-matched cohorts, the minimally invasive transspinous approach appears to be as safe and effective as the open technique, with the advantage of significantly reduced intraoperative blood loss.

  10. Revisiting Fenton Hill Phase I reservoir creation and stimulation mechanisms through the GTO code comparison effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Pengcheng; Mcclure, Mark; Shiozawa, Sogo; White, Mark D.

    2016-06-27

    A series of experiments performed at the Fenton Hill hot dry rock site after stage 2 drilling of Phase I reservoir provided intriguing field observations on the reservoir’s responses to injection and venting under various conditions. Two teams participating in the US DOE Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO)’s Code Comparison Study (CCS) used different numerical codes to model these five experiments with the objective of inferring the hydraulic stimulation mechanism involved. The codes used by the two teams are based on different numerical principles, and the assumptions made were also different, due to intrinsic limitations in the codes and the modelers’ personal interpretations of the field observations. Both sets of models were able to produce the most important field observations and both found that it was the combination of the vertical gradient of the fracture opening pressure, injection volume, and the use/absence of proppant that yielded the different outcomes of the five experiments.

  11. Effects of phase fluctuation in an open four-level inversionless lasing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xijun Fan(樊锡君); Mengzheng Zhu(朱孟正); Zhengping Hong(洪正平); Shangqing Gong(龚尚庆); Zhizhan Xu(徐至展)

    2004-01-01

    A steady analytical solution of an open four-level inversionless lasing system with a driving field having the phase fluctuation has been given, and the effects of the finite width due to the phase fluctuation on the gain, dispersion, and population difference have been analyzed by using the numerical simulation from the steady analytical solution. It is found that: with the linewidth increasing, the gain decreases and the absolute value of population difference between levels coupled by the probe field increases, but the variation of the linewidth cannot change the properties of the inversionless lasing and refractive index increase of the system; when the linewidth does not equal to zero, the system can still get a high refractive index with zero absorption, and these conclusions have very obvious difference from those obtained in other inversionless lasing systems.

  12. Comparison between two portal laparoscopy and open surgery for ovariectomy in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Elnaz; Bakhtiari, Jalal; Khalaj, Alireza; Niasari-Naslaji, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Ovariectomy (OVE) is a routine surgical procedure for neutering in small animal practice. Laparoscopy is a new surgical technique which contains advantages such as less trauma, smaller incision and excellent visualization than traditional open surgery. The present study was conducted to examine the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic procedure through two portal comparing with the conventional open surgery for OVE in healthy female bitches (n=16). Dogs were divided in two equal groups. In laparoscopic group, two 5 and 10 mm portals were inserted; First in the umbilicus for introducing the camera and the second, caudal to the umbilicus for inserting the forceps. Laparoscopic procedure involved grasping and tacking the ovary to the abdominal wall, followed by electrocautery, resection and removal of the ovary. In open surgery, routine OVE was conducted through an incision from umbilicus to caudal midline. Mean operative time, total length of scar, blood loss, clinical and blood parameters and all intra and post-operative complications were recorded in both groups. Mean operative time, total length of scar, blood loss and post-operative adhesions were significantly less in laparoscopic group compared with open surgery. In conclusion, laparoscopic OVE is an acceptable procedure due to more advantages in comparison with traditional OVE.

  13. Open Access Intellectual Property Systems: A Comparison to Commercial Solutions in Competitive Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Cerny

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ICT/IS management plays an important role within the framework of innovation management, and one of the key elements of this role is the support of Competitive Intelligence in the context of innovation processes. The strategic information needs of innovation management are also directed towards different kinds of intellectual property (IP information entities and commercialization. The purpose of this paper is to define these entities and IP information systems as an important part of a company’s Competitive Intelligence Unit for competitor analysis and technology trends. The open access IP information systems will be analysed together with commercial solutions.. The aim of this paper is to underline the importance of open access IP systems compared to added value commercial solutions for competitive intelligence purposes for SMEs. The comparison will be carried out using examples of patent searches within a concrete dataset.

  14. A novel bio-safe phase separation process for preparing open-pore biodegradable polycaprolactone microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Aurelio; Domingo, Concepción

    2014-09-01

    Open-pore biodegradable microparticles are object of considerable interest for biomedical applications, particularly as cell and drug delivery carriers in tissue engineering and health care treatments. Furthermore, the engineering of microparticles with well definite size distribution and pore architecture by bio-safe fabrication routes is crucial to avoid the use of toxic compounds potentially harmful to cells and biological tissues. To achieve this important issue, in the present study a straightforward and bio-safe approach for fabricating porous biodegradable microparticles with controlled morphological and structural features down to the nanometer scale is developed. In particular, ethyl lactate is used as a non-toxic solvent for polycaprolactone particles fabrication via a thermal induced phase separation technique. The used approach allows achieving open-pore particles with mean particle size in the 150-250 μm range and a 3.5-7.9 m(2)/g specific surface area. Finally, the combination of thermal induced phase separation and porogen leaching techniques is employed for the first time to obtain multi-scaled porous microparticles with large external and internal pore sizes and potential improved characteristics for cell culture and tissue engineering. Samples were characterized to assess their thermal properties, morphology and crystalline structure features and textural properties.

  15. Two-dimensional phase unwrapping algorithms for fringe pattern analysis: a comparison study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Wang, Zhaomin; Wen, Yongfu; Qu, Weijuan

    2015-03-01

    Phase unwrapping is a process to reconstruct the absolute phase from a wrapped phase map whose range is (-π, π]. As the absolute phase cannot be directly extracted from the fringe pattern, phase unwrapping is therefore required by phasemeasure techniques. Currently, many phase unwrapping algorithms have been proposed. In this paper, four popular phase unwrapping algorithms, including the Goldstein's branch cut method, the quality-guided method, the Phase Unwrapping via Max Flow (PUMA) method, and the phase estimation using adaptive regularization based on local smoothing method (PERALS), are reviewed and discussed. Detailed accuracy comparisons of these methods are provided as well.

  16. Comparison of flux measurement by open-path and close-path eddy covariance systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG; Xia; YU; Guirui; LIU; Yunfen; SUN; Xiaomin; REN; Chua

    2005-01-01

    For flux measurement, the eddy covariance technique supplies a possibility to directly measure the exchange between vegetation and atmosphere; and there are two kinds of eddy covariance systems, open-path and close-path systems. For the system error, it may result in difference of flux measurements by two systems. Therefore, it is necessary to compare the measured results from them. ChinaFLUX covers of eight sites applied the micrometeorological method, in which Changbai Mountains (CBS) and Qianyanzhou (QYZ) carried out open-path eddy covariance (OPEC) and close-path eddy covariance (CPEC) measurements synchronously.In this paper the data sets of CBS and QYZ were employed. The delay time of close-path analyzer to the open-path analyzer was calculated; the spectra and cospectra of time-series data of OPEC and CPEC were analyzed; the open-path flux measurement was used as a standard comparison, the close-path flux measurement results were evaluated. The results show that, at two sites the delay time of CO2 density for close-path analyzer was about 7.0-8.0 s, H2O density about 8.0-9.0 s; the spectrum from the open-path, close-path and 3D sonic anemometer was consistent with the expected -2/3 slope (log-log plot), and the cospectra showed the expected slope of -4/3 in the internal subrange; the CO2 flux measured by the close-path sensor was about 84% of that of open-path measurement at QYZ, about 80% at CBS, and the latent heat flux was balanced for two systems at QYZ, 86% at CBS. From the flux difference between open-path and close-path analyzers, it could be inferred that the attenuation of turbulent fluctuations in flow through tube of CPEC affected H2O flux more significantly than CO2 flux. The gap between two systems was bigger at CBS than at QYZ; the diurnal variation in CO2 flux of two measurement systems was very consistent.

  17. Comparison between visual field defect in pigmentary glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilforushan, Naveed; Yadgari, Maryam; Jazayeri, Anisalsadat

    2016-10-01

    To compare visual field defect patterns between pigmentary glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma. Retrospective, comparative study. Patients with diagnosis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and pigmentary glaucoma (PG) in mild to moderate stages were enrolled in this study. Each of the 52 point locations in total and pattern deviation plot (excluding 2 points adjacent to blind spot) of 24-2 Humphrey visual field as well as six predetermined sectors were compared using SPSS software version 20. Comparisons between 2 groups were performed with the Student t test for continuous variables and the Chi-square test for categorical variables. Thirty-eight eyes of 24 patients with a mean age of 66.26 ± 11 years (range 48-81 years) in the POAG group and 36 eyes of 22 patients with a mean age of 50.52 ± 11 years (range 36-69 years) in the PG group were studied. (P = 0.00). More deviation was detected in points 1, 3, 4, and 32 in total deviation (P = 0.03, P = 0.015, P = 0.018, P = 0.023) and in points 3, 4, and 32 in pattern deviation (P = 0.015, P = 0.049, P = 0.030) in the POAG group, which are the temporal parts of the field. It seems that the temporal area of the visual field in primary open-angle glaucoma is more susceptible to damage in comparison with pigmentary glaucoma.

  18. Five-Phase Five-Level Open-Winding/Star-Winding Inverter Drive for Low-Voltage/High-Current Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padmanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wheeler, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This paper work proposed a five-phase five-level open-/star-winding multilevel AC converter suitable for low-voltage/high-current applications. Modular converter consists of classical two-level five-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) with slight reconfiguration to serve as a multilevel converter...

  19. Facing the differences between Facebook and OpenCV : A facial detection comparison between Open Library Computer Vision and Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Blomgren, Staffan; Hertz, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Face detection is used in many different areas and with this thesis we aim to show the difference between Facebooks face detection soft-ware compared with an open source version from OpenCV. By using the simplest implementation of OpenCV we want to find out if it is viable for use in personal applications and be of help for others wanting to implement face detection. The dataset was meticulously checked to find the exact number of faces in each image so that the optimal result is given. The c...

  20. Nonequilibrium effective field theory for absorbing state phase transitions in driven open quantum spin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchhold, Michael; Everest, Benjamin; Marcuzzi, Matteo; Lesanovsky, Igor; Diehl, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Phase transitions to absorbing states are among the simplest examples of critical phenomena out of equilibrium. The characteristic feature of these models is the presence of a fluctuationless configuration which the dynamics cannot leave, which has proved a rather stringent requirement in experiments. Recently, a proposal to seek such transitions in highly tunable systems of cold-atomic gases offers to probe this physics and, at the same time, to investigate the robustness of these transitions to quantum coherent effects. Here, we specifically focus on the interplay between classical and quantum fluctuations in a simple driven open quantum model which, in the classical limit, reproduces a contact process, which is known to undergo a continuous transition in the "directed percolation" universality class. We derive an effective long-wavelength field theory for the present class of open spin systems and show that, due to quantum fluctuations, the nature of the transition changes from second to first order, passing through a bicritical point which appears to belong instead to the "tricritical directed percolation" class.

  1. Preparation of chitosan-graft-(β-cyclodextrin) based sol-gel stationary phase for open-tubular capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Haixia; Li, Qingyin; Yu, Xiaowei; Yi, Jiaojiao; Xie, Zenghong

    2013-07-01

    A novel open-tubular CEC column coated with chitosan-graft-(β-CD) (CDCS) was prepared using sol-gel technique. In the sol-gel approach, owing to the 3D network of sol-gel and the strong chemical bond between the stationary phase and the surface of capillary columns, good chromatographic characteristics and unique selectivity in separating isomers were shown. The column efficiencies of 55,000∼163,000 plates/m for the isomeric xanthopterin and phenoxy acid herbicides using the sol-gel-derived CDCS columns were achieved. Good stabilities were demonstrated that the RSD values for the retention time of thiourea and isoxanthopterin were 1.3 and 1.4% (run to run, n = 5), 1.6 and 2.0% (day to day, n = 3), 2.9 and 3.1% (column to column, n = 3), respectively. The sol-gel-coated CDCS columns have shown improved separations of isomeric xanthopterin in comparison with CDCS-bonded capillary column.

  2. A randomized, open-label pilot comparison of gabapentin and bupropion SR for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, William D; Crockford, David; Patten, Scott; El-Guebaly, Nady

    2005-10-01

    This 6-week, randomized, open-label pilot study estimated the treatment effect size of gabapentin (n = 17) compared with bupropion SR (n = 19) for smoking cessation, thereby allowing sample size calculations for a definitive comparison study. The primary outcome measure was smoking cessation. Secondary outcome measures included smoking reduction and withdrawal severity. Gabapentin was less efficacious than bupropion for smoking cessation but was associated with fewer dropouts from adverse effects. Withdrawal severity was less with bupropion. Bupropion remains the first-line non-nicotine pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. Further study is required to determine if gabapentin has any useful role in smoking cessation. Based on our primary outcome measure, 79 subjects would be required in each treatment group of a two-armed study to achieve 90% power for detecting a difference in efficacy between gabapentin and bupropion.

  3. Comparison of superresolution effects with annular phase and amplitude filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongxin; Zhou, Changhe

    2004-12-01

    The characteristics of annular amplitude and phase filters are compared. The behavior of two-zone phase and amplitude filters as the inner zone is increased is studied in detail. Numerical simulations show that a phase filter can achieve a superresolution effect, a circular Dammann effect, and flat-topped intensity for different applications, whereas a two-zone amplitude filter can generate only a superresolution effect. The experimental results show that both amplitude and phase filters can achieve superresolution. Generally, a phase superresolution filter is recommended for its higher efficiency and its special diffraction patterns that are impossible to achieve with an amplitude filter.

  4. A Super High Resolution Distance Measurement Method Based on Phase Comparison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-Qi; ZHOU Wei; MIAO Miao; ZHOU Hui; ZHENG Sheng-Feng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Phase comparison method can enhance the measurement resolution to 10-13/τ in time domain. This method can also be used in distance measurement in the navigation and positioning. We propose a super high-resolution distance measurement based on linear phase comparison method. A high resolution scheme is put forward on the basis of the research of major factors concerning the phase comparison in the distance measurement. Conversion of a high-linearity phase difference to voltage and high-resolution voltage meter make it possible to obtain a very high phase measurement resolution. When the purpose is to measure distance, the phase noise of frequency source used in the measurement can be reduced partly. Thus this method is favourable for high resolution distance measurement. The precision of the distance measurement can reach 0.1c ps with c being the velocity of light in vacuum.

  5. Comparison between two-phase and one-phase SLIPI for instantaneous imaging of transient sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Yogeshwar Nath; Kristensson, Elias; Koegl, Matthias; Jönsson, Joakim; Zigan, Lars; Berrocal, Edouard

    2017-09-01

    Imaging through optically dense sprays is challenging due to the detection of multiple light scattering, which blurs the recorded images and limits visibility. Structured laser illumination planar imaging (SLIPI) is a technique that is capable of reducing the intensity contribution that stems from multiple scattering in a light sheet imaging configuration. The conventional SLIPI approach is based on recording three modulated sub-images successively, each having a different spatial phase, and has, therefore, been mostly used for temporally averaged imaging. To circumvent this limitation and image spray dynamics, `instantaneous' two-phase (2p) and single-phase (1p) SLIPI approaches have recently been developed. The purpose of the work presented here is to compare these two approaches in terms of optical design, image post-processing routines, multiple scattering suppression ability, and spatial resolution. The two approaches are used to image a transient direct-injection spark-ignition ethanol spray, for both liquid laser-induced fluorescence and Mie scattering detection. The capabilities of the approaches for multiple scattering suppression and image formation have also been numerically modeled by means of Monte Carlo simulation. This article shows that both approaches efficiently suppress the contribution from multiple light scattering, providing images with an intensity profile close to the corresponding single scattering case. Experimentally, this suppression renders both an improvement in image contrast and the removal of undesired stray light components that could be interpreted as signal. However, while 2p-SLIPI preserves most of the initial spatial resolution, 1p-SLIPI results in a loss of spatial resolution, where high-frequency image information is not visible anymore. Thus, there is a trade-off between preserving the most detailed information of the spray structure—with 2p-SLIPI—and being able to record an SLIPI image from a single modulated image

  6. Gas-phase generation of photoacoustic sound in an open environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yönak, Serdar H; Dowling, David R

    2003-12-01

    The photoacoustic effect is commonly exploited for molecular spectroscopy, nondestructive evaluation, and trace gas detection. Photoacoustic sound is produced when a photoactive material absorbs electromagnetic radiation and converts it to acoustic waves. This article focuses on the generation of photoacoustic sound from thermal expansion of photoactive gases due to unsteady heating from a laser light source, and extends the work of prior studies on photoacoustic sound generation in an open environment. Starting with the forced free-space wave equation, a simple model is constructed for photoacoustic sounds produced by both acoustically distributed and compact gas clouds. The model accounts for laser absorption through the Lambert-Beer law and includes the effects of photoactive gas cloud characteristics (shape, size, and concentration distribution), but does not include molecular diffusion, thermal conduction, convection, or the effects of acoustic propagation through sound-absorbing inhomogeneous media. This model is compared to experimentally measured photoacoustic sounds generated by scanning a 10.6-micron carbon dioxide (CO2) laser beam through small clouds of a photoactive gas, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). For the current investigation, the photoactive gas clouds are formed either by low flow-rate calibrated leak sources or by a laminar jet emerging from a 1.6-mm-diam tube. Model-measurement comparisons are presented over a 3- to 160-kHz bandwidth. Signal pulse shapes from simple gas cloud geometries are found to match calculated results when unmeasured gas cloud characteristics within the model are adjusted.

  7. Effect of flow field on open channel flow properties using numerical investigation and experimental comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khazaee, I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Torbat-e-jam branch, Islamic Azad University, Torbat-e-jam (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadiun, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahrood branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    In this paper a complete three-dimensional and two phase CFD model for flow distribution in an open channel investigated. The finite volume method (FVM) with a dynamic Sub grid-scale was carried out for seven cases of different aspect ratios, different inclination angles or slopes and convergence-divergence condition. The volume of fluid (VOF) method was used to allow the free-surface to deform freely with the underlying turbulence. The discharge through open channel flow is often evaluated by velocity-area integration method from the measurement of velocity at discrete locations in the measuring section. The variation of velocity along horizontal and vertical directions is thus very important to decide the location of the sensors. The aspect ratio of the channel, slope of the channel and divergence- convergence of the channel have investigated and the results show that the depth of water at the end of the channel is higher at AR=0.8 against the AR=0.4 and AR=1.2. Also it is clear that by increasing the inclination angle or slope of the channel in case1, case4 and case5 the depth of the water increases. Also it is clear that the outlet mass flow rate is at a minimum value at a range of inclination angle of the channel.

  8. Comparison of Predictions of Three Two-Phase Flow Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-01

    A. W. Barrows), April 1974, AD #919315L. 16 Heat feedback to the solid phase during combustion continuously in- creases the solid phase...21 Firing Record P82415 Aberdeen Proving Ground, March 1974. 20 isd ’jy o o o T" o o o -«* I T" n n oo •o CM - O < efl +-> z Q 5

  9. Advances on the time differential three-phase-lag heat conduction model and major open issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Apice, Ciro; Zampoli, Vittorio

    2017-07-01

    The main purpose of this short contribution is to summarize the recent achievements concerning the so-called time differential three-phase-lag heat conduction model, contextually focusing attention on some of the numerous open problems associated with such an attractive theory. After having briefly recalled the origin of the model at issue, the restrictions upon the delay times and the constitutive tensors able to make it thermodynamically consistent are recalled. Under these hypotheses, the investigation of the well-posedness issue has already provided important results in terms of uniqueness and continuous dependence of the solutions (even related to the thermoelastic case), as well as in terms of existence of a domain of influence of the assigned data in connection with the thermoelastic model. Finally, some of the main problems currently object of investigation are recalled, including the very challenging issues about the different possible choices of Taylor series expansion orders for the constitutive equation, the interaction of the model with energy processes that take place on the nanoscale, with multi-porous materials and with biological systems.

  10. Influence of Downstream Flow on Conduction Phase of Coaxial Plasma Opening Switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiang; WANG Younian

    2008-01-01

    Plasma behaviour and the scaling relations in a coaxial plasma opening switch (POS) using hydrogen plasma are studied self-consistently based on the two-dimensional magnetohydro-dynamic (MHD) equations in conjunction with the generalized Ohm's law. The vacuum region on the right of POS is included in the model and the influence of downstream flow on the conduction characteristics is discussed. It is found that with the penetration of magnetic field, the pure hydro-gen plasma is pushed downstream significantly; and POS still conducts current after the magnetic field arrives at the load edge of POS, which is different from the previous experimental results in a multispecies POS. It is because that the noticeable downstream plasma in the pure hydrogen POS may continue to conduct the current, while in the multispecies POS, the downstream plasma is unimportant so that the conduction phase ends soon after the magnetic field reaches the load edge. The scaling relation obtained from the simulations including the downstream region is consistent with the experimental results.

  11. [Characteristics of electroosmotic flow in open-tubular capillary electrochromatography with magnetic nanoparticle coating as mixed-mode stationary phase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Sasa; Zhou, Chaoran; Zhu, Yaxian; Ren, Zhiyu; Zhang, Lingyi; Fu, Honggang; Zhang, Weibing

    2011-09-01

    A novel open-tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC) column with magnetic nanoparticle coating as mixed-mode stationary phase was prepared. The mixed-mode stationary phases were obtained by mixing C18 and amino modified magnetic nanoparticles with different ratios. The mixed modified magnetic nanoparticles as stationary phase were introduced into the capillary by using external magnetic force. The magnetic nanoparticle coating can be easily regenerated by removing the external magnetic field, and applied to other separation modes. The characteristics of electroosmotic flow (EOF) were theoretically investigated through the effect of physicochemical properties of different stationary phases on EOF. The experiment was conducted under different ratios of mixed-mode stationary phases and coating lengths, and it was verified that the theoretical conclusions accorded with the experimental results. It was shown that the EOF can be easily adjusted by changing the ratio of stationary phases or the number of permanent magnets.

  12. Comparison report of open calculations for ATLAS Domestic Standard Problem (DSP 02)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ki Yong; Kim, Y. S.; Kang, K. H.; Cho, S.; Park, H. S.; Choi, N. H.; Kim, B. D.; Min, K. H.; Park, J. K.; Chun, H. G.; Yu, Xin Guo; Kim, H. T.; Song, C. H.; Sim, S. K.; Jeon, S. S.; Kim, S. Y.; Kang, D. G.; Choi, T. S.; Kim, Y. M.; Lim, S. G.; Kim, H. S.; Kang, D. H.; Lee, G. H.; Jang, M. J.

    2012-09-15

    KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has been operating an integral effect test facility, the Advanced Thermal Hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation (ATLAS) for transient and accident simulations of advanced pressurized water reactors (PWRs). By using the ATLAS, a high quality integral effect test database has been established for major design basis accidents of the APR1400. A Domestic Standard Problem (DSP) exercise using the ATLAS database was promoted in order to transfer the database to domestic nuclear industries and to contribute to improving safety analysis methodology for PWRs. This 2nd ATLAS DSP exercise was led by KAERI in collaboration with KINS since the successful completion of the 1st ATLAS DSP in 2009. This exercise aims at effective utilization of integral effect database obtained from the ATLAS, establishment of cooperation framework among the domestic nuclear industry, better understanding of thermal hydraulic phenomena, and investigation of the possible limitation of the existing best estimate safety analysis codes. A small break loss of coolant accident of 6 inch break at the cold leg was determined as a target scenario by considering its technical importance and by incorporating with interests from participants. Twelve domestic organizations joined this DSP 02 exercise. Finally, eleven out of the joined organizations submitted their calculation results, including universities, government, and nuclear industries. This DSP exercise was performed in an open calculation environment where the integral effect test data was open to participants prior to code calculations. This report includes all information of the 2nd ATLAS DSP (DSP 02) exercise as well as comparison results between the calculations and the experimental data.

  13. Structural comparison between the open and closed forms of citrate synthase from Thermus thermophilus HB8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Eiji; Kawaguchi, Shin-Ichi; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Kouyama, Tsutomu; Murakami, Midori

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structures of citrate synthase from the thermophilic eubacteria Thermus thermophilus HB8 (TtCS) were determined for an open form at 1.5 Å resolution and for closed form at 2.3 Å resolution, respectively. In the absence of ligands TtCS in the open form was crystalized into a tetragonal form with a single subunit in the asymmetric unit. TtCS was also co-crystallized with citrate and coenzyme-A to form an orthorhombic crystal with two homodimers in the asymmetric unit. Citrate and CoA are found in the active site situated between the large domain and the small domain in all subunit whereas the complex shows two distinct closed conformations, the fully closed form and partially closed form. Structural comparisons are performed to describe conformational changes associated with binding of products of TtCS. Upon binding of citrate, basic residues in the active site move toward citrate and make a hydrogen bond network in the active site, inducing a large-scale rotation of the small domain relative to the large domain. CoA is sandwiched between the small and large domains and then the cysteamine tail is inserted into the active site with a cooperative rotation around mainchain dihedrals in the hinge region connecting helices M and N. According to this rotation these helices are extended to close the active site completely. The considerable flexibility and structural rearrangements in the hinge region are crucial for an ordered bibi reaction in catalysis for microbial CSs.

  14. Phase transfer reagent promoted tandem ring-opening and ring-closing reactions of unique 3-(1-alkynyl) chromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Jin, Shiyu; Huang, Liping; Hu, Youhong

    2015-05-01

    A phase transfer reagent promoted tandem ring-opening and ring-closing reaction of 3-(1-alkynyl) chromones has been developed. This process remarkably generates functionalized 3-acyl-2-substituted chromones. Interestingly, when 3-(hepta-1,6-diyn-1-yl)chromone derivatives are applied, a novel tetracyclic chromone scaffold can be obtained by a further intramolecular 4 + 2 cyclization.

  15. Pupil phase discontinuity measurement: comparison of different wavefront sensing concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hadi, K.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Dohlen, K.; Fusco, T.; Neichel, B.; Marchis, F.; N'Diaye, M.

    2016-07-01

    The Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille is involved in the preparation of the E-ELT instrumentation framework: In particular, an ESO-EELT M1 mirror segment (1.5 m) has been demonstrated and different wavefront sensing (WFS) concepts among which Pyramid, Zernike phase mask sensor (ZELDA), Phase diversity or still NL Curvature) are also investigated. Segmented mirrors are widely used today in diverse domains: fiber coupling, laser beam shaping, microscopy or retina imaging. If, these mirrors offer a solution to realize important monolithic sizes for giant telescopes in astronomy, they also raise the problem of segments cophasing and measurement of phase discontinuities. In this work, we aim to investigate a suitable WFS approach for pupil phase discontinuity measurement. Coupling a segmented PTT mirror (Iris AO) with four different WFS (Shack-Hartmann, Quadriwave Lateral Shearing Interferometer, Pyramid and Zernike Phase Mask), we study their sensitivity to segmented pupil: in particular, segment phasing, stability, saturation, flat, or still the addressing mode are then performed and compared.

  16. [Suppurative mediastinitis after open heart surgery: in comparison between infants-children and adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukasawa, M; Orita, H; Inui, K; Hirooka, S; Iijima, Y; Washio, M

    1993-02-01

    Among 361 consecutive patients who underwent open surgery from Jan. 1987 to Sept. 1991, risk factors and clinical courses were analyzed retrospectively in comparison between infants-children and adults. Seven mediastinitis (4.0%) occurred in 173 adult patients (20 to 75 y/o, mean: 54.4 y/o) and were not associated with age, sex, type of disease, and duration of operation or cardiopulmonary bypass. Postoperative mediastinitis significantly increased in the patients with low output syndrome (LOS) determined as use of IABP and/or assistant circulations (p MRSA in 10 and Staphylococcus epidermidis in one. In the seven of adult patients, two developed sepsis and four died with other organic failures or mediastinal bleeding. All five of infants healed after postoperative 33 to 145 days. The immature state of immune response might associate with postoperative mediastinitis in infants, whether LOS may be important in the immune suppression by surgical stress in adults, and the prognosis of mediastinitis might be effected by prolonged depression of postoperative cardiac function in adult patients.

  17. A Comparison of Critical Regimes in Collapsible Tube, Pipe, Open Channel and Gas-Dynamic Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, C. P.

    2003-11-01

    Though of considerable interest to clinical scientists, collapsible tubes are only recently receiving due interest by fluid physicists. The subject of critical phenomena in collapsible tube flow appears not to have been examined critically. For example, it has been proposed in the past that shock waves in physiological tubes are abnormal. We propose a classification of flow through collapsible tubes recognising that compressibility in gas-dynamic and pipe flow (cf.waterhammer) corresponds to distensibility in collapsible tube flow. Thus, opening and closing waves of collapsible tube flow (predistension regime) is subcritical flow and the post-distension regime, supercritical. Physiological tubes are often hyperelastic and contractile and often, when distension is very significant, a hypercritical regime corresponding to hypersonic gas-dynamic flow is admissible. Such a hypercritical regime would allow storage of energy and muscle contraction in the wall of the tube and hence continuance of propulsion in the essentially intermittent flow that is seen in collapsible tubes. Such a mechanism appears to be in operation in the human aorta, bowel and urethra. The present work offers a comparison of critical regimes in various fluid flow situations including collapsible tubes, that is in harmony with known phenomena seen in nature.

  18. STAY HERE, GO FURTHER: The Status of Open and Distance Education in Bangladesh Open University (BOU in comparison to two other South Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monira JAHAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distance education has emerged out of social compulsion, the dynamics of change and new cultures. It was the failure of traditional systems to be able to meet the demand in countries, where the resources available for tertiary education are limited, which basically gave birth to the new trend of education known as open and distance education. This new and innovative system of education has received a high level of acceptance in different countries as it offers flexible educational opportunities for continuing education to a large segment of their population. The increasing number of older adult learners with varying lifestyles in the population, increasing competitiveness of getting places in tertiary institutions, higher cost of education and a shortage of teachers are the main factors for increasing the popularity of distance education (Duncan, et al., 2003. Bangladesh has also taken the opportunity to provide a uniform and mass oriented universal system of education through open and distance education establishing Bangladesh Open University (BOU in 1992. Objectives of the Study: The main objectives of this study are- to assess the overall status of BOU in comparison with the open universities of two neighboring South Asian countries considering the following aspects:•Administrative structural functions, •Courses and instructional strategies, •Learning opportunities, and •Library, laboratory and counselling facilities to explore the potential of improvement for BOU to enable it to meet the challenges of the country’s educational needs in the next millennium.

  19. Methane emissions from sugarcane vinasse storage and transportation systems: Comparison between open channels and tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Bruna Gonçalves; Carvalho, João Luís Nunes; Chagas, Mateus Ferreira; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino; Cerri, Carlos Clemente; Feigl, Brigitte Josefine

    2017-06-01

    Over the last few years the brazilian sugarcane sector has produced an average of 23.5 million liters of ethanol annually. This scale of production generates large amounts of vinasse, which depending on the manner that is disposed, can result significant greenhouse gas emissions. This study aimed to quantify the methane (CH4) emissions associated with the two most widespread systems of vinasse storage and transportation used in Brazil; open channel and those comprising of tanks and pipes. Additionally, a laboratory incubation study was performed with the aim of isolating the effects of vinasse, sediment and the interaction between these factors on CH4 emissions. We observed significant differences in CH4 emissions between the sampling points along the channels during both years of evaluation (2012-2013). In the channel system, around 80% of CH4 emissions were recorded from uncoated sections. Overall, the average CH4 emission intensity was 1.36 kg CO2eq m-3 of vinasse transported in open channels, which was 620 times higher than vinasse transported through a system of tanks and closed pipes. The laboratory incubation corroborated field results, suggesting that vinasse alone does not contribute significant emissions of CH4. Higher CH4 emissions were observed when vinasse and sediment were incubated together. In summary, our findings demonstrate that CH4 emissions originate through the anaerobic decomposition of organic material deposited on the bottom of channels and tanks. The adoption of coated channels as a substitute to uncoated channels offers the potential for an effective and affordable means of reducing CH4 emissions. Ultimately, the modernization of vinasse storage and transportation systems through the adoption of tank and closed pipe systems will provide an effective strategy for mitigating CH4 emissions generated during the disposal phase of the sugarcane ethanol production process.

  20. Modeling and simulation for phase coarsening: A comparison with experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K. G.; Glicksman, M. E.; Rajan, K.

    2004-06-01

    The phase coarsening of precipitates is modeled in the framework of Debye-Hückel theory. The interactions observed among a population of precipitates dispersed throughout a matrix can be described by diffusion screening. The relationship between the maximum particle radius and the volume fraction of the phases is established, and the rate of coarsening is related to the volume fraction and the self-similar particle size distribution. We simulated the dynamics of late-stage phase separation using multiparticle diffusion methods. Experimental measurements on the rates of coarsening of δ' ( Al3 Li) precipitates in binary Al-Li alloys are compared with our results using modeling and simulation. The theoretically predicted particle size distributions and the maximum radius expected for particles in the microstructure agree well with recent experimental results.

  1. Analysis and comparison of different phase shifters for Stirling pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Tian; Pfotenhauer, John M.; Zhou, Wenjie

    2016-12-01

    Investigations of phase shifters and power recovery mechanisms are of sustainable interest for developing Stirling pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTC) with higher power density, more compact design and higher efficiency. This paper investigates the phase shifting capacity and the applications of four different phase shifters, including conventional inertance tube, gas-liquid and spring-oscillator phase shifters, as well as a power recovery displacer. Distributed models based on the electro-acoustic analogy are developed to estimate the phase shifting capacity and the acoustic power dissipation of the three phase shifters without power recovery. The results show that both gas-liquid and spring-oscillator phase shifters have the distinctive capacity of phase shifting with a significant reduction in the inertial component length. Furthermore, full distributed models of SPTCs connected with different phase shifters are developed. The cooling performance of SPTCs using all four phase shifters are presented and typical phase relations are analyzed. The comparison reveals that the power recovery displacer with a more complicated configuration provides the highest efficiency. The gas-liquid and spring-oscillator phase shifters show equivalent efficiency compared with the inertance tube phase shifter. Approximately 10-20% of the acoustic power is dissipated by the phase shifters without power recovery, while 15-20% of the acoustic power can be recovered by the power recovery displacer, leading to a maximum coefficient of performance (COP) above 0.14 at 80 K. A merit analysis is also done by presenting the pros and cons of different phase shifters.

  2. Comparison of electrical and optical characteristics in gas-phase and gas-liquid phase discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, H. I. A.; Nie, Qiu-Yue; Li, He-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Bao, Cheng-Yu

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an AC-excited argon discharge generated using a gas-liquid (two-phase) hybrid plasma reactor, which mainly consists of a powered needle electrode enclosed in a conical quartz tube and grounded deionized water electrode. The discharges in the gas-phase, as well as in the two-phase, exhibit two discharge modes, i.e., the low current glow-like diffuse mode and the high current streamer-like constrict mode, with a mode transition, which exhibits a negative resistance of the discharges. The optical emission spectral analysis shows that the stronger diffusion of the water vapor into the discharge region in the two-phase discharges boosts up the generation of OH (A-X) radicals, and consequently, leads to a higher rotational temperature in the water-phase plasma plume than that of the gas-phase discharges. Both the increase of the power input and the decrease of the argon flow rate result in the increase of the rotational temperature in the plasma plume of the water-phase discharge. The stable two-phase discharges with a long plasma plume in the water-phase under a low power input and gas flow rate may show a promising prospect for the degradation of organic pollutants, e.g., printing and dyeing wastewater, in the field of environmental protection.

  3. Comparison of Phase Synchronizability of Several Regular Networks for Non-Phase-Coherent Attractors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jun-Chan; LU Jun-An; DING Chun

    2008-01-01

    Though applying master stability function method to analyse network complete synchronization has been well studied in chaotic dynamical systems,it does not work well for phase synchronization.Moreover,it is difficult to identify phase synchronization with the angle of rotation for non-phase-coherent attractors.We employ the recurrences plot method to detect phase synchronization for several regular networks with non-phase-coherent attractors.It is found that the coupling strength μ is different for different coupled networks.The coupling strength μ is reduced as completed coupled network scale enlarges,the coupling strength μ of star coupled network is irrelevant to network scale,and these two regular networks are easier to achieve phase synchronization.However,for ring and chain coupled networks,the larger the phase synchronization couple strength μ is,the larger the network scale is,and it is more difficult to achieve phase synchronization.For same scale network,once ring coupled structure becomes a chain coupled structure,phase synchronization becomes much more difficuit.

  4. Comparison of electrical and optical characteristics in gas-phase and gas-liquid phase discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qazi, H. I. A.; Li, He-Ping, E-mail: liheping@tsinghua.edu.cn; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Bao, Cheng-Yu [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Nie, Qiu-Yue [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province 150001 (China)

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents an AC-excited argon discharge generated using a gas-liquid (two-phase) hybrid plasma reactor, which mainly consists of a powered needle electrode enclosed in a conical quartz tube and grounded deionized water electrode. The discharges in the gas-phase, as well as in the two-phase, exhibit two discharge modes, i.e., the low current glow-like diffuse mode and the high current streamer-like constrict mode, with a mode transition, which exhibits a negative resistance of the discharges. The optical emission spectral analysis shows that the stronger diffusion of the water vapor into the discharge region in the two-phase discharges boosts up the generation of OH (A–X) radicals, and consequently, leads to a higher rotational temperature in the water-phase plasma plume than that of the gas-phase discharges. Both the increase of the power input and the decrease of the argon flow rate result in the increase of the rotational temperature in the plasma plume of the water-phase discharge. The stable two-phase discharges with a long plasma plume in the water-phase under a low power input and gas flow rate may show a promising prospect for the degradation of organic pollutants, e.g., printing and dyeing wastewater, in the field of environmental protection.

  5. Comparison of methods for physical determination of phase transformations temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rusz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Various physical methods for the determination of phase transformation temperatures were compared using C-Mn and C-Mn-V-Nb steels. The measurement using temperature scanner, variously located thermocouples, dilatometer, different thermal analysis (DTA and anisothermal plastometric test were completed. The specimens were heated to 1 323 K and 1 473 K in the case of the C-Mn-V-Nb microalloyed steel. The aim of the different heat treatment were to obtain different levels of precipitates’ dissolution. It was found that the better particles’ distribution and precipitation due to the cooling lead to the enlargement of the two-phase region in the material. The good agreement of result gained by used methods was achieved. We found that all used methods can be used for common steels, but the temperature scanner seems not to be precious enough for microalloyed steels.

  6. Comparison of normal and phase stepping shearographic NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andhee, A.; Gryzagoridis, J.; Findeis, D.

    2005-05-01

    The paper presents results of non-destructive testing of composite main rotor helicopter blade calibration specimens using the laser based optical NDE technique known as Shearography. The tests were performed initially using the already well established near real-time non-destructive technique of Shearography, with the specimens perturbed during testing for a few seconds using the hot air from a domestic hair dryer. Subsequent to modification of the shearing device utilized in the shearographic setup, phase stepping of one of the sheared images to be captured by the CCD camera was enabled and identical tests were performed on the composite main rotor helicopter blade specimens. Considerable enhancement of the images manifesting or depicting the defects on the specimens is noted suggesting that phase stepping is a desirable enhancement technique to the traditional Shearographic setup.

  7. Gas chromatography on wall-coated open-tubular columns with ionic liquid stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Colin F; Lenca, Nicole

    2014-08-29

    Ionic liquids have moved from novel to practical stationary phases for gas chromatography with an increasing portfolio of applications. Ionic liquids complement conventional stationary phases because of a combination of thermophysical and solvation properties that only exist for ionic solvents. Their high thermal stability and low vapor pressure makes them suitable as polar stationary phases for separations requiring high temperatures. Ionic liquids are good solvents and can be used to expand the chemical space for separations. They are the only stationary phases with significant hydrogen-bond acidity in common use; they extend the hydrogen-bond basicity of conventional stationary phases; they are as dipolar/polarizable as the most polar conventional stationary phases; and some ionic liquids are significantly less cohesive than conventional polar stationary phases. Problems in column coating techniques and related low column performance, column activity, and stationary phase reactivity require further exploration as the reasons for these features are poorly understood at present.

  8. Beneficial Effects of Delayed Opening the Infarct -related Artery on Late Phase Left Ventricular Function in Acute Anterior Myocardial Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Likun; Yu Hua; Huang Xiangyang; Chu Jun; Feng Kefu; Ding Xiaomei; Yan Ji; Gu Tongyuan

    2004-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effect of delayed opening the infarct - related artery(IRA) by percutanous coronary intervention (PCI) on the late phase left ventricular function after acute anterior myocardial infarction. Methods 64 patients with initial Q -wave anterior myocardial infarction and the infarct- related arteries were total occluded conformed by angiogram at 2 to 14 days after onset were divided into successful PCI group and control group (not receiving PCI or the IRA not re - opened). 2 - DE was performed at early phase ( about 3 weeks) , 2 and 6months after onset of AMI respectively to detect the left ventricular function and left ventricular wall motion abnormality (VWMA). The total congestive heart failure events were recorded during 6 months follow-up. Results VWMA scores, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end - diastolic and end-systolic volume indices (LVEDVI and LVDSVI)were similar in 2 groups at early phase and 2 months.There were no differences between early phase and 2months in each group too. VWMA scores and LVEF did not changed at 6 months in each group compared with the early phase and 2 months (P > 0.05 ). But LVEDVI and LVESVI were significantly smaller in the successful PCI group than in the control group (P <0.01,P < 0. 05 ). The congestive heart failure events were taken place in 19% of patients in control group compared with 2% in successful PCI group ( P > 0.05 ).Conclusions Although the infarct size does not changed, delayed opening the IRA has beneficial effect to the late phase left ventricular dilatation after acute anterior myocardial infarction.

  9. A direct comparison of protein structure in the gas and solution phase: the Trp-cage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patriksson, Alexandra; Adams, Christopher M; Kjeldsen, Frank;

    2007-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of zwitterions of the Trp-cage protein in the gas phase show that the most stable ion in vacuo has preserved the charge locations acquired in solution. A direct comparison of the gas and solution-phase structures reveals that, despite the similarity in charge location......, there is significant difference in the structures, with a substantial increase in hydrogen bonds and exposure of hydrophobic parts in the gas phase. The structure of the salt bridge in the gas phase is also much more stable than in the (experimental) solution structure....

  10. Lightweight Hybrid Ablator Incorporating Aerogel-Filled Open-Cell Foam Structural Insulator, Phase II Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In previous work for NASA and DoD, Ultramet developed lightweight open-cell foam insulators composed of a carbon or ceramic structural foam skeleton filled with a...

  11. Comparison of pulse phase and thermographic signal reconstruction processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald-Tranta, Beata; Shepard, Steven M.

    2013-05-01

    Active thermography data for nondestructive testing has traditionally been evaluated by either visual or numerical identification of anomalous surface temperature contrast in the IR image sequence obtained as the target sample cools in response to thermal stimulation. However, in recent years, it has been demonstrated that considerably more information about the subsurface condition of a sample can be obtained by evaluating the time history of each pixel independently. In this paper, we evaluate the capabilities of two such analysis techniques, Pulse Phase Thermography (PPT) and Thermographic Signal Reconstruction (TSR) using induction and optical flash excitation. Data sequences from optical pulse and scanned induction heating are analyzed with both methods. Results are evaluated in terms of signal-tobackground ratio for a given subsurface feature. In addition to the experimental data, we present finite element simulation models with varying flaw diameter and depth, and discuss size measurement accuracy and the effect of noise on detection limits and sensitivity for both methods.

  12. Cubital tunnel syndrome : A comparison of an endoscopic technique with a minimal invasive open technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolster, M. A. J.; Zophel, O. T.; van den Heuvel, E. R.; Ruettermann, M.

    2014-01-01

    Both open and endoscopic methods for ulnar nerve decompression have been described. The purpose of this study is to compare the 6-month results of a minimal invasive open technique with an endoscopic technique. We treated 60 patients with unilateral ulnar neuropathy at the elbow, employing both tech

  13. A Comparison of Student Confidence Levels in Open Access and Undergraduate University Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Mirella

    2017-01-01

    Confidence levels of students enrolled in open access programs and undergraduate courses were measured at the University of Newcastle. The open access science students aimed to gain access to undergraduate studies in various disciplines at University. The undergraduate students were enrolled in a variety of degrees and were surveyed during their…

  14. Postoperative Comparison In Open Vs. Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair In Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogaru Iuliana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is an important problem in our society. Recent studies shows that laparoscopic ventral hernia repair has advantages in obese patients comparing with the standard open approach. This study wants to compare length of stay (LOS, hospitalization costs (HC and operative time (OT in laparoscopic and open ventral hernia repair.

  15. Comparison of liquid and supercritical fluid chromatography mobile phases for enantioselective separations on polysaccharide stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Syame; Lozac'h, Marie-Anne; Adam, Isabelle; Francotte, Eric; West, Caroline

    2016-10-07

    Analysis and production of enantiomerically pure compounds is a major topic of interest when active pharmaceutical ingredients are concerned. Enantioselective chromatography has become a favourite both at the analytical and preparative scales. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) are dominating the scene and are often seen as complementary techniques. Nowadays, for economic and ecologic reasons, SFC may be preferred over normal-phase HPLC (NPLC) as it allows significant reductions in solvent consumption. However, the transfer of NPLC methods to SFC is not always straightforward. In this study, we compare the retention of achiral molecules and separation of enantiomers under supercritical fluid (carbon dioxide with ethanol or isopropanol) and liquid normal-phase (heptane with ethanol or isopropanol) elution modes with polysaccharide stationary phases in order to explore the differences between the retention and enantioseparation properties between the two modes. Chemometric methods (namely quantitative structure-retention relationships and discriminant analysis) are employed to compare the results obtained on a large set of analytes (171 achiral probes and 97 racemates) and gain some understanding on the retention and separation mechanisms. The results indicate that, contrary to popular belief, carbon dioxide - solvent SFC mobile phases are often weaker eluents than liquid mobile phases. It appears that SFC and NPLC elution modes provide different retention mechanisms. While some enantioseparations are unaffected, facilitating the transfer between the two elution modes, other enantioseparations may be drastically different due to different types and strength of interactions contributing to enantioselectivity.

  16. Evaluating the Stability of Open Bite Treatments and Its Predictive Factors in the Retention Phase during Permanent Dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Salehi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Orthodontists often find challenges in treating the anterior open bite and maintaining the results. Purpose: This retrospective study was aimed to evaluate the stability of corrected open bite in the retention phase during permanent dentition. Materials and Method: A total number of 37 patients, including 20 males and 17 females, with the mean age of 18±2.1 years at the beginning of the treatment were studied after correction of the anterior open bite. Overbites of the patients were measured from their lateral cephalograms before (T1, at the end (T2 and at least 3 years after the end of the treatment in the presence of their fixed retainers (T3.The mean overbite changes and the number of patients with open bite, due to treatment relapse, at T3 were calculated. The relationship between the pre-treatment factors and the treatment relapse was assessed at T1 and T2. Also the effects of treatment methods, extraction and adjunctive use of removable appliances on the post-treatment relapse were evaluated. Results: The mean overbite change during the post-treatment period was -0.46±0.7 mm and six patients (16.2% had relapse in the follow-up recall. Cephalometric Jaraback index showed statistically significant, but weak correlation with overbite changes after the treatment (p= 0.035; r= -0.353. No significant difference was found between the extraction and non-extraction groups (p= 0.117 the use and the type of the removable appliances (p= 0.801. Conclusion: Fixed retainers alone are insufficient for stabilizing the results of corrected open bite. The change of overbite in the retention phase could not be predicted from cephalometric measurements. Extraction and use of adjunctive removable appliance did not have any effect on the treatment relapse.

  17. Robotic resection of huge presacral tumors: case series and comparison with an open resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jae Keun; Yang, Moon Sool; Yoon, Do Heum; Rha, Koon Ho; Kim, Keung Nyun; Yi, Seong; Ha, Yoon

    2014-06-01

    Clinical case series and analysis. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of robotic presacral tumor resection compared with conventional open approach. Conventional open approach for huge presacral tumors in the retroperitoneal space often demands excessive hospitalization and poor cosmesis. Furthermore, narrow surgical field sometimes interrupt delicate procedures. Nine patients with huge (diameter >10 cm) presacral tumors underwent surgery. Five patients among them had robotic procedure and the others had open transperitoneal tumor resection. Operation time, blood loss, hospitalization, and complications were analyzed. Robotic presacral tumor resection showed shorter operation time, less bleeding, and shorter hospitalization. Moreover, there was no complication related to abdominal adhesion. Although robotic resection for presacral tumor still has limitations technically and economically, robotic resection for huge presacral tumors demonstrated advantages over open resection specifically for benign neurogenic tumors.

  18. Comparison of parallelizations of the algorithms for image processing in OpenCL

    OpenAIRE

    Kenda, Bojana

    2015-01-01

    The thesis explores the effects of running an image processing program with the OpenCL framework at different settings. Three methods, common in image processing, have been selected from the programming library GEGL and their execution times compared when using images of different sizes as well as on different hardware. In addition, one of the methods has been modified to use local memory on an OpenCL device, allowing us to identify the potential advantages and disadvantages of such an implem...

  19. Comparison of body-powered voluntary opening and voluntary closing prehensor for activities of daily life

    OpenAIRE

    Kelsey Berning; Sarah Cohick; Reva Johnson, MS; Laura Ann Miller, PhD, CP; Jonathon W. Sensinger, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Persons with an upper-limb amputation who use a body-powered prosthesis typically control the prehensor through contralateral shoulder movement, which is transmitted through a Bowden cable. Increased cable tension either opens or closes the prehensor; when tension is released, some passive element, such as a spring, returns the prehensor to the default state (closed or open). In this study, we used the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure to examine functional differences between these two t...

  20. Imaging phase objects with square-root, Foucault, and Hoffman real filters: a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Arkadiusz; Nowicki, Slawomir; Buczynski, Ryszard; Kowalczyk, Marek; Szoplik, Tomasz

    2003-10-10

    Methods of imaging phase objects are considered. First the square-root filter is inferred from a definition of fractional-order derivatives given in terms of the integration of a fractional order called the Riemann-Liouville integral. Then we present a comparison of the performance of three frequency-domain real filters: square root, Foucault, and Hoffman. The phase-object imaging method is useful as a phase-shift measurement technique under the condition that the output image intensity is a known function of object phase. For the square-root filter it is the first derivative of the object phase function. The Foucault filter, in spite of its position, gives output image intensities expressed by Hilbert transforms. The output image intensity obtained with the Hoffman filter is not expressed by an analytical formula. The performance of the filters in a 4f imaging system with coherent illumination is simulated by use of VirtualLab 1.0 software.

  1. Experimental signatures of an absorbing-state phase transition in an open driven many-body quantum system

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez, Ricardo; Archimi, Matteo; Castellucci, Francesco; Arimondo, Ennio; Ciampini, Donatella; Marcuzzi, Matteo; Lesanovsky, Igor; Morsch, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and probing phase transitions in non-equilibrium systems is an ongoing challenge in physics. A particular instance are phase transitions that occur between a non-fluctuating absorbing phase, e.g., an extinct population, and one in which the relevant order parameter, such as the population density, assumes a finite value. Here we report the observation of signatures of such a non-equilibrium phase transition in an open driven quantum system. In our experiment rubidium atoms in a quasi one-dimensional cold disordered gas are laser-excited to Rydberg states under so-called facilitation conditions. This conditional excitation process competes with spontaneous decay and leads to a crossover between a stationary state with no excitations and one with a finite number of excitations. We relate the underlying physics to that of an absorbing state phase transition in the presence of a field which slightly offsets the system from criticality. We observe a characteristic power-law scaling of the Rydberg exc...

  2. Nonequilibrium Phase Transition in a Two-Dimensional Driven Open Quantum System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dagvadorj

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless mechanism, in which a phase transition is mediated by the proliferation of topological defects, governs the critical behavior of a wide range of equilibrium two-dimensional systems with a continuous symmetry, ranging from spin systems to superconducting thin films and two-dimensional Bose fluids, such as liquid helium and ultracold atoms. We show here that this phenomenon is not restricted to thermal equilibrium, rather it survives more generally in a dissipative highly nonequilibrium system driven into a steady state. By considering a quantum fluid of polaritons of an experimentally relevant size, in the so-called optical parametric oscillator regime, we demonstrate that it indeed undergoes a phase transition associated with a vortex binding-unbinding mechanism. Yet, the exponent of the power-law decay of the first-order correlation function in the (algebraically ordered phase can exceed the equilibrium upper limit: this shows that the ordered phase of driven-dissipative systems can sustain a higher level of collective excitations before the order is destroyed by topological defects. Our work suggests that the macroscopic coherence phenomena, observed recently in interacting two-dimensional light-matter systems, result from a nonequilibrium phase transition of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless rather than the Bose-Einstein condensation type.

  3. Comparison of arthroscopic and open Latarjet with a learning curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, G; Benchouk, S; Kherad, O; Lädermann, A

    2016-02-01

    To compare arthroscopic and open Latarjet performed by a single shoulder surgeon with learning curve analysis A comparative and learning curve analysis was carried out on a prospectively gathered database of 2 consecutive series of patients treated with arthroscopic and open Latarjet procedures performed by a single shoulder surgeon between 2008 and 2014. The database included patient characteristics, ISIS scores, operative time, intra- and postoperative complications, graft and screws positioning, as well as pre- and postoperative Walch-Duplay scores. Sixty-four patients were included in the study, 28 in the arthroscopic group and 36 in the open group with similar age, sex ratio and preoperative ISIS score. Operative time was significantly higher in the arthroscopic group (146 versus 81 min, p = 0.001), and although no intra-operative complications were recorded in either group, there were significantly more postoperative complications in the arthroscopic group (29 vs. 11 %, p = 0.03). Screw placement was more accurate in the open group, and postoperative Walch-Duplay score did not show any significant difference between the groups (88 points in the arthroscopic group and 91 points in the open group). The arthroscopic Latarjet learning curve analysis showed that the need for conversion ceased after the first 10 patients and that surgical time came close to that of open procedure after 20 procedures. In this study, 10 arthroscopic Latarjet procedures were needed to overcome the need for conversion, and 20 procedures to achieve equal operating time to the open technique. Even though functional outcome and patient satisfaction were similar in both techniques, complications, screw placement inaccuracy, persistent apprehension and recurrences still remain higher with the arthroscopic technique. Retrospective comparative analysis, Level III.

  4. Comparison of Dimensional Accuracy between Open-Tray and Closed-Tray Implant Impression Technique in 15° Angled Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balouch F.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Various impression techniques have different effects on the accuracy of final cast dimensions. Meanwhile; there are some controversies about the best technique. Purpose: This study was performed to compare two kinds of implant impression methods (open tray and closed tray on 15 degree angled implants.Materials and Method: In this experimental study, a steel model with 8 cm in diameter and 3 cm in height were produced with 3 holes devised inside to stabilize 3 implants. The central implant was straight and the other two implants were 15° angled. The two angled implants had 5 cm distance from each other and 3.5 cm from the central implant. Dental stone, high strength (type IV was used for the main casts. Impression trays were filled with poly ether, and then the two impression techniques (open tray and closed tray were compared. To evaluate positions of the implants, each cast was analyzed by CMM device in 3 dimensions (x,y,z. Differences in the measurements obtained from final casts and laboratory model were analyzed using t-Test. Results: The obtained results indicated that closed tray impression technique was significantly different in dimensional accuracy when compared with open tray method. Dimensional changes were 129 ± 37μ and 143.5 ± 43.67μ in closed tray and open tray, while coefficient of variation in closed- tray and open tray were reported to be 27.2% and 30.4%, respectively.Conclusion: Closed impression technique had less dimensional changes in comparison with open tray method, so this study suggests that closed tray impression technique is more accurate.

  5. Sensitive Phase Gratings for X-ray Phase Contrast -- a Simulation-based Comparison

    CERN Document Server

    Preusche, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Medical differential phase contrast x-ray imaging (DPCI) promises improved soft-tissue contrast at lower x-ray dose. The dose strongly depends on both the angular sensitivity and on the visibility of a grating-based Talbot-Lau interferometer. Using a conventional x-ray tube, a high sensitivity and a high visibility are somewhat contradicting goals: To increase sensitivity, the grating period has to be reduced and/or the grating distance increased. Technically, this means using a higher Talbot order (3rd or 5th one instead of first one). This however reduces the visibility somewhat, because only a smaller part of the tube spectrum will get used. This work proposes to relax this problem by changing the phase grating geometry. This allows to double sensitivity (i.e., double the Talbot order) without reducing the visibility. One proposed grating geometry is an older binary one (75% of a period $\\pi$-shifting), but applied in a novel way. The second proposed geometry is a novel one, requiring three height levels f...

  6. Treatment of open femur fractures in children: comparison between external fixator and intramedullary nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseier, Leonhard Erich; Bhaskar, Atul R; Cole, William G; Howard, Andrew W

    2007-01-01

    Open femur fractures in children are uncommon and usually associated with other injuries. In adults, there is a current trend to treat open fractures with intramedullary (IM) devices. The goal of this study was to compare external fixator (EF) to IM devices in the treatment of open femur fractures in children. Diaphyseal femur fractures without growth plate involvement were included. Thirty-five patients (12 IM; 23 EF) were identified. Age, hospital stay, polytrauma, mechanism of injury, and Gustilo-Anderson grade were recorded. Follow-up was at least until the fracture was clinically and radiographically healed. Patients with EFs were 5.2 times more likely (95% confidence interval, 1.05-25.5) to have any complication. Excluding pin track infections, patients with EFs were 2.7 times as likely (95% confidence interval, 0.567-13.2) to have a complication. Refractures occurred only in the EF group (6/23, 26%) and not in the IM nailing group (P = 0.062, Fischer exact test). These were associated with varus malunions-all 3 of the EF group with more than 15 degrees of varus at fracture union suffered a refracture. Treatment of open femur fractures in children is a challenging problem. Treatment with IM devices had fewer complications than the EF. We think that whenever possible, the use of IM devices for the treatment of open femur fracture in children should be considered, especially grade 1 open injuries. If EFs are used, avoiding varus malunion may decrease the refracture rate, and secondary change to an IM device should be considered. Comparative cohort study. Grade 3 level of evidence.

  7. Comparison of Time to Recurrence of Instability After Open and Arthroscopic Bankart Repair Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Mandeep S; Manzo, Richard L; Cote, Mark; Ware, James K; Mazzocca, Augustus D; Nissen, Carl W; Shea, Kevin P; Arciero, Robert A

    2016-06-01

    The results of open and arthroscopic instability repairs have been shown to be equivalent in recent literature. To compare the time to recurrence (TTR) of instability and disease-specific outcome measures in patients undergoing open and arthroscopic Bankart repair. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Patients with recurrent traumatic anterior shoulder instability and a Bankart lesion on diagnostic arthroscopy underwent either open Bankart repair (OB) or arthroscopic Bankart and suture capsulorrhaphy (ABSC) using suture anchors. There was a minimum follow-up of 24 months. The primary outcome measures included Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI) score and time to recurrence of instability (dislocation or subluxation). Rowe score, Simple Shoulder Test, Constant score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and Short Form-12 (SF-12) score were also compared. A total of 82 shoulders in 80 patients (ABSC, n = 58; OB, n = 24) were evaluated at a mean of 39 months postoperatively. There were 4 clinical failures in the OB group (4 dislocations) and 7 clinical failures in the ABSC group (2 dislocations and 5 subluxations; P = .72 vs OB). The mean time to recurrence of postoperative instability was significantly shorter in the ABSC group (12.6 ± 2.7 months) compared with the OB group (34.2 ± 12 months; P = .04). The WOSI score in the OB group (265 ± 48.1) was better but not statistically significantly compared with the ABSC group (449.8 ± 63.8; P = .06). The time to recurrence of instability after open Bankart repair is significantly longer compared with arthroscopic Bankart repair. Delayed time to recurrence after open Bankart repair suggests that the open technique may be more suited to withstand the high stress and demands of a heavy-duty profession (contact athletes and heavy manual labor).

  8. Comparison of Semi-Invasive "Internal Splinting" and Open Suturing Techniques in Achilles Tendon Rupture Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarman, Hakan; Muezzinoglu, Umit Sefa; Memisoglu, Kaya; Aydin, Adem; Atmaca, Halil; Baran, Tuncay; Odabas Ozgur, Bahar; Ozgur, Turgay; Kantar, Cengizhan

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the semi-invasive "internal splinting" (SIIS) method for repair of Achilles tendon rupture relative to open repair with Krakow sutures. Efficacy was evaluated based on the clinical and functional outcomes, postoperative magnetic resonance imaging measurements, isokinetic results, and surgical complication rates. Functional measurements included the Thermann and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle scores, bilateral ankle dorsiflexion, and plantar flexion measurements. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare the bilateral length and thickness of each Achilles tendon. The isokinetic outcomes were evaluated using a Biodex System 3 dynamometer. Of the 45 patients meeting the inclusion criteria, 24 were treated by SIIS and 21 by the open Krackow suture technique. The mean follow-up time for all patients was 43.7 (range 6 to 116) months. In the SIIS group, patients returned to normal daily activities after 7.2 (range 6 to 8) weeks compared with 14.3 (range 12 to 15) weeks in the open surgery group. The AOFAS ankle scores were 93.5 (range 82 to 100) points in the open repair group and 96.2 (range 86 to 100) points in the SIIS group. The Thermann scores were 80.4 (range 53 to 91) points for the open repair group and 87.9 (range 81 to 100) points for the SIIS method. The mean Achilles length on the operated side measured using magnetic resonance imaging was 175.06 (range 110 to 224) mm and 177.76 (range 149 to 214) mm for the open surgery and SIIS groups, respectively. Sensory impairment in the territory of the sural nerve was identified in 1 patient immediately after SIIS surgery, although this defect had completely resolved within 12 months. SIIS yielded better outcomes relative to the open surgery group according to the isokinetic measurements. Taken together, these data indicate the SIIS method for Achilles tendon ruptures performed better in terms of both functional and objective outcomes

  9. Cost comparison of open fasciectomy versus percutaneous needle aponeurotomy for treatment of Dupuytren contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Fernando Antonio; Benhaim, Prosper; Suliman, Ahmed; Roostaeian, Jason; Azari, Kodi; Mitchell, Scott

    2013-04-01

    Many surgical options exist for the treatment of Dupuytren contracture. Little has been written regarding their financial implications. The purpose of this study was to compare the immediate direct costs of open fasciectomy to percutaneous needle aponeurotomy (NA) for the surgical treatment of Dupuytren contracture. A retrospective review was performed comparing patients treated with open fasciectomy (group 1) to patients treated with percutaneous NA (group 2) for the treatment of Dupuytren disease from 2008 to 2010. Financial and medical records were reviewed. Direct cost of treatment was calculated from hospital billing records, including surgical, anesthesia, and facility fees. Statistical analysis was performed using unpaired t test. Twenty-four patients received open segmental palmar and/or digital fasciectomy (group 1). Average preoperative metacarpophalangeal joint flexion contracture was 30 degrees, and proximal interphalangeal joint flexion contracture was 42 degrees. Group 2 consisted of 24 patients. Average preoperative metacarpophalangeal flexion contracture was 31 degrees, and proximal interphalangeal flexion contracture was 27 degrees. Mean cost for group 1 was $11,240 and mean cost for group 2 was $4657 (P < 0.0001). Immediate postoperative contracture correction was similar between both. Two complications occurred in group 1 (wound dehiscence and nerve injury); no complications in group 2. Percutaneous NA is associated with decreased direct costs in the short-term compared to traditional open fasciectomy with comparable deformity correction.

  10. Thoracoscopic versus open partial pericardectomy in dogs: comparison of postoperative pain and morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, P J; Remedios, A M; Ferguson, J F; Walker, D D; Cantwell, S; Duke, T

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate postoperative pain and morbidity in dogs undergoing open thoracotomy and partial pericardectomy versus thoracoscopic pericardectomy. Research study in normal dogs. Fourteen mixed breed healthy dogs. Seven dogs had a partial pericardectomy through a standard left lateral thoracotomy at the fifth intercostal space. The remaining seven dogs underwent selective lung ventilation and thoracoscopic partial pericardectomy. Surgery sites in both groups were bandaged and each dog received a single postoperative dose of morphine (0.2 mg/kg, intramuscularly [i.m.]). Postoperative pain was evaluated using a standard pain score table at 1, 5, 9, 17, 29, and 53 hours after surgery. Dogs receiving a pain score of six or greater received an additional dose of morphine. At each observation point, blood samples were taken to measure blood glucose and plasma cortisol concentrations. Pain scores, blood glucose, and plasma cortisol concentrations were compared between the two groups using two-way ANOVA. Blood glucose concentrations, plasma cortisol concentrations, and pain scores were significantly different between the two groups, with the thoracotomy dogs having higher values at 1, 5, and 9 hours postoperatively. Three of the open thoracotomy dogs required additional analgesia after the initial dose of morphine. In addition, two dogs that underwent open thoracotomy were lame in the left forelimb and two others developed dehiscence of their wounds. Thoracoscopic partial pericardectomy has several advantages over open partial pericardectomy including decreased postoperative pain, fewer wound complications, and more rapid return to function.

  11. [Comparison of open versus laparoscopic surgeries for adrenal tumor: a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mao-Hu; Zhu, Xiao-Ying; Miao, Rui; He, Lei; Jia, Ning

    2016-11-20

    To systematically review the effectiveness and safety of open and laparoscopic surgeries for treatment of adrenal tumors. The online databases including CNKI, PUBMED, SinoMed, EBSCO, Springerlink, WanFang Data, and VIP were searched for clinical trials published from 1999 to 2016. A meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.2 software. A total of 2340 patients in 25 trials were included. The results of meta-analysis showed that laparoscopic surgery was better than open surgery in terms of intestinal function recovery time (OR=-0.96, 95%CI [-1.22, -0.70] P<0.000 01), hospitalization time (OR=-3.48, 95%CI [-4.13, -2.78], P<0.000 01), complications (OR=0.22, 95%CI [0.14, 0.35], P<0.0001), and volume of blood loss (OR=-104.77, 95%CI [-138.95, -70.60], P<0.000 01). There was no significant difference in the surgery cost between open and laparoscopic surgeries. Laparoscopic surgery is superior to open surgery for treatment of adrenal tumors for shorter intestinal function recovery time, surgery duration, and hospitalization time and less complications and blood loss.

  12. A nationwide comparison of laparoscopic and open distal pancreatectomy for benign and malignant disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, T. de; Jilesen, A.P.; Boerma, D.; Bonsing, B.A.; Bosscha, K.; Dam, R.M. van; Dieren, S. van; Dijkgraaf, M.G.; Eijck, C.H. van; Gerhards, M.F.; Goor, H. van; Harst, E. van der; Hingh, I.H. de; Kazemier, G.; Klaase, J.M.; Molenaar, I.Q.; Nieveen van Dijkum, E.J.; Patijn, G.A.; Santvoort, H.C. van; Scheepers, J.J.; Schelling, G.P. van der; Sieders, E.; Vogel, J.A.; Busch, O.R.; Besselink, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cohort studies from expert centers suggest that laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) is superior to open distal pancreatectomy (ODP) regarding postoperative morbidity and length of hospital stay. But the generalizability of these findings is unknown because nationwide data on LDP are

  13. PROSPECTIVE COMPARISON OF ENDOSCOPIC AND OPEN SURGICAL METHODS FOR CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Tian; Hong Zhao; Ting Wang

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare outcomes of patients undergoing either open or endoscopic carpal tunnel release for the treatment of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome.Methods A prospective, randomized study was performed on 70 hands in 62 patients with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome from April 2000 to April 2004. Either open (36 hands in 30 patients) or endoscopic (34 hands in 32 patients) carpal tunnel release was performed randomly. Symptom improvement, complications, and the time of operation , in-hospital stay, and return to work between the two groups were assessed with average 2 years of follow-up. The electromyography was tested pre- and 3 months post-operation.Results There were no significant differences between the two surgical groups with regard to postoperative improvements of symptom, electromyography tests, and the incidence of complications. But it was statistically less in the rate of scar tenderness, the time of operation, in-hospital stay, and return to work in the endoscopic group compared with the open group (P< 0. 05).Conclusions The endoscopic carpal tunnel release is a reliable method in the treatment of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. And it has the advantages of slight scar tenderness, less operation time, less in-hospital stay, early functional recovery, safety, and high satisfaction rate compared with open methods.

  14. A randomized open-label comparison of the impact of olanzapine versus risperidone on sexual functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegtering, H; Boks, M; Blijd, C; Castelein, S; Van den Bosch, RJ; Wiersma, D

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare sexual functioning in patients treated with olanzapine or risperidone. This open-label trial included 46 patients randomized to olanzapine (5-15mg/d) or risperidone (1-6mg/d) for 6 weeks. We used sexual dysfunction was assessed by a semistructured interview

  15. Arabian Sea upwelling - A comparison between coastal and open ocean regions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    , the cross-shore component is instrumental in modifying the density structure of the surface layer, especially in the north, to produce retarding effect. In open ocean, the wind maximum around 17 degrees N and 64 degrees E indicates the axis of the Findlater...

  16. Laparoscopic versus open appendectomy: A comparison of primary outcome studies from North Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Ahirsang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Currently, laparoscopic appendectomy is widely practiced for the management of acute appendicitis. It is not clear whether open or laparoscopic appendectomy is more appropriate. Our aim was to compare the safety and the advantages of laparoscopic versus open appendectomy in a prospective randomized study. Methods: Two hundred and fifty patients were randomly divided into two groups. The group A patients were subjected to laparoscopic appendectomy [LA], whereas the group B patients were subjected to open appendectomy [OA]. The demography and the primary outcome measures of the patients such as operative duration, hospital stay, post –operative pain and post operative complications were recorded and analyzed. Results: There were 125 patients in group A and ground B each of the 125 patients in group A, 6 patients were selected for open appendectomy. The operative time for OA and LA were 18-80 (49 minutes and 30-120 (72 minutes respectively. Although LA was associated with a shorter hospital stay [LA-2.5 days versus OA-4.25 days]; the postoperative complication rates were comparable between the two groups. Conclusion: LA is safe and superior to OA with respect to an early discharge, lesser postoperative pain, decreased wound infection, early return to work and a better cosmetic scar.

  17. OPEN, RANDOMIZED COMPARISON OF PEFLOXACIN AND CEFOTAXIME IN THE TREATMENT OF COMPLICATED URINARY-TRACT INFECTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TIMMERMAN, C; HOEPELMAN, [No Value; DEHOND, J; SCHREINEMACHERS, L; MENSINK, H; VERHOEF, J

    1992-01-01

    In an open, randomized study, the effect of pefloxacin (400 mg b.i.d.) was compared with that of cefotaxime (1 g t.i.d.) in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections. In total 87 patients entered the study under the clinical diagnosis of complicated urinary tract infection, of whom 49 we

  18. Effect of Silicon on M7C3 Phases and Abrasion Resistance of Open Arc Hardfacing Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIAN Bing

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fe-17Cr-4C-2V-Mn-Si-Ti complex system hardfacing alloys were deposited by using flux-cored wire self-shielded open arc welding. The effects of silicon on their M7C3 ( M =Fe, Cr, V, Mn phases and abrasion resistance were investigated by OM, XRD and SEM. The results show that, with silicon content increasing from 0.6%(mass fraction to 2.4%, the size of primary M7C3carbides gradually reduces and transites from rod-like shape to block-like shape in dispersion distributing state. γ-Fe phases, which adjacent to those primary M7C3 grains, progressively reduce until disappear. It dues to that silicon can change the precursor of primary M7C3 nucleates in nature, e.g. liquid high carbon atom clusters and it results in the change of their morphology, distribution and size. The wear test results indicate that the abrasion resistance of open arc hardfacing alloys improves firstly and then reduces when silicon content increases from 0.6% to 2.4%. The optimum abrasion resistance is acquired at 1.5%Si. The analysis on the surface worn morphologies show that the micro-cutting and micro-spalling wearing mechanisms coexist.

  19. Open versus laparoscopically-assisted oesophagectomy for cancer: a multicentre randomised controlled phase III trial - the MIRO trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Msika Simon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Open transthoracic oesophagectomy is the standard treatment for infracarinal resectable oesophageal carcinomas, although it is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates of 2 to 10% and 30 to 50%, respectively, for both the abdominal and thoracic approaches. The worldwide popularity of laparoscopic techniques is based on promising results, including lower postoperative morbidity rates, which are related to the reduced postoperative trauma. We hypothesise that the laparoscopic abdominal approach (laparoscopic gastric mobilisation in oesophageal cancer surgery will decrease the major postoperative complication rate due to the reduced surgical trauma. Methods/Design The MIRO trial is an open, controlled, prospective, randomised multicentre phase III trial. Patients in study arm A will receive laparoscopic-assisted oesophagectomy, i.e., a transthoracic oesophagectomy with two-field lymphadenectomy and laparoscopic gastric mobilisation. Patients in study arm B will receive the same procedure, but with the conventional open abdominal approach. The primary objective of the study is to evaluate the major postoperative 30-day morbidity. Secondary objectives are to assess the overall 30-day morbidity, 30-day mortality, 30-day pulmonary morbidity, disease-free survival, overall survival as well as quality of life and to perform medico-economic analysis. A total of 200 patients will be enrolled, and two safety analyses will be performed using 25 and 50 patients included in arm A. Discussion Postoperative morbidity remains high after oesophageal cancer surgery, especially due to major pulmonary complications, which are responsible for 50% of the postoperative deaths. This study represents the first randomised controlled phase III trial to evaluate the benefits of the minimally invasive approach with respect to the postoperative course and oncological outcomes in oesophageal cancer surgery. Trial Registration NCT00937456 (ClinicalTrials.gov

  20. Comparison of the current LHC Collimators and the SLAC Phase 2 Collimator Impedances

    CERN Document Server

    Day, Hugo; Metral, Elias; Salvant, Benoit; Jones, Roger

    2011-01-01

    One of the key sources of transverse impedance in the LHC has been the secondary graphite collimators that sit close to the beam at all energies. This limits the stable bunch intensity due to transverse coupled-bunch instabilities and transverse mode coupling instability. To counteract this, new secondary collimators have been proposed for the phase II upgrade of the LHC collimation system. A number of designs based on different jaw materials and mechanical designs have been proposed. A comparison of the beam coupling impedance of these different designs derived from simulations are presented, with reference to the existing phase I secondary collimator design.

  1. Comparison of the current LHC Collimators and the SLAC phase 2 Collimator impedances

    CERN Document Server

    Day, H A; Metral, E; Salvant, B; Jones, R M

    2011-01-01

    One of the key sources of transverse impedance in the LHC has been the secondary graphite collimators that sit close to the beam at all energies. This limits the stable bunch intensity due to transverse coupled-bunch instabilities and transverse mode coupling instability. To counteract this, new secondary collimators have been proposed for the phase II upgrade of the LHC collimation system. A number of designs based on different jaw materials and mechanical designs have been proposed. A comparison of the beam coupling impedance of these different designs derived from simulations are presented, with reference to the existing phase I secondary collimator design.

  2. Comparison of the current LHC Collimators and the SLAC Phase 2 Collimator Impedances

    CERN Document Server

    Day, Hugo; Metral, Elias; Salvant, Benoit; Jones, Roger

    2011-01-01

    One of the key sources of transverse impedance in the LHC has been the secondary graphite collimators that sit close to the beam at all energies. This limits the stable bunch intensity due to transverse coupled-bunch instabilities and transverse mode coupling instability. To counteract this, new secondary collimators have been proposed for the phase II upgrade of the LHC collimation system. A number of designs based on different jaw materials and mechanical designs have been proposed. A comparison of the beam coupling impedance of these different designs derived from simulations are presented, with reference to the existing phase I secondary collimator design.

  3. Hepatic phase I and phase II biotransformations in quail and trout: comparison to other species commonly used in toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregus, Z; Watkins, J B; Thompson, T N; Harvey, M J; Rozman, K; Klaassen, C D

    1983-03-15

    The ability of quail and trout to perform a number of representative phase I and phase II biotransformations was examined. To facilitate interspecies comparisons, metabolism of the same substrates was examined simultaneously under uniform conditions for rat, mouse, rabbit, guinea pig, cat, and dog. Both nonmammalian species can metabolize four representative substrates of phase I mixed-function oxidases and one substrate of epoxide hydrolase, though activity tended to be lower than that of the mammals. Important differences in the conjugative pathways were also noted. Among these differences were the quail's relative deficiency in glutathione conjugation and the trout's low ability to conjugate sulfate compounds. Trout liver UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity was remarkably high toward testosterone and bilirubin, while quail liver formed glucuronides of naphthol, p-nitrophenol, and digitoxigenin-monodigitoxoside. Also noteworthy was the high N-acetyltransferase activity of both quail and trout toward isoniazid, beta-naphthylamine, and 2-aminofluorene. Differences in substrate specificity for a given enzymatic pathway may be an indication that multiple forms of drug metabolizing systems also occur in these nonmammalian species. Observation of several hundred- or even thousand-fold differences between species in their enzyme activities for certain substrates under uniform conditions re-emphasizes the need for caution in extrapolation of xenobiotic metabolism from one species to another.

  4. Clay Vs. Grass: A Statistical Comparison of the French Open and Wimbledon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Summers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: While most professional tennis tournaments today are played on hard courts, there is a short clay court season culminating in the French Open and an even shorter grass court season culminating in Wimbledon, where specialists on those surfaces have their chance to shine. Conventional thinking has it that these two surfaces play so differently that it is difficult for a player to succeed on both and this has largely proven true over the years. Approach: Performance statistics were collected from the French Open and Wimbledon in 2010 and analyzed. This study seeks to quantify the significant differences that exist in performance on these surfaces. Results: While the differences between the two tournaments have been reduced somewhat over the years, there remain significant differences. Conclusion/Recommendations: These results have implications both for professional tennis players and for the management of these tournaments.

  5. Comparison of the Antimicrobial Effect of Chlorhexidine and Saline for Irrigating a Contaminated Open Fracture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    prokaryotic cell membranes7 while exhibiting low toxicity to mammalian tissue.8 For this reason, CHG is used extensively in healthcare as a surgical scrub ,9...of contaminated open fracture. Accepted for publication July 27, 2012. From the *Extremity Trauma-Bone Group, US Army Institute of Surgical Research...United States Army Institute of Surgical Research, JBSA Fort Sam Houston, TX 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING

  6. Comparison of body-powered voluntary opening and voluntary closing prehensor for activities of daily life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Berning

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Persons with an upper-limb amputation who use a body-powered prosthesis typically control the prehensor through contralateral shoulder movement, which is transmitted through a Bowden cable. Increased cable tension either opens or closes the prehensor; when tension is released, some passive element, such as a spring, returns the prehensor to the default state (closed or open. In this study, we used the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure to examine functional differences between these two types of prehensors in 29 nondisabled subjects (who used a body-powered bypass prosthesis and 2 persons with unilateral transradial amputations (who used a conventional body-powered device. We also administered a survey to determine whether subjects preferred one prehensor or the other for specific tasks, with a long-term goal of assessing whether a prehensor that could switch between both modes would be advantageous. We found that using the voluntary closing prehensor was 1.3 s faster (p = 0.02 than using the voluntary opening prehensor, across tasks, and that there was consensus among subjects on which types of tasks they preferred to do with each prehensor type. Twenty-five subjects wanted a device that could switch between the two modes in order to perform particular tasks.

  7. Microscopic versus open approach to craniosynostosis: a long-term outcomes comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichgraeber, John F; Baumgartner, James E; Viviano, Stephen L; Gateno, Jaime; Xia, James J

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of using the microscopic minimally invasive approach for the treatment of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis. During the last 10 years, 180 consecutive patients with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis were treated: 67 patients were treated with microscopic minimally invasive approach, and 113 were treated with the open approach. In the microscopic group, there was 1 intraoperative complication (1.5%). There were 10 postoperative complications (14.9%), of which 9 required major reoperations and 1 required a minor procedure. The major complications occurred in 7 unicoronal patients (58.3%) and 2 metopic patients (25.0%). In the open-approach group, there were 8 complications (7.1%), 2 patients required major reoperations and 6 required minor procedures. Chi-squared test showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the overall complication rate between the microscopic and open approaches. However, in the unicoronal patients, the complication rate was significantly higher in the microscopic group (P microscopic approach is our treatment of choice in nonsyndromic patients with sagittal and lambdoidal craniosynostosis. We no longer use the microscopic approach in patients with unicoronal or metopic craniosynostosis because of the high complication rate.

  8. Comparison of endoscopic surgery and open surgery for gluteal muscle contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dehao; Yang, Shuhua; Xiao, Baojun; Wang, Hong; Meng, Chunqing

    2011-01-01

    To compare the clinical effects of endoscopic surgeries with traditional open surgeries in the treatment of gluteal muscle contracture and discuss their indications and value. In this retrospective study, 50 patients received traditional open surgeries and 52 received endoscopic surgeries. The 2 groups were compared in terms of surgery duration, incision lengths, postsurgical pain, complications, off-bed activity times, hospitalization duration, clinical outcome, and 1-year recurrence rates. The endoscopic surgery group was significantly superior to the open surgery group in regard to incision length, postsurgical pain, off-bed activity time, hospitalization duration, and patient cosmetic satisfaction. Differences were not statistically significant for the surgery duration, complications, clinical outcome, or the 1-year recurrence rate. All the endoscopic surgery group patients stated that they would choose endoscopic surgery again. The endoscopic release of gluteal muscle contracture is safe and reliable, with the advantages of less trauma and pain, shorter operative time, earlier rehabilitation, and return of functional activities. Its application, though, should be carefully controlled based on the indications. It is applicable to degree I and II patients, but may be used only very cautiously in degree III patients. Level III.

  9. Comparison of body-powered voluntary opening and voluntary closing prehensor for activities of daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berning, Kelsey; Cohick, Sarah; Johnson, Reva; Miller, Laura Ann; Sensinger, Jonathon W

    2014-01-01

    Persons with an upper-limb amputation who use a body-powered prosthesis typically control the prehensor through contralateral shoulder movement, which is transmitted through a Bowden cable. Increased cable tension either opens or closes the prehensor; when tension is released, some passive element, such as a spring, returns the prehensor to the default state (closed or open). In this study, we used the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure to examine functional differences between these two types of prehensors in 29 nondisabled subjects (who used a body-powered bypass prosthesis) and 2 persons with unilateral transradial amputations (who used a conventional body-powered device). We also administered a survey to determine whether subjects preferred one prehensor or the other for specific tasks, with a long-term goal of assessing whether a prehensor that could switch between both modes would be advantageous. We found that using the voluntary closing prehensor was 1.3 s faster (p = 0.02) than using the voluntary opening prehensor, across tasks, and that there was consensus among subjects on which types of tasks they preferred to do with each prehensor type. Twenty-five subjects wanted a device that could switch between the two modes in order to perform particular tasks.

  10. Comparison of the results of MIS-TLIF and open TLIF techniques in laborers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel De Abreu Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare clinical outcomes in laborers who have undergone open transforaminal interbody fusion (TLIF and minimally invasive transforaminal interbody fusion (MIS TLIF. Methods: 78 patients were submitted to lumbar arthrodesis by the same two spine surgeons partners from January 2008 to December 2012. Forty-one were submitted to traditional open arthrodesis and 37 to the minimally invasive procedure. Three patients were not included because they had already retired from work. The analyzed variables were length of hospitalization, length of follow-up, type of access (TILF or MIS TLIF, need for blood transfusion, percentage of improvement or worsening after surgery, pre- and postoperative VAS scale, time off work, pre-and postoperative Oswestry disability index, and general aspects of the laborers such as age, education, profession, working time, amount of daily weight carried at work, and use or not of personal protective equipment. Results: Time off work was longer in the TLIF group (average of 9.84 months compared with the MIS TLIF group (average of 3.20 months. Significant improvement in postoperative VAS and Oswestry was achieved in both groups. Average length of hospitalization was 5.73 days for the TLIF group and 2.76 days for the MIS TLIF group. Conclusions: Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion presents similar results when compared to open TLIF, but has the benefits of less postoperative morbidity, shorter hospitalization times, and faster rehabilitation in laborer patients.

  11. Comparison of Open and Closed Stance Forehand Strokes among Intermediate Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajul Arifin Muhamad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays tennis is becoming faster and players are able to hit powerful from virtually anywhere on the tennis court. Training programmers and effective planning will help in designing safe, effective, and productive programs designed to help optimize the tennis performance of players. Objective: This research examine the effectiveness of open and closed stance forehand strokes in terms of percentage of success, accuracy and also to investigate whether there is a relation between level of accuracy and the choice of forehand strokes used by tennis player. Method: Participants were divided into two groups, namely, male and female who learned forehand strokes for one month. The participants were tested by using a two skill test for percentage of success and level of accuracy. Result: Founding showed that the closed stance forehand stroke has far better percentage of success and accuracy among the intermediate tennis players, but the difference was not significant. In addition, male players showed more accuracy and success in this research. And also accuracy did not have any influence to choice of forehand stroke among the intermediate tennis players. Conclusion: This research could improve the training protocol design for teaching the closed stance and open stance strokes. Keywords: Forehand stroke, open stance, closed stance, tennis accuracy, percentage of success

  12. Phase coexistence in films composed of DLPC and DPPC: a comparison between different model membrane systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiarotti, Agustín; Caruso, Benjamín; Wilke, Natalia

    2014-07-01

    For the biophysical study of membranes, a variety of model systems have been used to measure the different parameters and to extract general principles concerning processes that may occur in cellular membranes. However, there are very few reports in which the results obtained with the different models have been compared. In this investigation, we quantitatively compared the phase coexistence in Langmuir monolayers, freestanding bilayers and supported films composed of a lipid mixture of DLPC and DPPC. Two-phase segregation was observed in most of the systems for a wide range of lipid proportions using fluorescence microscopy. The lipid composition of the coexisting phases was determined and the distribution coefficient of the fluorescent probe in each phase was quantified, in order to explore their thermodynamic properties. The comparison between systems was carried out at 30mN/m, since it is accepted that at this or higher lateral pressures, the mean molecular area in bilayers is equivalent to that observed in monolayers. Our study showed that while Langmuir monolayers and giant unilamellar vesicles had a similar phase behavior, supported films showed a different composition of the phases with the distribution coefficient of the fluorescent probe being close to unity. Our results suggest that, in supported membranes, the presence of the rigid substrate may have led to a stiffening of the liquid-expanded phase due to a loss in the degrees of freedom of the lipids as a consequence of the proximity of the solid material.

  13. A study of characteristics of intercity transportation systems. Phase 1: Definition of transportation comparison methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, J. M.; Smith, J. L.; Lifson, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    Decision making in early transportation planning must be responsive to complex value systems representing various policies and objectives. The assessment of alternative transportation concepts during the early initial phases of the system life cycle, when supportive research and technology development activities are defined, requires estimates of transportation, environmental, and socio-economic impacts throughout the system life cycle, which is a period of some 40 or 50 years. A unified methodological framework for comparing intercity passenger and freight transportation systems is described and is extended to include the comparison of long term transportation trends arising from implementation of the various R & D programs. The attributes of existing and future transportation systems are reviewed in order to establish measures for comparison, define value functions, and attribute weightings needed for comparing alternative policy actions for furthering transportation goals. Comparison criteria definitions and an illustrative example are included.

  14. Double-phase Tc-99m tetrofosmin parathyroid scan in hyperparathyroidism: comparison with ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Soo; Kim, Sang Yoon [Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Zeon, Seok Kil; Won, Kyoung Sook [School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the utility of double-phase Tc-99m Tetrofosmin(TF) parathyroid scan in the detection of pathologic lesions of primary hyperparathyroidism, and comparison with the ultrasonography(US). The double phase TF parathyroid scan of the anterior neck including upper mediastinum with 800 MBq TF were acquired at ten minutes (early phase) and at two hours (delayed phase) after radiopharmaceutical injection, in 24 consecutive patients under the clinical impression of primary hyperparathyroidism and hypercalcaemia. The images were evaluated for abnormal focal areas of increased tracer localization in the anterior neck and superior mediastinum in early phase, and visualization of parathyroid gland radioactivity after wash-out of the thyroid gland radioactivity in delayed phase. US of the anterior neck including upper mediastinum was performed by a diagnostic radiologist in 24 consecutive patients, within one week before or after the scan. The findings of double phase TF parathyroid scan and US were compared with the pathologic results. Ten of 24 patients were surgically explored and pathologic results showed eight adenomas and two hyperplasia. The double phase TF parathyroid scan showed positive findings in seven patients of eight adenomas and one patient of two hyperplasia patients. US image showed positive findings in six patients of eight adenomas and no positive findings of two hyperplasia. The sensitivity of the double phase TF scan for detection of the causes of the primary hyperparathyroidism was 80% and US was 60%. The double phase Tc-99m Tetrofosmin parathyroid scan showed higher sensitivity in detection of the pathologic lesions of primary hyperparathyroidism than ultrasonography.

  15. Preparation and evaluation of bonded linear polymethacrylate stationary phases for open tubular capillary electrokinetic chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Z.J.; Remcho, V.T. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1997-02-15

    A new procedure for the preparation of thick polymethacrylate films bonded in 25 {mu}m i.d. fused-silica capillaries is developed. The etched silica surface is first modified with an unsaturated organosilane, which is later incorporated into the polymer film. The capillary is then filled with a monomer solution, and polymerization is initiated by incubation at elevated temperature. This thermoinitiation method enables the use of ordinary polyimide-jacketed capillaries in preparing the columns. The effect of monomer concentration on the resulting polymer film was studied by open tubular capillary electrokinetic chromatography using p-hydroxybenzoates (parabens) as test solutes. Good separations were achieved using short capillaries. Run-to-run retention time reproducibility was excellent, with RSDs of 2% (n = 50) being representative. For the linear polymer films produced, retention of analytes increased as the monomer concentration increased to a certain value, at which point the capacity factors level off with further increases in monomer concentration. The electroosmotic flow velocity decreases with increasing monomer concentration. The efficiency for an unretained test probe (acetone) reaches 270 000 plates/m. 13 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Full-matrix capture and USB3.0 for open platform phased array instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Gavin; Lallement, Rémi; Carcreff, Ewen; Braconnier, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) using ultrasonic waves is an efficient technique to assess industrial component integrity. The use of array probes enables inspection flexibility and advanced imaging techniques such as the total focusing method (TFM). In particular, the TFM imaging approach tremendously increases the quantity of data compared to conventional ultrasonic testing. Data transfer rates from the ultrasonic equipment to the computer are therefore continuously increasing due to large quantities of data and high speed inspections. In this work, we propose to use a USB 3.0 communication protocol for high speed throughput in a phased array device. To our knowledge, such protocol has not be proposed before for such an equipment. In this paper, we show that this protocol offers high transfer rates and is suitably adapted to ultrasonic inspection with array probes.

  17. Thermodynamic stability of driven open systems and control of phase separation by electro-autocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazant, Martin Z

    2017-07-01

    Motivated by the possibility of electrochemical control of phase separation, a variational theory of thermodynamic stability is developed for driven reactive mixtures, based on a nonlinear generalization of the Cahn-Hilliard and Allen-Cahn equations. The Glansdorff-Prigogine stability criterion is extended for driving chemical work, based on variations of nonequilibrium Gibbs free energy. Linear stability is generally determined by the competition of chemical diffusion and driven autocatalysis. Novel features arise for electrochemical systems, related to controlled total current (galvanostatic operation), concentration-dependent exchange current (Butler-Volmer kinetics), and negative differential reaction resistance (Marcus kinetics). The theory shows how spinodal decomposition can be controlled by solo-autocatalytic charge transfer, with only a single faradaic reaction. Experimental evidence is presented for intercalation and electrodeposition in rechargeable batteries, and further applications are discussed in solid state ionics, electrovariable optics, electrochemical precipitation, and biological pattern formation.

  18. Differential phase contrast 2.0-Opening new 'fields' for an established technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohr, Matthias; Schregle, Ralph [Physics Faculty, Regensburg University, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Jetter, Michael; Waechter, Clemens [Institute for Semiconductor Optics and Functional Interfaces, Stuttgart University, Pfaffenwaldring 57, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Wunderer, Thomas; Scholz, Ferdinand [Institute for Optoelectronics, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 45, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Zweck, Josef, E-mail: josef.zweck@physik.uni-regensburg.de [Physics Faculty, Regensburg University, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    Differential phase contrast microscopy has become known as a high resolution imaging technique for magnetic micro-structures in the past. The method senses the local induction by measuring the deflection of the probe beam after it passes through a specimen area carrying a magnetic field. Little attention has been paid, however, to the fact that this technique is also capable of measuring electric fields. An application of the technique to measure piezoelectric polarization fields inside multi-layered structures such as quantum wells is demonstrated. For this purpose, piezoelectric fields within non-centrosymmetric crystal structures, based on GaN/InGaN/GaN quantum wells, are investigated. It can be shown that the technique is sensitive to these fields and yields detailed information about the field distribution. The specific information and experimental limitations as well as artefacts of the technique will be discussed in detail and first measurements are shown. The main advantages turn out to be high sensitivity for electric fields, combined with a very high resolution, which is limited only by the STEM probe size. Another advantage is the large achievable field of view. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We describe a technique which allows the determination of inner electric fields in matter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inner fields are believed to be one major reason for the so-called efficiency 'droop' in green solid state lasers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The technique used is differential phase contrast, used for the first time for inner electric field determination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The technique is complementary to electron holography, offers a wider field of view and reveals new structures.

  19. The Setup Phase of Project Open Book: A Report to the Commission on Preservation and Access on the Status of an Effort To Convert Microfilm to Digital Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Paul; Weaver, Shari

    Digital image quality, indexing structures, and production workflow were the three central issues examined during the second phase--the set-up phase--of Project Open Book, a major effort by Yale University Library to explore the usefulness of digital technologies for preserving and improving access to deteriorating documents. This report outlines…

  20. Comparison of the Ramirez technique for the closure of large open myelomeningocele defects with alternative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneser, Ulrich; Bigdeli, Amir K; Himmler, Joerg P; Eyüpoglu, Ilker Y; Ganslandt, Oliver; Hirsch, Almut; Schmidt, Volker J; Beier, Justus P; Horch, Raymund E

    2015-12-01

    To compare the Ramirez technique for the operative closure of large open myelomeningocele defects with conventional closure techniques in newborns. We hypothesized that the immediate surgical treatment with the Ramirez technique is superior to prior used operative techniques. From 2003 to 2010, 23 children (8 female, 15 male) underwent closure of large open myelomeningocele defects using the Ramirez technique (group A), while from 1993 to 2002, 23 children (6 female, 17 male) underwent conventional closure techniques (group B). All children were included in the retrospective analysis with a mean follow-up period of 3.4 years. Perioperative variables were similar in both groups (P = ns). There were no hospital deaths in both groups. The operation time was significantly higher in group A (228.7 ± 76.8 versus 157.8 ± 70.3 min, P = 0.003). Mean length of hospital stay was significantly lower in group A (30.7 ± 16.4 days versus 52.0 ± 38.5; P = 0.02). Postoperative complication rate was significantly lower in group A (P = 0.01). Beyond postoperative day 10, liquor fluid leakage was significantly lower in group A (P = 0.05). During follow-up, there were no complications in group A. In group B, 2 children developed liquor fistulas. The Ramirez technique allows efficient and safe closure of large open myelomeningocele defects and reduces incidence of postoperative liquor fistulae. The increased operation time and surgical efforts seem to be justified. Treatment of large myelomeningocele defects requires an interdisciplinary team including paediatrician-neonatologists, neurosurgeons and plastic surgeons. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Comparison of two types of surgical gastrostomies, open and laparoscopic in home enteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tous Romero, M C; Alarcón del Agua, I; Parejo Campos, J; Oliva Rodríguez, R; Serrano Aguayo, P; Hisnard Cadet Dussort, J M; Pereira Cunill, J L; Morales-Conde, S; García-Luna, P P

    2012-01-01

    Exposing the complications of surgical gastrostomies used as way of home enteral nutritional support (HEN) and detecting the differences between the two techniques used in our environment: Open Surgery vs Laparoscopic Surgery. Retrospective descriptive observational study of the surgical gastrostomies performed between 1994 and 2009 followed up by our unit. Have been analyzed the complications detected in our practice during the follow-up of patients with HEN performed via open laparotomy vs. laparoscopic tecniques, assessing: leaks of gastric fluid to the exterior, abdominal wall irritation, presence of exudate, presence of exudate with positive culture that required antibiotical treatment, burning or loss of substance of the periostomic zone, breach of balloon, decubitus ulcer caused by the tube and formation of granuloma. Between 1994 and 2009, 57 surgical gastrostomies were performed: 47 using the conventional laparotomic (open) tecnique and 10 laparoscopies. The average age of the patients was 57.51 ± 17.29 years old. The most common cause for the performance of surgical gastrostomy was esophageal cancer (38.6%) followed by neurologic alterations (26.3%) and head and neck tumors (26.3%). 97.9% of the patients who underwent to surgical gastrostomy presented at least one complication, meaning that only 2.1% were free of complications; meanwhile, 50% of the patients were laparoscopic gastrostomy was performed had none of these complications. The most common complications were the presence of leaks of gastric fluid and abdominal wall irritation that appeared on 89.4% and 83% respectively of the laparotomic gastrostomies versus the presence of only 30% of both complications in laparoscopic gastrostomies being the difference statistically significant (p enteral nutritional support related to surgical gastrostomies.

  2. Comparison of Oncologic Short Term Results of Laparoscopic Versus Open Surgery of Rectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Today, with improvements in laparoscopy technique, surgery of rectal cancer is performed by laparoscopy. Objectives This study was performed to evaluate oncologic results of open versus laparoscopic surgery of rectal cancer in terms of resection margins, removal of lymph nodes and recurrence rate. Patients and Methods This descriptive-analytic study was performed on 88 patients with middle and lower rectal cancer in the two equivalent groups of laparoscopic and open surgery in Mashhad Ghaem and Omid hospitals during 2011 - 2013. Information including age, sex, number of removed and involved lymph nodes, proximal, distal, and radial margins, tumor stage and location, recurrence and disease-free survival collected in the questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics and frequency distribution tables and t-test. Results Both groups of open and laparoscopic surgery had similar characteristics of age, sex, recurrence and disease-free survival, tumor margins and one-year mortality. The number of removed and involved lymph nodes was higher in the laparoscopic group (5.16 vs. 3.55, respectively, with P < 0.050, and 1.74 vs. 0.59 with P = 0.023, but the ratio of involved lymph nodes to the total number of removed lymph nodes was not different between the two groups (LNR (P = 0.071. Tumor stage was higher in the laparoscopic group and most were in stages II and III (P < 0.001. Conclusions Laparoscopic surgery is an effective technique for safe margin and removing lymph nodes in rectal cancer.

  3. Successful recruitment to trials: a phased approach to opening gates and building bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairs Hilary

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pragmatic randomised controlled trial is widely regarded as the gold standard method for evaluating the effectiveness of health care interventions. Successful conduct of trials and generalisation of findings depends upon efficient recruitment of representative samples, which often requires the collaboration of 'gatekeepers' who mediate access to potential participants. Effective negotiation of gatekeeping is thus vital to process and outcomes of trials and the quality of evidence. Whilst relevant literature contains discussion of the problems of recruitment and gatekeeping, little is known about how recruitment can be optimised and factors leading to successful recruitment. Discussion As practised researchers with first-hand experience of gatekeeping, we were aware that some researchers recruit more effectively than others and curious about the ingredients of success. With the goal of developing practical guidance, we conducted a series of workshops with 19 expert researchers to investigate and map successful recruitment. Workshops were digitally recorded and transcribed. Analysis of discussion supported modelling of effective recruitment as a process involving three phases, each comprising two key tasks. Successful negotiation of set-up, alliance, and exchange require judicious deployment of interpersonal skills in an appropriately assertive manner. Researcher flexibility and credibility are vital for success, such that a foundation for rapprochement between the worlds of research and practice is established. Our model provides a framework to support design and implementation of recruitment activities and will enable trouble shooting and support recruitment, supervision and training of effective researchers. This, in turn will support delivery of trials on time and on budget, maximising return on investment in the production of evidence. Summary Pragmatic trials are central to development of evidence based health care

  4. Frequency transfer via a two-way optical phase comparison on a multiplexed fiber network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calosso, C E; Bertacco, E; Calonico, D; Clivati, C; Costanzo, G A; Frittelli, M; Levi, F; Mura, A; Godone, A

    2014-03-01

    We performed a two-way remote optical phase comparison on optical fiber. Two optical frequency signals were launched in opposite directions in an optical fiber and their phases were simultaneously measured at the other end. In this technique, the fiber noise is passively canceled, and we compared two optical frequencies at the ultimate 10(-21) stability level. The experiment was performed on a 47 km fiber that is part of the metropolitan network for Internet traffic. The technique relies on the synchronous measurement of the optical phases at the two ends of the link, which is here performed by digital electronics. This scheme offers some advantages with respect to active noise cancellation schemes, as the light travels only once in the fiber.

  5. Full-counting statistics and phase transition in an open quantum system of non-interacting electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedyeva, Mariya; Kehrein, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    We develop a method for calculating the full-counting statistics for a non-interacting fermionic system coupled to memory-less reservoirs. The evolution of the system is described by the Lindblad equation. We introduce the counting field in the Lindblad equation which yields the generating function and allows us to obtain all cumulants of the charge transport. In a uniform system the cumulants of order k are independent of the system size for systems longer than k+1 sites. The counting statistics from the Lindblad approach does not take into account the interference in the reservoirs which gives a decreased value of noise in comparison to the Green function approach which describes phase coherent leads. The two methods yield the same value for the current, which is due to current conservation. The Fano factors are different (and linearly related) and allow us to distinguish between memory-less and phase coherent reservoirs. We also consider the influence of dissipation along the chain allowing for both tunneling into and out of the chain along its length. Infinitesimally small dissipation along the chain induces a quantum phase transition which manifests itself as a discontinuity in transport properties and entropy.

  6. System design of programmable 4f phase modulation techniques for rapid intensity shaping: a conceptual comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Matthias; Heber, Jörg; Janschek, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    The present study analyses three beam shaping approaches with respect to a light-efficient generation of i) patterns and ii) multiple spots by means of a generic optical 4f-setup. 4f approaches share the property that due to the one-to-one relationship between output intensity and input phase, the need for time-consuming, iterative calculation can be avoided. The resulting low computational complexity offers a particular advantage compared to the widely used holographic principles and makes them potential candidates for real-time applications. The increasing availability of high-speed phase modulators, e.g. on the basis of MEMS, calls for an evaluation of the performances of these concepts. Our second interest is the applicability of 4f methods to high-power applications. We discuss the variants of 4f intensity shaping by phase modulation from a system-level point of view which requires the consideration of application relevant boundary conditions. The discussion includes i) the micro mirror based phase manipulation combined with amplitude masking in the Fourier plane, ii) the Generalized Phase Contrast, and iii) matched phase-only correlation filtering combined with GPC. The conceptual comparison relies on comparative figures of merit for energy efficiency, pattern homogeneity, pattern image quality, maximum output intensity and flexibility with respect to the displayable pattern. Numerical simulations illustrate our findings.

  7. Comparison of Latanoprost and Brimonidine in the treatment of open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Luo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare the efficacy and safety of latanoprost and brimonidine in the treatment of open angle glaucoma, and provide reference for rational drug use. METHODS:A total of 121 cases(136 eyeswho were diagnosed as primary open angle glaucoma were selected in this study, and they were randomly divided into experimental group(62 cases, 70 eyesand control group(59 cases, 66 eyesaccording to different drug treatment. Patients in the control group received brimonidine eye drops twice a day, while patients in the experimental group received latanoprost eye drops once a day. The intraocular pressure, visual acuity and adverse reactions were checked of the two groups in the following 3mo. RESULTS:The intraocular pressure of patients in the control group was 18.1±1.3mmHg, while the experimental group was 17.0±0.9mmHg after 12wk of treatment, which were both lower than before(PCONCLUSION:Latanoprost can significantly reduce intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients with in the follow-up time, and reduce the impact of elevated intraocular pressure in the vision of glaucoma patients, with little adverse reaction, worthy of clinical application.

  8. Comparison of wear and clinical performance between amalgam, composite and open sandwich restorations: 2-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeo, A; Gray, Gordon B; Sulieman, M A; Jagger, Daryll C

    2004-03-01

    There has been some disquiet over the use of mercury containing restorative materials. The most commonly used alternative is composite resin but this has the potential disadvantage associated with wear and marginal leakage, which in turn, has proven to result in secondary caries and sensitivity. To overcome the shortcomings of a directly placed composite restoration, the glass-ionomer/composite open sandwich technique was introduced followed by the subsequent introduction of compomer systems. The aims of this study were to evaluate the wear and clinical performance of a control group of amalgam restorations compared with that of a group of posterior composite resin restorations fillings and a group of compomer/composite open sandwich restorations placed by a single general dental practitioner. The duration of the study was 2 years. One hundred and thirty three (71.4%) patients were successfully recalled and the wear and clinical performance of each restoration after 6, 12 and 24 months was measured, indirectly. There was no statistically significant difference recorded between the groups at 6 months or 1 year (p > 0.05). However, at the end of the 2-year study, there was a significantly lower rate of wear recorded for the control amalgam restorations compared with other two groups (p = 0.033). There was no statistically significant difference in wear recorded between the two groups of tooth-coloured restorations (p > 0.05). With regards to clinical performance of the restorations, occlusal and proximal contacts in each group of restoration remained satisfactory throughout the study.

  9. Solar wind control of the open magnetosphere: Comparison of GGS/polar images and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, Andrew Lee

    This investigation explores the connection between the open polar cap magnetic flux ΦPCF and interplanetary conditions. Φ PCF is determined from GGS/Polar VIS Earth Camera far ultraviolet observations of the aurora borealis. Observations from the GGS/Wind SWE and MFI instruments are used to characterize the interplanetary conditions. Additional observations from the IMP-8 PLA and MAG instruments are used to evaluate solar wind propagation time delay estimation methods so that the GGS/Wind observations can be better associated with the GGS/Polar observations. This allows the GGS/Wind observations to be used to estimate the polar cap potential φPCP values associated with the GGS/Polar ΦPCF values. Statistical methods are applied to determine a proxy relationship between φPCP and ΦPCF. The Rice Field Model (RFM) is modified to accept Φ PCF as a configuration parameter, and RFM polar caps are produced using Φ PCF determined both directly from the GGS/Polar images and by the proxy relationship from the GGS/Wind data. The RFM is able to produce polar caps with the same areas and open magnetic fluxes as the GGS/Polar observations, but the agreement in the polar cap shapes and locations leaves opportunities for further improvements.

  10. Microbiology of Composting Pig Waste: Comparison of Vermicomposting and Open Heap Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogefere, H. O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of an effective waste management, microbiological studies of composting pig waste were investigated. Freshly deposited excreta from confined pigs in a private pig farm in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria were composted by two aerobic methods – vermicomposting and open heap. Microbial (bacterial and fungal counts and characterization were carried out periodically within the 40 weeks of composting, using standard techniques. The results showed that only duration of composting significantly (p<.0.05 affected microbial counts as the counts decreased from the initial value at week zero to much lower value at week 40. A total of 274 bacterial and fungal isolates were recovered from the composting waste and majority (60.58% were isolated from the open heap. Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus flavus were the predominant isolates recovered (9.49% each, and were the only isolates recovered throughout the period of composting irrespective of the composting technique. Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium were the least isolated (1.09% each. Vermicomposting technique was recommended on health and environmental grounds.

  11. A comparison of controlled self-pollination and open pollination results based on maize grain quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Sulewska

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. grain endosperm is triploid (3n, of which 2n come from the male (transferred by pollen and only 1n from the female plant, thus a major impact of the male form can be expected on grain quality parameters. A good example of this relationship is the phenomenon of xenia. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pollen on grain quality. The field experiment was conducted in 2011; seeds were harvested from eight cultivars: Bosman, Blask, Tur, Kozak, Bielik, Smok, SMH 220 and Kresowiak, derived from free pollination and controlled self-pollination of maize. Analyses of nutrient contents and starch content in the grain were conducted in the laboratory. In addition, 1000 grain weight and the hectoliter weight of all grain samples were recorded. The results confirmed differences in grain quality of maize hybrids obtained by self-pollination and by open pollination. Grain of maize plants obtained by open-pollination was characterised by higher contents of N-free extract and starch, and lower protein content. Undertaking further studies on this subject may indicate specific recommendations for agricultural practice, such as mixtures of hybrids with good combining abilities, which will contribute to improved grain quality without additional costs.

  12. Comparison of physiological responses to open water kayaking and kayak ergometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Someren, K A; Phillips, G R; Palmer, G S

    2000-04-01

    This study compared the physiological responses of simulated kayaking on a K1 ERGO kayak ergometer with open water paddling. Nine well-trained male kayakers (VO2peak 4.27 +/- 0.58 L x min(-1), age 24 +/- 4 yr, mass 77.3 +/- 6.4 kg, height 179.5 +/- 5.3 cm; [mean +/- SD]) performed two 4 min exercise bouts on open water (OW) and on an air braked kayak ergometer (Erg). During exercise, expired air and heart rate (HR) were continuously measured. The distance covered during OW (992 +/- 47.1 m) was highly correlated (r2 = 0.86) with the total work performed in Erg (47.64 +/- 7.67 kJ). There were no differences between trials for oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production or estimated carbohydrate oxidation. However, during OW, minute ventilation was significantly higher at 60 and 90 s (104.2 +/- 16.4 vs. 92.6 +/- 20.4 L x min(-1) and 120.5 +/- 15.8 vs. 111.7 +/- 17.6 L x min(-1) for 60 and 90 s, respectively, p kayaking.

  13. Performance Comparison of OpenMP, MPI, and MapReduce in Practical Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Ji Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With problem size and complexity increasing, several parallel and distributed programming models and frameworks have been developed to efficiently handle such problems. This paper briefly reviews the parallel computing models and describes three widely recognized parallel programming frameworks: OpenMP, MPI, and MapReduce. OpenMP is the de facto standard for parallel programming on shared memory systems. MPI is the de facto industry standard for distributed memory systems. MapReduce framework has become the de facto standard for large scale data-intensive applications. Qualitative pros and cons of each framework are known, but quantitative performance indexes help get a good picture of which framework to use for the applications. As benchmark problems to compare those frameworks, two problems are chosen: all-pairs-shortest-path problem and data join problem. This paper presents the parallel programs for the problems implemented on the three frameworks, respectively. It shows the experiment results on a cluster of computers. It also discusses which is the right tool for the jobs by analyzing the characteristics and performance of the paradigms.

  14. Learning Management Systems and Comparison of Open Source Learning Management Systems and Proprietary Learning Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yücel Yılmaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of learning has been increasingly gaining importance for individuals, businesses and communities in the age of information. On the other hand, developments in information and communication technologies take effect in the field of learning activities. With these technologies, barriers of time and space against the learning activities largely disappear and these technologies make it easier to carry out these activities more effectively. There remain a lot of questions regarding selection of learning management system (LMS to be used for the management of e-learning processes by all organizations conducing educational practices including universities, companies, non-profit organizations, etc. The main questions are as follows: Shall we choose open source LMS or commercial LMS? Can the selected LMS meet existing needs and future potential needs for the organization? What are the possibilities of technical support in the management of LMS? What kind of problems may be experienced in the use of LMS and how can these problems be solved? How much effective can officials in the organization be in the management of LMS? In this study, primarily e-learning and the concept of LMS will be discussed, and in the next section, as for answers to these questions, open source LMSs and centrally developed LMSs will be examined and their advantages and disadvantages relative to each other will be discussed.

  15. Comparison of clinical outcome of laparoscopic versus open appendectomy for complicated appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, P; Lange, J; Bachmann, R; Struller, F; Königsrainer, A; Zdichavsky, M

    2017-01-01

    Laparoscopic appendectomy is now the treatment of choice in uncomplicated appendicitis. To date its importance in the treatment of complicated appendicitis is not clearly defined. From January 2005 to June 2013 a total of 1762 patients underwent appendectomy for the suspected diagnosis of appendicitis at our institution. Of these patients 1516 suffered from complicated appendicitis and were enrolled. In total 926 (61 %) underwent open appendectomy (OA) and 590 (39 %) underwent laparoscopic appendectomy (LA). The following parameters were retrospectively analyzed: age, sex, operative times, histology, length of hospital stay, 30-day morbidity focusing on occurrence of surgical site infections, intraabdominal abscess formation, postoperative ileus and appendiceal stump insufficiency, conversion rate, use of endoloops and endostapler. A statistically significant difference in operative time was observed between the laparoscopic and the open group (64.5 vs. 60 min; p = 0.002). Median length of hospitalization was significantly shorter in the laparoscopic group (p appendicitis is a safe and feasible procedure. Surgeons should be aware of a potentially higher incidence of intraabdominal abscess formation following LA. Use of endobags , inversion of the appendiceal stump and carefully conducted local irrigation of the abdomen in a supine position may reduce the incidence of abscess formation.

  16. SST phases in the open-ocean and margins of the tropical Pacific; implication on tropical climate dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.-J. Shiau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The tropical Pacific exerts a major effect on the global climate system and might have driven large extra-tropical climate change. We present a 320 kyr high resolution UK'37-sea surface temperature (SST record from core MD052928 (11°17.26' S, 148°51.60' E, water depth 2250 m located off southeastern Papua New Guinea (PNG, in the western tropical Pacific. The age model of the core is based on AMS 14C dating of planktic foraminifers and correlation of benthic to the LR04 stack. The UK'37-SST ranges from 26.5 to 29 °C, showing glacial–interglacial and millennial variations. We assess the phase of the MD052928 UK'37-SST as part of a synthesis of five other SST records from the tropical Pacific at the precession, obliquity, and eccentricity bands. The SST records can be separated into two groups when considering SST phase relative to changes in orbital forcing, ice volume and greenhouse gases (GHGs. SST maxima at open-ocean sites within primary equatorial current systems occur between obliquity maxima and methane (CH4 maxima but early relative to ice volume minima and CO2 maxima at the obliquity band. In contrast, SST maxima at continental margin sites change are in phase with ice minima and CO2 maxima, likely influenced by the slow response of continental ice sheets and GHGs. At the precession band, the early group located on the Warm Pool area indicates a direct influenced by the local insolation, and with the similar phase progress as the obliquity band. These results indicate that the decreased high-low latitudes insolation gradient and increasing low latitude local insolation resulting in tropical Pacific SST rise. Higher SST would supply more moisture resulting in increased CH4 in the tropical wetlands. This promotes increasing CO2 and deglaciation leading to increase continental and continental margin surface temperatures.

  17. A phase 1/2, open-label study evaluating twice-daily administration of momelotinib in myelofibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vikas; Mesa, Ruben A.; Deininger, Michael W.N.; Rivera, Candido E.; Sirhan, Shireen; Brachmann, Carrie Baker; Collins, Helen; Kawashima, Jun; Xin, Yan; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2017-01-01

    Momelotinib, a small-molecule inhibitor of Janus kinase 1 and Janus kinase 2, has demonstrated efficacy in myelofibrosis patients with 300 mg, once-daily dosing. This open-label, non-randomized, phase 1/2 study evaluated the safety and therapeutic benefit of momelotinib with twice-daily dosing. A total of 61 subjects with primary myelofibrosis or post–polycythemia vera/post–essential thrombocythemia myelofibrosis with intermediate- or high-risk disease received momelotinib. A phase 1 dose escalation identified 200 mg twice daily as the optimal dose to be expanded in phase 2. The most frequent adverse events were diarrhea (45.9%), peripheral neuropathy (44.3%), thrombocytopenia (39.3%), and dizziness (36.1%), the latter primarily due to a first-dose effect. The response assessment according to the 2006 International Working Group criteria (≥8 weeks duration at any time point) demonstrated spleen response by palpation of 72% (36/50) and anemia response of 45% (18/40). Spleen response by magnetic resonance imaging obtained at 24 weeks was 45.8% (27/59) for all subjects and 54.0% (27/50) for those with palpable splenomegaly at baseline. The symptoms of myelofibrosis were improved in most subjects. Cytokine analysis showed a rapid decline in interleukin-6 with momelotinib treatment, and a slower reduction in other inflammatory cytokines. In the subgroup of subjects with the JAK2V617F mutation at baseline (n=41), momelotinib significantly reduced the allele burden by 21.1% (median) at 24 weeks. These results provide evidence of tolerability and a potential therapeutic activity of momelotinib for subjects that support further evaluation in ongoing, phase 3 randomized trials. (clinicaltrials. gov identifier:01423058). PMID:27634203

  18. Comparison of neonatal tolerance to thoracoscopic and open repair of esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Li; LIU Yong-zhe; MA Ya-qun; ZHANG Sheng-suo; PAN Ning-ling

    2012-01-01

    Background Advances in minimally invasive surgical techniques and neonatal intensive care for neonates have allowed for repair of the neonatal esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) to be approached endoscopically.However,thoracoscopic surgery in children is still performed in only a few centers throughout the world.The aim of this study was to compare the neonatal tolerance to the thoracoscopic repair (TR) and the open repair (OR)and also to discuss anesthetic management in thoracoscopic procedure.Methods We performed a prospective study enrolling newborns diagnosed with EA with distal TEF (type C) receiving the repair surgery between June 2009 and January 2012 in our institution.Data collected included the newborns' gestational age and weight at the time of the operation,operative time,parameters of intraoperative mechanical ventilation,oxygenation,end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2),and analysis of blood gases.Time to extubation and length of stay were also recorded.Results Intravenous induction with muscle paralysis followed by pressure-control ventilation and tracheal intubation regardless of the position of the fistula can be performed uneventfully in EA/TEF newborns with no additional airway anomalies and large,pericarinal fistulas in our experiences.The thoracoscopic approach appeared to take longer than the open approach.During the procedure of repair,hypercarbia and acidosis developed immediately 1 hour after pneumothorax in both groups.CO2 insufflation did have additional influence on the respiratory function of the newborns in the TR group; values of PaCO2 and ETCO2 were higher in the TR group but the difference did not reach statistical significance.By the end of the procedure,values of PaCO2 and ETCO2 returned to the baseline levels while pH did not,but all parameters made no difference in the two groups.Besides,time to extubation was shorter in the TR group.Conclusions Thoracoscopic repair of EA/TEF is comparable to the open repair

  19. A comparison of betaxolol and timolol in open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feghali, J G; Kaufman, P L; Radius, R L; Mandell, A I

    1988-04-01

    In a randomized, double-masked study, 41 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension were treated with betaxolol 0.5% or timolol 0.5% drops for 26 weeks. The average decrease in intraocular pressure (IOP) over the total study period was significant with both betaxolol (-6.3 mmHg) and timolol (-7.2 mmHg) in patients receiving no adjunctive therapy. There was no difference between betaxolol and timolol with respect to changes from baseline IOP. Significantly decreased mean brachial arterial pressure (MAP) was seen only with timolol, although the difference between the two groups was not significant. Pulse, pupil size, and basal tear secretion were unchanged in both groups. Burning upon instillation of the drops was more frequent with betaxolol.

  20. Comparison of laparoscopic and open surgery for pyogenic liver abscess with biliary pathology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Fu Tu; Xiu-Fang Huang; Ru-Ying Hu; He-Yi You; Xiao-Feng Zheng; Fei-Zhao Jiang

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the feasibility and therapeutic effect of laparoscopic surgery for pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) with biliary pathology.METHODS:From January 2004 to October 2010,31 patients with PLA combined with biliary pathology meeting entry criteria received surgical management in our hospital.Of the 31 patients,13 underwent laparoscopic surgery (LS group) and 18 underwent open surgery (OS group).Clinical data including operation time,intraoperative blood loss,postoperative complication rate,length of postoperative hospital stay,and abscess recurrence rate were retrospectively analyzed and compared between the two groups.RESULTS:All patients received systemic antibiotic therapy.Four patients underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous catheter drainage before operation.Postoperative complications occurred in 5 patients (16.1%,5/31) including 2 in the LS group and 3 in the OS group.One patient had retained calculus in the common bile duct and another had liver abscess recurrence in the OS group.No retained calculus and liver abscessrecurrence occurred in the LS group.In the two groups,there was no mortality during the perioperative period.There were no significant differences in operation time,intraoperative blood loss and transfusion,postoperative complication rate and abscess recurrence rate between the two groups.Oral intake was earlier (1.9 ± 0.4 d vs 3.1 ± 0.7 d,P < 0.05) and length of postoperative hospital stay was shorter (11.3 ± 2.9 d vs 14.5 ± 3.7 d,P < 0.05) in the LS group than in the OS group.CONCLUSION:Laparoscopic surgery for simultaneous treatment of PLA and biliary pathology is feasible in selected patients and the therapeutic effect is similar to that of open surgery.

  1. Comparison between commercial and open-source SCADA packages-A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barana, O., E-mail: oliviero.barana@igi.cnr.i [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, corso Stati Uniti 4 - 35127 Padova (Italy); Barbato, P.; Breda, M.; Capobianco, R.; Luchetta, A.; Molon, F.; Moressa, M.; Simionato, P.; Taliercio, C.; Zampiva, E. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, corso Stati Uniti 4 - 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    SPIDER (Source for the Production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from Rf plasma) is a new experimental device under development at Consorzio RFX aimed at providing a full-scale ion source prototype for MITICA (Megavolt ITer Injector and Concept Advance), the experiment devoted at supplying a full-scale prototype of the ITER Heating Neutral Beam Injector (HNB). Both experimental devices will be hosted in a new facility known as PRIMA (Padova Research on Injectors Megavolt Accelerated). The correct operation of SPIDER and MITICA will be guaranteed by process automation and plant monitoring that will be implemented using suitable controllers (cycle time greater than 10 ms) in conjunction with appropriate SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) software. This paper presents the tests performed at Consorzio RFX to evaluate commercial and open-source SCADA packages and prepare a technical base for the selection of the SCADA system for SPIDER. Two commercial solutions and two open-source solutions (EPICS and TANGO) were investigated. The typical test-bed was represented by a SCADA system exchanging data with a PLC (Programmable Logic Controller). The case study consisted of: (a) the development of a minimal panel provided with fields for setting parameters and of a trend window; (b) the set-up of two kinds of communication, a direct connection between the SCADA and the PLC and an indirect one by means of an OPC (Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control) server. The communication performance was evaluated measuring the network traffic with a fixed number of data variables exchanged and different polling cycle times. The conclusions show that the final choice of a SCADA package for SPIDER will be between one commercial SCADA and EPICS. This choice will not depend uniquely on the results of the tests, but will be also dictated by the early schedule of the SPIDER operations.

  2. Comparison of VNEM to measured data from Ringhals unit 3. (Phase 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuiki, M.; Mullet, S. (Institute for Energy Technology, OECD Halden Project, Kjeller (Norway))

    2011-01-15

    1. PWR. Comparisons have been made of a PWR core simulator CYGNUS with VNEM neutronics module to the measured data obtained from Ringhals unit 3 NPP through the cycle 1A (core average burnup = 0 through 10,507MWD/MT). The results can be summarized as: core eigenvalue = 0.99937 +/- 0.00086 before intermediate 5 months shutdown core eigenvalue = 0.99647 +/- 0.00029 after intermediate 5 months shutdown. The reason of core eigenvalue drop after the intermediate shutdown is estimated to be the build-up of fissile elements during the long shutdown. A calculation model to track some important isotopes in addition to Xe135 and Sm149 (these isotopes are tracked in the present version of CYGNUS) has to be implemented. As for the comparison of the neutron detector readings, the agreement was excellent throughout the cycle 1A as observed in Phase 1 and 2 (2008, 2009). The burnup tilt effect was not observed during the cycle 1A. The verification of the burnup tilt model of CYGNUS will be performed in the next phase of the project. 2. BWR. A preliminary 2D numerical benchmarking was performed for BWR cores. The problems were generated imitating the NEACRP MOX PWR 2D benchmark problems. The results of comparisons of VNEM to a reference transport code (FCM2D), based on the method of characteristics, were as good as those obtained in the case of PWR cores for similar benchmarking. (Author)

  3. An immobilized carboxyl containing metal-organic framework-5 stationary phase for open-tubular capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Tao; Tang, Pingxiu; Mao, Zhenkun; Chen, Zilin

    2016-07-01

    A novel capillary column with metal-organic framework-5 (MOF-5) as the stationary phase was prepared for open-tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC). To grow MOF-5, the fused-silica capillary was functionalized firstly using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and glutaraldehyde as covalent linkers; and then MOF-5 would be immobilized on the inner wall of COOH-terminated capillary by epitaxial growth, to produce a MOF-5-modified capillary. The successful growth of MOF-5 has been characterized and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, X-Ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectra. The influence of pH value and methanol on electroosmotic flow (EOF) of the MOF-5-modified capillary column was investigated. The EOF showed a pH-dependent from anode to cathode. The immobilization of MOF-5 improved the interactions between analytes and layer on inner wall of the capillary. Excellent separations of substituted benzenes and acidic and basic analytes were obtained on the fabricated capillary columns. The MOF-5-modified capillary columns exhibited good repeatability, with relative standard deviations for intra-day, inter-day runs and column-to-column less than 1.87%, 3.53%, and 8.49%, respectively. Our successful application of MOF-5 paved the way for introducing series of dicarboxylate-based isoreticular MOFs to OT-CEC as novel stationary phase.

  4. Structural Characterization of Phase Separation in Fe-Cr: A Current Comparison of Experimental Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Odqvist, Joakim; Colliander, Magnus Hörnqvist; Thuvander, Mattias; Steuwer, Axel; Westraadt, Johan E.; King, Stephen; Hedström, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Self-assembly due to phase separation within a miscibility gap is important in numerous material systems and applications. A system of particular interest is the binary alloy system Fe-Cr, since it is both a suitable model material and the base system for the stainless steel alloy category, suffering from low-temperature embrittlement due to phase separation. Structural characterization of the minute nano-scale concentration fluctuations during early phase separation has for a long time been considered a major challenge within material characterization. However, recent developments present new opportunities in this field. Here, we present an overview of the current capabilities and limitations of different techniques. A set of Fe-Cr alloys were investigated using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), atom probe tomography, and analytical transmission electron microscopy. The complementarity of the characterization techniques is clear, and combinatorial studies can provide complete quantitative structure information during phase separation in Fe-Cr alloys. Furthermore, we argue that SANS provides a unique in-situ access to the nanostructure, and that direct comparisons between SANS and phase-field modeling, solving the non-linear Cahn Hilliard equation with proper physical input, should be pursued.

  5. Comparison of fully wettable RPLC stationary phases for LC-MS-based cellular metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si-Hung, Le; Causon, Tim J; Hann, Stephan

    2017-07-10

    Reversed-phase LC combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is one of the most popular methods for cellular metabolomics studies. Due to the difficulties in analyzing a wide range of polarities encountered in the metabolome, 100%-wettable reversed-phase materials are frequently used to maximize metabolome coverage within a single analysis. Packed with silica-based sub-3 μm diameter particles, these columns allow high separation efficiency and offer a reasonable compromise for metabolome coverage within a single analysis. While direct performance comparison can be made using classical chromatographic characterization approaches, a comprehensive assessment of the column's performance for cellular metabolomics requires use of a full LC-HRMS workflow in order to reflect realistic study conditions used for cellular metabolomics. In this study, a comparison of several reversed-phase LC columns for metabolome analysis using such a dedicated workflow is presented. All columns were tested under the same analytical conditions on an LC-TOF-MS platform using a variety of authentic metabolite standards and biotechnologically relevant yeast cell extracts. Data on total workflow performance including retention behavior, peak capacity, coverage, and molecular feature extraction repeatability from these columns are presented with consideration for both nontargeted screening and differential metabolomics workflows using authentic standards and Pichia pastoris cell extract samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Comparison between OpenFOAM CFD & BEM theory for variable speed – variable pitch HAWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ElQatary Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OpenFoam is used to compare computational fluid dynamics (CFD with blade element momentum theory (BEM for a variable speed - variable pitch HAWT (Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine. The wind turbine is first designed using the BEM to determine the blade chord, twist and operating conditions. The wind turbine blade has an outer diameter of 14 m, uses a NACA 63–415 profile for the entire blade and root to tip twist distribution of 15deg (Figure 3. The RPM varies from 20–75 for freestream velocities varying between 3–10.5 m/s (variable speed and a constant RPM of 78.78 for velocities ranging between 11–25 m/s (variable pitch. OpenFOAM is used to investigate the wind turbine performance at several operating points including cut-in wind speed (3 m/s, rated wind speed (10.5 m/s and in the variable pitch zone. Simulation results show that in the variable-speed operating range, both CFD and BEM compare reasonably well. This agreement can be attributed to the fact that the complex three-dimensional flow around the turbine blades can be split into two radial segments. For radii less than the mid-span, the flow is three-dimensional, whereas for radii greater than the mid-span, the flow is approximately two-dimensional. Since the majority of the power is produced from sections beyond the mid-span, the agreement between CFD and BEM is reasonable. For the variable-pitch operating range the CFD results and BEM deviate considerably. In this case the majority of the power is produced from the inner sections in which the flow is three-dimensional and can no longer be predicted by the BEM. The results show that differences in pitch angles up to 10deg can result to regulate the power for high wind speeds in the variable-pitch operation zone.

  7. Comparison between Commercial and Open-source SCADA Packages - a Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barana, O.; Barbato, P.; Breda, M.; Capobianco, R.; Molon, F.; Moressa, M.; Simionato, P.; Zampiva, E. [Consorzio RFX - Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Padova (Italy); Luchetta, A. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Padua (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Consorzio RFX is developing SPIDER (Source for the Production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma). This is a new test facility, aimed at designing, building and commissioning a full-scale ion source for MITICA (Mega-volt ITER Injector Concept Advance), the experiment devoted at supplying a full-scale prototype of the ITER Heating Neutral Beam Injector (HNB); both facilities will be hosted by a new facility known as PRIMA (Padova Research on Injectors Mega-volt Accelerated). While MITICA will have its beam accelerated at 1 MV, SPIDER will operate at the reduced acceleration voltage of 100 kV. SPIDER is a complex experiment, subdivided into four main subsystems. Its correct operation will be guaranteed by process automation and plant monitoring that will be implemented using suitable controllers (cycle time greater than 10 ms) in conjunction with appropriate SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) software. This paper presents the tests performed at Consorzio RFX to evaluate commercial and open-source SCADA packages and prepare a technical base for the selection of the SCADA system for SPIDER. Two commercial solutions and two open-source solutions (EPICS and TANGO) were investigated. The typical test-bed consisted of a SCADA exchanging data with a PLC (Programmable Logic Controller). The case study consisted in: a) the development of a minimal panel provided of fields for setting parameters and of a trend window; b) the set-up of two kinds of communications, a direct connection between the SCADA and the PLC using the proper PLC driver available in the SCADA, and an indirect one using an OPC (Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control) server. The communication performance was evaluated varying the data size and the polling cycle time and measuring the network traffic. The considerations drawn from the tests, considering also the early schedule of the SPIDER operation and the fact that SPIDER is not required

  8. Comparison of misfit functions for phase-only inversion in the frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, G.; Jeong, W.; Min, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Full waveform inversion suffers from non-uniqueness and non-linearity problems. By using kinematic property of wavefield rather than dynamic property, we can mitigate such problems because the phase is linear and robust (Kamei et al. 2013). For the phase-only inversion, several misfit functions were suggested. Bednar et al. (2007) compared the logarithmic phase-only inversion proposed by Shin and Min (2006) with the conventional phase-only inversion. On the other hand, Kamei et al. (2014) introduced another method that uses the exponential of phase by normalizing the wavefield with respect to the amplitude. In this study, we compare the aforementioned three phase-only inversion methods in the frequency domain: i) the logarithmic phase-only inversion, ii) the conventional phase-only inversion I (briefly conventional I method) that normalizes wavefield with respect to the amplitude variation, and iii) the conventional phase-only inversion II (briefly conventional II method) that replaces the amplitude of the modeled data with that of field data. In the cases of the logarithmic and conventional I methods, if the modeled signal function is close to 0 or becomes large, the gradients of the misfit function diverge to infinity or converge to 0, respectively. In contrast, the conventional II method does not suffer from these problems. For fair comparison, we removed extremely small or large values with Gaussian filtering to avoid the instability problem in the logarithmic and conventional I methods. In addition, we assumed that the phase of the field data is unwrapped to the same degree as the phase of the modeled data in all the cases. On the other hand, the logarithmic and conventional II methods require the additional assumption that amplitudes of the field data are the same as those of the modeled data. However, the conventional I method does not require such an assumption. Our numerical examples show that the conventional I method yields more robust and accurate

  9. Outcomes of surgical treatment for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma: comparison of retroperitoneoscopic and open nephroureterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taweemonkongsap, Tawatchai; Nualyong, Chaiyong; Amornvesukit, Teerapon; Leewansangtong, Sunai; Srinualnad, Sittiporn; Chaiyaprasithi, Bansithi; Sujijantararat, Phichaya; Tantiwong, Anupan; Soontrapa, Suchai

    2008-01-15

    To determine the surgical and oncologic outcomes in patients who underwent retroperitoneoscopic nephroureterectomy (RNU) in comparison to standard open nephroureterectomy (ONU) for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). From April 2001 to January 2007, 60 total nephroureterectomy were performed for upper tract TCC at Siriraj Hospital. Of the 60 patients, thirty-one were treated with RNU and open bladder cuff excision, and twenty-nine with ONU. Our data were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. The recorded data included sex, age, history of bladder cancer, type of surgery, tumor characteristics, postoperative course, disease recurrence and progression. The mean operative time was longer in the RNU group than in the ONU group (258.8 versus 190.6 min; p = 0. ONU. Mean follow up was 26.4 months (range 3-72) for RNU and 27.9 months (range 3-63) for ONU. No port metastasis occurred during follow up in RNU group. Tumor recurrence developed in 11 patients (bladder recurrence in 9 patients, local recurrence in 2 patients) in the RNU group and 14 patients (bladder recurrence in 13 patients, local recurrence in 1 patient) in the ONU group. No significant difference was detected in the tumor recurrence rate between the two procedures (p = 0.2716). Distant metastases developed in 3 patients (9.7%) after RNU and 2 patients (6.9%) after ONU. The 2 year disease specific survival rate after RNU and ONU was 86.3% and 92.5%, respectively (p = 0.8227). Retroperitoneoscopic nephroureterectomy is less invasive than open surgery and is an oncological feasible operation. Thus, the results of our study supported the continued development of laparoscopic technique in the management of upper tract TCC.

  10. Comparison of Endoscopic and Open Resection for Small Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Feng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommends conservative follow-up for gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs less than 2 cm. We have previously reported that the mitotic index of 22.22% of small gastric GISTs exceeded 5 per 50 high-power fields and recommended that all small gastric GISTs should be resected once diagnosed. The aim of the present study is to compare the safety and outcomes of endoscopic and open resection of small gastric GISTs. From May 2010 to March 2014, a total of 90 small gastric GIST patients were enrolled in the present study, including 40 patients who underwent surgical resection and 50 patients who underwent endoscopic resection. The clinicopathological characteristics, resection-related factors, and clinical outcomes were recorded and analyzed. The clinicopathological characteristics were comparable between the two groups except for tumor location and DOG-1 expression. Compared with the surgical resection group, the operation time was shorter (P = .000, blood loss was less (P = .000, pain intensity was lower (P < .05, duration of first flatus and defecation was shorter (P < .05, and medical cost of hospitalization was lower (P = .027 in the endoscopic resection group. The complications and postoperative hospital stay were comparable between the two groups. No in situ recurrence or liver metastasis was observed during follow-up. Endoscopic resection of small gastric GISTs is safe and feasible compared with surgical resection, although perforation could not be totally avoided during and after resection. The clinical outcome of endoscopic resection is also favorable.

  11. Comparison of Open Source Compression Algorithms on Vhr Remote Sensing Images for Efficient Storage Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoguz, A.; Bozkurt, S.; Gozutok, A. A.; Alp, G.; Turan, E. G.; Bogaz, M.; Kent, S.

    2016-06-01

    High resolution level in satellite imagery came with its fundamental problem as big amount of telemetry data which is to be stored after the downlink operation. Moreover, later the post-processing and image enhancement steps after the image is acquired, the file sizes increase even more and then it gets a lot harder to store and consume much more time to transmit the data from one source to another; hence, it should be taken into account that to save even more space with file compression of the raw and various levels of processed data is a necessity for archiving stations to save more space. Lossless data compression algorithms that will be examined in this study aim to provide compression without any loss of data holding spectral information. Within this objective, well-known open source programs supporting related compression algorithms have been implemented on processed GeoTIFF images of Airbus Defence & Spaces SPOT 6 & 7 satellites having 1.5 m. of GSD, which were acquired and stored by ITU Center for Satellite Communications and Remote Sensing (ITU CSCRS), with the algorithms Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW), Lempel-Ziv-Markov chain Algorithm (LZMA & LZMA2), Lempel-Ziv-Oberhumer (LZO), Deflate & Deflate 64, Prediction by Partial Matching (PPMd or PPM2), Burrows-Wheeler Transform (BWT) in order to observe compression performances of these algorithms over sample datasets in terms of how much of the image data can be compressed by ensuring lossless compression.

  12. Comparison of peritoneal free gastric cancer cells' detecting rates between laparoscopically assisted and open radical gastrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare laparoscopic gastrectomy and conventional surgery on the dissemination and seeding of tumor cells. Methods:Intraoperative peritoneal lavage cytologic examination was performed in 65 patients with gastric cancer, during laparoscopic gastrectomy (n=34) and conventional surgery (n=31). Cytology was examined twice, immediately after opening the peritoneal cavity and just before closing the abdomen. Saline was poured into the peritoneal cavity, and 100 ml fluid was retrieved after irrigation. Laparoscopic instruments were lavaged after surgery with 100 ml saline. Carbon dioxide (CO2) was derived through the trocar side orifice after pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic gastrectomy and filtered through 100 ml saline. Cytologic examination of the filtrate was performed after the filtration process. Results: The incidence of positive cytology during laparoscopic surgery was 32.26% in the preoperative lavage and 22.58% in the postoperative lavage. The incidence of positive cytology during conventional surgery was 41.18% before lavage and 26.47% after lavage. Only one positive cytology was detected in the CO2 filtrate gas. The incidence of positive cytology in the lavage of the instruments during laparoscopic surgery was 6.45%. Conclusion: During gastric laparoscopic surgery, CO2 pneumoperitoneum does not affect tumor cell dissemination and seeding. In this study, laparoscopic techniques used in gastric cancer surgery were not associated with a higher risk for intraperitoneal dissemination of cancer cells than the conventional surgery.

  13. A comparison of subscription and open access journals in construction management and related fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Christer Bjork

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has profoundly changed the technical infrastructure for the publishing of scientific peer reviewed journals. The traditional business model of selling the content to subscribers is increasingly being challenged by Open Access journals, which are either run at low cost by voluntary academics or which sell dissemination services to authors. In addition authors in many fields are taking advantage of the legal possibilities of uploading free manuscript versions to institutional or subject-based repositories, in order to increase readership and impact. Construction Management is lagging behind many other fields in utilising the potential of the web for efficient dissemination results, in particular to academics outside the leading universities in industrialised countries. This study looks closer at the current publishing situation in construction management and related fields and compares empirical data about 16 OA journals and 16 traditional subscription journals. Of the articles published in 2011 in the subscription journals only 9 % could be found as OA copies. The overall OA availability (including article in OA journals was 14 % for Construction Management and Economics and 29 for construction IT scholarship. 

  14. Comparison of pure laparoscopic versus open left hemihepatectomy by multivariate analysis: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hwui-Dong; Kim, Ki-Hun; Hwang, Shin; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Moon, Deok-Bog; Ha, Tae-Yong; Song, Gi-Won; Jung, Dong-Hwan; Park, Gil-Chun; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2017-07-21

    To compare the outcomes of pure laparoscopic left hemihepatectomy (LLH) versus open left hemihepatectomy (OLH) for benign and malignant conditions using multivariate analysis. All consecutive cases of LLH and OLH between October 2007 and December 2013 in a tertiary referral hospital were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. All surgical procedures were performed by one surgeon. The LLH and OLH groups were compared in terms of patient demographics, preoperative data, clinical perioperative outcomes, and tumor characteristics in patients with malignancy. Multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors associated with severe complications was then performed. The LLH group (n = 62) had a significantly shorter postoperative hospital stay than the OLH group (n = 118) (9.53 ± 3.30 vs 14.88 ± 11.36 days, p Multivariate analysis revealed that the OLH group had >4 times the risk of the LLH group in terms of developing severe complications (Clavien-Dindo grade ≥III) (odds ratio 4.294, 95% confidence intervals 1.165-15.832, p = 0.029). LLH was a safe and feasible procedure for selected patients. LLH required shorter hospital stay and resulted in less operative blood loss. Multivariate analysis revealed that LLH was associated with a lower risk of severe complications compared to OLH. The authors suggest that LLH could be a reasonable treatment option for selected patients.

  15. Propensity-score-matched comparison of perioperative outcomes between open and laparoscopic nephroureterectomy: a national series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Nawar; Sun, Maxine; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Hansen, Jens; Bianchi, Marco; Montorsi, Francesco; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Graefen, Markus; Perrotte, Paul; Karakiewicz, Pierre I

    2012-04-01

    Nephroureterectomy (NU) represents the primary management for patients with nonmetastatic upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Either an open NU (ONU) or a laparoscopic NU (LNU) may be considered. Despite the presence of several reports comparing perioperative and cancer-control outcomes between the two approaches, no reports relied on a population-based cohort. Examine intraoperative and postoperative morbidity of ONU and LNU in a population-based cohort. We relied on the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to identify patients with nonmetastatic UTUC treated with ONU or LNU between 1998 and 2009. Overall, 7401 (90.8%) and 754 (9.2%) patients underwent ONU and LNU, respectively. To adjust for potential baseline differences between the two groups, propensity-score-based matching was performed. This resulted in 3016 (80%) ONU patients matched to 754 (20%) LNU patients. All patients underwent NU. The rates of intra- and postoperative complications, blood transfusions, prolonged length of stay (pLOS), and in-hospital mortality were assessed for both procedures. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed within the cohort after propensity-score matching. For ONU versus LNU respectively, the following rates were recorded: blood transfusions, 15% versus 10% (pONU. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of ESTs from juvenile and adult phases of the giant unicellular green alga Acetabularia acetabulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grotewold Erich

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetabularia acetabulum is a giant unicellular green alga whose size and complex life cycle make it an attractive model for understanding morphogenesis and subcellular compartmentalization. The life cycle of this marine unicell is composed of several developmental phases. Juvenile and adult phases are temporally sequential but physiologically and morphologically distinct. To identify genes specific to juvenile and adult phases, we created two subtracted cDNA libraries, one adult-specific and one juvenile-specific, and analyzed 941 randomly chosen ESTs from them. Results Clustering analysis suggests virtually no overlap between the two libraries. Preliminary expression data also suggests that we were successful at isolating transcripts differentially expressed between the two developmental phases and that many transcripts are specific to one phase or the other. Comparison of our EST sequences against publicly available sequence databases indicates that ESTs from the adult and the juvenile libraries partition into different functional classes. Three conserved sequence elements were common to several of the ESTs and were also found within the genomic sequence of the carbonic anhydrase1 gene from A. acetabulum. To date, these conserved elements are specific to A. acetabulum. Conclusions Our data provide strong evidence that adult and juvenile phases in A. acetabulum vary significantly in gene expression. We discuss their possible roles in cell growth and morphogenesis as well as in phase change. We also discuss the potential role of the conserved elements found within the EST sequences in post-transcriptional regulation, particularly mRNA localization and/or stability.

  17. Comparison of twin-fluid atomizers using a phase Doppler analyser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaremba, Matouš, E-mail: y116215@stud.fme.vutbr.cz, E-mail: y145527@stud.fme.vutbr.cz, E-mail: jedelsky@fme.vutbr.cz, E-mail: jicha@fme.vutbr.cz; Malý, Milan, E-mail: y116215@stud.fme.vutbr.cz, E-mail: y145527@stud.fme.vutbr.cz, E-mail: jedelsky@fme.vutbr.cz, E-mail: jicha@fme.vutbr.cz; Jedelský, Jan, E-mail: y116215@stud.fme.vutbr.cz, E-mail: y145527@stud.fme.vutbr.cz, E-mail: jedelsky@fme.vutbr.cz, E-mail: jicha@fme.vutbr.cz; Jícha, Miroslav, E-mail: y116215@stud.fme.vutbr.cz, E-mail: y145527@stud.fme.vutbr.cz, E-mail: jedelsky@fme.vutbr.cz, E-mail: jicha@fme.vutbr.cz [Brno University of technology, Technická 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-06

    The quality of atomization is crucial in combustion processes, especially in cases of highly viscous fuels. Twin-fluid atomizers have been developed for atomizing heavy and waste fuels and they have undergone significant development in the last decades. Nevertheless, in order to design an atomizer for a given industrial application, a comparison of different atomizers at similar operating conditions is required. This paper focuses on the description and comparison of two internally mixed twin-fluid atomizers at the same operating regime. The Y-jet and the Inverse-effervescent atomizers were examined. The phase-Doppler analyzer was used to measure the velocity and size of droplets in a radial profile in the spray. Data were sorted out into classes with respect to the droplet size and the motion analysis was done for both atomizers.

  18. Phase-coherent frequency comparison of optical clocks using a telecommunication fiber link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnatz, Harald; Terra, Osama; Predehl, Katharina; Feldmann, Thorsten; Legero, Thomas; Lipphardt, Burghard; Sterr, Uwe; Grosche, Gesine; Holzwarth, Ronald; Hänsch, Theodor W; Udem, Thomas; Lu, Zehuang H; Wang, Li J; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Friebe, Jan; Pape, Andrè; Rasel, Ernst-M; Riedmann, Mathias; Wübbena, Temmo

    2010-01-01

    We have explored the performance of 2 "dark fibers" of a commercial telecommunication fiber link for a remote comparison of optical clocks. These fibers establish a network in Germany that will eventually link optical frequency standards at PTB with those at the Institute of Quantum Optics (IQ) at the Leibniz University of Hanover, and the Max Planck Institutes in Erlangen (MPL) and Garching (MPQ). We demonstrate for the first time that within several minutes a phase coherent comparison of clock lasers at the few 10(-15) level can also be accomplished when the lasers are more than 100 km apart. Based on the performance of the fiber link to the IQ, we estimate the expected stability for the link from PTB to MPQ via MPL that bridges a distance of approximately 900 km.

  19. Performance Comparison of Phase Shifted PWM and Sorting Method for Modular Multilevel Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddioui, Marcos Rejas; Máthé, Lászlo; Burlacu, Paul Dan;

    2015-01-01

    Modular Multilevel Converters (MMC) are the solution of preference in HVDC applications due to modularity, scalability, low losses and low filtering requirement. Carrier-based (PWM) and carrier-less (nearest level control) modulation can be applied. By using advanced sorting methods focusing...... on keeping the capacitor voltage ripple under some limit, unnecessary switching events are eliminated leading to reduced switching losses. This paper presents a comparison between the steady-state performances in terms of output voltage THD and equivalent switching frequency of the Phase Shifted Carrier PWM...

  20. Comparison of the incisions for the open surgical treatment of gluteal muscle contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Geng, Xiang; Muhammad, Hassan; Wang, Xu; Huang, Jia-Zhang; Zhang, Chao; Ma, Xin

    2014-09-01

    Gluteal muscle contracture is not very common, but cases are still seen in China. Open surgical treatment is considered as an efficient method to treat this disease. However, the type of incision that can provide best results is yet to be determined. The authors therefore compared various incisions to determine the better one. In this retrospective study, patients who underwent surgery with a traverse straight incision, a curved incision, a longitudinal straight incision, or an 'S'-shaped incision above the greater trochanter were enrolled and divided into four groups: A, B, C, and D. In each group, the patients were divided into different levels according to a specific standard. The four groups were compared in terms of incision length, postoperative drainage amounts, wound healing rates, visual analog scale scores, and improvement in the degree of range of motion (ROM). During the follow-up period, the validity of the results, complications, and recurrent cases were evaluated. In our study, incision length and visual analog scale score of the four groups showed no significant differences (P>0.05). Wound healing rates, drainage amount, improvement in ROM, validity of the results, and recurrences in group D were significantly the best (P<0.05). No significant differences in wound healing rates, drainage amount, and improvement in ROM were found in groups A, B, and C. In terms of validity of the results and 1-year recurrence, no significant difference was observed between groups A and B; however, these factors were better than those in group C. We concluded that the 'S'-shaped incision above the greater trochanter is the most efficient among the incisions described in this study. This incision has the following advantages: clear exposure, less damage, high safety rate, excellent results, and low recurrence rate.

  1. [Ocular Trauma Score comparison with open globe receiving early or late care attention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Dulce Milagros Razo-Blanco; Gómez, Virgilio Lima

    2015-01-01

    The Ocular Trauma Score (OTS) is a scale that estimates the prognosis of injured eyes after treatment, whose results are consistent with those of longitudinal studies. The time between injury presentation and initial care has been described as a prognostic factor for visual outcome, but the OTS features of eyes receiving early or late care after trauma have not been compared. Non-experimental, comparative, retrospective, cross sectional study. Patients from either gender, aged 5-80 years, with open globe trauma, without previous diseases that reduced visual acuity or previous intraocular surgery were included. The distribution of the OTS variables was identified. The sample was divided in two: group 1 (time between trauma occurrence and initial care ≤ 24 hours) and 2 (time > 24 hours). The frequency of OTS categories of unfavorable prognosis (1-3) was compared between groups (χ(2)). 138 eyes of 138 patients, mean age 28.8 years, 65.2% male. The evolution time ranged 2-480 hours (mean 39.9); 103 eyes were assigned to group 1 (74.6%), and 35 to group 2 (25.4%). The proportion of categories 1-3 in group 1 (82.5%, n = 85) did not differ from that in group 2 (80%, n = 28; p = 1.0). The proportion of OTS categories with unfavorable prognosis did not show significant differences between the eyes who received care before or after 24 hours that could contribute to a different outcome, besides the delay in starting treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  2. Complete mesocolic excision in right hemicolectomy: comparison between hand-assisted laparoscopic and open approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Qin-Song; Pan, Zhe; Chai, Jin; Cheng, Xiao-Bin; Liu, Fan-Long; Wang, Jin-Hai; Chen, Wen-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility, safety, and technical strategies of hand-assisted laparoscopic complete mesocolic excision (HAL-CME) and to compare oncological outcomes between HAL-CME and the open approach (O-CME) for right colon cancers. Methods Patients who were scheduled to undergo a right hemicolectomy were divided into HAL-CME and O-CME groups. Measured outcomes included demographic variables, perioperative parameters, and follow-up data. Demographic variables included age, sex distribution, body mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification, previous abdominal surgery, tumor localization, and potential comorbidities. Perioperative parameters included incision length, operative time, blood loss, conversion rate, postoperative pain score, postoperative first passage of flatus, duration of hospital stay, total cost, number of lymph nodes retrieved, TNM classification, and postoperative complications. Follow-up data included follow-up time, use of chemotherapy, local recurrence rate, distant metastasis rate, and short-term survival rate. Results In total, 150 patients (HAL-CME, 78; O-CME, 72) were included. The groups were similar in age, sex distribution, BMI, ASA classification, history of previous abdominal surgeries, tumor localization, and potential comorbidities. Patients in the HAL-CME group had shorter incision lengths, longer operative times, less operative blood loss, lower pain scores, earlier first passage of flatus, shorter hospital stay, higher total costs, similar numbers of lymph nodes retrieved, similar TNM classifications, and a comparable incidence of postoperative complications. The 2 groups were also similar in local recurrence rate, distant metastasis rate, and short-term survival rate. Conclusion The results demonstrate that the HAL-CME procedure is a safe, valid, and feasible surgical method for right hemicolon cancers. PMID:28203556

  3. Transperitoneal laparoscopic repair of vesicovaginal fistula for patients with supratrigonal fistula: comparison with open transperitoneal technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yang; Tang, Yunhua; Huang, Fang; Liu, Longfei; Zhang, Xiangyang

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the treatment outcomes of laparoscopic vesicovaginal fistula repair (LVVFR) in patients with supratrigonal vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) in contrast with open transperitoneal vesicovaginal fistula repair (OVVFR). We analyzed 58 VVF repairs from June 2005 to July 2014, with 22 patients in the LVVFR group and 36 in the OVVFR group. Demographic parameters, operative variables, and perioperative outcomes were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Student's t test and the Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis. Patients in both groups had comparable preoperative characteristics. Significantly shorter hospital stay (5.6 vs. 13.2 days, p  0.05) and recurrent VVF success rate (90.0 % vs. 75.0 %, p > 0.05) than OVVFR group, but it was not statistically significant. Patients who underwent OVVFR experienced more postoperative symptomatic bladder spasms (8.3 % vs. 4.5 %, p > 0.05), urinary tract infections (UTIs) (5.6 % vs. 0.0 %, p > 0.05), and stress urinary incontinence (SUI) (5.6 % vs. 4.5 %, p > 0.05), but fewer incidents of postoperative ileus (0.0 % vs. 4.5 %, p > 0.05) than the LVVFR group; differences were not significant. Judging from this initial trial, LVVFR should be recommended as the primary intervention to treat supratrigonal VVF patients in view of its reduced blood loss and hospital stay.

  4. Comparison of surgical, functional, and oncological outcomes of open and robot-assisted partial nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Boylu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to compare the surgical, oncological, and functional outcomes of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN with open partial nephrectomy (OPN in the management of small renal masses. Materials and Methods: Between 2009 and 2013, a total of 46 RAPN patients and 20 OPN patients was included in this study. Patients′ demographics, mean operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL, warm ischemia time (WIT, length of hospital stay, pre- and post-operative renal functions, complications and oncological outcomes were recorded, prospectively. Results: Mean tumor size was 4.04 cm in OPN group and 3.56 cm in RAPN group (P = 0.27. Mean R.E.N.A.L nephrometry score was 6.35 in OPN group and 5.35 in RAPN group (P = 0.02. The mean operative time was 152 min in OPN group and 225 min in RAPN group (P = 0.006. The mean EBL in OPN and RAPN groups were 417 ml and 268 ml, respectively (P = 0.001. WIT in OPN group was significantly shorter than RAPN group (18.02 min vs. 23.33 min, P = 0.003. The mean drain removal time and the length of hospital stay were longer in OPN group. There were no significant differences in terms of renal functional outcomes and postoperative complications between groups. Conclusion: Minimally invasive surgical management of renal masses with RAPN offers better outcomes in terms of EBL and length of stay. However, the mean operative time and WIT were significantly shorter in OPN group. RAPN is a safe and effective minimally invasive alternative to OPN in terms of oncological and functional outcomes.

  5. Experimental comparison of chiral metal-organic framework used as stationary phase in chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Sheng-Ming; Zhang, Mei; Fei, Zhi-Xin; Yuan, Li-Ming

    2014-10-10

    Chiral metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new class of multifunctional material, which possess diverse structures and unusual properties such as high surface area, uniform and permanent cavities, as well as good chemical and thermal stability. Their chiral functionality makes them attractive as novel enantioselective adsorbents and stationary phases in separation science. In this paper, the experimental comparison of a chiral MOF [In₃O(obb)₃(HCO₂)(H₂O)] solvent used as a stationary phase was investigated in gas chromatography (GC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC). The potential relationship between the structure and components of chiral MOFs with their chiral recognition ability and selectivity are presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A comparison of three different pension savings products with special emphasis on the payout phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte; Linnemann, Per

    2012-01-01

    of the allocation to shares in the underlying investment portfolios. TimePension involves the highest allocation to shares and therefore offers, on average, the highest pension benefits, followed by the Unit Link scheme. In the third and last place comes the traditional with-profits scheme, which has a relatively......The purpose of this article is to illustrate how the pension benefits a pension saver will (expect to) receive will depend on the type of pension scheme chosen. We compare three widely different pension savings products: the ‘‘traditional’’ with-profits scheme involving bonus entitlement (average...... in previous literature, but those comparisons were based almost entirely on the values of pension savings accounts at the expiry of the accumulation period. This article will include the payout phase (decumulation phase) in the analysis, enabling us to analyse the size of paid-out pension benefits themselves...

  7. Proximal Biceps Tenodesis: An Anatomic Study and Comparison of the Accuracy of Arthroscopic and Open Techniques Using Interference Screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovack, Thomas J; Idoine, John D; Jacob, Paul B

    2014-02-01

    To (1) better define the anatomy of the proximal shoulder in relation to the long head of the biceps tendon, (2) compare the length-tension relationship of the biceps tendon in the native shoulder with that after arthroscopic and open tenodesis techniques using interference screws, and (3) provide surgical recommendations for both procedures based on study findings. Descriptive laboratory study. Twenty fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were dissected for analysis. Initial anatomic measurements involving the proximal long head of the biceps tendon (BT) were made, which included: the labral origin to the superior bicipital groove (LO-SBG), the total tendon length (TTL), the musculotendinous junction (MTJ) to the inferior pectoralis major tendon border, the MTJ to the superior pectoralis major tendon border, and the biceps tendon diameter (BTD) at 2 different tenodesis locations. These same measurements were made again after completing a simulated suprapectoral arthroscopic and open subpectoral tenodesis, both with interference screw fixation. Statistical comparisons were then made between the native anatomy and that after tenodesis, with the goal of assessing the accuracy of re-establishing the normal length-tension relationship of the long head of the BT after simulated arthroscopic suprapectoral and open subpectoral tenodesis with tenodesis screws. For all cadavers, the mean TTL was 104.1 mm. For the arthroscopic suprapectoral technique, the mean LO-SBG was 33.6 mm, and the mean tendon resection length was 12.8 mm in males and 5.0 mm in females. The mean BTD was 6.35 mm at the arthroscopic suprapectoral tenodesis site and 5.75 mm at the open subpectoral tenodesis site. Males were found to have statistically longer TTL and LO-SBG measurements (111.6 vs 96.5 mm [P = .027] and 37.2 vs 30.0 mm [P = .009], respectively). In the native shoulder, the mean distances from the MTJ to the superior and inferior borders of the pectoralis major tendon were 23.8 and 31.7 mm

  8. An open randomized comparison of gatifloxacin versus cefixime for the treatment of uncomplicated enteric fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Pandit

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of gatifloxacin versus cefixime in the treatment of uncomplicated culture positive enteric fever. DESIGN: A randomized, open-label, active control trial with two parallel arms. SETTING: Emergency Room and Outpatient Clinics in Patan Hospital, Lagankhel, Lalitpur, Nepal. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with clinically diagnosed uncomplicated enteric fever meeting the inclusion criteria. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were allocated to receive one of two drugs, Gatifloxacin or Cefixime. The dosages used were Gatifloxacin 10 mg/kg, given once daily for 7 days, or Cefixime 20 mg/kg/day given in two divided doses for 7 days. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was fever clearance time. The secondary outcome measure was overall treatment failure (acute treatment failure and relapse. RESULTS: Randomization was carried out in 390 patients before enrollment was suspended on the advice of the independent data safety monitoring board due to significant differences in both primary and secondary outcome measures in the two arms and the attainment of a priori defined endpoints. Median (95% confidence interval fever clearance times were 92 hours (84-114 hours for gatifloxacin recipients and 138 hours (105-164 hours for cefixime-treated patients (Hazard Ratio[95%CI] = 2.171 [1.545-3.051], p<0.0001. 19 out of 70 (27% patients who completed the 7 day trial had acute clinical failure in the cefixime group as compared to 1 out of 88 patients (1% in gatifloxacin group(Odds Ratio [95%CI] = 0.031 [0.004 - 0.237], p<0.001. Overall treatment failure patients (relapsed patients plus acute treatment failure patients plus death numbered 29. They were determined to be (95% confidence interval 37.6 % (27.14%-50.2% in the cefixime group and 3.5% (2.2%-11.5% in the gatifloxacin group (HR[95%CI] = 0.084 [0.025-0.280], p<0.0001. There was one death in the cefixime group. CONCLUSIONS: Based on this study, gatifloxacin is a better treatment for

  9. Repair of inguinal hernia: a comparison between extraperitoneal laparoscopy and Lichtenstein open surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavassoli A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: The inguinal hernia is a common disorder in general surgery. Different methods have been described for repair of these hernias. In modern methods, synthetic mesh is used to cover the wall defect and the most known method is Lichtenstein surgical repair. The laparoscopic totally extra peritoneal procedure (TEP is a newer technique of repairing hernia. The aim of this study is to compare the outcomes of totally extraperitoneal laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair versus Lichtenstein open repair in patients with inguinal hernia."n"nMethods: Among 50 patients, 25 cases underwent Lichtenstein procedure and 25 patients underwent TEP technique for repairing primary unilateral inguinal hernia. Findings during the operation have been recorded and the 12-months follow-up of patients in different views was performed through a questionnaire and then the results were compared."n"nResults: The operation duration, the rate of complications and frequency of recurrence were similar in two groups; but the hospital stay, postoperative pain, chronic groin pain and the required time to return to normal activity were significantly lower in patients who underwent the TEP method compared to the patients who underwent the

  10. Forehead and scalp sensation after brow-lift: a comparison between open and endoscopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Jason M; Rousso, Daniel E; Replogle, William

    2011-01-01

    To compare postoperative forehead and scalp sensation for the "open" brow-lift (OBL) (coronal and trichophytic) with that of the endoscopic brow-lift (EBL). A controlled outcome evaluation study was designed to objectively (mechanoceptive and thermoceptive) and subjectively (visual analog scale) test forehead and scalp sensation in a group of patients having undergone or scheduled to undergo either OBL or EBL in a single, private facial plastic surgery clinic. Prospectively enrolled participants were tested at defined intervals (A, preoperation; B,1-2 weeks after; C, 4-6 weeks after; D, 12-14 weeks after; and E, 24-26 weeks after). To provide extended follow-up data (≥6 months), patients returning for scheduled follow-up examination who had already undergone either OBL or EBL were subjected to the same test battery. For statistical analysis of the extended follow-up data, the participants were divided into 2 groups (F, 6-18 months; and G, >18 months). The null hypothesis was that there would be no measurable difference between the OBL and the EBL groups related to postoperative forehead and scalp sensation. Twenty-one individuals (EBL, n = 11; OBL, n = 10) were enrolled prospectively. All showed normal objective and subjective values preoperatively. While both groups objectively and subjectively demonstrated decreased sensation over follow-up, the OBL group showed statistically significant decrement in objective scalp sensitivity at times B, C, and D vs the EBL group. Subjectively, the OBL group felt less sensitive than the EBL group at times C and D. Those relationships disappeared at time E. Fifty-eight individuals were retrospectively enrolled. At time F (EBL, n = 16; OBL, n = 10), an objective and subjective difference was again observed with the OBL group demonstrating less scalp sensitivity vs the EBL group. At time G (EBL, n = 20; OBL, n = 12), this difference was no longer observed. We reject the null hypothesis and state that there is a measurable

  11. Comparison of ocular response analyzer parameters in primary open angle glaucoma and exfoliative glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrullah Beyazyildiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We sought to identify differences in the following measures of the ocular response analyser (ORA between primary open angle glaucoma (POAG and exfoliative glaucoma (EXG patients: Corneal hysteresis (CH, corneal resistance factor (CRF, corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc and Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg. We also sought to relate these ORA measures with central corneal thickness (CCT. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 162 individuals (46 EXG patients, 66 POAG patients and 50 healthy subjects without any ocular and systemic disease. ORA measurements were performed, and a minimum of three readings were obtained from each test subject. Groups were compared according to their ORA parameters. Results: The mean CH levels of the EXG, POAG and healthy subjects were 7.6 ± 2.1, 9.1 ± 1.9 and 9.6 ± 1.7 mmHg, respectively. CH was significantly lower in the EXG patients compared to the other groups (P < 0.001.The mean CRF levels of the EXG, POAG and healthy subjects were 9.0 ± 2.0, 10.1 ± 1.7 and 9.8 ± 1.8mmHg, respectively. CRF levels in the eyes of the EXG patients were significantly lower compared to those of either the POAG patients (P = 0.005 or the healthy subjects (P = 0.03, but there was no significant difference in CRF levels between the POAG patients and the healthy subjects (P = 0.59. There was a significant positive correlation between CH and CCT in the EXG patients and healthy subjects (P < 0.001, but this correlation was not present in the POAG patients (P = 0.70. Conclusions: In this study, CH and CRF were found to be significantly reduced in the eyes of EXG patients compared to both the POAG patients and healthy subjects. Reduced CH in EXG patients might result in decreased support of peripapillary scleral structure and increased damage to the optic nerve during IOP increase.

  12. Comparison of phase recovery methods in spiral speckle pattern interferometry correlation fringes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadnjal, Ana Laura; Etchepareborda, Pablo; Bianchetti, Arturo; Veiras, Francisco E.; Federico, Alejandro; Kaufmann, Guillermo H.

    2016-05-01

    Spiral interferometry can be used as a solution to the problem of sign ambiguity presented in the conventional speckle pattern interferometric technique when the optical phase needs to be reconstructed from a single closed fringe system. Depressions and elevations of the topography corresponding to the object deformation are distinguished by the direction of rotation of the local spiral fringe pattern. In this work, we implement and compare several methods for optical phase reconstruction by analyzing a single image composed of spiral speckle pattern interferometry correlation fringes. The implemented methods are based on contour line demodulation, center line demodulation, Spiral Phase Quadrature Transform and the 2D Riesz transform with multivector structure. Contour line and center line demodulation approaches are exclusively dedicated to images containing a fringe system with spiral structure. The others are based on the 2D Riesz transform, these being well known approaches in conventional interferometry. We examine simulated experiments and analyze some of the emerging drawbacks for solving the phase reconstruction problem by using different mean values of speckle size and background noise levels. We also discuss several numerical procedures that may well improve the efficiency and robustness of the presented numerical implementations. The performance of the implemented demodulation methods is evaluated by using a universal image quality index and therefore a quantitative comparison is also presented.

  13. Comparison of solid and liquid-phase bioassays using ecoscores to assess contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lors, Christine [Universite Lille Nord de France, 1bis rue Georges Lefevre, 59044 Lille Cedex (France); Ecole des Mines de Douai, LGCgE-MPE-GCE, 941 rue Charles-Bourseul, 59500 Douai (France); Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues, 930 Boulevard Lahure, BP 537, 59505 Douai Cedex (France); Ponge, Jean-Francois, E-mail: ponge@mnhn.fr [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Departement Ecologie et Gestion de la Biodiversite, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 Avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Martinez Aldaya, Maite [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Departement Ecologie et Gestion de la Biodiversite, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 Avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Damidot, Denis [Universite Lille Nord de France, 1bis rue Georges Lefevre, 59044 Lille Cedex (France); Ecole des Mines de Douai, LGCgE-MPE-GCE, 941 rue Charles-Bourseul, 59500 Douai (France)

    2011-10-15

    Bioassays on aqueous and solid phases of contaminated soils were compared, belonging to a wide array of trophic and response levels and using ecoscores for evaluating ecotoxicological and genotoxicological endpoints. The method was applied to four coke factory soils contaminated mainly with PAHs, but also to a lesser extent by heavy metals and cyanides. Aquatic bioassays do not differ from terrestrial bioassays when scaling soils according to toxicity but they are complementary from the viewpoint of ecological relevance. Both aquatic and terrestrial endpoints are strongly correlated with concentrations of 3-ring PAHs. This evaluation procedure allows us to propose a cost-effective battery which embraces a wide array of test organisms and response levels: it includes two rapid bioassays (Microtox) and springtail avoidance), a micronucleus test and three bioassays of a longer duration (algal growth, lettuce germination and springtail reproduction). This battery can be recommended for a cost-effective assessment of polluted/remediated soils. - Highlights: > Comparison of liquid- and solid-phase bioassays on contaminated soils, using ecoscores. > Complementarity of liquid- and solid-phase bioassays for the evaluation of environmental hazards. > Proposal for a restricted battery of 5 most sensitive tests. > Use of this restricted battery for a cost-effective assessment of polluted/remediated soils. - Aqueous and solid phases of contaminated soils give similar results in terms of toxicity but are complementary for the evaluation of environmental hazards by ecoscores.

  14. Direct comparison of phase-sensitive vibrational sum frequency generation with maximum entropy method: case study of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Alex G F; Samson, Jean-Sebastièn; Hua, Wei; Huang, Zishuai; Chen, Xiangke; Allen, Heather C; Roke, Sylvie

    2011-12-14

    We present a direct comparison of phase sensitive sum-frequency generation experiments with phase reconstruction obtained by the maximum entropy method. We show that both methods lead to the same complex spectrum. Furthermore, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each of these methods, analyzing possible sources of experimental and analytical errors. A simulation program for maximum entropy phase reconstruction is available at: http://lbp.epfl.ch/.

  15. Precipitation of Phase Using General Diffusion Equation with Comparison to Vitek Diffusion Model in Dissimilar Stainless Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chun Hsieh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study performs a precipitation examination of the phase using the general diffusion equation with comparison to the Vitek model in dissimilar stainless steels during multipass welding. Experimental results demonstrate that the diffusivities (, , and of Cr, Ni, and Si are higher in -ferrite than (, , and in the phase, and that they facilitate the precipitation of the σ phase in the third pass fusion zone. The Vitek diffusion equation can be modified as follows: .

  16. Antithrombotic properties of rafigrelide: a phase 1, open-label, non-randomised, single-sequence, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, K; Viswanathan, G; Dragone, J; Grose-Hodge, R; Martin, P; Troy, S; Preston, P; Zaman, A G

    2014-07-03

    Platelets play a central role in atherothrombotic events. We investigated the effect of a novel platelet-lowering agent, rafigrelide, on thrombus formation and characteristics. In this phase 1, open-label, non-randomised, single-sequence, crossover study, healthy male volunteers received rafigrelide for 14 days (Period 1). Following a ≥6-week washout period, they then received rafigrelide + acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) for 14 days (Period 2). Thrombus formation was assessed ex vivo using the Badimon perfusion chamber, and thrombus characteristics were assessed using thromboelastography. A total of 15 volunteers were enrolled in the study and were assigned to Panel A or Panel B, which had different schedules of assessments. In Panel A, after treatment with rafigrelide alone (Period 1), mean (± standard deviation) platelet count was reduced from 283 (± 17) × 10⁹/l at Day 1, to 125 (± 47) × 10⁹/l at Day 14 (n=6) and thrombus area reduced under high and low shear conditions. Reductions in thrombus area under high shear conditions correlated with reductions in platelet count (r²=0.11, p=0.022; n=12). Rafigrelide treatment prolonged clot formation time and reduced clot strength. The addition of ASA to rafigrelide (Period 2) had no additional effect on platelet count or thrombus area under high or low shear conditions. Similar results were seen in Panel B for all parameters. The most common adverse events (≥3 participants per period) were thrombocytopenia and headache. While confirming the platelet-lowering effects of rafigrelide, this early phase study also indicates that rafigrelide has antithrombotic properties under both high and low shear conditions.

  17. A versatile polydopamine platform for facile preparation of protein stationary phase for chip-based open tubular capillary electrochromatography enantioseparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Ming; Liang, Ru-Ping; Wang, Xiao-Ni; Wang, Jing-Wu; Qiu, Jian-Ding

    2013-06-14

    A novel, simple, and economical method for the preparation of chiral stationary phases for chip-based enantioselective open tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC) using polydopamine (PDA) coating as an adhesive layer was reported for the first time. After the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic chip was filled with dopamine (DA) solution, PDA film was gradually formed and deposited on the inner wall of microchannel as permanent coating via the oxidation of DA by the oxygen dissolved in the solution. Due to possessing plentiful catechol and amine functional groups, PDA coating can serve as a versatile multifunctional platform for further secondary reactions, leading to tailoring of the coatings for protein bioconjugation by the thiols and amines via Michael addition or Schiff base reactions. Bovine serum albumin (BSA), acting as a target protein, was then stably and homogeneously immobilized in the PDA-coated PDMS microchannel to fabricate a novel protein stationary phase. Compared with the native PDMS microchannels, the modified surfaces exhibited much better wettability, more stable and enhanced electroosmotic mobility, and less nonspecific adsorption. The water contact angle and electroosmotic flow of PDA/BSA-coated PDMS substrate were measured to be 44° and 2.83×10(-4)cm(2)V(-1)s(-1), compared to those of 112° and 2.10×10(-4)cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) from the untreated one, respectively. Under a mild condition, d- and l-tryptophan were efficiently separated with a resolution of 1.68 within 130s utilizing a separation length of 37mm coupled with in-column amperometric detection on the PDA/BSA-coated PDMS microchips. This present versatile platform, facile conjugation of biomolecules onto microchip surfaces via mussel adhesive protein inspired coatings, may offer new processing strategies to prepare a biomimetic surface design on microfluidic chips, which is promising in high-throughput and complex biological analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B

  18. Separation of monoclonal antibody charge state variants by open tubular capillary electrochromatography with immobilised protein as stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yamin; Wang, Wentao; Xiao, Xue; Jia, Li

    2016-09-30

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are highly heterogeneous and complex glycoproteins requiring powerful analytical tools for characterization and quality control. In this work, we utilize adsorbed bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a stationary phase in open tubular (OT) capillary electrochromatography for separation of charge state variants of mAbs. Poly(diallydimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) was used to assist fabrication of BSA coated OT column by electrostatic self-assembly. Scanning electron microscopy and electroosmotic flow measurement were carried out to characterize the as-prepared BSA coated PDDA OT columns. The electrochromatographic performance of the OT columns was evaluated by separation of basic proteins and different charge state variants of mAbs. The effects of background solution pH and concentration on separation were investigated. A rapid separation of charge state variants of mAbs was successfully achieved in the BSA coated PDDA OT column. Separation of seven variants of the mAb cetuximab was achieved using the prepared column. Two basic variants and one acidic variant of rituximab, and two basic variants and four acidic variants of trastuximab were successfully distinguished from the main forms. In addition, the columns demonstrated good repeatability and stability with the run-to-run, day-to-day and batch-to-batch relative standard deviations of migration times less than 3.7%.

  19. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of pasireotide LAR in patients with acromegaly: a randomized, multicenter, open-label, phase I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersenn, Stephan; Bollerslev, Jens; Arafat, Ayman M; Schopohl, Jochen; Serri, Omar; Katznelson, Laurence; Lasher, Janet; Hughes, Gareth; Hu, Ke; Shen, George; Reséndiz, Karina Hermosillo; Giannone, Vanessa; Beckers, Albert

    2014-11-01

    Pasireotide (SOM230), a multireceptor-targeted somatostatin analogue, has exhibited favorable safety/tolerability in several clinical studies. A long-acting-release (LAR) formulation of pasireotide may offer advantages over the subcutaneous formulation. This randomized, open-label, Phase I study evaluated the safety, PK, and PD of pasireotide LAR 20, 40, or 60 mg/month in patients with acromegaly. Safety assessments and blood samples for PK and PD were taken at designated time points. Thirty-five patients were randomized and completed the study. Steady-state pasireotide concentrations were achieved following three monthly injections. Trough pasireotide concentrations (ng/mL) 28 days after each injection were: 2.48, 4.16, and 3.10 (20 mg group); 6.42, 6.62, and 7.12 (40 mg group); and 9.51, 11.7, and 13.0 (60 mg group). At study end, 51% and 57% of patients achieved GH levels ≤2.5 μg/L and IGF-1 levels below ULN, respectively. Compared with baseline, fasting blood glucose and HbA1c levels increased, whereas fasting blood insulin levels decreased. Acromegaly symptoms were generally improved. Adverse events were mostly gastrointestinal and mild/moderate. Pasireotide LAR was generally well tolerated. Steady-state PK was achieved after three monthly doses; exposures were approximately dose proportional. Control of GH, IGF-1, and symptoms improved, suggesting that pasireotide LAR may be an effective treatment for acromegaly.

  20. DO CANCER CLINICAL TRIAL POPULATIONS TRULY REPRESENT CANCER PATIENTS? A COMPARISON OF OPEN CLINICAL TRIALS TO THE CANCER GENOME ATLAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geifman, Nophar; Butte, Atul J

    2016-01-01

    Open clinical trial data offer many opportunities for the scientific community to independently verify published results, evaluate new hypotheses and conduct meta-analyses. These data provide a springboard for scientific advances in precision medicine but the question arises as to how representative clinical trials data are of cancer patients overall. Here we present the integrative analysis of data from several cancer clinical trials and compare these to patient-level data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Comparison of cancer type-specific survival rates reveals that these are overall lower in trial subjects. This effect, at least to some extent, can be explained by the more advanced stages of cancer of trial subjects. This analysis also reveals that for stage IV cancer, colorectal cancer patients have a better chance of survival than breast cancer patients. On the other hand, for all other stages, breast cancer patients have better survival than colorectal cancer patients. Comparison of survival in different stages of disease between the two datasets reveals that subjects with stage IV cancer from the trials dataset have a lower chance of survival than matching stage IV subjects from TCGA. One likely explanation for this observation is that stage IV trial subjects have lower survival rates since their cancer is less likely to respond to treatment. To conclude, we present here a newly available clinical trials dataset which allowed for the integration of patient-level data from many cancer clinical trials. Our comprehensive analysis reveals that cancer-related clinical trials are not representative of general cancer patient populations, mostly due to their focus on the more advanced stages of the disease. These and other limitations of clinical trials data should, perhaps, be taken into consideration in medical research and in the field of precision medicine.

  1. Fault Tolerant Three-Phase AC Motor Drive Topologies: A Comparison of Features, Cost, and Limitations (To Continue)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    C. Phase-Redundant Topology The ability to isolate a faulty phase-leg opens the possibility of introducing a spare inverter leg for improved fault tolerance as shown in Fig.8. The configuration will be referred to as the phase-redundant topology. This circuit topology incorporates the fault isolating SCRs and fuses in only the three active legs of the inverter. A spare fourth leg of the inverter is connected in place of the faulty phase-leg after the fault isolating devices have removed that leg from the system.

  2. EXPERIMENTAL COMPARISON OF HOMODYNE DEMODULATION ALGORITHMS FOR PHASE FIBER-OPTIC SENSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Belikin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper presents the results of experimental comparative analysis of homodyne demodulation algorithms based on differential cross multiplying method and on arctangent method under the same conditions. The dependencies of parameters for the output signals on the optical radiation intensity are studied for the considered demodulation algorithms. Method. The prototype of single fiber optic phase interferometric sensor has been used for experimental comparison of signal demodulation algorithms. Main Results. We have found that homodyne demodulation based on arctangent method provides greater (by 7 dB at average signal-to-noise ratio of output signals over the frequency band of acoustic impact from 100 Hz to 500 Hz as compared to differential cross multiplying algorithms. We have demonstrated that no change in the output signal amplitude occurs for the studied range of values of the optical pulses amplitudes. Obtained results indicate that the homodyne demodulation based on arctangent method is most suitable for application in the phase fiber-optic sensors. It provides higher repeatability of their characteristics than the differential cross multiplying algorithm. Practical Significance. Algorithms of interferometric signals demodulation are widely used in phase fiber-optic sensors. Improvement of their characteristics has a positive effect on the performance of such sensors.

  3. 234U/238U isotope data from groundwater and solid-phase leachate samples near Tuba City Open Dump, Tuba City, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Horton, Robert J.; Otton, James K.; Ketterer, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    This report releases 234U/238U isotope data, expressed as activity ratios, and uranium concentration data from analyses completed at Northern Arizona University for groundwater and solid-phase leachate samples that were collected in and around Tuba City Open Dump, Tuba City, Arizona, in 2008.

  4. Out-of-equilibrium open quantum systems: A comparison of approximate quantum master equation approaches with exact results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkayastha, Archak; Dhar, Abhishek; Kulkarni, Manas

    2016-06-01

    We present the Born-Markov approximated Redfield quantum master equation (RQME) description for an open system of noninteracting particles (bosons or fermions) on an arbitrary lattice of N sites in any dimension and weakly connected to multiple reservoirs at different temperatures and chemical potentials. The RQME can be reduced to the Lindblad equation, of various forms, by making further approximations. By studying the N =2 case, we show that RQME gives results which agree with exact analytical results for steady-state properties and with exact numerics for time-dependent properties over a wide range of parameters. In comparison, the Lindblad equations have a limited domain of validity in nonequilibrium. We conclude that it is indeed justified to use microscopically derived full RQME to go beyond the limitations of Lindblad equations in out-of-equilibrium systems. We also derive closed-form analytical results for out-of-equilibrium time dynamics of two-point correlation functions. These results explicitly show the approach to steady state and thermalization. These results are experimentally relevant for cold atoms, cavity QED, and far-from-equilibrium quantum dot experiments.

  5. Clinical trial results of a modified gore excluder endograft: comparison with open repair and original device design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curci, John A; Fillinger, Mark F; Naslund, Thomas C; Rubin, Brian G

    2007-05-01

    A multicenter phase II clinical trial of aneurysm treatment was performed with the modified Gore Excluder bifurcated endoprosthesis (m-EBE, n = 193) and compared with previously reported results from the same group of the original unmodified device (EBE, n = 253) or standard open aneurysm exclusion (control, n = 99). Graft modifications were primarily related to the proximal attachment site and included an increase in the length of the external expanded polytetrafluoroethylene and modifications of the anchor configuration. Preprocedural characteristics, periprocedural clinical events, and postprocedural clinical and radiographic follow-up at 1, 6, 12, and 24 months were analyzed with univariate and multivariate statistics. Device placement was successful in all cases, and there were no aneurysm ruptures in any group. Survival to 2 years was similar in all groups. Early major adverse events with the m-EBE were similar to those with the EBE (14.5% vs. 14%, P = 0.9) and markedly reduced compared to the control group (60.6%, P EBE (2% vs. 6% with the EBE, P EBE compared to the EBE during 14- to 28-month follow-up (15.6% vs. 24.9%, P = 0.037), in part due to the difference in reinterventions. The safety and efficacy of the m-EBE are statistically similar to the original device, although there was a reduction in major late adverse events between the two iterations of the endograft. This difference appears to be related to increased operator experience and changing treatment algorithms. Compared with open aneurysm repair, endoluminal repair with the m-EBE offers advantages in the reduction of early major adverse events while maintaining similar survival and rupture-free outcomes in the intermediate term.

  6. Analysis of simultaneous unbalanced short circuit and open conductor faults in power systems with untransposed lines and six-phase sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Hassan Youssef

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a generalized method for analysis of multiple, simultaneous short circuit, open circuit, and open circuit falling conductor faults in mixed three-phase and six-phase power systems with untransposed lines. The method is systematic and suitable for all types of faults, any number of simultaneous faults, and any number of phases. Calculation of all network unbalanced voltages and currents during faults is done in one straightforward step. Coupling among sequence networks in untransposed transmission lines is accounted for. Coupling between the three-sequence networks of the three-phase part and the six-sequence networks of six-phase part is also derived. The method is applied also for transient stability study of mixed three-phase and six-phase power systems during any type of faults. Detailed derivation of the governing equations in each part is presented. Simulation results on the IEEE 300-bus system and the IEEE 30-bus system are given to validate the proposed method.

  7. Phase-Retrieval Uncertainty Estimation and Algorithm Comparison for the JWST-ISIM Test Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronstein, David L.; Smith, J. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Phase retrieval, the process of determining the exitpupil wavefront of an optical instrument from image-plane intensity measurements, is the baseline methodology for characterizing the wavefront for the suite of science instruments (SIs) in the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). JWST is a large, infrared space telescope with a 6.5-meter diameter primary mirror. JWST is currently NASA's flagship mission and will be the premier space observatory of the next decade. ISIM contains four optical benches with nine unique instruments, including redundancies. ISIM was characterized at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, MD in a series of cryogenic vacuum tests using a telescope simulator. During these tests, phase-retrieval algorithms were used to characterize the instruments. The objective of this paper is to describe the Monte-Carlo simulations that were used to establish uncertainties (i.e., error bars) for the wavefronts of the various instruments in ISIM. Multiple retrieval algorithms were used in the analysis of ISIM phase-retrieval focus-sweep data, including an iterativetransform algorithm and a nonlinear optimization algorithm. These algorithms emphasize the recovery of numerous optical parameters, including low-order wavefront composition described by Zernike polynomial terms and high-order wavefront described by a point-by-point map, location of instrument best focus, focal ratio, exit-pupil amplitude, the morphology of any extended object, and optical jitter. The secondary objective of this paper is to report on the relative accuracies of these algorithms for the ISIM instrument tests, and a comparison of their computational complexity and their performance on central and graphical processing unit clusters. From a phase-retrieval perspective, the ISIM test campaign includes a variety of source illumination bandwidths, various image-plane sampling criteria above and below the Nyquist- Shannon

  8. Energy efficiency in Norway (1996). Cross Country Comparison on Energy Efficiency Indicators, Phase 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Leif Kristian

    1998-12-01

    This is the national report for Norway in phase 4 of the SAVE project 'Cross country comparison of energy efficiency indicators'. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway the last 20 years, with a special emphasis on the period after 1990. Final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approx 2.3% per year from 1990 to 1996. Doing detailed sector analysis we are applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to either activity, structure or intensity. Calculating an aggregate intensity index from the sector intensities gives an average intensity reduction of 0.4% per year. Thereby most of the reduction in final energy per unit GDP are due to structural changes, and not technical improvements. Almost all data are taken from official Norwegian statistics (Statistics Norway). (author)

  9. Trapping the Pasture Odorscape Using Open-Air Solid-Phase Micro Extraction, a Tool to Assess Grassland Value.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Cornu

    Full Text Available Besides supporting cattle feeding, grasslands are home to a diversity of plants and insects that interact with each other by emitting volatile compounds. The aim of this work was to develop a method to determine permanent grassland odorscape and relate it to flower-visiting insects. Two grasslands were chosen for their contrasting levels of botanical diversity, resulting from differing grazing managements. Measurements were made over two periods of three consecutive days at the beginning of grazing, and just after the cows had left the plots. Volatile compounds were trapped using solid-phase microextraction (SPME fibers exposed eight hours a day in three exclosures per plot, and then analyzed by gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Insects were trapped using pan traps and a net, sorted and counted. The open air SPME method yielded volatile compound profiles that were richer than maize field profiles, comprising the common green leaf volatiles (GLV and more specific ones. Differences between the odorscapes of the two grasslands were found, but they were not as marked as expected from their botanical composition. By contrast, there were sharp differences between the two periods, resulting from the combined effects of changes in weather conditions, plant phenological stage and grazing progress. Several correlations between insect counts and volatile compounds were found. Although their correlation coefficients were low, some of them were confirmed when tested by Spearman rank correlation, and could be logically explained. This method of grassland odorscape deserves to be developed because it can provide information on many aspects of grassland function and on the stresses that grassland plants undergo.

  10. Robot-assisted Versus Laparoscopic Surgery for Rectal Cancer: A Phase II Open Label Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Park, Sung Chan; Park, Ji Won; Chang, Hee Jin; Kim, Dae Yong; Nam, Byung-Ho; Sohn, Dae Kyung; Oh, Jae Hwan

    2017-05-25

    The phase II randomized controlled trial aimed to compare the outcomes of robot-assisted surgery with those of laparoscopic surgery in the patients with rectal cancer. The feasibility of robot-assisted surgery over laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer has not been established yet. Between February 21, 2012 and March 11, 2015, patients with rectal cancer (cT1-3NxM0) were enrolled. Patients were randomized 1:1 to either robot-assisted or laparoscopic surgery, and stratified per sex and administration of preoperative chemoradiotherapy. The primary outcome was the quality of total mesorectal excision (TME) specimen. Secondary outcomes were the circumferential and distal resection margins, the number of harvested lymph nodes, morbidity, bowel function recovery, and quality of life. A total of 163 patients were randomly assigned to the robot-assisted (n = 81) and laparoscopic (n = 82) surgery groups, and 139 patients were eligible for the analyses (73 vs 66, respectively). One patient (1.2%) in the robot-assisted group was converted to open surgery. The TME quality did not differ between the robot-assisted and laparoscopic groups (80.3% vs 78.1% complete TME, respectively; 18.2% vs 21.9% nearly complete TME, respectively; P = 0.599). The resection margins, number of harvested lymph nodes, morbidity, and bowel function recovery also were not significantly different. On analyzing quality of life, scores of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life (EORTC QLQ C30) and EORTC QLQ CR38 were similar in the 2 groups, but in the EORTC QLQ CR 38 questionnaire, sexual function 12 months postoperatively was better in the robot-assisted group than in the laparoscopic group (P = 0.03). Robot-assisted surgery in rectal cancer showed TME quality comparable with that of laparoscopic surgery, and it demonstrated similar postoperative morbidity, bowel function recovery, and quality of life.

  11. Phase 1, open-label study of MEDI-547 in patients with relapsed or refractory solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziata, Christina M; Kohn, Elise C; LoRusso, Patricia; Houston, Nicole D; Coleman, Robert L; Buzoianu, Manuela; Robbie, Gabriel; Lechleider, Robert

    2013-02-01

    Targeting the cell-surface receptor EphA2, which is highly expressed in some solid tumors, is a novel approach for cancer therapy. We aimed to evaluate the safety profile, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity of MEDI-547, an antibody drug conjugate composed of the cytotoxic drug auristatin (toxin) linked to a human anti-EphA2 monoclonal antibody (1C1), in patients with solid tumors relapsed/refractory to standard therapy. In this phase 1, open-label study with planned dose-escalation and dose-expansion cohorts, patients received a 1-h intravenous infusion of MEDI-547 (0.08 mg/kg) every 3 weeks. Six patients received 0.08 mg/kg; all discontinued treatment. Dose escalation was not pursued. The study was stopped before cohort 2 enrollment due to treatment-related bleeding and coagulation events (hemorrhage-related, n = 3; epistaxis, n = 2). Therefore, lower doses were not explored and an MTD could not be selected. The most frequently reported treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were increased liver enzymes, decreased hemoglobin, decreased appetite, and epistaxis. Three patients (50%) experienced treatment-related serious AEs, including conjunctival hemorrhage, pain (led to study drug discontinuation), liver disorder, and hemorrhage. Best response included progressive disease (n = 5; 83.3%) and stable disease (n = 1; 16.7%). Minimal or no dissociation of toxin from 1C1 conjugate occurred in the blood. Serum MEDI-547 concentrations decreased rapidly, ~70% by 3 days post-dose. No accumulation of MEDI-547 was observed at 0.08 mg/kg upon administration of a second dose 3 weeks following dose 1. The safety profile of MEDI-547 does not support further clinical investigation in patients with advanced solid tumors.

  12. Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration, Continuation: Phase II Results of a Floating Semisubmersible Wind System: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Musial, W.; Vorpahl, F.; Popko, W.

    2013-11-01

    Offshore wind turbines are designed and analyzed using comprehensive simulation tools that account for the coupled dynamics of the wind inflow, aerodynamics, elasticity, and controls of the turbine, along with the incident waves, sea current, hydrodynamics, and foundation dynamics of the support structure. The Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration (OC3), which operated under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Task 23, was established to verify the accuracy of these simulation tools [1]. This work was then extended under the Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration, Continuation (OC4) project under IEA Wind Task 30 [2]. Both of these projects sought to verify the accuracy of offshore wind turbine dynamics simulation tools (or codes) through code-to-code comparison of simulated responses of various offshore structures. This paper describes the latest findings from Phase II of the OC4 project, which involved the analysis of a 5-MW turbine supported by a floating semisubmersible. Twenty-two different organizations from 11 different countries submitted results using 24 different simulation tools. The variety of organizations contributing to the project brought together expertise from both the offshore structure and wind energy communities. Twenty-one different load cases were examined, encompassing varying levels of model complexity and a variety of metocean conditions. Differences in the results demonstrate the importance and accuracy of the various modeling approaches used. Significant findings include the importance of mooring dynamics to the mooring loads, the role nonlinear hydrodynamic terms play in calculating drift forces for the platform motions, and the difference between global (at the platform level) and local (at the member level) modeling of viscous drag. The results from this project will help guide development and improvement efforts for these tools to ensure that they are providing the accurate information needed to support the design and

  13. Mass spectrometry of planetary exospheres at high relative velocity: direct comparison of open- and closed source measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Stefan; Tulej, Marek; Wurz, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The exploration of habitable worlds around the gas giants in the Solar System is of major interest in upcoming planetary missions. Exactly this theme is addressed by the Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) mission of ESA, which will characterise Ganymede, Europa and Callisto as planetary objects and potential habitats [1], [2]. We developed a prototype of the Neutral gas and Ion Mass spectrometer (NIM) of the Particle Environment Package (PEP) for the JUICE mission intended for composition measurements of neutral gas and thermal plasma. NIM/PEP will be used to measure the chemical composition of the exospheres of the icy Jovian moons. Besides direct ion measurement, the NIM instrument is able to measure the inflowing neutral gas in two different modes: in neutral mode the gas enters directly the ion source (open source) and in thermal mode, the gas gets thermally accommodated to wall temperature by several collisions inside an equilibrium sphere before entering the ion source (closed source). We performed measurements with the prototype NIM using a neutral gas beam of 1 up to 5 km/s velocity in the neutral and thermal mode. The current trajectory of JUICE foresees a flyby velocity of 4 km/s at Europa, other flybys are in the range of 1 up to 7 km/s and velocity in Ganymede orbits is around 2 km/s. Different species are used for gas beam, such as noble gases Ne, Ar, Kr as well as molecules like H2, Methane, Ethane, Propane and more complex ones. We will present the results of these measurements with respect to fragmentation and density enhancements in the closed source mode. Furthermore, we will give a direct comparison between open and closed source mode measurements. References: [1] ESA, "JUICE assessment study report (Yellow Book)", ESA/SRE(2011)18, 2012. [2] O. Grasset, M.K. Dougherty, A. Coustenis, E.J. Bunce, C. Erd, D. Titov, M. Blanc, A. Coates, P. Drossart, L.N. Fletcher, H. Hussmann, R. Jaumann, N. Krupp, J.-P. Lebreton, O. Prieto-Ballesteros, P. Tortora, F

  14. Comparison of the Efficacy of Latanoprost, Bimatoprost, and Travoprost in Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Çolak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this prospective study was to compare the efficacy of latanoprost, bimatoprost, and travoprost in lowering intraocular pressure (IOP and in preventing or delaying visual field loss in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG and ocular hypertension (OH. Materials and Methods: The study included 124 eyes of 73 patients who were diagnosed in our clinic as having POAG or OH. All of the patients had IOP values of 22-34 mmHg, an early diagnosis of POAG or OH, without any previous treatment. The patients were randomly divided into 3 Groups: Group 1; 42 eyes treated with latanoprost (0.005%, Group 2; 40 eyes treated with bimatoprost (0.03%, and Group 3; 42 eyes treated with travoprost (0.004%. The visual field has been evaluated via the Humprey visual field evaluation of statistical program Statpac mean deviation (MD and pattern standard deviation (PSD. The IOP, MD, and PSD values have been measured initially and at the end of the first year of treatment. Results: In comparison to the baseline, the mean changes of IOP values after one year of treatment were 6.99, 6.79 and 5.87 mmHg for the 3 Groups, respectively. The decrease in the IOP was statistically significant for each of the treatment groups (p0.05. Comparison of the MD and PSD values revealed no significant differences among the treatment groups both initially and at the end of the first year (p>0.05. The mean changes in MD and PSD values at the end of the first year were similar among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: In patients with POAG and OH, treatment with latanoprost, bimatoprost, and travoprost decrease the IOP effectively. After a one-year treatment, no significant difference has been found between the efficacy of the 3 drugs in lowering IOP and in preventing or delaying visual field loss. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 170-4

  15. Observed microphysical changes in Arctic mixed-phase clouds when transitioning from sea-ice to open ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gillian; Jones, Hazel M.; Crosier, Jonathan; Bower, Keith N.; Darbyshire, Eoghan; Taylor, Jonathan W.; Liu, Dantong; Allan, James D.; Williams, Paul I.; Gallagher, Martin W.; Choularton, Thomas W.

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic sea-ice is intricately coupled to the atmosphere[1]. The decreasing sea-ice extent with the changing climate raises questions about how Arctic cloud structure will respond. Any effort to answer these questions is hindered by the scarcity of atmospheric observations in this region. Comprehensive cloud and aerosol measurements could allow for an improved understanding of the relationship between surface conditions and cloud structure; knowledge which could be key in validating weather model forecasts. Previous studies[2] have shown via remote sensing that cloudiness increases over the marginal ice zone (MIZ) and ocean with comparison to the sea-ice; however, to our knowledge, detailed in-situ data of this transition have not been previously presented. In 2013, the Aerosol-Cloud Coupling and Climate Interactions in the Arctic (ACCACIA) campaign was carried out in the vicinity of Svalbard, Norway to collect in-situ observations of the Arctic atmosphere and investigate this issue. Fitted with a suite of remote sensing, cloud and aerosol instrumentation, the FAAM BAe-146 aircraft was used during the spring segment of the campaign (Mar-Apr 2013). One case study (23rd Mar 2013) produced excellent coverage of the atmospheric changes when transitioning from sea-ice, through the MIZ, to the open ocean. Clear microphysical changes were observed, with the cloud liquid-water content increasing by almost four times over the transition. Cloud base, depth and droplet number also increased, whilst ice number concentrations decreased slightly. The surface warmed by ~13 K from sea-ice to ocean, with minor differences in aerosol particle number (of sizes corresponding to Cloud Condensation Nuclei or Ice Nucleating Particles) observed, suggesting that the primary driver of these microphysical changes was the increased heat fluxes and induced turbulence from the warm ocean surface as expected. References: [1] Kapsch, M.L., Graversen, R.G. and Tjernström, M. Springtime

  16. Simulation of Mixed-Phase Convective Clouds: A Comparison of Spectral and Parameterized Microphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, A.; Khain, A.; Pokrovsky, A.

    2002-12-01

    spectral microphysics and four bulk schemes within the Hebrew University Cloud Model (HUCM). The HUCM is probably the most detailed bin microphysics model available today. The bulk schemes used in the study are a simple warm-phase Kessler-type scheme, the one-moment mixed-phase schemes by Lin et al. (1983) and Rutledge and Hobbs (1984) and a new double-moment mixed-phase scheme based on the parameterization by Seifert and Beheng (2001) including the number concentration of cloud droplets and a double-moment ice scheme. Using two different test cases for maritime and continental conditions this comparison shows whether the bulk-microphysical schemes come to an agreement with the spectral approach or not.

  17. Early inflammatory response following elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: A comparison between endovascular procedure and conventional, open surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA represents a pathological enlargment of infrarenal portion of aorta for over 50% of its lumen. The only treatment of AAA is a surgical reconstruction of the affected segment. Until the late XX century, surgical reconstruction implied explicit, open repair (OR of AAA, which was accompanied by a significant morbidity and mortality of the treated patients. Development of endovascular repair of (EVAR AAA, especially in the last decade, offered another possibility of surgical reconstruction of AAA. The preliminary results of world studies show that complications of such a procedure, as well as morbidity and mortality of patients, are significantly lower than with OR of AAA. The aim of this paper was to present results of comparative clinical prospective study of early inflammatory response after reconstruction of AAA between endovascular and open, conventional surgical technique. Methods. A comparative clinical prospective study included 39 patients, electively operated on for AAA within the period of December 2008 - February 2010, divided into two groups. The group I counted 21 (54% of the patients, 58-87 years old (mean 74.3 years, who had been submited to EVAR by the use of excluder stent graft. The group II consisted of 18 (46% of the patients, 49-82 (mean 66.8 years, operated on using OR technique. All of the treated patients in both groups had AAA larager than 50 mm. The study did not include patients who have been treated as urgent cases, due to the rupture or with simptomatic AAA. Clinical, biochemical and inflamatory parameters in early postoperative period were analyzed, in direct postoperative course (number of leucocytes, thrombocytes, serum circulating levels of cytokine - interleukine (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10. Parameters were monitored on the zero, first, second, third and seventh postoperative days. The study was approved by the Ethics Commitee of the Military Medical Academy. Results

  18. Towards an international electronic repository and virtual laboratory of open data and open-source software for telehealth research: comparison of international, Australian and Finnish privacy policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    Health data includes all content related to health in all data formats, document types, information systems, publication media and languages from all specialties, organisations, regions, states and countries. Capabilities to share, integrate and compare these data contents, clinical trial results and other evaluation outcomes together with telehealth applications for data processing are critical to accelerate discovery and its diffusion to clinical practice. However, the same ethical and legal frameworks that protect privacy hinder this open data and open-source code approach and the issues accumulate if moving data across national, regional or organisational borders. This can be seen as one of the reasons why many telehealth applications and health-research findings tend to be limited to very narrow domains and global results are lacking. The aim of this paper is to take steps towards establishing an international electronic repository and virtual laboratory of open data and open-source code for research purposes by comparing international, Australian and Finnish frameworks. The frameworks seem to be fundamentally similar; they apply the principles of accountability and adequacy to using and disclosing personal data. Their requirements to inform data subjects about the purposes of data collection and use before the dataset is collected, assure that individuals are no longer identifiable and to destruct data when the research activities are finished make sharing data and even secondary data difficult. Using the Internet or cloud services for sharing without proper approvals by ethics committees is technically not allowed if the data are stored in another country. The research community needs to overcome these barriers and develop a virtual laboratory, which operates on distributed data repositories. This empowers the community by enabling systematic evaluations of new technologies and research hypotheses on a rich variety of data and against existing applications

  19. Mass spectrometry of planetary exospheres at high relative velocity: direct comparison of open- and closed-source measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Stefan; Tulej, Marek; Wurz, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The exploration of habitable environments on or inside icy moons around the gas giants in the solar system is of major interest in upcoming planetary missions. Exactly this theme is addressed by the JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission of ESA, which will characterise Ganymede, Europa and Callisto as planetary objects and potential habitats. We developed a prototype of the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass spectrometer (NIM) of the Particle Environment Package (PEP) for the JUICE mission intended for composition measurements of neutral gas and thermal plasma. NIM/PEP will be used to measure the chemical composition of the exospheres of the icy Jovian moons. Besides direct ion measurement, the NIM instrument is able to measure the inflowing neutral gas in two different modes: in neutral mode, where the gas enters directly the ion source (open source), and in thermal mode, where the gas gets thermally accommodated to the wall temperature by several collisions inside an equilibrium sphere, called antechamber, before entering the ion source (closed source). We performed measurements with the prototype NIM using a neutral gas beam of 1 up to 4.5 km s-1 velocity in the neutral and thermal mode. The current trajectory of JUICE foresees a flyby velocity of 4 km s-1 at Europa; other flybys are in the range of 1 up to 7 km s-1 and orbital velocity in Ganymede orbits is around 2 km s-1. Different species are used for the gas beam, such as noble gases Ne, Ar, Kr as well as molecules like H2, methane, ethane, propane and more complex ones. The NIM prototype was successfully tested under realistic JUICE mission conditions. In addition, we find that the antechamber (closed source) behaves as expected with predictable density enhancement over the specified mass range and within the JUICE mission phase velocities. Furthermore, with the open source and the closed source we measure almost the same composition for noble gases, as well as for molecules, indicating no additional

  20. Phase contrast X-ray microtomography of the Rhodnius prolixus head: Comparison of direct reconstruction and phase retrieval approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, A. P.; Braz, D.; Nogueira, L. P.; Colaço, M. V.; Soares, J.; Cardoso, S. C.; Garcia, E. S.; Azambuja, P.; Gonzalez, M. S.; Mohammadi, S.; Tromba, G.; Barroso, R. C.

    2014-02-01

    We have used phase-contrast X-ray microtomography (PPC-μCT) to study the head of the blood-feeding bug, Rhodnius prolixus, which is one of the most important insect vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, ethiologic agent of Chagas disease in Latin America. Images reconstructed from phase-retrieved projections processed by ANKA phase are compared to those obtained through direct tomographic reconstruction of the flat-field-corrected transmission radiographs. It should be noted that the relative locations of the important morphological internal structures are observable with a precision that is difficult to obtain without the phase retrieval approach.

  1. Open-label, randomized, comparative, phase III study on effects of reducing steroid use in combination with Palonosetron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Yoshito; Okita, Kenji; Yuki, Satoshi; Furuhata, Tomohisa; Fukushima, Hiraku; Masuko, Hiroyuki; Kawamoto, Yasuyuki; Isobe, Hiroshi; Miyagishima, Takuto; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Nakamura, Michio; Ohsaki, Yoshinobu; Nakajima, Junta; Tateyama, Miki; Eto, Kazunori; Minami, Shinya; Yokoyama, Ryoji; Iwanaga, Ichiro; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Kudo, Mineo; Oba, Koji; Takahashi, Yasuo

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of a single administration of dexamethasone (DEX) on day 1 against DEX administration on days 1-3 in combination with palonosetron (PALO), a second-generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in non-anthracycline and cyclophosphamide (AC) moderately-emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC). This phase III trial was conducted with a multi-center, randomized, open-label, non-inferiority design. Patients who received non-AC MEC as an initial chemotherapy were randomly assigned to either a group administered PALO (0.75 mg, i.v.) and DEX (9.9 mg, i.v.) prior to chemotherapy (study treatment group), or a group administered additional DEX (8 mg, i.v. or p.o.) on days 2-3 (control group). The primary endpoint was complete response (CR) rate. The CR rate difference was estimated by logistic regression with allocation factors as covariates. The non-inferiority margin was set at -15% (study treatment group - control group). From April 2011 to March 2013, 305 patients who received non-AC MEC were randomly allocated to one of two study groups. Overall, the CR rate was 66.2% in the study treatment group (N = 151) and 63.6% in the control group (N = 154). PALO plus DEX day 1 was non-inferior to PALO plus DEX days 1-3 (difference, 2.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -7.8%-12.8%; P-value for non-inferiority test = 0.0004). There were no differences between the two groups in terms of complete control rate (64.9 vs 61.7%) and total control rate (49.7% vs 47.4%). Anti-emetic DEX administration on days 2-3 may be eliminated when used in combination with PALO in patients receiving non-AC MEC.

  2. A combined phase I and II open label study on the effects of a seaweed extract nutrient complex on osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Myers

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Stephen P Myers1,2, Joan O’Connor1,2, J Helen Fitton3, Lyndon Brooks4, Margaret Rolfe4, Paul Connellan5, Hans Wohlmuth2,5,6, Phil A Cheras1,2, Carol Morris51NatMed-Research, 2Centre for Health and Wellbeing, 4Graduate Research College, 5Centre for Phytochemistry and Pharmacology, 6Medicinal Plant Herbarium, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, Australia; 3Marinova Pty Ltd, Hobart, Tasmania, AustraliaBackground: Isolated fucoidans from brown marine algae have been shown to have a range of anti-inflammatory effects.Purpose: This present study tested a Maritech® extract formulation, containing a blend of extracts from three different species of brown algae, plus nutrients in an open label combined phase I and II pilot scale study to determine both acute safety and efficacy in osteoarthritis of the knee. Patients and methods: Participants (n = 12, five females [mean age, 62 ± 11.06 years] and seven males [mean age, 57.14 ± 9.20 years] with a confirmed diagnosis of osteoarthritis of the knee were randomized to either 100 mg (n = 5 or 1000 mg (n = 7 of a Maritech® extract formulation per day. The formulation contained Maritech® seaweed extract containing Fucus vesiculosis (85% w/w, Macrocystis pyrifera (10% w/w and Laminaria japonica (5% w/w plus vitamin B6, zinc and manganese. Primary outcome was the average comprehensive arthritis test (COAT score which is comprised of four sub-scales: pain, stiffness, difficulty with physical activity and overall symptom severity measured weekly. Safety measures included full blood count, serum lipids, liver function tests, urea, creatinine and electrolytes determined at baseline and week 12. All adverse events were recorded.Results: Eleven participants completed 12 weeks and one completed 10 weeks of the study. Using a multilevel linear model, the average COAT score was reduced by 18% for the 100 mg treatment and 52% for the 1000 mg dose at the end of the study. There was a clear dose response effect

  3. MPI + OpenCL implementation of a phase-field method incorporating CALPHAD description of Gibbs energies on heterogeneous computing platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald Tennyson, P.; G. M., Karthik; Phanikumar, G.

    2015-01-01

    Phase-field method uses a non-conserved order parameter to define the phase state of a system and is a versatile method for moving boundary problems. It is a method of choice for simulating microstructure evolution in the domain of materials engineering. Solution of phase-field evolution equations avoids explicit tracking of interfaces and is often implemented on a structured grid to capture microstructure evolution in a simple and elegant manner. Restrictions on the grid size to accurately capture the interface curvature effects lead to large number of grid points in the computational domain and render the simulation computationally intensive for realistic simulations in 3D. However, the availability of powerful heterogeneous computing platforms and super clusters provides the advantage to perform large scale phase-field simulations efficiently. This paper discusses a portable implementation to extend simulations across multiple CPUs using MPI to include use of GPUs using OpenCL. The solution scheme adapts an isotropic stencil that avoids grid-induced anisotropy. Use of separate OpenCL kernels for problem specific portions of the code ensure that the approach can be extended to different problems. Performance analysis of parallel strategies used in the study illustrate the massively parallel computing possibility for phase-field simulations across heterogeneous platforms.

  4. Does a laparoscopic approach attenuate the body weight loss and lean body mass loss observed in open distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer? a single-institution exploratory analysis of the JCOG 0912 phase III trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Toru; Sato, Tsutomu; Hayashi, Tsutomu; Yamada, Takanobu; Cho, Haruhiko; Ogata, Takashi; Oba, Koji; Yoshikawa, Takaki

    2017-06-16

    Laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) for gastric cancer may prevent the loss of body weight and lean body mass resulting from reduced surgical stress in comparison to open distal gastrectomy (ODG). A multicenter phase III trial conducted by the Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG0912 trial) was performed to confirm the non-inferiority of LADG to ODG for stage I gastric cancer in terms of relapse-free survival. This study was performed as a single-institution exploratory analysis using the data of the patients from our hospital who were enrolled in the JCOG0912 phase III trial. Body weight and lean body mass were evaluated using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer within 1 week before and at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery. One-hundred six patients were randomized to undergo ODG (54 patients) or LADG (51 patients). Body weight loss at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months was -3.0%, -4.9%, and -5.4%, respectively, in the ODG group and -2.7%, -4.3%, and -5.7%, respectively, in the LADG group; the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.330, 0.166, and 0.656, respectively). Lean body mass loss at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months was -2.8%, -4.1%, and -2.3%, respectively, in the ODG group and -2.7%, -2.9%, and -3.0%, respectively, in the LADG group; the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.610, 0.413, and 0.925, respectively). The laparoscopic approach did not attenuate the loss of body weight and lean body mass in comparison to patients who underwent open distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

  5. An illustrated comparison of processing methods for MR phase imaging and QSM: combining array coil signals and phase unwrapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Simon Daniel; Bredies, Kristian; Khabipova, Diana; Dymerska, Barbara; Marques, José P; Schweser, Ferdinand

    2016-09-13

    Phase imaging benefits from strong susceptibility effects at very high field and the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) afforded by multi-channel coils. Combining the information from coils is not trivial, however, as the phase that originates in local field effects (the source of interesting contrast) is modified by the inhomogeneous sensitivity of each coil. This has historically been addressed by referencing individual coil sensitivities to that of a volume coil, but alternative approaches are required for ultra-high field systems in which no such coil is available. An additional challenge in phase imaging is that the phase that develops up to the echo time is "wrapped" into a range of 2π radians. Phase wraps need to be removed in order to reveal the underlying phase distribution of interest. Beginning with a coil combination using a homogeneous reference volume coil - the Roemer approach - which can be applied at 3 T and lower field strengths, we review alternative methods for combining single-echo and multi-echo phase images where no such reference coil is available. These are applied to high-resolution data acquired at 7 T and their effectiveness assessed via an index of agreement between phase values over channels and the contrast-to-noise ratio in combined images. The virtual receiver coil and COMPOSER approaches were both found to be computationally efficient and effective. The main features of spatial and temporal phase unwrapping methods are reviewed, placing particular emphasis on recent developments in temporal phase unwrapping and Laplacian approaches. The features and performance of these are illustrated in application to simulated and high-resolution in vivo data. Temporal unwrapping was the fastest of the methods tested and the Laplacian the most robust in images with low SNR. © 2016 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Phase II open-label study to assess efficacy and safety of lenalidomide in combination with cetuximab in KRAS-mutant metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Siena

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of combination treatment with lenalidomide and cetuximab in KRAS-mutant metastatic colorectal cancer patients. This was a phase II multicenter, open-label trial comprising a safety lead-in phase (phase IIa to determine the maximum tolerated dose, and a randomized proof of concept phase (phase IIb to determine the response rate of lenalidomide plus cetuximab combination therapy. Phase IIa treatment comprised oral lenalidomide (starting dose 25 mg/day and intravenous cetuximab (400 mg/m(2 followed by weekly 250 mg/m(2 in 28-day cycles. In phase IIb patients were randomized to either the phase IIa treatment schedule of lenalidomide plus cetuximab combination therapy or lenalidomide 25 mg/day monotherapy. Eight patients were enrolled into phase IIa. One patient developed a dose-limiting toxicity and the maximum tolerated dose of lenalidomide was determined at 25 mg/day. Forty-three patients were enrolled into phase IIb proof of concept. Best response was stable disease in 9 patients and study enrollment was terminated prematurely due to lack of efficacy in both treatment arms and failure to achieve the planned response objective. The majority of adverse events were grade 1 and 2. In both phases, the adverse events most commonly attributed to any study drugs were fatigue, rash and other skin disorders, diarrhea, nausea, and stomatitis. Thirty-nine deaths occurred; none was related to study drug. The combination of lenalidomide and cetuximab appeared to be well tolerated but did not have clinically meaningful activity in KRAS-mutant metastatic colorectal cancer patients.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01032291.

  7. Control of Moderate-to-Severe Plaque Psoriasis with Efalizumab: 24-Week, Open-Label, Phase IIIb/IV Latin American Study Results

    OpenAIRE

    Stengel, Fernando M; Petri, Valeria [UNIFESP; Campbell, Gladys AM; Dorantes, Gladys Leon; López, Magdalina; Ricardo L. Galimberti; Valdez, Raúl P; de Arruda, Lucia F; Guerra, Mario Amaya; Chouela, Edgardo N; Licu, Daiana; ,

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Psoriasis is a debilitating, chronic inflammatory systemic disease affecting around 2% of the South American population. Biological therapies offer the possibility of long-term therapy with improved safety and efficacy. Methods We conducted a multicentre, open-label, single-arm, Phase IIIb/IV study of adult patients (18–75 years) with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis who were candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy. Patients received efalizumab subcutaneously (1.0 mg/k...

  8. Comparison of Occlusive and Open Application in a Psoriasis Plaque Test Design, Exemplarily Using Investigations of Mapracorat 0.1% Ointment versus Vehicle and Reference Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigger-Alberti, Walter; Williams, Ragna; von Mackensen, Yi-Ling; Hoffman-Wecker, Maciej; Grossmann, Ulrike; Staedtler, Gerald; Nkulikiyinka, Richard; Shakery, Kaweh

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis plaque tests (PPTs) are important tools in the early phases of antipsoriatic drug development. Two distinct PPT design variants (open vs. occluded drug application) are commonly used, but no previous work has aimed to directly compare and contrast their performance. We compared the antipsoriatic efficacy of mapracorat 0.1% ointment and reference drugs reported in 2 separate studies, representing open and occluded PPT designs. The drug effect size was measured by sonography (mean change in echo-poor band thickness), chromametry, and standardized clinical assessment. Antipsoriatic effects were detectable for the study drugs in both occluded and open PPTs. Differences between the potency of antipsoriatic drugs and vehicle were observable. The total antipsoriatic effect size appeared to be higher in the occluded PPT than the open PPT, despite the shorter treatment duration (2 vs. 4 weeks). Effect dynamics over time revealed greater differences between some study drugs in the open PPT compared to the occluded PPT. Taking the higher technical challenges for the open PPT into account, we recommend the occluded PPT as a standard screening setting in early drug development. In special cases, considering certain drug aspects or study objectives that would require procedural adaptations, an open PPT could be the better-suited design. Finally, both PPT models show clear advantages: classification as phase I studies, small number of psoriatic subjects, relatively short study duration, excellent discrimination between compounds and concentrations, parallel measurement of treatment response, and go/no go decisions very early in clinical development. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Shotgun proteomic monitoring of Clostridium acetobutylicum during stationary phase of butanol fermentation using xylose and comparison with the exponential phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagnanam, Kumaran; Raghavan, Vijaya G S; Shah, Manesh; Hettich, Robert L; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Lefsrud, Mark G

    2012-06-01

    Economically viable production of solvents through acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation requires a detailed understanding of Clostridium acetobutylicum. This study focuses on the proteomic profiling of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from the stationary phase of ABE fermentation using xylose and compares with the exponential growth by shotgun proteomics approach. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed 22.9% of the C. acetobutylicum genome and 18.6% was found to be common in both exponential and stationary phases. The proteomic profile of C. acetobutylicum changed during the ABE fermentation such that 17 proteins were significantly differentially expressed between the two phases. Specifically, the expression of five proteins namely, CAC2873, CAP0164, CAP0165, CAC3298, and CAC1742 involved in the solvent production pathway were found to be significantly lower in the stationary phase compared to the exponential growth. Similarly, the expression of fucose isomerase (CAC2610), xylulose kinase (CAC2612), and a putative uncharacterized protein (CAC2611) involved in the xylose utilization pathway were also significantly lower in the stationary phase. These findings provide an insight into the metabolic behavior of C. acetobutylicum between different phases of ABE fermentation using xylose.

  10. Shotgun proteomic monitoring of Clostridium acetobutylicum during stationary phase of butanol fermentation using xylose and comparison with the exponential phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivagnanam, Kumaran [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec; Raghavan, Vijaya G. S. [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Lefsrud, Mark G [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec

    2012-01-01

    Economically viable production of solvents through acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) fermentation requires a detailed understanding of Clostridium acetobutylicum. This study focuses on the proteomic profiling of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from the stationary phase of ABE fermentation using xylose and compares with the exponential growth by shotgun proteomics approach. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed 22.9% of the C. acetobutylicum genome and 18.6% was found to be common in both exponential and stationary phases. The proteomic profile of C. acetobutylicum changed during the ABE fermentation such that 17 proteins were significantly differentially expressed between the two phases. Specifically, the expression of five proteins namely, CAC2873, CAP0164, CAP0165, CAC3298, and CAC1742 involved in the solvent production pathway were found to be significantly lower in the stationary phase compared to the exponential growth. Similarly, the expression of fucose isomerase (CAC2610), xylulose kinase (CAC2612), and a putative uncharacterized protein (CAC2611) involved in the xylose utilization pathway were also significantly lower in the stationary phase. These findings provide an insight into the metabolic behavior of C. acetobutylicum between different phases of ABE fermentation using xylose.

  11. Open solar flux estimates from near-Earth measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field: comparison of the first two perihelion passes of the Ulysses spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Results from all phases of the orbits of the Ulysses spacecraft have shown that the magnitude of the radial component of the heliospheric field is approximately independent of heliographic latitude. This result allows the use of near-Earth observations to compute the total open flux of the Sun. For example, using satellite observations of the interplanetary magnetic field, the average open solar flux was shown to have risen by 29% between 1963 and 1987 and using the aa geomagnetic index it was found to have doubled during the 20th century. It is therefore important to assess fully the accuracy of the result and to check that it applies to all phases of the solar cycle. The first perihelion pass of the Ulysses spacecraft was close to sunspot minimum, and recent data from the second perihelion pass show that the result also holds at solar maximum. The high level of correlation between the open flux derived from the various methods strongly supports the Ulysses discovery that the radial field component is independent of latitude. We show here that the errors introduced into open solar flux estimates by assuming that the heliospheric field's radial component is independent of latitude are similar for the two passes and are of order 25% for daily values, falling to 5% for averaging timescales of 27 days or greater. We compare here the results of four methods for estimating the open solar flux with results from the first and second perehelion passes by Ulysses. We find that the errors are lowest (1–5% for averages over the entire perehelion passes lasting near 320 days, for near-Earth methods, based on either interplanetary magnetic field observations or the aa geomagnetic activity index. The corresponding errors for the Solanki et al. (2000 model are of the order of 9–15% and for the PFSS method, based on solar magnetograms, are of the order of 13–47%. The model of Solanki et al. is based on the continuity equation of open flux, and uses

  12. [Performance of an open low-field MR unit in routine examination of knee lesions and comparison with high field systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahlensieck, M; Schnieber, O

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the diagnostic value of a low-field open MR system in the diagnosis of knee lesions and to compare it with that of high-field MR systems. In 139 knees,arthroscopic investigations were used as the gold standard to calculate sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and accuracy of the low-field open MR system. Figures for high field systems were taken from the literature. The values for the open MR system relative to arthroscopy were as follows: sensitivity 66%,specificity 95%,positive predictive value 64%,negative predictive value 92%, and accuracy 82%. The corresponding values taken from 10 relevant publications for highfield systems were: sensitivity 81%, specificity 90%, accuracy 90%. A lower diagnostic performance has to be expected using open low field MR units for knee lesions in comparison to high field units. Sedative drugs can make it possible for claustrophobic patients to be investigated in high-field units. The use of open low-field scanners may still be indicated in very adipose patients who do not fit into closed units.

  13. Phase III, multicenter, open-label, long-term study of the safety of abatacept in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis and an inadequate response to conventional or biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Matsubara, Tsukasa; Urata, Yukitomo; Suematsu, Eiichi; Ohta, Shuji; Honjo, Shigeru; Abe, Tohru; Yamamoto, Ami; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; ,

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the long-term safety of intravenous (IV) abatacept treatment in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and an inadequate response to methotrexate (MTX) or other conventional or biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Methods This Phase III, open-label, long-term study (NCT00484289) comprised Japanese patients with RA who had completed abatacept Phase I or Phase II studies, and new patients intolerant to MTX. Patients from Phase I and Phase II studies re...

  14. Exact solution of Markovian master equations for quadratic Fermi systems: thermal baths, open XY spin chains and non-equilibrium phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosen, Tomaz; Zunkovic, Bojan [Department of Physics, FMF, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: tomaz.prosen@fmf.uni-lj.si

    2010-02-15

    We generalize the method of third quantization to a unified exact treatment of Redfield and Lindblad master equations for open quadratic systems of n fermions in terms of diagonalization of a 4nx4n matrix. Non-equilibrium thermal driving in terms of the Redfield equation is analyzed in detail. We explain how one can compute all the physically relevant quantities, such as non-equilibrium expectation values of local observables, various entropies or information measures, or time evolution and properties of relaxation. We also discuss how to exactly treat explicitly time-dependent problems. The general formalism is then applied to study a thermally driven open XY spin 1/2 chain. We find that the recently proposed non-equilibrium quantum phase transition in the open XY chain survives the thermal driving within the Redfield model. In particular, the phase of long-range magnetic correlations can be characterized by hypersensitivity of the non-equilibrium steady state to external (bath or bulk) parameters. Studying the heat transport, we find negative differential thermal conductance for sufficiently strong thermal driving as well as non-monotonic dependence of the heat current on the strength of the bath coupling.

  15. Comparison of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy and open lumbar surgery for adjacent segment degeneration and recurrent disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huan-Chieh; Lee, Chih-Hsun; Wei, Li; Lui, Tai-Ngar; Lin, Tien-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The goal of the present study was to examine the clinical results of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) and open lumbar surgery for patients with adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) and recurrence of disc herniation. Methods. From December 2011 to November 2013, we collected forty-three patients who underwent repeated lumbar surgery. These patients, either received PELD (18 patients) or repeated open lumbar surgery (25 patients), due to ASD or recurrence of disc herniation at L3-4, L4-5, or L5-S1 level, were assigned to different groups according to the surgical approaches. Clinical data were assessed and compared. Results. Mean blood loss was significantly less in the PELD group as compared to the open lumbar surgery group (P < 0.0001). Hospital stay and mean operating time were shorter significantly in the PELD group as compared to the open lumbar surgery group (P < 0.0001). Immediate postoperative pain improvement in VAS was 3.5 in the PELD group and -0.56 in the open lumbar surgery group (P < 0.0001). Conclusion. For ASD and recurrent lumbar disc herniation, PELD had more advantages over open lumbar surgery in terms of reduced blood loss, shorter hospital stay, operating time, fewer complications, and less postoperative discomfort.

  16. Comparison of Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy and Open Lumbar Surgery for Adjacent Segment Degeneration and Recurrent Disc Herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Chieh Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The goal of the present study was to examine the clinical results of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD and open lumbar surgery for patients with adjacent segment degeneration (ASD and recurrence of disc herniation. Methods. From December 2011 to November 2013, we collected forty-three patients who underwent repeated lumbar surgery. These patients, either received PELD (18 patients or repeated open lumbar surgery (25 patients, due to ASD or recurrence of disc herniation at L3-4, L4-5, or L5-S1 level, were assigned to different groups according to the surgical approaches. Clinical data were assessed and compared. Results. Mean blood loss was significantly less in the PELD group as compared to the open lumbar surgery group P<0.0001. Hospital stay and mean operating time were shorter significantly in the PELD group as compared to the open lumbar surgery group P<0.0001. Immediate postoperative pain improvement in VAS was 3.5 in the PELD group and −0.56 in the open lumbar surgery group P<0.0001. Conclusion. For ASD and recurrent lumbar disc herniation, PELD had more advantages over open lumbar surgery in terms of reduced blood loss, shorter hospital stay, operating time, fewer complications, and less postoperative discomfort.

  17. Comparison between Phase-Shift Full-Bridge Converters with Noncoupled and Coupled Current-Doubler Rectifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Tao Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents comparison between phase-shift full-bridge converters with noncoupled and coupled current-doubler rectifier. In high current capability and high step-down voltage conversion, a phase-shift full-bridge converter with a conventional current-doubler rectifier has the common limitations of extremely low duty ratio and high component stresses. To overcome these limitations, a phase-shift full-bridge converter with a noncoupled current-doubler rectifier (NCDR or a coupled current-doubler rectifier (CCDR is, respectively, proposed and implemented. In this study, performance analysis and efficiency obtained from a 500 W phase-shift full-bridge converter with two improved current-doubler rectifiers are presented and compared. From their prototypes, experimental results have verified that the phase-shift full-bridge converter with NCDR has optimal duty ratio, lower component stresses, and output current ripple. In component count and efficiency comparison, CCDR has fewer components and higher efficiency at full load condition. For small size and high efficiency requirements, CCDR is relatively suitable for high step-down voltage and high efficiency applications.

  18. Open-cycle heat pumps for industrial waste-heat utilization. Project technical report, May 12, 1980-October 10, 1980. Phase I. Feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Open-Cycle Industrial Process Heat Pumps (IPHP) are potentially a cost-effective method of utilizing an industrial plant's waste heat. The objective of Phase I of the work was to determine the feasibility of an open-cycle industrial process heat pump. This was accomplished by the evaluation of four potential sites for the installation of open-cycle industrial process heat pump equipment. While it was the original plan to evaluate only three sites, the need for a fourth site became apparent upon completion of studies of the Amstar applications. On the basis of initial screening, it was decided to concentrate on the large waste stream at General Electric's NORYL facility (Selkirk, NY) and a smaller waste stream at the Schoeller Paper Company (Pulaski, NY). These two sites provided opportunities to exploit the features of the open-cyle IPHP without major site constraints. Site studies were conducted to obtain process information such as flow rates, process temperatures, dynamic behavior of the process streams, process control functions, and capacity/time schedules. Information relating to structure and utilities, floor loadings, physical space constraints, electric service, piping runs between equipment location, and waste water tapping points was gathered. These data were analyzed and resulted in the selection of two applications with acceptable thermodynamic performance.

  19. A model-based comparison of organic matter dynamics between riparian-forested and open-canopy streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenroth Karolina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The food webs of forest streams are primarily based upon inputs of organic matter from adjacent terrestrial ecosystems. However, streams that run through open landscapes generally lack closed riparian canopies, and an increasing number of studies indicate that terrestrial organic matter may be an important resource in these systems as well. Combining key abiotically-controlled factors (stream discharge, water temperature, and litter input rate with relevant biotic processes (e.g. macroinvertebrate CPOM consumption, microbial processing, we constructed a model to predict and contrast organic matter dynamics (including temporal variation in CPOM standing crop, CPOM processing rate, FPOM production, and detritivore biomass in small riparian-forested and open-canopy streams. Our modeled results showed that the standing crop of CPOM was similar between riparian-forested and open-canopy streams, despite considerable differences in litter input rate. This unexpected result was partly due to linkages between CPOM supply and consumer abundance that produced higher detritivore biomass in the forest stream than the open-canopy stream. CPOM standing crop in the forest stream was mainly regulated by top-down consumer control, depressing it to a level similar to that of the open-canopy stream. In contrast, CPOM standing crop in the open-canopy stream was primarily controlled by physical factors (litter input rates and discharge, not consumption. This suggests that abiotic processes (e.g. discharge may play a greater role in limiting detrital resource availability and consumer biomass in open-canopy streams than in forest streams. These model results give insight on functional differences that exists among streams and they can be used to predict effects of anthropogenic influences such as forestry, agriculture, urbanization, and climate change on streams and how riparian management and conservation tools can be employed to mitigate undesirable effects.

  20. Low Cost Open-Path Instrument for Monitoring Surface Carbon Dioxide at Sequestration Sites Phase I SBIR Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Sheng

    2012-10-02

    Public confidence in safety is a prerequisite to the success of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage for any program that intends to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. In that regard, this project addresses the security of CO2 containment by undertaking development of what is called an open path device to measure CO2 concentrations near the ground above a CO2 storage area.

  1. Efficacy and safety of long-acting pasireotide in Japanese patients with acromegaly or pituitary gigantism: results from a multicenter, open-label, randomized, phase 2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Shigeyuki; Murakami, Mami; Kaneko, Tomomi; Shimatsu, Akira

    2017-07-28

    A multicenter, open-label, phase 2 study was conducted to investigate the efficacy and safety of long-acting pasireotide formulation in Japanese patients with acromegaly or pituitary gigantism. Medically naïve or inadequately controlled patients (on somatostatin analogues or dopamine agonists) were included. Primary end point was the proportion of all patients who achieved biochemical control (mean growth hormone [GH] levelsacromegaly, n=32; pituitary gigantism, n=1) were enrolled and randomized 1:1:1 to receive open-label pasireotide 20mg, 40mg, or 60mg. The median age was 52 years (range, 31-79) and 20 patients were males. At month 3, 18.2% of patients (6/33; 90% confidence interval: 8.2%, 32.8%) had biochemical control (21.2% [7/33] when including a patient with mean GHacromegaly or pituitary gigantism.

  2. Distribution of Local Open-Circuit Voltage on Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Mixed-Phase Si:H and SiGe:H Solar Cells: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, C.-S.; Moutinho, H. R.; Al-Jassim, M. M.; Kazmerski, L. L.; Yan, B.; Owens, J. M.; Yang, J.; Guha, S.

    2006-05-01

    Local open-circuit voltage (Voc) distributions on amorphous and nanocrystalline mixed-phase silicon solar cells were measured using a scanning Kelvin probe microscope (SKPM) on the p layer of an n-i-p structure without the top ITO contact. During the measurement, the sample was illuminated with a laser beam that was used for the atomic force microscopy (AFM). Therefore, the surface potential measured by SKPM is the sum of the local Voc and the difference in workfunction between the p layer and the AFM tip. Comparing the SKPM and AFM images, we find that nanocrystallites aggregate in the amorphous matrix with an aggregation size of {approx}0.5 ..mu..m in diameter, where many nanometer-size grains are clustered. The Voc distribution shows valleys in the nanocrystalline aggregation area. The transition from low to high Voc regions is a gradual change within a distance of about 1 ..mu..m. The minimum Voc value in the nanocrystalline clusters in the mixed-phase region is larger than the Voc of a nc-Si:H single-phase solar cell. These results could be due to lateral photo-charge redistribution between the two phases. We have also carried out local Voc measurements on mixed-phase SiGe:H alloy solar cells. The magnitudes of Voc in the amorphous and nanocrystalline regions are consistent with the J-V measurements.

  3. ATHEANA: {open_quotes}a technique for human error analysis{close_quotes} entering the implementation phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.; O`Hara, J.; Luckas, W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) has become an increasingly important tool in the nuclear power industry, both for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the operating utilities. The NRC recently published a final policy statement, SECY-95-126, encouraging the use of PRA in regulatory activities. Human reliability analysis (HRA), while a critical element of PRA, has limitations in the analysis of human actions in PRAs that have long been recognized as a constraint when using PRA. In fact, better integration of HRA into the PRA process has long been a NRC issue. Of particular concern, has been the omission of errors of commission - those errors that are associated with inappropriate interventions by operators with operating systems. To address these concerns, the NRC identified the need to develop an improved HRA method, so that human reliability can be better represented and integrated into PRA modeling and quantification. The purpose of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) project, entitled `Improved HRA Method Based on Operating Experience` is to develop a new method for HRA which is supported by the analysis of risk-significant operating experience. This approach will allow a more realistic assessment and representation of the human contribution to plant risk, and thereby increase the utility of PRA. The project`s completed, ongoing, and future efforts fall into four phases: (1) Assessment phase (FY 92/93); (2) Analysis and Characterization phase (FY 93/94); (3) Development phase (FY 95/96); and (4) Implementation phase (FY 96/97 ongoing).

  4. Performance comparison of three-phase flux reversal permanent magnet motors in BLDC and BLAC operation mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štumberger, B.; Štumberger, G.; Hadžiselimović, M.; Hamler, A.; Goričan, V.; Jesenik, M.; Trlep, M.

    The paper presents a comparison of torque capability and flux-weakening performance of three-phase flux reversal permanent magnet motors with surface and inset permanent magnets. Finite element analysis is employed to determine the performance of each motor in BLDC and BLAC operation mode. It is shown that the torque capability and flux-weakening performance of surface or inset permanent magnet configuration is strongly dependent on the stator teeth number/rotor pole number combination.

  5. Performance comparison of three-phase flux reversal permanent magnet motors in BLDC and BLAC operation mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stumberger, B. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Maribor, Smetanova ulica 17, Maribor SI-2000 (Slovenia)], E-mail: bojan.stumberger@uni-mb.si; Stumberger, G.; Hadziselimovic, M.; Hamler, A.; Gorican, V.; Jesenik, M.; Trlep, M. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Maribor, Smetanova ulica 17, Maribor SI-2000 (Slovenia)

    2008-10-15

    The paper presents a comparison of torque capability and flux-weakening performance of three-phase flux reversal permanent magnet motors with surface and inset permanent magnets. Finite element analysis is employed to determine the performance of each motor in BLDC and BLAC operation mode. It is shown that the torque capability and flux-weakening performance of surface or inset permanent magnet configuration is strongly dependent on the stator teeth number/rotor pole number combination.

  6. Molecular-level comparison of alkylsilane and polar-embedded reversed-phase liquid chromatography systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Jake L; Siepmann, J Ilja; Schure, Mark R

    2008-08-15

    Stationary phases with embedded polar groups possess several advantages over conventional alkylsilane phases, such as reduced peak tailing, enhanced selectivity for specific functional groups, and the ability to use a highly aqueous mobile phase. To gain a deeper understanding of the retentive properties of these reversed-phase packings, molecular simulations were carried out for three different stationary phases in contact with mobile phases of various water/methanol ratios. Two polar-embedded phases were modeled, namely, amide and ether containing, and compared to a conventional octadecylsilane phase. The simulations show that, due to specific hydrogen bond interactions, the polar-embedded phases take up significantly more solvent and are more ordered than their alkyl counterparts. Alkane and alcohol probe solutes indicate that the polar-embedded phases are less retentive than alkyl phases for nonpolar species, whereas polar species are more retained by them due to hydrogen bonding with the embedded groups and the increased amount of solvent within the stationary phase. This leads to a significant reduction of the free-energy barrier for the transfer of polar species from the mobile phase to residual silanols, and this reduced barrier provides a possible explanation for reduced peak tailing.

  7. Comparison of the trifecta outcomes of robotic and open nephron-sparing surgeries performed in the robotic era of a single institution

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Acar et al. SpringerPlus (2015) 4:472 DOI 10.1186/s40064-015-1274-2 RESEARCH Comparison of the trifecta outcomes of robotic and open nephron‑sparing surgeries performed in the robotic era of a single institution Ömer Acar1*, Esin Öztürk Işık2, Tuna Mut3, Yeşim Sağlıcan4, Aslıhan Onay5, Metin Vural6, Ahmet Musaoğlu3 and Tarık Esen1,3 Abstract Purpose: In this study we aimed to report a comparative analysis between open and robotic nephron sparing sur-geries (NS...

  8. Experimental investigation on the comparison of fenugreek drying in an indirect solar dryer and under open sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Vipin; Kumar, Anil

    2016-09-01

    The convective heat transfer coefficient is an essential parameter for designing of any solar drying system. In this paper heat transfer modeling in term of convective heat transfer coefficient is performed and compared with open sun drying. The data obtained from experimentation under open sun and indirect solar drying conditions have been used to find values of the experimental constant `C' and exponent `n' by regression analysis and, consequently, convective heat transfer coefficient. From this study it is concluded that the convective heat transfer coefficient is decreasing with drying time it is due to decrease in moisture content. Results also showed that convective heat transfer coefficients are more in indirect solar dryer system than under open sun drying.

  9. A national Vascular Quality Initiative database comparison of hybrid and open repair for aortoiliac-femoral occlusive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavatta, Marco; Mell, Matthew W

    2017-08-16

    We sought to analyze the outcomes of revascularization for aortoiliac-femoral occlusive disease by comparing hybrid repair by endovascular revascularization and open common femoral endarterectomy (ER-CFE) with open aortoiliac reconstruction and CFE (OR-CFE). Using the national Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative database from 2009 to 2015, we identified all patients receiving open or endovascular revascularization of the aortoiliac system and who additionally underwent CFE. Patients with concomitant infrainguinal procedures were excluded, as were procedures performed at centers with CFE group and 1472 in the ER-CFE group with follow-up of at least 9 months. Patients with ER-CFE were older (68 ± 9 years vs 63 ± 9 years; P CFE were more likely to have received a previous inflow procedure (27% vs 21%; P CFE (5.2 ± 1.6 vs 2.9 ± 1.0; P CFE was associated with lower 30-day mortality (1.8% vs 3.4%; P = .01), shorter length of stay (median 3 vs 7 days; P CFE had greater ABI improvement at long-term follow-up (0.39 ± 0.37 vs 0.26 ± 0.23; P CFE appeared to have improved short-term outcomes and equivalent freedom from major amputation compared with open surgical repair with CFE. Conversely, open repair with CFE was associated with better long-term improvement in ABI and ambulatory status. Open repair should therefore be considered for patients with aortoiliac-femoral occlusive disease and reasonable surgical risk. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of Return of Bowel Function and Length of Stay in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Versus Open Colectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mark W.; Hunt, Dan L.; Lane, Mindy K.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Over the last decade, many advances have been made in laparoscopic techniques in various surgical specialties. The technique of laparoscopic-assisted colectomy (LAC) has been reported since 1992 and has been slowly gaining popularity in the surgical community. Several studies have compared laparoscopic versus open colectomy, assessing its applicability to patients with colon cancer, Crohn's disease, and diverticular disease. Studies to date have assessed length of stay, operative time, and clinical outcome. This study focuses on return of bowel function and length of hospital stay in patients undergoing LAC compared with those undergoing open colectomy. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients undergoing either open colon resection or LAC between January 2000 and December 2005. All disease processes and both emergent and elective cases were included. Return of bowel function was determined by passage of flatus or first passage of stool and compared between the 2 groups. The data were statistically analyzed using the Student t test for interval data, and nominal data were analyzed using the chi-square analysis (95% confidence interval; CI). Results: The study included 247 patients; 179 (72.5%) underwent open colectomy and 68 (27.5%) underwent LAC. Passage of flatus took 3.6 days (95% CI .18 or 3.4 to 3.8) for open colectomy, and 2.9 days (95% CI .19 or 2.7 to 3.1) for LAC. First bowel movement took 4.4 days (95% CI .19 or 4.2 to 4.6) for open colectomy and 3.7 days (95% CI .22 or 3.5 to 3.9) for LAC. When compared between the groups, mean length of hospital stay was 8.01 days (95% CI .93 or 7.1 to 8.9) for open colectomy and 4.38 days (95% CI .38 or 4.0 to 4.8) for LAC. Conclusion: Both return of bowel function and length of stay were statistically significantly shorter in LAC compared with those in open colectomy, which may indicate faster recovery after bowel surgery in patients undergoing the laparoscopic approach. PMID:17651560

  11. Determination of the quaternary phase diagram of the water-ethylene glycol-sucrose-NaCl system and a comparison between two theoretical methods for synthetic phase diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Liu, Yang; Critser, John K

    2010-08-01

    Characterization of the thermodynamic properties of multi-solute aqueous solutions is of critical importance for biological and biochemical research. For example, the phase diagrams of aqueous systems, containing salts, saccharides, and plasma membrane permeating solutes, are indispensible in the field of cryobiology and pharmacology. However, only a few ternary phase diagrams are currently available for these systems. In this study, an auto-sampler differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was used to determine the quaternary phase diagram of the water-ethylene glycol-sucrose-NaCl system. To improve the accuracy of melting point measurement, a "mass-redemption" method was also applied for the DSC technique. Base on the analyses of these experimental data, a comparison was made between the two practical approaches to generate phase diagrams of multi-solute solutions from those of single-solute solutions: the summation of cubic polynomial melting point equations versus the use of osmotic virial equations with cross coefficients. The calculated values of the model standard deviations suggested that both methods are satisfactory for characterizing this quaternary system.

  12. Alfv\\'en wave phase mixing in flows -- why over-dense solar coronal open magnetic field structures are cool?

    CERN Document Server

    Tsiklauri, D

    2015-01-01

    Our magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations and analytical calculations show that, when a background flow is present, mathematical expressions for the Alfv\\'en wave (AW) damping via phase mixing are modified by a following substitution $C_A^\\prime(x) \\to C_A^\\prime(x)+V_0^\\prime(x)$, where $C_A$ and $V_0$ are AW phase and the flow speeds and prime denotes derivative in the direction across the background magnetic field. In uniform magnetic field and over-dense plasma structures, in which $C_A$ is smaller compared to surrounding plasma, the flow, that is confined to the structure, in the same direction as the AW, reduces the effect of phase mixing, because on the edges of the structure $C_A^\\prime$ and $V_0^\\prime$ have opposite sign. Thus, the wave damps via phase mixing {\\it slower} compared to the case without the flow. This is the consequence of the co-directional flow reducing the wave front stretching in the transverse direction. Although, the result is generic and is applicable to different laboratory or ...

  13. Cabozantinib versus everolimus in advanced renal cell carcinoma (METEOR): final results from a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choueiri, Toni K; Escudier, Bernard; Powles, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cabozantinib is an oral inhibitor of tyrosine kinases including MET, VEGFR, and AXL. The randomised phase 3 METEOR trial compared the efficacy and safety of cabozantinib versus the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma who progressed after previous V...

  14. Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project. Phase 1: The Critical Components to Simulate Cirrus Initiation Explicitly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruei-Fong; O'C. Starr, David; Demott, Paul J.; Cotton, Richard; Sassen, Kenneth; Jensen, Eric; Kärcher, Bernd; Liu, Xiaohong

    2002-08-01

    The Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project, a project of the GCSS [Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud System Studies] Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems, involves the systematic comparison of current models of ice crystal nucleation and growth for specified, typical, cirrus cloud environments. In Phase 1 of the project reported here, simulated cirrus cloud microphysical properties from seven models are compared for `warm' (40°C) and `cold' (60°C) cirrus, each subject to updrafts of 0.04, 0.2, and 1 m s1. The models employ explicit microphysical schemes wherein the size distribution of each class of particles (aerosols and ice crystals) is resolved into bins or the evolution of each individual particle is traced. Simulations are made including both homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanisms (all-mode simulations). A single initial aerosol population of sulfuric acid particles is prescribed for all simulations. Heterogeneous nucleation is disabled for a second parallel set of simulations in order to isolate the treatment of the homogeneous freezing (of haze droplets) nucleation process. Analysis of these latter simulations is the primary focus of this paper.Qualitative agreement is found for the homogeneous-nucleation-only simulations; for example, the number density of nucleated ice crystals increases with the strength of the prescribed updraft. However, significant quantitative differences are found. Detailed analysis reveals that the homogeneous nucleation rate, haze particle solution concentration, and water vapor uptake rate by ice crystal growth (particularly as controlled by the deposition coefficient) are critical components that lead to differences in the predicted microphysics.Systematic differences exist between results based on a modified classical theory approach and models using an effective freezing temperature approach to the treatment of nucleation. Each method is constrained by critical freezing data from

  15. Retrieving the Green’s function in an open system by cross correlation: A comparison of approaches (L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Fokkema, J.; Snieder, R.

    2005-01-01

    We compare two approaches for deriving the fact that the Green’s function in an arbitrary inhomogeneous open system can be obtained by cross correlating recordings of the wave field at two positions. One approach is based on physical arguments, exploiting the principle of time-reversal invariance of

  16. A comparison of the energy consumption and carbon emissions for different modes of transportation in open-cut coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fuming; Cai Qingxiang; Chen Shuzhao; Zhou Wei

    2015-01-01

    Transportation accounts for 80%of open-cut coal mine carbon emissions. With regard to the energy con-sumption and carbon emissions of transportation within an open-cut mine, this paper systematically compared the work and energy consumption of a truck and belt conveyor on a theoretical basis, and con-structed a model to calculate the energy consumption of open-cut mine transportation. Life cycle carbon emission factors and power consumption calculation model were established through a Process Analysis–Life Cycle Analysis (PA–LCA). The following results were obtained:(1) the energy consumption of truck transportation was four to twelve times higher than that of the belt conveyor;(2) the CO2 emissions from truck transportation were three to ten times higher than those of the belt conveyor;(3) with the increase in the slope angle for transportation, the ratio of truck to belt conveyor for both energy consumption and carbon emissions gradually decreased;(4) based on 2013 prices in China, the energy cost of transporta-tion using a belt conveyor in open-cut coal mines could save 0.6–2.4 Yuan/(t km) compared to truck transportation.

  17. Comparison of open and closed suction on safety, efficacy and nursing time in a paediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Janine; Syddall, Sophie; Butt, Warwick; Kinney, Sharon

    2014-05-01

    Endotracheal suctioning (ETS) is one of the most common procedures performed in the paediatric intensive care. The two methods of endotracheal suctioning used are known as open and closed suction, but neither method has been shown to be the superior suction method in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). The primary purpose was to compare open and closed suction methods from a physiological, safety and staff resource perspective. All paediatric intensive care patients with an endotracheal tube were included. Between June and September 2011 alternative months were nominated as open or closed suction months. Data were prospectively collected including suction events, staff involved, time taken, use of saline, and change from pre-suction baseline in heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and oxygen saturation (SpO2). Blocked or dislodged ETTs were recorded as adverse events. Closed suction was performed more often per day (7.2 vs 6.0, psuction (5 vs 3, psuction group (18% vs 40%). Open suction demonstrated a greater reduction in SpO2 and nearly three times the incidence of increases in HR and MAP compared to closed suction. Reductions in MAP or HR were comparable across the two methods. In conclusion, CS could be performed with less staffing time and number of nurses, less physiological disturbances to our patients and no significant increases in adverse events. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Subcutaneous Achilles tendon rupture: A comparison between open technique and mini-invasive tenorrhaphy with Achillon(®) suture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghino, W; Enrietti, E; Sprio, A E; di Prun, N Barbasetti; Berta, G N; Massè, A

    2016-11-01

    Surgical management of Achilles tendon rupture is still controversial: open techniques have a higher rate of soft tissue complications but a lower incidence of re-rupture than percutaneous tenorrhaphies. The aim of our retrospective study was to analyze and compare clinical and functional results in patients treated with either the conventional open or minimally invasive suture treatment with the Achillon(®) system. A retrospective review of 140 patients was performed; 72 were treated with open tenorrhaphy, 68 with the minimally invasive Achillon(®) suture system. With a comparable re-rupture rate, there was a statistically significant reduction in surgical time, incidence of minor complications, time required to return to sport activities and return to work in the minimally invasive group. Achillon(®) mini-invasive suture system is a reliable tool for the Achilles tendon ruptures, able to reduce the incidence of soft tissues complications if compared to the classic open tenorrhaphy, while maintaining strength of the suture and leading to superimposed functional outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Endoscopic Plantar Fasciotomy Improves Early Postoperative Results: A Retrospective Comparison of Outcomes After Endoscopic Versus Open Plantar Fasciotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Andrew Chia Chen; Ng, Sean Yung Chuan; Koo, Kevin Oon Thien

    2016-01-01

    Plantar fasciotomy is offered to patients with recalcitrant plantar fasciitis. Few studies have characterized the functional outcomes over time for the endoscopic approach compared with the open approach. We hypothesized that patients undergoing endoscopic surgery will have better postoperative functional outcomes early in the postoperative period but equivalent long-term outcomes compared with patients undergoing open surgery. We analyzed the prospectively collected data of all patients undergoing plantar fasciotomy at our institution from December 2007 to August 2014. A total of 42 feet of 38 patients were included in the analysis. The clinical data were collected preoperatively and at 3 and 6 months and 1 year. The functional outcomes analyzed included the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot scale, the Medical Outcomes Study, Short-Form, 36-item Health Survey, and patient satisfaction and expectations. Patients undergoing endoscopic surgery had significantly greater American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot and SF-36 Health Survey scores and lower pain scores at the 3-month period. They were also significantly more likely to be satisfied with and have had their expectations met by surgery. Compared with the open approach, the patients who had undergone endoscopic plantar fasciotomy experienced significantly greater improvements in the subjective and objective functional outcomes, with less pain and greater satisfaction, and had had their expectations met earlier in the recovery period, with equivalent long-term outcomes, compared with the patients who had undergone open plantar fasciotomy.

  20. Comparison of OpenFOAM and EllipSys3D actuator line methods with (NEW) MEXICO results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathan, J.; Meyer Forsting, Alexander Raul; Troldborg, Niels

    2017-01-01

    such as the MEXICO experiment. Often the verification against other codes were made on a very broad scale. Therefore this study attempts first a validation by comparing two different implementations, namely an adapted version of SOWFA/OpenFOAM and EllipSys3D and also a verification by comparing against experimental...... results from the MEXICO and NEW MEXICO experiments....

  1. Comparison of OpenFOAM and EllipSys3D for neutral atmospheric flow over complex terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavar, Dalibor; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Bechmann, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    The flow solvers OpenFOAM and EllipSys3D are compared in the case of neutral atmospheric flow over terrain using the test cases of Askervein and Bolund hills. Both solvers are run using the steady-state Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes k– turbulence model. One of the main modeling differences...... between the two solvers is the wall-function approach. The Open-FOAM v.1.7.1 uses a Nikuradse’s sand roughness model, while EllipSys3D uses a model based on the atmospheric roughness length. It is found that Nikuradse’s model introduces an error dependent on the near-wall cell height. To mitigate...... this error the near-wall cells should be at least 10 times larger than the surface roughness. It is nonetheless possible to obtain very similar results between EllipSys3D and OpenFOAM v.1.7.1. The more recent OpenFOAM v.2.2.1, which includes the atmospheric roughness length wall-function approach, has also...

  2. Accurate Clock Period Comparison for PLL Using Phase-Shift Direction Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makihara, Yukinobu; Ikebe, Masayuki; Motohisa, Junichi; Sano, Eiichi

    We proposed a new architecture for a phase-locked loop (PLL) obtained by comparing clock periods. We evaluated the use of a clock-period comparator (CPC) for the digitally controlled PLL we propose, where only the frequency should be locked. However, frequency control with the CPC resulted in the phase being locked. Thus, phase-lock operation was also achieved. The theoretical analysis of the phase-lock mechanism was confirmed through system simulations. We discussed about dead-zone problem caused by a time delay of circuits. We evaluated phase-shift direction detector to solve the dead zone problem. We designed the element blocks of the new PLL using a 0.25-μm CMOS process. We confirmed phase-lock operation through SPICE simulations of the MOSFET level. Moreover, we manufactured a trial circuit for the new PLL. We also confirmed phase-lock operation in the proposed PLL through measurements.

  3. Multicenter retrospective study of noncompressible torso hemorrhage: Anatomic locations of bleeding and comparison of endovascular versus open approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ronald; Fox, Erin E; Greene, Thomas J; Eastridge, Brian J; Gilani, Ramyar; Chung, Kevin K; DeSantis, Stacia M; DuBose, Joseph J; Tomasek, Jeffrey S; Fortuna, Gerald R; Sams, Valerie G; Todd, S Rob; Podbielski, Jeanette M; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B

    2017-07-01

    Rational development of technology for rapid control of noncompressible torso hemorrhage (NCTH) requires detailed understanding of what is bleeding. Our objectives were to describe the anatomic location of truncal bleeding in patients presenting with NCTH and compare endovascular (ENDO) management versus open (OPEN) management. This is a retrospective study of adult trauma patients with NCTH admitted to four urban Level I trauma centers in the Houston and San Antonio metropolitan areas in 2008 to 2012. Inclusion criteria include named axial torso vessel disruption, Abbreviated Injury Scale chest or abdomen score of 3 or higher with shock (base excess, <-4) or truncal operation in 90 minutes or less, or pelvic fracture with ring disruption. Exclusion criteria include isolated hip fractures, falls from standing, or prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation. After dichotomizing into OPEN, ENDO, and resuscitative thoracotomy (RT) groups based on the initial approach to control NCTH, a mixed-effects Poisson regression with robust error variance (controlling for age, mechanism, Injury Severity Score, shock, hypotension, and severe head injury as fixed effects and site as a random effect) was used to test the hypothesis that ENDO was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality in NCTH patients. Five hundred forty-three patients with NCTH underwent ENDO (n = 166, 31%), OPEN (n = 309, 57%), or RT (n = 68, 12%). Anatomic bleeding locations were 25% chest, 41% abdomen, and 31% pelvis. ENDO was used to treat relatively few types of vascular injuries, whereas OPEN and RT injuries were more diverse. ENDO patients had more blunt trauma (95% vs. 34% vs. 32%); severe injuries (median Injury Severity Score, 34 vs. 27 vs. 21), and increased time to intervention (median, 298 vs. 92 vs. 51 minutes) compared with OPEN and RT. Mortality was 15% versus 20% versus 79%. ENDO was associated with decreased mortality compared to OPEN (relative risk, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0

  4. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California -- Phase I Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Song, Katherine; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-04-01

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory?s research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities for wastewater treatment facilities in California. The report describes the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy use and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities. In addition, several energy efficiency and load management case studies are provided for wastewater treatment facilities.This study shows that wastewater treatment facilities can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for automated demand response at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to open automated demand response due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

  5. Comparison of 3D reconstruction of mandible for pre-operative planning using commercial and open-source software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Johari Yap; Omar, Marzuki; Pritam, Helmi Mohd Hadi; Husein, Adam; Rajion, Zainul Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    3D printing of mandible is important for pre-operative planning, diagnostic purposes, as well as for education and training. Currently, the processing of CT data is routinely performed with commercial software which increases the cost of operation and patient management for a small clinical setting. Usage of open-source software as an alternative to commercial software for 3D reconstruction of the mandible from CT data is scarce. The aim of this study is to compare two methods of 3D reconstruction of the mandible using commercial Materialise Mimics software and open-source Medical Imaging Interaction Toolkit (MITK) software. Head CT images with a slice thickness of 1 mm and a matrix of 512x512 pixels each were retrieved from the server located at the Radiology Department of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. The CT data were analysed and the 3D models of mandible were reconstructed using both commercial Materialise Mimics and open-source MITK software. Both virtual 3D models were saved in STL format and exported to 3matic and MeshLab software for morphometric and image analyses. Both models were compared using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Hausdorff Distance. No significant differences were obtained between the 3D models of the mandible produced using Mimics and MITK software. The 3D model of the mandible produced using MITK open-source software is comparable to the commercial MIMICS software. Therefore, open-source software could be used in clinical setting for pre-operative planning to minimise the operational cost.

  6. Efficiency Evaluation of Five-Phase Outer-Rotor Fault-Tolerant BLDC Drives under Healthy and Open-Circuit Faulty Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARASHLOO, R. S.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fault tolerant motor drives are an interesting subject for many applications such as automotive industries and wind power generation. Among different configurations of these systems, five-phase BLDC drives are gaining more importance which is because of their compactness and high efficiency. Due to replacement of field windings by permanent magnets in their rotor structure, the main sources of power losses in these drives are iron (core losses, copper (winding losses, and inverter unit (semiconductor losses. Although low amplitude of power losses in five-phase BLDC drives is an important aspect for many applications, but their efficiency under faulty conditions is not considered in previous studies. In this paper, the efficiency of an outer-rotor five phase BLDC drive is evaluated under normal and different faulty conditions. Open-circuit fault is considered for one, two adjacent and two non-adjacent faulty phases. Iron core losses are calculated via FEM simulations in Flux-Cedrat software, and moreover, inverter losses and winding copper losses are simulated in MATLAB� environment. Experimental evaluations are conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the entire BLDC drive which verifies the theoretical developments.

  7. A multinational, open-label, phase 2 study of ruxolitinib in Asian patients with myelofibrosis: Japanese subset analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oritani, Kenji; Okamoto, Shinichiro; Tauchi, Tetsuzo; Saito, Shigeki; Ohishi, Kohshi; Handa, Hiroshi; Takenaka, Katsuto; Gopalakrishna, Prashanth; Amagasaki, Taro; Ito, Kazuo; Akashi, Koichi

    2015-03-01

    Ruxolitinib is a potent Janus kinase (JAK) 1/JAK2 inhibitor that has demonstrated rapid and durable improvements in splenomegaly and symptoms and a survival benefit in 2 phase 3 trials in patients with myelofibrosis. Ruxolitinib was well tolerated and effectively reduced splenomegaly and symptom burden in Asian patients with myelofibrosis in the Asian multinational, phase 2 Study A2202. We present a subset analysis of Japanese patients (n = 30) in Study A2202. At data cutoff, 22 patients were ongoing; 8 discontinued, mainly due to adverse events (n = 4). At week 24, 33 % of patients achieved ≥35 % reduction from baseline in spleen volume; 56.0 % achieved ≥50 % reduction from baseline in total symptom score, as measured by the 7-day Myelofibrosis Symptom Assessment Form v2.0. The most common adverse events were anemia (63 %), thrombocytopenia (40 %), nasopharyngitis (37 %), decreased platelet counts (30 %), and diarrhea (30 %). Dose reductions or interruptions due to hemoglobin decreases were more frequent in Japanese patients; no loss of efficacy and no discontinuations due to hematologic abnormalities were observed. Ruxolitinib was well tolerated in Japanese patients and provided substantial reductions in splenomegaly and myelofibrosis-related symptoms similar to those observed in the overall Asian population and phase 3 COMFORT studies.

  8. Parallel Adaptive Simulation for the Phase Field Model of Red Blood Cell Conifguration Based on MPI+OpenMP%红细胞形态的MPI+OpenMP并行自适应相场模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旸; 张鉴; 陆忠华

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a parallel adaptive algorithm for the phase ifeld model of red blood cell conifguration is presented. We designed a grid reifnement method and coarsening criteria based on the surface capturing principle, and adopted an adaptive time step size scheme based on discrete energy . In addition, we designed and realized MPI+OpenMP parallel algorithm based on a block-structured adaptive mesh managing software package PARAMESH. The correctness of the adaptive algorithm and the efifciency of the MPI+OpenMP hybrid parallel realization were demonstrated through experiments. The test results indicated good scalability of the algorithm.%本文针对红细胞形态的相场模型研究并行自适应算法。我们依据界面追踪的原则设计了自适应网格的更新准则,并基于离散能量下降准则设计了时间步长的自适应算法。在基于MPI的块结构自适应网格管理软件包PARAMESH的基础上设计并实现了MPI+OpenMP的混合并行算法。通过红细胞稳定态的自适应计算验证了自适应算法的正确性并测试了混合并行实现的效率。测试结果显示混合并行算法具有良好的可扩展性。

  9. An Open-Label, Multicenter, Randomized, Phase II Study of Pazopanib in Combination with Pemetrexed in First-Line Treatment of Patients with Advanced-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scagliotti, Giorgio V; Felip, Enriqueta; Besse, Benjamin;

    2013-01-01

    This randomized open-label phase II study evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of pazopanib in combination with pemetrexed compared with the standard cisplatin/pemetrexed doublet in patients with previously untreated, advanced, nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer.......This randomized open-label phase II study evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of pazopanib in combination with pemetrexed compared with the standard cisplatin/pemetrexed doublet in patients with previously untreated, advanced, nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer....

  10. One-step synthesis of mussel-inspired molecularly imprinted magnetic polymer as stationary phase for chip-based open tubular capillary electrochromatography enantioseparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Ni; Liang, Ru-Ping; Meng, Xiang-Ying; Qiu, Jian-Ding

    2014-10-03

    A facile approach for preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers was developed and successfully used as chiral stationary phase for rapid enantioseparation by open tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC). In this work, molecularly imprinted polymers were one-step prepared employing Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) as the supporting substrate and dopamine as the functional monomer. By simply mixing Fe3O4 NPs with template molecules in a weak alkaline solution of dopamine, a thin adherent polydopamine (PDA) film imprinted with template molecules was formed by the self-polymerization of dopamine on the surface of Fe3O4 NPs. After extracting the embedded template molecules, the produced imprinted Fe3O4@PDA NPs are of three dimensional shape of template molecules favoring high binding capacity and magnetism property for easy manipulation. The imprinted Fe3O4@PDA NPs prepared with l-tryptophan, l-tyrosine, Gly-l-Phe or s-ofloxacin as template molecules were packed in the PDMS microchannel via magnetic field as novel stationary phase for the successful enantioseparation of corresponding target analysts. In addition, the imprinted Fe3O4@PDA NPs-based OT-CEC system exhibited excellent reproducibility, stability and repeatability, which provides a powerful protocol for separation enantiomers within a short analytical time and opens up a promising avenue for high-throughput screening of chiral compounds.

  11. Perspective: Maintaining surface-phase purity is key to efficient open air fabricated cuprous oxide solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Z. Hoye

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemically deposited Cu2O solar cells are receiving growing attention owing to a recent doubling in efficiency. This was enabled by the controlled chemical environment used in depositing doped ZnO layers by atomic layer deposition, which is not well suited to large-scale industrial production. While open air fabrication with atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition overcomes this limitation, we find that this approach is limited by an inability to remove the detrimental CuO layer that forms on the Cu2O surface. Herein, we propose strategies for achieving efficiencies in atmospherically processed cells that are equivalent to the high values achieved in vacuum processed cells.

  12. Comparison of actual vs synthesized ternary phase diagrams for solutes of cryobiological interest☆

    OpenAIRE

    F W Kleinhans; Mazur, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Phase diagrams are of great utility in cryobiology, especially those consisting of a cryoprotective agent (CPA) dissolved in a physiological salt solution. These ternary phase diagrams consist of plots of the freezing points of increasing concentrations of solutions of cryoprotective agents (CPA) plus NaCl. Because they are time-consuming to generate, ternary diagrams are only available for a small number of CPA's. We wanted to determine whether accurate ternary phase diagrams could be synthe...

  13. First metatarsal proximal opening wedge osteotomy for correction of hallux valgus deformity: comparison of straight versus oblique osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Hwan; Park, Eui Hyun; Jo, Joon; Koh, Yong Gon; Lee, Jin Woo; Choi, Woo Jin; Kim, Yong Sang

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare clinical and radiographic outcomes of proximal opening wedge osteotomy using a straight versus oblique osteotomy. We retrospectively reviewed 104 consecutive first metatarsal proximal opening wedge osteotomies performed in 95 patients with hallux valgus deformity. Twenty-six feet were treated using straight metatarsal osteotomy (group A), whereas 78 feet were treated using oblique metatarsal osteotomy (group B). The hallux valgus angle (HVA), intermetatarsal angle (IMA), distal metatarsal articular angle, and distance from the first to the second metatarsal (distance) were measured for radiographic evaluation, whereas the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) forefoot score was used for clinical evaluation. Significant corrections in the HVA, IMA, and distance from the first to the second metatarsal were obtained in both groups at the last follow-up (posteotomy, an oblique first metatarsal osteotomy yielded better clinical and radiological outcomes.

  14. Left ventricular diastolic dyssynchrony assessed with phase analysis of gated myocardial perfusion SPECT: a comparison with tissue Doppler imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boogers, Mark J.; Veltman, Caroline E. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands); Chen, Ji; Garcia, Ernest V. [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Bommel, Rutger J. van; Mooyaart, Eline A.Q.; Wall, Ernst E. van der; Schalij, Martin J.; Bax, Jeroen J.; Delgado, Victoria [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Younis, Imad Al; Hiel, Bernies van der; Dibbets-Schneider, Petra [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the feasibility of phase analysis on gated myocardial perfusion SPECT (GMPS) for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dyssynchrony in a head-to-head comparison with tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). The population consisted of patients with end-stage heart failure of New York Heart Association functional class III or IV with a reduced LV ejection fraction of {<=}35%. LV diastolic dyssynchrony was calculated using TDI as the maximal time delay between early peak diastolic velocities of two opposing left ventricle walls (diastolic mechanical delay). Significant LV diastolic dyssynchrony was defined as a diastolic mechanical delay of >55 ms on TDI. Furthermore, phase analysis on GMPS was performed to evaluate LV diastolic dyssynchrony; diastolic phase standard deviation (SD) and histogram bandwidth (HBW) were used as markers of LV diastolic dyssynchrony. A total of 150 patients (114 men, mean age 66.0 {+-} 10.4 years) with end-stage heart failure were enrolled. Both diastolic phase SD (r = 0.81, p < 0.01) and diastolic HBW (r = 0.75, p < 0.01) showed good correlations with LV diastolic dyssynchrony on TDI. Additionally, patients with LV diastolic dyssynchrony on TDI (>55 ms) showed significantly larger diastolic phase SD (68.1 {+-} 13.4 vs. 40.7 {+-} 14.0 , p < 0.01) and diastolic HBW (230.6 {+-} 54.3 vs. 129.0 {+-} 55.6 , p < 0.01) as compared to patients without LV diastolic dyssynchrony on TDI ({<=}55 ms). Finally, phase analysis on GMPS showed a good intra- and interobserver reproducibility for the determination of diastolic phase SD (ICC 0.97 and 0.88) and diastolic HBW (ICC 0.98 and 0.93). Phase analysis on GMPS showed good correlations with TDI for the assessment of LV diastolic dyssynchrony. (orig.)

  15. Does NoSQL have a place in GIS? - An open-source spatial database performance comparison with proven RDBMS

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    With the relational database model being more than 40 years old, combined with the continuously increasing use of ‘big data’, NoSQL systems are marketed as providing a more efficient means of dealing with large quantities of usually unstructured data. NoSQL systems may provide advantages over relational databases but generally lack the relational robustness for those advantages. This project attempts to contribute to the GIS field in comparing Open-Source RDBMS and NoSQL systems, storing ...

  16. Comparison of Dimensional Accuracy between Open-Tray and Closed-Tray Implant Impression Technique in 15° Angled Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Balouch F.; Jalalian E; Nikkheslat M.; Ghavamian R.; Toopchi Sh.; Jallalian F.; Jalalian S.

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Various impression techniques have different effects on the accuracy of final cast dimensions. Meanwhile; there are some controversies about the best technique. Purpose: This study was performed to compare two kinds of implant impression methods (open tray and closed tray) on 15 degree angled implants. Materials and Method: In this experimental study, a steel model with 8 cm in diameter and 3 cm in height were produced with 3 holes devised inside to stabilize 3 implants....

  17. CFD RANS Simulations on a Generic Conventional Scale Model Submarine: Comparison between Fluent and OpenFOAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    functions have such a small effect on the simulated value for the drag coefficient as the switch to the laminar behaviour at y+ ~ 11 would be...to explain the source of these differences. The modification to the wall functions in OpenFOAM described in Section 6 partially explains the...model currently implemented in Fluent incorporates modifications for low Reynolds number effects, compressibility and shear flow spreading [11]. The

  18. Comparison of Temporary Open Arterial Revascularization Using Stent Grafts vs. Standard Vascular Shunts in a Porcine (Sus scrofa) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-24

    standard temporary vascular shunts. We sought to characterize patency and flow characteristics of these grafts compared to standard shunts in a...survival model of porcine vascular injury. Methods: 12 Yorkshire-cross swine received a 2cm long near-circumferential defect in the iliac arteries. A14...shunts was greater than that of the stent grafts. Conclusion: Open sutureless direct site repair using stent grafts to treat vascular injury is a

  19. A comparison of native GPU computing versus OpenACC for implementing flow-routing algorithms in hydrological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Antonio J.; Noguera, José M.; Luque, Adrián

    2016-02-01

    In recent years GPU computing has gained wide acceptance as a simple low-cost solution for speeding up computationally expensive processing in many scientific and engineering applications. However, in most cases accelerating a traditional CPU implementation for a GPU is a non-trivial task that requires a thorough refactorization of the code and specific optimizations that depend on the architecture of the device. OpenACC is a promising technology that aims at reducing the effort required to accelerate C/C++/Fortran code on an attached multicore device. Virtually with this technology the CPU code only has to be augmented with a few compiler directives to identify the areas to be accelerated and the way in which data has to be moved between the CPU and GPU. Its potential benefits are multiple: better code readability, less development time, lower risk of errors and less dependency on the underlying architecture and future evolution of the GPU technology. Our aim with this work is to evaluate the pros and cons of using OpenACC against native GPU implementations in computationally expensive hydrological applications, using the classic D8 algorithm of O'Callaghan and Mark for river network extraction as case-study. We implemented the flow accumulation step of this algorithm in CPU, using OpenACC and two different CUDA versions, comparing the length and complexity of the code and its performance with different datasets. We advance that although OpenACC can not match the performance of a CUDA optimized implementation (×3.5 slower in average), it provides a significant performance improvement against a CPU implementation (×2-6) with by far a simpler code and less implementation effort.

  20. Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration within IEA Wind Annex XXIII: Phase II Results Regarding Monopile Foundation Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkman, J.; Butterfield, S.; Passon, P.; Larsen, T.; Camp, T.; Nichols, J.; Azcona, J.; Martinez, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview and describes the latest findings of the code-to-code verification activities of the Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration, which operates under Subtask 2 of the International Energy Agency Wind Annex XXIII.

  1. Gland-preserving robotic surgery for benign submandibular gland tumours: a comparison between robotic and open techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsung-Lin; Ko, Jenq-Yuh; Lou, Pei-Jen; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Hsiao, Tzu-Yu

    2014-05-01

    Benign tumours of the submandibular gland are usually treated surgically. Gland-preserving techniques, which can be used to completely remove the tumour, preserve the function of the gland and reduce complications, but conventional open operations result in obvious scars on the neck. We aimed to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of gland-preserving robotic surgery using a hairline approach. We compared robotic with open techniques for gland-preserving operations to remove benign tumours of the submandibular gland. Patients were matched for age and sex (4 in each group). All patients in the robotic surgery group had their tumours removed successfully through hairline approaches. No patient had operative complications or postoperative functional nerve deficit, and an aesthetically pleasing outcome was achieved by concealing the scars within the hairline. Robotic operations took longer than open operations. No recurrence was noted during follow-up. Gland-preserving robotic surgery is a feasible alternative to conventional techniques and has potential advantages for safety and aesthetic outcome.

  2. Donor site morbidity following iliac crest bone harvesting for cervical fusion: a comparison between minimally invasive and open techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Raymond; Bhatia, Chandra; Chuter, Graham; Lingutla, Kiran; Budithi, Chakravarty; Krishna, Manoj

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the occurrence of donor site morbidity, cosmesis and overall satisfaction with graft procedure in 76 patients who had undergone iliac crest bone harvesting for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Totally 24 patients underwent an open procedure and 52 a minimally invasive trephine harvesting method. Although our study demonstrated substantial donor site pain and its effect on ambulation in both groups, this was of limited duration. Two patients, one in each group, suffered long-term pain that was eventually resolved. Totally 8.3% of patients in the open group suffered minor complications and 11.5% in the trephine group. There were two cases of meralgia parasthetica. There were no major complications in either group. There was no statistically significant difference in morbidity between the open and trephine groups. There was a trend towards significance (P = 0.076) for pain at the donor site, with less pain reported by patients who underwent the trephine procedure for harvesting. PMID:18389294

  3. A study of characteristics of intercity transportation systems. Phase 1: Definition of transportation comparison methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, J. M.; Smith, J. L.; Lifson, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine a unified methodological framework for the comparison of intercity passenger and freight transportation systems; (2) to review the attributes of existing and future transportation systems for the purpose of establishing measures of comparison. These objectives were made more specific to include: (1) development of a methodology for comparing long term transportation trends arising from implementation of various R&D programs; (2) definition of value functions and attribute weightings needed for further transportation goals.

  4. Vertebral Osteotomies in Ankylosing Spondylitis-Comparison of Outcomes Following Closing Wedge Osteotomy versus Opening Wedge Osteotomy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinsky, Robert A; Ouellet, Jean-Albert; Brodt, Erika D; Dettori, Joseph R

    2013-04-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Study Rationale To seek out and assess the best quality evidence available comparing opening wedge osteotomy (OWO) and closing wedge osteotomy (CWO) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis to determine whether their results differ with regard to several different subjective and objective outcome measures. Objective The aim of this study is to determine whether there is a difference in subjective and objective outcomes when comparing CWO and OWO in patients with ankylosing spondylitis suffering from clinically significant thoracolumbar kyphosis with respect to quality-of-life assessments, complication risks, and the amount of correction of the spine achieved at follow-up. Methods A systematic review was undertaken of articles published up to July 2012. Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched to identify studies comparing effectiveness and safety outcomes between adult patients with ankylosing spondylitis who received closing wedge versus opening wedge osteotomies. Studies that included pediatric patients, polysegmental osteotomies, or revision procedures were excluded. Two independent reviewers assessed the strength of evidence using the GRADE criteria and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results From a total of 67 possible citations, 4 retrospective cohorts (class of evidence III) met our inclusion criteria and form the basis for this report. No differences in Oswestry Disability Index, visual analog scale for pain, Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-24 score, SRS-22 score, and patient satisfaction were reported between the closing and opening wedge groups across two studies. Regarding radiological outcomes following closing versus opening osteotomies, mean change in sagittal vertical axis ranged from 8.9 to 10.8 cm and 8.0 to 10.9 cm, respectively, across three studies; mean change in lumbar lordosis ranged from 36 to 47 degrees and 19 to 41 degrees across four studies; and mean change

  5. Making sense of ballistic missile defense: an assessment of concepts and systems for U.S. boost-phase missile defense in comparison to other alternatives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council; Naval Studies Board

    2012-01-01

    "The Committee on an Assessment of Concepts and Systems for U.S. Boost-Phase Missile Defense in Comparison to Other Alternatives set forth to provide an assessment of the feasibility, practicality, and affordability of U.S...

  6. Could ICG-aided robotic cholecystectomy reduce the rate of open conversion reported with laparoscopic approach? A head to head comparison of the largest single institution studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangemi, A; Danilkowicz, R; Elli, F E; Bianco, F; Masrur, M; Giulianotti, P C

    2017-03-01

    Comparative studies between robotic and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) focus heavily on economic considerations under the assumption of comparable clinical outcomes. Advancement of the robotic technique and the further widespread use of this approach suggest a need for newer comparison studies. 676 ICG-aided robotic cholecystectomies (ICG-aided RC) performed at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) Division of General, Minimally Invasive and Robotic Surgery were compiled retrospectively. Additionally, 289 LC were similarly obtained. Data were compared to the largest single institution LC data sets from within the US and abroad. Statistically significant variations were found between UIC-RC and UIC-LC in minor biliary injuries (p = 0.049), overall open conversion (p ≤ 0.001), open conversion in the acute setting (p = 0.002), and mean blood loss (p advantages associated with the robotic platform may significantly decrease the rate of open conversion in both the acute and non-acute setting. The sample size discrepancy and the non-randomized nature of our study do not allow for drawing definitive conclusions.

  7. [Arthroscopic coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction versus open modified Weaver-Dunn procedure for acromioclavicular joint dislocations:comparison of curative effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F L; Jiang, C Y; Lu, Y; Zhu, Y M; Li, X

    2015-04-18

    To compare the surgical outcomes between arthroscopic coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction and open modified Weaver-Dunn procedure for the treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocations. From January 2011 to June 2012, 63 consecutive patients with acromioclavicular joint dislocations who were treated with either arthroscopic coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction or open modified Weaver-Dunn procedure were retrospectively reviewed after the final follow-up. There were 49 men and 14 women with a mean age of (40.3±10.6) years. The mean time from injury to surgery was (10.3±5.3) d. According to the Rockwood classification, there were 45 patients with type V injury and 18 patients with type III injury. All the patients with type III injury claimed high level of sport activity. The patients were divided into the arthroscopic surgery group (32 cases) or the open surgery group (31 cases) depending on the type of the surgery that each patient had taken. All the patients were routinely followed up after the surgery. The visual analogue score (VAS), American shoulder and elbow surgeons(ASES) score and University of California Los Angeles(UCLA) score were employed to evaluate the postoperative shoulder function. The postoperative radiographs of both shoulders were taken for each patient to evaluate the loss of reduction of the acromioclavicular joint. The mean follow-up time was (29.6±6.0) months (range: 24 to 43 months). No significant difference was found between the arthroscopic surgery group and the open surgery group with regard to the patient's age [(41.0±10.5) years vs. (38.0± 10.8) years], gender (male/female,24/8 vs.25/6), classification (V/III,22/10 vs.23/8), time from injury to surgery [(10.6±4.9) d vs.(10.1±5.7) d], dominant involvement (19/32 vs.17/31)and mean follow-up time [(29.8±6.4) months vs.(29.5±5.5) months], P>0.05. At the end of the last follow-up, no significant difference was noted between the two groups regarding the mean forward

  8. Fault Tolerant Three-Phase ACMotor Drive Topologies:A Comparison of Features,Cost,and Limitations(To Continue)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A.Switch-Redundant Topology An early attempt to add fault tolerant capacity to a standard three-phase inverter topology for induction motors was presented.This topology will be referred to as the switch-redundant topology and is shown in Fig.5.This topology incorporates four TRIACs or back-to-back connected SCRs and three fast acting fuses.The fuses are connected in series with the load phases.Since this topology is a combination of topologies and control methods to accommodate an opened phase,and a shorted switch,they will be considered separately.

  9. Analysis and comparison of different phase shifters for Stirling pulse tube cryocooler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Tian; Pfotenhauer, John M.; Zhou, Wenjie

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of phase shifters and power recovery mechanisms are of sustainable interest for developing Stirling pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTC) with higher power density, more compact design and higher efficiency. This paper investigates the phase shifting capacity and the applications of four d...

  10. Comparison of post contrast CT urography phases in bladder cancer detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helenius, Malin; Dahlman, Par; Lonnemark, Maria; Magnusson, Anders [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Brekkan, Einar [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Urology, Uppsala (Sweden); Wernroth, Lisa [Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate which post-contrast phase(s) in a four-phase CT urography protocol is (are) most suitable for bladder cancer detection. The medical records of 106 patients with visible haematuria who underwent a CT urography examination, including unenhanced, enhancement-triggered corticomedullary (CMP), nephrographic (NP) and excretory (EP) phases, were reviewed. The post-contrast phases (n = 318 different phases) were randomized into an evaluation order and blindly reviewed by two uroradiologists. Twenty-one patients were diagnosed with bladder cancer. Sensitivity for bladder cancer detection was 0.95 in CMP, 0.83 in NP and 0.81 in EP. Negative predictive value (NPV) was 0.99 in CMP, 0.96 in NP and 0.95 in EP. The sensitivity was higher in CMP than in both NP (p-value 0.016) and EP (p-value 0.0003). NPV was higher in CMP than in NP (p-value 0.024) and EP (p-value 0.002). In the CT urography protocol with enhancement-triggered scan, sensitivity and NPV were highest in the corticomedullary phase, and this phase should be used for bladder assessment. (orig.)

  11. Distribution of Local Open-Circuit Voltage on Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Mixed-Phase Si:H and SiGe:H Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, C.-S.; Moutinho, H. R.; Al-Jassim, M. M.; Kazmerski, L. L.; Yan, B.; Owens, J. M.; Yang, J.; Guha, S.

    2006-01-01

    Local open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) distributions on amorphous and nanocrystalline mixed-phase silicon solar cells were measured using a scanning Kelvin probe microscope (SKPM) on the p layer of an n-i-p structure without the top ITO contact. During the measurement, the sample was illuminated with a laser beam that was used for the atomic force microscopy (AFM). Therefore, the surface potential measured by SKPM is the sum of the local V{sub oc} and the difference in workfunction between the p layer and the AFM tip. Comparing the SKPM and AFM images, we find that nanocrystallites aggregate in the amorphous matrix with an aggregation size of {approx}0.5 {micro}m in diameter, where many nanometer-size grains are clustered. The V{sub oc} distribution shows valleys in the nanocrystalline aggregation area. The transition from low to high V{sub oc} regions is a gradual change within a distance of about 1 {micro}m. The minimum V{sub oc} value in the nanocrystalline clusters in the mixed-phase region is larger than the V{sub oc} of a nc-Si:H single-phase solar cell. These results could be due to lateral photo-charge redistribution between the two phases. We have also carried out local V{sub oc} measurements on mixed-phase SiGe:H alloy solar cells. The magnitudes of V{sub oc} in the amorphous and nanocrystalline regions are consistent with the J-V measurements.

  12. [Amputation or reconstruction of IIIB and IIIC open tibial fracture. Decision criteria in the acute phase and late functional outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekamp, A; Regel, G; Ruffert, S; Ziegler, M; Tscherne, H

    1998-05-01

    In IIIB and IIIC type open tibial fractures (according to Gustilo) the primary decision that has to be made regarding therapy is wether or not the limb can be salvaged. To standardize the criteria for amputation different salvage scores have been established in recent years. In this study the Hannover Fracture Scale (HFS), the Predictive Salvage Index (PSI), the Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) and the NISSSA score were evaluated regarding their clinical relevance. When ROC Analysis was performed for all these scores in our patients the HFS revealed the highest sensitivity (0.91), but low specificity (0.71). The highest specificity was noted for the MESS (0.97), which in parallel showed the lowest sensitivity (0.59). In general it seems to be essential to make the right decision initially in order to avoid secondary amputation. All the scores mentioned here appear to be helpful in decision making. Salvaged limbs in IIIB and IIIC fractures presented a comparable good outcome, whereas salvaged IIIC injuries with a high score presented an outcome which was as bad as in secondary amputations. Secondary amputated patients required not only significant longer hospitalization but also resulted in poor outcome compared with the patients having received reconstruction or primary amputation.

  13. An Open Label, Phase 2 Study of MABp1 Monotherapy for the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris and Psychiatric Comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Daniel; Stecher, Michael; Lefebvre, Gigi Claire; Logan, Alan C; Moy, Ronald

    2015-06-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common inflammatory skin disorder. There remain few rapid, safe, and effective therapy options for patients with moderate to severe acne vulgaris that also address psychological comorbidities such as anxiety. To assess the efficacy of interleukin 1 alpha blockade in patients with moderate to severe acne vulgaris using the true human monoclonal antibody MABp1. Eleven patients were administered open-label, subcutaneous injections of MABp1 over a six-week period. Objectives were assessment of safety, change in inflammatory lesion count and change in psychosocial functioning using two validated questionnaires. There were no serious adverse events, or adverse events greater than grade I. Median inflammatory lesion counts decreased 36% (IQR -44% to 1%). Anxiety scores improved (from median 6 to 1) as well as self-image assessment (2.3±0.9 to 2.1±0.1) as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the modified Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire. Patients had rapid improvement of skin lesions, as well as psychosocial functioning and anxiety. MABp1 may provide a safe and effective means for treating inflammatory acne lesions and. Further studies using this antibody are warranted in this patient population.

  14. A comparison of radical and non-radical conversion rates of SVOCs in the tropospheric condensed phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilgner, Andreas; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2010-05-01

    Secondary formation pathways of organic compounds are currently intensely discussed including conversions in tropospheric aqueous particles as well as cloud droplets. Particularly, SVOCs (Semivolatile Organic Compounds) and their reaction products are expected to be potential precursors for the formation of higher molecular organic compounds. In the aqueous phase, such compounds can undergo both various oxidative processes (radical and non-radical oxidants reactions) and non oxidative processes (aldol, acetal, dimerisation and ester formation reactions). These chemical aqueous phase processes are expected to be very efficient proceeding on short timescales and produce multifunctional organic compounds of less volatility. However, the importance of non-radical reactions compared to currently known radical oxidations under different conditions has not yet been assessed .Current aqueous phase mechanisms such as CAPRAM (Chemical Aqueous Phase RAdical Mechanism; Herrmann et al., 2005) do consider radical oxidation processes of organic compounds. In the present study, a comparison of radical and non-radical conversion rates of organics in cloud droplet and aqueous particles is performed for both urban and remote environmental conditions. For the comparison, available reaction rate constants have been used together with outcome of recent model simulations (Tilgner and Herrmann, 2010) using the CAPRAM 3.0i mechanism. First order-conversion rate constants in the aqueous phase for cloud and aqueous particle conditions, for (i) OH, (ii) NO3, (iii) H2O2, (iv) the aldol condensation, (v) the dimerisation and (vi) the ammonium-catalysed accretion reactions were calculated with the available, at current quite restricted data set. From the comparison, it is concluded that organic accretion reactions might be of interest in some cases but generally do by far not reach the oxidative conversion rates of radical and non-radical oxidants. Particularly, the adol condensation reactions

  15. Industry Financial Relationships in Orthopaedic Surgery: Analysis of the Sunshine Act Open Payments Database and Comparison with Other Surgical Subspecialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Chalmers, Peter N; Bach, Bernard R

    2015-08-05

    Industry financial relationships for orthopaedic surgeons in the United States are now publicly reported in the Sunshine Act Open Payments database. We sought to present these data in a more easily understandable format and to describe how industry relationships in orthopaedic surgery compare with other surgical subspecialties. The Open Payments database was searched for all records of industry financial relationships for orthopaedic surgeons. Data analyzed included the value of reported financial relationships per surgeon, the type of financial relationship, and geographic region. Similar analytics were collected for neurological surgery, urology, plastic surgery, and otolaryngology. Data were normalized to the overall number of providers in each subspecialty in the United States from the American Medical Association 2012 data. For 12,320 orthopaedic surgeons, 58,127 industry financial relationships were reported, with a total value of $80.2 million. Royalties or licensing fees, which were received by 1.7% of U.S. orthopaedic surgeons, accounted for 69.5% of the total monetary value of payments to orthopaedic surgeons. Between August and December 2013, 50.1% of U.S. orthopaedic surgeons had a reported financial relationship. Orthopaedics had the second lowest percentage of physicians with industry financial relationships among the five surgical subspecialties studied. The overall value of payments per orthopaedic surgeon was higher than in the other subspecialties, driven by the large value of royalties and licensing. One-half of U.S. orthopaedic surgeons have industry financial relationships reported in the Open Payments database. Orthopaedic surgeons are less likely than most surgical subspecialists to receive industry payments, and the majority of the overall value of orthopaedic financial relationships is driven by a small number of orthopaedic surgeons receiving royalties and licensing for reimbursable innovation within the field. Copyright © 2015 by The

  16. Comparison of three optimized digestion methods for rapid determination of chemical oxygen demand: Closed microwaves, open microwaves and ultrasound irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domini, Claudia E. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Hidalgo, Montserrat [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Marken, Frank [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Canals, Antonio [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain)]. E-mail: a.canals@ua.es

    2006-03-02

    In the present work, experimental design was used for the fast optimization of three kinds of sample digestion procedures with the final aim of obtaining the COD value of wastewater samples. The digestion methods evaluated were 'closed microwave-assisted' (CMWD), 'open microwave-assisted' (OMWD) and 'ultrasound-assisted' (USD). Classical digestion was used as reference method. The optimum values for the different variables studied in each method were: 90 psi pressure, 475 W power and 4 min irradiation time (CMWD); 150 deg. C temperature and 4 min irradiation time (OMWD); 90% of maximum nominal power (180 W), 0.9 s (s{sup -1}) cycles and 1 min irradiation time (USD). In all cases, interference concentration that produces a deviation of 10% in COD values is 13.4, 23.4, 21.1 and 2819 mg/L for S{sup 2-}, Fe{sup 2+}, NO{sub 2} {sup -} and Cl{sup -}, respectively. Under optimum conditions, the proposed digestion methods have been successfully applied, with the exception of pyridine, to several pure organic compounds and COD recoveries for 10 real wastewater samples were ranged between 88 and 104% of the values obtained with the classical (open reflux) method used as reference, with R.S.D. lower than 4% in most cases. Thus, the use of ultrasound energy for COD determination seems to be an interesting and promising alternative to conventional open reflux and microwave-assisted digestion methods used for the same purpose since the instrumentation is simpler, cheaper and safer and the digestion step faster than the ones used for the same purpose.

  17. Comparison of OpenFOAM and EllipSys3D actuator line methods with (NEW) MEXICO results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, J.; Meyer Forsting, A. R.; Troldborg, N.; Masson, C.

    2017-05-01

    The Actuator Line Method exists for more than a decade and has become a well established choice for simulating wind rotors in computational fluid dynamics. Numerous implementations exist and are used in the wind energy research community. These codes were verified by experimental data such as the MEXICO experiment. Often the verification against other codes were made on a very broad scale. Therefore this study attempts first a validation by comparing two different implementations, namely an adapted version of SOWFA/OpenFOAM and EllipSys3D and also a verification by comparing against experimental results from the MEXICO and NEW MEXICO experiments.

  18. Comparison of open surgical discectomy versus plasma-laser nucleoplasty in patients with single lumbar disc herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Abrishamkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intervertebral disc herniation is a major cause of low back pain. Several treatment methods are available for lumbar disc herniation including Chemonucleolysis, open surgery, nucleoplasty, laser disc decompression, and intradiscal electrothermal therapy. The high prevalence of lumbar disc herniation necessitates a minimally invasive yet effective treatment method. In this study, we compared the outcomes of open surgery and nucleoplasty method in patients with single lumbar disc herniation. Materials and Methods: This study was a noninferiority randomized clinical trial conducted in one of the University Hospitals of Isfahan Medical University; The Alzahra Hospital. About 200 patients with the diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation were recruited and were assigned to either the treatment or control groups using block randomization. One group received open surgery and the other group received nucleoplasty as the method of treatment. Patients were revisited at 14 days, 1, 2, 3 months, and 1-year after surgery and were assessed for the following variables: Lower back pain, lower limb pain, common complications of surgery (e.g., discitis, infection and hematoma and recurrence of herniation. Results: The mean (standard deviation severity of low back pain was reduced from 6.92 (2.5 to 3.43 (2.3 in the nucleoplasty group (P = 0.04 and from 7.5 (2.2 to 3.04 (1.61 in the discectomy group (P = 0.73. Between group difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.44, however, time and treatment interaction was significant (P = 0.001. The level of radicular pain evaluated 1 year after treatment was reduced from 8.1 (1.2 to 2.9 (1.2 (P = 0.004 and from 7.89 (2.1 to 3.6 (2.5 (P =0.04 in the discectomy and the nucleoplasty groups respectively, significant interaction between time and treatment options was observed (P < 0.001 while there was no significant difference between two treatment groups (P = 0.82. Conclusion: Our results show that while

  19. A comparison of different algorithms for phasing haplotypes using Holstein cattle genotypes and pedigree data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miar, Younes; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Schenkel, Flavio S

    2017-04-01

    Phasing genotypes to haplotypes is becoming increasingly important due to its applications in the study of diseases, population and evolutionary genetics, imputation, and so on. Several studies have focused on the development of computational methods that infer haplotype phase from population genotype data. The aim of this study was to compare phasing algorithms implemented in Beagle, Findhap, FImpute, Impute2, and ShapeIt2 software using 50k and 777k (HD) genotyping data. Six scenarios were considered: no-parents, sire-progeny pairs, sire-dam-progeny trios, each with and without pedigree information in Holstein cattle. Algorithms were compared with respect to their phasing accuracy and computational efficiency. In the studied population, Beagle and FImpute were more accurate than other phasing algorithms. Across scenarios, phasing accuracies for Beagle and FImpute were 99.49-99.90% and 99.44-99.99% for 50k, respectively, and 99.90-99.99% and 99.87-99.99% for HD, respectively. Generally, FImpute resulted in higher accuracy when genotypic information of at least one parent was available. In the absence of parental genotypes and pedigree information, Beagle and Impute2 (with double the default number of states) were slightly more accurate than FImpute. Findhap gave high phasing accuracy when parents' genotypes and pedigree information were available. In terms of computing time, Findhap was the fastest algorithm followed by FImpute. FImpute was 30 to 131, 87 to 786, and 353 to 1,400 times faster across scenarios than Beagle, ShapeIt2, and Impute2, respectively. In summary, FImpute and Beagle were the most accurate phasing algorithms. Moreover, the low computational requirement of FImpute makes it an attractive algorithm for phasing genotypes of large livestock populations. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of surgical outcome and the systemic inflammatory response syndrome score between retroperitoneoscopic hand-assisted nephroureterectomy and open nephroureterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoshikazu; Nanbu, Akihito; Tanda, Hitoshi; Kato, Shuji; Onishi, Shigeki; Nakajima, Hisao; Nitta, Toshikazu; Koroku, Mikio; Akagashi, Keigo; Hanzawa, Tatsuo

    2006-12-01

    The goal of this study is to compare surgical and oncological outcomes of laparoscopic nephroureterectomy and the open surgery using the concept of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in addition to common variables. Thirty-six and 23 patients having upper urinary tract urothelial cancer who were operated on with retroperitoneoscopic hand-assisted nephroureterectomy (RHANU) or standard open nephroureterectomy (ONU) retrospectively, were analyzed. Median operation time was 140 (range 70-200) and 60 (range 45-85) minutes, respectively in the RHANU group and the ONU group. The median days to ambulation and hospital stay of the RHANU group were significantly shorter than those of the ONU group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of SIRS and other surgical results between the two groups. In oncological outcome, no significant difference was found in the bladder recurrence rate (RHANU vs. ONU; 52% vs. 45%), local recurrence (0% vs. 0%), distant metastasis (11% vs. 13%) or survival rate (94% vs. 91%) between the RHANU group and the ONU group at 2-year follow-up. There was no port site recurrence in the RHANU group. Although the RHANU may have an advantage in terms of earlier recovery, there were no significant differences in the incidence of SIRS and oncological outcomes between the RHANU group and the ONU group.

  1. Comparison of Porcine Small Intestinal Submucosa versus Polypropylene in Open Inguinal Hernia Repair: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Nie

    Full Text Available A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed in randomized controlled trials (RCTs to compare porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS with polypropylene in open inguinal hernia repair.Electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were used to compare patient outcomes for the two groups via meta-analysis.A total of 3 randomized controlled trials encompassing 200 patients were included in the meta-analysis. There was no significant difference in recurrence (P = 0.16, hematomas (P = 0.06, postoperative pain within 30 days (P = 0.45, or postoperative pain after 1 year (P = 0.12 between the 2 groups. The incidence of discomfort was significantly lower (P = 0.0006 in the SIS group. However, the SIS group experienced a significantly higher incidence of seroma (P = 0.03.Compared to polypropylene, using SIS in open inguinal hernia repair is associated with a lower incidence of discomfort and a higher incidence of seroma. However, well-designed larger RCT studies with a longer follow-up period are needed to confirm these findings.

  2. Liver Function, Quantified by LiMAx Test, After Major Abdominal Surgery. Comparison Between Open and Laparoscopic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaffarnik, Magnus; Stoeger, Gabriel; Liebich, Julia; Grieser, Christian; Pratschke, Johann; Stockmann, Martin

    2017-08-24

    Major abdominal surgery may lead to a systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) with a risk of organ failure. One possible trigger for a postoperative hepatic dysfunction is an altered hepatic blood flow during SIRS, resulting in a decreased oxygen delivery. This pilot study investigated the role of liver dysfunction measured by the LiMAx test after major abdominal surgery, focussing on open and laparoscopic surgical approaches. We prospectively investigated 25 patients (7 females and 18 males, age range 55-72 years) scheduled for upper abdominal surgery. The LiMAx test, ICG-PDR and duplex sonography were carried out preoperatively, followed by postoperative days (PODs) 1, 3, 5 and 10. Laboratory parameters and clinical parameters were measured daily. Clinical outcome parameters were examined at the end of treatment. The population was divided into group A (laparotomy) versus group B (laparoscopy). LiMAx values decreased significantly on POD 1 (290 µg/kg/h, P surgery is evident and underestimated. The LiMAx test provides an adequate tool to determine liver dysfunction. Open and laparoscopic approaches appeared similar in terms of liver dysfunction and postoperative SIRS.

  3. Comparison of Output Current Ripple in Single and Dual Three-Phase Inverters for Electric Vehicle Motor Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Loncarski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The standard solution for the traction system in battery powered electric vehicles (EVs is a two-level (2L inverter feeding a three-phase motor. A simple and effective way to achieve a three-level (3L inverter in battery-supplied electric vehicles consists of using two standard three-phase 2L inverters with the open-end winding connection of standard three-phase ac motors. The 3L inverter solution can be usefully adopted in EVs since it combines several benefits such as current ripple reduction, increment of phase motor voltage with limited voltage ratings of the two battery banks, improvement in system reliability, etc. The reduction in current ripple amplitude is particularly relevant since it is a source of electromagnetic interference and audio noise from the inverter-motor power connection cables and from the motor itself. By increasing the inverter switching frequency the ripple amplitude is reduced, but the drive efficiency decreases due to the proportionally increased switching losses. In this paper the peak-to-peak ripple amplitude of the dual-2L inverter is evaluated and compared with the corresponding ripple of the single-2L inverter, considering the same voltage and power motor ratings. The ripple analysis is carried out as a function of the modulation index to cover the whole modulation range of the inverter, and the theoretical results are verified with experimental tests carried out by an inverter-motor drive prototype.

  4. Electromagnetic Comparison of 3-, 5- and 7-phases Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machines : Mild Hybrid Traction Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ouamara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Authors compare the electromagnetic performances of three multi-phases permanent-magnet (PM synchronous machines (PMSM for Mild Hybridtraction application. This comparison was made using two-dimensional (2-D numerical simulations in transient magnetic with eddy-current reaction field in the PMs. The best machine was determined using an energetic analysis (i.e., losses, torque and efficiency according specifications. In this study, the non-overlapping winding with double layer (i.e. all teeth wound type was used. The winding synthesis is based on the "Star of slots" method as well as the Fourier series decomposition of the magnetomotive force (MMF.

  5. Comparison of Esophageal, Tympanic and Rectal Temperatures in Pediatric Patients below 12 Years Old Undergoing Open Heart Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Pourmovahed

    2013-12-01

    Results: The mean of body temperature was different in the three sites. The difference between right and left ear was not significant, but the difference between esophagus –rectum, esophagus-tympanum and rectum-tympanum was significant (P<0.001. All changes in four places showed that in hypothermia phase the reduction of temperature in ears was more than esophageal and rectal temperature, and in rectal, it was more than esophageal temperature. Conclusion: All sites are sensitive to changes of body temperature and they can show core temperature of body well, but since differences between all sites in four phases are not same, we cannot use just one of them to reach the temperature of other sites.

  6. Phase analysis in duplex stainless steel: comparison of EBSD and quantitative metallography methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, J.; Chmiela, B.

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the research was to work out the qualitative and quantitative analysis of phases in DSS in as-received state and after thermal aging. For quantitative purposes, SEM observations, EDS analyses and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) methods were employed. Qualitative analysis of phases was performed by two methods: EBSD and classical quantitative metallography. A juxtaposition of different etchants for the revealing of microstructure and brief review of sample preparation methods for EBSD studies were presented. Different ways of sample preparation were tested and based on these results a detailed methodology of DSS phase analysis was developed including: surface finishing, selective etching methods and image acquisition. The advantages and disadvantages of applied methods were pointed out and compared the accuracy of the analysis phase performed by both methods.

  7. Quasi-phase-matched DC-induced three wave mixing versus four wave mixing: a simulated comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapiano, Christopher A; Aitchison, J Stewart; Qian, Li

    2012-04-01

    A comparison is made between DC-induced three-wave mixing under an on-off quasi-phase-matching scheme and a perfectly phase-matched four wave mixing process. It is shown that the DC-induced process is capable of producing a significantly larger conversion efficiency than the four wave mixing process. Despite the fact that it suffers greater effects of dispersion, the enhanced growth rate of the DC-induced process provides a conversion efficiency roughly 300× larger than that of four wave mixing. Over a sample length of 20 cm the DC-induced process is able to generate idler power more than 270 times greater than that produced by the equivalent four wave mixing process.

  8. Phase-retrieval algorithms applied in a 4-f system for optical image encryption: a comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situ, Guohai; Zhang, Jingjuan

    2005-01-01

    Phase retrieval algorithms based on 4-f system for optical image encryption are compared in respect of the image retrieval quality and the convergence. Simulation results show that enlarging the searching space can decrypt the image with extremely high quality, while employing the searching strategy of modifying both the phase-distributions in the input and the frequency planes can result in much faster convergence for the algorithm.

  9. A phase II Open-label Study of the Intravenous Administration of Homoharringtonine in the treatment of Myelodysplastic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daver, Naval; Vega-Ruiz, Arturo; Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Estrov, Zeev; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Kornblau, Steve; Verstovsek, Srdan; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Cortes, Jorge E.

    2013-01-01

    Homoharringtonine is an alkaloid inhibitor of protein synthesis with activity in myeloid malignancies. We report a phase II pilot study of homoharringtonine in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Induction consisted of homoharringtonine at 2.5 mg/m2 via continuous infusion for seven days. Maintenance was given every 4 weeks. Nine patients were enrolled: five with refractory anaemia with excess blasts, two with refractory anaemia with excess blasts in transformation, one each with refractory anaemia and chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia, respectively. Median age was 70 years (55–84) and 6 (66%) were male. Per International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) two patients were intermediate-1, five intermediate-2 and two high-risk. Median chemotherapy courses were one (1–3). One patient (11%) responded with complete hematologic and cytogenetic remission after one course. Eight patients did not respond (four had stable disease, two progressed to acute leukaemia and two died during induction - from aspergillus pneumonia and intracerebral haemorrhage, respectively). Grade 3/4 myelosuppression seen in 56% (5/9). Serious non-hematologic toxicities included one case of grade 4 left bundle branch heart block and one grade 3 nephrotoxicity. Median time between courses was 42 days (35–72 days). In conclusion homoharringtonine might have clinical activity in some patients with MDS. PMID:23701251

  10. Image correction during large and rapid B(0) variations in an open MRI system with permanent magnets using navigator echoes and phase compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianqi; Wang, Yi; Jiang, Yu; Xie, Haibin; Li, Gengying

    2009-09-01

    An open permanent magnet system with vertical B(0) field and without self-shielding can be quite susceptible to perturbations from external magnetic sources. B(0) variation in such a system located close to a subway station was measured to be greater than 0.7 microT by both MRI and a fluxgate magnetometer. This B(0) variation caused image artifacts. A navigator echo approach that monitored and compensated the view-to-view variation in magnetic resonance signal phase was developed to correct for image artifacts. Human brain imaging experiments using a multislice gradient-echo sequence demonstrated that the ghosting and blurring artifacts associated with B(0) variations were effectively removed using the navigator method.

  11. Native electrospray ionization and electron-capture dissociation for comparison of protein structure in solution and the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Cui, Weidong; Gross, Michael L

    2013-11-15

    The importance of protein and protein-complex structure motivates improvements in speed and sensitivity of structure determination in the gas phase and comparison with that in solution or solid state. An opportunity for the gas phase measurement is mass spectrometry (MS) combined with native electrospray ionization (ESI), which delivers large proteins and protein complexes in their near-native states to the gas phase. In this communication, we describe the combination of native ESI, electron-capture dissociation (ECD), and top-down MS for exploring the structures of ubiquitin and cytochrome c in the gas phase and their relation to those in the solid-state and solution. We probe structure by comparing the protein's flexible regions, as predicted by the B-factor in X-ray crystallography, with the ECD fragments. The underlying hypothesis is that maintenance of structure gives fragments that can be predicted from B-factors. This strategy may be applicable in general when X-ray structures are available and extendable to the study of intrinsically disordered proteins.

  12. Survey of Nitrate Ion Concentrations in Vegetables Cultivated in Plant Factories: Comparison with Open-Culture Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Yuka; Hirayama, Izumi; Yoshikawa, Mitsuhide; Yokoyama, Tomoko; Iida, Kenji; Iwakoshi, Katsushi; Suzuki, Ayana; Yanagihara, Midori; Segawa, Yukino; Kukimoto, Sonomi; Hamada, Humika; Matsuzawa, Satomi; Tabata, Setsuko; Sasamoto, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    A survey of nitrate-ion concentrations in plant-factory-cultured leafy vegetables was conducted. 344 samples of twenty-one varieties of raw leafy vegetables were examined using HPLC. The nitrate-ion concentrations in plant-factory-cultured leafy vegetables were found to be LOD-6,800 mg/kg. Furthermore, the average concentration values varied among different leafy vegetables. The average values for plant-factory-cultured leafy vegetables were higher than those of open-cultured leafy vegetables reported in previous studies, such as the values listed in the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan- 2015 - (Seventh revised edition). For some plant-factory-cultured leafy vegetables, such as salad spinach, the average values were above the maximum permissible levels of nitrate concentration in EC No 1258/2011; however, even when these plant-factory-cultured vegetables were routinely eaten, the intake of nitrate ions in humans did not exceed the ADI.

  13. A comparison of open-loop and closed-loop adaptive calibration for pattern recognition based myoelectric control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiayuan He; Dingguo Zhang; Xinjun Sheng; Xiangyang Zhu

    2015-08-01

    This study presented a closed-loop adaptive calibration (CLAC) scheme where subjects could get instantaneous feedback of their movements and alter their motions immediately to update the model parameters to enhance its ability. The real-time performance was compared between the conventional open-loop calibration (OLC) and the presented CLAC based on three metrics (motion-selection time, motion-completion time and motion-completion rate). The CLAC performed slightly better than the OLC, but the difference was not significant. This was the first study designed to investigate the effects of CLAC for pattern recognition-based myoelectric control (discrete movement). The CLAC could be potentially applied in the multiuser interface to make the adaptation of the common model to a novel user efficiently and flexibly.

  14. HISTOLOGIC AND RADIOGRAPHIC COMPARISON OF MTA AND CA(OH2 MATERIALS FOR APEXOGENESIS IN OPEN APEX CAT CANINE TEETH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A KHADEMI

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the problems encounted in endodontic treatment is the treatment of vital open apex teeth. Among different materials used for this purpose, Calcium hydroxide is the most widly used material. The purpose of this study was to compare a newly introduced material called MTA (Mineral Trioxide Aggregate with calcium hydroxide in apexogenesis procedure. Methods: Fourty open apex canine teeth of 10 young cats were used in this study. Crowns of the teeth were resected and access cavities were slightly extended. Floor of pulp chamber of 16 teeth were packed with MTA and that of the other 16 teeth with Ca(OH2.Access cavities were double sealed using ZOE and Amalgam. After 4-6 months the animals were sacrificed and the pulp and periodical tissues were examined by histologic evaluation. Four intact teeth were also used as negative control and 4 teeth without coronal seal were used as positive control. Results. Radiographic evaluation of MTA treated teeth after six months indicated that the apex of all of the teeth were closed and no calcified bridge was observed. In contrast, the apex of 13 out of 16 teeth treated with Ca(OH2 had been closed and in calcium hydroxide samples calcified bridge had been formed. Histologically, there was a significant difference in microscopic changes of the pulp between the two treatment groups (P<0.05. The pulp of the teeth with MTA was similar to that of a normal teeth and they showed no calcified bridge. Furthermore, histologic investigation of the periapical area showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Discussion: Based on the results obtained in this study and the previous findings despite the fact that Ca(OH2 may result in the apical closure because MTA causes less pulpal changes in apexogenesis need MTA treated teeth may not further root canal therapy. Therefore, MTA application is superior to Ca(OH2 for apexogenesis procedures.

  15. A Phase Ib Open-Label Multicenter Study of AZD4547 in Patients with Advanced Squamous Cell Lung Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Paul K; Shen, Ronglai; Berger, Michael F; Ferry, David; Soria, Jean-Charles; Mathewson, Alastair; Rooney, Claire; Smith, Neil R; Cullberg, Marie; Kilgour, Elaine; Landers, Donal; Frewer, Paul; Brooks, Nigel; André, Fabrice

    2017-09-15

    Purpose: Squamous cell lung cancers (SQCLC) account for 25% of all NSCLCs, yet the prognosis of these patients is poor and treatment options are limited. Amplified FGFR1 is one of the most common oncogenic events in SQCLCs, occurring in approximately 20% of cases. AZD4547 is a potent and selective FGFR1-3 inhibitor with antitumor activity in FGFR1-amplified SQCLC cell lines and patient-derived xenografts.Experimental Design: On the basis of these data, we performed a phase I study of AZD4547 in patients with previously treated stage IV FGFR1-amplified SQCLCs (NCT00979134). FGFR1 amplification (FGFR1:CEP8 ≥ 2) was determined by FISH. The primary endpoint was safety/tolerability. Secondary endpoints included antitumor activity, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and molecular analyses.Results: Fifteen FGFR1-amplified patients were treated. The most common related adverse events (AE) were gastrointestinal and dermatologic. Grade ≥3-related AEs occurred in 3 patients (23%). Thirteen patients were evaluable for radiographic response assessment. The overall response rate was 8% (1 PR). Two of 15 patients (13.3%) were progression-free at 12 weeks, and the median overall survival was 4.9 months. Molecular tests, including next-generation sequencing, gene expression analysis, and FGFR1 immunohistochemistry, showed poor correlation between gene amplification and expression, potential genomic modifiers of efficacy, and heterogeneity in 8p11 amplicon.Conclusions: AZD4547 was tolerable at a dosage of 80 mg oral twice a day, with modest antitumor activity. Detailed molecular studies show that these tumors are heterogeneous, with a range of mutational covariates and stark differences in gene expression of the 8p11 amplicon that likely explain the modest efficacy of FGFR inhibition in this disease. Clin Cancer Res; 23(18); 5366-73. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Bevacizumab combined with chemotherapy for platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer: The AURELIA open-label randomized phase III trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujade-Lauraine, Eric; Hilpert, Felix; Weber, Béatrice; Reuss, Alexander; Poveda, Andres; Kristensen, Gunnar; Sorio, Roberto; Vergote, Ignace; Witteveen, Petronella; Bamias, Aristotelis; Pereira, Deolinda; Wimberger, Pauline; Oaknin, Ana; Mirza, Mansoor Raza; Follana, Philippe; Bollag, David; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle

    2014-05-01

    In platinum-resistant ovarian cancer (OC), single-agent chemotherapy is standard. Bevacizumab is active alone and in combination. AURELIA is the first randomized phase III trial to our knowledge combining bevacizumab with chemotherapy in platinum-resistant OC. Eligible patients had measurable/assessable OC that had progressed two prior anticancer regimens were ineligible. After investigators selected chemotherapy (pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, weekly paclitaxel, or topotecan), patients were randomly assigned to single-agent chemotherapy alone or with bevacizumab (10 mg/kg every 2 weeks or 15 mg/kg every 3 weeks) until progression, unacceptable toxicity, or consent withdrawal. Crossover to single-agent bevacizumab was permitted after progression with chemotherapy alone. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) by RECIST. Secondary end points included objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), safety, and patient-reported outcomes. The PFS hazard ratio (HR) after PFS events in 301 of 361 patients was 0.48 (95% CI, 0.38 to 0.60; unstratified log-rank P < .001). Median PFS was 3.4 months with chemotherapy alone versus 6.7 months with bevacizumab-containing therapy. RECIST ORR was 11.8% versus 27.3%, respectively (P = .001). The OS HR was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.66 to 1.08; P < .174; median OS, 13.3 v 16.6 months, respectively). Grade ≥ 2 hypertension and proteinuria were more common with bevacizumab. GI perforation occurred in 2.2% of bevacizumab-treated patients. Adding bevacizumab to chemotherapy statistically significantly improved PFS and ORR; the OS trend was not significant. No new safety signals were observed.

  17. Comparison of actual vs. synthesized ternary phase diagrams for solutes of cryobiological interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhans, F W; Mazur, Peter

    2007-04-01

    Phase diagrams are of great utility in cryobiology, especially, those consisting of a cryoprotective agent (CPA) dissolved in a physiological salt solution. These ternary phase diagrams consist of plots of the freezing points of increasing concentrations of solutions of cryoprotective agents (CPA) plus NaCl. Because they are time-consuming to generate, ternary diagrams are only available for a small number of CPAs. We wanted to determine whether accurate ternary phase diagrams could be synthesized by adding together the freezing point depressions of binary solutions of CPA/water and NaCl/water which match the corresponding solute molality concentrations in the ternary solution. We begin with a low concentration of a solution of CPA+salt of given R (CPA/salt) weight ratio. Ice formation in that solution is mimicked by withdrawing water from it which increases the concentrations of both the CPA and the NaCl. We compute the individual solute concentrations, determine their freezing points from published binary phase diagrams, and sum the freezing points. These yield the synthesized ternary phase diagram for a solution of given R. They were compared with published experimental ternary phase diagrams for glycerol, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), sucrose, and ethylene glycol (EG) plus NaCl in water. For the first three, the synthesized and experimental phase diagrams agreed closely, with some divergence occurring as wt% concentrations exceeded 30% for DMSO and 55% for glycerol, and sucrose. However, in the case of EG there were substantial differences over nearly the entire range of concentrations which we attribute to systematic errors in the experimental EG data. New experimental EG work will be required to resolve this issue.

  18. A comparison between soft x-ray and magnetic phase data on the Madison symmetric torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanMeter, P. D., E-mail: pvanmeter@wisc.edu; Reusch, L. M.; Sarff, J. S.; Den Hartog, D. J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Franz, P. [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    The Soft X-Ray (SXR) tomography system on the Madison Symmetric Torus uses four cameras to determine the emissivity structure of the plasma. This structure should directly correspond to the structure of the magnetic field; however, there is an apparent phase difference between the emissivity reconstructions and magnetic field reconstructions when using a cylindrical approximation. The difference between the phase of the dominant rotating helical mode of the magnetic field and the motion of the brightest line of sight for each SXR camera is dependent on both the camera viewing angle and the plasma conditions. Holding these parameters fixed, this phase difference is shown to be consistent over multiple measurements when only toroidal or poloidal magnetic field components are considered. These differences emerge from physical effects of the toroidal geometry which are not captured in the cylindrical approximation.

  19. Comparison of composite prostate radiotherapy plan doses with dependent and independent boost phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanasamy, Ganesh; Avila, Gabrielle; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Papanikolaou, Niko; Gutierrez, Alonso; Baacke, Diana; Shi, Zheng; Stathakis, Sotirios

    2016-09-01

    Prostate cases commonly consist of dual phase planning with a primary plan followed by a boost. Traditionally, the boost phase is planned independently from the primary plan with the risk of generating hot or cold spots in the composite plan. Alternatively, boost phase can be planned taking into account the primary dose. The aim of this study was to compare the composite plans from independently and dependently planned boosts using dosimetric and radiobiological metrics. Ten consecutive prostate patients previously treated at our institution were used to conduct this study on the Raystation™ 4.0 treatment planning system. For each patient, two composite plans were developed: a primary plan with an independently planned boost and a primary plan with a dependently planned boost phase. The primary plan was prescribed to 54 Gy in 30 fractions to the primary planning target volume (PTV1) which includes prostate and seminal vesicles, while the boost phases were prescribed to 24 Gy in 12 fractions to the boost planning target volume (PTV2) that targets only the prostate. PTV coverage, max dose, median dose, target conformity, dose homogeneity, dose to OARs, and probabilities of benefit, injury, and complication-free tumor control (P+) were compared. Statistical significance was tested using either a 2-tailed Student's t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Dosimetrically, the composite plan with dependent boost phase exhibited smaller hotspots, lower maximum dose to the target without any significant change to normal tissue dose. Radiobiologically, for all but one patient, the percent difference in the P+ values between the two methods was not significant. A large percent difference in P+ value could be attributed to an inferior primary plan. The benefits of considering the dose in primary plan while planning the boost is not significant unless a poor primary plan was achieved.

  20. Pattern of intraocular pressure reduction following laser trabeculoplasty in open-angle glaucoma patients: comparison between selective and nonselective treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Jr ED

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Eglailson Dantas Almeida Júnior1, Luciano Moreira Pinto1,2, Rodrigo Antonio Brant Fernandes1,2, Tiago Santos Prata1,31Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Cerpo Oftalmologia, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Hospital Medicina dos Olhos, São Paulo, BrazilObjective: To compare the pattern of intraocular pressure (IOP reduction following selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT versus argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT in open-angle glaucoma (OAG patients, and to investigate the ability of initial IOP reduction to predict mid-term success.Methods: A prospective, nonrandomized, interventional case series was carried out. Consecutive uncontrolled OAG glaucoma patients underwent SLT or ALT; the same preoperative medical regimen was maintained during follow-up. Data collected included age, type of OAG, pre- and postoperative IOP, number of glaucoma medications, and surgical complications. Post-treatment assessments were scheduled at day 1 and 7 and months 1, 3, and 6.Results: A total of 45 patients (45 eyes were enrolled [SLT group (n = 25; ALT group (n = 20]. Groups were similar for age, baseline IOP, and number of glaucoma medications (P ≥ 0.12. We found no significant differences in mean IOP reduction between SLT (5.1 ± 2.5 mmHg; 26.6% and ALT (4.4 ± 2.8 mmHg; 22.8% groups at month 6 (P = 0.38. Success rates (IOP ≤ 16 mmHg and IOP reduction ≥25% at last follow-up visit were similar for SLT (72% and ALT (65% groups (P = 0.36. Comparing the pattern of IOP reduction (% of IOP reduction at each visit between groups, we found a greater effect following SLT compared with ALT at day 7 (23.7% ± 13.7% vs 8.1% ± 9.5%; P < 0.001. No significant differences were observed at other time points (P ≥ 0.32. Additionally, the percentage of IOP reduction at day 7 and at month 6 were significantly correlated in the SLT group (R2 = 0.36; P < 0.01, but not in the ALT group (P = 0.89. Early postoperative success predicted late

  1. A Comparison of Grizzly Bear Demographic Parameters Estimated from Non-Spatial and Spatial Open Population Capture-Recapture Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Whittington

    Full Text Available Capture-recapture studies are frequently used to monitor the status and trends of wildlife populations. Detection histories from individual animals are used to estimate probability of detection and abundance or density. The accuracy of abundance and density estimates depends on the ability to model factors affecting detection probability. Non-spatial capture-recapture models have recently evolved into spatial capture-recapture models that directly include the effect of distances between an animal's home range centre and trap locations on detection probability. Most studies comparing non-spatial and spatial capture-recapture biases focussed on single year models and no studies have compared the accuracy of demographic parameter estimates from open population models. We applied open population non-spatial and spatial capture-recapture models to three years of grizzly bear DNA-based data from Banff National Park and simulated data sets. The two models produced similar estimates of grizzly bear apparent survival, per capita recruitment, and population growth rates but the spatial capture-recapture models had better fit. Simulations showed that spatial capture-recapture models produced more accurate parameter estimates with better credible interval coverage than non-spatial capture-recapture models. Non-spatial capture-recapture models produced negatively biased estimates of apparent survival and positively biased estimates of per capita recruitment. The spatial capture-recapture grizzly bear population growth rates and 95% highest posterior density averaged across the three years were 0.925 (0.786-1.071 for females, 0.844 (0.703-0.975 for males, and 0.882 (0.779-0.981 for females and males combined. The non-spatial capture-recapture population growth rates were 0.894 (0.758-1.024 for females, 0.825 (0.700-0.948 for males, and 0.863 (0.771-0.957 for both sexes. The combination of low densities, low reproductive rates, and predominantly negative

  2. A Comparison of Grizzly Bear Demographic Parameters Estimated from Non-Spatial and Spatial Open Population Capture-Recapture Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Jesse; Sawaya, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Capture-recapture studies are frequently used to monitor the status and trends of wildlife populations. Detection histories from individual animals are used to estimate probability of detection and abundance or density. The accuracy of abundance and density estimates depends on the ability to model factors affecting detection probability. Non-spatial capture-recapture models have recently evolved into spatial capture-recapture models that directly include the effect of distances between an animal's home range centre and trap locations on detection probability. Most studies comparing non-spatial and spatial capture-recapture biases focussed on single year models and no studies have compared the accuracy of demographic parameter estimates from open population models. We applied open population non-spatial and spatial capture-recapture models to three years of grizzly bear DNA-based data from Banff National Park and simulated data sets. The two models produced similar estimates of grizzly bear apparent survival, per capita recruitment, and population growth rates but the spatial capture-recapture models had better fit. Simulations showed that spatial capture-recapture models produced more accurate parameter estimates with better credible interval coverage than non-spatial capture-recapture models. Non-spatial capture-recapture models produced negatively biased estimates of apparent survival and positively biased estimates of per capita recruitment. The spatial capture-recapture grizzly bear population growth rates and 95% highest posterior density averaged across the three years were 0.925 (0.786-1.071) for females, 0.844 (0.703-0.975) for males, and 0.882 (0.779-0.981) for females and males combined. The non-spatial capture-recapture population growth rates were 0.894 (0.758-1.024) for females, 0.825 (0.700-0.948) for males, and 0.863 (0.771-0.957) for both sexes. The combination of low densities, low reproductive rates, and predominantly negative population growth

  3. Control of Moderate-to-Severe Plaque Psoriasis with Efalizumab: 24-Week, Open-Label, Phase IIIb/IV Latin American Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Fernando M; Petri, Valeria; Campbell, Gladys AM; Dorantes, Gladys Leon; López, Magdalina; Galimberti, Ricardo L; Valdez, Raúl P; de Arruda, Lucia F; Guerra, Mario Amaya; Chouela, Edgardo N; Licu, Daiana

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Psoriasis is a debilitating, chronic inflammatory systemic disease affecting around 2% of the South American population. Biological therapies offer the possibility of long-term therapy with improved safety and efficacy. Methods We conducted a multicentre, open-label, single-arm, Phase IIIb/IV study of adult patients (18–75 years) with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis who were candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy. Patients received efalizumab subcutaneously (1.0 mg/kg/wk). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving a Physician Global Assessment (PGA) rating of “excellent” or “cleared” at Week 24. Safety outcomes were adverse events (AEs), serious AEs (SAEs) and abnormalities on laboratory tests. Results Of 189 patients included in the intent-to-treat and safety populations, 104 (55.0%) were of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. At Week 24, 92/189 (48.7%) patients achieved or maintained a PGA rating of “excellent” or “cleared”. AEs were reported by 161/189 (85.2%) patients, SAEs by 21/189 (11.1%). One patient died during the study (meningoencephalitis). Laboratory findings were consistent with previous experience. Conclusions Efalizumab demonstrated sustained control of psoriasis up to 24 weeks in patients from Latin America, confirming results seen in Phase III studies conducted in North America and Europe. PMID:20098510

  4. Effectiveness comparison of channel-assisted mini-incision and open Achilles shortening for treatment of healed Achilles tendon rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-zhe QI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare the clinical effectiveness between the channel-assisted mini-invasion and open Achilles shortening for treatment of the elongated Achilles tendon following previous rupture. Methods The clinical data of 19 patients admitted from Dec. 2013 to Dec. 2015 and met the inclusion criteria were analyzed retrospectively. Eight patients were treated with shortening operation by channel-assisted minimally invasive repair system, while 11 patients received dissection of Krackow Achilles tendon shortening. There was no significant difference between the two groups in gender, age, injury to operation time, preoperative calf circumference and preoperative AOFAS (American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society score (P>0.05. Results The operation time, incision length and postoperative hospital days were significantly less in min-invasion group than in incision group (P0.05. Conclusion Channel-assisted minimally invasive Achilles tendon shortening operation has not only similar effectiveness to the incision shorting operation for the treatment of elongated Achilles tendon following previous rupture, but also has the advantages of shortening operation time and stay in hospital and avoidance of sural nerve injury. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.07.12

  5. A prospective study of comparison between Open Gastrojejunostomy and Laparoscopic Assisted Gastrojejunostomy in patients of post corrosive ingestion pyloric stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir shah

    2016-03-01

    Results: We observed that benign etiology was more common for GOO (58% compared to malignant cause (42% and post corrosive ingestion pyloric stenosis was most common benign cause(42% of GOO, Pancreatic cancer was most common malignant cause(18.5% of GOO. Corrosive ingestion was more common in younger age group (66% in 15 -30 yr age and female gender(63.34% and mostly as a suicidal attempt(86.66% and most common corrosive agent was sanitary cleansing agent(hydrochloric acid (70%.Postprandial nonbillious vomiting and weight loss were consistent symptom and appeared after 6-8 week of corrosive ingestion and 50% of patient of post corrosive ingestion pyloric stenosis had concomitant esophageal stricture. In present study those patient operated with Lap Assisted Gastrojejunostomy had smaller size of incision, reduce intra operative need of blood transfusion, less post-operative pain and less chance of wound infection, early drain and suture removal and early discharged from hospital with minimal post-operative morbidity and without significant increase in total duration and cost of operation. Conclusion : As compared to Open Gastrojejunostomy, Lap Assisted Gastrojejunostomy is better alternative operative method for pyloric stenosis. [Natl J Med Res 2016; 6(1.000: 48-50

  6. Comparison of the effects of the K(+)-channel openers cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate on vascular smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenden, A. D.; Grimwood, S.; Grant, T. L.; Todd, M. H.

    1991-01-01

    1 The actions of the potassium channel openers, cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate, were compared in a range of isolated blood vessel preparations. 2 Cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate inhibited spontaneous mechanical activity of the guinea-pig portal vein and relaxed the noradrenaline precontracted rat aorta with similar potency. In contrast, minoxidil sulphate was less potent than cromakalim in inhibiting spontaneous activity in the rat portal vein and was essentially inactive in the noradrenaline precontracted rat mesenteric artery and rabbit aorta. 3 Minoxidil sulphate did not antagonize the effects of cromakalim in the rabbit aorta indicating it was not acting as a partial 'agonist'. 4 Charybdotoxin, noxiustoxin and rubidium failed to discriminate between cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate indicating that the apparently selective effects of minoxidil sulphate were not mediated by either Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels, delayed rectifiers or rubidium impermeable potassium channels. 5 Glibenclamide antagonized the effects of cromakalim in an apparently competitive manner whereas the effects of minoxidil sulphate were antagonized in a non-competitive manner. The involvement of subtypes of ATP-sensitive potassium channels is discussed. PMID:1878752

  7. Topical adapalene in the treatment of plantar warts; Randomized comparative open trial in comparison with cryo-therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramji Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various therapeutic modalities, which are available for treating plantar wart, have not been successful every time. Aims: To evaluate topical adapalene under occlusion in the treatment of plantar warts and compare it with cryo-therapy. Materials and Methods: 50 patients with 424 plantar warts were included in this single center, two arm, prospective, randomized, control, open study. Patients were allocated randomly into two groups consisting of 25 patients each. Group A patients having 299 plantar warts were treated using adapalene gel 0.1% under occlusion while Group B patients having 125 warts were treated using cryo-therapy. All the patients were evaluated weekly till the clearance of all the warts and the results compared. Result: All the warts of 25 patients of Group A that were treated using adapalene gel 0.1% cleared in 36.71 ± 19.24 (55.95-17.47 days except those in one patient. In Group B, warts in all except one treated by cryo-therapy cleared in 52.17 ± 30.06 (82.23-22.11 days. There were no side effects like scar formation, irritation, erythema, or infections with adapalene group while in the cryo group scar was seen in 2 patients, pain in 24, erythema in 10, and infection in 3 patients. Conclusion: Adapalene gel 0.1% under occlusion is an effective, safe and easy to use treatment for plantar warts and may help clear lesions faster than cryo-therapy.

  8. Comparison of selected metals content in Cambodian striped snakehead fish (Channa striata) using solar drying system and open sun drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Abu Bakar, Nur Faizah; Fudholi, Ahmad; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz; Saroeun, Im

    2015-01-01

    The content of 12 elements in Cambodian dried striped snakehead fish was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The present study compares the level of the trace toxic metals and nutritional trace elements in the fish processed using solar drying system (SDS) and open sun drying (OSD). The skin of SDS fish has lower level of As, Pb, and Cd compared to the OSD sample. As such, the flesh of the fish accumulated higher amount of toxic metals during OSD compared to SDS. However, arsenic was detected in both samples within the safe limit. The nutritional elements (Fe, Mn, Mg, Se, Mo, Cu, Ni, and Cr) were higher in the skin sample SDS fish compared to OSD fish. These beneficial metals were not accumulated in the flesh sample SDS fish demonstrating lower level compared to drying under conventional system. The reddish coloration of the SDS fish was due to the presence of high Cu content in both the skin and flesh samples which possibly account for no mold formation 5 days after packaging. As conclusion, drying of Cambodian C. striata using solar-assisted system has proven higher content of the nutritious elements compared to using the conventional system despite only slight difference in the toxic metals level between the two systems.

  9. Comparison of Selected Metals Content in Cambodian Striped Snakehead Fish (Channa striata Using Solar Drying System and Open Sun Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayang Fredalina Basri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of 12 elements in Cambodian dried striped snakehead fish was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The present study compares the level of the trace toxic metals and nutritional trace elements in the fish processed using solar drying system (SDS and open sun drying (OSD. The skin of SDS fish has lower level of As, Pb, and Cd compared to the OSD sample. As such, the flesh of the fish accumulated higher amount of toxic metals during OSD compared to SDS. However, arsenic was detected in both samples within the safe limit. The nutritional elements (Fe, Mn, Mg, Se, Mo, Cu, Ni, and Cr were higher in the skin sample SDS fish compared to OSD fish. These beneficial metals were not accumulated in the flesh sample SDS fish demonstrating lower level compared to drying under conventional system. The reddish coloration of the SDS fish was due to the presence of high Cu content in both the skin and flesh samples which possibly account for no mold formation 5 days after packaging. As conclusion, drying of Cambodian C. striata using solar-assisted system has proven higher content of the nutritious elements compared to using the conventional system despite only slight difference in the toxic metals level between the two systems.

  10. Design and comparison of three-level three-phase T-source inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shults, T.; Husev, Oleksandr; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents guidelines for component design of recently proposed topologies of the three-level three-phase T-source inverters. Two different topologies are considered: T-source inverters with discontinuous input current and T-source inverters with continuous input current. Steady state...

  11. A comparison of methods to predict solid phase heats of formation of molecular energetic salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Edward F C; Rice, Betsy M

    2009-01-01

    In this study a variety of methods were used to compute the energies for lattice enthalpies and gas phase heats of formation of the ionic constituents used in Born-Fajans-Haber cycles to produce solid phase heats of formation of molecular ionic energetic crystals. Several quantum mechanically based or empirical approaches to calculate either the heat of formation of the ionic constituents in the gas phase (deltaH(o)f(g)) or the lattice enthalpy (deltaH(o)Lattice) were evaluated. Solid phase heats of formation calculated from combinations of deltaH(o)f(g) and deltaH(o)Lattice determined through various approaches are compared with experimental values for a series of molecular energetic salts with 1:1, 2:1 and 2:2 charge ratios. Recommendations for combinations of deltaH(o)f(g) and deltaH(o)Lattice to produce best agreement with experiment are given, along with suggestions for improvements of the methods.

  12. Phase transitions of pyrogenic silica suspensions: a comparison to model laponite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kätzel, Uwe; Richter, Thomas; Stintz, Michael; Barthel, Herbert; Gottschalk-Gaudig, Torsten

    2007-09-01

    Pyrogenic silica is often used as a thickening agent in paints, pastes, adhesives, or resins. Other applications include, e.g., abrasives in chemical mechanical planarization in the microelectronics industry. In all these applications it is essential to control the state of dispersion. Sometimes, phase transitions from the liquid to the solid state are required while in other cases they have to be completely avoided for the whole shelf life. The nature and influencing parameters of the fluid-solid transition for pyrogenic silica have not been investigated so far. Most investigations deal with the phase transitions of small clay particles such as laponite. Here, we dedicate our interest to the behavior of pyrogenic silica suspensions with varying specific surface area and ionic background concentration. To get an impression of the phase transition behavior we compare our results to model laponite suspensions. We apply dynamic light scattering measurements in the backscattering regime to minimize multiple scattering contributions from concentrated pyrogenic silica suspensions. Further on we exert a decomposition of the measured autocorrelation functions into an ergodic and nonergodic contribution. The analysis of the ergodic spectrum yields two different gelation kinetics for both systems, laponite and pyrogenic silica. For laponite these are in accordance with earlier investigations. The kinetics depend on the ionic background and the solids content of the suspensions. Additionally, we used dynamic extinction spectroscopy to follow the phase transitions of pyrogenic silica on a macroscale.

  13. Comparison of the mass transfer in totally porous and superficially porous stationary phases in liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Ibolya; Bacskay, Ivett; Kilár, Ferenc; Felinger, Attila

    2010-06-01

    The characterization of mass-transfer processes in a chromatographic column during a separation process is essential, since the influence of the mass-transfer kinetics on the shape of the chromatographic band profiles and on the efficiency of the separation is crucial. Several sources of mass transfer in a chromatographic bed have been identified and studied: the axial dispersion in the stream of mobile phase, the external mass-transfer resistance, intraparticle diffusion, and the kinetics of adsorption-desorption. We measured and compared the characteristics and performance of a new brand of shell particles and those of a conventional brand of totally porous silica particles. The shell stationary phase was made of 2.7-microm superficially porous particles (a 1.7-microm solid core is covered with a 0.5-microm-thick shell of porous silica). The other material consisted of totally porous particles of conventional 3.5-microm commercial silica. We measured the first and second central moments of the peaks of human insulin over a wide range of mobile phase velocities (from 0.02 to 1.3 mL/min) at 20 degrees C. The plate height equations were constructed and the axial dispersion, external mass transfer, as well as the intraparticle diffusion coefficients were calculated for the two stationary phases.

  14. Low-Jitter Multi-phase Clock Generation: a Comparison between DLLs and Shift Registers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.; Klumperink, E.A.M.; Nauta, B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows that, for a given power budget, a shift register based multi-phase clock generator (MPCG) generates less jitter than a delay-locked loop (DLL) equivalent when both are realized with current mode logic (CML) circuits and white noise is assumed. This is due to the factor that the shif

  15. Source signature processing in deep water, Gulf of Mexico: comparison between deterministic deconvolution and phase conjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Partouche

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology has been developing a new method to improve the resolution of high-resolution seismic profiling. To achieve this the source signature is recorded and the reflected data are sampled at a very high rate. In addition a certain amount of post processing is performed. During September 1999 a series of seismic profiles were acquired in the Gulf of Mexico using a 15 in³ watergun towed at the surface and a short single-channel hydrophone array towed about 250 m below the surface. The profiles were digitized at a rate of 80 000 samples per second; the length of each record was 4 s. Two different processes were applied to the data: deterministic deconvolution and phase conjugation. Both have the effect of compressing each reflected wavelet into a short pulse that is symmetrical about a central lobe. The ratio of compression obtained by applying deterministic deconvolution on the source signature pulse was about 300; it was about 160 when applying phase conjugation. This produced a resolution of about 6 cm by the deconvolution process and about 10 cm by using phase conjugation. The deconvolution process however is more subject to noise so the better result in this experiment was found to be provided by phase conjugation.

  16. Noninterventional open-label trial investigating the efficacy and safety of ectoine containing nasal spray in comparison with beclomethasone nasal spray in patients with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnemann, Uwe; Möller, Marcus; Bilstein, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The current study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of a classical anti-inflammatory beclomethasone nasal spray in comparison to a physic-chemical stabilizing ectoine containing nasal spray in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Design and Methods. This was a noninterventional, open-label, observational trial investigating the effects of beclomethasone or ectoine nasal spray on nasal symptoms and quality of life. Over a period of 14 days, patients were asked to daily document their symptoms. Efficacy and tolerability were assessed by both physicians and patients. Results. Both treatments resulted in a significant decrease of TNSS values. An equivalence test could not confirm the noninferiority of ectoine treatment in comparison with beclomethasone treatment. Although clear symptom reduction was achieved with the ectoine products, the efficacy judgment showed possible advantages for the beclomethasone group. Importantly, tolerability results were comparably good in both groups, and a very low number of adverse events supported this observation. Both treatments resulted in a clear improvement in the quality of life as assessed by a questionnaire answered at the beginning and at the end of the trial. Conclusion. Taken together, it was shown that allergic rhinitis can be safely and successfully treated with beclomethasone and also efficacy and safety were shown for ectoine nasal spray.

  17. Noninterventional Open-Label Trial Investigating the Efficacy and Safety of Ectoine Containing Nasal Spray in Comparison with Beclomethasone Nasal Spray in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Sonnemann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The current study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of a classical anti-inflammatory beclomethasone nasal spray in comparison to a physic-chemical stabilizing ectoine containing nasal spray in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Design and Methods. This was a noninterventional, open-label, observational trial investigating the effects of beclomethasone or ectoine nasal spray on nasal symptoms and quality of life. Over a period of 14 days, patients were asked to daily document their symptoms. Efficacy and tolerability were assessed by both physicians and patients. Results. Both treatments resulted in a significant decrease of TNSS values. An equivalence test could not confirm the noninferiority of ectoine treatment in comparison with beclomethasone treatment. Although clear symptom reduction was achieved with the ectoine products, the efficacy judgment showed possible advantages for the beclomethasone group. Importantly, tolerability results were comparably good in both groups, and a very low number of adverse events supported this observation. Both treatments resulted in a clear improvement in the quality of life as assessed by a questionnaire answered at the beginning and at the end of the trial. Conclusion. Taken together, it was shown that allergic rhinitis can be safely and successfully treated with beclomethasone and also efficacy and safety were shown for ectoine nasal spray.

  18. Comparison of Experimental and Numerical Two-Phase Flows in a Porous Micro-Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin Crandall

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing two-phase flow in porous media is important to provide estimates of sweep efficiency in enhanced oil recovery and storage estimates in potential geological CO2 sequestration repositories. To further the current understanding of two-phase flow in porous media a micro-model of interconnected channels was designed and fabricated using stereolithography to experimentally study gas-liquid flows. This flowcell was created with a wide variability of throat dimensions to represent naturally occurring porous media. Low flow rate experiments of immiscible two-phase drainage were performed within this cell. Additionally, a computational model for analyzing two-phase flows in the same flowcell was developed and used to simulate conditions not possible with our laboratory settings. The computational model was first tested for the identical conditions used in the experimental studies, and was shown to be in good agreement with the experimentally determined fractal dimension of the invading gas structure, time until breakthrough, and fluid saturation. The numerical model was then used to study two-phase air-water flows in flowcells with the same geometry and different gas-liquid-solid contact angles. The percent saturation of air and the motion of the fluids through the cell were found to vary with changes in these parameters. Finally, to simulate flows expected during geologic carbon sequestration, the fluid properties and interface conditions were set to model the flow of CO2 into a brine-saturated porous medium at representative subsurface conditions. The CO2 flows were shown to have larger gas saturations than the previous air into water studies. Thus the accuracy of the computational model was supported by the flowcell experiments, and the computational model extended the laboratory results to conditions not possible with the apparatus used in the experiments.

  19. Determination of all feasible robust PID controllers for open-loop unstable plus time delay processes with gain margin and phase margin specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Jay

    2014-03-01

    This paper proposes a novel alternative method to graphically compute all feasible gain and phase margin specifications-oriented robust PID controllers for open-loop unstable plus time delay (OLUPTD) processes. This method is applicable to general OLUPTD processes without constraint on system order. To retain robustness for OLUPTD processes subject to positive or negative gain variations, the downward gain margin (GM(down)), upward gain margin (GM(up)), and phase margin (PM) are considered. A virtual gain-phase margin tester compensator is incorporated to guarantee the concerned system satisfies certain robust safety margins. In addition, the stability equation method and the parameter plane method are exploited to portray the stability boundary and the constant gain margin (GM) boundary as well as the constant PM boundary. The overlapping region of these boundaries is graphically determined and denotes the GM and PM specifications-oriented region (GPMSOR). Alternatively, the GPMSOR characterizes all feasible robust PID controllers which achieve the pre-specified safety margins. In particular, to achieve optimal gain tuning, the controller gains are searched within the GPMSOR to minimize the integral of the absolute error (IAE) or the integral of the squared error (ISE) performance criterion. Thus, an optimal PID controller gain set is successfully found within the GPMSOR and guarantees the OLUPTD processes with a pre-specified GM and PM as well as a minimum IAE or ISE. Consequently, both robustness and performance can be simultaneously assured. Further, the design procedures are summarized as an algorithm to help rapidly locate the GPMSOR and search an optimal PID gain set. Finally, three highly cited examples are provided to illustrate the design process and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Analysis of a simulated microarray dataset: Comparison of methods for data normalisation and detection of differential expression (Open Access publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouzaki Daphné

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microarrays allow researchers to measure the expression of thousands of genes in a single experiment. Before statistical comparisons can be made, the data must be assessed for quality and normalisation procedures must be applied, of which many have been proposed. Methods of comparing the normalised data are also abundant, and no clear consensus has yet been reached. The purpose of this paper was to compare those methods used by the EADGENE network on a very noisy simulated data set. With the a priori knowledge of which genes are differentially expressed, it is possible to compare the success of each approach quantitatively. Use of an intensity-dependent normalisation procedure was common, as was correction for multiple testing. Most variety in performance resulted from differing approaches to data quality and the use of different statistical tests. Very few of the methods used any kind of background correction. A number of approaches achieved a success rate of 95% or above, with relatively small numbers of false positives and negatives. Applying stringent spot selection criteria and elimination of data did not improve the false positive rate and greatly increased the false negative rate. However, most approaches performed well, and it is encouraging that widely available techniques can achieve such good results on a very noisy data set.

  1. [Comparison of the view of the glottic opening through Macintosh and AirTraq laryngoscopes in patients undergoing scheduled surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Negrete, I Laso; Salinas Aguirre, U; Castrillo Villán, J L; Rodríguez Delgado, T; Colomino Alumbreros, J; Aguilera Celorrio, L

    2010-03-01

    The AirTraq laryngoscope is a new intubation device that may provide better viewing conditions than can be achieved with the traditional Macintosh device. This study compared the AirTraq and Macintosh views and assessed whether predictors of intubation difficulty are useful when the AirTraq laryngoscope is used. Prospective study of 215 ASA 1-3 patients over the age of 18 years who were to receive anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Excluded were patients who required emergency surgery, who had a history of difficult intubation, or for whom ventilation was difficult during induction of anesthesia. In addition to the usual patient characteristics, we recorded thyromental distance, mouth opening, and Mallampati score. The Cormack-Lehane laryngoscopy grade was recorded for each device. A Cormack-Lehane grade of 1 or 2 was considered a good view. A grade of 3 or 4 was considered a poor view. The McNemar test was used to compare laryngoscopy grade between the 2 devices in each patient. The chi2 test was used to compare predictors of intubation difficulty. The Macintosh laryngoscope achieved a Cormack-Lehane grade of 1 in 653% of the patients, of 2 in 22.4%, of 3 in 11.3%, and of 4 in 1.4%. The AirTraq scope gave a Cormack-Lehane grade of 1 in 96.2%, of 2 in 33%, of 3 in 0.5%, and of 4 in 0%. The differences were statistically significant. None of the predictors was associated a poor glottic view through the AirTraq device. Poor viewing conditions occurred less frequently when the AirTraq device was used. Intubation conditions were therefore better with the AirTraq than with the Macintosh device. The traditional predictors of difficult intubation do not seem to be relevant when the AirTraq device is to be used.

  2. Steroid-induced glaucoma treated with trabecular ablation in a matched comparison with primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yalong; Kaplowitz, Kevin; Parikh, Hardik A; Roy, Pritha; Loewen, Ralitsa T; Francis, Brian A; Loewen, Nils A

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of trabectome-mediated ab interno trabeculectomy in patients with steroid-induced glaucoma (SIG). A retrospective, observational cohort study performed in the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The data of 60 patients with SIG and 484 controls with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) matched by age, gender and glaucoma index were collected from the Trabectome Study Group database. Reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) and medications were compared between POAG and SIG by multivariate regression. Kaplan-Meier was used for survival analysis. Success was defined as IOP ≤21 mmHg and at least 20% IOP reduction from baseline for any two consecutive visits after 3 months without secondary glaucoma surgery. Postoperative IOP and number of medications were compared with baseline in the SIG subgroups by the Wilcoxon test. Intraocular pressure reduction and 1-year success rate. Patients with SIG had a higher baseline IOP (31.4 ± 10.4 vs. 24.1 ± 7.6 mmHg, P SIG had an IOP reduction of 6.7 ± 1.1 mmHg more than those with POAG. Survival rates at 12 months were comparable at 86% in the SIG group and 85% in the POAG group (P = 0.47). Patients with SIG with a high baseline IOP, younger age and advanced glaucoma experienced a larger IOP drop. Trabectome appears to be an effective surgical treatment in reducing IOP for patients with SIG. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  3. The Comparison of Open and Laparoscopic Appendectomy: Is There any Outcome Difference Between Non-Complicated and Complicated Appendicitis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünal Bıçakcı

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The assessment of laparoscopic appendectomy (LA and open appendectomy (OA in patients with noncomplicated (NCA and complicated appendicitis (CA was aimed for. Material and Methods: Of 279 patients with appendectomy, 135 had NCA (48.3% (49 underwent LA (86M, 49F, median 9 years and144 had CA (51.7% (23 underwent LA (98M, 46F, median 11 years. Outcome measures: Wound infection (WI, intraabdominal abscess (IA, postoperative ileus (PI, requirement of reoperation (RO, time of surgery (TOS, length of stay (LOS, duration of postoperative pain (PP, nasogastric tube (NT, intraperitoneal drainage (ID were recorded.Results: Between OA and LA groups, there was no statistical significance in WI(3/86 vs 0/49, IA(2/86 vs 0/49, RO(2/86 vs 2/49, and PI rate (1/86 vs 2/49 in NCA group (p>0.05. The LOS(3±1.4 vs 4±1.3, NT (1.2±0.9 vs 1.8±0.6 days and PP(0.9±0.9 vs 2.3±1.1 days were lower in LA than OA (p0.05. In CA, patients with LA had less WI(0/23 vs 18/121 (p<0.05. NT (2±0.8 vs 2.7±1.5, PP (2.1±1.2 vs 3.2±1.5 and ID (3.1±2.3 vs 4.4±1.4 were lower in LA than OA (p<0.05.Conclusion: Laparoscopic appendectomy decreases wound infection, nasogastric tube duration, intraperitoneal drainage and pain in complicated appendicitis. The Laporoscopic approach is superior in complicated and noncomplicated appendicitis.

  4. Varicocele treatment: A 2-centers comparison between non microsurgical open correction, laparoscopic approach and retrograde percutaneous sclerotization on 463 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giangiacomo Ollandini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine whether there are differences in sperm parameters improvement after different varicocele correction techniques. To determine the role of age in sperm parameters improvement. Methods: 2 different European centers collected pre- and postoperative sperm parameters of patients undergoing varicocele correction. Among 463 evaluated patients, 367 were included. Patients were divided in procedure-related and age-related groups. Ivanissevich inguinal open surgical procedure (OS, lymphatic-sparing laparoscopic approach (LSL and retrograde percutaneous transfemoral sclerotization (RPS were performed. As outcome measurements sperm count (millions/mL, SC and percentage of mobile sperms were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate regression between the defined groups; bivariate regression analysis between age and sperm count and motility. Results: Number of patients: OS 78; LSL 85; RPS 204. Mean age 30.2 (SD 6.83; postoperative SC increased from 18.2 to 30.1 (CI 95% 27.3-32.9; p < 0,001; motility from 25.6 to 32.56% (30.9-34.2; p < 0.001. OS: SC varied from 16.9 to 18.2 (p < 0.001; sperm motility from 29% to 33% (p < 0.001. LSL: SC from 15.5 to 17.2 (p < 0.001; motility from 27 to 31% (p < 0.001. RPS: SC from 18.9 to 36.2 (p < 0.001; motility from 24% to 32% (p < 0.001. Univariate and multivariate analysis confirmed the significant difference of SC variation in RPS, compared to the other groups (p < 0.001. No significance between LSL and OS (p = 0.826. No significant differences regarding motility (p = 0.8. Conclusions: Varicocele correction is confirmed useful in improving sperm parameters; sclerotization technique leads to a better sperm improvement compared to other studied procedures; improvement in seminal parameters is not affected by age of the patients treated.

  5. A comparison of preliminary oncologic outcome and postoperative complications between patients undergoing either open or robotic radical cystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cusano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare complications and outcomes in patients undergoing either open radical cystectomy (ORC or robotic-assisted radical cystectomy (RRC. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively identified patients that underwent ORC or RRC between 2003- 2013. We statistically compared preliminary oncologic outcomes of patients for each surgical modality. Results: 92 (43.2% and 121 (56.8% patients underwent ORC and RRC, respectively. While operative time was shorter for ORC patients (403 vs. 508 min; p<0.001, surgical blood loss and transfusion rates were significantly lower in RRC patients (p<0.001 and 0.006. Length of stay was not different between groups (p=0.221. There was no difference in the proportion of lymph node-positive patients between groups. However, RRC patients had a greater number of lymph nodes removed during surgery (18 vs. 11.5; p<0.001. There was no significant difference in the incidence of pre-existing comorbidities or in the Clavien distribution of complications between groups. ORC and RRC patients were followed for a median of 1.38 (0.55-2.7 and 1.40 (0.582.59 years, respectively (p=0.850. During this period, a lower proportion (22.3% of RRC patients experienced disease recurrence vs. ORC patients (34.8%. However, there was no significant difference in time to recurrence between groups. While ORC was associated with a higher all-cause mortality rate (p=0.049, there was no significant difference in disease-free survival time between groups. Conclusions: ORC and RRC patients experience postoperative complications of similar rates and severity. However, RRC may offer indirect benefits via reduced surgical blood loss and need for transfusion.

  6. Comparison of oncologic outcomes for open and laparoscopic nephroureterectomy: a multi-institutional analysis of 1249 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanio, Umberto; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Isbarn, Hendrik; Weizer, Alon; Remzi, Mesut; Roscigno, Marco; Kikuchi, Eiji; Raman, Jay D; Bolenz, Christian; Bensalah, Karim; Koppie, Theresa M; Kassouf, Wassim; Fernández, Mario I; Ströbel, Philipp; Wheat, Jeffrey; Zigeuner, Richard; Langner, Cord; Waldert, Matthias; Oya, Mototsugu; Guo, Charles C; Ng, Casey; Montorsi, Francesco; Wood, Christopher G; Margulis, Vitaly; Karakiewicz, Pierre I

    2009-07-01

    Data regarding the oncologic efficacy of laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU) compared to open nephroureterectomy (ONU) are scarce. We compared recurrence and cause-specific mortality rates of ONU and LNU. Thirteen centers from three continents contributed data on 1249 patients with nonmetastatic upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Univariable and multivariable survival models tested the effect of procedure type (ONU [n=979] vs LNU [n=270]) on cancer recurrence and cancer-specific mortality. Covariables consisted of institution, age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status score, pT stage, pN stage, tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, tumor location, concomitant carcinoma in situ, ureteral cuff management, previous urothelial bladder cancer, and previous endoscopic treatment. Median follow-up for censored cases was 49 mo (mean: 62). Relative to ONU, LNU patients had more favorable pathologic stages (pT0/Ta/Tis: 38.1% vs 20.8%, pONU was associated with higher cancer recurrence and mortality rates compared to LNU (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.1 [pONU and LNU had no residual effect on cancer recurrence and mortality (p=0.1 for both). Short-term oncologic data on LNU are comparable to ONU. Since LNU was selectively performed in favorable-risk patients, we cannot state with certainty that ONU and LNU have the same oncologic efficacy in poor-risk patients. Long-term follow-up data and morbidity data are necessary before LNU can be considered as the standard of care in patients with muscle-invasive or high-grade UTUC.

  7. Comparison of clinical curative effect between open surgery and endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Si-wen; LIN Ying; YAO Chen; LIN Pei-liang; WANG Shen-ming

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare clinical curative effects of open surgery (OS) or endovascular repair (EVAR) for patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in China.Data sources We performed a comprehensive search of both English and Chinese literatures involving case studies on retrograde OS or EVAR of AAA in China from January 1976 to December 2010.Study selection According to the inclusion criteria,76 articles were finally analyzed to compare patient characteristics,clinical success,complications,and prognosis.Results We analyzed a total of 2862 patients with 1757 undergoing OS (OS group) and 1105 undergoing EVAR (EVAR group).There was no significant difference in the success rate of the procedures.Operative time,length of ICU stay,fasting time,duration of total postoperative stay,blood loss,and blood transfusion requirements during the procedure were significantly lower in the EVAR group.A 30-day follow up revealed more cardiac,renal,pulmonary,and visceral complications in the OS group (P<0.01).Low-limb ischemia,however,was more common in the EVAR group (P<0.05).The 30-day mortality rate,including aorta-related and non-aorta related mortality,was significantly lower in the EVAR group (P<0.01).In the follow-up period,there were more patients with occlusions of artificial vessel and late endoleak in the EVAR group (P<0.01).The overall late mortality rate was higher in the OS group (P <0.01),especially non-aorta-related late mortality and mortality during the fourth to the sixth year (P<0.01).Conclusions EVAR was safer and less invasive for AAA patients.Patients suffered fewer complications and recovered sooner.However,complications such as artificial vessel occlusion,low-limb ischemia,and endoleak were common in EVAR.Clinicians should carry out further research to solve these complications and improve the efficacy of EVAR.

  8. Open-system behaviour of magmatic fluid phase and transport of copper in arc magmas at Krakatau and Batur volcanoes, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agangi, Andrea; Reddy, Steven M.

    2016-11-01

    The Sunda arc of Indonesia is an excellent example of how volcanic processes at convergent plate margins affect the distribution of metals and control the distribution of ore deposits. In this paper, we report microtextural observations and microanalytical data (SEM-EDS and LA-ICP-MS) of silicate and sulfide melt inclusions from fresh samples of volcanic rocks from the 2008 eruption of Mt. Krakatau and 1963 eruption of Mt. Batur, Sunda arc, Indonesia that bear implications on the concentration and transport of Cu and other chalcophile elements in mafic-intermediate magmas in arc settings. These multi-phase inclusions contain glass, amphibole and plagioclase, together with co-trapped apatite, magnetite, sulfides and lobed, drop-like Fe-oxide. We observed two stages of sulfide formation: 1) early-formed sulfide globules (pyrrhotite and intermediate solid solution), which derived from an immiscible sulfide melt and only occur as inclusions in phenocrysts; and 2) late-formed, irregular Cu-rich sulfides (intermediate solid solution to bornite), which were deposited in the presence of an aqueous fluid, and are contained as fluid phase precipitates in vapour bubbles of melt inclusions and in vesicles, as well as finely dispersed grains in the groundmass. Microtextural observations and X-ray elemental maps show that interaction between sulfide globules and aqueous fluid resulted in partial oxidation and transfer of Cu between the fluid and the sulfide phase. A compilation of whole-rock analyses from the Sunda arc indicates that Cu reaches 250-300 ppm in mafic samples (SiO2 ≤ 52 wt.%), and then suddenly drops with progressive fractionation to MS analyses of whole multi-phase melt inclusions hosted in olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase indicate variable Cu and S contents (Cu up to 6000 ppm), which do not correlate with fractionation indicators (e.g. SiO2, MgO, Rb), consistent with co-trapping of Cusbnd S phases with silicate melt. The highest Cu concentrations, Cu/S and

  9. Comparison between three phase three and five level of flying capacitor multilevel inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanakodi, Suresh; Nazar, Nazatul Shiema Moh; Tzen, Bryon Sim Phin

    2017-09-01

    Multilevel inverter is increasingly being used in medium and high power application as conventional inverter have limited power hold and high total harmonics distortion. At present, there is a lot of literature regarding the topology and switching technique for multilevel inverter. The three common types of multilevel inverter are Diode Clamp Multilevel Inverter (DCMI), Cascaded Multilevel Inverter (CMI) and Flying Capacitor Multilevel Inverter (FCMI). This paper proposed the Three Phase Flying Capacitor Multilevel Inverter (FCMI) with Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) switching technique. This paper analysed the performance of FCMI and its characteristics based on parameters such as output phase voltage waveform and the total harmonics distortion (THD). The performance was accessed using Matlab/Simulink software. The result obtained shows that with higher number of levels for FCMI, the output THD was lowered due to near sinusoidal output waveform.

  10. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by lichen transplants: Comparison with gas-phase passive air samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loppi, S; Pozo, K; Estellano, V H; Corsolini, S; Sardella, G; Paoli, L

    2015-09-01

    This study compared the accumulation of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in samples of the lichen Evernia prunastri exposed for 3 months in and around an industrial area of S Italy with that in co-located passive gas-phase air samplers. The results showed a strong linear correlations (R=0.96, P<0.05) between total PAHs in lichens and in passive samplers, clearly indicating that lichen transplants may provide direct quantitative information on the atmospheric load by total PAHs, allowing translation of lichen values into atmospheric concentrations. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study reporting such a correlation with gas-phase passive air samplers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phase Change Material Trade Study: A Comparison Between Wax and Water for Manned Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gregory; Hodgson, Ed; Stephan, Ryan A,

    2011-01-01

    Phase change material heat sinks have been recognized as an important tool in optimizing thermal control systems for space exploration vehicles and habitats that must deal with widely varying thermal loads and environments. In order to better focus technology investment in this arena, NASA has supported a trade study with the objective of identifying where the best potential pay-off can be found among identified aqueous and paraffin wax phase change materials and phase change material heat sink design approaches. The study used a representative exploration mission with well understood parameters to support the trade. Additional sensitivity studies were performed to ensure the applicability of study results across varying systems and destinations. Results from the study indicate that replacing a wax PCM heat sink with a water ice PCM heat sink has the potential to decrease the equivalent system mass of the mission s vehicle through a combination of a smaller heat sink and a slight 5% increase in radiator size or the addition of a lightweight heat pump. An evaluation of existing and emerging PCM heat sink technologies indicates that further mass savings should be achievable through continued development of those technologies. The largest mass savings may be realized by eliminating the melting and freezing pressure of wax and water, respectively.

  12. COMPARISON BETWEEN ASPHALTENES (SUBFRACTIONS EXTRACTED FROM TWO DIFFERENT ASPHALTIC RESIDUES: CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND PHASE BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silas R. Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asphaltenes are blamed for various problems in the petroleum industry, especially formation of solid deposits and stabilization of water-in-oil emulsions. Many studies have been conducted to characterize chemical structures of asphaltenes and assess their phase behavior in crude oil or in model-systems of asphaltenes extracted from oil or asphaltic residues from refineries. However, due to the diversity and complexity of these structures, there is still much to be investigated. In this study, asphaltene (subfractions were extracted from an asphaltic residue (AR02, characterized by NMR, elemental analysis, X-ray fluorescence and MS-TOF, and compared to asphaltene subfractions obtained from another asphaltic residue (AR01 described in a previous article. The (subfractions obtained from the two residues were used to prepare model-systems containing 1 wt% of asphaltenes in toluene and their phase behavior was evaluated by measuring asphaltene precipitation onset using optical microscopy. The results obtained indicated minor differences between the asphaltene fractions obtained from the asphaltic residues of distinct origins, with respect to aromaticity, elemental composition (CHN, presence and content of heteroelements and average molar mass. Regarding stability, minor differences in molecule polarity appear to promote major differences in the phase behavior of each of the asphaltene fractions isolated.

  13. A comparison of crud phases appearing on some Swedish BWR fuel rods using Laser Raman Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermansson, H.P. [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)]|[Lulea Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    2002-07-01

    Previous investigations showed that laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) can be used as a phase specific analytical tool for radioactive fuel crud samples and also for details in the underlying layer of zirconium dioxide. It is relatively easy to record Raman spectra that discriminate between chemical phases for all crud oxides of interest. The method has therefore been recommended for crud investigations within the Swedish program. At ideal conditions the resolution is about 1 {mu}m, permitting detailed position determination of crud phases in the sample. Therefore LRS is a very good complement to X-ray diffraction (XRD). The methods for sample preparation and handling of radioactive crud samples for LRS turn out to be relatively simple. A detailed LRS study on fuel crud samples from Barsebaeck 2, Forsmark 2, Forsmark 3 and Ringhals 1 was performed in this work. All of those Swedish BWRs were operated at different conditions at the time of sampling. The chemistry regimes covered NWC, HWC and other variable conditions. Also different types of fuel, exposure times and sampling positions were selected. (authors)

  14. Traditional open-bay versus single-family room neonatal intensive care unit: a comparison of selected nutrition outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Erickson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Christina Erickson1, Kendra Kattelmann1, Jessica Remington1, Cuirong Ren2, Carol C Helseth3, Dennis C Stevens31Department of Health and Nutritional Sciences, 2Department of Plant Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, USA; 3Sanford Children's Hospital, Sioux Falls, SD, USABackground: In contrast to the traditional open-bay–type design of the neonatal intensive care unit (tNICU, infants in developmentally appropriate NICU (dNICU are housed in individual rooms with greater control of light and noise. Previous reports have documented positive influence of the dNICU in cardiorespiratory status, physiologic stability, and weight gain of the infants. The objective of this study was to explore selected nutrition outcomes of infants in the dNICU versus tNICU.Method: A prospective cohort study was conducted on infants with birth weight of 1500 g or less cared for in dNICU (n = 42 or tNICU (n = 31. Differences between days to reach full parenteral nutrition, full enteral nutrition, or full bottling were determined using analysis of covariance controlling for gestational age, birth weight, and clinical risk index for babies (CRIB acuity score.Results: There were no differences between the two groups in days to reach full parenteral and bottle feeding. The infants in the dNICU took fewer days to reach full enteral nutrition (20.8 days, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 17, 24.6 (dNICU vs 23.3 days, 95% CI: 17.1, 29.6 (tNICU, P = 0.04 than those in the tNICU.Conclusions: Although the two groups of infants only differed in the days to reach full enteral feeding, it is important to remember that the lack of difference may be clinically significant. Clinically, the infants in the dNICU were younger (gestational age and sicker (CRIB acuity score than the infants in the tNICU. Consequently, the results of this study support the change to dNICU, as the private room model provides a supportive environment for growth as evidenced by similar

  15. STRATEGIC-1: A multiple-lines, randomized, open-label GERCOR phase III study in patients with unresectable wild-type RAS metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibaudel, Benoist; Bonnetain, Franck; Tournigand, Christophe; de Larauze, Marine Hug; de Gramont, Armand; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Paget, Jérôme; Hadengue, Alexandra; Notelet, Dominique; Benetkiewicz, Magdalena; André, Thierry; de Gramont, Aimery

    2015-07-04

    The management of unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is a comprehensive treatment strategy involving several lines of therapy, maintenance, salvage surgery, and treatment-free intervals. Besides chemotherapy (fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin, irinotecan), molecular-targeted agents such as anti-angiogenic agents (bevacizumab, aflibercept, regorafenib) and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor agents (cetuximab, panitumumab) have become available. Ultimately, given the increasing cost of new active compounds, new strategy trials are needed to define the optimal use and the best sequencing of these agents. Such new clinical trials require alternative endpoints that can capture the effect of several treatment lines and be measured earlier than overall survival to help shorten the duration and reduce the size and cost of trials. STRATEGIC-1 is an international, open-label, randomized, multicenter phase III trial designed to determine an optimally personalized treatment sequence of the available treatment modalities in patients with unresectable RAS wild-type mCRC. Two standard treatment strategies are compared: first-line FOLFIRI-cetuximab, followed by oxaliplatin-based second-line chemotherapy with bevacizumab (Arm A) vs. first-line OPTIMOX-bevacizumab, followed by irinotecan-based second-line chemotherapy with bevacizumab, and by an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody with or without irinotecan as third-line treatment (Arm B). The primary endpoint is duration of disease control. A total of 500 patients will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to one of the two treatment strategies. The STRATEGIC-1 trial is designed to give global information on the therapeutic sequences in patients with unresectable RAS wild-type mCRC that in turn is likely to have a significant impact on the management of this patient population. The trial is open for inclusion since August 2013. STRATEGIC-1 is registered at Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01910610, 23 July, 2013

  16. Preparation and evaluation of open tubular C18-silica monolithic microcartridges for preconcentration of peptides by on-line solid phase extraction capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Villanueva, Elena; Benavente, Fernando; Giménez, Estela; Yilmaz, Fatma; Sanz-Nebot, Victoria

    2014-10-10

    In this study, C18-silica monoliths were synthesized as a porous layer in open tubular capillary columns, to be cut later into microcartridges for the analysis of neuropeptides by on-line solid-phase extraction capillary electrophoresis with UV and MS detection (SPE-CE-UV and SPE-CE-MS). First, several types of C18-silica monolithic (MtC18) microcartridges were used to analyse standard solutions of five neuropeptides (i.e. dynorphin A (1-7), substance P (7-11), endomorphin 1, methionine enkephalin and [Ala]-methionine enkephalin). The MtC18 sorbents were especially selective against endomorphin 1 and substance P (7-11)). The best results in terms of sensitivity and inter-microcartridge reproducibility were achieved with the microcartridges obtained from a 10-cm open tubular capillary column with a thin monolithic coating with large through-pores (1-5μm). Run-to-run repeatability, microcartridge durability, linearity ranges and LODs were studied by MtC18-SPE-CE-MS. As expected due to their greater selectivity, the best LOD enhancement was obtained for End1 and SP (7-11) (50 times with regard to CE-MS). Finally, the suitability of the methodology for analysing biological fluids was tested with plasma samples spiked with End1 and SP (7-11). Results obtained were promising because both neuropeptides could be detected at 0.05μgmL(-1), which was almost the same concentration level as for the standard solutions (0.01μgmL(-1)).

  17. Nimotuzumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a multicenter, randomized, open-label Phase II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu KG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available K Govind Babu,1 Kumar Prabhash,2 Ashok K Vaid,3 Bhawna Sirohi,3 Ravi B Diwakar,4 Raghunadha Rao,5 Madhuchanda Kar,6 Hemant Malhotra,7 Shona Nag,8 Chanchal Goswami,9 Vinod Raina,10 Ravi Mohan111Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore, 2Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, 3Artemis Health Institute, Delhi, 4Bangalore Institute of Oncology, Bangalore, 5Nizam Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, 6B R Singh Hospital, Kolkata, 7Birla Cancer Centre, Jaipur, 8Jehangir Hospital, Pune, 9B P Poddar Hospital and Medical Research Ltd, Kolkata, 10Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, New Delhi, 11King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam, IndiaBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of nimotuzumab in combination with chemotherapy (docetaxel and carboplatin versus chemotherapy alone in patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small-cell lung cancer.Methods: This multicenter, open-label, Phase II study randomized 110 patients to receive nimotuzumab plus chemotherapy (nimotuzumab group or chemotherapy alone (control group, and comprised concomitant, maintenance, and follow-up phases. Nimotuzumab 200 mg was administered once weekly for 13 weeks during the first two phases with four cycles of chemotherapy and docetaxel 75 mg/m2 and carboplatin (area under the curve 5 mg/mL*min every 3 weeks for a maximum of four cycles during the concomitant phase. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (sum of complete response and partial response. Secondary endpoints, ie, overall survival and progression-free survival, were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Efficacy was evaluated on the intent-to-treat and efficacy-evaluable sets. Safety was assessed from adverse event and serious adverse event data.Results: The objective response rate was significantly higher in the nimotuzumab group than in the control group in the intent-to-treat population (54% versus 34.5%; P=0.04. A complete response and partial response were achieved in 3

  18. r.avaflow: An advanced open source computational framework for the GIS-based simulation of two-phase mass flows and process chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergili, Martin; Fischer, Jan-Thomas; Fellin, Wolfgang; Ostermann, Alexander; Pudasaini, Shiva P.

    2015-04-01

    Geophysical mass flows stand for a broad range of processes and process chains such as flows and avalanches of snow, soil, debris or rock, and their interactions with water bodies resulting in flood waves. Despite considerable efforts put in model development, the simulation, and therefore the appropriate prediction of these types of events still remains a major challenge in terms of the complex material behaviour, strong phase interactions, process transformations and the complex mountain topography. Sophisticated theories exist, but they have hardly been brought to practice yet. We fill this gap by developing a novel and unified high-resolution computational tool, r.avaflow, representing a comprehensive and advanced open source GIS simulation environment for geophysical mass flows. Based on the latest and most advanced two-phase physical-mathematical models, r.avaflow includes the following features: (i) it is suitable for a broad spectrum of mass flows such as rock, rock-ice and snow avalanches, glacial lake outburst floods, debris and hyperconcentrated flows, and even landslide-induced tsunamis and submarine landslides, as well as process chains involving more than one of these phenomena; (ii) it accounts for the real two-phase nature of many flow types: viscous fluids and solid particles are considered separately with advanced mechanics and strong phase interactions; (iii) it is freely available and adoptable along with the GRASS GIS software. In the future, it will include the intrinsic topographic influences on the flow dynamics and morphology as well as an advanced approach to simulate the entrainment and deposition of solid and fluid material. As input r.avaflow needs information on (a) the mountain topography, (b) the material properties and (c) the spatial distribution of the solid and fluid release masses or one or more hydrographs of fluid and solid material. We demonstrate the functionalities and performance of r.avaflow by using some generic and real

  19. An interhemispheric comparison of GPS phase scintillation with auroral emission observed at the South Pole and from the DMSP satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Prikryl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The global positioning system (GPS phase scintillation caused by high-latitude ionospheric irregularities during an intense high-speed stream (HSS of the solar wind from April 29 to May 5, 2011, was observed using arrays of GPS ionospheric scintillation and total electron content monitors in the Arctic and Antarctica. The one-minute phase-scintillation index derived from the data sampled at 50 Hz was complemented by a proxy index (delta phase rate obtained from 1-Hz GPS data. The scintillation occurrence coincided with the aurora borealis and aurora australis observed by an all-sky imager at the South Pole, and by special sensor ultraviolet scanning imagers on board satellites of the Defense Meteorological Satellites Program. The South Pole (SP station is approximately conjugate with two Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Network stations on Baffin Island, Canada, which provided the opportunity to study magnetic conjugacy of scintillation with support of riometers and magnetometers. The GPS ionospheric pierce points were mapped at their actual or conjugate locations, along with the auroral emission over the South Pole, assuming an altitude of 120 km. As the aurora brightened and/or drifted across the field of view of the all-sky imager, sequences of scintillation events were observed that indicated conjugate auroras as a locator of simultaneous or delayed bipolar scintillation events. In spite of the greater scintillation intensity in the auroral oval, where phase scintillation sometimes exceeded 1 radian during the auroral break-up and substorms, the percentage occurrence of moderate scintillation was highest in the cusp. Interhemispheric comparisons of bipolar scintillation maps show that the scintillation occurrence is significantly higher in the southern cusp and polar cap.

  20. Effect of heart rate on the hemodynamics of bileaflet mechanical heart valves' prostheses (St. Jude Medical) in the aortic position and in the opening phase: A computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahandardoost, Mehdi; Fradet, Guy; Mohammadi, Hadi

    2016-03-01

    To date, to the best of the authors' knowledge, in almost all of the studies performed around the hemodynamics of bileaflet mechanical heart valves, a heart rate of 70-72 beats/min has been considered. In fact, the heart rate of ~72 beats/min does not represent the entire normal physiological conditions under which the aortic or prosthetic valves function. The heart rates of 120 or 50 beats/min may lead to hemodynamic complications, such as plaque formation and/or thromboembolism in patients. In this study, the hemodynamic performance of the bileaflet mechanical heart valves in a wide range of normal and physiological heart rates, that is, 60-150 beats/min, was studied in the opening phase. The model considered in this study was a St. Jude Medical bileaflet mechanical heart valve with the inner diameter of 27 mm in the aortic position. The hemodynamics of the native valve and the St. Jude Medical valve were studied in a variety of heart rates in the opening phase and the results were carefully compared. The results indicate that peak values of the velocity profile downstream of the valve increase as heart rate increases, as well as the location of the maximum velocity changes with heart rate in the St. Jude Medical valve model. Also, the maximum values of shear stress and wall shear stresses downstream of the valve are proportional to heart rate in both models. Interestingly, the maximum shear stress and wall shear stress values in both models are in the same range when heart rate is valve model when heart rate is >90 beats/min (up to ~40% growth compared to that of the native valve). The findings of this study may be of importance in the hemodynamic performance of bileaflet mechanical heart valves. They may also play an important role in design improvement of conventional prosthetic heart valves and the design of the next generation of prosthetic valves, such as percutaneous valves.

  1. Comparison of Gamow-Teller strengths in the random phase approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Nabi, Jameel-Un

    2012-01-01

    The Gamow-Teller response is astrophysically important for a number of nuclides, particularly around iron. The random phase approximation (RPA) is an efficient way to generate strength distributions. In order to better understand both theoretical systematics and uncertainties, we compare the Gamow-Teller strength distributions for a suite of nuclides and for a suite of interactions, including semi-realistic interactions in the $1p$-$0f$ space with the RPA and a separable multi-shell interaction in the quasi-particle RPA. We also compare with experimental results for GT$_-$ on ${54}$Fe.

  2. Ab initio thermodynamics and phase diagram of solid magnesium: a comparison of the LDA and GGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S; Price, G D; Alfè, D

    2006-11-21

    The finite temperature density functional theory and quasiharmonic lattice dynamics have been used to compute numerous thermodynamic properties of hexagonal close packed magnesium using both the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the exchange-correlation potential. Generally, it is found that there exist only minor differences between the LDA and GGA computed properties, with both giving good agreement with experiment. The hcp-bcc phase boundary has also been computed and is found to be in agreement with experimental observation. Again, only slight differences are found between the LDA and GGA.

  3. Experimental comparison of phase-shifting fringe projection and statistical pattern projection for active triangulation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutzke, Peter; Schaffer, Martin; Kühmstedt, Peter; Kowarschik, Richard; Notni, Gunther

    2013-04-01

    Active triangulation systems are widely used for precise and fast measurements. Many different coding strategies have been invented to solve the correspondence problem. The quality of the measurement results depends on the accuracy of the pixel assignments. The most established method uses phase shifted-patterns projected on the scene. This is compared to a method using statistical patterns. In both coding strategies, the number and the spatial frequency of the projected patterns is varied. The measurements and calculations for all presented results were done with exactly the same measurement setup in a narrow time window to avoid any changes and to guarantee identical technical preconditions as well as comparability.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Steady and Pulsatile Flow Through Vascular Stenoses and Comparisons with Experiments Using Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Geoffrey; Agarwal, Ramesh; Moghaddam, Abbas N.; Choi, Eric T.; Amini, Amir A.

    2003-11-01

    A commercially available numerical flow solver "FLUENT" is employed in simulation of blood flow through vascular stenoses. Fluid properties are set to match those of the blood mimicking fluid used in flow phantom experiments at the Washington University School of Medicine. Computational results are compared for steady flow through axisymmetric and three-dimensional phantoms modeling mild to severe stenonses with the data collected using Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PC-MRI) technique by colleagues in the CVIA laboratory at Washington University School of Medicine. Computations are also performed for pulsatile flow through vascular stenoses. Comparisons of PC-MRI and FLUENT output data show qualitative agreement in streamline patterns and good quantitative agreement for pressure drop across the stenoses.

  5. Multiscale modeling of polycrystalline graphene: A comparison of structure and defect energies of realistic samples from phase field crystal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, Petri; Ervasti, Mikko M.; Fan, Zheyong; Jalalvand, Morteza; Seymour, Matthew; Vaez Allaei, S. Mehdi; Provatas, Nikolas; Harju, Ari; Elder, Ken R.; Ala-Nissila, Tapio

    2016-07-01

    We extend the phase field crystal (PFC) framework to quantitative modeling of polycrystalline graphene. PFC modeling is a powerful multiscale method for finding the ground state configurations of large realistic samples that can be further used to study their mechanical, thermal, or electronic properties. By fitting to quantum-mechanical density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we show that the PFC approach is able to predict realistic formation energies and defect structures of grain boundaries. We provide an in-depth comparison of the formation energies between PFC, DFT, and molecular dynamics (MD) calculations. The DFT and MD calculations are initialized using atomic configurations extracted from PFC ground states. Finally, we use the PFC approach to explicitly construct large realistic polycrystalline samples and characterize their properties using MD relaxation to demonstrate their quality.

  6. Comparison of the performance of chiral stationary phase for separation of fluoxetine enantiomers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jie; YANG Yi-wen; WEI Feng; WU Ping-dong

    2007-01-01

    Separation of fluoxetine enantiomers on five chiral stationary phases (chiralcel OD-H, chiralcel OJ-H, chiralpak AD-H, cyclobond I 2000 DM and kromasil CHI-TBB) was investigated. The optimal mobile phase compositions of fluoxetine separation on each column were hexane/isopropanol/diethyl amine (98/2/0.2, v/v/v), hexane/isopropanol/diethyl amine (99/1/0.1,v/v/v), hexane/isopropanol/diethyl amine (98/2/0.2, v/v/v), methanol/0.2% triethylamine acetic acid (TEAA) (25/75, v/v; pH 3.8)and hexane/isopropanol/diethyl amine (98/2/0.2, v/v/v), respectively. Experimental results demonstrated that baseline separation (RS>1.5) of fluoxetine enantiomers was obtained on chiralcel OD-H, chiralpak AD-H, and cyclobond I 2000 DM while the best separation was obtained on the last one. The eluate orders of fluoxetine enantiomers on the columns were determined. The first eluate by chiralcel OJ-H and kromasil CHI-TBB is the S-enantiomer, while by chiralpak AD-H and cyclobond I 2000 DM is the R-enantiomer.

  7. Comparison of measured and computed phase functions of individual tropospheric ice crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegmann, Patrick G.; Tropea, Cameron; Järvinen, Emma; Schnaiter, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Airplanes passing the incuda (lat. anvils) regions of tropical cumulonimbi-clouds are at risk of suffering an engine power-loss event and engine damage due to ice ingestion (Mason et al., 2006 [1]). Research in this field relies on optical measurement methods to characterize ice crystals; however the design and implementation of such methods presently suffer from the lack of reliable and efficient means of predicting the light scattering from ice crystals. The nascent discipline of direct measurement of phase functions of ice crystals in conjunction with particle imaging and forward modelling through geometrical optics derivative- and Transition matrix-codes for the first time allow us to obtain a deeper understanding of the optical properties of real tropospheric ice crystals. In this manuscript, a sample phase function obtained via the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS) probe during a measurement campaign in flight over Brazil will be compared to three different light scattering codes. This includes a newly developed first order geometrical optics code taking into account the influence of the Gaussian beam illumination used in the PHIPS device, as well as the reference ray tracing code of Macke and the T-matrix code of Kahnert.

  8. Comparison of Cellular Automaton and Phase Field Models to Simulate Dendrite Growth in Hexagonal Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A cellular automaton (CA)-finite element (FE) model and a phase field (PF)-FE model were used to simulate equiaxed dendritic growth during the solidification of hexagonal metals. In the CA-FE model, the conservation equations of mass and energy were solved in order to calculate the temperature field, solute concentration, and the dendritic growth morphology. CA-FE simulation results showed reasonable agreement with the previously reported experimental data on secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) vs cooling rate. In the PF model, a PF variable was used to distinguish solid and liquid phases similar to the conventional PF models for solidification of pure materials. Another PF variable was considered to determine the evolution of solute concentration. Validation of both models was performed by comparing the simulation results with the analytical model developed by Lipton-Glicksman-Kurz (LGK), showing quantitatively good agreement in the tip growth velocity at a given melt undercooling. Application to magnesium alloy AZ91 (approximated with the binary Mg-8.9 wt% AI) illustrates the difficulty of modeling dendrite growth in hexagonal systems using CA-FE regarding mesh-induced anisotropy and a better performance of PF-FE in modeling multiple arbitrarily-oriented dendrites growth.

  9. Comparison between Normal and HeII Two-phase Flows at High Vapor Velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Van Weelderen, R; Rousset, B; Thibault, P; Wolf, P E

    2006-01-01

    We present results on helium co-current two-phase flow experiments at high vapor velocity obtained with the use of the new CEA/SBT 400 W/1.8 K refrigerator [1]. For vapor velocities larger than typically 4 m/s, a mist of droplets develops from the bulk liquid interface accompanied by an increase in heat transfer at the wall. Experiments were conducted in a 10 m long, 40 mm I.D. straight pipe, both in helium II and in helium I to compare these two situations. The respective roles of vapor density, vapor velocity and liquid level on atomization were systematically investigated. Light scattering experiments were performed to measure sizes, velocities and interfacial areas of droplets in a complete cross section. In-house-made heat transfer sensors located in the mist allowed us to deduce an upper value of the extra cooling power of the dispersed phase. The practical interest of atomized flow for cooling large cryogenic facilities is discussed by considering the balance between increase in heat transfer and press...

  10. Canakinumab treatment for patients with active recurrent or chronic TNF receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS): an open-label, phase II study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattorno, Marco; Obici, Laura; Cattalini, Marco; Tormey, Vincent; Abrams, Ken; Davis, Nicole; Speziale, Antonio; Bhansali, Suraj G; Martini, Alberto; Lachmann, Helen J

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of canakinumab, a high-affinity human monoclonal anti-interleukin-1β antibody, in inducing complete or almost complete responses in patients with active tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS). Methods Twenty patients (aged 7–78 years) with active recurrent or chronic TRAPS were treated with canakinumab 150 mg every 4 weeks for 4 months (2 mg/kg for those ≤40 kg) in this open-label, proof-of-concept, phase II study. Canakinumab was then withdrawn for up to 5 months, with reintroduction on relapse, and 4 weekly administration (subsequently increased to every 8 weeks) for 24 months. The primary efficacy variable was the proportion of patients achieving complete or almost complete response at day 15, defined as clinical remission (Physician's Global Assessment score ≤1) and full or partial serological remission. Results Nineteen patients (19/20, 95%; 95% CI 75.1% to 99.9%) achieved the primary efficacy variable. Responses to canakinumab occurred rapidly; median time to clinical remission 4 days (95% CI 3 to 8 days). All patients relapsed after canakinumab was withdrawn; median time to relapse 91.5 days (95% CI 65 to 117 days). On reintroduction of canakinumab, clinical and serological responses were similar to those seen during the first phase, and were sustained throughout treatment. Canakinumab was well tolerated and clinical responses were accompanied by rapid and sustained improvement in health-related quality of life. Weight normalised pharmacokinetics of canakinumab, although limited, appeared to be consistent with historical canakinumab data. Conclusions Canakinumab induces rapid disease control in patients with active TRAPS, and clinical benefits are sustained during long-term treatment. Trial registration number NCT01242813; Results. PMID:27269295

  11. An open-label, two-stage, phase II study of bevacizumab and lapatinib in children with recurrent or refractory ependymoma: a collaborative ependymoma research network study (CERN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWire, Mariko; Fouladi, Maryam; Turner, David C; Wetmore, Cynthia; Hawkins, Cynthia; Jacobs, Carmen; Yuan, Ying; Liu, Diane; Goldman, Stewart; Fisher, Paul; Rytting, Michael; Bouffet, Eric; Khakoo, Yasmin; Hwang, Eugene I; Foreman, Nicholas; Stewart, Clinton F; Gilbert, Mark R; Gilbertson, Richard; Gajjar, Amar

    2015-05-01

    Co-expression of ERBB2 and ERBB4, reported in 75% of pediatric ependymomas, correlates with worse overall survival. Lapatinib, a selective ERBB1 and ERBB2 inhibitor has produced prolonged disease stabilization in patients with ependymoma in a phase I study. Bevacizumab exposure in ependymoma xenografts leads to ablation of tumor self-renewing cells, arresting growth. Thus, we conducted an open-label, phase II study of bevacizumab and lapatinib in children with recurrent ependymomas. Patients ≤ 21 years of age with recurrent ependymoma received lapatinib orally twice daily (900 mg/m(2)/dose to the first 10 patients, and then 700 mg/m(2)/dose) and bevacizumab 10 mg/kg intravenously on days 1 and 15 of a 28-day course. Lapatinib serum trough levels were analyzed prior to each course. Total and phosphorylated VEGFR2 expression was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) before doses 1 and 2 of bevacizumab and 24-48 h following dose 2 of bevacizumab. Twenty-four patients with a median age of 10 years (range 2-21 years) were enrolled; 22 were eligible and 20 evaluable for response. Thirteen had anaplastic ependymoma. There were no objective responses; 4 patients had stable disease for ≥ 4 courses (range 4-14). Grade 3 toxicities included rash, elevated ALT, and diarrhea. Grade 4 toxicities included peri-tracheostomy hemorrhage (n = 1) and elevated creatinine phosphokinase (n = 1). The median lapatinib pre-dose trough concentration was 3.72 µM. Although the combination of bevacizumab and lapatinib was well tolerated in children with recurrent ependymoma, it proved ineffective.

  12. Facile preparation of protein stationary phase based on polydopamine/graphene oxide platform for chip-based open tubular capillary electrochromatography enantioseparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ru-Ping; Wang, Xiao-Ni; Liu, Chun-Ming; Meng, Xiang-Ying; Qiu, Jian-Ding

    2014-01-03

    A novel chip-based enantioselective open-tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC) was developed employing bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugated polydopamine-graphene oxide (PDA/GO) nanocomposites (PDA/GO/BSA) as stationary phase. After the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic chip was filled with a freshly prepared solution containing dopamine and graphene oxide, PDA/GO nanocomposites were formed and deposited on the inner wall of microchannel as permanent coating via the oxidation of dopamine by the oxygen dissolved in the solution. The PDA/GO-coated PDMS microchips not only have the adhesion of PDA that make them easily immobilized in the microchannel, but also have the larger surface and excellent biocompatibility of graphene which can incorporate much more biomolecules and well maintain their biological activity. In addition, incorporation of GO in PDA film can make surface morphology more rough, which is beneficial for enhancing the loading capacity of proteins in the microchannels and increasing sample capacity of OT-CEC columns. BSA was stably immobilized in the PDMS microchannel to fabricate a protein-stationary phase. Compared with the native PDMS microchannels, the modified surfaces exhibited much better wettability, more stable electroosmotic mobility, and less nonspecific adsorption. The efficient separation of chiral amino acids (tryptophan and threonine) and chiral dipeptide demonstrate that the constructed OT-CEC columns own ideal enantioselectivity. The presented strategy using PDA/GO coating as a versatile platform for facile conjugation of proteins may offer new processing strategies to prepare a functional surface designed on microfluidic chips. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration, Continuation within IEA Wind Task 30: Phase II Results Regarding a Floating Semisubmersible Wind System: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Vorpahl, F.; Popko, W.; Qvist, J.; Froyd, L.; Chen, X.; Azcona, J.; Uzungoglu, E.; Guedes Soares, C.; Luan, C.; Yutong, H.; Pengcheng, F.; Yde, A.; Larsen, T.; Nichols, J.; Buils, R.; Lei, L.; Anders Nygard, T.; et al.

    2014-03-01

    Offshore wind turbines are designed and analyzed using comprehensive simulation tools (or codes) that account for the coupled dynamics of the wind inflow, aerodynamics, elasticity, and controls of the turbine, along with the incident waves, sea current, hydrodynamics, and foundation dynamics of the support structure. This paper describes the latest findings of the code-to-code verification activities of the Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration, Continuation (OC4) project, which operates under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Task 30. In the latest phase of the project, participants used an assortment of simulation codes to model the coupled dynamic response of a 5-MW wind turbine installed on a floating semisubmersible in 200 m of water. Code predictions were compared from load-case simulations selected to test different model features. The comparisons have resulted in a greater understanding of offshore floating wind turbine dynamics and modeling techniques, and better knowledge of the validity of various approximations. The lessons learned from this exercise have improved the participants? codes, thus improving the standard of offshore wind turbine modeling.

  14. Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration within IEA Wind Task 23: Phase IV Results Regarding Floating Wind Turbine Modeling; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkman, J.; Larsen, T.; Hansen, A.; Nygaard, T.; Maus, K.; Karimirad, M.; Gao, Z.; Moan, T.; Fylling, I.

    2010-04-01

    Offshore wind turbines are designed and analyzed using comprehensive simulation codes that account for the coupled dynamics of the wind inflow, aerodynamics, elasticity, and controls of the turbine, along with the incident waves, sea current, hydrodynamics, and foundation dynamics of the support structure. This paper describes the latest findings of the code-to-code verification activities of the Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration, which operates under Subtask 2 of the International Energy Agency Wind Task 23. In the latest phase of the project, participants used an assortment of codes to model the coupled dynamic response of a 5-MW wind turbine installed on a floating spar buoy in 320 m of water. Code predictions were compared from load-case simulations selected to test different model features. The comparisons have resulted in a greater understanding of offshore floating wind turbine dynamics and modeling techniques, and better knowledge of the validity of various approximations. The lessons learned from this exercise have improved the participants' codes, thus improving the standard of offshore wind turbine modeling.

  15. Design comparison of single phase outer and inner-rotor hybrid excitation flux switching motor for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Mohamed Mubin Aizat; Sulaiman, Erwan; Husin, Zhafir Aizat; Othman, Syed Muhammad Naufal Syed; Khan, Faisal

    2015-05-01

    In hybrid excitation machines (HEMs), there are two main flux sources which are permanent magnet (PM) and field excitation coil (FEC). These HEMs have better features when compared with the interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSM) used in conventional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Since all flux sources including PM, FEC and armature coils are located on the stator core, the rotor becomes a single piece structure similar with switch reluctance machine (SRM). The combined flux generated by PM and FEC established more excitation fluxes that are required to produce much higher torque of the motor. In addition, variable DC FEC can control the flux capabilities of the motor, thus the machine can be applied for high-speed motor drive system. In this paper, the comparisons of single-phase 8S-4P outer and inner rotor hybrid excitation flux switching machine (HEFSM) are presented. Initially, design procedures of the HEFSM including parts drawing, materials and conditions setting, and properties setting are explained. Flux comparisons analysis is performed to investigate the flux capabilities at various current densities. Then the flux linkages of PM with DC FEC of various DC FEC current densities are examined. Finally torque performances are analyzed at various armature and FEC current densities for both designs. As a result, the outer-rotor HEFSM has higher flux linkage of PM with DC FEC and higher average torque of approximately 10% when compared with inner-rotor HEFSM.

  16. Minimally invasive scoliosis surgery assisted by O-arm navigation for Lenke Type 5C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a comparison with standard open approach spinal instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weiguo; Sun, Weixiang; Xu, Leilei; Sun, Xu; Liu, Zhen; Qiu, Yong; Zhu, Zezhang

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Recently, minimally invasive scoliosis surgery (MISS) was introduced for the correction of adult scoliosis. Multiple benefits including a good deformity correction rate and fewer complications have been demonstrated. However, few studies have reported on the use of MISS for the management of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcome of posterior MISS assisted by O-arm navigation for the correction of Lenke Type 5C AIS. METHODS The authors searched a database for all patients with AIS who had been treated with either MISS or PSF between November 2012 and January 2014. Levels of fusion, density of implants, operation time, and estimated blood loss (EBL) were recorded. Coronal and sagittal parameters were evaluated before surgery, immediately after surgery, and at the last follow-up. The accuracy of pedicle screw placement was assessed according to postoperative axial CT images in both groups. The 22-item Scoliosis Research Society questionnaire (SRS-22) results and complications were collected during follow-up. RESULTS The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 45 patients with Lenke Type 5C AIS, 15 who underwent posterior MISS under O-arm navigation and 30 who underwent posterior spinal fusion (PSF). The 2 treatment groups were matched in terms of baseline characteristics. Comparison of radiographic parameters revealed no obvious difference between the 2 groups immediately after surgery or at the final follow-up; however, the MISS patients had significantly less EBL (p scoliosis surgery is an effective and safe alternative to open surgery for patients with Lenke Type 5C AIS. Compared with results of the open approach, the outcomes of MISS are promising, with reduced morbidity. Before the routine use of MISS, however, long-term data are needed.

  17. A comparison between intravenous lidocaine and ketamine on acute and chronic pain after open nephrectomy: A prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendoubi, Ali; Naceur, Imed Ben; Bouzouita, Abderrazak; Trifa, Mehdi; Ghedira, Salma; Chebil, Mohamed; Houissa, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recently, there has been increasing interest in the use of analgesic adjuncts such as intravenous (IV) ketamine and lidocaine. Objectives: To compare the effects of perioperative IV lidocaine and ketamine on morphine requirements, pain scores, quality of recovery, and chronic pain after open nephrectomy. Study Design: A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Settings: The study was conducted in Charles Nicolle University Hospital of Tunis. Methods: Sixty patients were randomly allocated to receive IV lidocaine: bolus of 1.5 mg/kg at the induction of anesthesia followed by infusion of 1 mg/kg/h intraoperatively and for 24 h postoperatively or ketamine: bolus of 0.15 mg/kg followed by infusion of 0.1 mg/kg/h intraoperatively and for 24 h postoperatively or an equal volume of saline (control group [CG]). Measurements: Morphine consumption, visual analog scale pain scores, time to the first passage of flatus and feces, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), 6-min walk distance (6MWD) at discharge, and the incidence of chronic neuropathic pain using the “Neuropathic Pain Questionnaire” at 3 months. Results: Ketamine and lidocaine reduced significantly morphine consumption (by about 33% and 42%, respectively) and pain scores compared with the CG (P Lidocaine and ketamine also significantly improved bowel function in comparison to the CG (P lidocaine group (P Lidocaine, but not ketamine, reduced significantly the development of neuropathic pain at 3 months (P lidocaine are safe and effective adjuvants to decrease opioid consumption and control early pain. We also suggest that lidocaine infusion serves as an interesting alternative to improve the functional walking capacity and prevent chronic neuropathic pain at 3 months after open nephrectomy. PMID:28442956

  18. Hydrodynamic Nuclei Concentration Technique in Cavitation Research and Comparison to Phase-Doppler Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Eric; Kröger, Willfried; Damaschke, Nils

    2015-12-01

    Small particles, especially bubbles in the micro-meter range, influence the cavitation of the propellers. The prediction of cavitation inception and water quality measurements are important in cavitation research. The Hydrodynamic Nuclei Concentration (HDNC) technique can be used for reliable bubble concentration measurements in fluid flows. The HDNC technique bases on the analysis of scattered light from the cavitation nuclei in the water. The HDNC technique can distinguish between bubbles and solid particles. The particle type classification is important, because the number concentration of solid particles is often much higher than the nuclei concentration in cavitation tunnels and in seawater. Verification experiments show, that the HDNC technique reaches similar capabilities in number concentration estimation as Phase Doppler (PD) technique in much shorter acquisition time.

  19. An open-source, self-explanatory touch screen in routine care. Validity of filling in the Bath measures on Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, Function Index, the Health Assessment Questionnaire and Visual Analogue Scales in comparison with paper versions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schefte, David B; Hetland, Merete L

    2010-01-01

    The Danish DANBIO registry has developed open-source software for touch screens in the waiting room. The objective was to assess the validity of outcomes from self-explanatory patient questionnaires on touch screen in comparison with the traditional paper form in routine clinical care....

  20. An open-source, self-explanatory touch screen in routine care. Validity of filling in the Bath measures on Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, Function Index, the Health Assessment Questionnaire and Visual Analogue Scales in comparison with paper versions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schefte, David B; Hetland, Merete L

    2010-01-01

    The Danish DANBIO registry has developed open-source software for touch screens in the waiting room. The objective was to assess the validity of outcomes from self-explanatory patient questionnaires on touch screen in comparison with the traditional paper form in routine clinical care....

  1. Proteomic comparison of Chelidonium majus L. latex in different phases of plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, Robert; Lippmann, Rico; Matros, Andrea; Musidlak, Oskar; Nowicki, Grzegorz; Mock, Hans-Peter

    2017-03-01

    Chelidonium majus L. (Papaveraceae) latex is used in traditinonal folk medicine to treat papillae, warts, condylomas, which are visible effects of human papilloma virus (HPV) infections. The aim of this work was to provide new insights into the biology and medicinal use of C. majus milky sap in the flowering and fruit ripening period of the plant by comparing the protein content between samples collected on respective developmental stages using LC-MS-based label-free proteome approach. For quantification, the multiplexed LC-MS data were processed using comparative chemometric approach. Progenesis LC-MS results showed that in green fruit phase (stage IV), comparing to flowering phase (stage III) of plant development, a range of proteins with higher abundance were identified as stress- and defense-related. On the other hand at stage III very intense protein synthesis, processes of transcription, protein folding and active transport of molecules (ABC transporters) are well represented. 2-DE protein maps showed an abundant set of spots with similar MWs (about 30-35 kDa) and pIs (ca. 5.5-6.5), which were identified as major latex proteins (MLPs). Therefore we suggest that biological activity of C. majus latex could be related to its protein content, which shifts during plant development from intense biosynthetic processes (biosynthesis and transport of small molecules, like alkaloids) to plant defense mechanisms against pathogens. Further studies will help to elucidate if these defense-related and pathogenesis-related proteins, like MLP, together with small-molecule compounds, could inhibit viral infection, what could be a step to fully understand the medicinal activity of C. majus latex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Orientation-reversal VEP: comparison of phase and peak latencies in adults and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin; Birtles, Deirdre; Wattam-Bell, John; Atkinson, Janette; Braddick, Oliver

    2012-06-15

    The peak latency of pattern-reversal (PR)-VEP has been found to develop rapidly, reaching the adult level around 15 weeks of age. However, the development of orientation-reversal (OR)-VEP, reflecting the specific spatial organization of cortical receptive fields, still remains unknown. OR-VEP was tested in 81 adults at 1-12 reversals/sec (r/s) and 94 infants (age 4-79 weeks) at 2-8r/s. OR data at 4r/s from an additional 123 infants (age 4.0-20.3 weeks) studied previously were also analyzed. In addition to peak transient latencies at 1-4r/s, latency values derived from the gradient of phase against temporal frequency in steady-state recording were also calculated. For both adults and infants, no significant latency differences in the initial positive peaks were found among the low reversal rates. The calculated latency was statistically longer than the transient latency in both groups. While the transient latency asymptoted to adult value of 102 ms at around 50 weeks of age, the calculated latency, unlike that for PR-VEP, showed little variation across the age span. The data suggest a dominant effect of transmission delay on the initial peak in infancy, which reduces with age. However, the overall timing of the cortical response to orientation change remains slower than for pattern reversal in the fully developed visual cortex. Upon reaching maturity, the latencies of the initial positive peak in both pattern and orientation VEPs may arise from the same level of cortical processing in V1, but the overall time course reflected in the steady-state phase continues to show a much more prolonged response to orientation change than the transmission delay seen in the transient VEPs.

  3. A Comparison of De-noising Methods for Diff erential Phase Shift and Associated Rainfall Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志群; 刘察平; 吴林林; 魏庆

    2015-01-01

    Measured diff erential phase shift Φ DP is known to be a noisy unstable polarimetric radar variable, such that the quality of Φ DP data has direct impact on specifi c diff erential phase shift KDP estimation, and subsequently, the KDP-based rainfall estimation. Over the past decades, many Φ DP de-noising methods have been developed; however, the de-noising eff ects in these methods and their impact on KDP-based rainfall estimation lack comprehensive comparative analysis. In this study, simulated noisy Φ DP data were generated and de-noised by using several methods such as fi nite-impulse response (FIR), Kalman, wavelet, traditional mean, and median fi lters. The biases were compared between KDP from simulated and observedΦ DP radial profi les after de-noising by these methods. The results suggest that the complicated FIR, Kalman, and wavelet methods have a better de-noising eff ect than the traditional methods. AfterΦ DP was de-noised, the accuracy of the KDP-based rainfall estimation increased signifi cantly based on the analysis of three actual rainfall events. The improvement in estimation was more obvious when KDP was estimated withΦ DP de-noised by Kalman, FIR, and wavelet methods when the average rainfall was heavier than 5 mm h−1. However, the improved estimation was not signifi cant when the precipitation intensity further increased to a rainfall rate beyond 10 mm h−1. The performance of wavelet analysis was found to be the most stable of these fi lters.

  4. r.avaflow v1, an advanced open-source computational framework for the propagation and interaction of two-phase mass flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergili, Martin; Fischer, Jan-Thomas; Krenn, Julia; Pudasaini, Shiva P.

    2017-02-01

    r.avaflow represents an innovative open-source computational tool for routing rapid mass flows, avalanches, or process chains from a defined release area down an arbitrary topography to a deposition area. In contrast to most existing computational tools, r.avaflow (i) employs a two-phase, interacting solid and fluid mixture model (Pudasaini, 2012); (ii) is suitable for modelling more or less complex process chains and interactions; (iii) explicitly considers both entrainment and stopping with deposition, i.e. the change of the basal topography; (iv) allows for the definition of multiple release masses, and/or hydrographs; and (v) serves with built-in functionalities for validation, parameter optimization, and sensitivity analysis. r.avaflow is freely available as a raster module of the GRASS GIS software, employing the programming languages Python and C along with the statistical software R. We exemplify the functionalities of r.avaflow by means of two sets of computational experiments: (1) generic process chains consisting in bulk mass and hydrograph release into a reservoir with entrainment of the dam and impact downstream; (2) the prehistoric Acheron rock avalanche, New Zealand. The simulation results are generally plausible for (1) and, after the optimization of two key parameters, reasonably in line with the corresponding observations for (2). However, we identify some potential to enhance the analytic and numerical concepts. Further, thorough parameter studies will be necessary in order to make r.avaflow fit for reliable forward simulations of possible future mass flow events.

  5. Statistical Thermodynamics of an "Open" Hard Sphere System on the Equilibrium Fluid Isotherm: Study of Properties of the Freezing Transition Without Direct Involvement of the Equilibrium Solid Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Howard; Manzanares, José A.

    2016-09-01

    Using several theoretical toolsldots (i) the nucleation theorem, (ii) an equivalent cavity, (iii) the reversible work of adding a cavity to an open hard sphere system, and (iv) the theory of "stability"... the authors estimated the density at which the hard sphere freezing transition occurs. No direct involvement of the equilibrium solid phase is involved. The reduced density \\uppi a^3ρ _f/6 (where a is the hard sphere diameter and ρ _f is the actual density at which freezing occurs) is found to be 0.4937 while the value obtained by computer simulation is 0.494. The agreement is good, but the new method still contains some approximation. However, the approximation is based on the idea that at a density just below ρ _f the fluid adopts a distorted structure resembling the solid, but different enough so that long-range order vanishes. Initial loss of stability may not be involved in every fluid-solid transition, but it may be an early step in the hard sphere and related systems.

  6. Recombinant fusion ESAT6-CFP10 immunogen as a skin test reagent for tuberculosis diagnosis: an open-label, randomized, two-centre phase 2a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F; Xu, M; Qin, C; Xia, L; Xiong, Y; Xi, X; Fan, X; Gu, J; Pu, J; Wu, Q; Lu, S; Wang, G

    2016-10-01

    We sought to assess the accuracy and safety of the ESAT6-CFP10 reagent in diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) disease. An open-label, randomized phase 2a trial was conducted in 56 healthy adults and 88 TB patients at one medical centre and one teaching hospital in China. All participants received 0.1, 0.5, 1 or 2 μg ESAT6-CFP10 in their right forearm. Moreover, 56 healthy volunteers and 56 patients were given tuberculin-purified protein derivative (TB-PPD) in their left forearm. The remaining 32 patients were administered placebo. The main outcome measure was induration diameter. An enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay was conducted before the skin test. The ESAT6-CFP10 test caused a higher positivity rate than placebo (81.2% (26/32) vs. 3.1% (1/32); p skin test appears to be a safe and promising tool; further testing will confirm its efficacy in identifying TB disease. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of Channel Estimation Protocols for Coherent AF Relaying Networks in the Presence of Additive Noise and LO Phase Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Berger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Channel estimation protocols for wireless two-hop networks with amplify-and-forward (AF relays are compared. We consider multiuser relaying networks, where the gain factors are chosen such that the signals from all relays add up coherently at the destinations. While the destinations require channel knowledge in order to decode, our focus lies on the channel estimates that are used to calculate the relay gains. Since knowledge of the compound two-hop channels is generally not sufficient to do this, the protocols considered here measure all single-hop coefficients in the network. We start from the observation that the direction in which the channels are measured determines (1 the number of channel uses required to estimate all coefficient and (2 the need for global carrier phase reference. Four protocols are identified that differ in the direction in which the first-hop and the second-hop channels are measured. We derive a sensible measure for the accuracy of the channel estimates in the presence of additive noise and phase noise and compare the protocols based on this measure. Finally, we provide a quantitative performance comparison for a simple single-user application example. It is important to note that the results can be used to compare the channel estimation protocols for any two-hop network configuration and gain allocation scheme.

  8. Arthroscopic Bankart repair associated with subscapularis augmentation (ASA) versus open Latarjet to treat recurrent anterior shoulder instability with moderate glenoid bone loss: clinical comparison of two series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, R; Della Rotonda, G; Cautiero, F; Ciccarelli, M; Maiotti, M; Massoni, C; Di Pietto, F; Zappia, M

    2017-04-01

    The treatment of chronic anterior shoulder instability with glenoid bone loss is still debated. The purpose of this study is to compare short-term results of two techniques treating chronic shoulder instability with moderate glenoid bone loss: bone block according to open Latarjet-Patte procedure and arthroscopic Bankart repair in association with subscapularis augmentation. Ninety-one patients with moderate anterior glenoid bone loss underwent from 2011 to 2015. From these patients, two groups of 20 individuals each have been selected. The groups were homogeneous in terms of age, gender, dominance and glenoid bone loss. In group A, an open Latarjet procedure has been performed, and in group B, an arthroscopic Bankart repair associated with subscapularis augmentation has been performed. The mean follow-up in group A was 21 months (20-39 months), while in group B was 20 months (15-36 months). QuickDash score, Constant and Rowe shoulder scores, were used for evaluations of results. The mean preoperative rate of QuickDash score was 3.6 for group A and 4.0 for group B; Rowe Score was 50.0 for group A and 50.0 for group B. Preoperative mean Constant score was 56.2 for Latarjet-Patte and 55.2 for Bankart plus ASA. Postoperative mean QuickDash score was in group A 1.8 and 1.7 in group B; Rowe Score was 89.8 and 91.6; Constant Score was 93.3 and 93.8. No complications related to surgery have been observed for both procedures. Not statistically significant difference was reported between the two groups (p > .05). Postoperatively, the mean deficit of external rotation in ER1 was -9° in group A and -8 in group B; In ER2, the mean deficit was -5° in both groups (p = .0942). Arthroscopic subscapularis augmentation of Bankart repair is an effective procedure for the treatment of recurrent anterior shoulder instability with glenoid bone loss without any significant difference in comparison with the well-known open Latarjet procedure.

  9. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 2: Advanced energy conversion systems. Part 1: Open-cycle gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. H.; Corman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Ten energy conversion systems are defined and analyzed in terms of efficiency. These include: open-cycle gas turbine recuperative; open-cycle gas turbine; closed-cycle gas turbine; supercritical CO2 cycle; advanced steam cycle; liquid metal topping cycle; open-cycle MHD; closed-cycle inert gas MHD; closed-cycle liquid metal MHD; and fuel cells. Results are presented.

  10. Performance comparisons between passive-phase conjugation and decision-feedback equalizer for underwater acoustic communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T. C.

    2004-05-01

    Passive-phase conjugation (PPC) uses passive time reversal to remove intersymbol interferences (ISI) for acoustic communications in a multipath environment. It is based on the theory of signal propagation in a waveguide, which says that the Green function (or the impulse response function) convolved with its time-reversed conjugate, summed over a large aperture vertical array of receivers is a delta function in space and time. A decision feedback equalizer (DFE) uses a nonlinear filter to remove ISI based on the minimum mean square errors (MSE) between the estimated and the true (or decision) symbols. These two approaches are motivated by different principles. In this paper, we analyze both using a common framework, illustrating the commonality and differences, pro and con between the two methods, and compare their performances in realistic ocean environments. The performance measures are MSE, output signal-to-noise ratio and bit error rate (BER) as a function of the number of receivers. For a small number of receivers, DFE outperforms PPC in all measures. As the number of receivers increases the BER for both processors approaches zero, but at a different rate. The results are supported by both simulated and real data. [Work supported by ONR.

  11. Comparison between gene expression of conidia and germinating phase in Trichophyton rubrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is a dominating superficial dermatophyte, whose conidial germination is corre- lated to pathopoiesis and a highly important developmental process. To investigate the changes of physiology, biochemistry and cytology during the germination, we selected 3364 function identified ESTs from T. rubrum cDNA library to construct cDNA microarrays, and compared the gene expression levels of conidia and germinating phase. Data analysis indicated that 335 genes were up-regulated during the germination, which mainly encoded translated, modified proteins and structural proteins. The constituents of cell wall and cell membrane were synthetized abundantly, suggesting that they are the foundation of cell morphogenesis. The ingredients of the two-component signal transduction sys- tem were up-regulated, presuming that they were important for the conidial germination. Genes of various metabolic pathways were expressed prosperously, especially the genes that participated in glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation were up-regulated on the whole, demonstrating that in the environment with sufficient oxygen and glucose, conidia obtained energy through aerobic respiration. This paper provides important clues which are helpful to understanding the changes in gene expres- sion, signal conduction and metabolism characteristics during T. rubrum conidial germination, and possess significant meaning to the study of other superficial dermatophytes.

  12. Comparison of bioaugmentation and biostimulation for the enhancement of dense nonaqueous phase liquid source zone bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, M L B; Daprato, R C; Gomez, D E; Hughes, J B; Ward, C H; Alvarez, P J J

    2006-12-01

    Two 11.7-m(3) experimental controlled release systems (ECRS), packed with sandy model aquifer material and amended with tetrachloroethene (PCE) dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zone, were operated in parallel with identical flow regimes and electron donor amendments. Hydrogen Releasing Compound (Regenesis Bioremediation Products, Inc., San Clemente, California), and later dissolved lactate, served as electron donors to promote dechlorination. One ECRS was bioaugmented with an anaerobic dechlorinating consortium directly into the source zone, and the other served as a control (biostimulated only) to determine the benefits of bioaugmentation. The presence of halorespiring bacteria in the aquifer matrix before bioaugmentation, shown by nested polymerase chain reaction with phylogenetic primers, suggests that dechlorinating catabolic potential may be somewhat widespread. Results obtained corroborate that source zone reductive dechlorination of PCE is possible at near field scale and that a system bioaugmented with a competent halorespiring consortium can enhance DNAPL dissolution and dechlorination processes at significantly greater rates than in a system that is biostimulated only.

  13. Comparison of upwind and downwind operation of the NREL Phase VI Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larwood, S. M.; Chow, R.

    2016-09-01

    Wind tunnel data are presented comparing upwind versus downwind operation of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Phase VI wind turbine. Power was not reduced as expected with downwind operation, which may be attributed to inboard three-dimensional effects. Average flap bending loads were reduced with downwind coning and compared well with prediction. Blade fatigue loads were increased with downwind operation; however, fatigue was mitigated with an aerodynamic tower shroud (fairing). The shroud needs to remain aligned with the freestream, demonstrated by an increase in fatigue loads from a 10° error in shroud alignment. Pressure data were acquired of the tower wake at the rotor location with and without the shroud installed. The bare-tower wake data compared well with previously published work. The shroud wake data at 10° error in alignment showed velocity reduction and turbulence approaching the bare tower values. Downwind operation, with an aligning tower shroud, should be considered for future designs given the load benefits of downwind coning.

  14. Comparison of Global Sizing Velocimetry and Phase Doppler Anemometry measurements of alternative jet fuel sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr, Reza; Kannaiyan, Kumaran

    2013-11-01

    Atomization plays a crucial precursor role in liquid fuel combustion that directly affects the evaporation, mixing, and emission levels. Laser diagnostic techniques are often used to study the spray characteristics of liquid fuels. The objective of this work is to compare the spray measurements of Gas-to Liquid (GTL) jet fuels obtained using Global Sizing Velocimetry (GSV) and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) techniques at global and local levels, respectively. The chemical and physical properties of GTL fuels are different from conventional jet fuels, owing to the difference in their production methodology. In this work, the experimental facility, the measurement techniques, and spray characteristics of two different GTL fuels are discussed and compared with those of Jet A-1 fuel. Results clearly demonstrate that although the global measurement gives an overall picture of the spray, fine details are obtained only through local measurements and complement in gaining more inferences into the spray characteristics. The results also show a close similarity in spray characteristics between GTL and Jet A-1 fuels. Funded by Qatar Science and Technology Park.

  15. An open label randomized multicentre phase IIIb trial comparing parenteral substitution versus best supportive nutritional care in subjects with pancreatic adenocarcinoma receiving 5-FU plus oxaliplatin as 2nd or higher line chemotherapy regarding clinical benefit - PANUSCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rötzer Ingeborg

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic cancer is an extremely aggressive malignancy. Subjects are afflicted with a variety of disconcerting symptoms, including profound cachexia. Recent data indicate that the outcome of oncological patients suffering from cancer cachexia could be improved by parenteral nutrition and that parenteral nutrition results in an improvement of quality of life and in prolonged survival. Currently, there is no recommendation of routine use of parenteral nutrition. Furthermore, there is no clear recommendation for 2nd line therapy (or higher for pancreatic adenocarcinoma but often asked for. Methods/Design PANUSCO is an open label, controlled, prospective, randomized, multicentre phase IIIb trial with two parallel arms. All patients will be treated with 5-fluorouracil, folinic acid and oxaliplatin on an outpatient basis at the study sites. Additionally, all patients will receive best supportive nutritional care (BSNC. In the experimental group BSNC will be expanded with parenteral nutrition (PN. In contrast, patients in the control group obtain solely BSNC. Parenteral nutrition will be applied overnight and at home by experienced medical staff. A total of 120 patients are planned to be enrolled. Primary endpoint is the comparison of the treatment groups with respect to event-free survival (EFS, defined as the time from randomization till time to development of an event defined as either an impairment (change from baseline of at least ten points in EORTC QLQ-C30, functional domain total score or withdrawal due to fulfilling the special defined stopping criteria for chemotherapy as well as for nutritional intervention (NI or death from any cause (whichever occurs first. Discussion The aim of this clinical trial is to evaluate whether parenteral nutrition in combination with defined 2nd line or higher chemotherapy has an impact on quality of life for patients suffering from pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Trial registration Current

  16. POTENTIAL USE OF PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS IN GREENHOUSES HEATING: COMPARISON WITH A TRADITIONAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Caprara

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to use solar radiation as thermal energy source, heat storage equipments result necessary in each application where continuous supply is required, because of the natural unsteady intensity of radiation during the day. Thermal solar collectors are especially suitable for low temperature applications, since their efficiency decreases when an high inlet temperature of fluid flowing through them is established. On the other hand, low temperatures and low temperature gaps, above all, make very difficult to use traditional sensible heat storing units (water tanks, because of the very large amounts of material required. In this work, a traditional sensible heat storage system is compared with a latent heat storing unit based on phase change materials (PCMs. As a case study, a 840 m3 greenhouse heating application was considered with an inside constant temperature of 18°C. It is thought to be heated by using single layer plate thermal solar collectors as energy source. Inlet temperature of the collectors fluid (HTF was fixed at 35°C (little higher than melting temperature of PCMs and a constant flux of 12 l/m2 hour was established as technical usual value. At these conditions, 215m2 solar panels exposed surface resulted necessary. The sensible heat storage system considered here is a traditional water tank storing unit equipped with two pipe coils, respectively for heat exchanges with HTF from collectors and water flux for greenhouse heating. Available DT for heat exchange is estimated as the difference of minimum HTF temperature (in outlet from the collectors and the required water temperature for greenhouse heating. The latent heat storing unit is instead a series of copper rectangular plate shells which a phase change material is filled in (Na2SO4⋅10H2O. Heat transfer fluids flow through thin channels between adjacent plates, so that a large heat exchange available surface is achieved. The developed computational model (Labview software

  17. Comparison of the outcome of burn patients using acute-phase plasma base deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, S H; As'adi, K; Mousavi, J

    2011-12-31

    Background. In recent years, plasma base deficit has been used as a marker to determine the status of tissue perfusion in trauma patients and also to predict the outcome of these patients. This study was performed to investigate the effect of plasma base deficit in predicting burn patient outcome. Methods. This prospective cohort study was performed from October 2009 to October 2010 in the acute phase of burn patients who were admitted within 6 h post-injury to Motahari Burn Hospital in Iran. The patients were divided into two groups based on the plasma base deficit in the first 24 h post-injury: group A, in which the mean plasma base deficit was less than or equal to -6 (more negative), and group B, in which the mean plasma base deficit greater than -6. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v.16 software. Results. Thirty-eight patients were enrolled in each group. The mean plasma base deficit in group A (-7.76 ± 2.18 mmol) was significantly less than that in group B (-1.19 ± 2.82) mmol (p 0.05) and despite removal of interfering factors, there were significant differences between the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome score and the percentage of sepsis between the two groups (p 0.05). Conclusion. The plasma base deficit can be used as a valuable marker in the resuscitation of burn patients, along with clinical criteria. Physiological indicators (burn percentage, age, and mucosal burns) are not sufficient to predict mortality and morbidity in burn patients, and it is necessary to investigate the role of biochemical markers such as base deficit in determining the final outcome of burn patients.

  18. Comparison of Phase-Based 3D Near-Field Source Localization Techniques for UHF RFID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Andreas; Miesen, Robert; Vossiek, Martin

    2016-06-25

    In this paper, we present multiple techniques for phase-based narrowband backscatter tag localization in three-dimensional space with planar antenna arrays or synthetic apertures. Beamformer and MUSIC localization algorithms, known from near-field source localization and direction-of-arrival estimation, are applied to the 3D backscatter scenario and their performance in terms of localization accuracy is evaluated. We discuss the impact of different transceiver modes known from the literature, which evaluate different send and receive antenna path combinations for a single localization, as in multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems. Furthermore, we propose a new Singledimensional-MIMO (S-MIMO) transceiver mode, which is especially suited for use with mobile robot systems. Monte-Carlo simulations based on a realistic multipath error model ensure spatial correlation of the simulated signals, and serve to critically appraise the accuracies of the different localization approaches. A synthetic uniform rectangular array created by a robotic arm is used to evaluate selected localization techniques. We use an Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Radiofrequency Identification (RFID) setup to compare measurements with the theory and simulation. The results show how a mean localization accuracy of less than 30 cm can be reached in an indoor environment. Further simulations demonstrate how the distance between aperture and tag affects the localization accuracy and how the size and grid spacing of the rectangular array need to be adapted to improve the localization accuracy down to orders of magnitude in the centimeter range, and to maximize array efficiency in terms of localization accuracy per number of elements.

  19. Comparison of tropospheric gas-phase chemistry schemes for use within global models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Emmerson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Methane and ozone are two important climate gases with significant tropospheric chemistry. Within chemistry-climate and transport models this chemistry is simplified for computational expediency. We compare the state of the art Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM with six tropospheric chemistry schemes (CRI-reduced, GEOS-CHEM and a GEOS-CHEM adduct, MOZART-2, TOMCAT and CBM-IV that could be used within composition transport models. We test the schemes within a box model framework under conditions derived from a composition transport model and from field observations from a regional scale pollution event. We find that CRI-reduced provides much skill in simulating the full chemistry, yet with greatly reduced complexity. We find significant variations between the other chemical schemes, and reach the following conclusions. 1 The inclusion of a gas phase N2O5+H2O reaction in one scheme and not others is a large source of uncertainty in the inorganic chemistry. 2 There are significant variations in the calculated concentration of PAN between the schemes, which will affect the long range transport of reactive nitrogen in global models. 3 The representation of isoprene chemistry differs hugely between the schemes, leading to significant uncertainties on the impact of isoprene on composition. 4 Differences are found in NO3 concentrations in the nighttime chemistry. Resolving these four issues through further investigative laboratory studies will reduce the uncertainties within the chemical schemes of global tropospheric models.

  20. Comparison of Phase-Based 3D Near-Field Source Localization Techniques for UHF RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Parr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present multiple techniques for phase-based narrowband backscatter tag localization in three-dimensional space with planar antenna arrays or synthetic apertures. Beamformer and MUSIC localization algorithms, known from near-field source localization and direction-of-arrival estimation, are applied to the 3D backscatter scenario and their performance in terms of localization accuracy is evaluated. We discuss the impact of different transceiver modes known from the literature, which evaluate different send and receive antenna path combinations for a single localization, as in multiple input multiple output (MIMO systems. Furthermore, we propose a new Singledimensional-MIMO (S-MIMO transceiver mode, which is especially suited for use with mobile robot systems. Monte-Carlo simulations based on a realistic multipath error model ensure spatial correlation of the simulated signals, and serve to critically appraise the accuracies of the different localization approaches. A synthetic uniform rectangular array created by a robotic arm is used to evaluate selected localization techniques. We use an Ultra High Frequency (UHF Radiofrequency Identification (RFID setup to compare measurements with the theory and simulation. The results show how a mean localization accuracy of less than 30 cm can be reached in an indoor environment. Further simulations demonstrate how the distance between aperture and tag affects the localization accuracy and how the size and grid spacing of the rectangular array need to be adapted to improve the localization accuracy down to orders of magnitude in the centimeter range, and to maximize array efficiency in terms of localization accuracy per number of elements.

  1. Comparison Between Different Processing Schedules for the Development of Ultrafine-Grained Dual-Phase Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Anish; Sivaprasad, S.; Nath, S. K.; Misra, R. D. K.; Chakrabarti, Debalay

    2014-05-01

    A comparative study was carried out on the development of ultrafine-grained dual-phase (DP) (ferrite-martensite) structures in a low-carbon microalloyed steel processed using two thermomechanical processing routes, (i) intercritical deformation and (ii) warm-deformation and intercritical annealing. The samples were deformed using Gleeble3500® simulator, maintaining a constant total strain ( ɛ = 1) and strain rate ( = 1/s). Evolution of microstructure and micro-texture was investigated by SEM, TEM, and EBSD. Ultrafine-grained DP structures could be formed by careful selection of deformation temperature, T def (for intercritical deformation) or annealing temperature, T anneal (for warm-deformation and annealing). Overall, the ferrite grain sizes ranged from 1.5 to 4.0 μm, and the sizes and fractions of the uniformly distributed fine-martensitic islands ranged from 1.5 to 3.0 μm and 15 to 45 pct, respectively. Dynamic strain-induced austenite-to-ferrite transformation followed by continuous (dynamic) recrystallization of the ferrite dictated the grain refinement during intercritical deformation, while, continuous (static) recrystallization by pronounced recovery dictated the grain refinement during the warm-deformation and the annealing. Regarding intercritical deformation, the samples cooled to T def indicated finer grain size compared with the samples heated to T def, which are explained in terms of the effects of strain partitioning on the ferrite and the heating during deformation. Alpha-fiber components dominated the texture in all the samples, and the fraction of high-angle boundaries (with >15 deg misorientation) increased with the increasing T def or T anneal, depending on the processing schedule. Fine carbide particles, microalloyed precipitates and austenitic islands played important roles in defining the mechanism of grain refinement that involved retarding conventional ferrite recrystallization and ferrite grain growth. With regard to the intercritical

  2. Offshore code comparison collaboration continuation (OC4), phase I - Results of coupled simulations of an offshore wind turbine with jacket support structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popko, Wojciech; Vorpahl, Fabian; Zuga, Adam;

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the exemplary results of the IEA Wind Task 30 "Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Continuation" (OC4) Project - Phase I, focused on the coupled simulation of an offshore wind turbine (OWT) with a jacket support structure, are presented. The focus of this task has been...

  3. Clarithromycin Plus Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy Can Reduce the Relapse Rate of Kawasaki Disease: A Phase 2, Open-Label, Randomized Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanishi, Etsuro; Nishio, Hisanori; Takada, Hidetoshi; Yamamura, Kenichiro; Fukazawa, Mitsuharu; Furuno, Kenji; Mizuno, Yumi; Saigo, Kenjiro; Kadoya, Ryo; Ohbuchi, Noriko; Onoe, Yasuhiro; Yamashita, Hironori; Nakayama, Hideki; Hara, Takuya; Ohno, Takuro; Takahashi, Yasuhiko; Hatae, Ken; Harada, Tatsuo; Shimose, Takayuki; Kishimoto, Junji; Ohga, Shouichi; Hara, Toshiro

    2017-07-06

    We previously reported that biofilms and innate immunity contribute to the pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease. Therefore, we aimed to assess the efficacy of clarithromycin, an antibiofilm agent, in patients with Kawasaki disease. We conducted an open-label, multicenter, randomized, phase 2 trial at 8 hospitals in Japan. Eligible patients included children aged between 4 months and 5 years who were enrolled between days 4 and 8 of illness. Participants were randomly allocated to receive either intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) or IVIG plus clarithromycin. The primary end point was the duration of fever after the initiation of IVIG treatment. Eighty-one eligible patients were randomized. The duration of the fever did not differ between the 2 groups (mean±SD, 34.3±32.4 and 31.1±31.1 hours in the IVIG plus clarithromycin group and the IVIG group, respectively [P=0.66]). The relapse rate of patients in the IVIG plus clarithromycin group was significantly lower than that in the IVIG group (12.5% versus 30.8%, P=0.046). No serious adverse events occurred during the study period. In a post hoc analysis, the patients in the IVIG plus clarithromycin group required significantly shorter mean lengths of hospital stays than those in the IVIG group (8.9 days versus 10.3 days, P=0.049). Although IVIG plus clarithromycin therapy failed to shorten the duration of fever, it reduced the relapse rate and shortened the duration of hospitalization in patients with Kawasaki disease. URL: http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm. Unique identifier: UMIN000015437. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  4. Impact of elosulfase alfa in patients with morquio A syndrome who have limited ambulation: An open-label, phase 2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmatz, Paul R; Mengel, Eugen; Geberhiwot, Tarekegn; Muschol, Nicole; Hendriksz, Christian J; Burton, Barbara K; Jameson, Elisabeth; Berger, Kenneth I; Jester, Andrea; Treadwell, Marsha; Sisic, Zlatko; Decker, Celeste

    2017-02-01

    Efficacy and safety of elosulfase alfa enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) were assessed in an open-label, phase 2, multi-national study in Morquio A patients aged ≥5 years unable to walk ≥30 meters in the 6-min walk test. Patients received elosulfase alfa 2.0 mg/kg/week intravenously for 48 weeks. Efficacy measures were functional dexterity, pinch/grip strength, mobility in a modified timed 25-foot walk, pain, quality of life, respiratory function, and urine keratan sulfate (KS). Safety/tolerability was also assessed. Fifteen patients received elosulfase alfa, three patients discontinued ERT due to adverse events (two were grade 3 drug-related adverse events, the other was not drug-related), and two patients missed >20% of planned infusions; 10 completed treatment through 48 weeks and received ≥80% of planned infusions (Modified Per Protocol [MPP] population). The study population had more advanced disease than that enrolled in other trials. From baseline to week 48, MPP data showed biochemical efficacy (urine KS decreased 52.4%). The remaining efficacy results were highly variable due to challenges in test execution because of severe skeletal and joint abnormalities, small sample sizes, and clinical heterogeneity among patients. Eight patients showed improvements in one or more outcome measures; several patients indicated improvements not captured by the study assessments (e.g., increased energy, functional ability). The nature of adverse events was similar to other elosulfase alfa studies. This study illustrates the considerable challenges in objectively measuring impact of ERT in very disabled Morquio A patients and highlights the need to examine results on an individual basis. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Primary analysis of a phase II open-label trial of INCB039110, a selective JAK1 inhibitor, in patients with myelofibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, John O.; Talpaz, Moshe; Gupta, Vikas; Foltz, Lynda M.; Savona, Michael R.; Paquette, Ronald; Turner, A. Robert; Coughlin, Paul; Winton, Elliott; Burn, Timothy C.; O’Neill, Peter; Clark, Jason; Hunter, Deborah; Assad, Albert; Hoffman, Ronald; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2017-01-01

    Combined Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) and JAK2 inhibition therapy effectively reduces splenomegaly and symptom burden related to myelofibrosis but is associated with dose-dependent anemia and thrombocytopenia. In this open-label phase II study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of three dose levels of INCB039110, a potent and selective oral JAK1 inhibitor, in patients with intermediate- or high-risk myelofibrosis and a platelet count ≥50×109/L. Of 10, 45, and 32 patients enrolled in the 100 mg twice-daily, 200 mg twice-daily, and 600 mg once-daily cohorts, respectively, 50.0%, 64.4%, and 68.8% completed week 24. A ≥50% reduction in total symptom score was achieved by 35.7% and 28.6% of patients in the 200 mg twice-daily cohort and 32.3% and 35.5% in the 600 mg once-daily cohort at week 12 (primary end point) and 24, respectively. By contrast, two patients (20%) in the 100 mg twice-daily cohort had ≥50% total symptom score reduction at weeks 12 and 24. For the 200 mg twice-daily and 600 mg once-daily cohorts, the median spleen volume reductions at week 12 were 14.2% and 17.4%, respectively. Furthermore, 21/39 (53.8%) patients who required red blood cell transfusions during the 12 weeks preceding treatment initiation achieved a ≥50% reduction in the number of red blood cell units transfused during study weeks 1–24. Only one patient discontinued for grade 3 thrombocytopenia. Non-hematologic adverse events were largely grade 1 or 2; the most common was fatigue. Treatment with INCB039110 resulted in clinically meaningful symptom relief, modest spleen volume reduction, and limited myelosuppression. PMID:27789678

  6. A phase II open label trial evaluating safety and efficacy of a telomerase peptide vaccination in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayuso Carmen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sole effective option for patients with advanced HCC is sorafenib and there is an urgent need to develop new therapeutic approaches. Immunotherapy is a promising option that deserves major investigation. In this open label, single arm clinical trial, we analyzed the effect of a low dose cyclophosphamide treatment in combination with a telomerase peptide (GV1001 vaccination in patients with advanced HCC. Methods 40 patients with advanced HCC were treated with 300 mg/m2 cyclophosphamide on day -3 followed by GM-CSF + GV1001 vaccinations on days 1, 3, 5, 8, 15, 22, 36 followed by 4-weekly injections. Primary endpoint of this phase II trial was tumor response; secondary endpoints evaluated were TTP, TTSP, PFS, OS, safety and immune responses. Results None of the patients had a complete or partial response to treatment, 17 patients (45.9% demonstrated a stable disease six months after initiation of treatment. The median TTP was 57.0 days; the median TTSP was estimated to be 358.0 days. Cyclophosphamide, GV1001 and GM-CSF treatment were well tolerated and most adverse events, which were of grade 1 or 2, were generally related to the injection procedure and injection site reactions. GV1001 treatment resulted in a decrease in CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells; however, no GV1001 specific immune responses were detected after vaccination. Conclusions Low dose cyclophosphamide treatment followed by GV1001 vaccinations did not show antitumor efficacy as per tumor response and time to progression. Further studies are needed to analyze the effect of a combined chemo-immunotherapy to treat patients with HCC. Trial registration NCT00444782

  7. Itolizumab in combination with methotrexate modulates active rheumatoid arthritis: safety and efficacy from a phase 2, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, dose-ranging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Arvind; Chandrashekara, S; Iyer, Rajgopalan; Rajasekhar, Liza; Shetty, Naresh; Veeravalli, Sarathchandra Mouli; Ghosh, Alakendu; Merchant, Mrugank; Oak, Jyotsna; Londhey, Vikram; Barve, Abhijit; Ramakrishnan, M S; Montero, Enrique

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of itolizumab with methotrexate in active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who had inadequate response to methotrexate. In this open-label, phase 2 study, 70 patients fulfilling American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria and negative for latent tuberculosis were randomized to four arms: 0.2, 0.4, or 0.8 mg/kg itolizumab weekly combined with oral methotrexate, and methotrexate alone (2:2:2:1). Patients were treated for 12 weeks, followed by 12 weeks of methotrexate alone during follow-up. Twelve weeks of itolizumab therapy was well tolerated. Forty-four patients reported adverse events (AEs); except for six severe AEs, all others were mild or moderate. Infusion-related reactions mainly occurred after the first infusion, and none were reported after the 11th infusion. No serum anti-itolizumab antibodies were detected. In the full analysis set, all itolizumab doses showed evidence of efficacy. At 12 weeks, 50 % of the patients achieved ACR20, and 58.3 % moderate or good 28-joint count Disease Activity Score (DAS-28) response; at week 24, these responses were seen in 22 and 31 patients. Significant improvements were seen in Short Form-36 Health Survey and Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index scores. Overall, itolizumab in combination with methotrexate was well tolerated and efficacious in RA for 12 weeks, with efficacy persisting for the entire 24-week evaluation period. (Clinical Trial Registry of India, http://ctri.nic.in/Clinicaltrials/login.php , CTRI/2008/091/000295).

  8. Safety and tolerability of intrathecal delivery of autologous bone marrow nucleated cells in children with cerebral palsy: an open-label phase I trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancías-Guerra, Consuelo; Marroquín-Escamilla, Alma Rosa; González-Llano, Oscar; Villarreal-Martínez, Laura; Jaime-Pérez, José Carlos; García-Rodríguez, Fernando; Valdés-Burnes, Sagrario Lisete; Rodríguez-Romo, Laura Nely; Barrera-Morales, Dinorah Catalina; Sánchez-Hernández, José Javier; Cantú-Rodríguez, Olga Graciela; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, César Homero; Gómez-De León, Andrés; Elizondo-Riojas, Guillermo; Salazar-Riojas, Rosario; Gómez-Almaguer, David

    2014-06-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is related to severe perinatal hypoxia with permanent brain damage in nearly 50% of surviving preterm infants. Cell therapy is a potential therapeutic option for CP by several mechanisms, including immunomodulation through cytokine and growth factor secretion. In this phase I open-label clinical trial, 18 pediatric patients with CP were included to assess the safety of autologous bone marrow-derived total nucleated cell (TNC) intrathecal and intravenous injection after stimulation with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Motor, cognitive, communication, personal-social and adaptive areas were evaluated at baseline and 1 and 6 months after the procedure through the use of the Battelle Developmental Inventory. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at baseline and 6 months after therapy. This study was registered in ClinicaTrials.gov (NCT01019733). A median of 13.12 × 10(8) TNCs (range, 4.83-53.87) including 10.02 × 10(6) CD34+ cells (range, 1.02-29.9) in a volume of 7 mL (range, 4-10.5) was infused intrathecally. The remaining cells from the bone marrow aspirate were administered intravenously; 6.01 × 10(8) TNCs (range, 1.36-17.85), with 3.39 × 10(6) cells being CD34+. Early adverse effects included headache, vomiting, fever and stiff neck occurred in three patients. No serious complications were documented. An overall 4.7-month increase in developmental age according to the Battelle Developmental Inventory, including all areas of evaluation, was observed (±SD 2.63). No MRI changes at 6 months of follow-up were found. Subarachnoid placement of autologous bone marrow-derived TNC in children with CP is a safe procedure. The results suggest a possible increase in neurological function. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy of Rituximab in Refractory Inflammatory Myopathies Associated with Anti- Synthetase Auto-Antibodies: An Open-Label, Phase II Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Allenbach

    Full Text Available Anti-synthetase syndrome (anti-SS is frequently associated with myositis and interstitial lung disease (ILD. We evaluated prospectively, in a multicenter, open-label, phase II study, the efficacy of rituximab on muscle and lung outcomes.Patients were enrolled if they were refractory to conventional treatments (prednisone and at least 2 immunosuppressants. They received 1 g of rituximab at D0, D15, and M6. The primary endpoint was muscular improvement based on manual muscular testing (MMT10, Kendall score in 10 muscles at M12. Secondary endpoints were normalization of creatine kinase (CK level, ILD improvement based on forced vital capacity and/or diffuse capacity for carbon monoxide, and number and/or doses of associated immunosuppressants.Twelve patients were enrolled, and 10 completed the study. Only 2 patients presented an improvement of at least 4 points on at least two muscle groups (primary end-point. Overall, seven patients had an increase of at least 4 points on MMT10. CK level decreased from 399 IU/L (range, 48-11,718 to 74.5 IU/L (range, 40-47,857. Corticosteroid doses decreased from 52.5 mg/d (range, 10-70 to 9 mg/d (range, 7-65 and six patients had a decrease in the burden of their associated immunosuppressants. At baseline, all 10 patients presented with ILD. At M12, improvement of ILD was observed in 5 out of the 10 patients, stabilization in 4, and worsening in 1.This pilot study of rituximab treatment in patients with refractory anti-SS provided data on evolution of muscular and pulmonary parameters. Rituximab should now be evaluated in a larger, controlled study for this homogenous group of patients.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00774462.

  10. Antiproliferative effects of lanreotide autogel in patients with progressive, well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours: a Spanish, multicentre, open-label, single arm phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Richard, Marta; Massutí, Bartomeu; Pineda, Eva; Alonso, Vicente; Marmol, Maribel; Castellano, Daniel; Fonseca, Emilio; Galán, Antonio; Llanos, Marta; Sala, Maria Angeles; Pericay, Carlos; Rivera, Fernando; Sastre, Javier; Segura, Angel; Quindós, Maria; Maisonobe, Pascal

    2013-09-20

    Somatostatin analogues (SSAs) are indicated to relieve carcinoid syndrome but seem to have antiproliferative effects on neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). This is the first prospective study investigating tumour stabilisation with the long-acting SSA lanreotide Autogel in patients with progressive NETs. This was a multicentre, open-label, phase II trial conducted in 17 Spanish specialist centres. Patients with well-differentiated NETs and radiologically confirmed progression within the previous 6 months received lanreotide Autogel, 120 mg every 28 days over ≤92 weeks. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were response rate, tumour biomarkers, symptom control, quality of life (QoL), and safety. Radiographic imaging was assessed by a blinded central radiologist. Of 30 patients included in the efficacy and safety analyses, 40% had midgut tumours and 27% pancreatic tumours; 63% of tumours were functioning. Median PFS time was 12.9 (95% CI: 7.9, 16.5) months, and most patients achieved disease stabilisation (89%) or partial response (4%). No deterioration in QoL was observed. Nineteen patients (63%) experienced treatment-related adverse events, most frequently diarrhoea and asthenia; only one treatment-related adverse event (aerophagia) was severe. Lanreotide Autogel provided effective tumour stabilisation and PFS >12 months in patients with progressive NETs ineligible for surgery or chemotherapy, with a safety profile consistent with the pharmacology of the class. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00326469; EU Clinical Trial Register EudraCT no 2004-002871-18.

  11. Safety, Acceptability, and Use of a Smartphone App, BlueIce, for Young People Who Self-Harm: Protocol for an Open Phase I Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Paul; Porter, Joanna; Grist, Rebecca

    2016-11-16

    Up to 18% of adolescents will engage in an act of self-harm before young adulthood, with the majority of acts occurring in private. Mobile apps may offer a way of providing support for young people at times of distress to prevent self-harm. This is a proof-of-concept study designed to explore the safety, acceptability, feasibility, and usability of a smartphone app, BlueIce, with young people who are self-harming. In this phase I open trial we will evaluate BlueIce, a smartphone app developed and coproduced with young people with lived experience of self-harm. BlueIce includes a mood-monitoring diary, selection of mood-lifting techniques based on cognitive behavior therapy and dialectical behavior therapy, and direct access to emergency telephone numbers. We will recruit young people (n=50) attending specialist child and adolescent mental health services with a current or past history of self-harm to trial BlueIce as an adjunct to their usual care. Questionnaires and interviews will be completed at baseline, postfamiliarization (2 weeks), and at follow-up (12 weeks after baseline) to assess safety, app use, and acceptability. Interviews will be undertaken with clinicians to assess the feasibility of BlueIce within a clinical setting. Recruitment occurred between May and November 2016. The recruitment target was 50, and by the beginning of November 54 young people had been referred. This study is the first to evaluate an app specifically developed with young people for young people (under the age of 18 years) who self-harm. It will determine whether BlueIce is acceptable, how often it is used, and whether it is safe and does not have any unintentional adverse effects. This information will determine whether a feasibility trial to test recruitment, randomization, retention, and appropriate outcome measures should be pursued.

  12. Comparisons of external fixator combined with limited internal fixation and open reduction and internal fixation for Sanders type 2 calcaneal fractures: Finite element analysis and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, M; Chai, L; Xue, F; Ding, L; Tang, G; Lv, B

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical stability and clinical outcome of external fixator combined with limited internal fixation (EFLIF) and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) in treating Sanders type 2 calcaneal fractures. Two types of fixation systems were selected for finite element analysis and a dual cohort study. Two fixation systems were simulated to fix the fracture in a finite element model. The relative displacement and stress distribution were analysed and compared. A total of 71 consecutive patients with closed Sanders type 2 calcaneal fractures were enrolled and divided into two groups according to the treatment to which they chose: the EFLIF group and the ORIF group. The radiological and clinical outcomes were evaluated and compared. The relative displacement of the EFLIF was less than that of the plate (0.1363 mm to 0.1808 mm). The highest von Mises stress value on the plate was 33% higher than that on the EFLIF. A normal restoration of the Böhler angle was achieved in both groups. No significant difference was found in the clinical outcome on the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle Hindfoot Scale, or on the Visual Analogue Scale between the two groups (p > 0.05). Wound complications were more common in those who were treated with ORIF (p = 0.028). Both EFLIF and ORIF systems were tested to 160 N without failure, showing the new construct to be mechanically safe to use. Both EFLIF and ORIF could be effective in treating Sanders type 2 calcaneal fractures. The EFLIF may be superior to ORIF in achieving biomechanical stability and less blood loss, shorter surgical time and hospital stay, and fewer wound complications.Cite this article: M. Pan, L. Chai, F. Xue, L. Ding, G. Tang, B. Lv. Comparisons of external fixator combined with limited internal fixation and open reduction and internal fixation for Sanders type 2 calcaneal fractures: Finite element analysis and clinical outcome. Bone Joint Res 2017

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of spinodal decomposition in a ternary alloy within a three-phases field: comparison to phase transformation of ferrite in duplex stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emo, Jonathan; Pareige, Cristelle; Saillet, Sébastien; Domain, Christophe; Pareige, Philippe

    2014-06-01

    This work proposes to model phase transformations occurring in duplex stainless steels using atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo in a ternary model alloy. Kinetics are simulated in the three-phase field of a ternary system. Influence of the precipitation of the third phase on the kinetic of spinodal decomposition between the two other phases is studied in order to understand the synergy between spinodal decomposition and G-phase precipitation which exists in duplex stainless steels. Simulation results are compared to experimental data obtained with atom probe tomography.

  14. The Comparison and Reference Study on Asian Open University Organization Structure%亚洲开放大学组织结构比较分析*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓楠; 李娟

    2013-01-01

    Organization structure research has been the core concern of organization researches. In the field of higher education, university organization structure has been considered as an important element to influence the operation and development of universities. The definition of Open University organization structure refers to its system of division and cooperation in terms of duty and power under the guidance of organization position, including labor division, level hierarchy, organization structure of branch campuses, power division and cooperation mechanism. From the international comparison perspective, the 7 Open Universities in Asia share many common features in organization position, organization circumstance, organization character, organization structure. Due to the differences among the environment, culture, background, the 7 universities differ from each other in organization structure of branch campuses, interior governance, subject combination model and power allocation between administration and academy. It is inevitable to probe into and solve the issues of Open University system when the construction of Open University in China has entered into the essential stage. The organization structure of Open University should be readjusted and improved. The construction of Open University of China should base itself on Chinese conditions and use international experience for reference. We should accelerate the process of life-long education legislation in organization circumstance, stress decentralization management and cooperation in organization structure of branch campuses, emphasize power mutual restriction between academy and administration in interior governance, and explore the various patterns of subject combination models.%  组织结构研究一直是组织研究领域中的核心问题。在高等教育领域,大学的组织结构被认为是影响大学组织运行与发展的重要因素。开放大学的组织结构是指开放

  15. The impact of robotic surgery for mid and low rectal cancer: a case-matched analysis of a 3-arm comparison--open, laparoscopic, and robotic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeonghyun; Yoon, Kyu Jong; Min, Byung Soh; Hur, Hyuk; Baik, Seung Hyuk; Kim, Nam Kyu; Lee, Kang Young

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the impact of robotic surgery (RS) in the management of mid and low rectal cancer in comparison with open surgery (OS) and laparoscopic surgery (LS). The benefits of RS in the treatment of rectal cancer have not yet been clearly described. Using propensity scores for adjustment of sex, age, body mass index, tumor stage, and tumor height, a well-balanced cohort with 165 patients in each group, was created by matching each patient who underwent RS as the study group with one who underwent OS or LS as the control group (RS:OS = 1:1, RS:LS = 1:1 match). Pathological results, morbidity, perioperative recovery, and short-term oncological results were compared between the 3 groups. In RS and LS, the time to first flatus and resumed soft diet and length of hospital stay were significantly shortened compared with OS. Robotic surgery showed better recovery outcomes than LS with regard to time to resumed soft diet and length of hospital stay. The visual analog scale was significantly lower in the RS than in the OS and LS from postoperative days 1 to 5. The voiding problem and circumferential resection margin involvement rate were significantly lower in the RS group than in the OS group. No significant difference in 2-year disease-free survival was observed among the 3 groups. Robotic surgery may be an effective tool in the effort to maximize the advantages of minimally invasive surgery in the management of mid to low rectal cancer.

  16. Comparison of Relative Activation Energies Obtained by Density Functional Theory and the Random Phase Approximation for Several Claisen Rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Madeline K; Vine, Seanna; Walsh, Elizabeth; Avrantinis, Sara; Daub, G William; Cave, Robert J

    2016-03-03

    We investigate several representative density functional theory approaches for the calculation of relative activation energies and free energies of a set of model pericyclic reactions, some of which have been studied experimentally. In particular, we use a standard hybrid functional (B3LYP), the same hybrid functional augmented with a basis set superposition error and dispersion correction, a meta-hybrid functional developed to treat transition states and weak interactions (M06-2X), and the recently implemented random phase approximation (RPA) based on Kohn-Sham orbitals from conventional density functional theory by Furche and co-workers. We apply these methods to calculate relative activation energies and estimated free energies for the amide acetal Claisen rearrangement. We focus on relative activation energies to assess the effects of steric and weak interactions in the various methods and compare with experiment where possible. We also discuss the advantages of using this set of reactions as a test bed for the comparison of treatments of weak interactions. We conclude that all methods yield similar trends in relative reactivity, but the RPA yields results in best agreement with the experimental values.

  17. Comparison between dynamic headspace and headspace solid-phase microextraction for gas chromatography of BTEX in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcić Karaconji, Irena; Skender, Ljiljana

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two extraction procedures: dynamic headspace-purge and trap (PT) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) for gas chromatographic determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and isomeric xylenes (BTEX) in urine with photoionization (PID) and mass spectrometric (MS) detection, respectively. Both methods showed linearity in the range of interest [(50-2000) ng L-1], good accuracy (80% to 100%), and repeatability (RSD< or =11%). Detection limits were in the low ng L-1 level for both methods, although slightly greater sensitivity was found for the PT method. In comparison with PT, HS-SPME was simpler and required less time for analysis. Although the analytical features of both examined methods are appropriate for biomonitoring of environmental exposure to BTEX, only the HS-SPME-GC-MS method is recommended for routine analysis of BTEX in urine. The method was applied for the quantitative analysis of BTEX in urine samples collected from non-smokers (n=10) and smokers (n=10).

  18. Comparison of lock-in and pulse-phase thermography for defect characterization in FRP composites applied to concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeff; Chittineni, Sai Harsha

    2015-05-01

    Thermal imaging is a well-established technique for the non-destructive evaluation of FRP composites applied to reinforced concrete. Defect characterization using IR thermography, however, remains a topic of on-going research, and there are currently no universally accepted standards for data collection or interpretation. This research involved large scale thermography inspection of two FRP strengthened bridge girders that were removed from service after approximately 10 years of service in a potentially corrosive marine environment. Trial inspections were performed on test areas where defects could be identified using sounding methods. Two procedures showed the most promise for identifying and characterizing defects: sinusoidal (lock-in style) heating with periods ranging from 5 s to 40 s and constant step heating for 30 s followed by 60 s of cooling. Both methods resulted in a series of phase images that provided insight into the depth and general nature of detected defects. This paper presents the findings of a comparison study between these two thermal imaging techniques.

  19. Efficacy of azacitidine compared with that of conventional care regimens in the treatment of higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes: a randomised, open-label, phase III study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenaux, Pierre; Mufti, Ghulam J; Hellstrom-Lindberg, Eva; Santini, Valeria; Finelli, Carlo; Giagounidis, Aristoteles; Schoch, Robert; Gattermann, Norbert; Sanz, Guillermo; List, Alan; Gore, Steven D; Seymour, John F; Bennett, John M; Byrd, John; Backstrom, Jay; Zimmerman, Linda; McKenzie, David; Beach, C L; Silverman, Lewis R

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Drug treatments for patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes provide no survival advantage. In this trial, we aimed to assess the effect of azacitidine on overall survival compared with the three commonest conventional care regimens. Methods In a phase III, international, multicentre, controlled, parallel-group, open-label trial, patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes were randomly assigned one-to-one to receive azacitidine (75 mg/m² per day for 7 days every 28 days) or conventional care (best supportive care, low-dose cytarabine, or intensive chemotherapy as selected by investigators before randomisation). Patients were stratified by French–American–British and international prognostic scoring system classifications; randomisation was done with a block size of four. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Efficacy analyses were by intention to treat for all patients assigned to receive treatment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00071799. Findings Between Feb 13, 2004, and Aug 7, 2006, 358 patients were randomly assigned to receive azacitidine (n=179) or conventional care regimens (n=179). Four patients in the azacitidine and 14 in the conventional care groups received no study drugs but were included in the intention-to-treat efficacy analysis. After a median follow-up of 21·1 months (IQR 15·1–26·9), median overall survival was 24·5 months (9·9–not reached) for the azacitidine group versus 15·0 months (5·6–24·1) for the conventional care group (hazard ratio 0·58; 95% CI 0·43–0·77; stratified log-rank p=0·0001). At last follow-up, 82 patients in the azacitidine group had died compared with 113 in the conventional care group. At 2 years, on the basis of Kaplan-Meier estimates, 50·8% (95% CI 42·1–58·8) of patients in the azacitidine group were alive compared with 26·2% (18·7–34·3) in the conventional care group (p<0·0001). Peripheral cytopenias were the most

  20. Randomized open-label phase II study comparing oxycodone-naloxone with oxycodone in early return of gastrointestinal function after laparoscopic colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, F; Balfour, A; Nimmo, S; Foo, I; Norrie, J D; Williams, L J; Fearon, K C; Paterson, H M

    2017-01-01

    Combined oral modified-release oxycodone-naloxone may reduce opioid-induced postoperative gut dysfunction. This study examined the feasibility of a randomized trial of oxycodone-naloxone within the context of enhanced recovery for laparoscopic colorectal resection. In a single-centre open-label phase II feasibility study, patients received analgesia based on either oxycodone-naloxone or oxycodone. Primary endpoints were recruitment, retention and protocol compliance. Secondary endpoints included a composite endpoint of gut function (tolerance of solid food, low nausea/vomiting score, passage of flatus or faeces). Eighty-two patients were screened and 62 randomized (76 per cent); the attrition rate was 19 per cent (12 of 62), leaving 50 patients who received the allocated intervention with 100 per cent follow-up and retention (modified intention-to-treat cohort). Protocol compliance was more than 90 per cent. Return of gut function by day 3 was similar in the two groups: 13 (48 per cent) of 27 in the oxycodone-naloxone group and 15 (65 per cent) of 23 in the control group (95 per cent c.i. for difference -10·0 to 40·7 per cent; P = 0·264). However, patients in the oxycodone-naloxone group had a shorter time to first bowel movement (mean(s.d.) 87(38) h versus 111(37) h in the control group; 95 per cent c.i. for difference 2·3 to 45·4 h, P = 0·031) and reduced total (oral plus parenteral) opioid consumption (mean(s.d.) 78(36) versus 94(56) mg respectively; 95 per cent c.i. for difference -10·2 to 42·8 mg, P = 0·222). High participation, retention and protocol compliance confirmed feasibility. Potential benefits of oxycodone-naloxone in reducing time to bowel movement and total opioid consumption could be tested in a randomized trial. Registration number: NCT02109640 (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/). © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. EXpanding Treatment for Existing Neurological Disease (EXTEND): An Open-Label Phase II Clinical Trial of Hydroxyurea Treatment in Sickle Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Courtney R; Reid, Marvin E; Soares, Deanne P; Taylor-Bryan, Carolyn; Knight-Madden, Jennifer M; Stuber, Susan E; Badaloo, Asha V; Aldred, Karen; Wisdom-Phipps, Margaret E; Latham, Teresa; Ware, Russell E

    2016-01-01

    Background Cerebral vasculopathy in sickle cell anemia (SCA) begins in childhood and features intracranial arterial stenosis with high risk of ischemic stroke. Stroke risk can be reduced by transcranial doppler (TCD) screening and chronic transfusion therapy; however, this approach is impractical in many developing countries. Accumulating evidence supports the use of hydroxyurea for the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular disease in children with SCA. Recently we reported that hydroxyurea significantly reduced the conversion from conditional TCD velocities to abnormal velocities; whether hydroxyurea can be used for children with newly diagnosed severe cerebrovascular disease in place of starting transfusion therapy remains unknown. Objective The primary objective of the EXpanding Treatment for Existing Neurological Disease (EXTEND) trial is to investigate the effect of open label hydroxyurea on the maximum time-averaged mean velocity (TAMV) after 18 months of treatment compared to the pre-treatment value. Secondary objectives include the effects of hydroxyurea on serial TCD velocities, the incidence of neurological and non-neurological events, quality of life (QOL), body composition and metabolism, toxicity and treatment response, changes to brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), genetic and serologic markers of disease severity, and cognitive and pulmonary function. Methods This prospective Phase II trial will enroll children with SCA in Jamaica, between the ages of 2 and 17 years, with either conditional (170-199 cm/sec) or abnormal (≥ 200 cm/sec) TCD velocities. Oral hydroxyurea will be administered daily and escalated to the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Participants will be seen in the Sickle Cell Unit (SCU) in Kingston, Jamaica monthly until achieving MTD, and then every 3 months. TCD will be performed every 6 months. Results Currently, 43 participants have been enrolled out of a projected 50. There was one

  2. Transcriptomic Profile of Whole Blood Cells from Elderly Subjects Fed Probiotic Bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (LGG in a Phase I Open Label Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Solano-Aguilar

    Full Text Available We examined gene expression of whole blood cells (WBC from 11 healthy elderly volunteers participating on a Phase I open label study before and after oral treatment with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-ATCC 53103 (LGG using RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq. Elderly patients (65-80 yrs completed a clinical assessment for health status and had blood drawn for cellular RNA extraction at study admission (Baseline, after 28 days of daily LGG treatment (Day 28 and at the end of the study (Day 56 after LGG treatment had been suspended for 28 days. Treatment compliance was verified by measuring LGG-DNA copy levels detected in host fecal samples. Normalized gene expression levels in WBC RNA were analyzed using a paired design built within three analysis platforms (edgeR, DESeq2 and TSPM commonly used for gene count data analysis. From the 25,990 transcripts detected, 95 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were detected in common by all analysis platforms with a nominal significant difference in gene expression at Day 28 following LGG treatment (FDR<0.1; 77 decreased and 18 increased. With a more stringent significance threshold (FDR<0.05, only two genes (FCER2 and LY86, were down-regulated more than 1.5 fold and met the criteria for differential expression across two analysis platforms. The remaining 93 genes were only detected at this threshold level with DESeq2 platform. Data analysis for biological interpretation of DEGs with an absolute fold change of 1.5 revealed down-regulation of overlapping genes involved with Cellular movement, Cell to cell signaling interactions, Immune cell trafficking and Inflammatory response. These data provide evidence for LGG-induced transcriptional modulation in healthy elderly volunteers because pre-treatment transcription levels were restored at 28 days after LGG treatment was stopped. To gain insight into the signaling pathways affected in response to LGG treatment, DEG were mapped using biological pathways and genomic data mining

  3. Phase II study of reintroduction of oxaliplatin for advanced colorectal cancer in patients previously treated with oxaliplatin and irinotecan: RE-OPEN study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suenaga M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitsukuni Suenaga,1 Nobuyuki Mizunuma,1 Satoshi Matsusaka,1 Eiji Shinozaki,1 Masato Ozaka,1 Mariko Ogura,1 Toshiharu Yamaguchi21Department of Gastroenterology, 2Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The effectiveness of reintroducing oxaliplatin in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer refractory to standard chemotherapy has not been verified. We performed a single-arm, open-label, Phase II study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of reintroducing oxaliplatin. Methods: Eligible patients had received prior chemotherapy including oxaliplatin and irinotecan that achieved a response or stable disease followed by confirmed disease progression ≥6 months previously during prior oxaliplatin-based therapy. The primary endpoint was the disease control rate (DCR after 12 weeks of treatment starting. The DCR was defined as the sum of patients with complete response, partial response, and stable disease. Results: Thirty-three patients were enrolled. The median age was 62 (range: 35–77 years and the male/female ratio was 19/14. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 0 in 84.8%. Fourteen primary tumors were in the colon and 19 were in the rectum. All patients received modified FOLFOX6 as the protocol treatment. After 12 weeks of treatment starting, the DCR was 39.4% (95% confidence interval 21.8–57.0 and the response rate (complete response and partial response was 6.1%. The median number of chemotherapy cycles was five and the median total dose of oxaliplatin was 425 mg/m2. Median progression-free survival time was 98 days and median overall survival was 300 days. The incidence of grade ≥1 and grade ≥3 allergic reactions was 28.1% and 3.1%, respectively. The incidence of grade ≥1 and grade ≥3 peripheral sensory neuropathy was 53.1% and 0%, respectively. There were no other severe adverse events and no treatment

  4. Immunogenicity and safety of a quadrivalent influenza vaccine in children and adolescents in Taiwan: A phase III open-label trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yi Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, all seasonal influenza vaccines have been trivalent, containing strains A(H1N1, A(H3N2, and one of the two B strain lineages (Yamagata or Victoria, resulting in frequent mismatches between the circulating B strain lineage and that included in the vaccine. A quadrivalent, inactivated, split-virion influenza vaccine (IIV4 containing strains from both B lineages has been developed to address this. We performed an open-label phase III study to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the 2013–2014 Northern Hemisphere formulation of IIV4 in children and adolescents 9–17 years of age in Taiwan. Participants were vaccinated with one dose of IIV4 by intramuscular or deep subcutaneous injection. Hemagglutinin inhibition (HAI titers were measured before and 21 days after vaccination. Solicited injection-site and systemic reactions were assessed for up to 7 days after vaccination, and adverse events (AEs were recorded until day 21. One hundred participants were included. Despite relatively high pre-vaccination titers, post-vaccination HAI titers increased for all four strains, with geometric mean ratios (day 21/day 0 of 2.29 for A(H1N1, 2.05 for A(H3N2, 3.33 for B/Massachusetts (Yamagata lineage, and 4.59 for B/Brisbane (Victoria lineage. Post-vaccination seroprotection rates were 99% for A(H3N2 and 100% for A(H1N1, B/Massachusetts, and B/Brisbane. Due to high pre-vaccination titers, rates of seroconversion/significant increase of HAI titer were relatively low at 24% for A(H1N1, 20% for A(H3N2, 39% for B/Massachusetts, and 48% for B/Brisbane. Injection-site pain (56%, myalgia (45%, and malaise (15% were the most frequently reported solicited reactions, and most solicited reactions were mild or moderate. No treatment-related AEs, immediate unsolicited AEs, unsolicited non-serious injection-site AEs, grade 3 unsolicited AEs, or serious AEs were reported. In conclusion, this study showed that the 2013–2014 Northern Hemisphere

  5. Open-label phase II clinical trial in 75 patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma receiving daily dose of tableted liver cancer vaccine, hepcortespenlisimut-L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarakanovskaya MG

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Marina G Tarakanovskaya,1 Jigjidsuren Chinburen,2 Purev Batchuluun,2 Chogsom Munkhzaya,2 Genden Purevsuren,2 Dorjiin Dandii,3 Tsogkhuu Hulan,3 Dandii Oyungerel,4 Galyna A Kutsyna,5 Alan A Reid,6 Vika Borisova,6 Allen I Bain,7 Vichai Jirathitikal,7 Aldar S Bourinbaiar6–8 1Ekomed LLC, 2National Cancer Center, 3Monserum LLC, 4National Center for Public Health, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia; 5Department of Infectious Diseases, Luhansk State Medical University, Luhansk, Ukraine; 6Immunitor China Ltd, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 7Immunitor Inc, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 8Immunitor LLC, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia Background: An increasing number of studies is now devoted to immunotherapy of cancer. We evaluated the clinical benefit of hepcortespenlisimut-L (Hepko-V5 [formerly known as V5]—an oral therapeutic vaccine designated by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA as an orphan drug for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. V5 was initially developed by us in 2002 to treat hepatitis B or C viral infections and liver cirrhosis.Methods: The outcome of open-label Phase II trial of daily dose of V5 pill was analyzed retrospectively. Over a period of 5 years, 75 patients with advanced HCC were enrolled, consisting of 29 (38.7% females and 46 (61.3% males with a median age of 60 years (mean 61.6±8.1 years. Out of these, 23 (30.7% had hepatitis B and 34 (45.3% had hepatitis C infections, including 9 (12% with dual infection, 4 (5.3% negative for both viruses, and 5 (6.7% without established viral diagnosis. Most patients (94.7% had underlying liver cirrhosis of varying severity.Results: After a median of 2 months of treatment, 50 out of 75 patients had experienced a decline in serum levels of the tumor marker, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP (66.7%; P=0.006 by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Baseline median AFP levels were 245.2 IU/mL (mean 4,233; range 7.2–92,407; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1,186–7,280 and post-treatment values were 102.3 IU

  6. Characterisation of reversed-phase liquid chromatography stationary phases for the analysis of basic pharmaceuticals : eluent properties and comparison of empirical test methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, RJM; Ruyter, E; Debets, AJJ; Claessens, HA; Cramers, CA; de Jong, GJ

    2001-01-01

    The reversed-phase liquid chromatographic analysis of basic pharmaceuticals can be problematic. Both the properties of the eluent and the stationary phase can influence the chromatographic performance. Therefore selection of suitable experimental conditions for the analysis of basic compounds can be

  7. The InterFrost benchmark of Thermo-Hydraulic codes for cold regions hydrology - first inter-comparison phase results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Christophe; Rühaak, Wolfram

    2016-04-01

    are essentially theoretical but include the full complexity of the coupled non-linear set of equations (heat transfer with conduction, advection, phase change and Darcian flow). The complete set of inter-comparison results shows that the participating codes all produce simulations which are quantitatively similar and correspond to physical intuition. From a quantitative perspective, they agree well over the whole set of performance measures. The differences among the simulation results will be discussed in more depth throughout the test cases especially for the identification of the threshold times for each system as these exhibited the least agreement. However, the results suggest that in spite of the difficulties associated with the resolution of the set of TH equations (coupled and non-linear structure with phase change providing steep slopes), the developed codes provide robust results with a qualitatively reasonable representation of the processes and offer a quantitatively realistic basis. Further perspectives of the exercise will also be presented.

  8. Open access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Open access week Van 19 tot en met 25 oktober 2015 vond wereldwijd de Open Access Week plaats. Tijdens deze week werden er over de hele wereld evenementen georganiseerd waar open access een rol speelt. Ook in Nederland zijn er diverse symposia, workshops en debatten georganiseerd zoals het debat in

  9. Focused, phased-array plane piston and spherically-shaped concave piston transducers: comparison for the same aperture and focal point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warriner, Renée K; Cobbold, Richard S C

    2012-04-01

    It has sometimes been assumed that the phased-array plane piston transducer and the spherically-shaped concave piston transducer are equivalent structures when both have the same aperture and focal point. This assumption has not been previously examined, nor has an expression for the on-axis impulse response of the focused, phased-array plane piston transducer been derived. It is shown in this paper how such an expression can be obtained. Comparisons of the impulse response for both structures show similarities, as well as some differences that could be significant as the observation point approaches the focal point. Comparisons are also performed for wide-band pulses close to the focus as well as for sinusoidal excitation. A physical explanation for the cause of the impulse response discrepancy is shown to be due to the nature of the piston focusing delay and its effect on the Rayleigh integral.

  10. Single-phase and two-phase anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable waste: Comparison of start-up, reactor stability and process performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesh, Rangaraj [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France); Torrijos, Michel, E-mail: michel.torrijos@supagro.inra.fr [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France); Sousbie, Philippe [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France); Lugardon, Aurelien [Naskeo Environnment, 52 rue Paul Vaillant Couturier, F-92240 Malakoff (France); Steyer, Jean Philippe; Delgenes, Jean Philippe [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Single-phase and two-phase systems were compared for fruit and vegetable waste digestion. • Single-phase digestion produced a methane yield of 0.45 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS and 83% VS removal. • Substrate solubilization was high in acidification conditions at 7.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and pH 5.5–6.2. • Energy yield was lower by 33% for two-phase system compared to the single-phase system. • Simple and straight-forward operation favored single phase process over two-phase process. - Abstract: Single-phase and two-phase digestion of fruit and vegetable waste were studied to compare reactor start-up, reactor stability and performance (methane yield, volatile solids reduction and energy yield). The single-phase reactor (SPR) was a conventional reactor operated at a low loading rate (maximum of 3.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d), while the two-phase system consisted of an acidification reactor (TPAR) and a methanogenic reactor (TPMR). The TPAR was inoculated with methanogenic sludge similar to the SPR, but was operated with step-wise increase in the loading rate and with total recirculation of reactor solids to convert it into acidification sludge. Before each feeding, part of the sludge from TPAR was centrifuged, the centrifuge liquid (solubilized products) was fed to the TPMR and centrifuged solids were recycled back to the reactor. Single-phase digestion produced a methane yield of 0.45 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS fed and VS removal of 83%. The TPAR shifted to acidification mode at an OLR of 10.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and then achieved stable performance at 7.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and pH 5.5–6.2, with very high substrate solubilization rate and a methane yield of 0.30 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg COD fed. The two-phase process was capable of high VS reduction, but material and energy balance showed that the single-phase process was superior in terms of volumetric methane production and energy yield by 33%. The lower energy yield of the two-phase system was due to the loss of

  11. Detectability comparison between a high energy x-ray phase sensitive and mammography systems in imaging phantoms with varying glandular-adipose ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Muhammad U.; Wong, Molly D.; Wu, Di; Zheng, Bin; Fajardo, Laurie L.; Yan, Aimin; Fuh, Janis; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential benefits of using high energy x-rays in comparison with the conventional mammography imaging systems for phase sensitive imaging of breast tissues with varying glandular-adipose ratios. This study employed two modular phantoms simulating the glandular (G) and adipose (A) breast tissue composition in 50 G-50 A and 70 G-30 A percentage densities. Each phantom had a thickness of 5 cm with a contrast detail test pattern embedded in the middle. For both phantoms, the phase contrast images were acquired using a micro-focus x-ray source operated at 120 kVp and 4.5 mAs, with a magnification factor (M) of 2.5 and a detector with a 50 µm pixel pitch. The mean glandular dose delivered to the 50 G-50 A and 70 G-30 A phantom sets were 1.33 and 1.3 mGy, respectively. A phase retrieval algorithm based on the phase attenuation duality that required only a single phase contrast image was applied. Conventional low energy mammography images were acquired using GE Senographe DS and Hologic Selenia systems utilizing their automatic exposure control (AEC) settings. In addition, the automatic contrast mode (CNT) was also used for the acquisition with the GE system. The AEC mode applied higher dose settings for the 70 G-30 A phantom set. As compared to the phase contrast images, the dose levels for the AEC mode acquired images were similar while the dose levels for the CNT mode were almost double. The observer study, contrast-to-noise ratio and figure of merit comparisons indicated a large improvement with the phase retrieved images in comparison to the AEC mode images acquired with the clinical systems for both density levels. As the glandular composition increased, the detectability of smaller discs decreased with the clinical systems, particularly with the GE system, even at higher dose settings. As compared to the CNT mode (double dose) images, the observer study also indicated that the phase retrieved images provided

  12. Liquid-liquid phase separation in solutions of ionic liquids: phase diagrams, corresponding state analysis and comparison with simulations of the primitive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeer, W; Vale, V R, E-mail: schroer@uni-bremen.d [Institut fuer Anorganische und Physikalische Chemie, Fachbereich Biologie-Chemie, Universitaet Bremen, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2009-10-21

    Phase diagrams of ionic solutions of the ionic liquid C{sub 18}mim{sup +}NTF{sub 2}{sup -} (1-n-octadecyl-3-methyl imidazolium bistrifluormethylsulfonylimide) in decalin, cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane are reported and compared with that of solutions of other imidazolium ionic liquids with the anions NTF{sub 2}{sup -}, Cl{sup -} and BF4{sup -} in arenes, CCl{sub 4}, alcohols and water. The phase diagrams are analysed presuming Ising criticality and taking into account the asymmetry of the phase diagrams. The resulting parameters are compared with simulation results for equal-sized charged hard spheres in a dielectric continuum, the restricted primitive model (RPM) and the primitive model (PM) that allows for ions of different size. In the RPM temperature scale the critical temperatures vary almost linearly with the dielectric permittivity of the solvent. The RPM critical temperatures of the solutions in non-polar solvents are very similar, somewhat below the RPM value. Correlations with the boiling temperatures of the solvents and a dependence on the length of the side chain of the imidazolium cations show that dispersion interactions modify the phase transition, which is mainly determined by Coulomb forces. Critical concentrations, widths of the phase diagrams and the slopes of the diameter are different for the solutions in protic and aprotic solvents. The phase diagrams of the solutions in alcohols and water get a lower critical solution point when represented in RPM variables.

  13. Liquid-liquid phase separation in solutions of ionic liquids: phase diagrams, corresponding state analysis and comparison with simulations of the primitive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröer, W; Vale, V R

    2009-10-21

    Phase diagrams of ionic solutions of the ionic liquid C(18)mim(+)NTF(2)(-) (1-n-octadecyl-3-methyl imidazolium bistrifluormethylsulfonylimide) in decalin, cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane are reported and compared with that of solutions of other imidazolium ionic liquids with the anions NTF(2)(-), Cl(-) and BF4(-) in arenes, CCl(4), alcohols and water. The phase diagrams are analysed presuming Ising criticality and taking into account the asymmetry of the phase diagrams. The resulting parameters are compared with simulation results for equal-sized charged hard spheres in a dielectric continuum, the restricted primitive model (RPM) and the primitive model (PM) that allows for ions of different size. In the RPM temperature scale the critical temperatures vary almost linearly with the dielectric permittivity of the solvent. The RPM critical temperatures of the solutions in non-polar solvents are very similar, somewhat below the RPM value. Correlations with the boiling temperatures of the solvents and a dependence on the length of the side chain of the imidazolium cations show that dispersion interactions modify the phase transition, which is mainly determined by Coulomb forces. Critical concentrations, widths of the phase diagrams and the slopes of the diameter are different for the solutions in protic and aprotic solvents. The phase diagrams of the solutions in alcohols and water get a lower critical solution point when represented in RPM variables.

  14. Chlorambucil plus ofatumumab versus chlorambucil alone in previously untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (COMPLEMENT 1): a randomised, multicentre, open-label phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmen, Peter; Robak, Tadeusz; Janssens, Ann; Babu, K Govind; Kloczko, Janusz; Grosicki, Sebastian; Doubek, Michael; Panagiotidis, Panagiotis; Kimby, Eva; Schuh, Anna; Pettitt, Andrew R; Boyd, Thomas; Montillo, Marco; Gupta, Ira V; Wright, Oliver; Dixon, Iestyn; Carey, Jodi L; Chang, Chai-Ni; Lisby, Steen; McKeown, Astrid; Offner, Fritz

    2015-05-09

    Treatment for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia who are elderly or who have comorbidities is challenging because fludarabine-based chemoimmunotherapies are mostly not suitable. Chlorambucil remains the standard of care in many countries. We aimed to investigate whether the addition of ofatumumab to chlorambucil could lead to better clinical outcomes than does treatment with chlorambucil alone, while also being tolerable for patients who have few treatment options. We carried out a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial for treatment-naive patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in 109 centres in 16 countries. We included patients who had active disease needing treatment, but in whom fludarabine-based treatment was not possible. We randomly assigned patients (1:1) to receive oral chlorambucil (10 mg/m(2)) on days 1-7 of a 28 day treatment course or to receive chlorambucil by this schedule plus intravenous ofatumumab (cycle 1: 300 mg on day 1 and 1000 mg on day 8; subsequent cycles: 1000 mg on day 1) for three to 12 cycles. Assignment was done with a randomisation list that was computer generated at GlaxoSmithKline, and was stratified, in a block size of two, by age, disease stage, and performance status. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population and assessment was done by an independent review committee that was masked to group assignment. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00748189. We enrolled 447 patients, median age 69 years (range 35-92). Between Dec 22, 2008, and May 26, 2011, we randomly assigned 221 patients to chlorambucil plus ofatumumab and 226 patients to chlorambucil alone. Median progression-free survival was 22·4 months (95% CI 19·0-25·2) in the group assigned to chlorambucil plus ofatumumab compared with 13·1 months (10·6-13·8) in the group assigned to chlorambucil only (hazard ratio 0·57, 95% CI 0·45-0·72; pchlorambucil plus ofatumumab group (109 [50

  15. A phase 4, single-arm, open-label, pilot study of maraviroc, raltegravir and darunavir/r in HIV-1 adults with triple class failure: TERCETO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Patterson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this phase 4, single-arm, open-label study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability, efficacy, antiviral and immunological activity of maraviroc (MVC in combination with raltegravir (RGV and darunavir/r (DRV/r in adult HIV-1 infected patients (pts with limited treatment options. HIV-1 pts with documented virologic triple class failure or multi-drug class resistance defined as the presence of Q151 complex, 69 insertion complex and/or≥3 TAMs for NRTIs and K103N, G190S+Y181C or Y188L mutants for NNRTIs and≥3 RAMs (L10F/I/R/V; M46I/L; I54V/M/L; V82A/F/T/S; I84V; L90M for protease inhibitors (PIs were offered a triple drug regimen consisting of MVC 150 mg BID, RGV 400 mg BID and DRV/r 600/100 mg BID. Safety, lipid profile and virologic efficacy were evaluated at week 4, 12, 24, 36 and 48. Between January 2010 and March 2012, 27 pts were enrolled. Screening failure rate was 52% due to undetectable viral load (pVL or non R5 tropism type (Trofile™. Despite being heavily pre-treated pts, only 26% had negative tropism test at SCR. Baseline characteristics of 13 included pts were: 77% male, median age 43 years (IQR: 40.1–48.6, 38% had a prior AIDS-defining condition. Median BSL pVL was 23,350 cps/mL (4.4 log10 (IQR: 11,236–55,785 and median CD4 was 222 cells/mm3 (IQR: 179–318. Median time on NRTIs, NNRTIs and PIs were 10.7 (8.6–13.7, 1.7 (1.3–7.6 and 5.4 (4.7–10 years respectively. Pts had received a median of 2 PIs (IQR: 2–3. 8/13 pts showed thymidine analogue-associated mutations (TAMs, and≥2 were present in 5/13. Detectable NNRTI resistance-associated mutations (RAMs were present in 10/13 patients. 9/13 had≥4 primary PI RAMs. At 48 weeks, 2 pts had discontinued therapy (OIs related death (cryptococcal meningitis=1, withdrawn from the study on W36 due to blips despite not achieving criteria for virologic failure=1 and the remaining pts (11/13 achieved undetectable pVL and increased CD4 in 133 cell/mm3 from BSL (IQR

  16. Brentuximab vedotin or physician's choice in CD30-positive cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (ALCANZA): an international, open-label, randomised, phase 3, multicentre trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, H Miles; Kim, Youn H; Horwitz, Steven M; Dummer, Reinhard; Scarisbrick, Julia; Quaglino, Pietro; Zinzani, Pier Luigi; Wolter, Pascal; Sanches, Jose A; Ortiz-Romero, Pablo L; Akilov, Oleg E; Geskin, Larisa; Trotman, Judith; Taylor, Kerry; Dalle, Stephane; Weichenthal, Michael; Walewski, Jan; Fisher, David; Dréno, Brigitte; Stadler, Rudolf; Feldman, Tatyana; Kuzel, Timothy M; Wang, Yinghui; Palanca-Wessels, Maria Corinna; Zagadailov, Erin; Trepicchio, William L; Zhang, Wenwen; Lin, Hui-Min; Liu, Yi; Huebner, Dirk; Little, Meredith; Whittaker, Sean; Duvic, Madeleine

    2017-08-05

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas are rare, generally incurable, and associated with reduced quality of life. Present systemic therapies rarely provide reliable and durable responses. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of brentuximab vedotin versus conventional therapy for previously treated patients with CD30-positive cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. In this international, open-label, randomised, phase 3, multicentre trial, we enrolled adult patients with CD30-positive mycosis fungoides or primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma who had been previously treated. Patients were enrolled across 52 centres in 13 countries. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) centrally by an interactive voice and web response system to receive intravenous brentuximab vedotin 1·8 mg/kg once every 3 weeks, for up to 16 3-week cycles, or physician's choice (oral methotrexate 5-50 mg once per week or oral bexarotene 300 mg/m(2) once per day) for up to 48 weeks. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients in the intention-to-treat population achieving an objective global response lasting at least 4 months per independent review facility. Safety analyses were done in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01578499. Between Aug 13, 2012, and July 31, 2015, 131 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to a group (66 to brentuximab vedotin and 65 to physician's choice), with 128 analysed in the intention-to-treat population (64 in each group). At a median follow-up of 22·9 months (95% CI 18·4-26·1), the proportion of patients achieving an objective global response lasting at least 4 months was 56·3% (36 of 64 patients) with brentuximab vedotin versus 12·5% (eight of 64) with physician's choice, resulting in a between-group difference of 43·8% (95% CI 29·1-58·4; p<0·0001). Grade 3-4 adverse events were reported in 27 (41%) of 66 patients in the brentuximab vedotin group and 29 (47%) of 62

  17. Clonal Evolutionary Analysis during HER2 Blockade in HER2-Positive Inflammatory Breast Cancer: A Phase II Open-Label Clinical Trial of Afatinib +/- Vinorelbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Ramona; Arpornwirat, Wichit; Chitapanarux, Imjai; Ganju, Vinod; Im, Seock-Ah; Kim, Sung-Bae; Dechaphunkul, Arunee; Maneechavakajorn, Jedzada; Spector, Neil; Yau, Thomas; Afrit, Mehdi; Ahmed, Slim Ben; Johnston, Stephen R.; Gibson, Neil; Herrero, Javier; Swanton, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare, aggressive form of breast cancer associated with HER2 amplification, with high risk of metastasis and an estimated median survival of 2.9 y. We performed an open-label, single-arm phase II clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01325428) to investigate the efficacy and safety of afatinib, an irreversible ErbB family inhibitor, alone and in combination with vinorelbine in patients with HER2-positive IBC. This trial included prospectively planned exome analysis before and after afatinib monotherapy. Methods and Findings HER2-positive IBC patients received afatinib 40 mg daily until progression, and thereafter afatinib 40 mg daily and intravenous vinorelbine 25 mg/m2 weekly. The primary endpoint was clinical benefit; secondary endpoints were objective response (OR), duration of OR, and progression-free survival (PFS). Of 26 patients treated with afatinib monotherapy, clinical benefit was achieved in 9 patients (35%), 0 of 7 trastuzumab-treated patients and 9 of 19 trastuzumab-naïve patients. Following disease progression, 10 patients received afatinib plus vinorelbine, and clinical benefit was achieved in 2 of 4 trastuzumab-treated and 0 of 6 trastuzumab-naïve patients. All patients had treatment-related adverse events (AEs). Whole-exome sequencing of tumour biopsies taken before treatment and following disease progression on afatinib monotherapy was performed to assess the mutational landscape of IBC and evolutionary trajectories during therapy. Compared to a cohort of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) patients with HER2-positive non-IBC, HER2-positive IBC patients had significantly higher mutational and neoantigenic burden, more frequent gain-of-function TP53 mutations and a recurrent 11q13.5 amplification overlapping PAK1. Planned exploratory analysis revealed that trastuzumab-naïve patients with tumours harbouring somatic activation of PI3K/Akt signalling had significantly shorter PFS compared to those without

  18. Effect of Itraconazole and Rifampin on the Pharmacokinetics of Olaparib in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors: Results of Two Phase I Open-label Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirix, Luc; Swaisland, Helen; Verheul, Henk M W; Rottey, Sylvie; Leunen, Karin; Jerusalem, Guy; Rolfo, Christian; Nielsen, Dorte; Molife, L Rhoda; Kristeleit, Rebecca; Vos-Geelen, Judith de; Mau-Sørensen, Morten; Soetekouw, Patricia; van Herpen, Carla; Fielding, Anitra; So, Karen; Bannister, Wendy; Plummer, Ruth

    2016-10-01

    The metabolism of olaparib, a potent inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) with demonstrated efficacy in patients with BRCA-mutated ovarian cancer, is mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes (predominantly CYP3A4/5). We assessed the potential of a CYP3A4 inhibitor (itraconazole) and inducer (rifampin) to alter the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of olaparib following single oral tablet doses. Two Phase I, open-label, non-randomized trials were conducted in patients with advanced solid tumors. In Study 7, patients received olaparib alone and co-administered with itraconazole; in Study 8, a separate group of patients received olaparib alone and co-administered with rifampin. No interaction between itraconazole and olaparib was concluded if two-sided 90% CIs for the treatment ratios of AUC and/or AUC0-t and Cmax fell within the bioequivalence range of 0.80-1.25. An interaction between rifampin and olaparib was concluded if the lower limit of the 90% CI for the treatment ratios was 50% decrease in olaparib AUC or Cmax in the presence of rifampin compared with olaparib alone). In Study 7 (N = 59; 17 male, 42 female), 56 and 53 patients were evaluable for PK analysis following treatment with olaparib alone and olaparib plus itraconazole, respectively; in Study 8 (N = 22; 4 male, 18 female), all patients were evaluable. Co-administration of olaparib with itraconazole resulted in a statistically significant increase in the relative bioavailability of olaparib: Cmax treatment ratio, 1.42 (90% CI, 1.33-1.52); mean AUC treatment ratio, 2.70 (90% CI, 2.44-2.97). Mean CL/F and Vz/F were reduced (8.16 vs 3.05 L/h and 192 vs 75.1 L), although mean t½ was unchanged (15.0 vs 15.6 hours). Co-administration of olaparib with rifampin resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the relative bioavailability of olaparib: Cmax treatment ratio, 0.29 (90% CI, 0.24-0.33); mean AUC treatment ratio, 0.13 (90% CI, 0.11-0.16). CL/F and Vz/F were increased when olaparib and

  19. Rucaparib in relapsed, platinum-sensitive high-grade ovarian carcinoma (ARIEL2 Part 1): an international, multicentre, open-label, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, Elizabeth M; Lin, Kev