WorldWideScience

Sample records for open graded aggregates

  1. Concrete manufacture with un-graded recycled aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Alan; Coventry, Kathryn; Graham, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether concrete that includes un-graded recycled aggregates can be manufactured to a comparable strength to concrete manufactured from virgin aggregates. \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – A paired comparison test was used to evaluate the difference between concrete made with virgin aggregates (plain control) and concrete including recycled waste. Un-graded construction demolition waste and un-graded ground glass were used as aggregate...

  2. Properties of concrete blocks prepared with low grade recycled aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Chi-Sun; Kou, Shi-cong; Wan, Hui-wen; Etxeberria, Miren

    2009-08-01

    Low grade recycled aggregates obtained from a construction waste sorting facility were tested to assess the feasibility of using these in the production of concrete blocks. The characteristics of the sorted construction waste are significantly different from that of crushed concrete rubbles that are mostly derived from demolition waste streams. This is due to the presence of higher percentages of non-concrete components (e.g. >10% soil, brick, tiles etc.) in the sorted construction waste. In the study reported in this paper, three series of concrete block mixtures were prepared by using the low grade recycled aggregates to replace (i) natural coarse granite (10mm), and (ii) 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement levels of crushed stone fine (crushed natural granite concrete blocks. Test results on properties such as density, compressive strength, transverse strength and drying shrinkage as well as strength reduction after exposure to 800 degrees C are presented below. The results show that the soil content in the recycled fine aggregate was an important factor in affecting the properties of the blocks produced and the mechanical strength deceased with increasing low grade recycled fine aggregate content. But the higher soil content in the recycled aggregates reduced the reduction of compressive strength of the blocks after exposure to high temperature due probably to the formation of a new crystalline phase. The results show that the low grade recycled aggregates obtained from the construction waste sorting facility has potential to be used as aggregates for making non-structural pre-cast concrete blocks.

  3. Performance evaluation of JRCP with stabilized open-graded drainage course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    From 1990 to 1995 the department used recycled concrete pavement as open-graded drainage course (OGDC) base : aggregate for thirteen concrete reconstruction projects. Overall, the JRCP projects with coated/stabilized OGDC have : performed very well i...

  4. Evaluation of open-graded friction course mixture : technical assistance report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    Open-graded friction course (OGFC) is a porous, gap-graded, predominantly single size aggregate bituminous mixture that contains a high percentage of air voids. The high air void content and the open structure of this mix promote the effective draina...

  5. Effect of the aggregate grading on the concrete air permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argiz, C.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Great durability problems are being found in concrete structures related to the penetrability of aggressive agents through the concrete (ie. chloride penetration, sulphate attack, carbonation, freezing and thawing, and so on. Air permeability coefficient is used as an effective tool to estimate the potential durability of concrete structures due to its direct relation with the microstructure and the moisture content. This paper discusses the effect of the aggregate grading and water/cement ratio on the air permeability coefficient. An aggregate grading with more sand than coarse aggregates has resulted more beneficial from the point of view of concrete air permeability. This fact can be attributed to a denser skeleton formed by the finer aggregates. With fine aggregates, the higher water/cement ratio, the lower air permeability. However, the contrary was found with coarse aggregates. Overall, a temperature increase from 20 °C to 60 °C during preconditioning led to a Dair increase of 40–80%.Se han encontrado una gran cantidad de problemas de durabilidad de estructuras de hormigón relacionados con la penetración de agentes agresivos externos (es decir, penetración de cloruros, ataque por sulfatos, carbonatación, hielo-deshielo, etc.. El coeficiente de permeabilidad al aire se utiliza como una herramienta eficaz para estimar la durabilidad potencial de las estructuras de hormigón debido a su relación directa con su microestructura y contenido de humedad. Se discute el efecto de la gradación de los áridos y relación agua/cemento en el coeficiente de permeabilidad al aire. Con áridos más finos que gruesos, el resultado es más beneficioso, lo que se atribuye a que la arena forma un esqueleto más denso. Con áridos más finos, al aumentar la relación agua/cemento, disminuye la permeabilidad al aire; pero con áridos más gruesos se ha observado lo contrario. Cuando se pre-acondiciona de 20 °C a 60 °C, se produce un aumento del Dair

  6. Effects of aggregate grading on the properties of steel fibre-reinforced concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikgens Ulas, M.; Alyamac, K. E.; Ulucan, Z. C.

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the effects of changing the aggregate grading and maximum aggregate size (D max ) on the workability and mechanical properties of steel fibre-reinforced concrete (SFRC). Four different gradations and two different D max were used to produce SFRC mixtures with constant cement dosages and water/cement ratios. Twelve different concrete series were tested. To observe the properties of fresh concrete, slump and Ve-Be tests were performed immediately after the mixing process to investigate the effects of time on workability. The hardened properties, such as the compressive, splitting tensile and flexural strengths, were also evaluated. In addition, the toughness of the SFRC was calculated. Based on our test results, we can conclude that the grading of the aggregate and the D max have remarkable effects on the properties of fresh and hardened SFRC. In addition, the toughness of the SFRC was influenced by changing the grading of the aggregate and the D max .

  7. Aggregate assesment and durability evaluation of optimized graded concrete in the state of Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaeezadeh, Ashkan

    This research is a part of a larger project that emphasizes on creating a more scientific approach to designing concrete mixtures for concrete pavements that use less cement and more aggregate which is called optimized graded concrete. The most challenging obstacle in optimized mixtures is reaching enough workability so that one doesn't have to add more cement or super-plasticizer to reach the desired level of flowability. Aggregate gradation and characteristics have found to be very important when it comes to the workabaility of optimized graded concrete. In this research a new automated method of aggregate assessment was used to compare the shape and the surface of different aggregates as well as their influence on the concrete flowability. At the end, the performance of optimized graded concrete against drying shrinkage and freezing and thawing condition were investigated.

  8. Dynamic federations: storage aggregation using open tools and protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furano, Fabrizio; Brito da Rocha, Ricardo; Devresse, Adrien; Keeble, Oliver; Álvarez Ayllón, Alejandro; Fuhrmann, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    A number of storage elements now offer standard protocol interfaces like NFS 4.1/pNFS and WebDAV, for access to their data repositories, in line with the standardization effort of the European Middleware Initiative (EMI). Also the LCG FileCatalogue (LFC) can offer such features. Here we report on work that seeks to exploit the federation potential of these protocols and build a system that offers a unique view of the storage and metadata ensemble and the possibility of integration of other compatible resources such as those from cloud providers. The challenge, here undertaken by the providers of dCache and DPM, and pragmatically open to other Grid and Cloud storage solutions, is to build such a system while being able to accommodate name translations from existing catalogues (e.g. LFCs), experiment-based metadata catalogues, or stateless algorithmic name translations, also known as “trivial file catalogues”. Such so-called storage federations of standard protocols-based storage elements give a unique view of their content, thus promoting simplicity in accessing the data they contain and offering new possibilities for resilience and data placement strategies. The goal is to consider HTTP and NFS4.1-based storage elements and metadata catalogues and make them able to cooperate through an architecture that properly feeds the redirection mechanisms that they are based upon, thus giving the functionalities of a “loosely coupled” storage federation. One of the key requirements is to use standard clients (provided by OS'es or open source distributions, e.g. Web browsers) to access an already aggregated system; this approach is quite different from aggregating the repositories at the client side through some wrapper API, like for instance GFAL, or by developing new custom clients. Other technical challenges that will determine the success of this initiative include performance, latency and scalability, and the ability to create worldwide storage federations that

  9. Numerical Simulation for Mechanical Behavior of Asphalt Pavement with Graded Aggregate Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang He

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of asphalt pavement is determined by the combination of its material properties, road structure, and loading configurations. A DEM numerical simulation study was conducted to determine stress distribution and deformation behavior of asphalt pavement with graded aggregate base under standard traffic loading. Stress contour and displacement contour were presented via a self-made program. Compressive stress concentrated area located in both sides of wheel, while tensile stress concentrated area appeared in lower part of the asphalt layer. The traffic loading transferred downward by graded aggregate base and to both sides at the same time, and has a trend to expand gradually with increasing depth within graded aggregate base. Therefore, stress was well distributed in the subgrade soil layer with a great action scope, and the value decreased obviously because of the stress dispersion of graded aggregate base. Vertical displacement was the main displacement of the asphalt layer, and on the both sides of traffic loading, displacement was downward and inclined slightly to the central of loading. Vertical and horizontal deformations included in both graded aggregate base layers, and displacement extended to both sides gradually with increasing depth corresponding to stress-distribution trends. Vertical displacement was dominated in the subgrade soil layer which was relatively small.

  10. Load-carrying capacity of lightly reinforced, prefabricated walls of lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and evaluates the results of a coordinated testing of prefabricated, lightly reinforced walls of lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure. The coordinated testing covers all wall productions in Denmark and will therefore provide a representative assessment...

  11. Optimal grade control sampling practice in open-pit mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engström, Karin; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2017-01-01

    Misclassification of ore grades results in lost revenues, and the need for representative sampling procedures in open pit mining is increasingly important in all mining industries. This study evaluated possible improvements in sampling representativity with the use of Reverse Circulation (RC) drill...... sampling compared to manual Blast Hole (BH) sampling in the Leveäniemi open pit mine, northern Sweden. The variographic experiment results showed that sampling variability was lower for RC than for BH sampling. However, the total costs for RC drill sampling are significantly exceeding current costs...... for manual BH sampling, which needs to be compensated for by other benefits to motivate introduction of RC drilling. The main conclusion is that manual BH sampling can be fit-for-purpose in the studied open pit mine. However, with so many mineral commodities and mining methods in use globally...

  12. Behavior of Low Grade Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Made with Fresh and Recycled Brick Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shariful Islam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste (CDW have been widely accepted in construction sectors as the replacement of coarse aggregate in order to minimize the excessive use of natural resources. In this paper, an experimental investigation is carried out to observe the influence of low grade steel fiber reinforcements on the stress-strain behavior of concrete made with recycled and fresh brick aggregates. In addition, compressive strength by destructive and nondestructive tests, splitting tensile strength, and Young’s modulus are determined. Hooked end steel wires with 50 mm of length and an aspect ratio of 55.6 are used as fiber reinforcements in a volume fraction of 0% (control case, 0.50%, and 1.00% in concrete mixes. The same gradation of aggregates and water-cement ratio (w/c=0.44 were used to assess the effect of steel fiber in all these concrete mixes. All tests were conducted at 7, 14, and 28 days to perceive the effect of age on different mechanical properties. The experimental results show that around 10%~15% and 40%~60% increase in 28 days compressive strength and tensile strength of steel fiber reinforced concrete, respectively, compared to those of the control case. It is observed that the effect of addition of 1% fiber on the concrete compressive strength is little compared to that of 0.5% steel fiber addition. On the other hand, strain of concrete at failure of steel fiber reinforced concrete has increased almost twice compared to the control case. A simple analytical model is also proposed to generate the ascending portions of the stress-strain curve of concrete. There exists a good correlation between the experimental results and the analytical model. A relatively ductile failure is observed for the concrete made with low grade steel fibers.

  13. Improving Thermal Insulation Properties for Prefabricated Wall Components Made Of Lightweight Aggregate Concrete with Open Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramski, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    Porous concrete is commonly used in civil engineering due to its good thermal insulation properties in comparison with normal concrete and high compression strength in comparison with other building materials. Reducing of the concrete density can be obviously obtained by using lightweight aggregate (e.g. pumice). The concrete density can be further minimized by using specially graded coarse aggregate and little-to-no fine aggregates. In this way a large number of air voids arise. The aggregate particles are coated by a cement paste and bonded together with it just in contact points. Such an extremely porous concrete, called ‘lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure’ (LAC), is used in some German plants to produce prefabricated wall components. They are used mainly in hall buildings, e.g. supermarkets. The need of improving thermal insulation properties was an inspiration for the prefabrication plant managers, engineers and a scientific staff of the Technical University of Kaiserslautern / Germany to realise an interesting project. Its aim was to reduce the heat transfer coefficient for the wall components. Three different wall structure types were designed and compared in full-scale laboratory tests with originally produced wall components in terms of load-carrying capacity and stiffness. The load was applied perpendicularly to the wall plane. As the components are not originally used for load-bearing walls, but for curtain walls only, the wind load is the main load for them. The wall components were tested in horizontal position and the load was applied vertically. Totally twelve wall components 8.00 × 2.00 × 0.25m (three for every series) were produced in the prefabrication plant and tested in the University of Kaiserslautern laboratory. The designed and tested components differed from each other in the amount of expanded polystyrene (EPS), which was placed in the plant inside the wall structure. The minimal amount of it was designed in the

  14. Use of rubber asphalt binder with graded aggregate for seal coats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    It has been known that incorporating rubber particles into asphalt can improve highway pavement performance. This paper describes a test program on pavement construction using asphalts containing recycled rubber. During the summer 1978, eight test sections were constructed in parts of the Saskatchewan road system to evaluate seal coats using rubber-asphalt as a binder membrane and a graded aggregate as protective cover. Test sections were chosen to represent typical road surface types and different states of repair for each type. These types included prime subgrade, cold-mix on subgrade, primed granular base course, asphaltic concrete on granular base, and full depth asphaltic concrete. Problems with construction materials, techniques, and equipment are discussed. Performance and economics were evaluated to determine whether low cost cold mix and current seal coat surfaces could be replaced successfully and economically by this method of construction. It was shown that use of reclaimed rubber for rubberized asphalt seal coats on Saskatechewan highways is a practical construction application. The economic justification for rubber asphalt seals will be determined after a full assessment of performance. Initial indications are that Saskatchewan graded aggregates are a suitable cover material for the rubberized asphalt membranes used in the trials. 8 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Dynamic federations: storage aggregation using open tools and protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Fabrizio Furano, F F; Ricardo Brito da Rocha, R R; Adrien Devresse, A D; Oliver Keeble, O K; Alejandro Alvarez Ayllon, A A

    2012-01-01

    A number of storage elements now offer standard protocol interfaces like NFS 4.1/pNFS and WebDAV, for access to their data repositories, in line with the standardization effort of the European Middleware Initiative (EMI). Also the LCG FileCatalogue (LFC) can offer such features. Here we report on work that seeks to exploit the federation potential of these protocols and build a system that offers a unique view of the storage and metadata ensemble and the possibility of integration of other compatible resources such as those from cloud providers. The challenge, here undertaken by the providers of dCache and DPM, and pragmatically open to other Grid and Cloud storage solutions, is to build such a system while being able to accommodate name translations from existing catalogues (e.g. LFCs), experiment- based metadata catalogues, or stateless algorithmic name translations, also known as ”trivial file catalogues”. Such so-called storage federations of standard protocols-based storage elements give a unique vie...

  16. Completeness and overlap in open access systems: Search engines, aggregate institutional repositories and physics-related open sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yueh Tsay

    Full Text Available This study examines the completeness and overlap of coverage in physics of six open access scholarly communication systems, including two search engines (Google Scholar and Microsoft Academic, two aggregate institutional repositories (OAIster and OpenDOAR, and two physics-related open sources (arXiv.org and Astrophysics Data System. The 2001-2013 Nobel Laureates in Physics served as the sample. Bibliographic records of their publications were retrieved and downloaded from each system, and a computer program was developed to perform the analytical tasks of sorting, comparison, elimination, aggregation and statistical calculations. Quantitative analyses and cross-referencing were performed to determine the completeness and overlap of the system coverage of the six open access systems. The results may enable scholars to select an appropriate open access system as an efficient scholarly communication channel, and academic institutions may build institutional repositories or independently create citation index systems in the future. Suggestions on indicators and tools for academic assessment are presented based on the comprehensiveness assessment of each system.

  17. Completeness and overlap in open access systems: Search engines, aggregate institutional repositories and physics-related open sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Ming-Yueh; Wu, Tai-Luan; Tseng, Ling-Li

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the completeness and overlap of coverage in physics of six open access scholarly communication systems, including two search engines (Google Scholar and Microsoft Academic), two aggregate institutional repositories (OAIster and OpenDOAR), and two physics-related open sources (arXiv.org and Astrophysics Data System). The 2001-2013 Nobel Laureates in Physics served as the sample. Bibliographic records of their publications were retrieved and downloaded from each system, and a computer program was developed to perform the analytical tasks of sorting, comparison, elimination, aggregation and statistical calculations. Quantitative analyses and cross-referencing were performed to determine the completeness and overlap of the system coverage of the six open access systems. The results may enable scholars to select an appropriate open access system as an efficient scholarly communication channel, and academic institutions may build institutional repositories or independently create citation index systems in the future. Suggestions on indicators and tools for academic assessment are presented based on the comprehensiveness assessment of each system.

  18. Peer Grading in Astronomy Massive Open Online Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formanek, Martin; Wenger, Matthew; Impey, Christopher; Buxner, Sanlyn

    In this work we thoroughly investigate the peer grading process as it happened in the University of Arizona session based MOOC ``Astronomy: Exploring Time and Space'' offered during Spring 2015 through Coursera. Overall, 25400 learners from over 100 countries registered for this course. Of those, 14900 accessed at least one part of the course and 1332 users engaged in the peer grading. First of all we provide description of the peer graded assignments and we identify trends in behavior of people who participated in these exercises. E.g. time they spent on grading, number of assignments graded and patterns arising from comparing all three assignments. Furthermore, for the second assignment, we graded random sample of 300 essays by a group of trained undergraduate students and a group consisting of one of the course instructors together with graduate TAs and we compared results with grades from the peer grading. Specifically we look on Intraclass Correlation Coefficients for all three groups of graders to determine reliability of each group and correlations between final grades. Finally we assess factors influencing reliability of the peer graders participating in the MOOC based on the difference from our grades. This research was supported by Howard Hughes Medical Institute Grant No. 415580.

  19. Negative pressure wound therapy for Gustilo Anderson grade IIIb open tibial fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Hyun Park

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Staged treatment using NPWT decreased the risks of infection and requirement of flap surgeries in Gustilo Anderson grade IIIb open tibial fractures. Therefore, staged treatment using NPWT could be a useful treatment option for Gustilo Anderson grade IIIb open tibial fractures.

  20. The Aggregate National Supply of Job Openings and Firms' Procedures for Filling Positions. IAB Labour Market Research Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magvas, Emil; Spitznagel, Eugen

    Surveys by the Institut fur Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB) of German firms' job openings have been combined with job registry data from the Bundesanstalt fur Arbeit on an annual basis since 1989 in order to determine the scope and structure of the aggregate national supply of job openings. The surveys also indicated problems encountered…

  1. Effect of Coating Palm Oil Clinker Aggregate on the Engineering Properties of Normal Grade Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Abutaha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil clinker (POC is a waste material generated in large quantities from the palm oil industry. POC, when crushed, possesses the potential to serve as an aggregate for concrete production. Experimental investigation on the engineering properties of concrete incorporating POC as aggregate and filler material was carried out in this study. POC was partially and fully used to replace natural coarse aggregate. The volumetric replacements used were 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%. POC, being highly porous, negatively affected the fresh and hardened concrete properties. Therefore, the particle-packing (PP method was adopted to measure the surface and inner voids of POC coarse aggregate in the mixtures at different substitution levels. In order to enhance the engineering properties of the POC concrete, palm oil clinker powder (POCP was used as a filler material to fill up and coat the surface voids of POC coarse, while the rest of the mix constituents were left as the same. Fresh and hardened properties of the POC concrete with and without coating were determined, and the results were compared with the control concrete. The results revealed that coating the surface voids of POC coarse with POCP significantly improved the engineering properties as well as the durability performance of the POC concrete. Furthermore, using POC as an aggregate and filler material may reduce the continuous exploitation of aggregates from primary sources. Also, this approach offers an environmental friendly solution to the ongoing waste problems associated with palm oil waste material.

  2. Sorption Kinetics on Open Carbon Nanohorn Aggregates: The Effect of Molecular Diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice A. Russell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a study of the kinetics of adsorption on aggregates of open carbon nanohorns using argon and CF4 sorbates. We measured the equilibration times for each value of the sorbent loading along eight adsorption isotherms (four isotherms for each sorbate species. We found that: the equilibration times decrease as the sorbent loading (and the equilibrium pressure of the coexisting gas increases, for a given temperature; and, that, for a given value of the sorbent loading, the equilibration times decrease with increasing temperature. When considering the effect of scaling of the temperatures by the respective critical temperatures we found that, at the same scaled temperature and at comparable loadings, the equilibration times for CF4 were longer than those for argon. We discuss a possible explanation for this result.

  3. Open grade III fractures of femoral shaft: Outcome after early reamed intramedullary nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D; Garg, R; Bassi, J L; Tripathi, S K

    2011-09-01

    Open grade III fractures of femur are a challenging therapeutic problem as most of them are associated with multiple trauma. Method used for skeletal stabilization of these fractures should limit further soft tissue damage, bacterial spread and morbidity in addition to its ease of application, providing mechanical support and restoring normal alignment. Forty-six patients with open grade III fractures of femoral shaft were included in the study. There were 10 grade IIIA, 34 grade IIIB and two grade IIIC fractures that were treated with early reamed intramedullary nailing with adequate management of soft tissue. Patients were reviewed retrospectively. Mean time of union was 27 weeks. Infection rate was 4% and non-union rate was 9%. There were two cases (4%) with limb shortening. No case of angular or rotational deformity was noted. Early reamed intramedullary nailing for open grade III fractures of femoral shaft, after giving due respect to the soft tissue injury, gives satisfactory results with proper alignment, good range of motion, short rehabilitation period and low infection rate. Level IV. Retrospective therapeutic study. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Negative pressure wound therapy for Gustilo Anderson grade IIIb open tibial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul Hyun; Shon, Oog Jin; Kim, Gi Beom

    2016-09-01

    Traditionally, Gustilo Anderson grade IIIb open tibial fractures have been treated by initial wide wound debridement, stabilization of fracture with external fixation, and delayed wound closure. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical and radiological results of staged treatment using negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) for Gustilo Anderson grade IIIb open tibial fractures. 15 patients with Gustilo Anderson grade IIIb open tibial fractures, treated using staged protocol by a single surgeon between January 2007 and December 2011 were reviewed in this retrospective study. The clinical results were assessed using a Puno scoring system for severe open fractures of the tibia at the last followup. The range of motion (ROM) of the knee and ankle joints and postoperative complication were evaluated at the last followup. The radiographic results were assessed using time to bone union, coronal and sagittal angulations and a shortening at the last followup. The mean score of Puno scoring system was 87.4 (range 67-94). The mean ROM of the knee and ankle joints was 121.3° (range 90°-130°) and 37.7° (range 15°-50°), respectively. Bone union developed in all patients and the mean time to union was 25.3 weeks (range 16-42 weeks). The mean coronal angulation was 2.1° (range 0-4°) and sagittal was 2.7° (range 1-4°). The mean shortening was 4.1 mm (range 0-8 mm). Three patients had partial flap necrosis and 1 patient had total flap necrosis. There was no superficial and deep wound infection. Staged treatment using NPWT decreased the risks of infection and requirement of flap surgeries in Gustilo Anderson grade IIIb open tibial fractures. Therefore, staged treatment using NPWT could be a useful treatment option for Gustilo Anderson grade IIIb open tibial fractures.

  5. A numerical model for aggregations formation and magnetic driving of spherical particles based on OpenFOAM®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvelas, E G; Lampropoulos, N K; Sarris, I E

    2017-04-01

    This work presents a numerical model for the formation of particle aggregations under the influence of a permanent constant magnetic field and their driving process under a gradient magnetic field, suitably created by a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) device. The model is developed in the OpenFOAM platform and it is successfully compared to the existing experimental and numerical results in terms of aggregates size and their motion in water solutions. Furthermore, several series of simulations are performed for two common types of particles of different diameter in order to verify their aggregation and flow behaviour, under various constant and gradient magnetic fields in the usual MRI working range. Moreover, the numerical model is used to measure the mean length of aggregations, the total time needed to form and their mean velocity under different permanent and gradient magnetic fields. The present model is found to predict successfully the size, velocity and distribution of aggregates. In addition, our simulations showed that the mean length of aggregations is proportional to the permanent magnetic field magnitude and particle diameter according to the relation : l¯ a =7.5B 0 d i 3/2 . The mean velocity of the aggregations is proportional to the magnetic gradient, according to : u¯ a =6.63G˜B 0 and seems to reach a steady condition after a certain period of time. The mean time needed for particles to aggregate is proportional to permanent magnetic field magnitude, scaled by the relationship : t¯ a ∝7B 0 . A numerical model to predict the motion of magnetic particles for medical application is developed. This model is found suitable to predict the formation of aggregations and their motion under the influence of permanent and gradient magnetic fields, respectively, that are produced by an MRI device. The magnitude of the external constant magnetic field is the most important parameter for the aggregations formation and their driving. Copyright © 2017

  6. Evaluation of long-term pavement performance and noise characteristics of open-graded friction courses : project 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This report describes the second of three experimental installations of open-graded friction course (OGFC) quieter pavements designed to reduce the noise generated at the tire/pavement interface. Experimental sections of OGFC were built using a...

  7. Uncertainty of soil erosion modelling using open source high resolution and aggregated DEMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Mondal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Digital Elevation Model (DEM is one of the important parameters for soil erosion assessment. Notable uncertainties are observed in this study while using three high resolution open source DEMs. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE model has been applied to analysis the assessment of soil erosion uncertainty using open source DEMs (SRTM, ASTER and CARTOSAT and their increasing grid space (pixel size from the actual. The study area is a part of the Narmada river basin in Madhya Pradesh state, which is located in the central part of India and the area covered 20,558 km2. The actual resolution of DEMs is 30 m and their increasing grid spaces are taken as 90, 150, 210, 270 and 330 m for this study. Vertical accuracy of DEMs has been assessed using actual heights of the sample points that have been taken considering planimetric survey based map (toposheet. Elevations of DEMs are converted to the same vertical datum from WGS 84 to MSL (Mean Sea Level, before the accuracy assessment and modelling. Results indicate that the accuracy of the SRTM DEM with the RMSE of 13.31, 14.51, and 18.19 m in 30, 150 and 330 m resolution respectively, is better than the ASTER and the CARTOSAT DEMs. When the grid space of the DEMs increases, the accuracy of the elevation and calculated soil erosion decreases. This study presents a potential uncertainty introduced by open source high resolution DEMs in the accuracy of the soil erosion assessment models. The research provides an analysis of errors in selecting DEMs using the original and increased grid space for soil erosion modelling.

  8. ROMI 3.1 Least-cost lumber grade mix solver using open source statistical software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca A. Buck; Urs Buehlmann; R. Edward. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The least-cost lumber grade mix solution has been a topic of interest to both industry and academia for many years due to its potential to help wood processing operations reduce costs. A least-cost lumber grade mix solver is a rough mill decision support system that describes the lumber grade or grade mix needed to minimize raw material or total production cost (raw...

  9. FormScanner: Open-Source Solution for Grading Multiple-Choice Exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chadwick; Lo, Glenn; Young, Kaisa; Borsetta, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The multiple-choice exam remains a staple for many introductory physics courses. In the past, people have graded these by hand or even flaming needles. Today, one usually grades the exams with a form scanner that utilizes optical mark recognition (OMR). Several companies provide these scanners and particular forms, such as the eponymous…

  10. Revised definition of neuropathic pain and its grading system: an open case series illustrating its use in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Christian; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Schwab, Rainer; Müller, Harald; Stoeter, Peter; Dieterich, Marianne; Sommer, Clemens; Birklein, Frank; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2009-10-01

    The definition of neuropathic pain has recently been revised by an expert committee of the Neuropathic Pain Special Interest Group of the International Association for the Study of Pain (NeuPSIG) as "pain arising as direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system," and a grading system of "definite," "probable," and "possible" neuropathic pain has been introduced. This open case series of 5 outpatients (3 men, 2 women; mean age 48 +/- 12 years) demonstrates how the grading system can be applied, in combination with appropriate confirmatory testing, to diagnosis neuropathic conditions in clinical practice. The proposed grading system includes a dynamic algorithm that enhances the physician's ability to determine with a greater level of certainty whether a pain condition is neuropathic. Its clinical use should be further validated in prospective studies.

  11. Cone Beam Computed Tomography Evaluation of the Periapical Status of Nonvital Tooth with Open Apex Obturated with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Shekhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of a tooth with open apex is a challenge to the dental practitioners. Evaluation of the periapical healing is required in such cases by radiographic techniques. The objective of this paper was to assess the healing of a periapical lesion in a non-vital tooth with open apex treated with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA obturation using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. The endodontic treatment of a fractured non-vital discolored maxillary left lateral incisor with an open apex was done with MTA obturation. The clinical and radiographic followup done regularly showed that the tooth was clinically asymptomatic and that the size of the periapical lesion observed by intraoral periapical (IOPA radiographs and CBCT was decreased remarkably after two years. CBCT and IOPA radiographs were found to be useful radiographic tools to assess the healing of a large periapical lesion in a non-vital tooth with open apex managed by MTA obturation.

  12. Weapons-grade nuclear material - open questions of a safe disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Closs, K.D.; Giraud, J.P.; Grill, K.D.; Hensing, I.; Hippel, F. von; Holik, J.; Pellaud, B.

    1995-01-01

    There are suitable technologies available for destruction of weapons-grade uranium and plutonium. Weapons-grade uranium, consisting to 90% of the isotope U-235, can be diluted with the uranium isotope U-238 to make it non-weapons-grade, but it will then still be a material that can be used as a fuel in civil nuclear reactors. For safe plutonium disposal, several options are under debate. There is for instance a process called ''reverse reprocessing'', with the plutonium being blended with high-level radioactive fission products and then being put into a waste form accepted for direct ultimate disposal. The other option is to convert weapons-grade plutonium into MOX nuclear fuel elements and then ''burn'' them in civil nuclear power reactors. This is an option favoured by many experts. Such fuel elements should stay for a long time in the reactor core in order to achieve high burnups, and should then be ready for ultimate disposal. This disposal pathway offers essential advantages: the plutonium is used up or depleted as a component of reactor fuel, and thus is no longer available for illegal activities, and it serves as an energy source for power generation. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Exploration of novel multifunctional open graded friction courses for in-situ highway runoff treatment July 1, 2014-June 30, 2016 : final research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Pervious Concrete Pavement (PCP), as one of open graded friction courses (OGFCs), has become attractive in roadway and parking lot constructions because of its economic, structural, and environmental advantages. It can facilitate the recharge of grou...

  14. Summary report on the performance of open graded friction course quieter pavements : I-5 Lynnwood, SR-520 Medina, I-405 Bellevue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This document summarizes the acoustic properties and pavement performance of three asphalt quieter pavement projects. Each of the projects included open graded friction course pavement built with sections of crumb rubber and polymer modified asphalt ...

  15. Minimally invasive versus open fusion for Grade I degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis: analysis of the Quality Outcomes Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummaneni, Praveen V; Bisson, Erica F; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Glassman, Steven; Foley, Kevin; Slotkin, Jonathan R; Potts, Eric; Shaffrey, Mark; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Coric, Domagoj; Knightly, John; Park, Paul; Fu, Kai-Ming; Devin, Clinton J; Chotai, Silky; Chan, Andrew K; Virk, Michael; Asher, Anthony L; Bydon, Mohamad

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Lumbar spondylolisthesis is a degenerative condition that can be surgically treated with either open or minimally invasive decompression and instrumented fusion. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) approaches may shorten recovery, reduce blood loss, and minimize soft-tissue damage with resultant reduced postoperative pain and disability. METHODS The authors queried the national, multicenter Quality Outcomes Database (QOD) registry for patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion between July 2014 and December 2015 for Grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis. The authors recorded baseline and 12-month patient-reported outcomes (PROs), including Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), EQ-5D, numeric rating scale (NRS)-back pain (NRS-BP), NRS-leg pain (NRS-LP), and satisfaction (North American Spine Society satisfaction questionnaire). Multivariable regression models were fitted for hospital length of stay (LOS), 12-month PROs, and 90-day return to work, after adjusting for an array of preoperative and surgical variables. RESULTS A total of 345 patients (open surgery, n = 254; MIS, n = 91) from 11 participating sites were identified in the QOD. The follow-up rate at 12 months was 84% (83.5% [open surgery]; 85% [MIS]). Overall, baseline patient demographics, comorbidities, and clinical characteristics were similarly distributed between the cohorts. Two hundred fifty seven patients underwent 1-level fusion (open surgery, n = 181; MIS, n = 76), and 88 patients underwent 2-level fusion (open surgery, n = 73; MIS, n = 15). Patients in both groups reported significant improvement in all primary outcomes (all p open surgical groups. However, change in functional outcome scores for patients undergoing 2-level fusion was notably larger in the MIS cohort for ODI (-27 vs -16, p = 0.1), EQ-5D (0.27 vs 0.15, p = 0.08), and NRS-BP (-3.5 vs -2.7, p = 0.41); statistical significance was shown only for changes in NRS-LP scores (-4.9 vs -2.8, p = 0.02). On risk-adjusted analysis for 1

  16. The effects of blogs versus dialogue journals on open-response writing scores and attitudes of grade eight science students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Diane K.

    Today's students have grown up surrounded by technology. They use cell phones, word processors, and the Internet with ease, talking with peers in their community and around the world through e-mails, chatrooms, instant messaging, online discussions, and weblogs ("blogs"). In the midst of this technological explosion, adolescents face a growing need for strong literacy skills in all subject areas for achievement in school and on mandated state and national high stakes tests. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of blogs as a tool for improving open-response writing in the secondary science classroom in comparison to the use of handwritten dialogue journals. The study used a mixed-method approach, gathering both quantitative and qualitative data from 94 students in four eighth-grade science classes. Two classes participated in online class blogs where they posted ideas about science and responded to the ideas of other classmates. Two classes participated in handwritten dialogue journals, writing ideas about science and exchanging journals to respond to the ideas of classmates. The study explored these research questions: Does the use of blogs, as compared to the use of handwritten dialogue journals, improve the open-response writing scores of eighth grade science students? How do students describe their experience using blogs to study science as compared to students using handwritten dialogue journals? and How do motivation, self-efficacy, and community manifest themselves in students who use blogs as compared to students who use handwritten dialogue journals? The quantitative aspect of the study used data from pre- and post-tests and from a Likert-scale post-survey. The pre- and post-writing on open-response science questions were scored using the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) open-response scoring rubric. The study found no statistically significant difference in the writing scores between the blog group and the dialogue journal

  17. OpenVPN and Multipath TCP

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus, Aloïs

    2015-01-01

    Testing the performances of using Multipath TCP and OpenVPN on a consumer grade router to aggregate multiple Internet connections and provide a fast and reliable connection to individuals and small companies. Master [60] en sciences informatiques, Université catholique de Louvain, 2015

  18. The Effect of Crumb Rubber Particle Size to the Optimum Binder Content for Open Graded Friction Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rasdan Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the relations of rubber size, rubber content, and binder content in determination of optimum binder content for open graded friction course (OGFC. Mix gradation type B as specified in Specification for Porous Asphalt produced by the Road Engineering Association of Malaysia (REAM was used in this study. Marshall specimens were prepared with four different sizes of rubber, namely, 20 mesh size [0.841 mm], 40 mesh [0.42 mm], 80 mesh [0.177 mm], and 100 mesh [0.149 mm] with different concentrations of rubberised bitumen (4%, 8%, and 12% and different percentages of binder content (4%–7%. The appropriate optimum binder content is then selected according to the results of the air voids, binder draindown, and abrasion loss test. Test results found that crumb rubber particle size can affect the optimum binder content for OGFC.

  19. The Use of Engineered Bilayered Skin (MyDermTM) in the Management of Massive Skin Defect in Grade III Gustilo-Anderson Open Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Haflah, Nor Hazla; Ng, Min Hwei; Mohd Yunus, Mohd Heikal; Naicker, Amaramalar Selvee; Htwe, Ohnmar; Fahmi, Muhammad; Ishak, Mohamad Fikeri; Seet, Wan Tai; Khairoji, Khairul Anuar; Maarof, Manira; Chua, Kien Hui; Shamsuddin, Sharen Aini; Idrus, Ruszymah

    2017-09-01

    Open fracture Gustilo-Anderson grade IIIC is associated with higher risk of infection and problems with soft tissue coverage. Various methods have been used for soft tissue coverage in open fractures with large skin defect. We report a case of a patient who had grade IIIC open fracture of the tibia with posterior tibial artery injury. The patient underwent external fixation and reduction. Because of potential compartment syndrome after vascular repair, fasciotomy of the posterior compartment was performed. This wound, however, became infected and because of further debridement, gave rise to a large skin defect. A tissue engineered skin construct, MyDerm TM was employed to cover this large defect. Complete wound closure was achieved 35 days postimplantation. The patient then underwent plating of the tibia for nonunion with no adverse effect to the grafted site. The tibia eventually healed 5 months postplating, and the cosmetic appearance of the newly formed skin was satisfactory.

  20. Mechanical characterization of hybrid and functionally-graded aluminum open-cell foams with nanocrystalline-copper coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi

    absorption capacity. The behavior of Al/Cu hybrid foams under high-strain-rate condition was then investigated using experiments on a split Hopkinson pressure bar. It was found that the ED nano-copper coating can also effectively enhance the energy absorption capacities of aluminum open-cell foams under high strain rate. Similar to the quasi-static behavior, a large stress drop was observed in the compressive response of Al/Cu hybrid foams under high strain rate, which was accompanied by dramatic shattering of material. It is shown that a more ductile behavior and better energy absorption performance under high strain rate condition can be also obtained by introducing an annealing process. Finally, the manufacturing process of Al/Cu hybrid foams was customized to fabricate FGHMF systems with two dimensional property gradients. The performance of these FGHMFs at both quasi-static and dynamic conditions was evaluated. Under quasi-static condition, two flexural type loading conditions were considered, namely, a three point bending condition and a cantilever beam condition. The dynamic behavior of FGHMFs was investigated by conducting drop weight tower tests on a three point bending setup. It was found that the failure mechanism of hybrid metal foams can be modified and the mechanical properties, such as stiffness and strength, and energy absorption capacities of hybrid metal foams can be optimized under both quasi-static and dynamic conditions by introducing strategically designed coating patterns. The presented novel approach and findings in this study provide valuable information on the development of high performance hybrid and functionally-graded cellular materials.

  1. Graph Aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endriss, U.; Grandi, U.

    Graph aggregation is the process of computing a single output graph that constitutes a good compromise between several input graphs, each provided by a different source. One needs to perform graph aggregation in a wide variety of situations, e.g., when applying a voting rule (graphs as preference

  2. Comparing the Factors That Predict Completion and Grades among For-Credit and Open/MOOC Students in Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeda, Ma. Victoria; Zuech, Joshua; Utz, Chris; Higgins, Greg; Reynolds, Rob; Baker, Ryan S.

    2018-01-01

    Online education continues to become an increasingly prominent part of higher education, but many students struggle in distance courses. For this reason, there has been considerable interest in predicting which students will succeed in online courses and which will receive poor grades or drop out prior to completion. Effective intervention depends…

  3. Rydberg aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüster, S.; Rost, J.-M.

    2018-02-01

    We review Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of a few Rydberg atoms exhibiting energy transport through collective eigenstates, considering isolated atoms or assemblies embedded within clouds of cold ground-state atoms. We classify Rydberg aggregates, and provide an overview of their possible applications as quantum simulators for phenomena from chemical or biological physics. Our main focus is on flexible Rydberg aggregates, in which atomic motion is an essential feature. In these, simultaneous control over Rydberg-Rydberg interactions, external trapping and electronic energies, allows Born-Oppenheimer surfaces for the motion of the entire aggregate to be tailored as desired. This is illustrated with theory proposals towards the demonstration of joint motion and excitation transport, conical intersections and non-adiabatic effects. Additional flexibility for quantum simulations is enabled by the use of dressed dipole-dipole interactions or the embedding of the aggregate in a cold gas or Bose-Einstein condensate environment. Finally we provide some guidance regarding the parameter regimes that are most suitable for the realization of either static or flexible Rydberg aggregates based on Li or Rb atoms. The current status of experimental progress towards enabling Rydberg aggregates is also reviewed.

  4. 3D for the people: multi-camera motion capture in the field with consumer-grade cameras and open source software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon E. Jackson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecological, behavioral and biomechanical studies often need to quantify animal movement and behavior in three dimensions. In laboratory studies, a common tool to accomplish these measurements is the use of multiple, calibrated high-speed cameras. Until very recently, the complexity, weight and cost of such cameras have made their deployment in field situations risky; furthermore, such cameras are not affordable to many researchers. Here, we show how inexpensive, consumer-grade cameras can adequately accomplish these measurements both within the laboratory and in the field. Combined with our methods and open source software, the availability of inexpensive, portable and rugged cameras will open up new areas of biological study by providing precise 3D tracking and quantification of animal and human movement to researchers in a wide variety of field and laboratory contexts.

  5. Laparostomy management using the ABThera™ open abdomen negative pressure therapy system in a grade IV open abdomen secondary to acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, James E F; Gupta, Shradha; Masterson, Sarah; Sigurdsson, Helgi H

    2013-04-01

    Wound control in laparostomy for the treatment of intra-abdominal hypertension remains challenging and numerous techniques have been described. We report the first UK experience with a new commercially available device specifically designed to facilitate management of the open abdomen. A 44-year-old gentleman presented with a 3-day history of constant severe epigastric pain and associated vomiting. Amylase was markedly elevated and he was admitted for supportive management of pancreatitis, with subsequent transfer to intensive care due to severe systemic inflammatory syndrome. The patient decompensated, developing intra-abdominal hypertension with renal and respiratory failure. This was successfully managed by performing a laparostomy and using an ABThera™ Open Abdomen Negative Pressure Therapy System (KCI, San Antonio, TX). We describe its use to facilitate wound control, including enteroatmospheric fistula, allowing granulation and eventual restoration of gastrointestinal continuity 383-days after admission. We found the ABThera™ System proved to be a useful treatment adjunct, protecting intra-abdominal contents while removing large volumes of exudate and infected material from within the abdominal cavity. Complex cases such as this remain infrequent and this article provides a summary of our experience, including a review of indications for laparostomy and the underlying basic science in this difficult area. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  6. Demography and movement patterns of leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) aggregating near the head of a submarine canyon along the open coast of southern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosal, D.C.; Cartamil, D.C.; Long, J.W.; Luhrmann, M.; Wegner, N.C.; Graham, J.B.

    2013-01-01

    The demography, spatial distribution, and movement patterns of leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) aggregating near the head of a submarine canyon in La Jolla, California, USA, were investigated to resolve the causal explanations for this and similar shark aggregations. All sharks sampled from the aggregation site (n=140) were sexually mature and 97.1 % were female. Aerial photographs taken during tethered balloon surveys revealed high densities of milling sharks of up to 5470 sharks ha-1. Eight sharks were each tagged with a continuous acoustic transmitter and manually tracked without interruption for up to 48 h. Sharks exhibited strong site-fidelity and were generally confined to a divergence (shadow) zone of low wave energy, which results from wave refraction over the steep bathymetric contours of the submarine canyon. Within this divergence zone, the movements of sharks were strongly localized over the seismically active Rose Canyon Fault. Tracked sharks spent most of their time in shallow water (≤2 m for 71.0 % and ≤10 m for 95.9 % of time), with some dispersing to deeper (max: 53.9 m) and cooler (min: 12.7 °C) water after sunset, subsequently returning by sunrise. These findings suggest multiple functions of this aggregation and that the mechanism controlling its formation, maintenance, and dissolution is complex and rooted in the sharks' variable response to numerous confounding environmental factors.

  7. INFLUENCE OF GRADED AEROBIC EXERCISE ON QUALITY OF LIFE IN POST SURGICAL MITRAL VALVE DISEASE INDIVIDUAL A PROSPECTIVE RANDOMIZED OPEN LABEL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthi C

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post surgical mitral valve disease individual focus their cardiac rehabilitation training on two major goal that is to improve cardiac output response exercises and place an important role in determining exercise tolerance and to improve quality of life. Cardiac rehabilitation programs involve prescribed exercise and education however various other method are being used to improve quality of life. But our study to find out the effectiveness of graded aerobic exercise protocol on ejection fraction and quality of life in post surgical mitral valve disease individuals. Methods: The study design was open label studies total of 100 post surgical mitral valve disease individuals patients from the age group of 20-60 years were recruited from SVIMS hospital. They were randomly divided into two groups. Group I underwent a twelve week structured graded individually tailored exercises. The group II received only none graded (not individualized exercise training. The ejection fraction and quality of life was measured before and after 12 weeks of exercise training for two groups. Results: Repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare mean values of continuous variables between baseline and at the time of discharge and three months after surgery for each parameter. Comparison of means between groups was done by the unpaired student t test. Mean age of the subjects was 40.18±10.29. There was a significant increase in the ejection fraction in the group I(61.34±2.49 to 64.4±3.31 compared to with the group II (61.06±2.51. to 61.62 ±2.37. QOL had improved in group I than group II at p<0.05. Conclusion: A 12 week structured graded aerobic exercise training significantly improved ejection fraction and quality of life in post surgical mitral valve disease individuals.

  8. Open-pit coal mine production sequencing incorporating grade blending and stockpiling options: An application from an Indian mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Chatterjee, Snehamoy

    2017-05-01

    Production scheduling is a crucial aspect of the mining industry. An optimal and efficient production schedule can increase the profits manifold and reduce the amount of waste to be handled. Production scheduling for coal mines is necessary to maintain consistency in the quality and quantity parameters of coal supplied to power plants. Irregularity in the quality parameters of the coal can lead to heavy losses in coal-fired power plants. Moreover, the stockpiling of coal poses environmental and fire problems owing to low incubation periods. This article proposes a production scheduling formulation for open-pit coal mines including stockpiling and blending opportunities, which play a major role in maintaining the quality and quantity of supplied coal. The proposed formulation was applied to a large open-pit coal mine in India. This contribution provides an efficient production scheduling formulation for coal mines after utilizing the stockpile coal within the incubation periods with the maximization of discounted cash flows. At the same time, consistency is maintained in the quality and quantity of coal to power plants through blending and stockpiling options to ensure smooth functioning.

  9. Recycled aggregates concrete: aggregate and mix properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Fonteboa, B.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study of structural concrete made with recycled concrete aggregate focuses on two issues: 1. The characterization of such aggregate on the Spanish market. This involved conducting standard tests to determine density, water absorption, grading, shape, flakiness and hardness. The results obtained show that, despite the considerable differences with respect to density and water absorption between these and natural aggregates, on the whole recycled aggregate is apt for use in concrete production. 2. Testing to determine the values of basic concrete properties: mix design parameters were established for structural concrete in non-aggressive environments. These parameters were used to produce conventional concrete, and then adjusted to manufacture recycled concrete aggregate (RCA concrete, in which 50% of the coarse aggregate was replaced by the recycled material. Tests were conducted to determine the physical (density of the fresh and hardened material, water absorption and mechanical (compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity properties. The results showed that, from the standpoint of its physical and mechanical properties, concrete in which RCA accounted for 50% of the coarse aggregate compared favourably to conventional concrete.

    Se aborda el estudio de hormigones estructurales fabricados con áridos reciclados procedentes de hormigón, incidiéndose en dos aspectos: 1. Caracterización de tales áridos, procedentes del mercado español. Para ello se llevan a cabo ensayos de densidad, absorción, granulometría, coeficiente de forma, índice de lajas y dureza. Los resultados obtenidos han puesto de manifiesto que, a pesar de que existen diferencias notables (sobre todo en cuanto a densidad y absorción con los áridos naturales, las características de los áridos hacen posible la fabricación de hormigones. 2. Ensayos sobre propiedades básicas de los hormigones: se establecen parámetros de dosificaci

  10. Comparison of MAPIE versus MAP in patients with a poor response to preoperative chemotherapy for newly diagnosed high-grade osteosarcoma (EURAMOS-1): an open-label, international, randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marina, Neyssa M.; Smeland, Sigbjørn; Bielack, Stefan S.; Bernstein, Mark; Jovic, Gordana; Krailo, Mark D.; Hook, Jane M.; Arndt, Carola; van den Berg, Henk; Brennan, Bernadette; Brichard, Bénédicte; Brown, Ken L. B.; Butterfass-Bahloul, Trude; Calaminus, Gabriele; Daldrup-Link, Heike E.; Eriksson, Mikael; Gebhardt, Mark C.; Gelderblom, Hans; Gerss, Joachim; Goldsby, Robert; Goorin, Allen; Gorlick, Richard; Grier, Holcombe E.; Hale, Juliet P.; Hall, Kirsten Sundby; Hardes, Jendrik; Hawkins, Douglas S.; Helmke, Knut; Hogendoorn, Pancras C. W.; Isakoff, Michael S.; Janeway, Katherine A.; Jürgens, Heribert; Kager, Leo; Kühne, Thomas; Lau, Ching C.; Leavey, Patrick J.; Lessnick, Stephen L.; Mascarenhas, Leo; Meyers, Paul A.; Mottl, Hubert; Nathrath, Michaela; Papai, Zsuzsanna; Randall, R. Lor; Reichardt, Peter; Renard, Marleen; Safwat, Akmal Ahmed; Schwartz, Cindy L.; Stevens, Michael C. G.; Strauss, Sandra J.; Teot, Lisa; Werner, Mathias; Sydes, Matthew R.; Whelan, Jeremy S.

    2016-01-01

    We designed the EURAMOS-1 trial to investigate whether intensified postoperative chemotherapy for patients whose tumour showed a poor response to preoperative chemotherapy (≥10% viable tumour) improved event-free survival in patients with high-grade osteosarcoma. EURAMOS-1 was an open-label,

  11. Classroom: Efficient Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.

    2014-01-01

    Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…

  12. Oil-Price Shocks: Beyond Standard Aggregate Demand/Aggregate Supply Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, S. Kirk

    2001-01-01

    Explores the problems of portraying oil-price shocks using the aggregate demand/aggregate supply model. Presents a simple modification of the model that differentiates between production and absorption of goods, which enables it to better reflect the effects of oil-price shocks on open economies. (RLH)

  13. Determination of aggregate morphological properties using laser and their effects on rutting of asphalt mixes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Andesite grading with andesite fines; 2Dolerite grading with andesite fines 3Chrome slag grading with slag fines FIGURE 2 Example of aggregate particles scanned for this study. Sampling for Scanning Wet sieve analysis tests were conducted... analyses. The mathematical details of the use of spherical harmonic analysis techniques to analyse laser scanning of aggregates are presented by (14). Figure 5 shows shape indices results plotted against the aggregate sieve sizes for the three...

  14. Determination of sieve grading curves using an optical device

    OpenAIRE

    PHAM, AM; DESCANTES, Yannick; DE LARRARD, François

    2011-01-01

    The grading curve of an aggregate is a fundamental characteristic for mix design that can easily be modified to adjust several mix properties. While sieve analysis remains the reference method to determine this curve, optical devices are developing, allowing easier and faster assessment of aggregate grading. Unfortunately, optical grading results significantly differ from sieve grading curves. As a consequence, getting full acceptance of these new methods requires building bridges between the...

  15. Comparison of MAPIE versus MAP in patients with a poor response to preoperative chemotherapy for newly diagnosed high-grade osteosarcoma (EURAMOSan open-label, international, randomised controlled trial-1): an open-label, international, randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marina, Neyssa M; Smeland, Sigbjørn; Bielack, Stefan S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We designed the EURAMOS-1 trial to investigate whether intensified postoperative chemotherapy for patients whose tumour showed a poor response to preoperative chemotherapy (≥10% viable tumour) improved event-free survival in patients with high-grade osteosarcoma. METHODS: EURAMOS-1 wa...

  16. Information Aggregation in Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation contributes to the analysis of information aggregation procedures within organizations. Facing uncertainty about the consequences of a collective decision, information has to be aggregated before making a choice. Two main questions are addressed. Firstly, how well is an organization suited for the aggregation of decision-relevant information? Secondly, how should an organization be designed in order to aggregate information efficiently? The main part deals with information a...

  17. Towards General Temporal Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boehlen, Michael H.; Gamper, Johann; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    associated with the management of temporal data. Indeed, temporal aggregation is complex and among the most difficult, and thus interesting, temporal functionality to support. This paper presents a general framework for temporal aggregation that accommodates existing kinds of aggregation, and it identifies...

  18. Temporal aggregation in first order cointegrated vector autoregressive models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour, Lisbeth Funding; Milhøj, Anders

    We study aggregation - or sample frequencies - of time series, e.g. aggregation from weekly to monthly or quarterly time series. Aggregation usually gives shorter time series but spurious phenomena, in e.g. daily observations, can on the other hand be avoided. An important issue is the effect of ...... of aggregation on the adjustment coefficient in cointegrated systems. We study only first order vector autoregressive processes for n dimensional time series Xt, and we illustrate the theory by a two dimensional and a four dimensional model for prices of various grades of gasoline...

  19. Temporal aggregation in first order cointegrated vector autoregressive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Lisbeth Funding; Milhøj, Anders

    2006-01-01

    We study aggregation - or sample frequencies - of time series, e.g. aggregation from weekly to monthly or quarterly time series. Aggregation usually gives shorter time series but spurious phenomena, in e.g. daily observations, can on the other hand be avoided. An important issue is the effect of ...... of aggregation on the adjustment coefficient in cointegrated systems. We study only first order vector autoregressive processes for n dimensional time series Xt, and we illustrate the theory by a two dimensional and a four dimensional model for prices of various grades of gasoline....

  20. Protein aggregation and misfolding: good or evil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Annalisa; Temussi, Pierandrea

    2012-06-01

    Protein aggregation and misfolding have important implications in an increasing number of fields ranging from medicine to biology to nanotechnology and material science. The interest in understanding this field has accordingly increased steadily over the last two decades. During this time the number of publications that have been dedicated to protein aggregation has increased exponentially, tackling the problem from several different and sometime contradictory perspectives. This review is meant to summarize some of the highlights that come from these studies and introduce this topical issue on the subject. The factors that make a protein aggregate and the cellular strategies that defend from aggregation are discussed together with the perspectives that the accumulated knowledge may open.

  1. Protein aggregation and misfolding: good or evil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastore, Annalisa; Temussi, Pierandrea

    2012-01-01

    Protein aggregation and misfolding have important implications in an increasing number of fields ranging from medicine to biology to nanotechnology and material science. The interest in understanding this field has accordingly increased steadily over the last two decades. During this time the number of publications that have been dedicated to protein aggregation has increased exponentially, tackling the problem from several different and sometime contradictory perspectives. This review is meant to summarize some of the highlights that come from these studies and introduce this topical issue on the subject. The factors that make a protein aggregate and the cellular strategies that defend from aggregation are discussed together with the perspectives that the accumulated knowledge may open. (topical review)

  2. Platelet activation and aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Sander; Larsen, O H; Christiansen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces a new laboratory model of whole blood platelet aggregation stimulated by endogenously generated thrombin, and explores this aspect in haemophilia A in which impaired thrombin generation is a major hallmark. The method was established to measure platelet aggregation initiated...

  3. Aggregates from mineral wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baic Ireneusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem concerning the growing demand for natural aggregates and the need to limit costs, including transportation from remote deposits, cause the increase in growth of interest in aggregates from mineral wastes as well as in technologies of their production and recovery. The paper presents the issue related to the group of aggregates other than natural. A common name is proposed for such material: “alternative aggregates”. The name seems to be fully justified due to adequacy of this term because of this raw materials origin and role, in comparison to the meaning of natural aggregates based on gravel and sand as well as crushed stones. The paper presents characteristics of the market and basic application of aggregates produced from mineral wastes, generated in the mining, power and metallurgical industries as well as material from demolished objects.

  4. Marine Synechococcus Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuer, S.; Deng, W.; Cruz, B. N.; Monks, L.

    2016-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are considered to play an important role in the oceanic biological carbon pump, especially in oligotrophic regions. But as single cells are too small to sink, their carbon export has to be mediated by aggregate formation and possible consumption by zooplankton producing sinking fecal pellets. Here we report results on the aggregation of the ubiquitous marine pico-cyanobacterium Synechococcus as a model organism. We first investigated the mechanism behind such aggregation by studying the potential role of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) and the effects of nutrient (nitrogen or phosphorus) limitation on the TEP production and aggregate formation of these pico-cyanobacteria. We further studied the aggregation and subsequent settling in roller tanks and investigated the effects of the clays kaolinite and bentonite in a series of concentrations. Our results show that despite of the lowered growth rates, Synechococcus in nutrient limited cultures had larger cell-normalized TEP production, formed a greater volume of aggregates, and resulted in higher settling velocities compared to results from replete cultures. In addition, we found that despite their small size and lack of natural ballasting minerals, Synechococcus cells could still form aggregates and sink at measureable velocities in seawater. Clay minerals increased the number and reduced the size of aggregates, and their ballasting effects increased the sinking velocity and carbon export potential of aggregates. In comparison with the Synechococcus, we will also present results of the aggregation of the pico-cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus in roller tanks. These results contribute to our understanding in the physiology of marine Synechococcus as well as their role in the ecology and biogeochemistry in oligotrophic oceans.

  5. Sharing Lessons-Learned on Effective Open Data, Open-Source Practices from OpenAQ, a Global Open Air Quality Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenkopf, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Increasingly, open data, open-source projects are unearthing rich datasets and tools, previously impossible for more traditional avenues to generate. These projects are possible, in part, because of the emergence of online collaborative and code-sharing tools, decreasing costs of cloud-based services to fetch, store, and serve data, and increasing interest of individuals to contribute their time and skills to 'open projects.' While such projects have generated palpable enthusiasm from many sectors, many of these projects face uncharted paths for sustainability, visibility, and acceptance. Our project, OpenAQ, is an example of an open-source, open data community that is currently forging its own uncharted path. OpenAQ is an open air quality data platform that aggregates and universally formats government and research-grade air quality data from 50 countries across the world. To date, we make available more than 76 million air quality (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, O3, CO and black carbon) data points through an open Application Programming Interface (API) and a user-customizable download interface at https://openaq.org. The goal of the platform is to enable an ecosystem of users to advance air pollution efforts from science to policy to the private sector. The platform is also an open-source project (https://github.com/openaq) and has only been made possible through the coding and data contributions of individuals around the world. In our first two years of existence, we have seen requests for data to our API skyrocket to more than 6 million datapoints per month, and use-cases as varied as ingesting data aggregated from our system into real-time models of wildfires to building open-source statistical packages (e.g. ropenaq and py-openaq) on top of the platform to creating public-friendly apps and chatbots. We will share a whirl-wind trip through our evolution and the many lessons learned so far related to platform structure, community engagement, organizational model type

  6. Assessment of radioactivity associated with a low ore grade open cast mine at Banduhurang, Jharkhand, India and estimation of occupational exposure to the miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, B.K.; Shukla, A.K.; Topno, R.; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.

    2010-01-01

    The study summarizes radiological characteristics of Banduhurang open cast mine which includes qualitative and quantitative behavior of 222 Rn concentration, external gamma radiation level over the mine pit as well as in its adjoining environment, long-lived alpha (LLα) activity concentration associated with the respirable size of ore dust and assessment of dose to the mine workers in 2006-2008. The investigations reveal that geometric means (χg) of measured radon concentration were 36.39, 38.69, 26.64 and 24 Bq m -3 with respective geometric standard deviations (σg) were 1.52, 1.55, 1.36 and 1.68 Bq m -3 and χg of gamma absorbed dose rates were 0.54, 0.64, 0. 45 and 0.15 μGy h -1 with respective σg were 1.63, 1.53, 1.52 and 1.72 μGy h -1 over the mine pit, ore yard, waste yard and in the surrounding environment within a 10 km radius to the mine, respectively. The χg of LLα activity was observed to be 16 mBq m-3 with σg of 1.9 mBq m -3 . The annual mean effective dose equivalent received by the member radiation workers of Banduhurang mine was estimated to 1.41 mSv y -1 , which is about 7% of the prescribed dose limits of 20 mSv y -1 . (author)

  7. Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource (AcTOR) is EPA's online aggregator of all the public sources of chemical toxicity data. ACToR aggregates data...

  8. Mechanical properties of recycled concrete with demolished waste concrete aggregate and clay brick aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocan; Lou, Cong; Du, Geng; Li, Xiaozhen; Liu, Zhiwu; Li, Liqin

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on the effect of the replacement of natural coarse aggregate (NCA) with either recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) or recycled clay brick aggregate (RBA) on the compressive strengths of the hardened concrete. Two grades (C25 and C50) of concrete were investigated, which were achieved by using different water-to-cement ratios. In each grade concrete five different replacement rates, 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% were considered. In order to improve the performance of the recycled aggregates in the concrete mixes, the RCA and RBA were carefully sieved by using the optimal degradation. In this way the largest reduction in the 28-day compressive strength was found to be only 7.2% and 9.6% for C25 and C50 recycled concrete when the NCA was replaced 100% by RCA, and 11% and 13% for C25 and C50 recycled concrete when the NCA was replaced 100% by RBA. In general, the concrete with RCA has better performance than the concrete with RBA. The comparison of the present experimental results with those reported in literature for hardened concrete with either RCA or RBA demonstrates the effectiveness in improving the compressive strength by using the optimal gradation of recycled aggregates.

  9. Protein Colloidal Aggregation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the pathways and kinetics of protein aggregation to allow accurate predictive modeling of the process and evaluation of potential inhibitors to prevalent diseases including cataract formation, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and others.

  10. Observing Convective Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Christopher E.; Wing, Allison A.; Bony, Sandrine; Muller, Caroline; Masunaga, Hirohiko; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Turner, David D.; Zuidema, Paquita

    2017-11-01

    Convective self-aggregation, the spontaneous organization of initially scattered convection into isolated convective clusters despite spatially homogeneous boundary conditions and forcing, was first recognized and studied in idealized numerical simulations. While there is a rich history of observational work on convective clustering and organization, there have been only a few studies that have analyzed observations to look specifically for processes related to self-aggregation in models. Here we review observational work in both of these categories and motivate the need for more of this work. We acknowledge that self-aggregation may appear to be far-removed from observed convective organization in terms of time scales, initial conditions, initiation processes, and mean state extremes, but we argue that these differences vary greatly across the diverse range of model simulations in the literature and that these comparisons are already offering important insights into real tropical phenomena. Some preliminary new findings are presented, including results showing that a self-aggregation simulation with square geometry has too broad distribution of humidity and is too dry in the driest regions when compared with radiosonde records from Nauru, while an elongated channel simulation has realistic representations of atmospheric humidity and its variability. We discuss recent work increasing our understanding of how organized convection and climate change may interact, and how model discrepancies related to this question are prompting interest in observational comparisons. We also propose possible future directions for observational work related to convective aggregation, including novel satellite approaches and a ground-based observational network.

  11. Fly ash aggregates. Vliegaskunstgrind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    A study has been carried out into artificial aggregates made from fly ash, 'fly ash aggregates'. Attention has been drawn to the production of fly ash aggregates in the Netherlands as a way to obviate the need of disposal of fly ash. Typical process steps for the manufacturing of fly ash aggregates are the agglomeration and the bonding of fly ash particles. Agglomeration techniques are subdivided into agitation and compaction, bonding methods into sintering, hydrothermal and 'cold' bonding. In sintering no bonding agent is used. The fly ash particles are more or less welded together. Sintering in general is performed at a temperature higher than 900 deg C. In hydrothermal processes lime reacts with fly ash to a crystalline hydrate at temperatures between 100 and 250 deg C at saturated steam pressure. As a lime source not only lime as such, but also portland cement can be used. Cold bonding processes rely on reaction of fly ash with lime or cement at temperatures between 0 and 100 deg C. The pozzolanic properties of fly ash are used. Where cement is applied, this bonding agent itself contributes also to the strength development of the artificial aggregate. Besides the use of lime and cement, several processes are known which make use of lime containing wastes such as spray dry absorption desulfurization residues or fluid bed coal combustion residues. (In Dutch)

  12. Assessing relationships among properties of demolished concrete, recycled aggregate and recycled aggregate concrete using regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vivian W Y; Wang, K; Tam, C M

    2008-04-01

    Recycled demolished concrete (DC) as recycled aggregate (RA) and recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) is generally suitable for most construction applications. Low-grade applications, including sub-base and roadwork, have been implemented in many countries; however, higher-grade activities are rarely considered. This paper examines relationships among DC characteristics, properties of their RA and strength of their RAC using regression analysis. Ten samples collected from demolition sites are examined. The results show strong correlation among the DC samples, properties of RA and RAC. It should be highlighted that inferior quality of DC will lower the quality of RA and thus their RAC. Prediction of RAC strength is also formulated from the DC characteristics and the RA properties. From that, the RAC performance from DC and RA can be estimated. In addition, RAC design requirements can also be developed at the initial stage of concrete demolition. Recommendations are also given to improve the future concreting practice.

  13. Acid resistance of quaternary blended recycled aggregate concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jagannadha Rao

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of reusing the aggregate from demolished structures in fresh concrete, in order to reduce the CO2 impact on the environment [23] and to preserve natural resources, was explored worldwide and it is established that recycled aggregates can be used as a partial replacement of natural aggregates. Due to its potential to be used in eco-friendly structures and shortage of supply of natural aggregates in some parts of the world, there is an increasing interest in using the recycled aggregate. The durability aspects are also of equal concern along with the strength and economy of any material to be used in the construction. Studies reveal that the behaviour of ternary and quaternary blended concretes is superior from durability point of view compared to conventional concrete. Therefore a study is conducted to assess the acid resistance of recycled aggregate based Quaternary Blended Cement Concrete (QBCC of two grades M40 and M60. Fly ash and silica fume are fixed at 20% and 10% respectively from the previous studies while two percentages of Nano silica (2 and 3% were used along with the cement to obtain QBCC. Three percentages of recycled aggregates as partial replacement of conventional aggregate (0%, 50% and 75% were used in this study. Two different acids (HCL and H2SO4 with different concentrations (3 and 5% were used in this study. Acid resistance of QBCC with Recycled Concrete Aggregate (RCA is assessed in terms of visual appearance, weight loss, and compressive strength loss by destructive and non-destructive tests at regular intervals for a period of 56 days. The test results showed marginal weight loss and strength loss in both M40 and M60 grades of concretes. The Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV results show that the quality of QBCC is good even after being subjected to acid exposure. Keywords: Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA, Quaternary blended cement concrete (QBCC, Acid resistance, Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV, Mineral

  14. Platelet aggregation following trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windeløv, Nis A; Sørensen, Anne M; Perner, Anders

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to elucidate platelet function in trauma patients, as it is pivotal for hemostasis yet remains scarcely investigated in this population. We conducted a prospective observational study of platelet aggregation capacity in 213 adult trauma patients on admission to an emergency department (ED...... severity score (ISS) was 17; 14 (7%) patients received 10 or more units of red blood cells in the ED (massive transfusion); 24 (11%) patients died within 28 days of trauma: 17 due to cerebral injuries, four due to exsanguination, and three from other causes. No significant association was found between...... aggregation response and ISS. Higher TRAP values were associated with death due to cerebral injuries (P 

  15. Performance comparison of various seal coat grades used in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report documents research efforts to provide comparative quantitative performance information for various grades of seal coat aggregate available in the Texas Department of Transportations standard specifications. Length of service before rep...

  16. Erosion of dust aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seizinger, A.; Krijt, S.; Kley, W.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to gain a deeper insight into how much different aggregate types are affected by erosion. Especially, it is important to study the influence of the velocity of the impacting projectiles. We also want to provide models for dust growth in protoplanetary disks with simple

  17. Aggregates, broccoli and cauliflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Francois; Kjems, Jørgen K.

    1989-09-01

    Naturally grown structures with fractal characters like broccoli and cauliflower are discussed and compared with DLA-type aggregates. It is suggested that the branching density can be used to characterize the growth process and an experimental method to determine this parameter is proposed.

  18. Sustainable aggregates production : green applications for aggregate by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Increased emphasis in the construction industry on sustainability and recycling requires production of : aggregate gradations with lower dust (cleaner aggregates) and smaller maximum sizeshence, increased : amount of quarry by-products (QBs). QBs ...

  19. Development of ODOT guidelines for the use of geogrids in aggregate bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    A primary objective of the current study was to help ODOT expand its selection of approved : geogrid products for base reinforcement applications by producing measured data on selected : geogrids and a dense-graded base aggregate commonly used in ODO...

  20. A study of concrete properties using phyllite as coarse aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adom-Asamoah, Mark; Afrifa, Russell Owusu

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, industrial activities generate a huge amount of waste. One such activity is underground mining which generates phyllite wastes that are recycled as coarse aggregates for use in concrete production. Aggregate use in concrete is dependent on availability. This paper reports of an experimental study on some of the physical and mechanical properties of phyllite aggregate concrete as compared to granite (conventional) aggregate concrete. The obtained physical and mechanical properties of both aggregates for specific gravity, water absorption (%), dry density, aggregate impact value (%), aggregate crushing value (%), 10% fines, elongation index (%), flakiness index (%) and Los Angeles abrasion values satisfied minimum requirements for aggregates suitable for concrete production. Five mixes of concrete mix proportions designated M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5 were cast using phyllite and granite aggregates. A total of 400 concrete cubes and 210 modulus of rupture beams were cast and cured by total submerging in water for ages 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, 90, 180 and 360 days before compression and bending tests were performed. The results show that the trends in the development of compressive and bending strengths of plain phyllite concrete were similar to those in granite (conventional) aggregate concrete. However the compressive and bending strengths of phyllite concrete mixes were on the average 15-20% lower than those of the corresponding granite concrete mixes at all ages. The same concrete mix proportions gave lower concrete classes for phyllite compared to granite with the exception of the lowest grade. This was probably because the flakiness and elongation properties coupled with reactive materials in phyllite aggregates affect the absorption and bond characteristics of its concrete.

  1. Aggregate packing characteristics of good and poor performing asphalt mixes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aggregate structure of the compacted mix is a determining factor for the performance of Hot-Mix Asphalt (HMA). In this paper, the grading characteristics of good and poor performing HMA mixes are explored using the concepts of the Bailey method...

  2. Concrete produced with recycled aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. L. Tenório

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of the mechanical and durable properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC for using in concrete. The porosity of recycled coarse aggregates is known to influence the fresh and hardened concrete properties and these properties are related to the specific mass of the recycled coarse aggregates, which directly influences the mechanical properties of the concrete. The recycled aggregates were obtained from construction and demolition wastes (CDW, which were divided into recycled sand (fine and coarse aggregates. Besides this, a recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density was obtained by mixing the recycled aggregates of the CDW with the recycled aggregates of concrete wastes (CW. The concrete was produced in laboratory by combining three water-cement ratios, the ratios were used in agreement with NBR 6118 for structural concretes, with each recycled coarse aggregates and recycled sand or river sand, and the reference concrete was produced with natural aggregates. It was observed that recycled aggregates can be used in concrete with properties for structural concrete. In general, the use of recycled coarse aggregate in combination with recycled sand did not provide good results; but when the less porous was used, or the recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density, the properties of the concrete showed better results. Some RAC reached bigger strengths than the reference concrete.

  3. Aggregation Algorithms in Heterogeneous Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus Felix FURTUNA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous tables are most used in the problem of aggregation. A solution for this problem is to standardize these tables of figures. In this paper, we proposed some methods of aggregation based on the hierarchical algorithms.

  4. Familial Aggregation of Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrin, Denise C; Morin, Charles M; Rochefort, Amélie; Ivers, Hans; Dauvilliers, Yves A; Savard, Josée; LeBlanc, Mélanie; Merette, Chantal

    2017-02-01

    There is little information about familial aggregation of insomnia; however, this type of information is important to (1) improve our understanding of insomnia risk factors and (2) to design more effective treatment and prevention programs. This study aimed to investigate evidence of familial aggregation of insomnia among first-degree relatives of probands with and without insomnia. Cases (n = 134) and controls (n = 145) enrolled in a larger epidemiological study were solicited to invite their first-degree relatives and spouses to complete a standardized sleep/insomnia survey. In total, 371 first-degree relatives (Mage = 51.9 years, SD = 18.0; 34.3% male) and 138 spouses (Mage = 55.5 years, SD = 12.2; 68.1% male) completed the survey assessing the nature, severity, and frequency of sleep disturbances. The dependent variable was insomnia in first-degree relatives and spouses. Familial aggregation was claimed if the risk of insomnia was significantly higher in the exposed (relatives of cases) compared to the unexposed cohort (relatives of controls). The risk of insomnia was also compared between spouses in the exposed (spouses of cases) and unexposed cohort (spouses of controls). The risk of insomnia in exposed and unexposed biological relatives was 18.6% and 10.4%, respectively, yielding a relative risk (RR) of 1.80 (p = .04) after controlling for age and sex. The risk of insomnia in exposed and unexposed spouses was 9.1% and 4.2%, respectively; however, corresponding RR of 2.13 (p = .28) did not differ significantly. Results demonstrate evidence of strong familial aggregation of insomnia. Additional research is warranted to further clarify and disentangle the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors in insomnia. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Asphaltene Aggregation and Fouling Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshesh, Marzie

    . Analysis of the spectra of the whole asphaltene samples in toluene indicates that the absorbance of visible light with wavelengths > 600 nm follows a lambda--4 dependence. This functional dependence is consistent with Rayleigh scattering. Rayleigh scattering provides strong evidence that the apparent absorption of visible light by asphaltenes from 600-800 nm is not a molecular absorption phenomenon but rather a scattering mechanism. Rayleigh scattering equations were combined with experimental visible spectra to estimate the average nanoaggregate sizes, which were in a very good agreement with the sizes reported in the literature. The occlusion of two polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (pyrene and phenanthrene) in asphaltene precipitates was tested by adding PAHs to the asphaltene in toluene solutions, precipitating by n-pentane and determining the amount of PAHs in precipitates using simulated distillation instrument. Pyrene and phenanthrene, which are normally soluble in the toluene-n-pentane solutions, were detected in the asphaltene precipitates at up to 6 wt% concentration. Trapping of PAHs outside of the nanoaggregates during precipitation gave 7-14 times less of the PAHs in the solid precipitate. This study shows that asphaltene aggregates can interact significantly with PAHs. The results are consistent with the presence open porous asphaltene nanoaggregates in solutions such as toluene.

  6. Steel Slag as an Aggregate Replacement in Malaysian Hot Mix Asphalt

    OpenAIRE

    Hainin, Mohd Rosli; Yusoff, Nur Izzi Md.; Mohammad Sabri, Mohd Fahmi; Abdul Aziz, Mohd Azizi; Sahul Hameed, Mohd Anwar; Farooq Reshi, Wasid

    2012-01-01

    As natural aggregate sources are becoming depleted due to high demand in road construction and the amount of disposed waste material keeps increasing, researchers are exploring the use of alternative materials which could preserve natural sources and save the environment. In this study, steel slag was used as an aggregate replacement in conventional dense graded asphalt mixes (ACW14 and ACB28). Steel slag was selected due to its characteristics, which are almost similar to conventional aggreg...

  7. Proteins aggregation and human diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-04-01

    Many human diseases and the death of most supercentenarians are related to protein aggregation. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporallobar degeneration, etc. Such diseases are due to progressive loss of structure or function of neurons caused by protein aggregation. For example, AD is considered to be related to aggregation of Aβ40 (peptide with 40 amino acids) and Aβ42 (peptide with 42 amino acids) and HD is considered to be related to aggregation of polyQ (polyglutamine) peptides. In this paper, we briefly review our recent discovery of key factors for protein aggregation. We used a lattice model to study the aggregation rates of proteins and found that the probability for a protein sequence to appear in the conformation of the aggregated state can be used to determine the temperature at which proteins can aggregate most quickly. We used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that when the bending-angle dependent and torsion-angle dependent interactions are zero or very small, then protein chains tend to aggregate at lower temperatures. All atom models were used to identify a key peptide chain for the aggregation of insulin chains and to find that two polyQ chains prefer anti-parallel conformation. It is pointed out that in many cases, protein aggregation does not result from protein mis-folding. A potential drug from Chinese medicine was found for Alzheimer's disease.

  8. The use of recycled concrete aggregate in a dense graded aggregate base course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    The research project was broken up into 2 different parts. The first part involved evaluating the potential use of the Time : Domain Reflectometry, TDR (ASTM D6780), as a non-nuclear means for determining the dry density and moisture content of : gra...

  9. Coupling of aggregation and immunogenicity in biotherapeutics: T- and B-cell immune epitopes may contain aggregation-prone regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Satish K; Wang, Xiaoling; Rup, Bonita; Gill, Davinder

    2011-05-01

    Biotherapeutics, including recombinant or plasma-derived human proteins and antibody-based molecules, have emerged as an important class of pharmaceuticals. Aggregation and immunogenicity are among the major bottlenecks during discovery and development of biotherapeutics. Computational tools that can predict aggregation prone regions as well as T- and B-cell immune epitopes from protein sequence and structure have become available recently. Here, we describe a potential coupling between aggregation and immunogenicity: T-cell and B-cell immune epitopes in therapeutic proteins may contain aggregation-prone regions. The details of biological mechanisms behind this observation remain to be understood. However, our observation opens up an exciting potential for rational design of de-immunized novel, as well as follow on biotherapeutics with reduced aggregation propensity.

  10. Effect of Cement Grades on some properties of Sandcrete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of cement grade on some properties of sandcrete. The cement used for this work was Ordinary Portland cement (Dangote brand) of grade 42.5 and 32.5 meeting the requirement of ASTM C150 type 1 cement. Three types of fine aggregate was also used to produce ...

  11. Concrete = aggregate, cement, water?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelinek, J.

    1990-01-01

    Concrete for the Temelin nuclear power plant is produced to about 70 different formulae. For quality production, homogeneous properties of aggregates, accurate proportioning devices, technological discipline and systematic inspections and tests should be assured. The results are reported of measuring compression strength after 28 days for different concrete samples. The results of such tests allow reducing the proportion of cement, which brings about considerable savings. Reduction in cement quantities can also be achieved by adding ash to the concrete mixes. Ligoplast, a plasticizer addition is used for improving workability. (M.D). 8 figs

  12. Taurine and platelet aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauss-Karol, C.; VanderWende, C.; Gaut, Z.N.

    1986-01-01

    Taurine is a putative neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. The endogenous taurine concentration in human platelets, determined by amino acid analysis, is 15 μM/g. In spite of this high level, taurine is actively accumulated. Uptake is saturable, Na + and temperature dependent, and suppressed by metabolic inhibitors, structural analogues, and several classes of centrally active substances. High, medium and low affinity transport processes have been characterized, and the platelet may represent a model system for taurine transport in the CNS. When platelets were incubated with 14 C-taurine for 30 minutes, then resuspended in fresh medium and reincubated for one hour, essentially all of the taurine was retained within the cells. Taurine, at concentrations ranging from 10-1000 μM, had no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ADP or epinephrine. However, taurine may have a role in platelet aggregation since 35-39% of the taurine taken up by human platelets appears to be secreted during the release reaction induced by low concentrations of either epinephrine or ADP, respectively. This release phenomenon would imply that part of the taurine taken up is stored directly in the dense bodies of the platelet

  13. Low grade uranium deposits of India - a bane or boon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    Uranium resources of the world is estimated to be 5.5 million tonnes and the proven resources in India forms 3% of the world resources. The biggest uranium deposit is the Olympic dam deposit in Australia, which contains nearly one million tonnes of 0.04% U 3 O 8 , while the highest grade of nearly 20% is established in the McArthur river deposit, Canada. Another very high grade deposit, the Cigar lake deposit, is established in Canada with an average grade of nearly 18%. Most of the uranium deposits established in India so far falls under the category of low grade. These low grade uranium deposits are distributed mainly in Singhbhum Shear Zone, eastern India; in parts of Chhattisgarh; Southern parts of Meghalaya; Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh; in parts of Karnataka and Aravalli- and Delhi Supergroups, Rajasthan and Haryana. These deposits are mainly hydrothermal vein type, stratabound type and unconformity related. The Singhbhum Shear Zone, Jharkhand hosts a seventeen low grade uranium deposits, aggregating about 30% of Indian uranium resources. The uranium mineralisation hosted by Vempalle dolostone extends over 160 km belt along southwestern margin of Cuddapah Basin in Andhra Pradesh and accounts 23% of the Indian resources. Though the dolostone hosted Tummalapalle uranium deposit was established in the early nineties, because of techno-economic constraints, the deposit remained dormant. As a consequence of the development of an innovative pressure alkali beneficiation process, the deposit became economically viable and a mine and mill are being constructed here. Recent exploration inputs are leading to prove a number of low grade uranium deposits in the extension areas of Tummalapalle. Nearly 10 blocks have been identified within a 30 km belt which are being actively explored and a large uranium deposit has already been proved in this province. The deposit at Tummalapalle and adjoining areas is likely to become the second biggest deposit in the world. The

  14. Research on Judgment Aggregation Based on Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Preference aggregation and judgment aggregation are two basic research models of group decision making. And preference aggregation has been deeply studied in social choice theory. However, researches of social choice theory gradually focus on judgment aggregation which appears recently. Judgment aggregation focuses on how to aggregate many consistent logical formulas into one, from the perspective of logic. We try to start with judgment aggregation model based on logic and then explore different solutions to problem of judgment aggregation.

  15. STUDY ON SILICA INFUSED RECYCLED AGGREGATE CONCRETE USING DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. MRUDUL

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recycled Aggregate (RA generated from the construction industry is used as a material for sustainable construction. The old mortar attached to these aggregates makes it porous and are generally used for low-grade applications. However, by infusing with silica fumes, the properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC can be improved, as the silica fumes get infused into the pores of old mortar attached to it. In this study, the optimum percentage of recycled aggregate that can be used in fresh concrete for higher grade applications was found out. Design of experiments (DoE was used to optimize percentage of silica fumes and recycled aggregate to achieve optimum properties of concrete. Equations to predict the properties of concrete were also modelled using regression analysis.

  16. Proteins aggregation and human diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Many human diseases and the death of most supercentenarians are related to protein aggregation. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporallobar degeneration, etc. Such diseases are due to progressive loss of structure or function of neurons caused by protein aggregation. For example, AD is considered to be related to aggregation of Aβ40 (peptide with 40 amino acids) and Aβ42 (peptide with 42 amino acids) and HD is considered to be related to aggregation of polyQ (polyglutamine) peptides. In this paper, we briefly review our recent discovery of key factors for protein aggregation. We used a lattice model to study the aggregation rates of proteins and found that the probability for a protein sequence to appear in the conformation of the aggregated state can be used to determine the temperature at which proteins can aggregate most quickly. We used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that when the bending-angle dependent and torsion-angle dependent interactions are zero or very small, then protein chains tend to aggregate at lower temperatures. All atom models were used to identify a key peptide chain for the aggregation of insulin chains and to find that two polyQ chains prefer anti-parallel conformation. It is pointed out that in many cases, protein aggregation does not result from protein mis-folding. A potential drug from Chinese medicine was found for Alzheimer's disease. (paper)

  17. Information Aggregation and Investment Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Hellwig; Aleh Tsyvinski; Elias Albagli

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies an environment in which information aggregation interacts with investment decisions. The first contribution of the paper is to develop a tractable model of such interactions. The second contribution is to solve the model in closed form and derive a series of implications that result from the interplay between information aggregation and the value of market information for the firms' decision problem. We show that the model generates an information aggregation wedge between ...

  18. Utilisation of iron ore tailings as aggregates in concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Atta Kuranchie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable handling of iron ore tailings is of prime concern to all stakeholders who are into iron ore mining. This study seeks to add value to the tailings by utilising them as a replacement for aggregates in concrete. A concrete mix of grade 40 MPa was prepared in the laboratory with water–cement ratio of 0.5. The concrete were cured for 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. The properties of the concrete such as workability, durability, density, compressive strength and indirect tensile strength were tested. A controlled mix of concrete was also prepared in similar way using conventional materials and the results were compared with the tailings concrete. It was found that the iron ore tailings may be utilised for complete replacement for conventional aggregates in concrete. The iron ore tailings aggregates concrete exhibited a good mechanical strength and even in the case of compressive strength, there was an improvement of 11.56% over conventional aggregates concrete. The indirect tensile strength did not improve against the control mix due high content of fines in the tailings aggregates but showed 4.8% improvement compared with the previous study where the conventional fine aggregates was partially replaced by 20% with iron ore tailings.

  19. Explaining the length threshold of polyglutamine aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Los Rios, Paolo; Hafner, Marc; Pastore, Annalisa

    2012-01-01

    The existence of a length threshold, of about 35 residues, above which polyglutamine repeats can give rise to aggregation and to pathologies, is one of the hallmarks of polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease. The reason why such a minimal length exists at all has remained one of the main open issues in research on the molecular origins of such classes of diseases. Following the seminal proposals of Perutz, most research has focused on the hunt for a special structure, attainable only above the minimal length, able to trigger aggregation. Such a structure has remained elusive and there is growing evidence that it might not exist at all. Here we review some basic polymer and statistical physics facts and show that the existence of a threshold is compatible with the modulation that the repeat length imposes on the association and dissociation rates of polyglutamine polypeptides to and from oligomers. In particular, their dramatically different functional dependence on the length rationalizes the very presence of a threshold and hints at the cellular processes that might be at play, in vivo, to prevent aggregation and the consequent onset of the disease. (paper)

  20. Explaining the length threshold of polyglutamine aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Rios, Paolo; Hafner, Marc; Pastore, Annalisa

    2012-06-01

    The existence of a length threshold, of about 35 residues, above which polyglutamine repeats can give rise to aggregation and to pathologies, is one of the hallmarks of polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease. The reason why such a minimal length exists at all has remained one of the main open issues in research on the molecular origins of such classes of diseases. Following the seminal proposals of Perutz, most research has focused on the hunt for a special structure, attainable only above the minimal length, able to trigger aggregation. Such a structure has remained elusive and there is growing evidence that it might not exist at all. Here we review some basic polymer and statistical physics facts and show that the existence of a threshold is compatible with the modulation that the repeat length imposes on the association and dissociation rates of polyglutamine polypeptides to and from oligomers. In particular, their dramatically different functional dependence on the length rationalizes the very presence of a threshold and hints at the cellular processes that might be at play, in vivo, to prevent aggregation and the consequent onset of the disease.

  1. Topics in Probabilistic Judgment Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanchun

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is a compilation of several studies that are united by their relevance to probabilistic judgment aggregation. In the face of complex and uncertain events, panels of judges are frequently consulted to provide probabilistic forecasts, and aggregation of such estimates in groups often yield better results than could have been made…

  2. Collective Rationality in Graph Aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endriss, U.; Grandi, U.; Schaub, T.; Friedrich, G.; O'Sullivan, B.

    2014-01-01

    Suppose a number of agents each provide us with a directed graph over a common set of vertices. Graph aggregation is the problem of computing a single “collective” graph that best represents the information inherent in this profile of individual graphs. We consider this aggregation problem from the

  3. Open meta-search with OpenSearch: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    O'Riordan, Adrian P.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this project was to demonstrate the possibilities of open source search engine and aggregation technology in a Web environment by building a meta-search engine which employs free open search engines and open protocols. In contrast many meta-search engines on the Internet use proprietary search systems. The search engines employed in this case study are all based on the OpenSearch protocol. OpenSearch-compliant systems support XML technologies such as RSS and Atom for aggregation a...

  4. OpenSHS: Open Smart Home Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Alshammari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a new hybrid, open-source, cross-platform 3D smart home simulator, OpenSHS, for dataset generation. OpenSHS offers an opportunity for researchers in the field of the Internet of Things (IoT and machine learning to test and evaluate their models. Following a hybrid approach, OpenSHS combines advantages from both interactive and model-based approaches. This approach reduces the time and efforts required to generate simulated smart home datasets. We have designed a replication algorithm for extending and expanding a dataset. A small sample dataset produced, by OpenSHS, can be extended without affecting the logical order of the events. The replication provides a solution for generating large representative smart home datasets. We have built an extensible library of smart devices that facilitates the simulation of current and future smart home environments. Our tool divides the dataset generation process into three distinct phases: first design: the researcher designs the initial virtual environment by building the home, importing smart devices and creating contexts; second, simulation: the participant simulates his/her context-specific events; and third, aggregation: the researcher applies the replication algorithm to generate the final dataset. We conducted a study to assess the ease of use of our tool on the System Usability Scale (SUS.

  5. OpenSHS: Open Smart Home Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshammari, Nasser; Alshammari, Talal; Sedky, Mohamed; Champion, Justin; Bauer, Carolin

    2017-05-02

    This paper develops a new hybrid, open-source, cross-platform 3D smart home simulator, OpenSHS, for dataset generation. OpenSHS offers an opportunity for researchers in the field of the Internet of Things (IoT) and machine learning to test and evaluate their models. Following a hybrid approach, OpenSHS combines advantages from both interactive and model-based approaches. This approach reduces the time and efforts required to generate simulated smart home datasets. We have designed a replication algorithm for extending and expanding a dataset. A small sample dataset produced, by OpenSHS, can be extended without affecting the logical order of the events. The replication provides a solution for generating large representative smart home datasets. We have built an extensible library of smart devices that facilitates the simulation of current and future smart home environments. Our tool divides the dataset generation process into three distinct phases: first design: the researcher designs the initial virtual environment by building the home, importing smart devices and creating contexts; second, simulation: the participant simulates his/her context-specific events; and third, aggregation: the researcher applies the replication algorithm to generate the final dataset. We conducted a study to assess the ease of use of our tool on the System Usability Scale (SUS).

  6. Orthogonal flexible Rydberg aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, K.; Wüster, S.; Rost, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    We study the link between atomic motion and exciton transport in flexible Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of highly excited light alkali-metal atoms, for which motion due to dipole-dipole interaction becomes relevant. In two one-dimensional atom chains crossing at a right angle adiabatic exciton transport is affected by a conical intersection of excitonic energy surfaces, which induces controllable nonadiabatic effects. A joint exciton-motion pulse that is initially governed by a single energy surface is coherently split into two modes after crossing the intersection. The modes induce strongly different atomic motion, leading to clear signatures of nonadiabatic effects in atomic density profiles. We have shown how this scenario can be exploited as an exciton switch, controlling direction and coherence properties of the joint pulse on the second of the chains [K. Leonhardt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 223001 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.223001]. In this article we discuss the underlying complex dynamics in detail, characterize the switch, and derive our isotropic interaction model from a realistic anisotropic one with the addition of a magnetic bias field.

  7. Teachers' Grading Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnawati, Ida; Saukah, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated teachers' grading decision making, focusing on their beliefs underlying their grading decision making, their grading practices and assessment types, and factors they considered in grading decision making. Two teachers from two junior high schools applying different curriculum policies in grade reporting in Indonesian…

  8. The Role of Content Aggregators In GEOValue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. J.; Breyer, S.; Hogeweg, M.; Foust, J.; Jordan, L.; Plunkett, G.

    2016-12-01

    Data (aka content) in the form of numbers or layers, and transformed into information by way of maps, images, graphs, charts, tables, even stories, are foundational for a myriad of decision-makers. Recent advances in information technology, as well as civil remote sensing of the Earth, are rapidly allowing us to advance beyond mere static data collection and archiving, further enabling information awareness and understanding, and leading us towards knowledge and better decision making. However, such volumes, velocities, and varieties of data streams also bring with them serious dilemmas with regard to effective organization, cataloging, and easy access. This is where the role of aggregator comes in, with their provision of the necessary sustainability and reliability of information via proven, well-engineered platforms, all with the necessary interoperability and openness as guaranteed through the adoption of established standards. Information technology (IT) giants such as Google, Facebook, IBM and Apple are well known for aggregating just about every aspect of life in modern society, from our music to our mood swings. A use case of the Environmental Systems Research Institute (aka Esri) is presented as a geospatial aggregator. It has over the years, compiled, assembled and produced a carefully curated library of public content into a global "Living Atlas of the World," organized into different themes such as Earth observation, transportation, demographics, natural hazards, ecological land units, elevation, and more. Among a myriad of decision scenarios with this content to be presented is the tracking of sea ice in the Arctic, estimating potential impact to shipping lanes or coastal infrastructure, and forecasting future conditions. Esri as the main aggregator of Living Atlas content continues to welcome not only contributors who will publish new content to be included in this global Atlas, but fellow curators who will assist in reviewing, organizing, and even

  9. Student Attitudes Toward Grades and Grading Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.; Leslie, Elwood K.

    The result of a study designed to assess student attitudes toward grading practices are discussed. Questionnaire responses of 3439 students in three institutions were tabulated. Responses were generally negative toward conventional grading systems. (MS)

  10. Functionally Graded Materials Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisara, Katsuto; Konno, Tomomi; Niino, Masayuki

    2008-02-01

    Functionally Graded Materials Database (hereinafter referred to as FGMs Database) was open to the society via Internet in October 2002, and since then it has been managed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). As of October 2006, the database includes 1,703 research information entries with 2,429 researchers data, 509 institution data and so on. Reading materials such as "Applicability of FGMs Technology to Space Plane" and "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" were prepared in FY 2004 and 2005, respectively. The English version of "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" is now under preparation. This present paper explains the FGMs Database, describing the research information data, the sitemap and how to use it. From the access analysis, user access results and users' interests are discussed.

  11. Kinetics of aggregation with choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, E; Krapivsky, P L

    2016-12-01

    We generalize the ordinary aggregation process to allow for choice. In ordinary aggregation, two random clusters merge and form a larger aggregate. In our implementation of choice, a target cluster and two candidate clusters are randomly selected and the target cluster merges with the larger of the two candidate clusters. We study the long-time asymptotic behavior and find that as in ordinary aggregation, the size density adheres to the standard scaling form. However, aggregation with choice exhibits a number of different features. First, the density of the smallest clusters exhibits anomalous scaling. Second, both the small-size and the large-size tails of the density are overpopulated, at the expense of the density of moderate-size clusters. We also study the complementary case where the smaller candidate cluster participates in the aggregation process and find an abundance of moderate clusters at the expense of small and large clusters. Additionally, we investigate aggregation processes with choice among multiple candidate clusters and a symmetric implementation where the choice is between two pairs of clusters.

  12. Nickel aggregates produced by radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marignier, J.L.; Belloni, J.

    1988-01-01

    Nickel aggregates with subcolloidal size and stable in water have been synthesized by inhibiting the corrosion by the medium. The protective effect of the surfactant is discussed in relation with the characteristics of various types of polyvinyl alcohol studied. The reactivity of aggregates towards oxidizing compounds, nitro blue tetrazolium, methylene blue, silver ions, oxygen, methylviologen, enables an estimation of the redox potential of nickel aggregates (E = - 04 ± 0.05 V). It has been applied to quantitative analysis of the particles in presence of nickel ions. 55 refs [fr

  13. Aggregating and Disaggregating Flexibility Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja

    2015-01-01

    In many scientific and commercial domains we encounter flexibility objects, i.e., objects with explicit flexibilities in a time and an amount dimension (e.g., energy or product amount). Applications of flexibility objects require novel and efficient techniques capable of handling large amounts...... and aiming at energy balancing during aggregation. In more detail, this paper considers the complete life cycle of flex-objects: aggregation, disaggregation, associated requirements, efficient incremental computation, and balance aggregation techniques. Extensive experiments based on real-world data from...

  14. A Comparative Study on Sugeno Integral Approach to Aggregation of Experts' Opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Kil Yoo; Kim, Tae Woon

    2007-01-01

    A multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) problem of preference ranking of various alternatives is common in science and engineering fields. Usually, the MCDM problem is characterized in terms of two factors: relative importance of each evaluation criterion and appropriateness of each alternative. The ranking is determined by a relative degree of appropriateness of decision alternatives. In reality, there are different grades of interaction among decision criteria. One of well-known approaches to aggregation of those two factors is the weighted arithmetic mean (WAM) approach. Here, importance weights for criteria are viewed as probability measures. The weights are linearly aggregated with appropriateness values. In the present work, the main objective is to study an aggregation model with various grades of interactions among the decision elements. The successful applications of fuzzy integral aggregation operators to subjective MCDM problems have been motivating this work. On the basis of λ-fuzzy measures and Sugeno integral (SI), the SI aggregation approach is proposed. Here, interaction among criteria is dealt with λ-fuzzy measures. Aggregation of these measures and appropriateness values is implemented, especially, by the Sugeno integral as one of fuzzy integrals. Aggregated values obtained by the SI approach are viewed as decision maker's pessimistic (or conservative) attitude towards information aggregation, compared to the WAM approach. Firstly, the concepts of the λ-fuzzy measure and the Sugeno fuzzy integral are introduced. Then, as an application of the SI approach, an illustrative example is given

  15. Comparison of different forms of gravel as aggregate in concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikiru ORITOLA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gradation plays an important role in the workability, segregation, and pump ability of concrete. Uniformly distributed aggregates require less paste which will also decrease bleeding, creep and shrinkage while producing better workability, more durable concrete and higher packing. This attempt looks at the effect of particle size distribution pattern for five types of gravel aggregate forms, angular, elongated, smooth rounded, irregular and flaky as related to the strength of concrete produced. Different forms of naturally existing gravel aggregate were collected from a particular location and tests were carried out on them to determine their gradation. Based on the gradation the aggregates were used to prepare different samples of grade 20 concrete with water-cement ratio of 0.5. The particle size distribution resulted in coefficients of uniformity ranging from 1.24 to 1.44. The granite aggregate, which serves as a reference, had a coefficient of uniformity of 1.47. Tests were conducted on fresh and hardened concrete cube samples. The concrete sample CT5 recorded a slump of 32mm and highest compressive strength value of 21.7 N/mm2, among the concrete produced from different forms of gravel.

  16. Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACTOR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACTOR) is a database on environmental chemicals that is searchable by chemical name and other identifiers, and by...

  17. Laser characterization of fine aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This report describes the results of a research effort to establish the feasibility of using a laser monitoring system to provide real-time data to characterize aggregate properties in a laboratory or field environment. This was accomplished by using...

  18. Aggregate Supply and Potential Output

    OpenAIRE

    Razin, Assaf

    2004-01-01

    The New-Keynesian aggregate supply derives from micro-foundations an inflation-dynamics model very much like the tradition in the monetary literature. Inflation is primarily affected by: (i) economic slack; (ii) expectations; (iii) supply shocks; and (iv) inflation persistence. This paper extends the New Keynesian aggregate supply relationship to include also fluctuations in potential output, as an additional determinant of the relationship. Implications for monetary rules and to the estimati...

  19. An Outline of Data Aggregation Security in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Boubiche

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Data aggregation processes aim to reduce the amount of exchanged data in wireless sensor networks and consequently minimize the packet overhead and optimize energy efficiency. Securing the data aggregation process is a real challenge since the aggregation nodes must access the relayed data to apply the aggregation functions. The data aggregation security problem has been widely addressed in classical homogeneous wireless sensor networks, however, most of the proposed security protocols cannot guarantee a high level of security since the sensor node resources are limited. Heterogeneous wireless sensor networks have recently emerged as a new wireless sensor network category which expands the sensor nodes’ resources and capabilities. These new kinds of WSNs have opened new research opportunities where security represents a most attractive area. Indeed, robust and high security level algorithms can be used to secure the data aggregation at the heterogeneous aggregation nodes which is impossible in classical homogeneous WSNs. Contrary to the homogeneous sensor networks, the data aggregation security problem is still not sufficiently covered and the proposed data aggregation security protocols are numberless. To address this recent research area, this paper describes the data aggregation security problem in heterogeneous wireless sensor networks and surveys a few proposed security protocols. A classification and evaluation of the existing protocols is also introduced based on the adopted data aggregation security approach.

  20. An Outline of Data Aggregation Security in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubiche, Sabrina; Boubiche, Djallel Eddine; Bilami, Azzedine; Toral-Cruz, Homero

    2016-04-12

    Data aggregation processes aim to reduce the amount of exchanged data in wireless sensor networks and consequently minimize the packet overhead and optimize energy efficiency. Securing the data aggregation process is a real challenge since the aggregation nodes must access the relayed data to apply the aggregation functions. The data aggregation security problem has been widely addressed in classical homogeneous wireless sensor networks, however, most of the proposed security protocols cannot guarantee a high level of security since the sensor node resources are limited. Heterogeneous wireless sensor networks have recently emerged as a new wireless sensor network category which expands the sensor nodes' resources and capabilities. These new kinds of WSNs have opened new research opportunities where security represents a most attractive area. Indeed, robust and high security level algorithms can be used to secure the data aggregation at the heterogeneous aggregation nodes which is impossible in classical homogeneous WSNs. Contrary to the homogeneous sensor networks, the data aggregation security problem is still not sufficiently covered and the proposed data aggregation security protocols are numberless. To address this recent research area, this paper describes the data aggregation security problem in heterogeneous wireless sensor networks and surveys a few proposed security protocols. A classification and evaluation of the existing protocols is also introduced based on the adopted data aggregation security approach.

  1. An Outline of Data Aggregation Security in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubiche, Sabrina; Boubiche, Djallel Eddine; Bilami, Azzedine; Toral-Cruz, Homero

    2016-01-01

    Data aggregation processes aim to reduce the amount of exchanged data in wireless sensor networks and consequently minimize the packet overhead and optimize energy efficiency. Securing the data aggregation process is a real challenge since the aggregation nodes must access the relayed data to apply the aggregation functions. The data aggregation security problem has been widely addressed in classical homogeneous wireless sensor networks, however, most of the proposed security protocols cannot guarantee a high level of security since the sensor node resources are limited. Heterogeneous wireless sensor networks have recently emerged as a new wireless sensor network category which expands the sensor nodes’ resources and capabilities. These new kinds of WSNs have opened new research opportunities where security represents a most attractive area. Indeed, robust and high security level algorithms can be used to secure the data aggregation at the heterogeneous aggregation nodes which is impossible in classical homogeneous WSNs. Contrary to the homogeneous sensor networks, the data aggregation security problem is still not sufficiently covered and the proposed data aggregation security protocols are numberless. To address this recent research area, this paper describes the data aggregation security problem in heterogeneous wireless sensor networks and surveys a few proposed security protocols. A classification and evaluation of the existing protocols is also introduced based on the adopted data aggregation security approach. PMID:27077866

  2. Evaluation of Different Mineral Filler Aggregates for Asphalt Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewska, Marta; Małaszkiewicz, Dorota; Ignatiuk, Natalia

    2017-10-01

    Mineral filler aggregates play an important role in asphalt mixtures because they fill voids in paving mix and improve the cohesion of asphalt binder. Limestone powder containing over 90% of CaCO3 is the most frequently used type of filler. Waste material from the production of coarse aggregate can be successfully used as a mineral filler aggregate for hot asphalt concrete mixtures as the limestone powder replacement. This paper presents the experimental results of selected properties of filler aggregates which were obtained from rocks with different mineral composition and origin. Five types of rocks were used as a source of the mineral filler aggregate: granite, gabbro, trachybasalt, quartz sandstone and rocks from postglacial deposits. Limestone filler was used in this study as the reference material. The following tests were performed: grading (air jet sieving), quality of fines according to methylene blue test, water content by drying in a ventilated oven, particle density using pyknometer method, Delta ring and ball test, Bitumen Number, fineness determined as Blaine specific surface area. Mineral filler aggregates showed significant differences when they were mixed with bitumen and stiffening effect in Delta ring and ball test was evaluated. The highest values were achieved when gabbro and granite fillers were used. Additionally, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis of grain shape and size was carried out. Significant differences in grain size and shape were observed. The highest non-homogeneity in size was determined for quartz sandstone, gabbro and granite filler. Their Blaine specific surface area was lower than 2800 cm2/g, while for limestone and postglacial fillers with regular and round grains it exceeded 3000 cm2/g. All examined mineral filler aggregates met requirements of Polish National Specification WT-1: 2014 and could be used in asphalt mixtures.

  3. Glycation precedes lens crystallin aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swamy, M.S.; Perry, R.E.; Abraham, E.C.

    1987-01-01

    Non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) seems to have the potential to alter the structure of crystallins and make them susceptible to thiol oxidation leading to disulfide-linked high molecular weight (HMW) aggregate formation. They used streptozotocin diabetic rats during precataract and cataract stages and long-term cell-free glycation of bovine lens crystallins to study the relationship between glycation and lens crystallin aggregation. HMW aggregates and other protein components of the water-soluble (WS) and urea-soluble (US) fractions were separated by molecular sieve high performance liquid chromatography. Glycation was estimated by both [ 3 H]NaBH 4 reduction and phenylboronate agarose affinity chromatography. Levels of total glycated protein (GP) in the US fractions were about 2-fold higher than in the WS fractions and there was a linear increase in GP in both WS and US fractions. This increase was parallelled by a corresponding increase in HMW aggregates. Total GP extracted by the affinity method from the US fraction showed a predominance of HMW aggregates and vice versa. Cell-free glycation studies with bovine crystallins confirmed the results of the animals studies. Increasing glycation caused a corresponding increase in protein insolubilization and the insoluble fraction thus formed also contained more glycated protein. It appears that lens protein glycation, HMW aggregate formation, and protein insolubilization are interrelated

  4. Model for amorphous aggregation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranks, Samuel D.; Ecroyd, Heath; van Sluyter, Steven; Waters, Elizabeth J.; Carver, John A.; von Smekal, Lorenz

    2009-11-01

    The amorphous aggregation of proteins is associated with many phenomena, ranging from the formation of protein wine haze to the development of cataract in the eye lens and the precipitation of recombinant proteins during their expression and purification. While much literature exists describing models for linear protein aggregation, such as amyloid fibril formation, there are few reports of models which address amorphous aggregation. Here, we propose a model to describe the amorphous aggregation of proteins which is also more widely applicable to other situations where a similar process occurs, such as in the formation of colloids and nanoclusters. As first applications of the model, we have tested it against experimental turbidimetry data of three proteins relevant to the wine industry and biochemistry, namely, thaumatin, a thaumatinlike protein, and α -lactalbumin. The model is very robust and describes amorphous experimental data to a high degree of accuracy. Details about the aggregation process, such as shape parameters of the aggregates and rate constants, can also be extracted.

  5. Compressive Strength of Concrete made from Natural Fine Aggregate Sources in Minna, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdullahi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presented an investigation of concrete developed from five fine aggregate sources in Minna, Niger state, Nigeria. Tests conducted on the fine aggregate samples included specific gravity, sieve analysis, bulk density and moisture content. The concrete mix design was done using absolute volume method at various mix proportion of 1:2:4, 1:2:3 and 1:1:2 and water-cement ratios of 0.4, 0.45, 0.5, 0.55 and 0.6. The compressive strengths of concrete were determined at 28-day curing age. Test results revealed that the specific gravities of the aggregate were between 2.60 to 2.70, compacted bulk densities also ranged from 1505.18 to 1701.15kg/m3, loose bulk densities ranged from 1379.32 to 1478.17kg/m3, and moisture content ranged from 0.93 to 2.47%. All the fine aggregate samples satisfied the overall and medium grading limits for natural fine aggregates. The coarse aggregate used fairly followed the grading limit for aggregate size of 20 to 5 mm. The compressive strength of the concrete obtained using the aggregate samples A, B, C, D, and Eall within the ranges of 18.97 to 34.98 N/mm2. Statistical models were developed for the compressive strength of concrete as a function of water-cement ratio for various fine aggregate sources and mix proportions. The models were found to have good predictive the capabilities of the compressive strength of concrete for given water-cement ratio. The properties of fine aggregates and the resulting concrete characteristics showed that all the fine aggregate samples are suitable to be used for concrete production.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF THE ASR EXPANSION OF CONCRETE MADE WITH RECYCLED CONCRETE AGGREGATES

    OpenAIRE

    Boehme, Luc; Joseph, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    The amount of construction and demolition waste is increasing all over the world. Most of this waste consists of concrete and masonry. These waste materials are very suitable to be recycled. After carrying out an advanced recycling procedure, it’s possible to produce highquality recycled aggregates. Until now, most of these aggregates are used in low grade application as in road foundations. In Flanders, where the market in road works is now almost saturated, using more recycled concrete aggr...

  7. Investigation of optimize graded concrete for Oklahoma : phase 1 : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Optimized Graded Concrete has been a subject widely discussed through the history of concrete. Since aggregates make up over 70% of the volume in a mixture, gradation is critical to the strength, workability, and durability of concrete. In practice o...

  8. Field measurements of mixed exposure of operators to radioactive aerosol, gas and quartz in confinement of mining equipment cabs during open-pit mining of high-grade uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, K.; Atiemo, M.A.; Markham, J.W.

    1982-07-01

    A series of field measurements of miners mixed exposure to radon and daughters, uranium ore dust and respirable quartz, was conducted in an open-pit mine in Northern Saskatchewan during 1980-81. Control of radon gas levels in the mining equipment cabs is required. Dust may be reduced by minimizing the resuspension of dust from contaminated surfaces within the cabs

  9. A study on the performance of concrete containing recycled aggregates and ceramic as materials replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, N. B.; Khalid, F. S.; Irwan, J. M.; Anting, N.; Mazenan, P. N.

    2017-11-01

    Natural fine aggregate materials are commonly used in development and commercial construction in Malaysia. In fact, concrete production was increased as linear with the growing Malaysia economy. However, an issue was production of concrete was to locate adequate sources of natural fine aggregates. There lot of studies have been conducted in order to replace the fine aggregate in which natural fine aggregate replace with the waste material in concrete preparation. Therefore, this study aims to utilize the Recycled Concrete Aggregate (RCA) and ceramic waste which has great potential to replace the natural aggregate in concrete mix with different type of method, admixture, and parameters. This research were focused on compressive strength and water absorption test to determine the optimum mix ratio of concrete mix. The concrete aggregate was chosen due to improvement capillary bonding mechanisms and ceramic presented similar strength compared to the conventional concrete using natural aggregate. Percent of replacement have been used in this study was at 25%, 35% and 45% of the RCA and 5%, 10% and 15% for ceramic, respectively. Furthermore, this research was conduct to find the optimum percentage of aggregate replacement, using water-cement ratio of 0.55 with concrete grade 25/30. The best percentage of replacement was the RCA35% C15% with the compressive strength of 34.72 MPa and the water absorption was satisfied.

  10. Development of construction materials using nano-silica and aggregates recycled from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukharjee, Bibhuti Bhusan; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2015-06-01

    The present work addresses the development of novel construction materials utilising commercial grade nano-silica and recycled aggregates retrieved from construction and demolition waste. For this, experimental work has been carried out to examine the influence of nano-silica and recycled aggregates on compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, water absorption, density and volume of voids of concrete. Fully natural and recycled aggregate concrete mixes are designed by replacing cement with three levels (0.75%, 1.5% and 3%) of nano-silica. The results of the present investigation depict that improvement in early days compressive strength is achieved with the incorporation of nano-silica in addition to the restoration of reduction in compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete mixes caused owing to the replacement of natural aggregates by recycled aggregates. Moreover, the increase in water absorption and volume of voids with a reduction of bulk density was detected with the incorporation of recycled aggregates in place of natural aggregates. However, enhancement in density and reduction in water absorption and volume of voids of recycled aggregate concrete resulted from the addition of nano-silica. In addition, the results of the study reveal that nano-silica has no significant effect on elastic modulus of concrete. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. An online detection system for aggregate sizes and shapes based on digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianhong; Chen, Sijia

    2017-02-01

    Traditional aggregate size measuring methods are time-consuming, taxing, and do not deliver online measurements. A new online detection system for determining aggregate size and shape based on a digital camera with a charge-coupled device, and subsequent digital image processing, have been developed to overcome these problems. The system captures images of aggregates while falling and flat lying. Using these data, the particle size and shape distribution can be obtained in real time. Here, we calibrate this method using standard globules. Our experiments show that the maximum particle size distribution error was only 3 wt%, while the maximum particle shape distribution error was only 2 wt% for data derived from falling aggregates, having good dispersion. In contrast, the data for flat-lying aggregates had a maximum particle size distribution error of 12 wt%, and a maximum particle shape distribution error of 10 wt%; their accuracy was clearly lower than for falling aggregates. However, they performed well for single-graded aggregates, and did not require a dispersion device. Our system is low-cost and easy to install. It can successfully achieve online detection of aggregate size and shape with good reliability, and it has great potential for aggregate quality assurance.

  12. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON BEHAVIOUR OF RECYCLED AGGREGATE CONCRETE WITH GROUND GRANULATED BLAST FURNACE SLAG FLYASH

    OpenAIRE

    B.Sasikala*, K.Shanthi, B.Jose RavindraRaj

    2017-01-01

    Concrete is the single largest manufactured material in the world . The use of recycled materials in construction is an issue of great importance. Utilization of Recycled Aggregates (RA), Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) and fly ash in concrete addresses this issue. In this project, strength, durability of Recycled Aggregate Concrete (RAC) with GGBFS was studied. M-50 grade concrete with 0.30 w/c ratio and maximum size of 16mm course aggregate was used for this study. Totally 16 m...

  13. Aggregated recommendation through random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng-Ru; Min, Fan; He, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Aggregated recommendation refers to the process of suggesting one kind of items to a group of users. Compared to user-oriented or item-oriented approaches, it is more general and, therefore, more appropriate for cold-start recommendation. In this paper, we propose a random forest approach to create aggregated recommender systems. The approach is used to predict the rating of a group of users to a kind of items. In the preprocessing stage, we merge user, item, and rating information to construct an aggregated decision table, where rating information serves as the decision attribute. We also model the data conversion process corresponding to the new user, new item, and both new problems. In the training stage, a forest is built for the aggregated training set, where each leaf is assigned a distribution of discrete rating. In the testing stage, we present four predicting approaches to compute evaluation values based on the distribution of each tree. Experiments results on the well-known MovieLens dataset show that the aggregated approach maintains an acceptable level of accuracy.

  14. Fractal Aggregates in Tennis Ball Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, J.; Bandin, M.; Prieto, G.; Sarmiento, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new practical exercise to explain the mechanisms of aggregation of some colloids which are otherwise not easy to understand. We have used tennis balls to simulate, in a visual way, the aggregation of colloids under reaction-limited colloid aggregation (RLCA) and diffusion-limited colloid aggregation (DLCA) regimes. We have used the…

  15. A Functional Reference Architecture for Aggregators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondy, Daniel Esteban Morales; Heussen, Kai; Gehrke, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Aggregators are considered to be a key enabling technology for harvesting power system services from distributed energy resources (DER). As a precondition for more widespread use of aggregators in power systems, methods for comparing and validating aggregator designs must be established. This paper...... proposes a functional reference architecture for aggregators to address this requirement....

  16. An exact approach for aggregated formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Spoorendonk, Simon; Røpke, Stefan

    Aggregating formulations is a powerful approach for problems to take on tractable forms. Aggregation may lead to loss of information, i.e. the aggregated formulation may be an approximation of the original problem. In branch-and-bound context, aggregation can also complicate branching, e.g. when...... optimality cannot be guaranteed by branching on aggregated variables. We present a generic exact solution method to remedy the drawbacks of aggregation. It combines the original and aggregated formulations and applies Benders' decomposition. We apply the method to the Split Delivery Vehicle Routing Problem....

  17. Graded Alternating-Time Temporal Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faella, Marco; Napoli, Margherita; Parente, Mimmo

    Graded modalities enrich the universal and existential quantifiers with the capability to express the concept of at least k or all but k, for a non-negative integer k. Recently, temporal logics such as μ-calculus and Computational Tree Logic, Ctl, augmented with graded modalities have received attention from the scientific community, both from a theoretical side and from an applicative perspective. Both μ-calculus and Ctl naturally apply as specification languages for closed systems: in this paper, we add graded modalities to the Alternating-time Temporal Logic (Atl) introduced by Alur et al., to study how these modalities may affect specification languages for open systems.

  18. Global OpenSearch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, D. J.; Mitchell, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    At AGU 2014, NASA EOSDIS demonstrated a case-study of an OpenSearch framework for Earth science data discovery. That framework leverages the IDN and CWIC OpenSearch API implementations to provide seamless discovery of data through the 'two-step' discovery process as outlined by the Federation for Earth Sciences (ESIP) OpenSearch Best Practices. But how would an Earth Scientist leverage this framework and what are the benefits? Using a client that understands the OpenSearch specification and, for further clarity, the various best practices and extensions, a scientist can discovery a plethora of data not normally accessible either by traditional methods (NASA Earth Data Search, Reverb, etc) or direct methods (going to the source of the data) We will demonstrate, via the CWICSmart web client, how an earth scientist can access regional data on a regional phenomena in a uniform and aggregated manner. We will demonstrate how an earth scientist can 'globalize' their discovery. You want to find local data on 'sea surface temperature of the Indian Ocean'? We can help you with that. 'European meteorological data'? Yes. 'Brazilian rainforest satellite imagery'? That too. CWIC allows you to get earth science data in a uniform fashion from a large number of disparate, world-wide agencies. This is what we mean by Global OpenSearch.

  19. Development of an automatic visual grading system for grafting seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subo Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a visual grading system of vegetable grafting machine was developed. The study described key technology of visual grading system of vegetable grafting machine. First, the contrasting experiment was conducted between acquired images under blue background light and natural light conditions, with the blue background light chosen as lighting source. The Visual C++ platform with open-source computer vision library (Open CV was used for the image processing. Subsequently, maximum frequency of total number of 0-valued pixels was predicted and used to extract the measurements of scion and rootstock stem diameters. Finally, the developed integrated visual grading system was experimented with 100 scions and rootstock seedlings. The results showed that success rate of grading reached up to 98%. This shows that selection and grading of scion and rootstock could be fully automated with this developed visual grading system. Hence, this technology would be greatly helpful for improving the grading accuracy and efficiency.

  20. Balancing energy flexibilities through aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2014-01-01

    One of the main goals of recent developments in the Smart Grid area is to increase the use of renewable energy sources. These sources are characterized by energy fluctuations that might lead to energy imbalances and congestions in the electricity grid. Exploiting inherent flexibilities, which exist...... in both energy production and consumption, is the key to solving these problems. Flexibilities can be expressed as flex-offers, which due to their high number need to be aggregated to reduce the complexity of energy scheduling. In this paper, we discuss balance aggregation techniques that already during...... aggregation aim at balancing flexibilities in production and consumption to reduce the probability of congestions and reduce the complexity of scheduling. We present results of our extensive experiments....

  1. Turbulent breakage of ductile aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioli, Cristian; Soldati, Alfredo

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we study breakage rate statistics of small colloidal aggregates in nonhomogeneous anisotropic turbulence. We use pseudospectral direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow and Lagrangian tracking to follow the motion of the aggregates, modeled as sub-Kolmogorov massless particles. We focus specifically on the effects produced by ductile rupture: This rupture is initially activated when fluctuating hydrodynamic stresses exceed a critical value, σ>σ(cr), and is brought to completion when the energy absorbed by the aggregate meets the critical breakage value. We show that ductile rupture breakage rates are significantly reduced with respect to the case of instantaneous brittle rupture (i.e., breakage occurs as soon as σ>σ(cr)). These discrepancies are due to the different energy values at play as well as to the statistical features of energy distribution in the anisotropic turbulence case examined.

  2. SHAPE CHARACTERIZATION OF CONCRETE AGGREGATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Hu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available As a composite material, the performance of concrete materials can be expected to depend on the properties of the interfaces between its two major components, aggregate and cement paste. The microstructure at the interfacial transition zone (ITZ is assumed to be different from the bulk material. In general, properties of conventional concrete have been found favoured by optimum packing density of the aggregate. Particle size is a common denominator in such studies. Size segregation in the ITZ among the binder particles in the fresh state, observed in simulation studies by concurrent algorithm-based SPACE system, additionally governs density as well as physical bonding capacity inside these shell-like zones around aggregate particles. These characteristics have been demonstrated qualitatively pertaining also after maturation of the concrete. Such properties of the ITZs have direct impact on composite properties. Despite experimental approaches revealed effects of aggregate grain shape on different features of material structure (among which density, and as a consequence on mechanical properties, it is still an underrated factor in laboratory studies, probably due to the general feeling that a suitable methodology for shape characterization is not available. A scientific argument hindering progress is the interconnected nature of size and shape. Presently, a practical problem preventing shape effects to be emphasized is the limitation of most computer simulation systems in concrete technology to spherical particles. New developments at Delft University of Technology will make it possible in the near future to generate jammed states, or other high-density fresh particle mixtures of non-spherical particles, which thereupon can be subjected to hydration algorithms. This paper will sketch the outlines of a methodological approach for shape assessment of loose (non-embedded aggregate grains, and demonstrate its use for two types of aggregate, allowing

  3. Esophagectomy - open

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lewis esophagectomy, Blunt esophagectomy; Esophageal cancer - esophagectomy - open; Cancer of the esophagus - esophagectomy - open ... lining of the esophagus that can lead to cancer ( Barrett esophagus ) Severe trauma Destroyed esophagus Severely damaged stomach

  4. Customer Aggregation: An Opportunity for Green Power?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, E.; Bird, L.

    2001-02-26

    We undertook research into the experience of aggregation groups to determine whether customer aggregation offers an opportunity to bring green power choices to more customers. The objectives of this report, therefore, are to (1) identify the different types of aggregation that are occurring today, (2) learn whether aggregation offers an opportunity to advance sales of green power, and (3) share these concepts and approaches with potential aggregators and green power advocates.

  5. Specification aggregate quarry expansion: a case study demonstrating sustainable management of natural aggregate resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William H.; Tucker, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    Many countries, provinces, territories, or states in the European Union, Australia, Canada, the United States, and elsewhere have begun implementing sustainability programs, but most of those programs stop short of sustainable management of aggregate resources. Sustainable practices do not always have to be conducted under the title of sustainability. This case study describes how Lafarge, a large multinational construction materials supplier, implemented the principles of sustainability even though there was an absence of existing local government policies or procedures addressing sustainable resource management. Jefferson County, Colorado, USA, is one of three counties in the six-county Denver, Colorado, region that has potentially available sources of crushed stone. Crushed stone comprises 30 percent of the aggregate produced in the area and plays a major role in regional aggregate resource needs. Jefferson County is home to four of the five crushed stone operations in the Denver region. Lafarge operates one of those four quarries. Lafarge recently proposed to expand its reserves by exchanging company-owned land for existing dedicated open space land adjacent to their quarry but owned by Jefferson County. A similar proposal submitted about 10 years earlier had been denied. Contrary to the earlier proposal, which was predicated on public relations, the new proposal was predicated on public trust. Although not explicitly managed under the moniker of sustainability, Lafarge used basic management principles that embody the tenets of sustainability. To achieve the goals of sustainable aggregate management where no governmental policies existed, Lafarge not only assumed their role of being a responsible corporate and environmental member of the community, but also assumed the role of facilitator to encourage and enable other stakeholders to responsibly resolve legitimate concerns regarding the Lafarge quarry proposal. Lafarge successfully presented an enlightened

  6. Environmentalism and natural aggregate mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, L.J.; Langer, W.H.; Sachs, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Sustaining a developed economy and expanding a developing one require the use of large volumes of natural aggregate. Almost all human activity (commercial, recreational, or leisure) is transacted in or on facilities constructed from natural aggregate. In our urban and suburban worlds, we are almost totally dependent on supplies of water collected behind dams and transported through aqueducts made from concrete. Natural aggregate is essential to the facilities that produce energy-hydroelectric dams and coal-fired powerplants. Ironically, the utility created for mankind by the use of natural aggregate is rarely compared favorably with the environmental impacts of mining it. Instead, the empty quarries and pits are seen as large negative environmental consequences. At the root of this disassociation is the philosophy of environmentalism, which flavors our perceptions of the excavation, processing, and distribution of natural aggregate. The two end-member ideas in this philosophy are ecocentrism and anthropocentrism. Ecocentrism takes the position that the natural world is a organism whose arteries are the rivers-their flow must not be altered. The soil is another vital organ and must not be covered with concrete and asphalt. The motto of the ecocentrist is "man must live more lightly on the land." The anthropocentrist wants clean water and air and an uncluttered landscape for human use. Mining is allowed and even encouraged, but dust and noise from quarry and pit operations must be minimized. The large volume of truck traffic is viewed as a real menace to human life and should be regulated and isolated. The environmental problems that the producers of natural aggregate (crushed stone and sand and gravel) face today are mostly difficult social and political concerns associated with the large holes dug in the ground and the large volume of heavy truck traffic associated with quarry and pit operations. These concerns have increased in recent years as society's demand for

  7. Open access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Open access week Van 19 tot en met 25 oktober 2015 vond wereldwijd de Open Access Week plaats. Tijdens deze week werden er over de hele wereld evenementen georganiseerd waar open access een rol speelt. Ook in Nederland zijn er diverse symposia, workshops en debatten georganiseerd zoals het debat in

  8. Grade Inflation Rates among Different Ability Students, Controlling for Other Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Spirit, Stephanie; Jones, Kirk E.

    1999-01-01

    Compared grade inflation rates among students of different abilities at an open-admissions public university by examining trends in graduating grade point average from 1983 to 1996. The higher grade inflation rates among low aptitude students suggest that faculty might be using grades to encourage learning among marginal students. (SLD)

  9. On arbitrarily graded rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    58

    paper is devoted to the study of arbitrary rings graded through arbitrary sets. .... which recover certain multiplicative relations among the homogeneous components ... instance the case in which the grading set A is an Abelian group, where the ...

  10. Graded manifolds and supermanifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, M.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, a review is presented on graded manifolds and supermanifolds. Many theorems, propositions, corrollaries, etc. are given with proofs or sketch proofs. Graded manifolds, supereuclidian space, Lie supergroups, etc. are dealt with

  11. Natural aggregate totally replacement by mechanically treated concrete waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junak Jozef

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results obtained from the research focused on the utilization of crushed concrete waste aggregates as a partial or full replacement of 4/8 and 8/16 mm natural aggregates fraction in concrete strength class C 16/20. Main concrete characteristics such as workability, density and compressive strength were studied. Compressive strength testing intervals for samples with recycled concrete aggregates were 2, 7, 14 and 28 days. The amount of water in the mixtures was indicative. For mixture resulting consistency required slump grade S3 was followed. Average density of all samples is in the range of 2250 kg/m3 to 2350 kg/m3. The highest compressive strength after 28 days of curing, 34.68 MPa, reached sample, which contained 100% of recycled material in 4/8 mm fraction and 60% of recycled aggregates in 8/16 mm fraction. This achieved value was only slightly different from the compressive strength 34.41 MPa of the reference sample.

  12. Development of building blocks using vegetable oil and recycled aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attia Mohamed I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this research was to contribute towards greater sustainability of the construction industry in the Qatar by proposing methods to reduce its dependency on primary imported materials. In this investigation, recycled and secondary aggregates (RSA were combined with non-traditional binders to develop a unique method of manufacturing construction and building blocks. Following an extensive phase of laboratory trials and experimentation, it was realised that many types of graded mineral aggregates, when mixed with vegetable oils (virgin or waste at optimal proportions, then compacted and thermally cured at elevated temperatures can readily generate hardened composites that have the mechanical characteristics of conventional building blocks. The resultant blocks have been named “Vegeblocks” and are viewed as viable alternatives to conventional concrete blocks. Furthermore, the research has demonstrated the feasibility of producing Vegeblocks composed of 100% recycled aggregate and discarded waste cooking oil. Based on physical and mineralogical properties, each type of aggregate has an optimum oil content for maximum compressive strength, beyond which, any additional oil will result in reduction in mechanical properties. Acceptable compressive strength values were achieved by thermally curing Vegeblocks at of 170 °C for 24 hours.

  13. Shape characterization of concrete aggregate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroeven, P.; Hu, J.

    2006-01-01

    As a composite material, the performance of concrete materials can be expected to depend on the properties of the interfaces between its two major components, aggregate and cement paste. The microstructure at the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) is assumed to be different from the bulk material. In

  14. Aggregate modeling of manufacturing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefeber, A.A.J.; Armbruster, H.D.; Kempf, K.G.; Keskinocak, P.; Uzsoy, R.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter we will present three approaches to model manufacturing systems in an aggregate way leading to fast and effective (i.e., scalable) simulations that allow the development of simulation tools for rapid exploration of different production scenarios in a factory as well as in a whole

  15. The Aggregate Dutch Historical Censuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashkpour, Ashkan; Meroño-Peñuela, Albert; Mandemakers, Kees

    2015-01-01

    Historical censuses have an enormous potential for research. In order to fully use this potential, harmonization of these censuses is essential. During the last decades, enormous efforts have been undertaken in digitizing the published aggregated outcomes of the Dutch historical censuses

  16. The Aggregate Dutch Historical Censuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ashkpour (Ashkan); A. Meronõ-Peñuela (Albert); C.A. Mandemakers (Kees)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractHistorical censuses have an enormous potential for research. In order to fully use this potential, harmonization of these censuses is essential. During the last decades, enormous efforts have been undertaken in digitizing the published aggregated outcomes of the Dutch historical censuses

  17. Aggregate modeling of manufacturing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefeber, A.A.J.; Armbruster, H.D.

    2007-01-01

    In this report we will present three approaches to model manufacturing systems in an aggregate way leading to fast and effective (i.e., scalable) simulations that allow the development of simulation tools for rapid exploration of different production scenarios in a factory as well as in a whole

  18. Diversity, intent, and aggregated search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rijke, M.

    2014-01-01

    Diversity, intent and aggregated search are three core retrieval concepts that receive significant attention. In search result diversification one typically considers the relevance of a document in light of other retrieved documents. The goal is to identify the probable "aspects" of an ambiguous

  19. GRADE Equity Guidelines 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Vivian A; Akl, Elie A; Pottie, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe a conceptual framework for how to consider health equity in the GRADE (Grading Recommendations Assessment and Development Evidence) guideline development process. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Consensus-based guidance developed by the GRADE working grou...

  20. Open Content in Open Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansa, Sarah Whitcher; Kansa, Eric C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the challenges and rewards of sharing research content through a discussion of Open Context, a new open access data publication system for field sciences and museum collections. Open Context is the first data repository of its kind, allowing self-publication of research data, community commentary through tagging, and clear…

  1. Studies on recycled aggregates-based concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshvir, Major; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2006-06-01

    Reduced extraction of raw materials, reduced transportation cost, improved profits, reduced environmental impact and fast-depleting reserves of conventional natural aggregates has necessitated the use of recycling, in order to be able to conserve conventional natural aggregate. In this study various physical and mechanical properties of recycled concrete aggregates were examined. Recycled concrete aggregates are different from natural aggregates and concrete made from them has specific properties. The percentages of recycled concrete aggregates were varied and it was observed that properties such as compressive strength showed a decrease of up to 10% as the percentage of recycled concrete aggregates increased. Water absorption of recycled aggregates was found to be greater than natural aggregates, and this needs to be compensated during mix design.

  2. 7 CFR 51.2542 - U.S. Artificially Opened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pistachio Nuts in the Shell § 51.2542 U.S. Artificially Opened. “U.S. Artificially Opened” consists of artificially opened pistachio nuts in the shell which meet...

  3. Weak openness and almost openness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Rose

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Weak openness and almost openness for arbitrary functions between topological spaces are defined as duals to the weak continuity of Levine and the almost continuity of Husain respectively. Independence of these two openness conditions is noted and comparison is made between these and the almost openness of Singal and Singal. Some results dual to those known for weak continuity and almost continuity are obtained. Nearly almost openness is defined and used to obtain an improved link from weak continuity to almost continuity.

  4. Recycled construction and demolition concrete waste as aggregate for structural concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Wagih

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In major Egyptian cities there is a surge in construction and demolition waste (CDW quantities causing an adverse effect on the environment. The use of such waste as recycled aggregate in concrete can be useful for both environmental and economical aspects in the construction industry. This study discusses the possibility to replace natural coarse aggregate (NA with recycled concrete aggregate (RCA in structural concrete. An investigation into the properties of RCA is made using crushing and grading of concrete rubble collected from different demolition sites and landfill locations around Cairo. Aggregates used in the study were: natural sand, dolomite and crushed concretes obtained from different sources. A total of 50 concrete mixes forming eight groups were cast. Groups were designed to study the effect of recycled coarse aggregates quality/content, cement dosage, use of superplasticizer and silica fume. Tests were carried out for: compressive strength, splitting strength and elastic modulus. The results showed that the concrete rubble could be transformed into useful recycled aggregate and used in concrete production with properties suitable for most structural concrete applications in Egypt. A significant reduction in the properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC made of 100% RCA was seen when compared to natural aggregate concrete (NAC, while the properties of RAC made of a blend of 75% NA and 25% RCA showed no significant change in concrete properties.

  5. Physico-mechanical properties of high performance concrete using different aggregates in presence of silica fume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah A. Abo-El-Enein

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy weight high performance concrete (HPC can be used when particular properties, such as high strength and good radiation shielding are required. Such concrete, using ilmenite and hematite coarse aggregates can significantly have higher specific gravities than those of concrete made with dolomite and air-cooled slag aggregates. Four different concrete mixes with the same cement content and different w/c ratios were designed using normal dolomite aggregate, air-cooled slag by-product and two different types of iron ore aggregates. High performance concrete (grade-M60 can be achieved using superplasticizer to reduce the water/cement ratio; the effect of SF on the performance of concrete was studied by addition of 10% silica fume to the total cement content. The physico-mechanical properties of coarse aggregates and hardened concrete were studied. The results show that, Ilmenite coarse aggregate gives higher physical and mechanical properties than the other aggregates. Also, addition of 10% silica fume developed a stronger and a denser interfacial transition zone (ITZ between concrete particles and the cement matrix. Crushed air-cooled slag can be used to produce a high-strength concrete with better mechanical properties than corresponding concrete made with crushed hematite and ilmenite. Heavy density concrete made with fine aggregates of ilmenite and air-cooled slag are expected to be suitable as shielding materials to attenuate gamma rays.

  6. Graded gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, R.

    1983-01-01

    The mathematical background for a graded extension of gauge theories is investigated. After discussing the general properties of graded Lie algebras and what may serve as a model for a graded Lie group, the graded fiber bundle is constructed. Its basis manifold is supposed to be the so-called superspace, i.e. the product of the Minkowskian space-time with the Grassmann algebra spanned by the anticommuting Lorentz spinors; the vertical subspaces tangent to the fibers are isomorphic with the graded extension of the SU(N) Lie algebra. The connection and curvature are defined then on this bundle; the two different gradings are either independent of each other, or may be unified in one common grading, which is equivalent to the choice of the spin-statistics dependence. The Yang-Mills lagrangian is investigated in the simplified case. The conformal symmetry breaking is discussed, as well as some other physical consequences of the model. (orig.)

  7. Protein aggregation in bacteria: the thin boundary between functionality and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarska, Natalia G; Schymkowitz, Joost; Rousseau, Frederic; Van Eldere, Johan

    2013-09-01

    Misfolding and aggregation of proteins have a negative impact on all living organisms. In recent years, aggregation has been studied in detail due to its involvement in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, and type II diabetes--all associated with accumulation of amyloid fibrils. This research highlighted the central importance of protein homeostasis, or proteostasis for short, defined as the cellular state in which the proteome is both stable and functional. It implicates an equilibrium between synthesis, folding, trafficking, aggregation, disaggregation and degradation. In accordance with the eukaryotic systems, it has been documented that protein aggregation also reduces fitness of bacterial cells, but although our understanding of the cellular protein quality control systems is perhaps most detailed in bacteria, the use of bacterial proteostasis as a drug target remains little explored. Here we describe protein aggregation as a normal physiological process and its role in bacterial virulence and we shed light on how bacteria defend themselves against the toxic threat of aggregates. We review the impact of aggregates on bacterial viability and look at the ways that bacteria use to maintain a balance between aggregation and functionality. The proteostasis in bacteria can be interrupted via overexpression of proteins, certain antibiotics such as aminoglycosides, as well as antimicrobial peptides--all leading to loss of cell viability. Therefore intracellular protein aggregation and disruption of proteostatic balance in bacteria open up another strategy that should be explored towards the discovery of new antimicrobials.

  8. Environmental aspects and renewable energy sources in the production of construction aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypczak, Izabela; Kokoszka, Wanda; Buda-Ożóg, Lidia; Kogut, Janusz; Słowik, Marta

    2017-11-01

    The main activity of open pit mining of aggregates are aggregates' exploitation of natural mineral deposits and its modification in order to obtain high-quality aggregates. The development of aggregate production is conditioned by a number of factors. The most important are: documented material resources, mining and manufacturing capabilities, the need of environmental protection (environmental aspects), the subordination of the plan of spatial development, formal and legal issues, as well as economic and financial aspects. While identifying and assessing the environmental impacts of manufacturing aggregates one may distinguish those environmental aspects that have or may have the greatest magnitude of the impact on the environment as a result of industrial activities. Manufacturers producing aggregates located in the areas covered by the special environmental protection require extra diligence in the conduct of mining activities for preservation of natural resources. The article discusses some main environmental aspects of the production of construction aggregates on the example of one of the largest producers of this material in Subcarpathian province of Poland. Environmental protection in production of aggregates may refer to four aspects: the use of natural resources, having excluded land from agriculture and forestry, land reclamation after exploitation, and use of energy from renewable energy sources. The economic and environmental impact of production volume of aggregates is evaluated by the index information capacity method and the method of graphs.

  9. Utilisation of iron ore tailings as aggregates in concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Francis Atta Kuranchie; Sanjay Kumar Shukla; Daryoush Habibi; Alireza Mohyeddin

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable handling of iron ore tailings is of prime concern to all stakeholders who are into iron ore mining. This study seeks to add value to the tailings by utilising them as a replacement for aggregates in concrete. A concrete mix of grade 40 MPa was prepared in the laboratory with water–cement ratio of 0.5. The concrete were cured for 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. The properties of the concrete such as workability, durability, density, compressive strength and indirect tensile strength we...

  10. Micromechanical models for graded composite materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiter, T; Dvorak, G.J.; Tvergaard, Viggo

    1997-01-01

    of piecewise homogeneous layers with equivalent elastic properties estimated by Mori-Tanaka and self-consistent methods are also analysed under similar boundary conditions. Comparisons of the overall and local fields predicted by the discrete and homogenized models are made using a C/SiC composite system...... fields are predicted by Mori-Tanaka estimates. On the other hand, the response of graded materials with a skeletal microstructure in a wide transition zone between clearly defined matrix phases is better approximated by the self-consistent estimates. Certain exceptions are noted for loading by overall...... transverse shear stress; The results suggest that the averaging methods originally developed for statistically homogeneous aggregates may be selectively applied, with a reasonable degree of confidence, to aggregates dth composition gradients, subjected to both uniform and nonuniform overall loads. (C) 1997...

  11. Catanionic aggregates stability and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vautrin, Claire

    2004-01-01

    The catanionic system cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium hydroxide - myristic acid - water studied here has the advantage to produce aggregates with controlled charge. So, the ternary phase diagram presents some interesting aggregates (micelle, vesicle, disc, lamellar phase). The study of the CMC put in evidence some strong interactions between monomers: the interaction parameter is equal to -10 kT. On a microscopic point of view, the alkyl chains packing is hexagonal and we proved by WAXS and WANS that the head groups are liquid ordered. Moreover, the hydrogen bonds participate to the bilayer cohesion. The mechanical properties of the catanionic membrane are similar to the properties of phospholipids. We estimated the Young modulus to 100 MPa by compressibility measurements (acoustic propagation and Langmuir trough). The thermodynamic properties studied by DSC showed that the chain melting transition depends on the sample composition. (author) [fr

  12. Utilization of unbound aggregates for road construction

    OpenAIRE

    Fladvad, Marit

    2017-01-01

    Crushed rock aggregate is a non-renewable resource of great interest in road construction and other branches of the construction industry. To prevent resource scarcity, utilization of aggregates should be considered carefully. © 2016 Norsk Bergforening

  13. Recycled concrete aggregate in portland cement concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Aggregates can be produced by crushing hydraulic cement concrete and are known as recycled concrete : aggregates (RCA). This report provides results from a New Jersey Department of Transportation study to identify : barriers to the use of RCA in new ...

  14. Aggregate Uncertainty, Money and Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Hongfei Sun

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of monitoring the monitor in a model of money and banking with aggregate uncertainty. It shows that when inside money is required as a means of bank loan repayment, a market of inside money is entailed at the repayment stage and generates information-revealing prices that perfectly discipline the bank. The incentive problem of a bank is costlessly overcome simply by involving inside money in repayment. Inside money distinguishes itself from outside money by its ...

  15. Intuitionistic fuzzy aggregation and clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zeshui

    2012-01-01

    This book offers a systematic introduction to the clustering algorithms for intuitionistic fuzzy values, the latest research results in intuitionistic fuzzy aggregation techniques, the extended results in interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy environments, and their applications in multi-attribute decision making, such as supply chain management, military system performance evaluation, project management, venture capital, information system selection, building materials classification, and operational plan assessment, etc.

  16. The fractal character of radiation defects aggregation in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akylbekov, A.; Akimbekov, E.; Baktybekov, K.; Vasil'eva, I.

    2002-01-01

    In processes of self-organization, which characterize open systems, the source of ordering is a non-equilibrium. One of the samples of ordering system is radiation-stimulated aggregation of defects in solids. In real work the analysis of criterions of ordering defects structures in solid, which is continuously irradiate at low temperature is presented. The method of cellular automata used in simulation of irradiation. It allowed us to imitate processes of defects formation and recombination. The simulation realized on the surfaces up to 1000x1000 units with initial concentration of defects C n (the power of dose) 0.1-1 %. The number of iterations N (duration of irradiation) mounted to 10 6 cycles. The single centers, which are the sources of formation aggregates, survive in the result of probabilistic nature of formation and recombination genetic pairs of defects and with strictly fixed radius of recombination (the minimum inter anionic distance). For determination the character of same type defects distribution the potential of their interaction depending of defects type and reciprocal distance is calculated. For more detailed study of processes, proceeding in cells with certain sizes of aggregates, the time dependence of potential interaction is constructed. It is shown, that on primary stage the potential is negative, then it increase and approach the saturation in positive area. The minimum of interaction potential corresponds to state of physical chaos in system. Its increasing occurs with formation of same type defects aggregates. Further transition to saturation and 'undulating' character of curves explains by formation and destruction aggregates. The data indicated that - these processes occur simultaneously in cells with different sizes. It allows us to assume that the radiation defects aggregation have a fractal nature

  17. Open hardware for open science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the open source software movement, the Open Hardware Repository was created to enable hardware developers to share the results of their R&D activities. The recently published CERN Open Hardware Licence offers the legal framework to support this knowledge and technology exchange.   Two years ago, a group of electronics designers led by Javier Serrano, a CERN engineer, working in experimental physics laboratories created the Open Hardware Repository (OHR). This project was initiated in order to facilitate the exchange of hardware designs across the community in line with the ideals of “open science”. The main objectives include avoiding duplication of effort by sharing results across different teams that might be working on the same need. “For hardware developers, the advantages of open hardware are numerous. For example, it is a great learning tool for technologies some developers would not otherwise master, and it avoids unnecessary work if someone ha...

  18. Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  19. Open innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel; Chesbrough, Henry; Moedas, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Open innovation is now a widely used concept in academia, business, and policy making. This article describes the state of open innovation at the intersection of research, practice, and policy. It discusses some key trends (e.g., digital transformation), challenges (e.g., uncertainty...

  20. Seventh Grade Students' Conceptions of Global Warming and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepardson, Daniel P.; Niyogi, Dev; Choi, Soyoung; Charusombat, Umarporn

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate seventh grade students' conceptions of global warming and climate change. The study was descriptive in nature and involved the collection of qualitative data from 91 seventh grade students from three different schools in the Midwest, USA. An open response and draw and explain assessment instrument was…

  1. Innovative process routes for a high-quality concrete recycling in the aggregates and cement industries

    OpenAIRE

    Bru , Kathy; Menard , Yannick; Touzé , Solène; Le Moign , Alain; Poirier , Jean Eric; Ruffié , Gilles; Bonnaudin , Fabrice; Von Der Weid , Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Hardened concrete is a composite material that contains two main phases: the matrix (hardened cement paste, 20 %) and aggregates (gravels and sand, 80 %). The liberation and the recycling of these constituents can provide an answer to i) the exploration of new aggregates supply sources imposed by the depletion of natural deposit and the faced difficulties when trying to open new quarries and ii) the reduction of CO2 emissions in the clinker manufacturing process throug...

  2. Graded tensor calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheunert, M.

    1982-10-01

    We develop a graded tensor calculus corresponding to arbitrary Abelian groups of degrees and arbitrary commutation factors. The standard basic constructions and definitions like tensor products, spaces of multilinear mappings, contractions, symmetrization, symmetric algebra, as well as the transpose, adjoint, and trace of a linear mapping, are generalized to the graded case and a multitude of canonical isomorphisms is presented. Moreover, the graded versions of the classical Lie algebras are introduced and some of their basic properties are described. (orig.)

  3. Open architecture CNC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tal, J. [Galil Motion Control Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Lopez, A.; Edwards, J.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-04-01

    In this paper, an alternative solution to the traditional CNC machine tool controller has been introduced. Software and hardware modules have been described and their incorporation in a CNC control system has been outlined. This type of CNC machine tool controller demonstrates that technology is accessible and can be readily implemented into an open architecture machine tool controller. Benefit to the user is greater controller flexibility, while being economically achievable. PC based, motion as well as non-motion features will provide flexibility through a Windows environment. Up-grading this type of controller system through software revisions will keep the machine tool in a competitive state with minimal effort. Software and hardware modules are mass produced permitting competitive procurement and incorporation. Open architecture CNC systems provide diagnostics thus enhancing maintainability, and machine tool up-time. A major concern of traditional CNC systems has been operator training time. Training time can be greatly minimized by making use of Windows environment features.

  4. Two-photon absorption of a supramolecular pseudoisocyanine J-aggregate assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belfield, Kevin D.; Bondar, Mykhailo V.; Hernandez, Florencio E.; Przhonska, Olga V.; Yao, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Linear spectral properties, including excitation anisotropy, of pseudoisocyanine or 1,1'-diethyl-2,2'-cyanine iodide (PIC) J-aggregates in aqueous solutions with J-band position at 573 nm were investigated. Two-photon absorption of PIC J-aggregates and monomer molecules was studied using an open aperture Z-scan technique. A strong enhancement of the two-photon absorption cross-section of PIC in the supramolecular J-aggregate assembly was observed in aqueous solution. This enhancement is attributed to a strong coupling of the molecular transition dipoles. No two-photon absorption at the peak of the J-band was detected

  5. Web-based access, aggregation, and visualization of future climate projections with emphasis on agricultural assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villoria, Nelson B.; Elliott, Joshua; Müller, Christoph; Shin, Jaewoo; Zhao, Lan; Song, Carol

    2018-01-01

    Access to climate and spatial datasets by non-specialists is restricted by technical barriers involving hardware, software and data formats. We discuss an open-source online tool that facilitates downloading the climate data from the global circulation models used by the Inter-Sectoral Impacts Model Intercomparison Project. The tool also offers temporal and spatial aggregation capabilities for incorporating future climate scenarios in applications where spatial aggregation is important. We hope that streamlined access to these data facilitates analysis of climate related issues while considering the uncertainties derived from future climate projections and temporal aggregation choices.

  6. Defining and systematic analyses of aggregation indices to evaluate degree of calcium oxalate crystal aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyarit, Sakdithep; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2017-12-01

    Crystal aggregation is one of the most crucial steps in kidney stone pathogenesis. However, previous studies of crystal aggregation were rarely done and quantitative analysis of aggregation degree was handicapped by a lack of the standard measurement. We thus performed an in vitro assay to generate aggregation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals with various concentrations (25-800 µg/ml) in saturated aggregation buffer. The crystal aggregates were analyzed by microscopic examination, UV-visible spectrophotometry, and GraphPad Prism6 software to define a total of 12 aggregation indices (including number of aggregates, aggregated mass index, optical density, aggregation coefficient, span, number of aggregates at plateau time-point, aggregated area index, aggregated diameter index, aggregated symmetry index, time constant, half-life, and rate constant). The data showed linear correlation between crystal concentration and almost all of these indices, except only for rate constant. Among these, number of aggregates provided the greatest regression coefficient (r=0.997; pr=0.993; pr=‑0.993; pr=0.991; p<0.001 for both). These five indices are thus recommended as the most appropriate indices for quantitative analysis of COM crystal aggregation in vitro.

  7. Heating of Porous Icy Dust Aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirono, Sin-iti [Earth and Environmental Sciences, Nagoya University, Tikusa-ku, Furo-cho, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2017-06-10

    At the beginning of planetary formation, highly porous dust aggregates are formed through coagulation of dust grains. Outside the snowline, the main component of an aggregate is H{sub 2}O ice. Because H{sub 2}O ice is formed in amorphous form, its thermal conductivity is extremely small. Therefore, the thermal conductivity of an icy dust aggregate is low. There is a possibility of heating inside an aggregate owing to the decay of radionuclides. It is shown that the temperature increases substantially inside an aggregate, leading to crystallization of amorphous ice. During the crystallization, the temperature further increases sufficiently to continue sintering. The mechanical properties of icy dust aggregates change, and the collisional evolution of dust aggregates is affected by the sintering.

  8. What favors convective aggregation and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Caroline; Bony, Sandrine

    2015-07-01

    The organization of convection is ubiquitous, but its physical understanding remains limited. One particular type of organization is the spatial self-aggregation of convection, taking the form of cloud clusters, or tropical cyclones in the presence of rotation. We show that several physical processes can give rise to self-aggregation and highlight the key features responsible for it, using idealized simulations. Longwave radiative feedbacks yield a "radiative aggregation." In that case, sufficient spatial variability of radiative cooling rates yields a low-level circulation, which induces the upgradient energy transport and radiative-convective instability. Not only do vertically integrated radiative budgets matter but the vertical profile of cooling is also crucial. Convective aggregation is facilitated when downdrafts below clouds are weak ("moisture-memory aggregation"), and this is sufficient to trigger aggregation in the absence of longwave radiative feedbacks. These results shed some light on the sensitivity of self-aggregation to various parameters, including resolution or domain size.

  9. Open Bibliography

    OpenAIRE

    Murray-Rust, Peter; Pollock, Rufus; MacGillivray, Mark; O'Steen, Ben; Waites, William

    2011-01-01

    Poster presented at the VSMF Symposium held at the Unilever Centre on 2011-01-17. More research is published currently than can be understood or followed by a researcher without the aid of a computer. We need Open shareable information on research publications, an Open Bibliography, to build the services that enable researchers to explore their field and discover the research they need. Producers of bibliographic data such as libraries, publishers, universities, scholars or social referenc...

  10. Open IS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germonprez, Matt; Crowston, Kevin; Avital, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The collective intelligence and collective action of “open” communities have produced a variety of complex knowledge goods and radical social change. The Information Systems (IS) community has invested significant effort into researching open communities and the ecosystems in which they operate...... therefore seeks to stimulate a thoughtful and dynamic discussion around the proposition that becoming a more open community will enhance the IS discipline’s scholarly inquiry and global impact....

  11. Gallbladder removal - open

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholecystectomy - open; Gallbladder - open cholecystectomy; Cholecystitis - open cholecystectomy; Gallstones - open cholecystectomy ... a medical instrument called a laparoscope ( laparoscopic ... Open gallbladder surgery is used when laparoscopic surgery cannot ...

  12. Smart aggregates: multi-functional sensors for concrete structures—a tutorial and a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Gangbing; Gu Haichang; Mo Yilung

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the authors' recent pioneering research work in piezoceramic-based smart aggregates and their innovative applications in concrete civil structures. The basic operating principle of smart aggregates is first introduced. The proposed smart aggregate is formed by embedding a waterproof piezoelectric patch with lead wires into a small concrete block. The proposed smart aggregates are multi-functional and can perform three major tasks: early-age concrete strength monitoring, impact detection and structural health monitoring. The proposed smart aggregates are embedded into the desired location before the casting of the concrete structure. The concrete strength development is monitored by observing the high frequency harmonic wave response of the smart aggregate. Impact on the concrete structure is detected by observing the open-circuit voltage of the piezoceramic patch in the smart aggregate. For structural health monitoring purposes, a smart aggregate-based active sensing system is designed for the concrete structure. Wavelet packet analysis is used as a signal-processing tool to analyze the sensor signal. A damage index based on the wavelet packet analysis is used to determine the structural health status. To better describe the time-history and location information of damage, two types of damage index matrices are proposed: a sensor-history damage index matrix and an actuator–sensor damage index matrix. To demonstrate the multi-functionality of the proposed smart aggregates, different types of concrete structures have been used as test objects, including concrete bridge bent-caps, concrete cylinders and a concrete frame. Experimental results have verified the effectiveness and the multi-functionality of the proposed smart aggregates. The multi-functional smart aggregates have the potential to be applied to the comprehensive monitoring of concrete structures from their earliest stages and throughout their lifetime. (topical review)

  13. Physical and mechanical properties of mortars containing PET and PC waste aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannawi, Kinda; Kamali-Bernard, Siham; Prince, William

    2010-11-01

    Non-biodegradable plastic aggregates made of polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste are used as partial replacement of natural aggregates in mortar. Various volume fractions of sand 3%, 10%, 20% and 50% are replaced by the same volume of plastic. This paper investigates the physical and mechanical properties of the obtained composites. The main results of this study show the feasibility of the reuse of PC and PET waste aggregates materials as partial volume substitutes for natural aggregates in cementitious materials. Despite of some drawbacks like a decrease in compressive strength, the use of PC and PET waste aggregates presents various advantages. A reduction of the specific weight of the cementitious materials and a significant improvement of their post-peak flexural behaviour are observed. The calculated flexural toughness factors increase significantly with increasing volume fraction of PET and PC-aggregates. Thus, addition of PC and PET plastic aggregates in cementitious materials seems to give good energy absorbing materials which is very interesting for several civil engineering applications like structures subjected to dynamic or impact efforts. The present study has shown quite encouraging results and opened new way for the recycling of PC waste aggregate in cement and concrete composites. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Grain Grading and Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  15. Mars Atmospheric Aggregation System API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The {MAAS} API is an open source REST API built to help make it easier and more efficient to build interactive applications that want to utilize the wealth of...

  16. Open access and scholarly communication, part 4

    CERN Document Server

    Eden, Brad

    2009-01-01

    This fourth e-book on the subject of open access in the academic field includes a Latin American case study on open access penetration, a paper from Germany on the promotion of OA illustrated by a project at the University of Konstanz, and a case study on OA at Bioline International, a non-profit scholarly publications aggregator, distributor, publisher and publishing assistance service.

  17. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  18. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  19. Graded photonic crystals by optical interference holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chunrui; Tam, Wing Yim

    2012-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of graded photonic crystals in dye doped dichromate gelatin emulsions using an optical interference holographic technique. The gradedness is achieved by imposing a gradient form factor in the interference intensity resulting from the absorption of the dye in the dichromate gelatin. Wider and deeper photonic bandgaps are observed for the dyed samples as compared to the un-dyed samples. Our method could open up a new direction in fabricating graded photonic crystals which cannot be achieved easily using other techniques. (paper)

  20. Open access

    CERN Document Server

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispe...

  1. Role of Multicellular Aggregates in Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper N. Kragh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In traditional models of in vitro biofilm development, individual bacterial cells seed a surface, multiply, and mature into multicellular, three-dimensional structures. Much research has been devoted to elucidating the mechanisms governing the initial attachment of single cells to surfaces. However, in natural environments and during infection, bacterial cells tend to clump as multicellular aggregates, and biofilms can also slough off aggregates as a part of the dispersal process. This makes it likely that biofilms are often seeded by aggregates and single cells, yet how these aggregates impact biofilm initiation and development is not known. Here we use a combination of experimental and computational approaches to determine the relative fitness of single cells and preformed aggregates during early development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. We find that the relative fitness of aggregates depends markedly on the density of surrounding single cells, i.e., the level of competition for growth resources. When competition between aggregates and single cells is low, an aggregate has a growth disadvantage because the aggregate interior has poor access to growth resources. However, if competition is high, aggregates exhibit higher fitness, because extending vertically above the surface gives cells at the top of aggregates better access to growth resources. Other advantages of seeding by aggregates, such as earlier switching to a biofilm-like phenotype and enhanced resilience toward antibiotics and immune response, may add to this ecological benefit. Our findings suggest that current models of biofilm formation should be reconsidered to incorporate the role of aggregates in biofilm initiation.

  2. Open University Learning Analytics dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzilek, Jakub; Hlosta, Martin; Zdrahal, Zdenek

    2017-11-28

    Learning Analytics focuses on the collection and analysis of learners' data to improve their learning experience by providing informed guidance and to optimise learning materials. To support the research in this area we have developed a dataset, containing data from courses presented at the Open University (OU). What makes the dataset unique is the fact that it contains demographic data together with aggregated clickstream data of students' interactions in the Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). This enables the analysis of student behaviour, represented by their actions. The dataset contains the information about 22 courses, 32,593 students, their assessment results, and logs of their interactions with the VLE represented by daily summaries of student clicks (10,655,280 entries). The dataset is freely available at https://analyse.kmi.open.ac.uk/open_dataset under a CC-BY 4.0 license.

  3. Open innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Joel; Bogers, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Interest in open innovation (OI) as a field of research has grown exponentially since the phrase was coined by Chesbrough in his 2003 book, with numerous articles, special issues, books, and conference sessions. Various reviews of the literature have summarized prior work, offered new frameworks......, and identified opportunities for future research. Here we summarize these opportunities, which include more research on outbound OI, the role of open innovation in services, and network forms of collaboration such as consortia, communities, ecosystems, and platforms. Research should also examine the use of OI...... by small, new, and not-for-profit organizations, as well as the linkage of individual actions and motivations to open innovation. Other opportunities include better measuring the costs, benefits, antecedents, mediators and moderators of the effects of OI on performance, and understanding why and how OI...

  4. Ortographic difficulties in writing at a basic grade level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Rodrigues Azevedo Joly

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the performance in children’s writing at a basic grade level. A written test was applied to 546 grade 2 or 3 boys and girls (aged 7 to 13 in public and private schools from the State of São Paulo. The results showed that the grade 3 participants presented a better performance than the grade 2 participants even though both groups have achieved the same maximum and minimum scores. It was confirmed that participants had more difficulty with words containing compound syllables, while words with aggregated consonants and digraphs were associated with the highest rate of correct answers. Furthermore, students from private school revealed more competence in orthographic writing than those coming from public schools. As to gender differences, there were no significant differences in performance for compound and complex syllables items though for other words, girls had better scores.   Keywords: writing; academic achievement; evaluation.

  5. Optimization of Packing Density of M30 Concrete With Steel Slag As Coarse Aggregate Using Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arivoli M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Concrete plays a vital role in the design and construction of the infrastructure. To meet the global demand of concrete in future, it is becoming a challenging task to find suitable alternatives to natural aggregates. Steel slag is a by-product of steel making process. The steel slag aggregates are characterized by studying particle size and shape, physical and chemical properties, and mechanical properties as per IS: 2386-1963. The characterization study reveals the better performance of steel slag aggregate over natural coarse aggregate. M30 grade of concrete is designed and natural coarse aggregate is completely replaced by steel slag aggregate. Packing density of aggregates affects the characteristics of concrete. The present paper proposes a fuzzy system for concrete mix proportioning which increases the packing density. The proposed fuzzy system have four sub fuzzy system to arrive compressive strength, water cement ratio, ideal grading curve and free water content for concrete mix proportioning. The results show, the concrete mix proportion of the given fuzzy model agrees with IS method. The comparison of results shows that both proposed fuzzy system and IS method, there is a remarkable increase in compressive strength and bulk density, with increment in the percentage replacement of steel slag.

  6. Stabilized fiber-reinforced pavement base course with recycled aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhan, Khaled

    's assumptions for rigid pavements), which has been found to explain reasonably well the field behavior of unreinforced and fiber-reinforced concrete slabs on grade. Finally, a preliminary cost analysis demonstrated that the use of stabilized recycled aggregate instead of a standard crushed stone base course can result in a meaningful economic savings.

  7. Aggregation server for grid-integrated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2015-05-26

    Methods, systems, and apparatus for aggregating electric power flow between an electric grid and electric vehicles are disclosed. An apparatus for aggregating power flow may include a memory and a processor coupled to the memory to receive electric vehicle equipment (EVE) attributes from a plurality of EVEs, aggregate EVE attributes, predict total available capacity based on the EVE attributes, and dispatch at least a portion of the total available capacity to the grid. Power flow may be aggregated by receiving EVE operational parameters from each EVE, aggregating the received EVE operational parameters, predicting total available capacity based on the aggregated EVE operational parameters, and dispatching at least a portion of the total available capacity to the grid.

  8. Aggregated particles caused by instrument artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Ashley M.; Loría-Salazar, S. Marcela; Arnott, W. Patrick; Edwards, Grant C.; Miller, Matthieu B.; Gustin, Mae S.

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have indicated that superaggregates, clusters of aggregates of soot primary particles, can be formed in large-scale turbulent fires. Due to lower effective densities, higher porosity, and lower aerodynamic diameters, superaggregates may pass through inlets designed to remove particles 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter were collected on 36 out of 158 sample days. On preliminary analysis, it was thought that these aggregated particles were superaggregates, depositing past PM10 (particles wind speeds, as well as the use of generators on site. Samples with aggregated particles, referred to as aggregates, were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope for size and shape and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used for elemental analysis. It was determined, based on the high amounts of aluminum present in the aggregate samples, that a sampling artifact associated with the sample inlet and prolonged, high wind events was the probable reason for the observed aggregates.

  9. Open Education and the Open Science Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Openness as a complex code word for a variety of digital trends and movements has emerged as an alternative mode of "social production" based on the growing and overlapping complexities of open source, open access, open archiving, open publishing, and open science. This paper argues that the openness movement with its reinforcing structure of…

  10. Colloid Release from Soil Aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    2012-01-01

    The content of water-dispersible colloids (WDC) has a major impact on soil functions and structural stability. In addition, the presence of mobile colloids may increase the risk of colloid-facilitated transport of strongly sorbing environmental contaminants. The WDC content was measured in 39 soils......, using laser diffraction, by agitating the samples using a wet-dispersion unit. This approach eliminated the need for long sedimentation times required by the more classical end-over-end shaking approach and provided information about the time-dependent release of WDC. The total clay content of the soils...... ranged from 0.1 to 0.44 kg kg−1. The WDC content was measured on air-dry and moist 1- to 2-mm aggregates. The WDC content at a reference time was highly correlated to the total clay content (r > 0.91, P soils. Only for two sites was the WDC content correlated to the content of clay...

  11. Aggregate assessments support improved operational decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R.

    2003-01-01

    At Darlington Nuclear aggregate assessment of plant conditions is carried out in support of Operational Decision Making. This paper discusses how aggregate assessments have been applied to Operator Workarounds leading to improved prioritisation and alignment of work programs in different departments. As well, aggregate assessment of plant and human performance factors has been carried out to identify criteria which support conservative decision making in the main control room during unit transients. (author)

  12. The Open

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saitya Brata Das

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Open darkness and light, remembrance and oblivion, coming into existence and disappearing in death play their originary co-belonging, or co-figuration. Existence belongs to this opening and is exposed to its coming to presence: it is on the basis of this originary opening, this originary historical which is revealed to this mortal being called ‘man,’ on the basis of this revelation, man founds something like politics and history. There thus comes into existence out of this freedom, out of this “play space”2, this field called ‘polis’3 where there takes place war and festival, where historical revolutions tear apart history, brings ruptures and discontinuities in the very mode of his existence, where man seeks the foundation of his own foundation (which is his metaphysical task , where occurs the dialectics of negativity between man and man, where man puts at stake his own death, his own dissolution, and by the power of his own dissolution stands in relation to the total world that he seeks to dominate. This means that man’s attempts to metaphysically found his own political and historical existence must presuppose a far more originary non-foundation, the differentiating revealing of the open, the ungrounded spacing play, or playing space of natality and mortality.

  13. Open data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodum, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Everyone wants open data, but the road towards it can be both difficult and long. Implementation of data portals and ICT solutions for support of the data infrastructure can be initiated from the central government through legislation, regulation and public procurement. This is what you would call...

  14. Open Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderhoff, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Museums around the world hold enormous troves of public domain artworks. In digitized form, they can be powerful tools for research and learning, as well as building blocks, in the hands of students, teachers, scholars, developers, and creative people. By opening up their digitized assets for reuse...

  15. Internal water curing with Liapor aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro

    2005-01-01

    Internal water curing is a very efficient way to counteract self-desiccation and autogenous shrinkage in high performance concrete, thereby reducing the likelihood of early-age cracking. This paper deals with early-age volume changes and moisture transport in lightweight aggregate concrete realized...... with wet lightweight aggregates. Lightweight aggregate concrete mixtures with different degree of saturation and different particle size of the lightweight aggregates were studied and compared to normal weight concrete. Autogenous deformations, selfinduced stresses in fully restrained conditions, elastic...

  16. Macroeconomic susceptibility, inflation, and aggregate supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.

    2017-03-01

    We unify aggregate-supply dynamics as a time-dependent susceptibility-mediated relationship between inflation and aggregate economic output. In addition to representing well various observations of inflation-output dynamics this parsimonious formalism provides a straightforward derivation of popular representations of aggregate-supply dynamics and a natural basis for economic-agent expectations as an element of inflation formation. Our formalism also illuminates questions of causality and time-correlation that challenge central banks for whom aggregate-supply dynamics is a key constraint in their goal of achieving macroeconomic stability.

  17. Pre-aggregation for Probability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timko, Igor; Dyreson, Curtis E.; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    Motivated by the increasing need to analyze complex uncertain multidimensional data (e.g., in order to optimize and personalize location-based services), this paper proposes novel types of {\\em probabilistic} OLAP queries that operate on aggregate values that are probability distributions...... and the techniques to process these queries. The paper also presents the methods for computing the probability distributions, which enables pre-aggregation, and for using the pre-aggregated distributions for further aggregation. In order to achieve good time and space efficiency, the methods perform approximate...... multidimensional data analysis that is considered in this paper (i.e., approximate processing of probabilistic OLAP queries over probability distributions)....

  18. Experimental and numerical investigation of water flow through spacer grids of nuclear fuel elements using the Open FOAM code; Investigação numérica e experimental do escoamento de água através de grades espaçadoras de elementos combustíveis nucleares utilizando o código OpenFOAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, Guilherme A.M.; Vieira, Tiago A.S.; Castro, Higor F.P., E-mail: gvidal.ufmg@gmail.com, E-mail: tiago.vieira.eng@gmail.com, E-mail: higorfabiano@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecânica; Santos, André A.C. dos; Silva, Vitor V. A.; Barros Filho, José A., E-mail: aacs@cdtn.br, E-mail: vitors@cdtn.br, E-mail: jabf@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    With the advancement and development of computational tools, the studies of thermofluidodynamic behavior in nuclear fuel elements have been developed in recent years. Of the devices present in these elements, the spacing grids received more attention. They have kept the fuel rods equally spaced and have fins that aim to improve the heat transfer process between the water and the fuel element. Therefore, the grids present an important structural and thermal function. This work was carried out with the purpose of verifying and validating simulations of spacer grids using OpenFOAM (2017) software of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The simulations were validated using results obtained through the commercial CFD program, Ansys CFX, and experiments available in the literature and obtained in test sections assembled on the Water-Air Circuit (CCA) of the CDTN thermo-hydraulic laboratory.

  19. CRA Grade Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth H. Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 (CRA) ratings and performance evaluations are the only bank and thrift exam findings disclosed by financial institution regulators. Inflation of CRA ratings has been alleged by community activists for two decades, but there has been no quantification or empirical investigation of grade inflation. Using a unique grade inflation methodology on actual ratings and evaluation data for 1,407 small banks and thrifts under the revised CRA regulations, this paper con...

  20. Functionally graded materials

    CERN Document Server

    Mahamood, Rasheedat Modupe

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the concept of functionally graded materials as well as their use and different fabrication processes. The authors describe the use of additive manufacturing technology for the production of very complex parts directly from the three dimension computer aided design of the part by adding material layer after layer. A case study is also presented in the book on the experimental analysis of functionally graded material using laser metal deposition process.

  1. Open Source, Open Access, Open Review, Open Data. Initiativen zu mehr Offenheit in der digitalen Welt

    OpenAIRE

    Herb, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the principles of openess, open access and open availability of information based on the examples of open access to scientific information, open government data, open geographical data and open source software.

  2. Fracture Analysis of Functionally Graded Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ch.; Gao, X. W.; Sladek, J.; Sladek, V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports our recent research works on crack analysis in continuously non-homogeneous and linear elastic functionally graded materials. A meshless boundary element method is developed for this purpose. Numerical examples are presented and discussed to demonstrate the efficiency and the accuracy of the present numerical method, and to show the effects of the material gradation on the crack-opening-displacements and the stress intensity factors.

  3. Rapid Aggregation of Biofuel-Producing Algae by the Bacterium Bacillus sp. Strain RP1137

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    Algal biofuels represent one of the most promising means of sustainably replacing liquid fuels. However, significant challenges remain before alga-based fuels become competitive with fossil fuels. One of the largest challenges is the ability to harvest the algae in an economical and low-energy manner. In this article, we describe the isolation of a bacterial strain, Bacillus sp. strain RP1137, which can rapidly aggregate several algae that are candidates for biofuel production, including a Nannochloropsis sp. This bacterium aggregates algae in a pH-dependent and reversible manner and retains its aggregation ability after paraformaldehyde fixation, opening the possibility for reuse of the cells. The optimal ratio of bacteria to algae is described, as is the robustness of aggregation at different salinities and temperatures. Aggregation is dependent on the presence of calcium or magnesium ions. The efficiency of aggregation of Nannochloropsis oceanica IMET1 is between 70 and 95% and is comparable to that obtained by other means of harvest; however, the rate of harvest is fast, with aggregates forming in 30 s. PMID:23892750

  4. An unprecedented aggregation of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in Mexican coastal waters of the Caribbean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de la Parra Venegas

    Full Text Available Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, are often perceived as solitary behemoths that live and feed in the open ocean. To the contrary, evidence is accumulating that they are gregarious and form seasonal aggregations in some coastal waters. One such aggregation occurs annually north of Cabo Catoche, off Isla Holbox on the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico. Here we report a second, much denser aggregation of whale sharks (dubbed "the Afuera" that occurs east of the tip of the Yucatán Peninsula in the Caribbean Sea. The 2009 Afuera event comprised the largest aggregation of whale sharks ever reported, with up to 420 whale sharks observed in a single aerial survey, all gathered in an elliptical patch of ocean approximately 18 km(2. Plankton studies indicated that the sharks were feeding on dense homogenous patches of fish eggs, which DNA barcoding analysis identified as belonging to little tunny, Euthynnus alletteratus. This contrasts with the annual Cabo Catoche aggregation nearby, where prey consists mostly of copepods and sergestid shrimp. Increased sightings at the Afuera coincide with decreased sightings at Cabo Catoche, and both groups have the same sex ratio, implying that the same animals are likely involved in both aggregations; tagging data support this idea. With two whale shark aggregation areas, high coastal productivity and a previously-unknown scombrid spawning ground, the northeastern Yucatán marine region is a critical habitat that deserves more concerted conservation efforts.

  5. An Unprecedented Aggregation of Whale Sharks, Rhincodon typus, in Mexican Coastal Waters of the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Parra Venegas, Rafael; Hueter, Robert; González Cano, Jaime; Tyminski, John; Gregorio Remolina, José; Maslanka, Mike; Ormos, Andrea; Weigt, Lee; Carlson, Bruce; Dove, Alistair

    2011-01-01

    Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, are often perceived as solitary behemoths that live and feed in the open ocean. To the contrary, evidence is accumulating that they are gregarious and form seasonal aggregations in some coastal waters. One such aggregation occurs annually north of Cabo Catoche, off Isla Holbox on the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico. Here we report a second, much denser aggregation of whale sharks (dubbed “the Afuera”) that occurs east of the tip of the Yucatán Peninsula in the Caribbean Sea. The 2009 Afuera event comprised the largest aggregation of whale sharks ever reported, with up to 420 whale sharks observed in a single aerial survey, all gathered in an elliptical patch of ocean approximately 18 km2. Plankton studies indicated that the sharks were feeding on dense homogenous patches of fish eggs, which DNA barcoding analysis identified as belonging to little tunny, Euthynnus alletteratus. This contrasts with the annual Cabo Catoche aggregation nearby, where prey consists mostly of copepods and sergestid shrimp. Increased sightings at the Afuera coincide with decreased sightings at Cabo Catoche, and both groups have the same sex ratio, implying that the same animals are likely involved in both aggregations; tagging data support this idea. With two whale shark aggregation areas, high coastal productivity and a previously-unknown scombrid spawning ground, the northeastern Yucatán marine region is a critical habitat that deserves more concerted conservation efforts. PMID:21559508

  6. Open areas and open access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorndike, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    The main objective of the two open areas in the present ISABELLE design has been to provide flexibility with respect to the size and shape of experimental equipment that would eventually be installed there. No permanent building would be installed initially. One possibility would be to enclose each experiment in a temporary structure that would provide weatherproofing and shielding; another possibility would be to erect a permanent building at a later time, when experience has made the needs clearer than they are at present. The secondary objective of the design of open areas has been to keep initial costs as low as practicable. Another objective might be added, however, which we indicate by the term ''open access.'' This note will explore this idea and some design concepts based on it. In the ISABELLE 1977 summer workshop there was considerable discussion of the importance of techniques for inserting large pieces of experimental equipment quickly and removing them with equal ease and speed. Since enclosed halls have certain restrictions in this respect, open areas may be helpful in providing this feature. If the mechanical and electrical aspects could be handled quickly, one might even attempt to reduce the time spent on bureaucratic procedures in order to expedite the introduction of new experiments and new ideas in these areas

  7. OpenAPC. Open-Access-Publikationskosten als Open Data

    OpenAIRE

    Tullney, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Präsentationsfolien zum Vortrag „OpenAPC. Open-Access-Publikationskosten als Open Data“ in der Session „Ausgestaltung eines wissenschaftsadäquaten APC-Marktes: Grundsätze, Finanzierungsansätze und Management“ der Open-Access-Tage 2015 in Zürich (https://www.open-access.net/community/open-access-tage/open-access-tage-2015-zuerich/programm/#c1974)

  8. Opening remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyd, D.R.

    1993-11-01

    In his opening remarks Mr. David R. Kyd briefly described the IAEA mission. Then he outlined main aim of the seminar which is bring together journalists, educators, officials and other specialists to let them hear and put questions to experts on various aspects of nuclear energy and techniques. Further he analyzed problems and prospects of energy development in Asia and particularly in China, including environmental considerations. The final part of the remarks was devoted comparative evaluation of different energy production technologies

  9. Open Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Paull

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 27-year-old male was transported to the emergency department by emergency medical services after crashing his motorcycle into a guardrail. Upon presentation he was alert, normotensive, and tachypneic. Significant findings: A large chest wound was clinically obvious. A chest radiograph performed after intubation showed subcutaneous emphysema, an anterior rib fracture, and a right-sided pneumothorax. He was then taken to the operating room for further management. Discussion: Thoracic injuries are responsible for one-quarter of all trauma-related deaths. Following rib fracture, pneumothorax is the second most common thoracic injury, occurring in 30% of patients with thoracic trauma. An open pneumothorax occurs when a chest wall injury results in direct communication between the atmosphere and pleura.1-2 It is estimated that open pneumothorax occurs in 80% of all penetrating chest wounds, with stab wounds being more common than gunshot wounds or impalement. Open pneumothoraces can lead to ventilatory insufficiency and rapid respiratory decompensation.2 Advanced Trauma Life Support recommends that the initial management of an open pneumothorax is placement of an occlusive dressing taped on three sides to create a ‘flutter-valve’ mechanism. This should then be followed by tube thoracostomy and repair of the chest wall defect.3 The placement of an occlusive dressing or initial wound closure without subsequent tube thoracostomy may result in the development of a tension pneumothorax.2 The patient was intubated and mechanical ventilation was initiated without complication. Due to the large size of the wound, an occlusive dressing was not placed in the emergency department and the patient was rapidly transported to the operating room for further management. In the operating room two chest tubes were placed. Operative findings included a right hemopneumothorax, multiple rib fractures, and a manubrial fracture. After

  10. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianko, L.

    1993-01-01

    This short talk was the opening remarks to the attendees at this conference, presented by the Scientific Secretary, IWG-LMNPP, of the IAEA. This meeting is an effort to aid research on problems related to the general area of nuclear plant aging and life management. In particular it addresses fracture properties of reactor materials and components, both as installed, and at end of service condition. A major concern is relating measurements made on laboratory samples to properties displayed by actual reactor components

  11. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS, AGGREGATE STABILITY AND AGGREGATE ASSOCIATED-C: A MECHANISTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Guidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the identification of C pools involved in soil aggregation, a physically-based aggregate fractionation was proposed, and  additional pretreatments were used in the measurement of the 1-2 mm aggregate stability in order to elucidate the relevance of the role of soil microorganisms with respect to the different aggregate breakdown mechanisms. The study was carried out on three clay loam Regosols, developed on calcareous shales, known history of organic cultivation.Our results showed that the soil C pool controlling the process of stabilisation of aggregates was related to the microbial community. We identified the resistance to fast wetting as the major mechanism of aggregate stability driven by microorganims. The plausible hypothesis is that organic farming promotes fungi growth, improving water repellency of soil aggregates by fungal hydrophobic substances. By contrast, we failed in the identification of C pools controlling the formation of aggregates, probably because of the disturbance of mechanical tillage which contributes to the breakdown of soil aggregates.The physically-based aggregate fractionation proposed in this study resulted useful in the  mechanistically understanding of the role of microorganisms in soil aggregation and it might be suggested for studying the impact of management on C pools, aggregates properties and their relationships in agricultural soils.

  12. Rules for aggregated satisfaction with work commutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suzuki, Haruna; Fujii, Satoshi; Gärling, Tommy; Ettema, Dick|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/114422729; Olsson, Lars E.; Friman, Margareta

    In general trips frequently entail several stages varying in mode, duration, and other factors. In some way travelers aggregate their satisfaction with the stages to satisfaction with the whole trip. In this paper we address the question of how this aggregation is made. We use data from a Swedish

  13. Teaching Aggregate Demand and Supply Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Graeme

    2010-01-01

    The author analyzes the inflation-targeting model that underlies recent textbook expositions of the aggregate demand-aggregate supply approach used in introductory courses in macroeconomics. He shows how numerical simulations of a model with inflation inertia can be used as a tool to help students understand adjustments in response to demand and…

  14. Biomass round bales infield aggregation logistic scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass bales often need to be aggregated (collected into groups and transported) to a field-edge stack for temporary storage for feedlots or processing facilities. Aggregating the bales with the least total distance involved is a goal of producers and bale handlers. Several logistics scenarios for ...

  15. Reuse of industrial sludge as construction aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, J H; Show, K Y; Hong, S Y

    2001-01-01

    Industrial wastewater sludge and dredged marine clay are high volume wastes that needed enormous space at landfill disposal sites. Due to the limitation of land space, there is an urgent need for alternative disposal methods for these two wastes. This study investigates the possibility of using the industrial sludge in combination with marine clay as construction aggregates. Different proportions of sludge and clay were made into round and angular aggregates. It was found that certain mix proportions could provide aggregates of adequate strength, comparable to that of conventional aggregates. Concrete samples cast from the sludge-clay aggregates yield compressive strengths in the range of 31.0 to 39.0 N/mm2. The results showed that the round aggregates of 100% sludge and the crush aggregates of sludge with up to 20% clay produced concrete of compressive strengths which are superior to that of 38.0 N/mm2 for conventional aggregate. The study indicates that the conversion of high volume wastes into construction materials is a potential option for waste management.

  16. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...

  17. Determinants of Aggregate Agricultural Productivity among High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Determinants of Aggregate Agricultural Productivity among High External Input Technology Farms in a ... of aggregate agricultural productivity in an environment where policy on ... to increase the farm sizes through re-examination of the existing land laws.

  18. Ratio-Based Gradual Aggregation of Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem

    2012-01-01

    cause data management and data storage issues. However, non-flexible and ineffective means of data aggregation not only reduce performance of database queries but also lead to erroneous reporting. This paper presents flexible and effective ratio-based methods for gradual data aggregation in databases....... Gradual data aggregation is a process that reduces data volume by converting the detailed data into multiple levels of summarized data as the data gets older. This paper also describes implementation strategies of the proposed methods based on standard database technology.......Majority of databases contain large amounts of data, gathered over long intervals of time. In most cases, the data is aggregated so that it can be used for analysis and reporting purposes. The other reason of data aggregation is to reduce data volume in order to avoid over-sized databases that may...

  19. Open access, open education resources and open data in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a follow up to OpenCon 2014, International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA) students organized a 3 day workshop Open Access, Open Education Resources and Open Data in Kampala from 15-18 December 2014. One of the aims of the workshop was to engage the Open Access movement in ...

  20. Sans study of asphaltene aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overfield, R.E.; Sheu, E.Y.; Sinha, S.K.; Liang, K.S. (Esso Resources Canada Ltd., 339-50 Avenue S.E., Calgary, Alberta T2G 2B3 (CA))

    1988-06-01

    The colloidal properties of asphaltenes have long been recognized from peculiarities in their solubility and colligative properties. A layered micellar model or asphaltenes was proposed by others in which a highly condensed alkyl aromatic formed the central part, and molecules of decreasingly aromatic character (resins) clustered around them. Numerous studies, based on a variety of techniques such as ultracentrifugation and electron microscopy indicated a particulate nature for asphaltenes with size 20-40 A diameter. Others have proposed a refined model based on x-ray diffraction and small angle scattering. In this model, interactions between flat sheets of condensed aromatic rings form the central ''crystallite'' part of a spherical particle with the outer part being comprised of the aliphatic positions of the same molecules. These particles are bunched together with some degree of entanglement into ''micelles''. Concentration and solvent dependent radii of gyration, ranging from 30-50 A were reported. The aggregation creates a good deal of uncertainty as to the true molecular size or weight of asphaltenes. Neutron scattering offers novel contrast relative to light scattering (refractive index) and x-ray scattering (electron density). This is because the scattering length of proton is negative, whereas that from deuterium and other nuclei such as C, S, O, and N are positive. Thus by replacing hydrogen with deuterium in either the solvent or the scatterer the contrast can be varied, and different parts of the molecule can be highlighted.

  1. Congested Aggregation via Newtonian Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Katy; Kim, Inwon; Yao, Yao

    2018-01-01

    We consider a congested aggregation model that describes the evolution of a density through the competing effects of nonlocal Newtonian attraction and a hard height constraint. This provides a counterpoint to existing literature on repulsive-attractive nonlocal interaction models, where the repulsive effects instead arise from an interaction kernel or the addition of diffusion. We formulate our model as the Wasserstein gradient flow of an interaction energy, with a penalization to enforce the constraint on the height of the density. From this perspective, the problem can be seen as a singular limit of the Keller-Segel equation with degenerate diffusion. Two key properties distinguish our problem from previous work on height constrained equations: nonconvexity of the interaction kernel (which places the model outside the scope of classical gradient flow theory) and nonlocal dependence of the velocity field on the density (which causes the problem to lack a comparison principle). To overcome these obstacles, we combine recent results on gradient flows of nonconvex energies with viscosity solution theory. We characterize the dynamics of patch solutions in terms of a Hele-Shaw type free boundary problem and, using this characterization, show that in two dimensions patch solutions converge to a characteristic function of a disk in the long-time limit, with an explicit rate on the decay of the energy. We believe that a key contribution of the present work is our blended approach, combining energy methods with viscosity solution theory.

  2. Mobility and Heterogeneity Aware Cluster-Based Data Aggregation for Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dnyaneshwar, Mantri; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2016-01-01

    Internet of things (IoT) is the modern era, which offers a variety of novel applications for mobile targets and opens the new domains for the distributed data aggregations using Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). However, low cost tiny sensors used for network formation generate the large amount...

  3. Aggregation induced enhancement of linear and nonlinear optical emission from a hexaphenylene derivative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duan, Y.; Ju, C.G.; Yang, G.; Fron, E.; Coutino-Gonzalez, E.; Semin, S.V.; Fan, C.C.; Balok, R.S.; Cremers, J.; Tinnemans, P.T.; Feng, Y.Q.; Li, Y.L.; Hofkens, J.; Rowan, A.E.; Rasing, T.H.M.; Xu, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of the phenomenon known as aggregation-induced emission (AIE) has opened the door to a variety of brilliant organic solid-state light-emitting materials. While AIE is well established in linear optics, the development of AIE luminogens (AIEgens) with highly efficient nonlinear optical

  4. Hong's grading for evaluating anterior chamber angle width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seok Hwan; Kang, Ja Heon; Park, Ki Ho; Hong, Chul

    2012-11-01

    To compare Hong's grading method with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), gonioscopy, and the dark-room prone-position test (DRPT) for evaluating anterior chamber width. The anterior chamber angle was graded using Hong's grading method, and Hong's angle width was calculated from the arctangent of Hong's grades. The correlation between Hong's angle width and AS-OCT parameters was analyzed. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for Hong's grading method when discriminating between narrow and open angles as determined by gonioscopy was calculated. Correlation analysis was performed between Hong's angle width and intraocular pressure (IOP) changes determined by DRPT. A total of 60 subjects were enrolled. Of these subjects, 53.5 % had a narrow angle. Hong's angle width correlated significantly with the AS-OCT parameters (r = 0.562-0.719, P < 0.01). A Bland-Altman plot showed relatively good agreement between Hong's angle width and the angle width obtained by AS-OCT. The ability of Hong's grading method to discriminate between open and narrow angles was good (AUC = 0.868, 95 % CI 0.756-0.942). A significant linear correlation was found between Hong's angle width and IOP change determined by DRPT (r = -0.761, P < 0.01). Hong's grading method is useful for detecting narrow angles. Hong's grading correlated well with AS-OCT parameters and DRPT.

  5. Curcumin inhibits aggregation of alpha-synuclein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Neeraj; Strider, Jeffrey; Nolan, William C; Yan, Sherry X; Galvin, James E

    2008-04-01

    Aggregation of amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) is a key pathogenic event in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Curcumin, a constituent of the Indian spice Turmeric is structurally similar to Congo Red and has been demonstrated to bind Abeta amyloid and prevent further oligomerization of Abeta monomers onto growing amyloid beta-sheets. Reasoning that oligomerization kinetics and mechanism of amyloid formation are similar in Parkinson's disease (PD) and AD, we investigated the effect of curcumin on alpha-synuclein (AS) protein aggregation. In vitro model of AS aggregation was developed by treatment of purified AS protein (wild-type) with 1 mM Fe3+ (Fenton reaction). It was observed that the addition of curcumin inhibited aggregation in a dose-dependent manner and increased AS solubility. The aggregation-inhibiting effect of curcumin was next investigated in cell culture utilizing catecholaminergic SH-SY5Y cell line. A model system was developed in which the red fluorescent protein (DsRed2) was fused with A53T mutant of AS and its aggregation examined under different concentrations of curcumin. To estimate aggregation in an unbiased manner, a protocol was developed in which the images were captured automatically through a high-throughput cell-based screening microscope. The obtained images were processed automatically for aggregates within a defined dimension of 1-6 microm. Greater than 32% decrease in mutant alpha-synuclein aggregation was observed within 48 h subsequent to curcumin addition. Our data suggest that curcumin inhibits AS oligomerization into higher molecular weight aggregates and therefore should be further explored as a potential therapeutic compound for PD and related disorders.

  6. Sustainable Performance of Iraqi Asphalt Base Course Using Recycled Glass as Aggregate Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Athab Eedan Al-Jameel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, a lot of waste glass produced through different sides of life. Applying sustainability has been widely used in different construction materials and flexible pavement was contained different recycled materials through different studies. Recycled glass, where it is nonmetallic and inorganic, it can neither be incinerated nor decomposed, so it may be difficult to reclaim, has been used as filler, fine and coarse aggregates in the asphalt base course. In this study, various standard asphalt tests, such as stability, flow, density and air voids, have been conducted on reference mix asphalt and mix asphalt with different percentages of recycled glass when it has been used as filler, fine and coarse aggregates in the base course. Generally, the results show good indication, especially when using 10% of the recycled glass instead of coarse aggregate with 40-50 asphalt grades. This percentage improves most characteristics such as strength retained index which indicates better performance than reference mix.  

  7. Intelligent Aggregation Based on Content Routing Scheme for Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiachen Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has emerged as today’s most exciting computing paradigm for providing services using a shared framework, which opens a new door for solving the problems of the explosive growth of digital resource demands and their corresponding convenience. With the exponential growth of the number of data types and data size in so-called big data work, the backbone network is under great pressure due to its transmission capacity, which is lower than the growth of the data size and would seriously hinder the development of the network without an effective approach to solve this problem. In this paper, an Intelligent Aggregation based on a Content Routing (IACR scheme for cloud computing, which could reduce the amount of data in the network effectively and play a basic supporting role in the development of cloud computing, is first put forward. All in all, the main innovations in this paper are: (1 A framework for intelligent aggregation based on content routing is proposed, which can support aggregation based content routing; (2 The proposed IACR scheme could effectively route the high aggregation ratio data to the data center through the same routing path so as to effectively reduce the amount of data that the network transmits. The theoretical analyses experiments and results show that, compared with the previous original routing scheme, the IACR scheme can balance the load of the whole network, reduce the amount of data transmitted in the network by 41.8%, and reduce the transmission time by 31.6% in the same network with a more balanced network load.

  8. Open areas and open access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorndike, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    One objective of the two open areas in the present ISABELLE design is to provide flexibility with respect to the size and shape of experimental equipment that would eventually be installed there. No permanent building would be installed initially. A second objective of the design of open areas is to keep initial costs as low as practicable. Another objective is open access. This note explores this idea and some design concepts based on it. It would permit inserting large pieces of experimental equipment quickly and removing them with equal ease and speed. Entire experiments would be moved in a single piece (or a few) by building them on movable platforms with capacities of up to about 1000 tons per platform. Most experiments could be built on a single platform or on a few. The shielding must also be moved. It must also be organized into a small number of large units. A scheme using large tanks filled with water is described. It is important to make the equipment on a given platform as complete and self-contained as possible, with a minimum of interconnections for power, coolant, controls, data transmission, etc. 5 figures

  9. Opening remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southwood, Richard

    1987-01-01

    General opening remarks to a conference on the effects of low-level radiation on man, exploring particularly areas where disagreements have most frequently been voiced. The author comments on two approaches: a) the study, stepwise of putative cause and effect chains, using models which are tested by comparing calculated and observed effects. b) the epidemiological approach by extensive correlative study of cause, correlations and effect. Attention is drawn to the confidence to be accorded to any quantitative theory supported by both approaches, and the need for further analysis if the approaches give different indications. (U.K.)

  10. Open University

    CERN Multimedia

    Pentz,M

    1975-01-01

    Michel Pentz est née en Afrique du Sud et venu au Cern en 1957 comme physicien et président de l'associaion du personnel. Il est également fondateur du mouvement Antiapartheid de Genève et a participé à la fondation de l'Open University en Grande-Bretagne. Il nous parle des contextes pédagogiques, culturels et nationaux dans lesquels la méthode peut s'appliquer.

  11. Opening lecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    The opening lecture on the results of fifty years in the nuclear energy field, deals with the main principles underlying the CEA policy concerning the fission nuclear energy transformation, i.e. the design of a nuclear industry that is a safe, high-performance and reliable source of electric power, the development of an adaptive power generation tool with the capacity to progress according to new constraints, and the necessary anticipation for preparing to the effects of the next 50 year technological leaps

  12. Assessment of the contaminants level in recycled aggregates and alternative new technologies for contaminants recognition and removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotfi, S.; Di Maio, F.; Xia, H.; Serranti, S.; Palmieri, R.; Bonifazi, G.

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenging problems associated with the use of Recycled Aggregates (RA) is the level of mixed contaminants. For utilizing RA in high-grade applications, it is essential to monitor and minimise the content of the pollutants. To this extent the C2CA concrete recycling process

  13. Development of long-term primary cell aggregates from Mediterranean octocorals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete-Stauffer, Carla; Valisano, Laura; Gaino, Elda; Vezzulli, Luigi; Cerrano, Carlo

    2015-09-01

    In lower metazoans, the aggregative properties of dissociated cells leading to in vitro stable multicellular aggregates have furnished a remarkable experimental material to carry out investigations in various research fields. One of the main expectations is to find good models for the study in vitro of the first steps of biomineralization processes. In this study, we examined five common Mediterranean gorgonians (Paramuricea clavata, Corallium rubrum, Eunicella singularis, Eunicella cavolinii, and Eunicella verrucosa) using mechanical cell aggregate production techniques. In particular, we investigated the conditions of aggregate formation, their number and survival in experimental conditions, the DNA synthesizing activity using 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) tests, and the response to calcein addition and observed the secretion of newly formed sclerites. The BrdU tests showed that cell proliferation depends on the size of aggregates and on the presence/absence of symbiotic zooxanthellae. With epifluorescent and confocal imaging from calcein addition assays, we observed the presence of calcium ions within cells, a possible clue for prediction of sclerite formation or calcium deposition. The species-specific efficiency in production of cell aggregates is correlated to the size of polyps, showing that the higher density of polyps and their diameter correspond to higher production of cell aggregates. Regarding the long-term maintenance, we obtained the best results from E. singularis, which formed multicellular aggregates of 0.245 mm ± 0.086 mm in size and maintained symbiotic association with zooxanthellae throughout the experimental run. Formation of sclerites within aggregates opens a wide field of investigation on biomineralization, since de novo sclerites were observed around 30 d after the beginning of the experiment.

  14. Product Aggregation Bias as a Specification Error in Demand Systems

    OpenAIRE

    George C. Davis

    1997-01-01

    Inherent in all demand studies is some form of product aggregation which can lead to product aggregation bias. This article develops a simple procedure for incorporating product aggregation bias in demand systems that permits testing of product aggregation bias with a standard likelihood ratio test. An empirical illustration of the procedure demonstrates the importance of proper product aggregation. Copyright 1997, Oxford University Press.

  15. Contractions from grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash

    2018-04-01

    We note that large classes of contractions of algebras that arise in physics can be understood purely algebraically via identifying appropriate Zm-gradings (and their generalizations) on the parent algebra. This includes various types of flat space/Carroll limits of finite and infinite dimensional (A)dS algebras, as well as Galilean and Galilean conformal algebras. Our observations can be regarded as providing a natural context for the Grassmann approach of Krishnan et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 2014(3), 36]. We also introduce a related notion, which we call partial grading, that arises naturally in this context.

  16. Effect of mineral trioxide aggregates and Portland cements on inflammatory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Shahriar; Rahimi, Saeed; Yavari, Hamid Reza; Mokhtari, Hadi; Roshangar, Leila; Abasi, Mehran Mesgary; Sattari, Sahar; Abdolrahimi, Majid

    2010-05-01

    Recently, some studies have compared mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) with Portland cements, concluding that the principal ingredients of Portland cements are similar to those of MTA. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of gray MTA, white MTA, and gray and white Portland cements on inflammatory cells in rats. Fresh mixtures mixed with distilled water were placed in polyethylene tubes, which were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous connective tissue of 60 Sprague-Dawley rats along with empty tubes as controls. Tissue specimens were collected after the rats were sacrificed after 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days. The specimens were fixed, stained, processed, and histologically evaluated under a light microscope. Inflammatory reactions were classified as grade 0: without inflammatory cells, grade I: sporadic infiltration of inflammatory cells, grade II: moderate infiltration (125 cells). Data were analyzed with the nonparametric (two factor) analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis H-test. All the groups showed grade III inflammation after 7 and 15 days; there was a decrease in the inflammatory process after 30, 60, and 90 days. After 90 days, gray MTA, white MTA, and control groups had grade 0 inflammatory process, but gray Portland cement and white Portland cement groups showed grade 0 to grade I inflammatory processes. MTAs were more biocompatible; however, more studies are required. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Compressive strength improvement for recycled concrete aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Dhiyaa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing amount of construction waste and, concrete remnants, in particular pose a serious problem. Concrete waste exist in large amounts, do not decay and need long time for disintegration. Therefore, in this work old demolished concrete is crashed and recycled to produce recycled concrete aggregate which can be reused in new concrete production. The effect of using recycled aggregate on concrete compressive strength has been experimentally investigated; silica fume admixture also is used to improve recycled concrete aggregate compressive strength. The main parameters in this study are recycled aggregate and silica fume admixture. The percent of recycled aggregate ranged from (0-100 %. While the silica fume ranged from (0-10 %. The experimental results show that the average concrete compressive strength decreases from 30.85 MPa to 17.58 MPa when the recycled aggregate percentage increased from 0% to 100%. While, when silica fume is used the concrete compressive strength increase again to 29.2 MPa for samples with 100% of recycled aggregate.

  18. Learning about individuals' health from aggregate data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbaugh, Rich; Glass, Kristin

    2017-07-01

    There is growing awareness that user-generated social media content contains valuable health-related information and is more convenient to collect than typical health data. For example, Twitter has been employed to predict aggregate-level outcomes, such as regional rates of diabetes and child poverty, and to identify individual cases of depression and food poisoning. Models which make aggregate-level inferences can be induced from aggregate data, and consequently are straightforward to build. In contrast, learning models that produce individual-level (IL) predictions, which are more informative, usually requires a large number of difficult-to-acquire labeled IL examples. This paper presents a new machine learning method which achieves the best of both worlds, enabling IL models to be learned from aggregate labels. The algorithm makes predictions by combining unsupervised feature extraction, aggregate-based modeling, and optimal integration of aggregate-level and IL information. Two case studies illustrate how to learn health-relevant IL prediction models using only aggregate labels, and show that these models perform as well as state-of-the-art models trained on hundreds or thousands of labeled individuals.

  19. Discrete stochastic charging of aggregate grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lorin S.; Shotorban, Babak; Hyde, Truell W.

    2018-05-01

    Dust particles immersed in a plasma environment become charged through the collection of electrons and ions at random times, causing the dust charge to fluctuate about an equilibrium value. Small grains (with radii less than 1 μm) or grains in a tenuous plasma environment are sensitive to single additions of electrons or ions. Here we present a numerical model that allows examination of discrete stochastic charge fluctuations on the surface of aggregate grains and determines the effect of these fluctuations on the dynamics of grain aggregation. We show that the mean and standard deviation of charge on aggregate grains follow the same trends as those predicted for spheres having an equivalent radius, though aggregates exhibit larger variations from the predicted values. In some plasma environments, these charge fluctuations occur on timescales which are relevant for dynamics of aggregate growth. Coupled dynamics and charging models show that charge fluctuations tend to produce aggregates which are much more linear or filamentary than aggregates formed in an environment where the charge is stationary.

  20. Efficient clustering aggregation based on data fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ou; Hu, Weiming; Maybank, Stephen J; Zhu, Mingliang; Li, Bing

    2012-06-01

    Clustering aggregation, known as clustering ensembles, has emerged as a powerful technique for combining different clustering results to obtain a single better clustering. Existing clustering aggregation algorithms are applied directly to data points, in what is referred to as the point-based approach. The algorithms are inefficient if the number of data points is large. We define an efficient approach for clustering aggregation based on data fragments. In this fragment-based approach, a data fragment is any subset of the data that is not split by any of the clustering results. To establish the theoretical bases of the proposed approach, we prove that clustering aggregation can be performed directly on data fragments under two widely used goodness measures for clustering aggregation taken from the literature. Three new clustering aggregation algorithms are described. The experimental results obtained using several public data sets show that the new algorithms have lower computational complexity than three well-known existing point-based clustering aggregation algorithms (Agglomerative, Furthest, and LocalSearch); nevertheless, the new algorithms do not sacrifice the accuracy.

  1. Aggregated particles caused by instrument artifact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Pierce

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have indicated that superaggregates, clusters of aggregates of soot primary particles, can be formed in large-scale turbulent fires. Due to lower effective densities, higher porosity, and lower aerodynamic diameters, superaggregates may pass through inlets designed to remove particles  <  2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5. Ambient particulate matter samples were collected at Peavine Peak, NV, USA (2515 m northwest of Reno, NV, USA from June to November 2014. The Teledyne Advanced Pollution Instrumentation (TAPI 602 BetaPlus particulate monitor was used to collect PM2.5 on two filter types. During this time, aggregated particles  >  2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter were collected on 36 out of 158 sample days. On preliminary analysis, it was thought that these aggregated particles were superaggregates, depositing past PM10 (particles  <  10 µm in aerodynamic diameter pre-impactors and PM2.5 cyclones. However, further analysis revealed that these aggregated particles were dissimilar to superaggregates observed in previous studies, both in morphology and in elemental composition. To determine if the aggregated particles were superaggregates or an instrument artifact, samples were investigated for the presence of certain elements, the occurrence of fires, high relative humidity and wind speeds, as well as the use of generators on site. Samples with aggregated particles, referred to as aggregates, were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope for size and shape and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used for elemental analysis. It was determined, based on the high amounts of aluminum present in the aggregate samples, that a sampling artifact associated with the sample inlet and prolonged, high wind events was the probable reason for the observed aggregates.

  2. Microbial Ecology of Soil Aggregation in Agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmockel, K. S.; Bell, S.; Tfailly, M.; Thompson, A.; Callister, S.

    2017-12-01

    Crop selection and soil texture influence the physicochemical attributes of the soil, which structures microbial communities and influences soil C cycling storage. At the molecular scale, microbial metabolites and necromass alter the soil environment, which creates feedbacks that influence ecosystem functions, including soil C accumulation. By integrating lab to field studies we aim to identify the molecules, organisms and metabolic pathways that control carbon cycling and stabilization in bioenergy soils. We investigated the relative influence of plants, microbes, and minerals on soil aggregate ecology at the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research experiment. Sites in WI and MI, USA have been in corn and switchgrass cropping systems for a decade. By comparing soil aggregate ecology across sites and cropping systems we are able to test the relative importance of plant, microbe, mineral influences on soil aggregate dynamics. Soil microbial communities (16S) differ in diversity and phylogeny among sites and cropping systems. FT-ICR MS revealed differences in the molecular composition of water-soluble fraction of soil organic matter for cropping systems and soil origin for both relative abundance of assigned formulas and biogeochemical classes of compounds. We found the degree of aggregation, measured by mean weighted diameter of aggregate fractions, is influenced by plant-soil interactions. Similarly, the proportion of soil aggregate fractions varied by both soil and plant factors. Differences in aggregation were reflected in differences in bacterial, but not fungal community composition across aggregate fractions, within each soil. Scanning electron microscopy revealed stark differences in mineral-organic interactions that influence the microbial niche and the accessibility of substrates within the soil. The clay soils show greater surface heterogeneity, enabling interactions with organic fraction of the soil. This is consistent with molecular data that reveal differences

  3. Path coupling and aggregate path coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Kovchegov, Yevgeniy

    2018-01-01

    This book describes and characterizes an extension to the classical path coupling method applied to statistical mechanical models, referred to as aggregate path coupling. In conjunction with large deviations estimates, the aggregate path coupling method is used to prove rapid mixing of Glauber dynamics for a large class of statistical mechanical models, including models that exhibit discontinuous phase transitions which have traditionally been more difficult to analyze rigorously. The book shows how the parameter regions for rapid mixing for several classes of statistical mechanical models are derived using the aggregate path coupling method.

  4. Entanglement dynamics of J-aggregate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thilagam, A, E-mail: Thilagam.Lohe@unisa.edu.au [Information Technology, Engineering and the Environment, Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, South Australia 5095 (Australia)

    2011-04-01

    The entanglement dynamics of one-dimensional J-aggregate systems are examined using entanglement measures such as the von Neumann entropy and Wootters concurrence. The effect of dispersion and resonance terms associated with the exciton-phonon interaction are analyzed using Green's function formalism. A probability propagator term, derived using the Markovian approximation, presents J-aggregate systems as potential channels for large scale energy propagation for a select range of parameters. We highlight the role of a critical number of coherently coupled monomer sites and two-exciton states in determining superradiance in J-aggregate systems.

  5. Programming spiders, bots, and aggregators in Java

    CERN Document Server

    Heaton, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The content and services available on the web continue to be accessed mostly through direct human control. But this is changing. Increasingly, users rely on automated agents that save them time and effort by programmatically retrieving content, performing complex interactions, and aggregating data from diverse sources. Programming Spiders, Bots, and Aggregators in Java teaches you how to build and deploy a wide variety of these agents-from single-purpose bots to exploratory spiders to aggregators that present a unified view of information from multiple user accounts. You will quickly build on

  6. An exact approach for aggregated formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Spoorendonk, Simon

    Aggregating formulations is a powerful approach for transforming problems into taking more tractable forms. Aggregated formulations can, though, have drawbacks: some information may get lost in the aggregation and { put in a branch-and-bound context { branching may become very di_cult and even....... The paper includes general considerations on types of problems for which the method is of particular interest. Furthermore, we prove the correctness of the procedure and consider how to include extensions such as cutting planes and advanced branching strategies....

  7. Reusing recycled aggregates in structural concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Shicong

    The utilization of recycled aggregates in concrete can minimize environmental impact and reduce the consumption of natural resources in concrete applications. The aim of this thesis is to provide a scientific basis for the possible use of recycled aggregates in structure concrete by conducting a comprehensive programme of laboratory study to gain a better understanding of the mechanical, microstructure and durability properties of concrete produced with recycled aggregates. The study also explored possible techniques to of improve the properties of recycled aggregate concrete that is produced with high percentages (≧ 50%) of recycled aggregates. These techniques included: (a) using lower water-to-cement ratios in the concrete mix design; (b) using fly ash as a cement replacement or as an additional mineral admixture in the concrete mixes, and (c) precasting recycled aggregate concrete with steam curing regimes. The characteristics of the recycled aggregates produced both from laboratory and a commercially operated pilot construction and demolition (C&D) waste recycling plant were first studied. A mix proportioning procedure was then established to produce six series of concrete mixtures using different percentages of recycled coarse aggregates with and without the use of fly ash. The water-to-cement (binder) ratios of 0.55, 0.50, 0.45 and 0.40 were used. The fresh properties (including slump and bleeding) of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) were then quantified. The effects of fly ash on the fresh and hardened properties of RAC were then studied and compared with those RAC prepared with no fly ash addition. Furthermore, the effects of steam curing on the hardened properties of RAC were investigated. For micro-structural properties, the interfacial transition zones of the aggregates and the mortar/cement paste were analyzed by SEM and EDX-mapping. Moreover, a detailed set of results on the fracture properties for RAC were obtained. Based on the experimental

  8. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  9. Calculating Student Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allswang, John M.

    1986-01-01

    This article provides two short microcomputer gradebook programs. The programs, written in BASIC for the IBM-PC and Apple II, provide statistical information about class performance and calculate grades either on a normal distribution or based on teacher-defined break points. (JDH)

  10. Grades as Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Darren

    2007-01-01

    We determine how much observed student performance in microeconomics principles can be attributed, inferentially, to three kinds of student academic "productivity," the instructor, demographics, and unmeasurables. The empirical approach utilizes an ordered probit model that relates student performance in micro to grades in prior…

  11. First Grade Baseline Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    The First Grade Baseline Evaluation is an optional tool that can be used at the beginning of the school year to help teachers get to know the reading and language skills of each student. The evaluation is composed of seven screenings. Teachers may use the entire evaluation or choose to use those individual screenings that they find most beneficial…

  12. The Fifth Grade Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Michael; And Others

    An interdisciplinary design project report investigates the relationship of the fifth grade educational facility to the student and teacher needs in light of human and environmental factors. The classroom, activity and teaching spaces are analyzed with regard to the educational curriculum. Specifications and design criteria concerning equipment…

  13. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  14. The Effect of Morphological Characteristic of Coarse Aggregates Measured with Fractal Dimension on Asphalt Mixture’s High-Temperature Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hainian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological properties of coarse aggregates, such as shape, angularity, and surface texture, have a great influence on the mechanical performance of asphalt mixtures. This study aims to investigate the effect of coarse aggregate morphological properties on the high-temperature performance of asphalt mixtures. A modified Los Angeles (LA abrasion test was employed to produce aggregates with various morphological properties by applying abrasion cycles of 0, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 on crushed angular aggregates. Based on a laboratory-developed Morphology Analysis System for Coarse Aggregates (MASCA, the morphological properties of the coarse aggregate particles were quantified using the index of fractal dimension. The high-temperature performances of the dense-graded asphalt mixture (AC-16, gap-graded stone asphalt mixture (SAC-16, and stone mastic asphalt (SMA-16 mixtures containing aggregates with different fractal dimensions were evaluated through the dynamic stability (DS test and the penetration shear test in laboratory. Good linear correlations between the fractal dimension and high-temperature indexes were obtained for all three types of mixtures. Moreover, the results also indicated that higher coarse aggregate angularity leads to stronger high-temperature shear resistance of asphalt mixtures.

  15. Cut-off Grade Optimization for Maximizing the Output Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khodayari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the open-pit mining, one of the first decisions that must be made in production planning stage, after completing the design of final pit limits, is determining of the processing plant cut-off grade. Since this grade has an essential effect on operations, choosing the optimum cut-off grade is of considerable importance. Different goals may be used for determining optimum cut-off grade. One of these goals may be maximizing the output rate (amount of product per year, which is very important, especially from marketing and market share points of view. Objective of this research is determining the optimum cut-off grade of processing plant in order to maximize output rate. For performing this optimization, an Operations Research (OR model has been developed. The object function of this model is output rate that must be maximized. This model has two operational constraints namely mining and processing restrictions. For solving the model a heuristic method has been developed. Results of research show that the optimum cut-off grade for satisfying pre-stated goal is the balancing grade of mining and processing operations, and maximum production rate is a function of the maximum capacity of processing plant and average grade of ore that according to the above optimum cut-off grade must be sent to the plant.

  16. Patterns of [PSI+] aggregation allow insights into cellular organization of yeast prion aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyedmers, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The yeast prion phenomenon is very widespread and mounting evidence suggests that it has an impact on cellular regulatory mechanisms related to phenotypic responses to changing environments. Studying the aggregation patterns of prion amyloids during different stages of the prion life cycle is a first key step to understand major principles of how and where cells generate, organize and turn-over prion aggregates. The induction of the [PSI+] state involves the actin cytoskeleton and quality control compartments such as the Insoluble Protein Deposit (IPOD). An initially unstable transitional induction state can be visualized by overexpression of the prion determinant and displays characteristic large ring- and ribbon-shaped aggregates consisting of poorly fragmented bundles of very long prion fibrils. In the mature prion state, the aggregation pattern is characterized by highly fragmented, shorter prion fibrils that form aggregates, which can be visualized through tagging with fluorescent proteins. The number of aggregates formed varies, ranging from a single large aggregate at the IPOD to multiple smaller ones, depending on several parameters discussed. Aggregate units below the resolution of light microscopy that are detectable by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy are in equilibrium with larger aggregates in this stage and can mediate faithful inheritance of the prion state. Loss of the prion state is often characterized by reduced fragmentation of prion fibrils and fewer, larger aggregates. PMID:22449721

  17. p53 Aggregates penetrate cells and induce the co-aggregation of intracellular p53.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolyn J Forget

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are unique pathologies in which the infectious particles are prions, a protein aggregate. The prion protein has many particular features, such as spontaneous aggregation, conformation transmission to other native PrP proteins and transmission from an individual to another. Protein aggregation is now frequently associated to many human diseases, for example Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease or type 2 diabetes. A few proteins associated to these conformational diseases are part of a new category of proteins, called prionoids: proteins that share some, but not all, of the characteristics associated with prions. The p53 protein, a transcription factor that plays a major role in cancer, has recently been suggested to be a possible prionoid. The protein has been shown to accumulate in multiple cancer cell types, and its aggregation has also been reproduced in vitro by many independent groups. These observations suggest a role for p53 aggregates in cancer development. This study aims to test the «prion-like» features of p53. Our results show in vitro aggregation of the full length and N-terminally truncated protein (p53C, and penetration of these aggregates into cells. According to our findings, the aggregates enter cells using macropinocytosis, a non-specific pathway of entry. Lastly, we also show that once internalized by the cell, p53C aggregates can co-aggregate with endogenous p53 protein. Together, these findings suggest prion-like characteristics for p53 protein, based on the fact that p53 can spontaneously aggregate, these aggregates can penetrate cells and co-aggregate with cellular p53.

  18. Effect of aggregate graining compositions on skid resistance of Exposed Aggregate Concrete pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewska, Marta; Gardziejczyk, Wladysław; Gierasimiuk, Pawel

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents the evaluation of skid resistance of EAC (Exposed Aggregate Concrete) pavements which differ in aggregate graining compositions. The tests were carried out on concrete mixes with a maximum aggregate size of 8 mm. Three types of coarse aggregates were selected depending on their resistance to polishing which was determined on the basis of the PSV (Polished Stone Value). Basalt (PSV 48), gabbro (PSV 50) and trachybasalt (PSV 52) aggregates were chosen. For each type of aggregate three graining compositions were designed, which differed in the content of coarse aggregate > 4mm. Their content for each series was as follows: A - 38%, B - 50% and C - 68%. Evaluation of the skid resistance has been performed using the FAP (Friction After Polishing) test equipment also known as the Wehner/Schulze machine. Laboratory method enables to compare the skid resistance of different types of wearing course under specified conditions simulating polishing processes. In addition, macrotexture measurements were made on the surface of each specimen using the Elatexure laser profile. Analysis of variance showed that at significance level α = 0.05, aggregate graining compositions as well as the PSV have a significant influence on the obtained values of the friction coefficient μm of the tested EAC pavements. The highest values of the μm have been obtained for EAC with the lowest amount of coarse aggregates (compositions A). In these cases the resistance to polishing of the aggregate does not significantly affect the friction coefficients. This is related to the large areas of cement mortar between the exposed coarse grains. Based on the analysis of microscope images, it was observed that the coarse aggregates were not sufficiently exposed. It has been proved that PSV significantly affected the coefficient of friction in the case of compositions B and C. This is caused by large areas of exposed coarse aggregate. The best parameters were achieved for the EAC pavements

  19. Geopolymerization of lightweight aggregate waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labrincha, J. A.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymerization is a viable way to process and re-use alumino-silicate industrial waste while producing highstrength, high chemical inertia materials that can effectively immobilize other industrial by-products, and even hazardous waste. In this study industrial waste from different stages of the manufacture of lightweight expanded clay aggregate was characterized for its possible transformation, via alkali activation, to geopolymers. The ultimate aim was to assess the possibility of using such geopolymers to develop thermal and acoustic insulation panels. The containment of hazardous materials is another important application for these new materials. Geopolymers were prepared for this study with different particles size distributions and activator concentrations. Their mechanical properties, composition and microstructure were characterized and a material with promising insulating properties was produced. A preliminary analysis was conducted of the salt formation observed in these geopolymers, the chief drawback to their use.La geopolimerización es una manera viable para procesar y agregar valor a los residuos industriales de alumino-silicato dando lugar a materiales con elevadas resistencias mecánmicas, alta inercia química y que permiten encapsular otros residuos, incluso peligrosos. Los residuos industriales que proceden de diversos tipos de arcillas para la fabricación de áridos ligeros se han caracterizado para la producción de geopolímeros mediante el proceso de ataque alcalino. Su incorporación en una matriz geopolimérica permite la posibilidad de desarrollo de paneles de aislamiento (térmico y acústico. Además, la inmovilización de materiales peligrosos es un logro adicional importante. Los geopolímeros se han producido con fórmulas diferentes y se han caracterizado sus propiedades mecánicas, composición y microestructura, para dar lugar a una composición interesante con propiedades aislantes. Se ha llevado a cabo

  20. Real-time amyloid aggregation monitoring with a photonic crystal-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Sara; Musi, Valeria; Descrovi, Emiliano; Paeder, Vincent; Di Francesco, Joab; Hvozdara, Lubos; van der Wal, Peter; Lashuel, Hilal A; Pastore, Annalisa; Neier, Reinhard; Herzig, Hans Peter

    2013-10-21

    We propose the application of a new label-free optical technique based on photonic nanostructures to real-time monitor the amyloid-beta 1-42 (Aβ(1-42)) fibrillization, including the early stages of the aggregation process, which are related to the onset of the Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The aggregation of Aβ peptides into amyloid fibrils has commonly been associated with neuronal death, which culminates in the clinical features of the incurable degenerative AD. Recent studies revealed that cell toxicity is determined by the formation of soluble oligomeric forms of Aβ peptides in the early stages of aggregation. At this phase, classical amyloid detection techniques lack in sensitivity. Upon a chemical passivation of the sensing surface by means of polyethylene glycol, the proposed approach allows an accurate, real-time monitoring of the refractive index variation of the solution, wherein Aβ(1-42) peptides are aggregating. This measurement is directly related to the aggregation state of the peptide throughout oligomerization and subsequent fibrillization. Our findings open new perspectives in the understanding of the dynamics of amyloid formation, and validate this approach as a new and powerful method to screen aggregation at early stages. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Characterization of fine aggregates in concrete by different experimental approaches

    OpenAIRE

    He, Huan; Courard, Luc; Pirard, Eric; Michel, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    Being its major component, aggregate can occupy up to three-quarter of the volume of concrete. The structure of aggregate formed in hardened state impacts largely on mechanical and durability properties of concrete. On another hand, physical characteristics of aggregate are primarily assumed to be relevant to granular behavior of aggregate. Therefore, characterization of aggregate is of high relevance to concrete studies. In this study, different types of fine aggregate used in concrete, name...

  2. Wind energy aggregation: A coalitional game approach

    KAUST Repository

    Baeyens, E.; Bitar, E.Y.; Khargonekar, P.P.; Poolla, K.

    2011-01-01

    power output as single entity into a forward energy market. We prove that wind power generators will always improve their expected profit when they aggregate their generated power and use tools from coalitional game theory to design fair sharing

  3. GPP Webinar: The Power of Aggregated Purchasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Power Partnership webinar examining the use of an aggregated model for renewable energy purchases which can lead to significant energy, environmental and financial benefits by addressing administrative cost barriers and leveraging the shared purchasi

  4. Alkali-aggregate reactivity (AAR) facts book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This document provides detailed information on alkali-aggregate reactivity (AAR). It primarily discusses alkali-silica reaction (ASR), covering the chemistry, symptoms, test methods, prevention, specifications, diagnosis and prognosis, and mitigation...

  5. Modeling Generational Transitions from Aggregate Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractUsing only aggregate sales data, the model we propose decomposes the diffusion processes of the respective technological generations and tests if different technological generations have different diffusion parameters. It also estimates the location of the generational transition from

  6. Salt-induced aggregation of stiff polyelectrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazli, Hossein; Mohammadinejad, Sarah; Golestanian, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation techniques are used to study the process of aggregation of highly charged stiff polyelectrolytes due to the presence of multivalent salt. The dominant kinetic mode of aggregation is found to be the case of one end of one polyelectrolyte meeting others at right angles, and the kinetic pathway to bundle formation is found to be similar to that of flocculation dynamics of colloids as described by Smoluchowski. The aggregation process is found to favor the formation of finite bundles of 10-11 filaments at long times. Comparing the distribution of the cluster sizes with the Smoluchowski formula suggests that the energy barrier for the aggregation process is negligible. Also, the formation of long-lived metastable structures with similarities to the raft-like structures of actin filaments is observed within a range of salt concentration.

  7. HDR-Aggregate Read Service (ARS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — ARS is a SOAP web service exposed over HTTPS that provides an aggregated (report) view of HTH Survey, DMP and Census data stored in the HDR DB. ARS is deployed in...

  8. Model of fractal aggregates induced by shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Zhanhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is an undoubted fact that particle aggregates from marine, aerosol, and engineering systems have fractal structures. In this study, fractal geometry is used to describe the morphology of irregular aggregates. The mean-field theory is employed to solve coagulation kinetic equation of aggregates. The Taylor-expansion method of moments in conjunction with the self-similar fractal characteristics is used to represent the particulate field. The effect of the target fractal dimensions on zeroth-order moment, second-order moment, and geometric standard deviation of the aggregates is explored. Results show that the developed moment method is an efficient and powerful approach to solving such evolution equations.

  9. Suspensions of colloidal particles and aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Babick, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This book addresses the properties of particles in colloidal suspensions. It has a focus on particle aggregates and the dependency of their physical behaviour on morphological parameters. For this purpose, relevant theories and methodological tools are reviewed and applied to selected examples. The book is divided into four main chapters. The first of them introduces important measurement techniques for the determination of particle size and interfacial properties in colloidal suspensions. A further chapter is devoted to the physico-chemical properties of colloidal particles—highlighting the interfacial phenomena and the corresponding interactions between particles. The book’s central chapter examines the structure-property relations of colloidal aggregates. This comprises concepts to quantify size and structure of aggregates, models and numerical tools for calculating the (light) scattering and hydrodynamic properties of aggregates, and a discussion on van-der-Waals and double layer interactions between ...

  10. Engineering Performance of Polyurethane Bonded Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haimin WU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the engineering performance of polyurethane (PUR bonded aggregate were studied. The engineering performance, including compressive and flexural mechanical properties, void ratio, and coefficient of permeability were determined through laboratory tests. Moreover, the effects of two different curing conditions on the compressive strength properties of a PUR bonded aggregate were also evaluated. The compressive strengths of PUR bonded aggregates were found to be lower than that of conventional porous concrete, which is a commonly used cushion material. However, experimental results indicated a higher void ratio and coefficient of permeability, lower elasticity modulus, better toughness, and stronger adaptability to flexural deformation compared to porous concrete. Consequently, PUR bonded aggregate is a better solution than porous concrete when used as the cushion material of a geomembrane surface barrier for a high rock-fill dam.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.2.15798

  11. Modeling In-Network Aggregation in VANETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzel, Stefan; Kargl, Frank; Heijenk, Geert; Schaub, Florian

    2011-01-01

    The multitude of applications envisioned for vehicular ad hoc networks requires efficient communication and dissemination mechanisms to prevent network congestion. In-network data aggregation promises to reduce bandwidth requirements and enable scalability in large vehicular networks. However, most

  12. Fish Aggregation Sites in the Florida Keys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spawning aggregations are an important event in the life-history of many coral reef fish species. During short time periods (typically during full moons), fish will...

  13. Cellular strategies to cope with protein aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scior, Annika; Juenemann, Katrin; Kirstein, Janine

    2016-01-01

    Nature has evolved several mechanisms to detoxify intracellular protein aggregates that arise upon proteotoxic challenges. These include the controlled deposition of misfolded proteins at distinct cellular sites, the protein disaggregation and refolding by molecular chaperones and/or degradation of

  14. ALPHA-SYNUCLEIN STRUCTURE, AGGREGATION AND MODULATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinakin K. Makwana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-synuclein is an intrinsically unstructured protein, involved in various neurodegenerative disorders. In vitro/in vivo experiments, as well as genetic mutation studies establish a direct link between alphasynuclein and synucleinopathies. Due to its natively unfolded state, alpha synuclein can adopt numerous conformations upon interaction with its partners and cellular factors, offering explanation for its diverse interactions. Aggregated form of alpha-synuclein has been observed in the brain of patients with synucleinopathies, a hallmark of neurodegeneration, and cell death has been attributed to aggregation induced toxicity. The process of aggregation involves nucleation, followed by intermediate oligomeric states, and finally the fibrillar amyloids. Of the various conformations/species that alpha-synuclein assumes before it transforms into mature amyloid fibrils, the oligomeric species is the most toxic. Thus, an effective way to limit disease progression is by modifying/slowing down protein aggregation/deposition in the brain. Various small natural products, synthetic chemicals, peptides and antibodies specific to alpha-synuclein have been designed/identified to reduce its rate of aggregation. Unfortunately, not even a handful of the molecules have cleared the clinical trials. Even today, medications available for Parkinson’s patients are mostly the drugs that adjust for loss of dopamine in the brain, and hence do not stop the progression of the disease or cure the symptoms. Thus, more molecular level studies are warranted to fully elucidate the process of alpha-synuclein aggregation, which in turn could help in identifying novel therapeutics and preventives. The present review summarizes the insights gained into the structure, in vitro aggregation and inhibitors/modulators of alpha-synuclein aggregation, that can be used to design better and effective inhibitors against the diseases.

  15. Photoacoustic signal amplification through plasmonic nanoparticle aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Carolyn L.; Nam, Seung Yun; Chen, Yun-Sheng; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2013-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging, using targeted plasmonic metallic nanoparticles, is a promising noninvasive molecular imaging method. Analysis of the photoacoustic signal generated by plasmonic metallic nanoparticles is complex because of the dependence upon physical properties of both the nanoparticle and the surrounding environment. We studied the effect of the aggregation of gold nanoparticles on the photoacoustic signal amplitude. We found that the photoacoustic signal from aggregated silica-coate...

  16. Aggregating Local Descriptors for Epigraphs Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Amato, Giuseppe; Falchi, Fabrizio; Rabitti, Fausto; Vadicamo, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the task of recognizing epigraphs in images such as photos taken using mobile devices. Given a set of 17,155 photos related to 14,560 epigraphs, we used a k-NearestNeighbor approach in order to perform the recognition. The contribution of this work is in evaluating state-of-the-art visual object recognition techniques in this specific context. The experimental results conducted show that Vector of Locally Aggregated Descriptors obtained aggregating SIFT descriptors ...

  17. Underground mining of aggregates. Main report

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Teresa J.; Coggan, John S.; Evans, David J.; Foster, Patrick J.; Hewitt, Jeremy; Kruyswijk, Jacob B.; Smith, Nigel; Steadman, Ellie J.

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the economic feasibility of underground mining for crushed rock aggregates in the UK, but particularly in the London, South East and East of England regions (the South East area of England). These regions import substantial volumes of crushed rock, primarily from the East Midlands and South West regions, requiring relatively long transport distances to market for this bulk commodity. A key part of the research was to determine whether or not aggregate could be produced an...

  18. Smooth generalized linear models for aggregated data

    OpenAIRE

    Ayma Anza, Diego Armando

    2016-01-01

    Mención Internacional en el título de doctor Aggregated data commonly appear in areas such as epidemiology, demography, and public health. Generally, the aggregation process is done to protect the privacy of patients, to facilitate compact presentation, or to make it comparable with other coarser datasets. However, this process may hinder the visualization of the underlying distribution that follows the data. Also, it prohibits the direct analysis of relationships between ag...

  19. Probability Aggregates in Probability Answer Set Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Saad, Emad

    2013-01-01

    Probability answer set programming is a declarative programming that has been shown effective for representing and reasoning about a variety of probability reasoning tasks. However, the lack of probability aggregates, e.g. {\\em expected values}, in the language of disjunctive hybrid probability logic programs (DHPP) disallows the natural and concise representation of many interesting problems. In this paper, we extend DHPP to allow arbitrary probability aggregates. We introduce two types of p...

  20. Tumor grading of adult astrocytic glioma on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Hyun; Choi, Choong Gon; Han, Moon Hee; Lee, Seon Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jung Ho [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Kyu; Suh, Dae Chul [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyu Ho [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Hong Sik [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Woo Suk [Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine predictive MR features for grading of astrocytic gliomas and to evaluate the accuracy of MR grading in these tumors. We retrospectively reviewed 135 cases of supratentorial astrocytic gliomas in adult (age > 15 years), all of which were proved by open biopsy. Two observers analysed MR images independently with criteria of margin, edema, mass effect, signal heterogeneity, necrosis, cyst formation, hemorrhage, tumor vascularity, enhancement degree, and enhancement size. The patterns of enhancement were categorized into no, homogeneous, heterogeneous, thin smooth rim, thin irregular rim, and thick irregular rim enhancement patterns. Observers finally diagnosed each case as one of low-grade astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme. Statistically significant MR features for grading of these tumors were revealed as necrosis (p < 0.001), edema (0.008), and signal heterogeneity (p < 0.025). When compared with histopathologic grading, MR graded correctly 76%- 77% of cases in two tired system(low-grade astrocytoma versus high-grade astrocytoma), but only 67%-69% of cases in three tiered system(low-grade astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme). No contrast enhancement was seen in 45% and 23% of low-grade astrocytoma and anaplastic astrocytoma respectively. Glioblastoma multiforme frequently showed thick irregular rim enhancement (57%), but no enhancement at all in 8%. We have concluded that necrosis and edema are significant predictive MR features for grading of supratentorial astrocytic gliomas in adult, and MR was correct in 76%-77% of cases for predicting pathologic grading astrocytomas in two tiered system.

  1. Tumor grading of adult astrocytic glioma on MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kee Hyun; Choi, Choong Gon; Han, Moon Hee; Lee, Seon Kyu; Suh, Jung Ho; Lee, Ho Kyu; Suh, Dae Chul; Choi, Kyu Ho; Byun, Hong Sik; Choi, Woo Suk

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine predictive MR features for grading of astrocytic gliomas and to evaluate the accuracy of MR grading in these tumors. We retrospectively reviewed 135 cases of supratentorial astrocytic gliomas in adult (age > 15 years), all of which were proved by open biopsy. Two observers analysed MR images independently with criteria of margin, edema, mass effect, signal heterogeneity, necrosis, cyst formation, hemorrhage, tumor vascularity, enhancement degree, and enhancement size. The patterns of enhancement were categorized into no, homogeneous, heterogeneous, thin smooth rim, thin irregular rim, and thick irregular rim enhancement patterns. Observers finally diagnosed each case as one of low-grade astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme. Statistically significant MR features for grading of these tumors were revealed as necrosis (p < 0.001), edema (0.008), and signal heterogeneity (p < 0.025). When compared with histopathologic grading, MR graded correctly 76%- 77% of cases in two tired system(low-grade astrocytoma versus high-grade astrocytoma), but only 67%-69% of cases in three tiered system(low-grade astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme). No contrast enhancement was seen in 45% and 23% of low-grade astrocytoma and anaplastic astrocytoma respectively. Glioblastoma multiforme frequently showed thick irregular rim enhancement (57%), but no enhancement at all in 8%. We have concluded that necrosis and edema are significant predictive MR features for grading of supratentorial astrocytic gliomas in adult, and MR was correct in 76%-77% of cases for predicting pathologic grading astrocytomas in two tiered system

  2. Growth hormone aggregates in the rat adenohypophysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, M.; Hymer, W. C.

    1990-01-01

    Although it has been known for some time that GH aggregates are contained within the rat anterior pituitary gland, the role that they might play in pituitary function is unknown. The present study examines this issue using the technique of Western blotting, which permitted visualization of 11 GH variants with apparent mol wt ranging from 14-88K. Electroelution of the higher mol wt variants from gels followed by their chemical reduction with beta-mercaptoethanol increased GH immunoassayability by about 5-fold. With the blot procedure we found 1) that GH aggregates greater than 44K were associated with a 40,000 x g sedimentable fraction; 2) that GH aggregates were not present in glands from thyroidectomized rats, but were in glands from the thyroidectomized rats injected with T4; 3) that GH aggregates were uniquely associated with a heavily granulated somatotroph subpopulation isolated by density gradient centrifugation; and 4) that high mol wt GH forms were released from the dense somatotrophs in culture, since treatment of the culture medium with beta-mercaptoethanol increased GH immunoassayability by about 5-fold. Taken together, the results show that high mol wt GH aggregates are contained in secretory granules of certain somatotrophs and are also released in aggregate form from these cells in vitro.

  3. Cholesterol impairment contributes to neuroserpin aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampietro, Costanza; Lionetti, Maria Chiara; Costantini, Giulio; Mutti, Federico; Zapperi, Stefano; La Porta, Caterina A. M.

    2017-03-01

    Intraneural accumulation of misfolded proteins is a common feature of several neurodegenerative pathologies including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, and Familial Encephalopathy with Neuroserpin Inclusion Bodies (FENIB). FENIB is a rare disease due to a point mutation in neuroserpin which accelerates protein aggregation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here we show that cholesterol depletion induced either by prolonged exposure to statins or by inhibiting the sterol reg-ulatory binding-element protein (SREBP) pathway also enhances aggregation of neuroserpin proteins. These findings can be explained considering a computational model of protein aggregation under non-equilibrium conditions, where a decrease in the rate of protein clearance improves aggregation. Decreasing cholesterol in cell membranes affects their biophysical properties, including their ability to form the vesicles needed for protein clearance, as we illustrate by a simple mathematical model. Taken together, these results suggest that cholesterol reduction induces neuroserpin aggregation, even in absence of specific neuroserpin mutations. The new mechanism we uncover could be relevant also for other neurodegenerative diseases associated with protein aggregation.

  4. Opening keynote

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, B.

    1997-01-01

    In his opening address, the former premier of Ontario summarized the background of the Macdonald Committee which was appointed by his government after it became increasingly apparent that the infrastructure of Hydro Ontario was far bigger than the province and the economy could afford, and that the service that had once given Ontario tremendous competitive advantage, in the form of relatively cheap electric power, had become unsustainable in an era of economic downturn and zero inflation. He stated that the debate about Hydro is part of a broader issue, and it is no longer possible to manage our electricity system as if we were a self-enclosed universe. He predicted that the North American electricity grid will become increasingly interdependent, and that Hydro will have to develop competitive price structures, both to hold its domestic market share and to compete for export sales. He outlined the most pressing issues for Hydro as being debt reduction, while pursuing internal changes to make the organization more efficient. Organizational changes such as the creation of Ontario Hydro International, Ontario Hydro Research, separation of generation operations from the grid, and establishment of separate price and efficiency targets for the autonomous organizations within the utility family, were moves in the right direction. Equally important is to make sure that however Hydro might develop in the future, it is going to be fair to customers, and that the billions of dollars invested in Hydro by Ontario taxpayers over the years, are safeguarded

  5. Openness initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: open-quotes Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?close quotes To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts

  6. Openness initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, S.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  7. Properties of Normal and Recycled Brick Aggregates for Production of Medium Range (25–30 MPa Structural Strength Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvash Chandra Paul

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the properties of normal and recycled brick aggregates to produce a medium range (25–30 MPa compressive strength of structural grade concrete. Up to date, brick aggregates are commonly used in structural concrete in some South Asian and African countries. Many concrete structures which were built in the last century are made from brick aggregates and some of them are already in a position of ending of their service life. At the same time, population and economic growth is forcing the demolition of many old structures. Therefore, there is a huge flow of construction and demolition waste and thereby it is necessary to recycle the waste to overcome the problem of occupying the landfill sites. For this study, recycled brick aggregates were collected from the various demolished building sites and their physical and mechanical performance were then compared with the concrete made from normal brick aggregates. It is found that the mechanical properties of recycled brick concrete are comparable to that of normal brick aggregate at medium strength level. The production cost of recycled brick concrete is also found to be 10–12% lower than normal brick aggregates.

  8. Cleaning Data with OpenRefine

    OpenAIRE

    Seth van Hooland; Ruben Verborgh; Max De Wilde

    2013-01-01

    Duplicate records, empty values and inconsistent formats are phenomena we should be prepared to deal with when using historical data sets. This lesson will teach you how to discover inconsistencies in data contained within a spreadsheet or a database. As we increasingly share, aggregate and reuse data on the web, historians will need to respond to data quality issues which inevitably pop up. Using a program called OpenRefine, you will be able to easily identify systematic errors such as blank...

  9. Inflated Grades, Enrollments & Budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Stone

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Reports of the past 13 years that call attention to deficient academic standards in American higher education are enumerated. Particular attention is given the Wingspread Group's recent An American Imperative: Higher Expectations for Higher Education. Low academic standards, grade inflation, and budgetary incentives for increased enrollment are analyzed and a call is made for research at the state level. Reported trends in achievement and GPAs are extrapolated to Tennessee and combined with local data to support the inference that 15% of the state's present day college graduates would not have earned a diploma by mid 1960s standards. A conspicuous lack of interest by public oversight bodies is noted despite a growing public awareness of low academic expectations and lenient grading and an implicit budgetary impact of over $100 million. Various academic policies and the dynamics of bureaucratic control are discussed in relationship to the maintenance of academic standards. The disincentives for challenging course requirements and responsible grading are examined, and the growing movement to address academic quality issues through better training and supervision of faculty are critiqued. Recommendations that would encourage renewed academic integrity and make learning outcomes visible to students, parents, employers, and the taxpaying public are offered and briefly discussed.

  10. TOPICAL REVIEW: Smart aggregates: multi-functional sensors for concrete structures—a tutorial and a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gangbing; Gu, Haichang; Mo, Yi-Lung

    2008-06-01

    This paper summarizes the authors' recent pioneering research work in piezoceramic-based smart aggregates and their innovative applications in concrete civil structures. The basic operating principle of smart aggregates is first introduced. The proposed smart aggregate is formed by embedding a waterproof piezoelectric patch with lead wires into a small concrete block. The proposed smart aggregates are multi-functional and can perform three major tasks: early-age concrete strength monitoring, impact detection and structural health monitoring. The proposed smart aggregates are embedded into the desired location before the casting of the concrete structure. The concrete strength development is monitored by observing the high frequency harmonic wave response of the smart aggregate. Impact on the concrete structure is detected by observing the open-circuit voltage of the piezoceramic patch in the smart aggregate. For structural health monitoring purposes, a smart aggregate-based active sensing system is designed for the concrete structure. Wavelet packet analysis is used as a signal-processing tool to analyze the sensor signal. A damage index based on the wavelet packet analysis is used to determine the structural health status. To better describe the time-history and location information of damage, two types of damage index matrices are proposed: a sensor-history damage index matrix and an actuator-sensor damage index matrix. To demonstrate the multi-functionality of the proposed smart aggregates, different types of concrete structures have been used as test objects, including concrete bridge bent-caps, concrete cylinders and a concrete frame. Experimental results have verified the effectiveness and the multi-functionality of the proposed smart aggregates. The multi-functional smart aggregates have the potential to be applied to the comprehensive monitoring of concrete structures from their earliest stages and throughout their lifetime.

  11. Opening Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovini, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen To quote Mr Jean Terrien: "Physics must be one step ahead of metrology". A long-serving Director of the BIPM, he said these words when visiting the IMGC in 1970 as a member of the scientific board of our Institute. At that time it was still an open question whether the IMGC should start research work on the absolute measurement of silicon lattice spacing. Mr Terrien underlined the revolutionary character of x-ray interferometry and, eventually, he caused the balance needle to lean towards the ... right direction. Mr Terrien correctly foresaw that, like Michelson's interferometer of 1880, x-ray interferometry could have a prominent place in today's science and technology. And while, in the first case, after more than a century we can see instruments based on electromagnetic wave interaction within every one's reach in laboratories and, sometimes, in workshops, in the second case, twenty-five years since the first development of an x-ray interferometer we can witness its role in nanometrology. Today and tomorrow we meet to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal place in the value of the Avogadro constant. We are aware that the quest for this achievement requires the cooperation of scientists with complementary capabilities. I am sure that the present workshop is a very good opportunity to present and discuss results and to improve and extend existing cooperation. The new adjustment of fundamental constants envisaged by the CODATA Task Group is redoubling scientists' efforts to produce competitive values of NA. The results of the measurements of the silicon lattice spacing in terms of an optical wavelength, which were available for the 1986 adjustment, combined with the determination of silicon molar volume, demonstrate how such an NA determination produces a consistent set of other constants and opens the way to a possible redefinition of the kilogram. We shall see in these two days how far we have progressed along this road. For us at the

  12. TCGA_LowerGradeGliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    TCGA researchers analyzed nearly 300 cases of diffuse low- and intermediate-grade gliomas, which together comprise lower-grade gliomas. LGGs occur mainly in adults and include astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas.

  13. Open life science research, open software and the open century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhua Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available At the age of knowledge explosion and mass scientific information, I highlighted the importance of conducting open science in life and medical researches through the extensive usage of open software and documents. The proposal of conducting open science is to reduce the limited repeatability of researches in life science. I outlined the essential steps for conducting open life science and the necessary standards for creating, reusing and reproducing open materials. Different Creative Commons licenses were presented and compared of their usage scope and restriction. As a conclusion, I argued that open materials should be widely adopted in doing life and medical researches.

  14. Silt-clay aggregates on Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greeley, R.

    1979-01-01

    Viking observations suggest abundant silt and clay particles on Mars. It is proposed that some of these particles agglomerate to form sand size aggregates that are redeposited as sandlike features such as drifts and dunes. Although the binding for the aggregates could include salt cementation or other mechanisms, electrostatic bonding is considered to be a primary force holding the aggregates together. Various laboratory experiments conducted since the 19th century, and as reported here for simulated Martian conditions, show that both the magnitude and sign of electrical charges on windblown particles are functions of particle velocity, shape and composition, atmospheric pressure, atmospheric composition, and other factors. Electrical charges have been measured for saltating particles in the wind tunnel and in the field, on the surfaces of sand dunes, and within dust clouds on earth. Similar, and perhaps even greater, charges are proposed to occur on Mars, which could form aggregates of silt and clay size particles. Electrification is proposed to occur within Martian dust clouds, generating silt-clay aggregates which would settle to the surface where they may be deposited in the form of sandlike structures. By analog, silt-clay dunes are known in many parts of the earth where silt-clay aggregated were transported by saltation and deposited as 'sand.' In these structures the binding forces were later destroyed, and the particles reassumed the physical properties of silt and clay, but the sandlike bedding structure within the 'dunes' was preserved. The bedding observed in drifts at the Viking landing site is suggested to result from a similar process involving silt-clay aggregates on Mars

  15. Let's End the Grading Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Clifford H.; Edwards, Laurie

    1999-01-01

    Argues that grades have negative effects on learning and self-concept. States that while grading has a long tradition of sorting children for college entrance, there is limited evidence that grades serve a valid purpose. Argues that this practice should be abolished and an evaluation system established that provides a more valid estimate of…

  16. Four Steps in Grading Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2012-01-01

    The field of education is moving rapidly toward a standards-based approach to grading. School leaders have become increasingly aware of the tremendous variation that exists in grading practices, even among teachers of the same courses in the same department in the same school. Consequently, students' grades often have little relation to their…

  17. A Novel Method to Quantify Soil Aggregate Stability by Measuring Aggregate Bond Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrat, Rachel; Rawlins, Barry G.; Quinton, John N.; Watts, Chris W.; Whitmore, Andy P.

    2016-04-01

    Soil aggregate stability is a key indicator of soil quality because it controls physical, biological and chemical functions important in cultivated soils. Micro-aggregates are responsible for the long term sequestration of carbon in soil, therefore determine soils role in the carbon cycle. It is thus vital that techniques to measure aggregate stability are accurate, consistent and reliable, in order to appropriately manage and monitor soil quality, and to develop our understanding and estimates of soil as a carbon store to appropriately incorporate in carbon cycle models. Practices used to assess the stability of aggregates vary in sample preparation, operational technique and unit of results. They use proxies and lack quantification. Conflicting results are therefore drawn between projects that do not provide methodological or resultant comparability. Typical modern stability tests suspend aggregates in water and monitor fragmentation upon exposure to an un-quantified amount of ultrasonic energy, utilising a laser granulometer to measure the change in mean weight diameter. In this project a novel approach has been developed based on that of Zhu et al., (2009), to accurately quantify the stability of aggregates by specifically measuring their bond energies. The bond energies are measured operating a combination of calorimetry and a high powered ultrasonic probe, with computable output function. Temperature change during sonication is monitored by an array of probes which enables calculation of the energy spent heating the system (Ph). Our novel technique suspends aggregates in heavy liquid lithium heteropolytungstate, as opposed to water, to avoid exposing aggregates to an immeasurable disruptive energy source, due to cavitation, collisions and clay swelling. Mean weight diameter is measured by a laser granulometer to monitor aggregate breakdown after successive periods of calculated ultrasonic energy input (Pi), until complete dispersion is achieved and bond

  18. Aggregates in monoclonal antibody manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rey, María; Lang, Dietmar A

    2011-07-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have proved to be a highly successful class of therapeutic products. Large-scale manufacturing of pharmaceutical antibodies is a complex activity that requires considerable effort in both process and analytical development. If a therapeutic protein cannot be stabilized adequately, it will lose partially or totally its therapeutic properties or even cause immunogenic reactions thus potentially further endangering the patients' health. The phenomenon of protein aggregation is a common issue that compromises the quality, safety, and efficacy of antibodies and can happen at different steps of the manufacturing process, including fermentation, purification, final formulation, and storage. Aggregate levels in drug substance and final drug product are a key factor when assessing quality attributes of the molecule, since aggregation might impact biological activity of the biopharmaceutical. In this review it is analyzed how aggregates are formed during monoclonal antibody industrial production, why they have to be removed and the manufacturing process steps that are designed to either minimize or remove aggregates in the final product. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Soil aggregation under different management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Mascioli Rebello Portella

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the soil aggregation reflects the interaction of chemical, physical and biological soil factors, the aim of this study was evaluate alterations in aggregation, in an Oxisol under no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT, since over 20 years, using as reference a native forest soil in natural state. After analysis of the soil profile (cultural profile in areas under forest management, samples were collected from the layers 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm, with six repetitions. These samples were analyzed for the aggregate stability index (ASI, mean weighted diameter (MWD, mean geometric diameter (MGD in the classes > 8, 8-4, 4-2, 2-1, 1-0.5, 0.5-0.25, and < 0.25 mm, and for physical properties (soil texture, water dispersible clay (WDC, flocculation index (FI and bulk density (Bd and chemical properties (total organic carbon - COT, total nitrogen - N, exchangeable calcium - Ca2+, and pH. The results indicated that more intense soil preparation (M < NT < PC resulted in a decrease in soil stability, confirmed by all stability indicators analyzed: MWD, MGD, ASI, aggregate class distribution, WDC and FI, indicating the validity of these indicators in aggregation analyses of the studied soil.

  20. The Mechanisms of Aberrant Protein Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Samuel; Vendruscolo, Michele; Dobson, Chris; Knowles, Tuomas

    2012-02-01

    We discuss the development of a kinetic theory for understanding the aberrant loss of solubility of proteins. The failure to maintain protein solubility results often in the assembly of organized linear structures, commonly known as amyloid fibrils, the formation of which is associated with over 50 clinical disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. A true microscopic understanding of the mechanisms that drive these aggregation processes has proved difficult to achieve. To address this challenge, we apply the methodologies of chemical kinetics to the biomolecular self-assembly pathways related to protein aggregation. We discuss the relevant master equation and analytical approaches to studying it. In particular, we derive the underlying rate laws in closed-form using a self-consistent solution scheme; the solutions that we obtain reveal scaling behaviors that are very generally present in systems of growing linear aggregates, and, moreover, provide a general route through which to relate experimental measurements to mechanistic information. We conclude by outlining a study of the aggregation of the Alzheimer's amyloid-beta peptide. The study identifies the dominant microscopic mechanism of aggregation and reveals previously unidentified therapeutic strategies.

  1. Preference to use aggregators rather than individual deal sites: Impact of Big Five Inventory personality traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Pavlicek, Antonin

    2017-01-01

    Deal sites are widely used for some time and there is a growing body of knowledge on them. There exists literature on infomediaries. But there is a gap when it comes to infomediaties focused on deal sites, i.e. aggregators of deal site offers. The research focused on impact of Big Five Inventory...... personality traits on whether respondents prefer visiting individual deal sites, or aggregators, or they do not have any preference and visit both. Gender was used as a control variable. With regards, to the results, conscientiousness agreeableness, and openness to experi-ence influence the preference. Higher...... the values of all three variables, more likely it is that a person prefers aggregators....

  2. Aspects Concerning the Use of Recycled Concrete Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robu, I.; Mazilu, C.; Deju, R.

    2016-11-01

    Natural aggregates (gravel and crushed) are essential non-renewable resources which are used for infrastructure works and civil engineering. Using recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) is a matter of high priority in the construction industry worldwide. This paper presents a study on the use of recycled aggregates, from a concrete of specified class, to acquire new cement concrete with different percentages of recycled aggregates.

  3. Opening Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  4. Open Standards, Open Source, and Open Innovation: Harnessing the Benefits of Openness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Committee for Economic Development, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Digitization of information and the Internet have profoundly expanded the capacity for openness. This report details the benefits of openness in three areas--open standards, open-source software, and open innovation--and examines the major issues in the debate over whether openness should be encouraged or not. The report explains each of these…

  5. Solving network design problems via decomposition, aggregation and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Bärmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Andreas Bärmann develops novel approaches for the solution of network design problems as they arise in various contexts of applied optimization. At the example of an optimal expansion of the German railway network until 2030, the author derives a tailor-made decomposition technique for multi-period network design problems. Next, he develops a general framework for the solution of network design problems via aggregation of the underlying graph structure. This approach is shown to save much computation time as compared to standard techniques. Finally, the author devises a modelling framework for the approximation of the robust counterpart under ellipsoidal uncertainty, an often-studied case in the literature. Each of these three approaches opens up a fascinating branch of research which promises a better theoretical understanding of the problem and an increasing range of solvable application settings at the same time. Contents Decomposition for Multi-Period Network Design Solving Network Design Problems via Ag...

  6. Relationship between macroeconomic aggregates and bank performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Ranka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is relations between some macroeconomic aggregates and performance of banks. This paper show analysis of trends in gross domestic product, exchange rates, interest rates, inflation load, developments in the balance of payments. On the business side, performance is achieved insight into the liquidity, capital adequacy, and the amount of non-performable loans. The aim of the research is to refute or confirm the interconnectedness of movement values of macroeconomic aggregates and bank performance. The analysis confirmed the association of two set variables. The negative value movements of macroeconomic aggregates directly or indirectly have an impact on the quality of performance of the banking sector. Therefore, it is necessary to define an adequate strategy of the economy, would not it safer to carry out the process of adapting to new developments in the market, such as the global financial crisis, the rise in unproductive enterprises, distrust customers etc.

  7. Building energy demand aggregation and simulation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gianniou, Panagiota; Heller, Alfred; Rode, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    to neighbourhoods and cities. Buildings occupy a key place in the development of smart cities as they represent an important potential to integrate smart energy solutions. Building energy consumption affects significantly the performance of the entire energy network. Therefore, a realistic estimation...... of the aggregated building energy use will not only ensure security of supply but also enhance the stabilization of national energy balances. In this study, the aggregation of building energy demand was investigated for a real case in Sønderborg, Denmark. Sixteen single-family houses -mainly built in the 1960s......- were examined, all connected to the regional district heating network. The aggregation of building energy demands was carried out according to typologies, being represented by archetype buildings. These houses were modelled with dynamic energy simulation software and with a simplified simulation tool...

  8. Aggregation kinetics and structure of cryoimmunoglobulins clusters

    CERN Document Server

    De Spirito, M; Bassi, F A; Di Stasio, E; Giardina, B; Arcovito, G

    2002-01-01

    Cryoimmunoglobulins are pathological antibodies characterized by a temperature-dependent reversible insolubility. Rheumatoid factors (RF) are immunoglobulins possessing anti-immunoglobulin activity and usually consist of an IgM antibody that recognizes IgG as antigen. These proteins are present in sera of patients affected by a large variety of different pathologies, such as HCV infection, neoplastic and autoimmune diseases. Aggregation and precipitation of cryoimmunoglobulins, leading to vasculiti, are physical phenomena behind such pathologies. A deep knowledge of the physico-chemical mechanisms regulating such phenomena plays a fundamental role in biological and clinical applications. In this work, a preliminary investigation of the aggregation kinetics and of the final macro- molecular structure of the aggregates is presented. Through static light scattering techniques, the gyration radius R/sub g/ and the fractal dimension D/sub m/ of the growing clusters have been determined. However, while the initial ...

  9. Principles of Need and the Aggregation Thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Erik; Juth, Niklas

    2017-09-02

    Principles of need are constantly referred to in health care priority setting. The common denominator for any principle of need is that it will ascribe some kind of special normative weight to people being worse off. However, this common ground does not answer the question how a plausible principle of need should relate to the aggregation of benefits across individuals. Principles of need are sometimes stated as being incompatible with aggregation and sometimes characterized as accepting aggregation in much the same way as utilitarians do. In this paper we argue that if one wants to take principles of need seriously both of these positions have unreasonable implications. We then characterize and defend a principle of need consisting of sufficientarian elements as well as prioritarian which avoids these unreasonable implications.

  10. Wind energy aggregation: A coalitional game approach

    KAUST Repository

    Baeyens, E.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we explore the extent to which a group of N wind power producers can exploit the statistical benefits of aggregation and quantity risk sharing by forming a willing coalition to pool their variable power to jointly offer their aggregate power output as single entity into a forward energy market. We prove that wind power generators will always improve their expected profit when they aggregate their generated power and use tools from coalitional game theory to design fair sharing mechanisms to allocate the payoff among the coalition participants. We show that the corresponding coalitional game is super-additive and has a nonempty core. Hence, there always exists a mechanism for profit-sharing that makes the coalition stable. However, the game is not convex and the celebrated Shapley value may not belong to the core of the game. An allocation mechanism that minimizes the worst-case dissatisfaction is proposed. © 2011 IEEE.

  11. Inflammation Induces TDP-43 Mislocalization and Aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofia Correia

    Full Text Available TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43 is a major component in aggregates of ubiquitinated proteins in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD. Here we report that lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation can promote TDP-43 mislocalization and aggregation. In culture, microglia and astrocytes exhibited TDP-43 mislocalization after exposure to LPS. Likewise, treatment of the motoneuron-like NSC-34 cells with TNF-alpha (TNF-α increased the cytoplasmic levels of TDP-43. In addition, the chronic intraperitoneal injection of LPS at a dose of 1mg/kg in TDP-43(A315T transgenic mice exacerbated the pathological TDP-43 accumulation in the cytoplasm of spinal motor neurons and it enhanced the levels of TDP-43 aggregation. These results suggest that inflammation may contribute to development or exacerbation of TDP-43 proteinopathies in neurodegenerative disorders.

  12. Cohesive fracture model for functionally graded fiber reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyoungsoo; Paulino, Glaucio H.; Roesler, Jeffery

    2010-01-01

    A simple, effective, and practical constitutive model for cohesive fracture of fiber reinforced concrete is proposed by differentiating the aggregate bridging zone and the fiber bridging zone. The aggregate bridging zone is related to the total fracture energy of plain concrete, while the fiber bridging zone is associated with the difference between the total fracture energy of fiber reinforced concrete and the total fracture energy of plain concrete. The cohesive fracture model is defined by experimental fracture parameters, which are obtained through three-point bending and split tensile tests. As expected, the model describes fracture behavior of plain concrete beams. In addition, it predicts the fracture behavior of either fiber reinforced concrete beams or a combination of plain and fiber reinforced concrete functionally layered in a single beam specimen. The validated model is also applied to investigate continuously, functionally graded fiber reinforced concrete composites.

  13. Teacher's current practices of teaching reading and grade four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the practices and challenges of teaching reading strategies and ... Twelve grade 4 students were selected using simple random sampling ... The quantitative data disclosed lower student scores, while the qualitative data ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  14. Graded epidural anaesthesia for Caesarean section in a parturient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access article distributed under the terms of the. Creative Commons License ... CASE REPORT. Graded epidural anaesthesia for Caesarean section in a parturient with Shone's syndrome: a case study. Anjum Naza*, Sugata Dasguptab, Bijoy Kumar Bandyopadhyayb and Hasibul Hasan Shirazeec. aDepartment of ...

  15. Recycled aggregates in concrete production: engineering properties and environmental impact

    OpenAIRE

    Seddik Meddah Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Recycled concrete aggregate is considered as the most abundant and used secondary aggregate in concrete production, other types of solid waste are also being used in concrete for specific purposes and to achieve some desired properties. Recycled aggregates and particularly, recycled concrete aggregate substantially affect the properties and mix design of concrete both at fresh and hardened states since it is known by high porosity due to the adhered layer of old mortar on the aggregate which ...

  16. Customer Aggregation: An Opportunity for Green Power?; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, E.; Bird, L.

    2001-01-01

    We undertook research into the experience of aggregation groups to determine whether customer aggregation offers an opportunity to bring green power choices to more customers. The objectives of this report, therefore, are to (1) identify the different types of aggregation that are occurring today, (2) learn whether aggregation offers an opportunity to advance sales of green power, and (3) share these concepts and approaches with potential aggregators and green power advocates

  17. Avoiding deontic explosion by contextually restricting aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Meheus, Joke; Beirlaen, Mathieu; Van De Putte, Frederik

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present an adaptive logic for deontic conflicts, called P2.1(r), that is based on Goble's logic SDLaPe-a bimodal extension of Goble's logic P that invalidates aggregation for all prima facie obligations. The logic P2.1(r) has several advantages with respect to SDLaPe. For consistent sets of obligations it yields the same results as Standard Deontic Logic and for inconsistent sets of obligations, it validates aggregation "as much as possible". It thus leads to a richer conseq...

  18. PUREX source Aggregate Area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the PUREX Plant Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE)Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past-practice investigations

  19. Multi-Dimensional Aggregation for Temporal Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhlen, M. H.; Gamper, J.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Business Intelligence solutions, encompassing technologies such as multi-dimensional data modeling and aggregate query processing, are being applied increasingly to non-traditional data. This paper extends multi-dimensional aggregation to apply to data with associated interval values that capture...... that the data holds for each point in the interval, as well as the case where the data holds only for the entire interval, but must be adjusted to apply to sub-intervals. The paper reports on an implementation of the new operator and on an empirical study that indicates that the operator scales to large data...

  20. Relative aggregation operator in database fuzzy querying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita DUMITRIU

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy selection criteria querying relational databases include vague terms; they usually refer linguistic values form the attribute linguistic domains, defined as fuzzy sets. Generally, when a vague query is processed, the definitions of vague terms must already exist in a knowledge base. But there are also cases when vague terms must be dynamically defined, when a particular operation is used to aggregate simple criteria in a complex selection. The paper presents a new aggregation operator and the corresponding algorithm to evaluate the fuzzy query.

  1. Does it Matter How to Measure Aggregates?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Andreas; Juselius, Katarina

    Beyer, Doornik and Hendry (2000, 2001) show analytically that three out of four aggregation methods yield problematic results when exchange rate shifts induce relative-price changes between individual countries and found the least problematic method to be the variable weight method of growth rate...... the impact on the cointegration properties in empirical modelling, the monetary model in Coenen & Vega (2001) based on fixed weights was re-estimated using flexible real and nominal GDP weights. In general, the results remained reasonably robust to the choice of aggregation method...

  2. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations

  3. Interface-Based Service Composition with Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Preda, Mila; Gabbrielli, Maurizio; Guidi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Service-oriented architectures (SOAs) usually comprehend in-the-middle entities such as proxies or service mediators that compose services abstracting from the order in which they exchange messages. Although widely used, these entities are usually implemented by means of ad-hoc solutions....... In this paper we generalise this composition mechanism by identifying the primitive notion of aggregation. We formally define the semantics of aggregation in terms of a process calculus. We also provide a reference implementation for this primitive by extending the Jolie language, thus allowing...

  4. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations.

  5. Aggregate hierarchy and chemical exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.

    1994-01-01

    Recent publications show that macroaggregates (> 250 μm) may consist of microaggregates (20-250 μm) in soils, which contain organic colloids. Roots and hyphae have a potential role in the formation of macroaggregates. Fragments of roots and hyphae may serve as nuclei for smaller aggregates. This implicates that aggregate factions contain organic material of different characteristics. Especially humus in microaggregates may play a keyrole for the mobility of elements in the soil. E.g. radiocaesium extractability in the silt fraction of a Calcic Chemozem and soil-to-plant transfer was distinctly enhanced due to seven times higher C org -contents as compared to an Eutric Cambisol

  6. Fault tolerant aggregation for power system services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Gehrke, Oliver; Kullmann, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    number of small units. A common approach is to aggregate a portfolio of such units together and expose them to the power system as a single large virtual unit. In order to realize the vision of a Smart Grid, concepts for flexible, resilient and reliable aggregation infrastructures are required......Exploiting the flexibility in distributed energy resources (DER) is seen as an important contribution to allow high penetrations of renewable generation in electrical power systems. However, the present control infrastructure in power systems is not well suited for the integration of a very large...

  7. Location Aggregation of Spatial Population CTMC Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bortolussi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on spatial Markov population models, describing the stochastic evolution of populations of agents, explicitly modelling their spatial distribution, representing space as a discrete, finite graph. More specifically, we present a heuristic approach to aggregating spatial locations, which is designed to preserve the dynamical behaviour of the model whilst reducing the computational cost of analysis. Our approach combines stochastic approximation ideas (moment closure, linear noise, with computational statistics (spectral clustering to obtain an efficient aggregation, which is experimentally shown to be reasonably accurate on two case studies: an instance of epidemic spreading and a London bike sharing scenario.

  8. Podoplanin expression in primary brain tumors induces platelet aggregation and increases risk of venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Julia; Preusser, Matthias; Nazari, Pegah Mir Seyed; Posch, Florian; Panzer, Simon; Marosi, Christine; Birner, Peter; Thaler, Johannes; Brostjan, Christine; Lötsch, Daniela; Berger, Walter; Hainfellner, Johannes A; Pabinger, Ingrid; Ay, Cihan

    2017-03-30

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in patients with brain tumors, and underlying mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that podoplanin, a sialomucin-like glycoprotein, increases the risk of VTE in primary brain tumors via its ability to induce platelet aggregation. Immunohistochemical staining against podoplanin and intratumoral platelet aggregates was performed in brain tumor specimens of 213 patients (mostly high-grade gliomas [89%]) included in the Vienna Cancer and Thrombosis Study, a prospective observational cohort study of patients with newly diagnosed cancer or progressive disease aimed at identifying patients at risk of VTE. Platelet aggregation in response to primary human glioblastoma cells was investigated in vitro. During 2-year follow-up, 29 (13.6%) patients developed VTE. One-hundred fifty-one tumor specimens stained positive for podoplanin (33 high expression, 47 medium expression, 71 low expression). Patients with podoplanin-positive tumors had lower peripheral blood platelet counts ( P < .001) and higher D-dimer levels ( P < .001). Podoplanin staining intensity was associated with increasing levels of intravascular platelet aggregates in tumor specimens ( P < .001). High podoplanin expression was associated with an increased risk of VTE (hazard ratio for high vs no podoplanin expression: 5.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.52-21.26; P = 010), independent of age, sex, and tumor type. Podoplanin-positive primary glioblastoma cells induced aggregation of human platelets in vitro, which could be abrogated by an antipodoplanin antibody. In conclusion, high podoplanin expression in primary brain tumors induces platelet aggregation, correlates with hypercoagulability, and is associated with increased risk of VTE. Our data indicate novel insights into the pathogenesis of VTE in primary brain tumors. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  9. Determination of critical nucleation number for a single nucleation amyloid-β aggregation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Preetam; Vaidya, Ashwin; Kumar, Amit; Rangachari, Vijayaraghavan

    2016-03-01

    Aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide are known to be the key pathological agents in Alzheimer disease (AD). Aβ aggregates to form large, insoluble fibrils that deposit as senile plaques in AD brains. The process of aggregation is nucleation-dependent in which the formation of a nucleus is the rate-limiting step, and controls the physiochemical fate of the aggregates formed. Therefore, understanding the properties of nucleus and pre-nucleation events will be significant in reducing the existing knowledge-gap in AD pathogenesis. In this report, we have determined the plausible range of critical nucleation number (n(*)), the number of monomers associated within the nucleus for a homogenous aggregation model with single unique nucleation event, by two independent methods: A reduced-order stability analysis and ordinary differential equation based numerical analysis, supported by experimental biophysics. The results establish that the most likely range of n(*) is between 7 and 14 and within, this range, n(*) = 12 closely supports the experimental data. These numbers are in agreement with those previously reported, and importantly, the report establishes a new modeling framework using two independent approaches towards a convergent solution in modeling complex aggregation reactions. Our model also suggests that the formation of large protofibrils is dependent on the nature of n(*), further supporting the idea that pre-nucleation events are significant in controlling the fate of larger aggregates formed. This report has re-opened an old problem with a new perspective and holds promise towards revealing the molecular events in amyloid pathologies in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Corrosion Behavior of Steel Reinforcement in Concrete with Recycled Aggregates, Fly Ash and Spent Cracking Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebé Gurdián

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main strategy to reduce the environmental impact of the concrete industry is to reuse the waste materials. This research has considered the combination of cement replacement by industrial by-products, and natural coarse aggregate substitution by recycled aggregate. The aim is to evaluate the behavior of concretes with a reduced impact on the environment by replacing a 50% of cement by industrial by-products (15% of spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst and 35% of fly ash and a 100% of natural coarse aggregate by recycled aggregate. The concretes prepared according to these considerations have been tested in terms of mechanical strengths and the protection offered against steel reinforcement corrosion under carbonation attack and chloride-contaminated environments. The proposed concrete combinations reduced the mechanical performance of concretes in terms of elastic modulus, compressive strength, and flexural strength. In addition, an increase in open porosity due to the presence of recycled aggregate was observed, which is coherent with the changes observed in mechanical tests. Regarding corrosion tests, no significant differences were observed in the case of the resistance of these types of concretes under a natural chloride attack. In the case of carbonation attack, although all concretes did not stand the highly aggressive conditions, those concretes with cement replacement behaved worse than Portland cement concretes.

  11. Corrosion Behavior of Steel Reinforcement in Concrete with Recycled Aggregates, Fly Ash and Spent Cracking Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdián, Hebé; García-Alcocel, Eva; Baeza-Brotons, Francisco; Garcés, Pedro; Zornoza, Emilio

    2014-04-21

    The main strategy to reduce the environmental impact of the concrete industry is to reuse the waste materials. This research has considered the combination of cement replacement by industrial by-products, and natural coarse aggregate substitution by recycled aggregate. The aim is to evaluate the behavior of concretes with a reduced impact on the environment by replacing a 50% of cement by industrial by-products (15% of spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst and 35% of fly ash) and a 100% of natural coarse aggregate by recycled aggregate. The concretes prepared according to these considerations have been tested in terms of mechanical strengths and the protection offered against steel reinforcement corrosion under carbonation attack and chloride-contaminated environments. The proposed concrete combinations reduced the mechanical performance of concretes in terms of elastic modulus, compressive strength, and flexural strength. In addition, an increase in open porosity due to the presence of recycled aggregate was observed, which is coherent with the changes observed in mechanical tests. Regarding corrosion tests, no significant differences were observed in the case of the resistance of these types of concretes under a natural chloride attack. In the case of carbonation attack, although all concretes did not stand the highly aggressive conditions, those concretes with cement replacement behaved worse than Portland cement concretes.

  12. Opportunistic tri-band carrier aggregation in licensed spectrum for multi-operator 5G hetnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymuk, Taras; Kyryk, Maryan; Klymash, Mykhailo; Jo, Minho; Romaniuk, Ryszard; Kotyra, Andrzej; Zhanpeisova, Aizhan; Kozbekova, Ainur

    2017-08-01

    Increasing capacity of mobile networks is a real challenge due to rapid increasing of traffic demands and spectrum scarcity. Carrier aggregation technology is aimed to increase the user data rate by combining the throughput of few spectrum bands, even if they are not physically collocated. Utilization of unlicensed Wi-Fi 5 GHz band for mobile transmission opens new perspectives for carrier aggregation due to vast amount of spectrum range, which can be available for aggregation to supplement data rates for end users. There are many solutions proposed to enable mobile data transmission in unlicensed band without disturbing interference for the existing Wi-Fi users. The paper presents a new approach for opportunistic carrier aggregation in licensed and unlicensed band for multi-operator 5G network. It allows multiple network operators to utilize unlicensed spectrum opportunistically if it is not currently used by Wi-Fi or other mobile network operators. Performance of the proposed approach has been simulated in case of two competing operators. Simulation results reveal that applying the proposed method ensures achieving satisfactory performance of carrier aggregation for the case of two network operators.

  13. Privacy-Preserving Data Aggregation Protocol for Fog Computing-Assisted Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I communication enables moving vehicles to upload real-time data about road surface situation to the Internet via fixed roadside units (RSU. Thanks to the resource restriction of mobile vehicles, fog computation-enhanced V2I communication scenario has received increasing attention recently. However, how to aggregate the sensed data from vehicles securely and efficiently still remains open to the V2I communication scenario. In this paper, a light-weight and anonymous aggregation protocol is proposed for the fog computing-based V2I communication scenario. With the proposed protocol, the data collected by the vehicles can be efficiently obtained by the RSU in a privacy-preserving manner. Particularly, we first suggest a certificateless aggregate signcryption (CL-A-SC scheme and prove its security in the random oracle model. The suggested CL-A-SC scheme, which is of independent interest, can achieve the merits of certificateless cryptography and signcryption scheme simultaneously. Then we put forward the anonymous aggregation protocol for V2I communication scenario as one extension of the suggested CL-A-SC scheme. Security analysis demonstrates that the proposed aggregation protocol achieves desirable security properties. The performance comparison shows that the proposed protocol significantly reduces the computation and communication overhead compared with the up-to-date protocols in this field.

  14. Secondary Students' Perceptions of Open Science Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Rebecca; Baker, Alesha

    2018-01-01

    In an attempt to align instructional resources with new state standards and to increase teacher awareness of these standards, one large suburban public school district piloted the development and adoption of open secondary science textbooks. Open textbooks created by teachers in grades six through nine replaced conventional science textbooks…

  15. Open Primary Education School Students' Opinions about Mathematics Television Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenilmez, Kursat

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine open primary education school students' opinions about mathematics television programmes. This study indicated that to determine differences among open primary education school students' opinions about mathematics television programmes point of view students' characteristics like gender, age, grade,…

  16. Tuning Structure and Properties of Graded Triblock Terpolymer-Based Mesoporous and Hybrid Films

    KAUST Repository

    Phillip, William A.; Mika Dorin, Rachel; Werner, Jörg; Hoek, Eric M. V.; Wiesner, Ulrich; Elimelech, Menachem

    2011-01-01

    -responsive, and contain pores with a nearly monodisperse diameter. These results suggest that moving to multiblock polymers and their hybrids may open new paths to produce high-performance graded membranes for filtration, separations, nanofluidics, catalysis, and drug

  17. Influence of Aggregate Wettability with Different Lithology Aggregates on Concrete Drying Shrinkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanchen Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The correlation of the wettability of different lithology aggregates and the drying shrinkage of concrete materials is studied, and some influential factors such as wettability and wetting angle are analyzed. A mercury porosimeter is used to measure the porosities of different lithology aggregates accurately, and the pore size ranges that significantly affect the drying shrinkage of different lithology aggregate concretes are confirmed. The pore distribution curve of the different coarse aggregates is also measured through a statistical method, and the contact angle of different coarse aggregates and concrete is calculated according to the linear fitting relationship. Research shows that concrete strength is determined by aggregate strength. Aggregate wettability is not directly correlated with concrete strength, but wettability significantly affects concrete drying shrinkage. In all types’ pores, the greatest impacts on wettability are capillary pores and gel pores, especially for the pores of the size locating 2.5–50 nm and 50–100 nm two ranges.

  18. Curcumin Attenuates Amyloid-β Aggregate Toxicity and Modulates Amyloid-β Aggregation Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Arjun; Jett, Stephen D; Chi, Eva Y

    2016-01-20

    The abnormal misfolding and aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides into β-sheet enriched insoluble deposits initiates a cascade of events leading to pathological processes and culminating in cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, soluble oligomeric/prefibrillar Aβ have been shown to be potent neurotoxins. The naturally occurring polyphenol curcumin has been shown to exert a neuroprotective effect against age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. However, its protective mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of curcumin on the aggregation of Aβ40 as well as Aβ40 aggregate induced neurotoxicity. Our results show that the curcumin does not inhibit Aβ fibril formation, but rather enriches the population of "off-pathway" soluble oligomers and prefibrillar aggregates that were nontoxic. Curcumin also exerted a nonspecific neuroprotective effect, reducing toxicities induced by a range of Aβ conformers, including monomeric, oligomeric, prefibrillar, and fibrillar Aβ. The neuroprotective effect is possibly membrane-mediated, as curcumin reduced the extent of cell membrane permeabilization induced by Aβ aggregates. Taken together, our study shows that curcumin exerts its neuroprotective effect against Aβ induced toxicity through at least two concerted pathways, modifying the Aβ aggregation pathway toward the formation of nontoxic aggregates and ameliorating Aβ-induced toxicity possibly through a nonspecific pathway.

  19. Kinetics of fibrilar aggregation of food proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnaudov, L.N.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis we study the kinetics of fibrilar aggregation of two model proteins widely used in the food industry -b-lactoglobulin (b-lg) and hen

  20. Information security risk assessment, aggregation, and mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenstra, A.K.; Voss, T.; Wang, H.; Pieprzyk, J.; Varadharajan, V.

    2004-01-01

    As part of their compliance process with the Basel 2 operational risk management requirements, banks must define how they deal with information security risk management. In this paper we describe work in progress on a new quantitative model to assess and aggregate information security risks that is

  1. Role of end effects in helical aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gestel, van J.A.M.; Schoot, van der P.P.A.M.; Michels, M.A.J.

    2003-01-01

    End effects are known to play a pivotal role in equilibrium polymerization. To investigate their role in detail, we apply constraints to the first and last bonds of model linear aggregates that exhibit a helix-coil type configurational transition. Three different classes of behavior manifest

  2. Aggregate Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…

  3. Synchronized Data Aggregation for Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dnyaneshwar, Mantri; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are used for monitoring and data collection purposes. A key challenge in effective data collection is to schedule and synchronize the activities of the nodes with global clock. This paper proposes the Synchronized Data Aggregation Algorithm (SDA) using spanning tree...

  4. Aggregation of log-linear risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Embrechts, Paul; Hashorva, Enkeleijd; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we work in the framework of a k-dimensional vector of log-linear risks. Under weak conditions on the marginal tails and the dependence structure of a vector of positive risks, we derive the asymptotic tail behaviour of the aggregated risk {and present} an application concerning log...

  5. Quasi-Species and Aggregate Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Anders; Görnerup, Olof; Jacobi, Martin Nilsson

    2005-01-01

    a partial differential equation that describes the system. We find that the relative prevalence of fast and slow replicators is determined by the relative strength of selection at the aggregate level to the selection strength at the molecular level. The analysis is concluded by a preliminary treatment...

  6. DENDRIMER CONJUGATES FOR SELECTIVE OF PROTEIN AGGREGATES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    Dendrimer conjugates are presented, which are formed between a dendrimer and a protein solubilising substance. Such dendrimer conjugates are effective in the treatment of protein aggregate-related diseases (e.g. prion-related diseases). The protein solubilising substance and the dendrimer together...

  7. Globalization and Aggregate Employment Nexus: A Recent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since Nigeria is monotonically dependent on external trade for survival, globalization measured by the ratio of export plus import to GDP soared for the period. Coincidentally, aggregate employment in the industrial sector also rose, at least from liturgical observation. This paper therefore examined this relationship using ...

  8. Utilitarian Aggregation of Beliefs and Tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Itzhak; Samet, Dov; Schmeidler, David

    2004-01-01

    Harsanyi's utilitarianism is extended here to Savage's framework. We formulate a Pareto condition that implies that both society's utility function and its probability measure are linear combinations of those of the individuals. An indiscriminate Pareto condition has been shown to contradict linear aggregation of beliefs and tastes. We argue that…

  9. Aggregate stability in soils cultivated with eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eucalyptus cultivation has increased in many Brazilian regions. In order to recommend good management practices, it is necessary to understand changes in soil properties where eucalyptus is planted. Aggregate stability analyses have proved to be a useful tool to measure soil effects caused by change...

  10. Aggregation of MBP in chronic demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Kati; Einstein, Ofira; Friedman-Levi, Yael; Binyamin, Orli; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Gabizon, Ruth

    2015-07-01

    Misfolding of key disease proteins to an insoluble state is associated with most neurodegenerative conditions, such as prion, Parkinson, and Alzheimer's diseases. In this work, and by studying animal models of multiple sclerosis, we asked whether this is also the case for myelin basic protein (MBP) in the late and neurodegenerative phases of demyelinating diseases. To this effect, we tested whether MBP, an essential myelin component, present prion-like properties in animal models of MS, as is the case for Cuprizone-induced chronic demyelination or chronic phases of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE). We show here that while total levels of MBP were not reduced following extensive demyelination, part of these molecules accumulated thereafter as aggregates inside oligodendrocytes or around neuronal cells. In chronic EAE, MBP precipitated concomitantly with Tau, a marker of diverse neurodegenerative conditions, including MS. Most important, analysis of fractions from Triton X-100 floatation gradients suggest that the lipid composition of brain membranes in chronic EAE differs significantly from that of naïve mice, an effect which may relate to oxidative insults and subsequently prevent the appropriate insertion and compaction of new MBP in the myelin sheath, thereby causing its misfolding and aggregation. Prion-like aggregation of MBP following chronic demyelination may result from an aberrant lipid composition accompanying this pathological status. Such aggregation of MBP may contribute to neuronal damage that occurs in the progressive phase of MS.

  11. A vertically resolved model for phytoplankton aggregation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pellets (Smith et al 1998), or in large, fast-settling aggregates, which are often ...... the Arabian Sea, and its ability to graze upon natural assemblages of diatoms e.g. off the ... the amount and quality of food that supplies benthic organisms.

  12. A kinetic equation for irreversible aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanette, D.H.

    1990-09-01

    We introduce a kinetic equation for describing irreversible aggregation in the ballistic regime, including velocity distributions. The associated evolution for the macroscopic quantities is studied, and the general solution for Maxwell interaction models is obtained in the Fourier representation. (author). 23 refs

  13. Studies of the aggregation of RNase Sa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khasa, Harshit; Kramer, Ryan; Maddux, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-eight mutants of RNase Sa (ribonuclease from Streptomyces aureofaciens) were examined for their structure, thermal sensitivity, and tendency to aggregate. Although a biphasic correlation was seen between the effect of temperature on structure and the free energy of transfer changes in many...

  14. Comparative evaluation of mineral trioxide aggregate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MTA) as an apical barrier material are limited, and no studies have so far examined the clinical performance of BioAggregate as apical barrier material in nonvital immature teeth. Aim: This study was aimed to provide a comparative evaluation of ...

  15. Software quality metrics aggregation in industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mordal, K.; Anquetil, N.; Laval, J.; Serebrenik, A.; Vasilescu, B.N.; Ducasse, S.

    2013-01-01

    With the growing need for quality assessment of entire software systems in the industry, new issues are emerging. First, because most software quality metrics are defined at the level of individual software components, there is a need for aggregation methods to summarize the results at the system

  16. Lattice modeling of aggregate interlocking in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliáš, Jan; Stang, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    roughness, i.e.what is termed aggregate interlocking. We demonstrate this enhancement via the simulation of mixed-mode experiments on concrete performed at a laboratory at the Technical University of Denmark. Double notched concrete specimens were initially pre-cracked in tension. Then, various combinations...

  17. Stay connected: Electrical conductivity of microbial aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Lesnik, Keaton Larson; Liu, Hong

    2017-11-01

    The discovery of direct extracellular electron transfer offers an alternative to the traditional understanding of diffusional electron exchange via small molecules. The establishment of electronic connections between electron donors and acceptors in microbial communities is critical to electron transfer via electrical currents. These connections are facilitated through conductivity associated with various microbial aggregates. However, examination of conductivity in microbial samples is still in its relative infancy and conceptual models in terms of conductive mechanisms are still being developed and debated. The present review summarizes the fundamental understanding of electrical conductivity in microbial aggregates (e.g. biofilms, granules, consortia, and multicellular filaments) highlighting recent findings and key discoveries. A greater understanding of electrical conductivity in microbial aggregates could facilitate the survey for additional microbial communities that rely on direct extracellular electron transfer for survival, inform rational design towards the aggregates-based production of bioenergy/bioproducts, and inspire the construction of new synthetic conductive polymers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Aggregate Measures of Watershed Health from Reconstructed ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk-based indices such as reliability, resilience, and vulnerability (R-R-V), have the potential to serve as watershed health assessment tools. Recent research has demonstrated the applicability of such indices for water quality (WQ) constituents such as total suspended solids and nutrients on an individual basis. However, the calculations can become tedious when time-series data for several WQ constituents have to be evaluated individually. Also, comparisons between locations with different sets of constituent data can prove difficult. In this study, data reconstruction using relevance vector machine algorithm was combined with dimensionality reduction via variational Bayesian noisy principal component analysis to reconstruct and condense sparse multidimensional WQ data sets into a single time series. The methodology allows incorporation of uncertainty in both the reconstruction and dimensionality-reduction steps. The R-R-V values were calculated using the aggregate time series at multiple locations within two Indiana watersheds. Results showed that uncertainty present in the reconstructed WQ data set propagates to the aggregate time series and subsequently to the aggregate R-R-V values as well. serving as motivating examples. Locations with different WQ constituents and different standards for impairment were successfully combined to provide aggregate measures of R-R-V values. Comparisons with individual constituent R-R-V values showed that v

  19. Assays for alpha-synuclein aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giehm, Lise; Lorenzen, Nikolai; Otzen, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few decades, protein aggregation gone from being an irritating side product in the test tube to becoming a subject of great interest. This has been stimulated by the realization that a large and growing number of diseases is associated with the formation and accumulation of proteins...

  20. Aggregation process, application to nuclear multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Jean-Baptiste

    1995-01-01

    It is depicted an aggregation model (applied to nuclear multifragmentation) which I have elaborated and validated. This model contains an aggregation procedure, allowing one to determine the aggregation state of a given system. It takes into account spatial and kinetic nucleonic information, as well as in-medium effects. It is made of several energetic linkage criterions, all based on a single quantity: the energy of a system computed in its center of mass frame. This procedure has been applied to nuclear physics, assuming nucleus as a mix of two Fermi gas, interacting via the Yukawa potential (plus Coulomb in between protons) and obeying to a classical exclusion principle. The general trends of the model match with those of nuclear physics. Moreover, two comparisons between the model and nuclear multifragmentation experiments (ALADIN, then FOPI) exhibit nice agreements. The FOPI one, shows that fragments are bound to be formed at the beginning of the expansion phase (Au + Au at 150 MeV/nuc, for central collisions). This work ends with a study of the main ingredients included in the model. It reveals that in-medium effects, exclusion principle as well as the shape of the potential have a non negligible influence on the studied nuclear aggregation process. (author) [fr

  1. Cumulative irritancy in the guinea pig from low grade irritant vehicles and the angry skin syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I

    1980-01-01

    A 4-week open cumulative irritancy test in guinea pigs discriminated between two low grade irritant vehicles, nonionic base (anhydrous) and hydrophilic ointment. The procedure might be useful as a predictive test for low grade irritants. The angry skin syndrome was established in the guinea pigs...

  2. Interbank Market Structure and Accurate Estimation of an Aggregate Liquidity Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Isakov, A.

    2013-01-01

    It's customary among money market analysts to blame interest rate deviations from the Bank of Russia's target band on the market structure imperfections or segmentation. We isolate one form of such market imperfection and provide an illustration of its potential impact on central bank's open market operations efficiency in the current monetary policy framework. We then hypothesize that naive (market) structure-agnostic liquidity gap aggregation will lead to market demand underestimation in so...

  3. In-plane Shear Joint Capacity of Pracast Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henning; Goltermann, Per; Scherfig, Søren

    1996-01-01

    The paper establishes and documents formulas for the in-plane shear capacity between precast elements of lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure. The joints investigated are rough or toothed and have all been precracked prior to the testing in order to obtain realistic test results....... The paper documents the shear force capacity for the joint strength between the most common joint types between precast LAC roof and floor elements used in Scandinavia....

  4. Open Source, Openness, and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, David

    2006-01-01

    In this article David Wiley provides an overview of how the general expansion of open source software has affected the world of education in particular. In doing so, Wiley not only addresses the development of open source software applications for teachers and administrators, he also discusses how the fundamental philosophy of the open source…

  5. From Open Source to Open Collaboration

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Open source is the right to modify, not the right to contribute. Are external contributions absent from your project? Have you ever thought about what is it like to be a new contributor on your project? I challenge you to transform your project from Open Source to an Open Collaboration.

  6. Live Cell Characterization of DNA Aggregation Delivered through Lipofection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieruszynski, Stephen; Briggs, Candida; Digman, Michelle A; Gratton, Enrico; Jones, Mark R

    2015-05-27

    DNA trafficking phenomena, such as information on where and to what extent DNA aggregation occurs, have yet to be fully characterised in the live cell. Here we characterise the aggregation of DNA when delivered through lipofection by applying the Number and Brightness (N&B) approach. The N&B analysis demonstrates extensive aggregation throughout the live cell with DNA clusters in the extremity of the cell and peri-nuclear areas. Once within the nucleus aggregation had decreased 3-fold. In addition, we show that increasing serum concentration of cell media results in greater cytoplasmic aggregation. Further, the effects of the DNA fragment size on aggregation was explored, where larger DNA constructs exhibited less aggregation. This study demonstrates the first quantification of DNA aggregation when delivered through lipofection in live cells. In addition, this study has presents a model for alternative uses of this imaging approach, which was originally developed to study protein oligomerization and aggregation.

  7. Single particle detection and characterization of synuclein co-aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giese, Armin; Bader, Benedikt; Bieschke, Jan; Schaffar, Gregor; Odoy, Sabine; Kahle, Philipp J.; Haass, Christian; Kretzschmar, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Protein aggregation is the key event in a number of human diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. We present a general method to quantify and characterize protein aggregates by dual-colour scanning for intensely fluorescent targets (SIFT). In addition to high sensitivity, this approach offers a unique opportunity to study co-aggregation processes. As the ratio of two fluorescently labelled components can be analysed for each aggregate separately in a homogeneous assay, the molecular composition of aggregates can be studied even in samples containing a mixture of different types of aggregates. Using this method, we could show that wild-type α-synuclein forms co-aggregates with a mutant variant found in familial Parkinson's disease. Moreover, we found a striking increase in aggregate formation at non-equimolar mixing ratios, which may have important therapeutic implications, as lowering the relative amount of aberrant protein may cause an increase of protein aggregation leading to adverse effects

  8. Transportation and utilization of aggregates for road construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fladvad, Marit; Wigum, Børge Johannes; Aurstad, Joralf

    2017-04-01

    Road construction relies on non-renewable aggregate resources as the main construction material. Sources for high-quality aggregate resources are scattered, and requirements for aggregate quality can cause long transport distances between quarry and road construction site. In European countries, the average aggregate consumption per capita is 5 tonnes per year (European Aggregates Association, 2016), while the corresponding figure for Norway is 11 tonnes (Neeb, 2015). Half the Norwegian aggregate production (sand, gravel and crushed rock) is used for road construction. In Norway, aggregate resources have been considered abundant. However, stricter requirement for aggregate quality, and increased concern for sustainability and environmental issues have spurred focus on reduction of transport lengths through better utilization of local aggregate materials. In this research project, information about pavement design and aggregate quality requirements were gathered from a questionnaire sent to selected experts from the World Road Organization (PIARC), European Committee for Standardization (CEN), and Nordic Road Association (NVF). The gathered data was compared to identify differences and similarities for aggregate use in the participating countries. Further, the data was compared to known data from Norway regarding: - amount of aggregates required for a road structure - aggregate transport lengths and related costs A total of 18 countries participated in the survey, represented by either road authorities, research institutions, or contractors. There are large variations in practice for aggregate use among the represented countries, and the selection of countries is sufficient to illustrate a variety in pavement designs, aggregate sizes, and quality requirements for road construction. There are considerable differences in both pavement thickness and aggregate sizes used in the studied countries. Total thicknesses for pavement structures varies from 220 mm to 2400 mm

  9. Open access, open education resources and open data in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Ivana Di; Mwoka, Meggie; Kwaga, Teddy; Rukundo, Priscilla Aceng; Ernest, Dennis Ssesanga; Osaheni, Louis Aikoriogie; John, Kasibante; Shafik, Kasirye; de Sousa, Agostinho Moreira

    2015-01-01

    As a follow up to OpenCon 2014, International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA) students organized a 3 day workshop Open Access, Open Education Resources and Open Data in Kampala from 15-18 December 2014. One of the aims of the workshop was to engage the Open Access movement in Uganda which encompasses the scientific community, librarians, academia, researchers and students. The IFMSA students held the workshop with the support of: Consortium for Uganda University Libraries (CUUL), The Right to Research Coalition, Electronic Information for Libraries (EIFL), Makerere University, International Health Sciences University (IHSU), Pan African Medical Journal (PAMJ) and the Centre for Health Human Rights and Development (CEHURD). All these organizations are based or have offices in Kampala. The event culminated in a meeting with the Science and Technology Committee of Parliament of Uganda in order to receive the support of the Ugandan Members of Parliament and to make a concrete change for Open Access in the country.

  10. Research on test of alkali-resistant glass fibre enhanced seawater coral aggregate concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Leiyang; Wang, Xingquan

    2017-12-01

    It is proposed in the 13th five-year plan that reefs of the south China sea should be constructed. In the paper, an innovative thinking was proposed for the first time in order to realize local material acquisition in island construction and life dependence on sea, namely alkali-resistant glass fibre is mixed in coralaggregate concrete as reinforcing material. The glass fibre is characterized by low price, low hardness, good dispersibility and convenient construction. Reliable guarantee is provided for widely applying the material in future projects. In the paper, an orthogonal test method is firstly applied to determine the mix proportion of grade C50 coral aggregate concrete. Then, the design plan ofmix proportion of alkali-resistant glass fibre enhanced seawater coral aggregate concrete is determined. Finally, the influence law of alkali-resistant glass fibre dosageon tensile compressiveflexture strength of seawatercoralaggregate concrete is made clear.

  11. The Implications of Grade Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, David E.; Fleisher, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The authors review current and past practices of the grade inflation controversy and present ways to return to each institution’s established grading guidelines. Students are graded based on knowledge gathered. Certain faculty members use thorough evaluative methods, such as written and oral pres...... have been profiled in the news. The model is provided to ensure that degree candidates are academic experts in their field, having earned the credential through rigorous study....

  12. How do openers contribute to student learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Zertuche

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Openers, or brief activities that initiate a class, routinely take up classroom time each day yet little is known about how to design these activities so they contribute to student learning. This study uses technology-enhanced learning environments to explore new opportunities to transform Openers from potentially busy work to knowledge generating activities. This study compares the impact of teacher-designed Openers, Opener designs based on recent research emphasizing knowledge integration, and no Opener for an 8th grade technology-enhanced inquiry science investigation. Results suggest that students who participate in a researcher-designed Opener are more likely to revisit and refine their work, and to make significant learning gains, than students who do not participate in an Opener. Students make the greatest gains when they revisit key evidence in the technology-enhanced curriculum unit prior to revision. Engaging students in processes that promote knowledge integration during the Opener motivate students to revise their ideas. The results suggest design principles for Openers in technology-enhanced instruction.

  13. The NNP and Sustainability in Open Economy: Highlights on Recent World Economy and on Open Economy of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the theory of the net national product and, emphasizes on social welfare and sustainable accounting in open economy. It is observed that the world economy following an egalitarian path, the aggregate capital gains being positive is equivalent to the interest rate tending to decrease. This is important for the concept of net national product in open economies. Martin Weitzman gives a foundation for net national product as the stationary equivalent of a wealth maximizing pa...

  14. Small file aggregation in a parallel computing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faibish, Sorin; Bent, John M.; Tzelnic, Percy; Grider, Gary; Zhang, Jingwang

    2014-09-02

    Techniques are provided for small file aggregation in a parallel computing system. An exemplary method for storing a plurality of files generated by a plurality of processes in a parallel computing system comprises aggregating the plurality of files into a single aggregated file; and generating metadata for the single aggregated file. The metadata comprises an offset and a length of each of the plurality of files in the single aggregated file. The metadata can be used to unpack one or more of the files from the single aggregated file.

  15. Probabilistic Analysis of Structural Member from Recycled Aggregate Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broukalová, I.; Šeps, K.

    2017-09-01

    The paper aims at the topic of sustainable building concerning recycling of waste rubble concrete from demolition. Considering demands of maximising recycled aggregate use and minimising of cement consumption, composite from recycled concrete aggregate was proposed. The objective of the presented investigations was to verify feasibility of the recycled aggregate cement based fibre reinforced composite in a structural member. Reliability of wall from recycled aggregate fibre reinforced composite was assessed in a probabilistic analysis of a load-bearing capacity of the wall. The applicability of recycled aggregate fibre reinforced concrete in structural applications was demonstrated. The outcomes refer to issue of high scatter of material parameters of recycled aggregate concretes.

  16. Properties of Concrete with Tire Derived Aggregate Partially Replacing Coarse Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siringi, Gideon; Abolmaali, Ali; Aswath, Pranesh B.

    2015-01-01

    Tire derived aggregate (TDA) has been proposed as a possible lightweight replacement for mineral aggregate in concrete. The role played by the amount of TDA replacing coarse aggregate as well as different treatment and additives in concrete on its properties is examined. Conventional concrete (without TDA) and concrete containing TDA are compared by examining their compressive strength based on ASTM C39, workability based on ASTM C143, splitting tensile strength based on ASTM C496, modulus of rupture (flexural strength) based on ASTM C78, and bond stress based on ASTM C234. Results indicate that while replacement of coarse aggregates with TDA results in reduction in strength, it may be mitigated with addition of silica fume to obtain the desired strength. The greatest benefit of using TDA is in the development of a higher ductile product while utilizing recycled TDA. PMID:26161440

  17. Properties of Concrete with Tire Derived Aggregate Partially Replacing Coarse Aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siringi, Gideon; Abolmaali, Ali; Aswath, Pranesh B

    2015-01-01

    Tire derived aggregate (TDA) has been proposed as a possible lightweight replacement for mineral aggregate in concrete. The role played by the amount of TDA replacing coarse aggregate as well as different treatment and additives in concrete on its properties is examined. Conventional concrete (without TDA) and concrete containing TDA are compared by examining their compressive strength based on ASTM C39, workability based on ASTM C143, splitting tensile strength based on ASTM C496, modulus of rupture (flexural strength) based on ASTM C78, and bond stress based on ASTM C234. Results indicate that while replacement of coarse aggregates with TDA results in reduction in strength, it may be mitigated with addition of silica fume to obtain the desired strength. The greatest benefit of using TDA is in the development of a higher ductile product while utilizing recycled TDA.

  18. Protein aggregate turbidity: Simulation of turbidity profiles for mixed-aggregation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Damien; Zhao, Ran; Dehlsen, Ian; Bloomfield, Nathaniel; Williams, Steven R; Arisaka, Fumio; Goto, Yuji; Carver, John A

    2016-04-01

    Due to their colloidal nature, all protein aggregates scatter light in the visible wavelength region when formed in aqueous solution. This phenomenon makes solution turbidity, a quantity proportional to the relative loss in forward intensity of scattered light, a convenient method for monitoring protein aggregation in biochemical assays. Although turbidity is often taken to be a linear descriptor of the progress of aggregation reactions, this assumption is usually made without performing the necessary checks to provide it with a firm underlying basis. In this article, we outline utilitarian methods for simulating the turbidity generated by homogeneous and mixed-protein aggregation reactions containing fibrous, amorphous, and crystalline structures. The approach is based on a combination of Rayleigh-Gans-Debye theory and approximate forms of the Mie scattering equations. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Properties of Concrete with Tire Derived Aggregate Partially Replacing Coarse Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Siringi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tire derived aggregate (TDA has been proposed as a possible lightweight replacement for mineral aggregate in concrete. The role played by the amount of TDA replacing coarse aggregate as well as different treatment and additives in concrete on its properties is examined. Conventional concrete (without TDA and concrete containing TDA are compared by examining their compressive strength based on ASTM C39, workability based on ASTM C143, splitting tensile strength based on ASTM C496, modulus of rupture (flexural strength based on ASTM C78, and bond stress based on ASTM C234. Results indicate that while replacement of coarse aggregates with TDA results in reduction in strength, it may be mitigated with addition of silica fume to obtain the desired strength. The greatest benefit of using TDA is in the development of a higher ductile product while utilizing recycled TDA.

  20. Mechanical properties of concrete containing recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) and ceramic waste as coarse aggregate replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Faisal Sheikh; Azmi, Nurul Bazilah; Sumandi, Khairul Azwa Syafiq Mohd; Mazenan, Puteri Natasya

    2017-10-01

    Many construction and development activities today consume large amounts of concrete. The amount of construction waste is also increasing because of the demolition process. Much of this waste can be recycled to produce new products and increase the sustainability of construction projects. As recyclable construction wastes, concrete and ceramic can replace the natural aggregate in concrete because of their hard and strong physical properties. This research used 25%, 35%, and 45% recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) and ceramic waste as coarse aggregate in producing concrete. Several tests, such as concrete cube compression and splitting tensile tests, were also performed to determine and compare the mechanical properties of the recycled concrete with those of the normal concrete that contains 100% natural aggregate. The concrete containing 35% RCA and 35% ceramic waste showed the best properties compared with the normal concrete.

  1. Influence of granitic aggregates from Northeast Brazil on the alkali-aggregate reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes Neto, David de Paiva; Santana, Rodrigo Soares de; Barreto, Ledjane Silva, E-mail: pvgomes@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias dos Materiais e Engenharia; Conceicao, Herbert; Lisboa, Vinicios Anselmo Carvalho [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia

    2014-08-15

    The alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) in concrete structures is a problem that has concerned engineers and researchers for decades. This reaction occurs when silicates in the aggregates react with the alkalis, forming an expanded gel that can cause cracks in the concrete and reduce its lifespan. The aim of this study was to characterize three coarse granitic aggregates employed in concrete production in northeastern Brazil, correlating petrographic analysis with the kinetics of silica dissolution and the evolution of expansions in mortar bars, assisted by SEM/EDS, XRD, and EDX. The presence of grains showing recrystallization into individual microcrystalline quartz subgrains was associated with faster dissolution of silica and greater expansion in mortar bars. Aggregates showing substantial deformation, such as stretched grains of quartz with strong undulatory extinction, experienced slower dissolution, with reaction and expansion occurring over longer periods that could not be detected using accelerated tests with mortar bars. (author)

  2. Open lung biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - open lung ... An open lung biopsy is done in the hospital using general anesthesia . This means you will be asleep and ... The open lung biopsy is done to evaluate lung problems seen on x-ray or CT scan .

  3. Advancing the Power and Utility of Server-Side Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulker, Dave; Gallagher, James

    2016-01-01

    During the upcoming Summer 2016 meeting of the ESIP Federation (July 19-22), OpenDAP will hold a Developers and Users Workshop. While a broad set of topics will be covered, a key focus is capitalizing on recent EOSDIS-sponsored advances in Hyrax, OPeNDAPs own software for server-side realization of the DAP2 and DAP4 protocols. These Hyrax advances are as important to data users as to data providers, and the workshop will include hands-on experiences of value to both. Specifically, a balanced set of presentations and hands-on tutorials will address advances in1.server installation,2.server configuration,3.Hyrax aggregation capabilities,4.support for data-access from clients that are HTTP-based, JSON-based or OGC-compliant (especially WCS and WMS),5.support for DAP4,6.use and extension of server-side computational capabilities, and7.several performance-affecting matters.Topics 2 through 7 will be relevant to data consumers, data providers andnotably, due to the open-source nature of all OPeNDAP softwareto developers wishing to extend Hyrax, to build compatible clients and servers, andor to employ Hyrax as middleware that enables interoperability across a variety of end-user and source-data contexts. A session for contributed talks will elaborate the topics listed above and embrace additional ones.

  4. Effect of the Aggregate Size on Strength Properties of Recycled Aggregate Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Kang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study on preparation technology of recycled concrete with economical and technical feasibility has gained more serious attention in each country due to its involvement and effect on the environment protection and the sustainable development of human society. In this study, we conducted a control variable test to investigate and assess the influence of the aggregate size on the strength characteristics of concrete with different diameters of recycled aggregates. Concrete with recycled aggregates of 5∼15 mm (A, 15∼20 mm (B, 20∼30 mm (C, and their combinations were subjected to a series of unconfined pressure tests after curing for 28 days. Based on the results obtained from the tests, an effort was made to study the relationship between the mechanical characteristics of recycled aggregate concrete and aggregate particle size. Also, a regression model of recycled concrete was proposed to predict the elasticity modulus and to adjust the design of mixture proportion. It is believed that these experiment results would contribute to adjust the remediation mixture for recycling plants by considering the influence of recycled aggregate size.

  5. Prediction of the aggregation propensity of proteins from the primary sequence: aggregation properties of proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Virginia; Graña-Montes, Ricardo; Sabate, Raimon; Ventura, Salvador

    2011-06-01

    In the cell, protein folding into stable globular conformations is in competition with aggregation into non-functional and usually toxic structures, since the biophysical properties that promote folding also tend to favor intermolecular contacts, leading to the formation of β-sheet-enriched insoluble assemblies. The formation of protein deposits is linked to at least 20 different human disorders, ranging from dementia to diabetes. Furthermore, protein deposition inside cells represents a major obstacle for the biotechnological production of polypeptides. Importantly, the aggregation behavior of polypeptides appears to be strongly influenced by the intrinsic properties encoded in their sequences and specifically by the presence of selective short regions with high aggregation propensity. This allows computational methods to be used to analyze the aggregation properties of proteins without the previous requirement for structural information. Applications range from the identification of individual amyloidogenic regions in disease-linked polypeptides to the analysis of the aggregation properties of complete proteomes. Herein, we review these theoretical approaches and illustrate how they have become important and useful tools in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying protein aggregation. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Foam stabilization by solid particle aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guignot, S.; Faure, S. [CEA Marcoule, Lab. des Procedes Avances de Decontamination, 30 (France); Pitois, O. [UniversiteParis-Est Marne-La-Valle, Lab. Physique des Materiaux Divises et des Interfaces (LPMDI), 77 - Marne la Vallee (France)

    2008-07-01

    During the dismantling of nuclear facilities, radioactive deposits on exposed areas are removed and solubilized by successive rinses of reactive liquid. Using this liquid in a foam state reduces the amount of resulting wastes. During the required decontamination time (1 to 5 hours) the foam has to be sufficiently wet (1). In the Laboratory of Advanced Processes for Decontamination, new formulations are currently studied to slow down the drainage kinetics of these foams, by adding colloidal particles of hydrophilic fumed silica into the classical mixtures of well-defined non ionic foaming surfactants previously used (2). The objective of our study is to shed light on the foam surprising stability induced by these particles. The study focuses on drainage of foams generated by air sparging through a suspension lying on a porous glass. The foaming suspensions contain between 0 and 70 g.L-1 of a fumed silica (Aerosil 380) which is well-known to form gels for concentrations above 200 g.L{sup -1}. In the studied solutions this silica builds up into aggregates of dozens of microns, whose volume-averaged mean diameter after sonication is centred around 300 nm. Under gentle stirring, they display no sign of re-aggregation during 24 h. On a free drainage configuration, a foam that contains particles keeps a significant amount of its initial liquid: up to 60 % during up to 5 hours, in contrast to classical foams that drain out all of their liquid in about 20 minutes. From a rheological point of view, the most concentrated suspensions display a yield stress behaviour. This evidences the structuring of the aggregates into a coherent network that might explain the incomplete drainage of the solutions. For the lowest concentrated solutions, such rheological properties have not been observed although the corresponding foams can retain large amount of solution. This suggests that local concentrations of aggregates can rise owing to their retention by foam channels, until they form

  7. The Variability and Evaluation Method of Recycled Concrete Aggregate Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the same sources and regeneration techniques, given RA’s properties may display large variations. The same single property index of different sets maybe has a large difference of the whole property. How shall we accurately evaluate the whole property of RA? 8 groups of RAs from pavement and building were used to research the method of evaluating the holistic characteristics of RA. After testing and investigating, the parameters of aggregates were analyzed. The data of physical and mechanical properties show a distinct dispersion and instability; thus, it has been difficult to express the whole characteristics in any single property parameter. The Euclidean distance can express the similarity of samples. The closer the distance, the more similar the property. The standard variance of the whole property Euclidean distances for two types of RA is Sk=7.341 and Sk=2.208, respectively, which shows that the property of building RA has great fluctuation, while pavement RA is more stable. There are certain correlations among the apparent density, water absorption, and crushed value of RAs, and the Mahalanobis distance method can directly evaluate the whole property by using its parameters: mean, variance, and covariance, and it can provide a grade evaluation model for RAs.

  8. Experimental study of the effect of limestone grading on some mechanical properties of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammari Madiha Z. J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the experimental work undertaken to investigate the optimum grading of limestone to be used in concrete mixes. 36 concrete cubes were prepared for testing. Four different Fineness Moduli and grading were tested 2.4, 2.6, 2.92 and 3. For all tests, the cubes were left in curing until testing at the age of 3, 7 and 28 days respectively. Samples were loaded to failure and the average compressive strength was used for comparison purposes. Flow table test has been performed on the fresh concrete directly after mixing to measure workability and the average of the maximum concrete spread parallel to the two edges of the table was recorded. Results revealed that the optimum Fineness Modulus for the limestone to be used as fine aggregate in the concrete mix to get maximum compressive strength is 2.78. The flow table tests revealed an increment in the workability of fresh concrete with higher Fineness Modulus of limestone used in the concrete mix as fine aggregate. The workability of the optimum Fineness Modulus, 2.78, was found to be 412 mm which is a mix with considerable workability. An ideal grading has been recommended in this research study and checked to match the ASTM grading requirements for fine aggregate.

  9. Practicing Good Habits, Grade 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cong Lau; And Others

    This illustrated textbook was designed for teaching civics and values to fourth grade students in Vietnam. It is divided into six chapters: (1) At School (recapitulation of the grade three program, friendship, respect for the teacher, team work, discipline, honor); (2) In the Street: Traffic Regulations; (3) At Home (the extended family spirit,…

  10. Graded geometry and Poisson reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaneo, A S; Zambon, M

    2009-01-01

    The main result of [2] extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem [4] in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof in [2]. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result. ©2009 American Institute of Physics

  11. Compositionally Graded Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Cheol; Zhou, Jie E; Maurya, Deepam; Yan, Yongke; Wang, Yu U; Priya, Shashank

    2017-09-27

    Multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) are widely used in consumer electronics. Here, we provide a transformative method for achieving high dielectric response and tunability over a wide temperature range through design of compositionally graded multilayer (CGML) architecture. Compositionally graded MLCCs were found to exhibit enhanced dielectric tunability (70%) along with small dielectric losses (filters and power converters.

  12. Avoiding Deontic Explosion by Contextually Restricting Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meheus, Joke; Beirlaen, Mathieu; van de Putte, Frederik

    In this paper, we present an adaptive logic for deontic conflicts, called P2.1 r , that is based on Goble's logic SDL a P e - a bimodal extension of Goble's logic P that invalidates aggregation for all prima facie obligations. The logic P2.1 r has several advantages with respect to SDL a P e. For consistent sets of obligations it yields the same results as Standard Deontic Logic and for inconsistent sets of obligations, it validates aggregation "as much as possible". It thus leads to a richer consequence set than SDL a P e. The logic P2.1 r avoids Goble's criticisms against other non-adjunctive systems of deontic logic. Moreover, it can handle all the 'toy examples' from the literature as well as more complex ones.

  13. Modeling decisions information fusion and aggregation operators

    CERN Document Server

    Torra, Vicenc

    2007-01-01

    Information fusion techniques and aggregation operators produce the most comprehensive, specific datum about an entity using data supplied from different sources, thus enabling us to reduce noise, increase accuracy, summarize and extract information, and make decisions. These techniques are applied in fields such as economics, biology and education, while in computer science they are particularly used in fields such as knowledge-based systems, robotics, and data mining. This book covers the underlying science and application issues related to aggregation operators, focusing on tools used in practical applications that involve numerical information. Starting with detailed introductions to information fusion and integration, measurement and probability theory, fuzzy sets, and functional equations, the authors then cover the following topics in detail: synthesis of judgements, fuzzy measures, weighted means and fuzzy integrals, indices and evaluation methods, model selection, and parameter extraction. The method...

  14. COSMIC DUST AGGREGATION WITH STOCHASTIC CHARGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Lorin S.; Hyde, Truell W.; Shotorban, Babak

    2013-01-01

    The coagulation of cosmic dust grains is a fundamental process which takes place in astrophysical environments, such as presolar nebulae and circumstellar and protoplanetary disks. Cosmic dust grains can become charged through interaction with their plasma environment or other processes, and the resultant electrostatic force between dust grains can strongly affect their coagulation rate. Since ions and electrons are collected on the surface of the dust grain at random time intervals, the electrical charge of a dust grain experiences stochastic fluctuations. In this study, a set of stochastic differential equations is developed to model these fluctuations over the surface of an irregularly shaped aggregate. Then, employing the data produced, the influence of the charge fluctuations on the coagulation process and the physical characteristics of the aggregates formed is examined. It is shown that dust with small charges (due to the small size of the dust grains or a tenuous plasma environment) is affected most strongly

  15. Important Features of Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko V. Šolar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Every society, whether developed, developing or in a phase of renewal following governmental change, requires stable, adequate and secure supplies of natural resources. In the latter case, there could be significant need for construction materials for rebuilding infrastructure, industrial capacity, and housing. It is essential that these large-volume materials be provided in a rational manner that maximizes their societal contribution and minimizes environmental impacts. We describe an approach to resource management based on the principles of sustainable development. Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management offers a way of addressing the conflicting needs and interests of environmental, economic, and social systems. Sustainability is an ethics based concept that utilizes science and democratic processes to reach acceptable agreements and tradeoffs among interests, while acknowledging the fundamental importance of the environment and social goods. We discuss the features of sustainable aggregate resource management.

  16. Important features of Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar, Slavko V.; Shields, Deborah J.; Langer, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Every society, whether developed, developing or in a phase of renewal following governmental change, requires stable, adequate and secure supplies of natural resources. In the latter case, there could be significant need for construction materials for rebuilding infrastructure, industrial capacity, and housing. It is essential that these large-volume materials be provided in a rational manner that maximizes their societal contribution and minimizes environmental impacts. We describe an approach to resource management based on the principles of sustainable developed. Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management offers a way of addressing the conflicting needs and interests of environmental, economic, and social systems. Sustainability is an ethics based concept that utilizes science and democratic processes to reach acceptable agreements and tradeoffs among interests, while acknowledging the fundamental importance of the environment and social goods. We discuss the features of sustainable aggregate resource management.

  17. Mapuche Herbal Medicine Inhibits Blood Platelet Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Skanderup Falkenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 12 plant species traditionally used by the Mapuche people in Chile to treat wounds and inflammations have been evaluated for their direct blood platelet inhibition. Seven of the 12 tested plant species showed platelet inhibitory effect in sheep blood, and four of these were also able to inhibit the ADP- (5.0 μM and collagen- (2.0 μg/mL induced aggregations in human blood. These four species in respective extracts (in brackets were Blechnum chilense (MeOH, Luma apiculata (H2O, Amomyrtus luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1 and Cestrum parqui (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1. The platelet aggregating inhibitory effects of A. luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1, and L. apiculata (H2O were substantial and confirmed by inhibition of platelet surface activation markers.

  18. Mapuche herbal medicine inhibits blood platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Tarnow, Inge; Guzman, Alfonso; Mølgaard, Per; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2012-01-01

    12 plant species traditionally used by the Mapuche people in Chile to treat wounds and inflammations have been evaluated for their direct blood platelet inhibition. Seven of the 12 tested plant species showed platelet inhibitory effect in sheep blood, and four of these were also able to inhibit the ADP- (5.0 μM) and collagen- (2.0 μg/mL) induced aggregations in human blood. These four species in respective extracts (in brackets) were Blechnum chilense (MeOH), Luma apiculata (H(2)O), Amomyrtus luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1) and Cestrum parqui (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1). The platelet aggregating inhibitory effects of A. luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1), and L. apiculata (H(2)O) were substantial and confirmed by inhibition of platelet surface activation markers.

  19. Statistical mixing and aggregation in Feller diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anteneodo, C; Duarte Queirós, S M

    2009-01-01

    We consider Feller mean-reverting square-root diffusion, which has been applied to model a wide variety of processes with linearly state-dependent diffusion, such as stochastic volatility and interest rates in finance, and neuronal and population dynamics in the natural sciences. We focus on the statistical mixing (or superstatistical) process in which the parameter related to the mean value can fluctuate—a plausible mechanism for the emergence of heavy-tailed distributions. We obtain analytical results for the associated probability density function (both stationary and time-dependent), its correlation structure and aggregation properties. Our results are applied to explain the statistics of stock traded volume at different aggregation scales

  20. Evaluation of Fine Aggregate Morphology by Image Method and Its Effect on Skid-Resistance of Micro-Surfacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Xiao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Micro-surfacing is a widely used pavement preventive maintenance technology used all over the world, due to its advantages of fast construction, low maintenance cost, good waterproofness, and skid-resistance performance. This study evaluated the fine aggregate morphology and surface texture of micro-surfacing by AIMS (aggregate image measurement system, and explored the effect of aggregate morphology on skid-resistance of single-grade micro-surfacing. Sand patch test and British pendulum test were also used to detect skid-resistance for comparison with the image-based method. Wet abrasion test was used to measure skid-resistance durability for feasibility verification of single-grade micro-surfacing. The results show that the effect of Form2D on the skid-resistance of micro-surfacing is much stronger than that of angularity. Combining the feasibility analysis of durability and skid-resistance, 1.18–2.36 grade micro-surfacing meets the requirements of durability and skid-resistance at the same time. This study also determined that, compared with British pendulum test, the texture result obtained by sand patch test fits better with results of image method.

  1. Evaluation of Fine Aggregate Morphology by Image Method and Its Effect on Skid-Resistance of Micro-Surfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yue; Wang, Feng; Cui, Peide; Lei, Lei; Lin, Juntao; Yi, Mingwei

    2018-05-29

    Micro-surfacing is a widely used pavement preventive maintenance technology used all over the world, due to its advantages of fast construction, low maintenance cost, good waterproofness, and skid-resistance performance. This study evaluated the fine aggregate morphology and surface texture of micro-surfacing by AIMS (aggregate image measurement system), and explored the effect of aggregate morphology on skid-resistance of single-grade micro-surfacing. Sand patch test and British pendulum test were also used to detect skid-resistance for comparison with the image-based method. Wet abrasion test was used to measure skid-resistance durability for feasibility verification of single-grade micro-surfacing. The results show that the effect of Form2D on the skid-resistance of micro-surfacing is much stronger than that of angularity. Combining the feasibility analysis of durability and skid-resistance, 1.18⁻2.36 grade micro-surfacing meets the requirements of durability and skid-resistance at the same time. This study also determined that, compared with British pendulum test, the texture result obtained by sand patch test fits better with results of image method.

  2. COIN Project: Towards a zero-waste technology for concrete aggregate production in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepuritis, Rolands; Willy Danielsen, Svein

    2014-05-01

    COIN Project: Towards a zero-waste technology for concrete aggregate production in Norway Rolands Cepuritis, Norcem/NTNU and Svein Willy Danielsen, SINTEF Aggregate production is a mining operation where no purification of the "ore" is necessary. Still it is extremely rare that an aggregate production plant is operating on the basis of zero-waste concept. This is since historically the fine crushed aggregate (particles with a size of less than 2, 4 or sometimes 8 mm) has been regarded as a by-product or waste of the more valuable coarse aggregate production. The reason is that the crushed coarse aggregates can easily replace coarse rounded natural stones in almost any concrete composition; while, the situation with the sand is different. The production of coarse aggregate normally yields fine fractions with rough surface texture, flaky or elongated particles an inadequate gradation. When such a material replaces smooth and rounded natural sand grains in a concrete mix, the result is usually poor and much more water and cement has to be used to achieve adequate concrete flow. The consequences are huge stockpiles of the crushed fine fractions that can't be sold (mass balance problems) for the aggregate producers, sustainability problems for the whole industry and environmental issues for society due to dumping and storing of the fine co-generated material. There have been attempts of utilising the material in concrete before; however, they have mostly ended up in failure. There have been attempts to adjust the crushed sand to the properties of the natural sand, which would still give a lot of waste, especially if the grading would have to be adjusted and the high amounts of fines abundantly present in the crushed sand would have to be removed. Another fundamental reason for failure has been that historically such attempts have mainly ended up in a research carried out by people (both industrial and academic) with aggregate background (= parties willing to find market

  3. Denitrification in Soil Aggregate Analogues-Effect of Aggregate Size and Oxygen Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Schlüter

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil-borne nitrous oxide (N2O emissions have a high spatial and temporal variability which is commonly attributed to the occurrence of hotspots and hot moments for microbial activity in aggregated soil. Yet there is only limited information about the biophysical processes that regulate the production and consumption of N2O on microscopic scales in undisturbed soil. In this study, we introduce an experimental framework relying on simplified porous media that circumvents some of the complexities occuring in natural soils while fully accounting for physical constraints believed to control microbial activity in general and denitrification in particular. We used this framework to explore the impact of aggregate size and external oxygen concentration on the kinetics of O2 consumption, as well as CO2 and N2O production. Model aggregates of different sizes (3.5 vs. 7 mm diameter composed of porous, sintered glass were saturated with a defined growth medium containing roughly 109 cells ml−1 of the facultative anaerobic, nosZ-deficient denitrifier Agrobacterium tumefaciens with N2O as final denitrification product and incubated at five different oxygen levels (0–13 vol-%. We demonstrate that the onset of denitrification depends on the amount of external oxygen and the size of aggregates. Smaller aggregates were better supplied with oxygen due to a larger surface-to-volume ratio, which resulted in faster growth and an earlier onset of denitrification. In larger aggregates, the onset of denitrification was more gradual, but with comparably higher N2O production rates once the anoxic aggregate centers were fully developed. The normalized electron flow from the reduced carbon substrate to N-oxyanions (edenit-/etotal- ratio could be solely described as a function of initial oxygen concentration in the headspace with a simple, hyperbolic model, for which the two empirical parameters changed with aggregate size in a consistent way. These findings confirm the

  4. Pore structure of natural and regenerated soil aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Arthur, Emmanuel; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative characterization of aggregate pore structure can reveal the evolution of aggregates under different land use and management practices and their effects on soil processes and functions. Advances in X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) provide powerful means to conduct such characterization....... This study examined aggregate pore structure of three differently managed same textured Danish soils (mixed forage cropping, MFC; mixed cash cropping, MCC; cereal cash cropping, CCC) for (i) natural aggregates, and (ii) aggregates regenerated after 20 months of incubation. In total, 27 aggregates (8-16 mm...... pore diameter of 200 and 170 Hm, respectively. Pore shape analysis indicated that CCC and MFC aggregates had an abundance of rounded and elongated pores, respectively, and those of MCC were in-between CCC and MFC. Aggregate pore structure development in the lysimeters was nearly similar irrespective...

  5. Evaluation of recycled concrete as aggregate in new concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluated the use of recycled concrete as coarse aggregate in new concrete pavements. : Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) produced from demolished pavements in three geographically dispersed locations in Washington state were used to perfo...

  6. performance of concrete with partial replacement of fine aggregates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    aggregate with waste glass that will result in optimal compressive strength. A total of 36 cubes were ... to achieve the required strength and durability. The fine aggregate is ..... Ceramic Foundation Annual Technical Report, pp. 143-147. 2000.

  7. THE AGGREGATE IMPACT OF ONLINE RETAIL

    OpenAIRE

    Allen Tran

    2014-01-01

    To study the impact of online retail on aggregate welfare, I use a spatial model to calculate a new measure of store level retail productivity and each store's equilibrium response to increased competitive pressure from online retailers. The model is estimated on confidential store-level data spanning the universe of US retail stores, detailed local-level demographic data and shortest-route data between locations. From counterfactual exercises mimicking improvements in shipping and increased ...

  8. Rationality of limited rationality : some aggregate implications

    OpenAIRE

    Uri M. Possen; Mikko Puhakka

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we let economic agents choose whether to become fully rational or stay boundedly rational. Boundedly rational agents are less sophisticated in their information processing abilities. It is costly to acquire information needed to become fully rational, and thus not all agents are willing to incur those costs. We then explore the aggregate effects of endogenizing the decision whether the agent should or should not become fully rational in handling information. Since fully and boun...

  9. Material properties of frc with recycled aggregate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trčková, Jiřina; Procházka, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2011), s. 105-113 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/08/1197 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : recycled aggregate * concrete composite * pullout test Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/abstracts/AGG/02_11/1_Trckova.pdf

  10. Social Networks: Rational Learning and Information Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    predecessor, Gale and Kariv (2003) who generalize the payoff equalization result of Bala and Goyal (1998) in connected social networks (discussed below...requires more notation. Using Bayes’ Rule and the assumption of equal priors on the state θ, we have that the social belief given by observing... Social Networks: Rational Learning and Information Aggregation by Ilan Lobel B.Sc., Pontif́ıcia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (2004

  11. On Aggregating Human Capital Across Heterogeneous Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Growiec, Jakub; Groth, Christian

    experience. Under the scenarios considered here, the "macro-Mincer" (log-linear) relationship between aggregate human capital and average years of schooling is obtained only in cases which are inconsistent with heterogeneity in years of schooling and based on empirically implausible demographic survival laws....... Our numerical results indicate that the macro-Mincer equation can be a reasonable approximation of the true relationship only if returns to schooling and work experience are roughly constant across countries...

  12. Aggregation Operator Based Fuzzy Pattern Classifier Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mönks, Uwe; Larsen, Henrik Legind; Lohweg, Volker

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel modular fuzzy pattern classifier design framework for intelligent automation systems, developed on the base of the established Modified Fuzzy Pattern Classifier (MFPC) and allows designing novel classifier models which are hardware-efficiently implementable....... The performances of novel classifiers using substitutes of MFPC's geometric mean aggregator are benchmarked in the scope of an image processing application against the MFPC to reveal classification improvement potentials for obtaining higher classification rates....

  13. Seasonal variability of soil aggregate stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohošková, M.; Kodešová, R.; Jirků, V.; Žigová, Anna; Kozák, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2009), , , EGU2009-6341-3-EGU2009-6341-3 ISSN 1029-7006. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly. 19.04.2009-24.04.2009, Vienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : seasonal variability * soil aggregate stability * soil types Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science

  14. Dynamic Aggregation Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mounir Said , Adel; William Ibrahim , Ashraf; Soua , Ahmed; Afifi , Hossam

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Sensor networks suffer from limited capabilities such as bandwidth, low processing power, and memory size. There is therefore a need for protocols that deliver sensor data in an energy-efficient way to the sink. One of those techniques, it gathers sensors' data in a small size packet suitable for transmission. In this paper, we propose a new Effective Data Aggregation Protocol (DAP) to reduce the energy consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which prolongs the...

  15. A microcomputer program for energy assessment and aggregation using the triangular probability distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, R.A.; Balay, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    A general risk-analysis method was developed for petroleum-resource assessment and other applications. The triangular probability distribution is used as a model with an analytic aggregation methodology based on probability theory rather than Monte-Carlo simulation. Among the advantages of the analytic method are its computational speed and flexibility, and the saving of time and cost on a microcomputer. The input into the model consists of a set of components (e.g. geologic provinces) and, for each component, three potential resource estimates: minimum, most likely (mode), and maximum. Assuming a triangular probability distribution, the mean, standard deviation, and seven fractiles (F100, F95, F75, F50, F25, F5, and F0) are computed for each component, where for example, the probability of more than F95 is equal to 0.95. The components are aggregated by combining the means, standard deviations, and respective fractiles under three possible siutations (1) perfect positive correlation, (2) complete independence, and (3) any degree of dependence between these two polar situations. A package of computer programs named the TRIAGG system was written in the Turbo Pascal 4.0 language for performing the analytic probabilistic methodology. The system consists of a program for processing triangular probability distribution assessments and aggregations, and a separate aggregation routine for aggregating aggregations. The user's documentation and program diskette of the TRIAGG system are available from USGS Open File Services. TRIAGG requires an IBM-PC/XT/AT compatible microcomputer with 256kbyte of main memory, MS-DOS 3.1 or later, either two diskette drives or a fixed disk, and a 132 column printer. A graphics adapter and color display are optional. ?? 1991.

  16. Particle-bubble aggregate stability on static bubble generated by single nozzle on flotation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warjito, Harinaldi, Setyantono, Manus; Siregar, Sahala D.

    2016-06-01

    There are three sub-processes on flotation. These processes are intervening liquid film into critical thickness, rupture of liquid film forming three phase contact line, and expansion three phase contact line forming aggregate stability. Aggregate stability factor contribute to determine flotation efficiency. Aggregate stability has some important factors such as reagent and particle geometry. This research focussed on to understand effect of particle geometry to aggregate stability. Experimental setup consists of 9 x 9 x26 cm flotation column made of glass, bubble generator, particle feeding system, and high speed video camera. Bubble generator made from single nozzle with 0.3 mm diameter attached to programmable syringe pump. Particle feeding system made of pipette. Particle used in this research is taken from open pit Grasberg in Timika, Papua. Particle has sub-angular geometry and its size varies from 38 to 300 µm. Bubble-particle interaction are recorded using high speed video camera. Recordings from high speed video camera analyzed using image processing software. Experiment result shows that aggregate particle-bubble and induction time depends on particle size. Small particle (38-106 µm) has long induction time and able to rupture liquid film and also forming three phase contact line. Big particle (150-300 µm) has short induction time, so it unable to attach with bubble easily. This phenomenon is caused by apparent gravity work on particle-bubble interaction. Apparent gravity worked during particle sliding on bubble surface experience increase and reached its maximum magnitude at bubble equator. After particle passed bubble equator, apparent gravity force experience decrease. In conclusion particle size from 38-300 µm can form stable aggregate if particle attached with bubble in certain condition.

  17. The use of spent glauconite in lightweight aggregate production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franus, Wojciech

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The presented work has shown an application of spent glauconite bed after purification of wastewater for production of lightweight expanded clay aggregates. Sewage, from which it was removed Zn ions, came from technological line (zincworks of Communication Equipment Factory „PZL” Świdnik. Spent glauconite bed was used as an additive in lightweight aggregate production which was obtained using plastic method by sintering, at temperature 1140 ºC and 1200 ºC, of spent glauconite amouts 10, 15, 20 and 25% wt. with clays from open-cast mine „Budy Mszczonowskie”. The presence of the mineral improves sinter texture, increases porosity and contributes to formation of glassy layer on the surface of the aggregates. Tests of zinc elution from lightweight of aggregate samples has shown very low mobility of zinc ions. Content of zinc in water extracts obtained from lightweight of aggregate is definitely lower than zinc concentration permitted for sewage discharge to water or soil, means that spent material is not offensive for the environment as it can be used as a high quality building product.

    El trabajo presentado ha demostrado una aplicación de agotado depósito de glauconita después de la purificación de aguas residuales para la producción de áridos ligeros de arcilla expandida. Las aguas residuales, de la que fueron eliminados los iones Zn, vinieron de la línea tecnológica del equipo de comunicación de la fábrica “PZL” Świdnik. Agotado depósito de glauconita se utiliza como aditivo en la producción de áridos ligeros que se obtuvo utilizando el método de plástico de la sinterización, a temperatura C. 1140 º y 1200 º C, de spent glauconita amouts10, 15, 20 y 25% en peso. con arcillas de la mina a cielo abierto “Budy Mszczonowskie”. La presencia de este mineral mejora la textura de sinterización, aumenta la porosidad y contribuye a la formación de la capa vítrea en la superficie de los agregados. Pruebas de

  18. Development of DU-AGG (Depleted Uranium Aggregate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessing, P.A.

    1995-09-01

    Depleted uranium oxide (UO{sub 2} or U0{sub 3}) powder was mixed with fine mineral additives, pressed, and heated to about 1,250{degree}C. The additives were chemically constituted to result in an iron-enriched basalt (IEB). Melting and wetting of the IEB phase caused the urania powder compact to densify (sinter) via a liquid phase sintering mechanism. An inorganic lubricant was found to aid in green-forming of the body. Sintering was successful in oxidizing (air), inert (argon), or reducing (dry hydrogen containing) atmospheres. The use of ground U0{sub 3} powders (93 vol %) followed by sintering in a dry hydrogen-containing atmosphere significantly increased the density of samples (bulk density of 8.40 g/cm{sup 3} and apparent density of 9.48 g/cm{sup 3}, open porosity of 11.43%). An improvement in the microstructure (reduction in open porosity) was achieved when the vol % of U0{sub 3} was decreased to 80%. The bulk density increased to 8.59 g/cm{sup 3}, the apparent density decreased slightly to 8.82 g/cm{sup 3} (due to increase of low density IEB content), while the open porosity decreased to an excellent number of 2.78%. A representative sample derived from 80 vol % U0{sub 3} showed that most pores were closed pores and that, overall, the sample achieved the excellent relative density value of 94.1% of the estimated theoretical density (composite of U0{sub 2} and IEB). It is expected that ground powders of U0{sub 3} could be successfully used to mass produce lowcost aggregate using the green-forming technique of briquetting.

  19. Role of Prion Protein Aggregation in Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullio Florio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson, Alzheimer’s, Huntington, and prion diseases, the deposition of aggregated misfolded proteins is believed to be responsible for the neurotoxicity that characterizes these diseases. Prion protein (PrP, the protein responsible of prion diseases, has been deeply studied for the peculiar feature of its misfolded oligomers that are able to propagate within affected brains, inducing the conversion of the natively folded PrP into the pathological conformation. In this review, we summarize the available experimental evidence concerning the relationship between aggregation status of misfolded PrP and neuronal death in the course of prion diseases. In particular, we describe the main findings resulting from the use of different synthetic (mainly PrP106-126 and recombinant PrP-derived peptides, as far as mechanisms of aggregation and amyloid formation, and how these different spatial conformations can affect neuronal death. In particular, most data support the involvement of non-fibrillar oligomers rather than actual amyloid fibers as the determinant of neuronal death.

  20. Disaggregases, molecular chaperones that resolubilize protein aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Z. Mokry

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of folding is a seminal event in the life of a protein, as it is essential for proper protein function and therefore cell physiology. Inappropriate folding, or misfolding, can not only lead to loss of function, but also to the formation of protein aggregates, an insoluble association of polypeptides that harm cell physiology, either by themselves or in the process of formation. Several biological processes have evolved to prevent and eliminate the existence of non-functional and amyloidogenic aggregates, as they are associated with several human pathologies. Molecular chaperones and heat shock proteins are specialized in controlling the quality of the proteins in the cell, specifically by aiding proper folding, and dissolution and clearance of already formed protein aggregates. The latter is a function of disaggregases, mainly represented by the ClpB/Hsp104 subfamily of molecular chaperones, that are ubiquitous in all organisms but, surprisingly, have no orthologs in the cytosol of metazoan cells. This review aims to describe the characteristics of disaggregases and to discuss the function of yeast Hsp104, a disaggregase that is also involved in prion propagation and inheritance.

  1. Characterising risk - aggregated metrics: radiation and noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passchier, W.

    1998-01-01

    The characterisation of risk is an important phase in the risk assessment - risk management process. From the multitude of risk attributes a few have to be selected to obtain a risk characteristic or profile that is useful for risk management decisions and implementation of protective measures. One way to reduce the number of attributes is aggregation. In the field of radiation protection such an aggregated metric is firmly established: effective dose. For protection against environmental noise the Health Council of the Netherlands recently proposed a set of aggregated metrics for noise annoyance and sleep disturbance. The presentation will discuss similarities and differences between these two metrics and practical limitations. The effective dose has proven its usefulness in designing radiation protection measures, which are related to the level of risk associated with the radiation practice in question, given that implicit judgements on radiation induced health effects are accepted. However, as the metric does not take into account the nature of radiation practice, it is less useful in policy discussions on the benefits and harm of radiation practices. With respect to the noise exposure metric, only one effect is targeted (annoyance), and the differences between sources are explicitly taken into account. This should make the metric useful in policy discussions with respect to physical planning and siting problems. The metric proposed has only significance on a population level, and can not be used as a predictor for individual risk. (author)

  2. Understanding sexual harassment using aggregate construct models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Christopher D; Brummel, Bradley J; Drasgow, Fritz

    2014-11-01

    Sexual harassment has received a substantial amount of empirical attention over the past few decades, and this research has consistently shown that experiencing these behaviors has a detrimental effect on employees' well-being, job attitudes, and behaviors at work. However, these findings, and the conclusions that are drawn from them, make the implicit assumption that the empirical models used to examine sexual harassment are properly specified. This article presents evidence that properly specified aggregate construct models are more consistent with theoretical structures and definitions of sexual harassment and can result in different conclusions about the nomological network of harassment. Results from 3 large samples, 2 military and 1 from a civilian population, are used to illustrate the differences between aggregate construct and reflective indicator models of sexual harassment. These analyses suggested that the factor structure and the nomological network of sexual harassment differ when modeling harassment as an aggregate construct. The implications of these results for the continued study of sexual harassment are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Energy Efficient Payload Aggregation in WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákos MILÁNKOVICH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Creating wireless sensor networks requires a different approach than traditional communication networks because energy efficiency plays a key role in sensor networks, which consist of devices without external power. The amount of energy used determines the lifetime of these devices. In most cases data packets are less sensitive to delay, thus can be aggregated, making it possible to gather more useful information reducing the energy required to transmit information. This article discusses the energy efficiency of different Forward Error Correction algorithms and presents a method to calculate the optimal amount of aggregation of the data packets in terms of power consumption, while taking into account the Bit Error Rate characteristics of the wireless channel. The contribution of this paper is a general method to improve the energy efficiency of wireless sensor networks by using the optimal amount of aggregation in case of different Forward Error Correction codes and channel characteristics. The presented results can be applied to any packet-based wireless protocol.

  4. Implications Of Aggregate Demand Elasticity For The Phillips Curve

    OpenAIRE

    Ben L. Kyer; Gary E. Maggs

    2004-01-01

    While the general relationship between the aggregate supply curve and the Phillips curve is recognized, the importance of aggregate demand and, in particular, aggregate demand elasticity, for the inflation-unemployment relationship has been untreated. We believe, however, that the elasticity of aggregate demand with respect to the general price level does have some significance for the short-run Phillips curve since, on a general level, the economy's equilibrium price level, inflation rate, r...

  5. SHAPE ANALYSIS OF FINE AGGREGATES USED FOR CONCRETE

    OpenAIRE

    HE, Huan; Courard, Luc; Pirard, Eric; Michel, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Fine aggregate is one of the essential components in concrete and significantly influences the material properties. As parts of natures, physical characteristics of fine aggregate are highly relevant to its behaviors in concrete. The most of previous studies are mainly focused on the physical properties of coarse aggregate due to the equipment limitations. In this paper, two typical fine aggregates, i.e. river sand and crushed rock, are selected for shape characterization. The new developed d...

  6. Aggregate Settling Velocities in San Francisco Estuary Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. M.; Stacey, M. T.; Variano, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    One way that humans impact aquatic ecosystems is by adding nutrients and contaminants, which can propagate up the food web and cause blooms and die-offs, respectively. Often, these chemicals are attached to fine sediments, and thus where sediments go, so do these anthropogenic influences. Vertical motion of sediments is important for sinking and burial, and also for indirect effects on horizontal transport. The dynamics of sinking sediment (often in aggregates) are complex, thus we need field data to test and validate existing models. San Francisco Bay is well studied and is often used as a test case for new measurement and model techniques (Barnard et al. 2013). Settling velocities for aggregates vary between 4*10-5 to 1.6*10-2 m/s along the estuary backbone (Manning and Schoellhamer 2013). Model results from South San Francisco Bay shoals suggest two populations of settling particles, one fast (ws of 9 to 5.8*10-4 m/s) and one slow (ws of Brand et al. 2015). While the open waters of San Francisco Bay and other estuaries are well studied and modeled, sediment and contaminants often originate from the margin regions, and the margins remain poorly characterized. We conducted a 24 hour field experiment in a channel slough of South San Francisco Bay, and measured settling velocity, turbulence and flow, and suspended sediment concentration. At this margin location, we found average settling velocities of 4-5*10-5 m/s, and saw settling velocities decrease with decreasing suspended sediment concentration. These results are consistent with, though at the low end of, those seen along the estuary center, and they suggest that the two population model that has been successful along the shoals may also apply in the margins.

  7. (Intuitionistic Fuzzy Grade of a Hypergroupoid: A Survey of Some Recent Researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Cristea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a short survey on two numerical functions determined by a hypergroupoid, called the fuzzy grade and the intuitionistic fuzzy grade of a hypergroupoid. It starts with the main construction of the sequences of join spaces and (intuitionistic fuzzy sets associated with a hypergroupoid. After some computations of the above grades, we discuss some similarities and differences between the two grades for the complete hypergroups and for the i.p.s. hypergroups. We conclude with some open problems.

  8. Family Open House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search Family Open House Join us for an afternoon of science fun. The Fermilab Family Open House is a party for children of all ages to learn about the world of physics. The Open House is supported by Open House? Check out our YouTube video to learn more! Explore physics concepts with hands-on

  9. Glaucoma, Open-Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Statistics and Data » Glaucoma, Open-angle Listen Glaucoma, Open-angle Open-angle Glaucoma Defined In open-angle glaucoma, the fluid passes ... 2010 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Glaucoma by Age and Race/Ethnicity The prevalence of ...

  10. Linkages between aggregate formation, porosity and soil chemical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regelink, I.C.; Stoof, C.R.; Rousseva, S.; Weng, L.; Lair, G.J.; Kram, P.; Nikolaidis, N.P.; Kercheva, M.; Banwart, S.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2015-01-01

    Linkages between soil structure and physical–chemical soil properties are still poorly understood due to the wide size-range at which aggregation occurs and the variety of aggregation factors involved. To improve understanding of these processes, we collected data on aggregate fractions, soil

  11. Performance of Uplink Carrier Aggregation in LTE-Advanced Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Carrier aggregation (CA) has been proposed to aggregate two or more component carriers (CCs) to support a much wider transmission bandwidth for LTE-Advanced systems. With carrier aggregation, it is possible to schedule a user equipment (UE) on multiple component carriers simultaneously. In this p...

  12. Efficient external memory structures for range-aggregate queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, P.K.; Yang, J.; Arge, L.

    2013-01-01

    We present external memory data structures for efficiently answering range-aggregate queries. The range-aggregate problem is defined as follows: Given a set of weighted points in Rd, compute the aggregate of the weights of the points that lie inside a d-dimensional orthogonal query rectangle. The...

  13. Procedure for Validation of Aggregators Providing Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondy, Daniel Esteban Morales; Gehrke, Oliver; Thavlov, Anders

    2016-01-01

    of small heterogeneous resources that are geographically distributed. Therefore, a new test procedure must be designed for the aggregator validation. This work proposes such a procedure and exemplifies is with a study case. The validation of aggregators is essential if aggregators are to be integrated...... succesfully into the power system....

  14. Environmental suitability of recycled concrete aggregate in highways : [research summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Natural highway aggregate is a finite resource that with continued use in construction : activities but some good quality aggregates used in existing concrete structures may be : re-used to replace with the natural aggregate. Due to the repair or rep...

  15. Creep and shrinkage behaviour of concrete with mixed recycled aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, D.A.; Uijl, J. den

    1999-01-01

    For environmental reasons the interest in possibilities to use recycled aggregates in concrete is strongly increasing. World-wide, most attention with respect to recycled aggregates is paid to the quality of the aggregates. Still only limited information is available for the mechanica! properties of

  16. Aggregate formation in 3D turbulent-like flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez, A.; Aartrijk, van M.; Castello, Del L.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Geurts, B.; Clercx, H

    2006-01-01

    Aggregate formation is an important process in industrial and environ mental turbulent flows. Two examples in the environmental area, where turbulent aggregate formation takes place, are raindrop formation in clouds and Marine Snow (aggregate) formation in the upper layer in the oceans. The

  17. Evaluation of Colemanite Waste as Aggregate Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat MOROVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study usability of waste colemanite which is obtained after cutting block colemanite for giving proper shape to blocks as an aggregate in hot mix asphalt. For this aim asphalt concrete samples were prepared with four different aggregate groups and optimum bitumen content was determined. First of all only limestone was used as an aggregate. After that, only colemanite aggregate was used with same aggregate gradation. Then, the next step of the study, Marshall samples were produced by changing coarse and fine aggregate gradation as limestone and colemanite and Marshall test were conducted. When evaluated the results samples which produced with only limestone aggregate gave the maximum Marshall Stability value. When handled other mixture groups (Only colemanite, colemanite as coarse aggregate-limestone as fine aggregate, colemanite as fine aggregate-limestone as coarse aggregate all groups were verified specification limits. As a result, especially in areas where there is widespread colemanite waste, if transportation costs did not exceed the cost of limestone, colemanite stone waste could be used instead of limestone in asphalt concrete mixtures as fine aggregate

  18. Vocal Fold Mucus Aggregation in Persons with Voice Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Heather Shaw; White, Lisa; Kuckhahn, Kelsey; Gerlach, Terri Treman; Deliyski, Dimitar D.

    2012-01-01

    Mucus aggregation on the vocal folds is a common finding from laryngeal endoscopy. Patients with voice disorders report the presence of mucus aggregation. Patients also report that mucus aggregation causes them to clear their throat, a behavior believed to be harmful to vocal fold mucosa. Even though clinicians and patients report and discuss…

  19. 40 CFR 63.1408 - Aggregate batch vent stream provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Aggregate batch vent stream provisions... § 63.1408 Aggregate batch vent stream provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of aggregate batch vent streams at a new or existing affected source shall comply with either paragraph (a)(1...

  20. 21 CFR 1303.13 - Adjustments of aggregate production quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustments of aggregate production quotas. 1303.13 Section 1303.13 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE QUOTAS Aggregate Production and Procurement Quotas § 1303.13 Adjustments of aggregate production quotas. (a) The...

  1. 21 CFR 1303.11 - Aggregate production quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aggregate production quotas. 1303.11 Section 1303.11 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE QUOTAS Aggregate Production and Procurement Quotas § 1303.11 Aggregate production quotas. (a) The Administrator shall determine...

  2. Cigarette smoking increases white blood cell aggregation in whole blood.

    OpenAIRE

    Bridges, A B; Hill, A; Belch, J J

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effect of chronic cigarette smoking on white blood cell aggregation, increased aggregation predisposes to microvascular occlusion and damage. Current smokers had significantly increased white blood cell aggregation when compared with non smokers. The presence of chronically activated white blood cells in current smokers may be relevant in the pathogenesis of ischaemic vascular disease.

  3. Effect of natural antioxidants on the aggregation and disaggregation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: High antioxidant activities were positively correlated with the inhibition of Aβ aggregation, although not with the disaggregation of pre-formed Aβ aggregates. Nevertheless, potent antioxidants may be helpful in treating Alzheimer's disease. Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, β-Amyloid, Aggregation, Disaggregation ...

  4. Aggregated nanoplatelets: optical properties and optically induced deaggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayabalan, J; Singh, Asha; Chari, Rama; Srivastava, Himanshu; Srivastava, A K; Mukhopadhyay, P K; Oak, S M

    2008-01-01

    A study of aggregation and laser-induced deaggregation of silver nanospheres and nanoplatelets in colloidal form is presented. Changes in the extinction spectrum caused by aggregation are explained using a two-particle approximation. In the case of platelets, controlled laser irradiation is shown to reverse the aggregation process.

  5. Aggregated nanoplatelets: optical properties and optically induced deaggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayabalan, J; Singh, Asha; Chari, Rama [Laser Physics Application Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Srivastava, Himanshu; Srivastava, A K [Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Mukhopadhyay, P K; Oak, S M [Solid State Laser Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)], E-mail: jjaya@cat.ernet.in

    2008-11-05

    A study of aggregation and laser-induced deaggregation of silver nanospheres and nanoplatelets in colloidal form is presented. Changes in the extinction spectrum caused by aggregation are explained using a two-particle approximation. In the case of platelets, controlled laser irradiation is shown to reverse the aggregation process.

  6. Aggregate formation in 3D turbulent-like flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez, A.; Clercx, H.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Aggregate formation is an important process in industrial and environmental turbulent flows. In oceans turbulence play an important role on Marine Snow (aggregate) formation. For a proper description, the study of aggregate formation in turbulent flows requires a particle based model i.e. following

  7. Retiring the Short-Run Aggregate Supply Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, S. Kirk

    2010-01-01

    The author argues that the aggregate demand/aggregate supply (AD/AS) model is significantly improved--although certainly not perfected--by trimming it of the short-run aggregate supply (SRAS) curve. Problems with the SRAS curve are shown first for the AD/AS model that casts the AD curve as identifying the equilibrium level of output associated…

  8. JISC Open Access Briefing Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Swan, Alma

    2005-01-01

    What Open Access is. What Open Access is not. How is Open Access provided? Open Access archives or repositories. Open Access journals. Why should authors provide Open Access to their work? Further information and resources

  9. OpenGL Insights

    CERN Document Server

    Cozzi, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Get Real-World Insight from Experienced Professionals in the OpenGL Community With OpenGL, OpenGL ES, and WebGL, real-time rendering is becoming available everywhere, from AAA games to mobile phones to web pages. Assembling contributions from experienced developers, vendors, researchers, and educators, OpenGL Insights presents real-world techniques for intermediate and advanced OpenGL, OpenGL ES, and WebGL developers. Go Beyond the Basics The book thoroughly covers a range of topics, including OpenGL 4.2 and recent extensions. It explains how to optimize for mobile devices, explores the design

  10. Sustainable normal and high strength recycled aggregate concretes using crushed tested cylinders as coarse aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal S. Hamad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on a research program that was designed at the American University of Beirut (AUB to investigate the fresh and hardened mechanical properties of a high performance concrete mix produced with partial or full substitution of crushed natural lime-stone aggregates with recycled aggregates from crushed tested cylinders in batching plants. Choosing crushed cylinders as source of recycling would result in reusing portion of the waste products of the concrete production industry. An extensive concrete batching and testing program was conducted to achieve two optimum normal and high strength concrete mixes. The variables were the nominal concrete strength (28 or 60 MPa and the percentage replacement of natural coarse aggregates with recycled aggregates from crushed tested cylinders (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, or 100%. Normal strength tested cylinders were used as source of the recycled aggregates for the normal strength concrete (NSC mix and high strength tested cylinders were used for the high strength concrete (HSC mix. Tests on the trial batches included plastic state slump and hardened state mechanical properties including cylinder compressive strength, cylinder splitting tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and standard beams flexural strength. The results indicated no significant effect on the slump and around 10% average reduction in the hardened mechanical properties for both investigated levels of concrete compressive strength.

  11. Sand Cement Brick Containing Recycled Concrete Aggregate as Fine-Aggregate Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Khalid Faisal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the usage amount of the concrete is increasing drastically. The construction industry is a huge consumer of natural consumer. It is also producing the huge wastage products. The usage of concrete has been charged to be not environmentally friendly due to depletion of reserve natural resources, high energy consumption and disposal issues. The conservation of natural resources and reduction of disposal site by reuse and recycling waste material was interest possibilites. The aim of this study is to determine the physical and mechanical properties of sand cement brick containing recycled concrete aggregate and to determine the optimum mix ratio containing recycled concrete aggregate. An experiment done by comparing the result of control specimen using 100% natural sand with recycled concrete aggregate replacement specimen by weight for 55%, 65%, and 75%. The sample was tested under density, compressive strength, flexural strength and water absorption to study the effect of using recycled concrete aggregate on the physical and mechanical properties of bricks. The result shows that the replacement of natural sand by recycled concrete aggregate at the level of 55% provide the highest compressive and flexural strength compared to other percentage and control specimen. However, if the replacement higher than 55%, the strength of brick was decreased for compressive and flexural strength, respectively. The relationship of compressive-flexural strength is determined from statistical analysis and the predicted result can be obtained by using equation ff,RCA = 0.5375 (fc0.3272.

  12. Effect of Grade Retention in First Grade on Psychosocial Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.; Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    In a 4-year longitudinal study, the authors investigated effects of retention in first grade on children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors; social acceptance; and behavioral, cognitive, and affective engagement. From a large multiethnic sample (n = 784) of children below the median on literacy at school entrance, 124 retained children were matched with 251 promoted children on the basis of propensity scores (probability of being retained in first grade estimated from 72 baseline var...

  13. Representative volume element size of a polycrystalline aggregate with embedded short crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonovski, I.; Cizelj, L.

    2007-01-01

    A random polycrystalline aggregate model is proposed for evaluation of a representative volume element size (RVE) of a 316L stainless steel with embedded surface crack. RVE size is important since it defines the size of specimen where the influence of local microstructural features averages out, resulting in the same macroscopic response for geometrically similar specimen. On the other hand macroscopic responses of specimen with size smaller than RVE will, due to the microstructural features, differ significantly. Different sizes and orientations of grains, inclusions, voids,... etc are examples of such microstructural features. If a specimen size is above RVE size, classical continuum mechanics can be applied. On the other hand, advanced material models should be used for specimen with size below RVE. This paper proposes one such model, where random size, shape and orientation of grains are explicitly modeled. Crystal plasticity constitutive model is used to account for slip in the grains. RVE size is estimated by calculating the crack tip opening displacements of aggregates with different grain numbers. Progressively larger number of grains are included in the aggregates until the crack tip displacements for two consecutive aggregates of increasing size differ less than 1 %. At this point the model has reached RVE size. (author)

  14. First haemorheological experiment on NASA space shuttle 'Discovery' STS 51-C: aggregation of red cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dintenfass, L; Osman, P D; Jedrzejczyk, H

    1985-01-01

    The 'secret' D.O.D. Mission on flight STS 51-C also carried nearly 100 kg of automated instrumentation of the Australian experiment on aggregation of red cells ("ARC"). The automated Slit-Capillary Photo Viscometer contained blood samples from subjects with history of coronary heart disease, cancer of the colon, insulin-dependent diabetes, etc., as well as normals. The experiment ran for nine hours, according to the program of its microcomputers. When shuttle landed and instrumentation recovered and opened in the presence of NASA quality control officers, it was obvious that experiment was a success. Tentative and preliminary results can be summarized as follows: red cells did not change shape under zero gravity; red cells do aggregate under zero gravity, although the size of aggregates is smaller than on the ground; the morphology of aggregates of red cells appears to be of rouleaux type under zero gravity, notwithstanding the fact that pathological blood was used. These results will have to be confirmed in the future flights. The background and history of development of the project are described, and put into context of our general haemorheological studies.

  15. Lightweight Data Aggregation Scheme against Internal Attackers in Smart Grid Using Elliptic Curve Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debiao He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances of Internet and microelectronics technologies have led to the concept of smart grid which has been a widespread concern for industry, governments, and academia. The openness of communications in the smart grid environment makes the system vulnerable to different types of attacks. The implementation of secure communication and the protection of consumers’ privacy have become challenging issues. The data aggregation scheme is an important technique for preserving consumers’ privacy because it can stop the leakage of a specific consumer’s data. To satisfy the security requirements of practical applications, a lot of data aggregation schemes were presented over the last several years. However, most of them suffer from security weaknesses or have poor performances. To reduce computation cost and achieve better security, we construct a lightweight data aggregation scheme against internal attackers in the smart grid environment using Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC. Security analysis of our proposed approach shows that it is provably secure and can provide confidentiality, authentication, and integrity. Performance analysis of the proposed scheme demonstrates that both computation and communication costs of the proposed scheme are much lower than the three previous schemes. As a result of these aforementioned benefits, the proposed lightweight data aggregation scheme is more practical for deployment in the smart grid environment.

  16. Open Government and (Linked (Open (Government (Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Philipp Geiger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the opening and the free usage of stored public sector data, supplied by state. In the age of Open Government and Open Data it’s not enough just to put data online. It should be rather weighed out whether, how and which supplied public sector data can be published. Open Data are defined as stored data which could be made accessible in a public interest without any restrictions for usage and distribution. These Open Data can possibly be statistics, geo data, maps, plans, environmental data and weather data in addition to materials of the parliaments, ministries and authorities. The preparation and the free access to existing data permit varied approaches to the reuse of data, discussed in the article. In addition, impulses can be given for Open Government – the opening of state and administration, to more transparency, participation and collaboration as well as to innovation and business development. The Open Data movement tries to get to the bottom of current publication processes in the public sector which could be formed even more friendly to citizens and enterprises.

  17. Overview: Routes to Open Access

    OpenAIRE

    Tullney, Marco; van Wezenbeek, Wilma

    2017-01-01

    Slides of an overview presentation given at a CESAER workshop on Open Access, February 2nd, 2017, in Brussels Cover major routes to more open access as discussed in the Task Force Open Science of CESAER: (national) open access strategies open access mandates open access incentives open access awareness open access publishing open access infrastructure

  18. Heterologous aggregates promote de novo prion appearance via more than one mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Arslan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prions are self-perpetuating conformational variants of particular proteins. In yeast, prions cause heritable phenotypic traits. Most known yeast prions contain a glutamine (Q/asparagine (N-rich region in their prion domains. [PSI+], the prion form of Sup35, appears de novo at dramatically enhanced rates following transient overproduction of Sup35 in the presence of [PIN+], the prion form of Rnq1. Here, we establish the temporal de novo appearance of Sup35 aggregates during such overexpression in relation to other cellular proteins. Fluorescently-labeled Sup35 initially forms one or a few dots when overexpressed in [PIN+] cells. One of the dots is perivacuolar, colocalizes with the aggregated Rnq1 dot and grows into peripheral rings/lines, some of which also colocalize with Rnq1. Sup35 dots that are not near the vacuole do not always colocalize with Rnq1 and disappear by the time rings start to grow. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation failed to detect any interaction between Sup35-VN and Rnq1-VC in [PSI+][PIN+] cells. In contrast, all Sup35 aggregates, whether newly induced or in established [PSI+], completely colocalize with the molecular chaperones Hsp104, Sis1, Ssa1 and eukaryotic release factor Sup45. In the absence of [PIN+], overexpressed aggregating proteins such as the Q/N-rich Pin4C or the non-Q/N-rich Mod5 can also promote the de novo appearance of [PSI+]. Similar to Rnq1, overexpressed Pin4C transiently colocalizes with newly appearing Sup35 aggregates. However, no interaction was detected between Mod5 and Sup35 during [PSI+] induction in the absence of [PIN+]. While the colocalization of Sup35 and aggregates of Rnq1 or Pin4C are consistent with the model that the heterologous aggregates cross-seed the de novo appearance of [PSI+], the lack of interaction between Mod5 and Sup35 leaves open the possibility of other mechanisms. We also show that Hsp104 is required in the de novo appearance of [PSI+] aggregates in a [PIN

  19. Validation of individual and aggregate global flood hazard models for two major floods in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigg, M.; Bernhofen, M.; Whyman, C.

    2017-12-01

    A recent intercomparison of global flood hazard models undertaken by the Global Flood Partnership shows that there is an urgent requirement to undertake more validation of the models against flood observations. As part of the intercomparison, the aggregated model dataset resulting from the project was provided as open access data. We compare the individual and aggregated flood extent output from the six global models and test these against two major floods in the African Continent within the last decade, namely severe flooding on the Niger River in Nigeria in 2012, and on the Zambezi River in Mozambique in 2007. We test if aggregating different number and combination of models increases model fit to the observations compared with the individual model outputs. We present results that illustrate some of the challenges of comparing imperfect models with imperfect observations and also that of defining the probability of a real event in order to test standard model output probabilities. Finally, we propose a collective set of open access validation flood events, with associated observational data and descriptions that provide a standard set of tests across different climates and hydraulic conditions.

  20. Monoblock Obturation Technique for Non-Vital Immature Permanent Maxillary Incisors Using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: Results from Case Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Z.; Qureshi, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Ten patients presented with non-vital immature teeth for root canal treatment. In all these cases the pre-operative clinical examination revealed apical periodontitis with a buccal sinus tract of endodontic origin. These cases were treated by a mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) monoblock obturation technique. Follow-up evaluations were performed at 1 - 2 years after treatment. Eight out of 10 cases were associated with periradicular healing at follow-up evaluation. Mineral trioxide aggregate Monoblock obturation technique appears to be a valid material to obtain periradicular healing in teeth with open apices and necrotic pulps. (author)

  1. Aggregation of flexible polyelectrolytes: Phase diagram and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Anvy Moly; Rajesh, R; Vemparala, Satyavani

    2017-10-14

    Similarly charged polymers in solution, known as polyelectrolytes, are known to form aggregated structures in the presence of oppositely charged counterions. Understanding the dependence of the equilibrium phases and the dynamics of the process of aggregation on parameters such as backbone flexibility and charge density of such polymers is crucial for insights into various biological processes which involve biological polyelectrolytes such as protein, DNA, etc. Here, we use large-scale coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to obtain the phase diagram of the aggregated structures of flexible charged polymers and characterize the morphology of the aggregates as well as the aggregation dynamics, in the presence of trivalent counterions. Three different phases are observed depending on the charge density: no aggregation, a finite bundle phase where multiple small aggregates coexist with a large aggregate and a fully phase separated phase. We show that the flexibility of the polymer backbone causes strong entanglement between charged polymers leading to additional time scales in the aggregation process. Such slowing down of the aggregation dynamics results in the exponent, characterizing the power law decay of the number of aggregates with time, to be dependent on the charge density of the polymers. These results are contrary to those obtained for rigid polyelectrolytes, emphasizing the role of backbone flexibility.

  2. Recycled aggregates in concrete production: engineering properties and environmental impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddik Meddah Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycled concrete aggregate is considered as the most abundant and used secondary aggregate in concrete production, other types of solid waste are also being used in concrete for specific purposes and to achieve some desired properties. Recycled aggregates and particularly, recycled concrete aggregate substantially affect the properties and mix design of concrete both at fresh and hardened states since it is known by high porosity due to the adhered layer of old mortar on the aggregate which results in a high water absorption of the recycled secondary aggregate. This leads to lower density and strength, and other durability related properties. The use of most recycled aggregate in concrete structures is still limited to low strength and non-structural applications due to important drop in strength and durability performances generated. Embedding recycled aggregates in concrete is now a current practice in many countries to enhance sustainability of concrete industry and reduce its environmental impacts. The present paper discusses the various possible recycled aggregates used in concrete production, their effect on both fresh and hardened properties as well as durability performances. The economic and environmental impacts of partially or fully substituting natural aggregates by secondary recycled aggregates are also discussed.

  3. Partitioning of red blood cell aggregates in bifurcating microscale flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliviotis, E.; Sherwood, J. M.; Balabani, S.

    2017-03-01

    Microvascular flows are often considered to be free of red blood cell aggregates, however, recent studies have demonstrated that aggregates are present throughout the microvasculature, affecting cell distribution and blood perfusion. This work reports on the spatial distribution of red blood cell aggregates in a T-shaped bifurcation on the scale of a large microvessel. Non-aggregating and aggregating human red blood cell suspensions were studied for a range of flow splits in the daughter branches of the bifurcation. Aggregate sizes were determined using image processing. The mean aggregate size was marginally increased in the daughter branches for a range of flow rates, mainly due to the lower shear conditions and the close cell and aggregate proximity therein. A counterintuitive decrease in the mean aggregate size was apparent in the lower flow rate branches. This was attributed to the existence of regions depleted by aggregates of certain sizes in the parent branch, and to the change in the exact flow split location in the T-junction with flow ratio. The findings of the present investigation may have significant implications for microvascular flows and may help explain why the effects of physiological RBC aggregation are not deleterious in terms of in vivo vascular resistance.

  4. Mechanical Dissociation of Platelet Aggregates in Blood Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoore, Masoud; Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Gompper, Gerhard; Complex; Biological Fluids Group Team

    2017-11-01

    von Willebrand factor (VWF) and platelet aggregation is a key phenomenon in blood clotting. These aggregates form critically in high shear rates and dissolve reversibly in low shear rates. The emergence of a critical shear rate, beyond which aggregates form and below which they dissolve, has an interesting impact on aggregation in blood flow. As red blood cells (RBCs) migrate to the center of the vessel in blood flow, a RBC free layer (RBC-FL) is left close to the walls into which the platelets and VWFs are pushed back from the bulk flow. This margination process provides maximal VWF-platelet aggregation probability in the RBC-FL. Using mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations of aggregate dynamics in blood flow, it is shown that the aggregates form and grow in RBC-FL wherein shear rate is high for VWF stretching. By growing, the aggregates penetrate to the bulk flow and get under order of magnitude lower shear rates. Consequently, they dissolve and get back into the RBC-FL. This mechanical limitation for aggregates prohibits undesired thrombosis and vessel blockage by aggregates, while letting the VWFs and platelets to aggregate close to the walls where they are actually needed. The support by the DFG Research Unit FOR 1543 SHENC and CPU time Grant by the Julich Supercomputing Center are acknowledged.

  5. Gender discrimination in exam grading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    2018-01-01

    Girls, on average, obtain higher test scores in school than boys, and recent research suggests that part of this difference may be due to discrimination against boys in grading. This bias is consequential if admission to subsequent education programs is based on exam scores. This study assesses t...... tendencies are in accordance with statistical discrimination as a mechanism for grading bias in essay writing and with gender-stereotyped beliefs of math being a male domain....... are scored twice (blind and non-blind). Both strategies use difference-in-differences methods. Although imprecisely estimated, the point estimates indicate a blind grading advantage for boys in essay writing of approximately 5-8% SD, corresponding to 9-15% of the gender gap in essay exam grades. The effect...

  6. Progressive problems higher grade physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, William

    2001-01-01

    This book fully covers all three Units studied in Scotland's Higher Grade Physics course, providing a systematic array of problems (from the simplest to the most difficult) to lead variously abled pupils to examination success.

  7. Grade 6 Science Curriculum Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This material describes curriculum specifications for grade 6 science in Alberta. Emphases recommended are: (1) process skills (50%); (2) psychomotor skills (10%); (3) attitudes (10%); and (4) subject matter (30%). Priorities within each category are identified. (YP)

  8. Measurement of platelet aggregation, independently of patient platelet count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinholt, P J; Frederiksen, H; Hvas, A-M

    2017-01-01

    with collagen-related peptide). Platelet aggregation had a negative predictive value of 100% for a bleeding tendency among patients. Conclusion The established platelet aggregation assay was applicable for thrombocytopenic patients, and improved the identification of bleeding risk.......Essentials •Platelet function may influence bleeding risk in thrombocytopenia, but useful tests are needed. •A flow cytometric platelet aggregation test independent of the patient platelet count was made. •Platelet aggregation was reduced in thrombocytopenic patients with hematological cancer....... •High platelet aggregation ruled out bleeding tendency in thrombocytopenic patients. Summary Background Methods for testing platelet aggregation in thrombocytopenia are lacking. Objective To establish a flow-cytometric test of in vitro platelet aggregation independently of the patient's platelet count...

  9. Strength of masonry blocks made with recycled concrete aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, Pierre; Dalati, Rouba El

    The idea of recycling concrete of demolished buildings aims at preserving the environment. Indeed, the reuse of concrete as aggregate in new concrete mixes helped to reduce the expenses related to construction and demolition (C&D) waste management and, especially, to protect the environment by reducing the development rate of new quarries. This paper presents the results of an experimental study conducted on masonry blocks containing aggregates resulting from concrete recycling. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of recycled aggregates on compressive strength of concrete blocks. Tests were performed on series of concrete blocks: five series each made of different proportions of recycled aggregates, and one series of reference blocks exclusively composed of natural aggregates. Tests showed that using recycled aggregates with addition of cement allows the production of concrete blocks with compressive strengths comparable to those obtained on concrete blocks made exclusively of natural aggregates.

  10. Piecewise Polynomial Aggregation as Preprocessing for Data Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobronets, B. S.; Popova, O. A.

    2018-05-01

    Data aggregation issues for numerical modeling are reviewed in the present study. The authors discuss data aggregation procedures as preprocessing for subsequent numerical modeling. To calculate the data aggregation, the authors propose using numerical probabilistic analysis (NPA). An important feature of this study is how the authors represent the aggregated data. The study shows that the offered approach to data aggregation can be interpreted as the frequency distribution of a variable. To study its properties, the density function is used. For this purpose, the authors propose using the piecewise polynomial models. A suitable example of such approach is the spline. The authors show that their approach to data aggregation allows reducing the level of data uncertainty and significantly increasing the efficiency of numerical calculations. To demonstrate the degree of the correspondence of the proposed methods to reality, the authors developed a theoretical framework and considered numerical examples devoted to time series aggregation.

  11. Logic-based aggregation methods for ranking student applicants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Pavle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present logic-based aggregation models used for ranking student applicants and we compare them with a number of existing aggregation methods, each more complex than the previous one. The proposed models aim to include depen- dencies in the data using Logical aggregation (LA. LA is a aggregation method based on interpolative Boolean algebra (IBA, a consistent multi-valued realization of Boolean algebra. This technique is used for a Boolean consistent aggregation of attributes that are logically dependent. The comparison is performed in the case of student applicants for master programs at the University of Belgrade. We have shown that LA has some advantages over other presented aggregation methods. The software realization of all applied aggregation methods is also provided. This paper may be of interest not only for student ranking, but also for similar problems of ranking people e.g. employees, team members, etc.

  12. Automatic analysis of microscopic images of red blood cell aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichini, Pablo A.; Larese, Mónica G.; Riquelme, Bibiana D.

    2015-06-01

    Red blood cell aggregation is one of the most important factors in blood viscosity at stasis or at very low rates of flow. The basic structure of aggregates is a linear array of cell commonly termed as rouleaux. Enhanced or abnormal aggregation is seen in clinical conditions, such as diabetes and hypertension, producing alterations in the microcirculation, some of which can be analyzed through the characterization of aggregated cells. Frequently, image processing and analysis for the characterization of RBC aggregation were done manually or semi-automatically using interactive tools. We propose a system that processes images of RBC aggregation and automatically obtains the characterization and quantification of the different types of RBC aggregates. Present technique could be interesting to perform the adaptation as a routine used in hemorheological and Clinical Biochemistry Laboratories because this automatic method is rapid, efficient and economical, and at the same time independent of the user performing the analysis (repeatability of the analysis).

  13. Feasibility Study on Manufacturing Lightweight Aggregates from Water Purification Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ching-Fang; Chen, How-Ji

    2018-02-01

    This study mainly discussed the feasibility of manufacturing lightweight aggregates from water purification sludge in Taiwan. They were analysed for the physical and chemical composition before the sintering test for lightweight aggregates in a laboratory. Then the physical and mechanical properties of the synthesized aggregates were assessed. The result showed that the chemical composition of sludge in the water purification plants was within the appropriate range for manufacturing lightweight aggregate as proposed in the literature. The sintering test demonstrated that the particle density of aggregates from the ten types of water purification sludge were mostly less than 1.8 g/cm3. In addition, the dry unit weight, the organic impurity, the ignition loss, and other characteristics of synthesized aggregates met the requirement of CNS standards, while its water absorption and crushing strength also fulfilled the general commercial specifications. Therefore, reclamation of water purification sludge for production of lightweight aggregate is indeed feasible.

  14. Improving GRADE evidence tables part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langendam, Miranda; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Santesso, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) working group has developed GRADE evidence profiles (EP) and summary of findings (SoF) tables to present evidence summaries in systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, and health technology assessments. Exp...

  15. Assessment of optimum threshold and particle shape parameter for the image analysis of aggregate size distribution of concrete sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Murat; Guler, Murat

    2014-02-01

    Aggregate gradation is one of the key design parameters affecting the workability and strength properties of concrete mixtures. Estimating aggregate gradation from hardened concrete samples can offer valuable insights into the quality of mixtures in terms of the degree of segregation and the amount of deviation from the specified gradation limits. In this study, a methodology is introduced to determine the particle size distribution of aggregates from 2D cross sectional images of concrete samples. The samples used in the study were fabricated from six mix designs by varying the aggregate gradation, aggregate source and maximum aggregate size with five replicates of each design combination. Each sample was cut into three pieces using a diamond saw and then scanned to obtain the cross sectional images using a desktop flatbed scanner. An algorithm is proposed to determine the optimum threshold for the image analysis of the cross sections. A procedure was also suggested to determine a suitable particle shape parameter to be used in the analysis of aggregate size distribution within each cross section. Results of analyses indicated that the optimum threshold hence the pixel distribution functions may be different even for the cross sections of an identical concrete sample. Besides, the maximum ferret diameter is the most suitable shape parameter to estimate the size distribution of aggregates when computed based on the diagonal sieve opening. The outcome of this study can be of practical value for the practitioners to evaluate concrete in terms of the degree of segregation and the bounds of mixture's gradation achieved during manufacturing.

  16. Aggregation, sedimentation, dissolution and bioavailability of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    To understand their fate and transport in estuarine systems, the aggregation, sedimentation, and dissolution of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) in seawater were investigated. Hydrodynamic size increased from 40 to 60 nm to >1 mm within 1 h in seawater, and the aggregates were highly polydispersed. Their sedimentation rates in seawater were measured to be 4–10 mm/day. Humic acid (HA), further increased their size and polydispersity, and slowed sedimentation. Light increased their dissolution and release of dissolved Cd. The ZnS shell also slowed release of Cd ions. With sufficient light, HA increased the dissolution of QDs, while with low light, HA alone did not change their dissolution. The benthic zone in estuarine systems is the most probable long-term destination of QDs due to aggregation and sedimentation. The bioavailability of was evaluated using the mysid Americamysis bahia. The 7-day LC50s of particulate and dissolved QDs were 290 and 23 μg (total Cd)/L, respectively. For mysids, the acute toxicity appears to be from Cd ions; however, research on the effects of QDs should be conducted with other organisms where QDs may be lodged in critical tissues such as gills or filtering apparatus and Cd ions may be released and delivered directly to those tissues. Because of their increasing use and value to society, cadmium-based quantum dots (QDs) will inevitably find their way into marine systems. In an effort to understand the fate and transport of CdSe QDs in estuar

  17. Study on Quality Aggregate Construction Powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myat Ko; Kyaw Naing; Thazin Lwin; Khin Mar Tun

    2008-03-01

    This research work deals with a view to promote cement replacement materials i-e aggregate construction powder, also known as building powder or construction powder . It has been used as lime substituent in construction work in Myanmar since 1990's. It is mixed with other construction materials such as cement, sand, etc. and used in plastering, tiling, arranging bricks and smoothing the face of the buildings.This work also deals with some aspects in physical properties of four different aggregate construction powder samples such as Moe Hein, Man Thiri, Shwe Taung and Kyauk Sue. In addition, these four different samples were characterized by using spectroscopic methods such as ED-XRF, AAS, FT-IR and XRD. In support of the finding by the analytical assays of Moe Hein aggregate construction powder, it indicated the percent composition of the presence of SiO2 12.13%, Al2O3 7.40%, Fe2O3 0.94%, CaO 41.00%,MgO 1.50% total sulphur 1.15%, chloride 1.49%, carbonate 43.63% and sulphate 3.44%. The analytical assays of Sin Min cement, Kyant cement, brick powder and pozzolan were also carried out in this research work. The mixing between various ratios of Moe Hein and Kyant cement as well as Sin Min II cement were done and their mechanical strengths such as setting time, tensile strength and compressive strength of each sample were studied. The quality of mixing ratio 50:50 of Moe Hein and Kyant cement was found to be comparable to the ASTM standard type II Protland cement which is for general use.

  18. Family aggregation of cardiovascular disease mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Möller, Sören

    2017-01-01

    Background: Familial factors play an important role in the variation of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but less is known about how they affect the risk of death from CVD. We estimated familial aggregation of CVD mortality for twins offering the maximum level of risk due to genetic...... and other familial factors. Methods: Altogether, 132 771 twin individuals, including 65 196 complete pairs from Denmark, Finland and Sweden born in 1958 or earlier, participated in this study. During the register-based follow-up, 11 641 deaths occurred from coronary heart disease (CHD), including 6280...

  19. Software for the grouped optimal aggregation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P. M.; Shaw, G. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The grouped optimal aggregation technique produces minimum variance, unbiased estimates of acreage and production for countries, zones (states), or any designated collection of acreage strata. It uses yield predictions, historical acreage information, and direct acreage estimate from satellite data. The acreage strata are grouped in such a way that the ratio model over historical acreage provides a smaller variance than if the model were applied to each individual stratum. An optimal weighting matrix based on historical acreages, provides the link between incomplete direct acreage estimates and the total, current acreage estimate.

  20. Aggregated Control of Domestic Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten M.; Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom S.

    2013-01-01

    A challenge in Denmark in the near future is to balance the electrical grid due to a large increase in the renewable energy production mainly from wind turbines. In this work an aggregated control system using heat pumps in single family houses to help balancing the grid is investigated....... The control system is able to adjust the consumptions of the heat pump without affecting the comfort in the houses and uses this ability to shift the total consumption to hours with high wind energy production....