WorldWideScience

Sample records for open field exploration

  1. Knots: attractive places with high path tortuosity in mouse open field exploration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dvorkin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When introduced into a novel environment, mammals establish in it a preferred place marked by the highest number of visits and highest cumulative time spent in it. Examination of exploratory behavior in reference to this "home base" highlights important features of its organization. It might therefore be fruitful to search for other types of marked places in mouse exploratory behavior and examine their influence on overall behavior.Examination of path curvatures of mice exploring a large empty arena revealed the presence of circumscribed locales marked by the performance of tortuous paths full of twists and turns. We term these places knots, and the behavior performed in them-knot-scribbling. There is typically no more than one knot per session; it has distinct boundaries and it is maintained both within and across sessions. Knots are mostly situated in the place of introduction into the arena, here away from walls. Knots are not characterized by the features of a home base, except for a high speed during inbound and a low speed during outbound paths. The establishment of knots is enhanced by injecting the mouse with saline and placing it in an exposed portion of the arena, suggesting that stress and the arousal associated with it consolidate a long-term contingency between a particular locale and knot-scribbling.In an environment devoid of proximal cues mice mark a locale associated with arousal by twisting and turning in it. This creates a self-generated, often centrally located landmark. The tortuosity of the path traced during the behavior implies almost concurrent multiple views of the environment. Knot-scribbling could therefore function as a way to obtain an overview of the entire environment, allowing re-calibration of the mouse's locale map and compass directions. The rich vestibular input generated by scribbling could improve the interpretation of the visual scene.

  2. Effects of rat sex differences and lighting on locomotor exploration of a circular open field with free-standing central corners and without peripheral walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstott, Jeff; Timberlake, William

    2009-01-23

    A typical open field consists of a square enclosure, bounded by four straight walls joined by identical corners. For decades behavioral researchers have used the open center and more sheltered perimeter of such fields to examine the effects of drugs, sex differences, and illumination on the behavioral expression of fear and anxiety. The present study "reversed" the relative security of the center and periphery of a circular field to re-examine the functional relation of open field behavior to experience, sex differences and lighting. Across six daily exposures, males in both the light and dark rapidly increased their preference for the center. Females in the light developed a similar pattern, though more slowly; females in the dark continued to spend the great majority of their time in the open periphery, including the edge of the field. The behavior of all groups, but especially the dark females, strongly supports the continued importance of environmental assessment in open field behavior.

  3. Opening the Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The perspective of this paper is to showcase the synergy that lies within a new urban-nature ecology framework. The aim is two-sided - on one side it is an exploration of how to work with landscape ecology in urban- and landscape design with a special emphasis on biodiver-sity. It is my claim...

  4. Differential effects of subchronic phencyclidine on anxiety in the light-enhanced startle-, light/dark exploration- and open field tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkel, Thomas; Thomas, Mara; Bartsch, Dusan

    2013-04-15

    Subchronic treatment with the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) is a valuable approach to model the symptomatology of schizophrenia, a multi-facetted psychiatric disorder, in rodents. We addressed the question whether subchronic PCP (scPCP) treatment (5 mg/kg bidaily for 7 days) would affect anxiety in rats, since contradictory findings have been reported so far. Anxiety-like behaviour was assessed using the light-enhanced startle paradigm (LES), a method which measures the effect of the natural aversion to light on the startle reflex and does not depend on motivated behaviour or exploratory drive. For comparison, anxiety-like behaviour was measured in the light-dark exploration test (LDT) and in an open field environment (OFT). The scPCP-treatment did not affect baseline startle reactivity or light-enhanced startle, suggesting normal anxiety levels in treated animals. Further, normal anxiety-like behaviour was also found in the OFT. In the LDT, scPCP treated rats displayed shorter latencies to enter the lit compartment and shuttled more between the dark and lit compartments, behaviours indicative of decreased anxiety and/or increased exploratory activity. Our findings therefore suggest that the effects of scPCP-treatment on anxiety-like behaviour are task-dependent and recommend the additional use of tests independent from exploratory drive or other motivated behaviours, such as the LES paradigm.

  5. Forward Field Computation with OpenMEEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gramfort

    2011-01-01

    must be computed. We present OpenMEEG, which solves the electromagnetic forward problem in the quasistatic regime, for head models with piecewise constant conductivity. The core of OpenMEEG consists of the symmetric Boundary Element Method, which is based on an extended Green Representation theorem. OpenMEEG is able to provide lead fields for four different electromagnetic forward problems: Electroencephalography (EEG, Magnetoencephalography (MEG, Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT, and intracranial electric potentials (IPs. OpenMEEG is open source and multiplatform. It can be used from Python and Matlab in conjunction with toolboxes that solve the inverse problem; its integration within FieldTrip is operational since release 2.0.

  6. Open string fields as matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Isao; Masuda, Toru; Takahashi, Tomohiko; Takemoto, Shoko

    2015-03-01

    We show that the action expanded around Erler-Maccaferri's N D-brane solution describes the N+1 D-brane system where one D-brane disappears due to tachyon condensation. String fields on multi-branes can be regarded as block matrices of a string field on a single D-brane in the same way as matrix theories.

  7. Open String Fields as Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Kishimoto, Isao; Takahashi, Tomohiko; Takemoto, Shoko

    2014-01-01

    We show that the action expanded around Erler-Maccaferri's N D-branes solution describes the N+1 D-branes system where one D-brane disappears due to tachyon condensation. String fields on the multi-branes can be regarded as block matrices of a string field on a single D-brane in the same way as matrix theories.

  8. Forward field computation with OpenMEEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramfort, Alexandre; Papadopoulo, Théodore; Olivi, Emmanuel; Clerc, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    To recover the sources giving rise to electro- and magnetoencephalography in individual measurements, realistic physiological modeling is required, and accurate numerical solutions must be computed. We present OpenMEEG, which solves the electromagnetic forward problem in the quasistatic regime, for head models with piecewise constant conductivity. The core of OpenMEEG consists of the symmetric Boundary Element Method, which is based on an extended Green Representation theorem. OpenMEEG is able to provide lead fields for four different electromagnetic forward problems: Electroencephalography (EEG), Magnetoencephalography (MEG), Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT), and intracranial electric potentials (IPs). OpenMEEG is open source and multiplatform. It can be used from Python and Matlab in conjunction with toolboxes that solve the inverse problem; its integration within FieldTrip is operational since release 2.0.

  9. The Open Gateway: Lunar Exploration in 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S.; Neal, C.

    2017-01-01

    The Moon, with its fundamental science questions and abundant, potentially useful re-sources, is the most viable destination for near-term future human and robotic exploration. Given what we have learned since Apollo, the lunar frontier now presents an entirely new paradigm for planetary exploration. The Lunar Exploration Roadmap [1], which was jointly developed by engineers, planetary scientists, commercial entities, and policymakers, is the cohesive strategic plan for using the Moon and its resources to enable the exploration of all other destinations within the Solar system by leveraging incremental, affordable investments in cislunar infrastructure. Here, we summarize the Lunar Exploration Roadmap, and describe the immense benefits that will arise from its successful implementation.

  10. Thigmotactic responses in an open-field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Lamprea

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to investigate the role of thigmotaxis (the tendency to remain close to vertical surfaces in rat exploratory behavior in an open-field. Thigmotaxis was investigated in a parametric way, using 24 experimentally adult naive male Wistar rats (210-230 g. Exploratory behavior was studied in an open-field (N = 12 in 5-min sessions and behavior was analyzed in terms of where it occurred: in areas surrounded by two, one, or no walls. Another group of rats (N = 12 was studied in an open-field with blocks placed near two of the corners so as to make these corner areas surrounded by three walls. The floor of the open-fields was divided into 20-cm squares in order to locate the exact place of occurrence of each behavior. The following behaviors were recorded: entries into the squares, rearings, and groomings. In both types of open-field the rats chose to remain longer in the squares surrounded by the largest possible number of walls. In one of the open-fields, the mean time (seconds spent in squares surrounded by two walls was longer than the time spent in squares surrounded by one or no walls (37.2, 7.7, and 1.8 s, respectively. In the other open-field, the mean time spent in squares surrounded by three walls was longer than the time spent in squares surrounded by two, one or no walls (41.7, 20.4, 7.0, and 2.6 s, respectively. Other measures presented a similar profile. These results indicate that rats are sensitive to the number of walls in an environment and prefer to remain close to them.

  11. Enforcing Interoperability with the Open Archives Initiative Repository Explorer

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the Open Archives Initiative (OAI), protocol validation procedures, interactive browsing, and the OAI repository explorer tool. Presented at the ACM/IEEE JCDL 2001 Conference

  12. Supersymmetry in Open Superstring Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    We realize the 16 unbroken supersymmetries on a BPS D-brane as invariances of the action of the corresponding open superstring field theory. We work in the small Hilbert space approach, where a symmetry of the action translates into a symmetry of the associated cyclic $A_\\infty$ structure. We compute the supersymmetry algebra, being careful to disentangle the components which produce a translation, a gauge transformation, and a symmetry transformation which vanishes on-shell. Via the minimal model theorem, we illustrate how supersymmetry of the action implies supersymmetry of the tree level open string scattering amplitudes.

  13. Thermo-Field Extension of Open String Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cantcheff, M Botta

    2015-01-01

    We study the implementation of Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD) to the covariant formulation of Open String Field Theory (OSFT). In this paper, we extend the state space and fields according to the duplication rules of TFD and construct the corresponding classical action. The result is a theory whose fields would encode the statistical information of open strings and, noticeably, present degrees of freedom that could be identified as those of closed strings. The physical spectrum of the free theory is studied through the cohomology of the extended BRST charge, and, as a result, we get new fields in the spectrum. We also show, however, that their appearing in the action is directly related to the choice of the inner product in the extended algebra, so that many fields could be eliminated from the theory by choosing that product conveniently. Finally, we study the extension of the three-vertex interaction and provide a simple prescription for it whose results at tree-level amplitudes agree with those of the conventi...

  14. Cerro Prieto geothermal field: exploration during exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    Geological investigations at Momotombo included photogeology, field mapping, binocular microscope examination of cuttings, and drillhole correlations. Among the geophysical techniques used to investigate the field sub-structure were: Schlumberger and electromagnetic soundings, dipole mapping and audio-magnetotelluric surveys, gravity and magnetic measurements, frequency domain soundings, self-potential surveys, and subsurface temperature determinations. The geochemical program analyzed the thermal fluids of the surface and in the wells. The description and results of exploration methods used during the investigative stages of the Momotombo Geothermal Field are presented. A conceptual model of the geothermal field was drawn from the information available at each exploration phase. The exploration methods have been evaluated with respect to their contributions to the understanding of the field and their utilization in planning further development.

  15. Plasma opening switch with extrinsic magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Dolgachev, G; Maslennikov, D

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. We have demonstrated in series of experiments that plasma opening switch (POS) switching voltage (UPOS) is defined by energy density (w) deposited in the POS plasma. If we then consider a plasma erosion mainly responsible for the effect of POS switching (the erosion effect could be described by Hall or Child-Langmuir models) the energy density (w) could be measured as a function of a system "macro-parameter" such as the initial charging voltage of the capacity storage system (the Marx pulsed voltage generator) UMarx. The POS voltage in this case could be given by UPOS"aw=aUMarx4/7, where a is a constant. This report demonstrates that for the high-impedance POS which has limited charge density transferred through the POS plasma a"2.5 (MV3/7) with no external magnetic field applied. The use of the extrinsic magnetic field allows to increase a up to 3.6 (MV3/7) and to achieve higher voltages at the opening phase - UPOS=3.6UMarx4/7. To verify this approach set of experimental ...

  16. Exploring Magnetic Fields with a Compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunk, Brandon; Beichner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A compass is an excellent classroom tool for the exploration of magnetic fields. Any student can tell you that a compass is used to determine which direction is north, but when paired with some basic trigonometry, the compass can be used to actually measure the strength of the magnetic field due to a nearby magnet or current-carrying wire. In this…

  17. Exploring Open-Ended Design Space of Mechatronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun; Wang, J.; Goodman, E.

    2004-01-01

    To realize design automation of mechatronic systems, there are two major issues to be dealt with: open-topology generation of mechatronic systems and simulation or analysis of those models. For the first issue, we exploit the strong topology exploration capability of genetic programming to create...

  18. A Group of Nurses Experience Open Learning: Exploring the Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearnley, Chris; Matthew, Bob

    2000-01-01

    This exploration of an open learning course in the United Kingdom, and its impact on a group of nurses seeking to update their education, identifies motivation as a key factor. Discusses outcomes including changing attitudes, further study intentions, and general life events and compares them to characteristics of lifelong learners. (Contains 37…

  19. Dancing in the thresholds: Exploring the interactive field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Constance S.

    This dissertation is an attempt to investigate the nature of the interactive field to deepen as well as broaden its scope as it applies to depth psychology and its praxis. With a phenomenological eye toward field dynamics from other paradigms, this exploration demonstrates an additional theoretical framework within the interactive field. It opens other possibilities creating a neither/nor position from which to contain our work with an alchemical/metaphorical position and allows for the liberation of the imaginal realm through which ``the Other'' may be of service, and in fact, may ask us to be in service to it. The literature review not only surveys the three primary schools in psychology-the psychoanalytical, the classical, and archetypal as the genesis of the interactive field, but also investigates shamanic realms as a backdrop from which to see field theory. Field theory is also explored in the world of quantum physics where the universal field is examined from paradigms situated in varied consciousness models. The somatic unconscious, an intrinsic part of the interactive field in mutual engagement with two or more persons, is also woven into the fabric of this study as an intersection between the universal field and the psychodynamic field. This study, as a psychological gnosis, initiates subtle body awareness from Eastern cosmologies from a depth perspective in the psychodynamics of the interactive field. Synchronistic encounters are integrated into field theory as a threshold where universal fields engage the somatic unconscious, initiating numinous and sometimes transformative change into one's life.

  20. Scientific field training for human planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, D. S. S.; Warman, G. L.; Gernhardt, M. L.; McKay, C. P.; Fong, T.; Marinova, M. M.; Davila, A. F.; Andersen, D.; Brady, A. L.; Cardman, Z.; Cowie, B.; Delaney, M. D.; Fairén, A. G.; Forrest, A. L.; Heaton, J.; Laval, B. E.; Arnold, R.; Nuytten, P.; Osinski, G.; Reay, M.; Reid, D.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Shepard, R.; Slater, G. F.; Williams, D.

    2010-05-01

    Forthcoming human planetary exploration will require increased scientific return (both in real time and post-mission), longer surface stays, greater geographical coverage, longer and more frequent EVAs, and more operational complexities than during the Apollo missions. As such, there is a need to shift the nature of astronauts' scientific capabilities to something akin to an experienced terrestrial field scientist. To achieve this aim, the authors present a case that astronaut training should include an Apollo-style curriculum based on traditional field school experiences, as well as full immersion in field science programs. Herein we propose four Learning Design Principles (LDPs) focused on optimizing astronaut learning in field science settings. The LDPs are as follows: LDP#1: Provide multiple experiences: varied field science activities will hone astronauts' abilities to adapt to novel scientific opportunities LDP#2: Focus on the learner: fostering intrinsic motivation will orient astronauts towards continuous informal learning and a quest for mastery LDP#3: Provide a relevant experience - the field site: field sites that share features with future planetary missions will increase the likelihood that astronauts will successfully transfer learning LDP#4: Provide a social learning experience - the field science team and their activities: ensuring the field team includes members of varying levels of experience engaged in opportunities for discourse and joint problem solving will facilitate astronauts' abilities to think and perform like a field scientist. The proposed training program focuses on the intellectual and technical aspects of field science, as well as the cognitive manner in which field scientists experience, observe and synthesize their environment. The goal of the latter is to help astronauts develop the thought patterns and mechanics of an effective field scientist, thereby providing a broader base of experience and expertise than could be achieved

  1. Open data and beyond: Exploring existing open data projects to prepare a successful open data strategy; Deelrapport inleiding open data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loenen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Netwerkbedrijf Alliander was begin 2011 zich aan het oriënteren naar de mogelijkheid om haar gegevens als open data ter beschikking te stellen aan een ieder. Echter wat open data nu precies is, welke mogelijke knelpunten moeten worden opgelost om open data te implementeren, de impact die open data z

  2. Forward Field Computation with OpenMEEG

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    To recover the sources giving rise to electro- and magnetoencephalography in individual measurements, realistic physiological modeling is required, and accurate numerical solutions must be computed. We present OpenMEEG, which solves the electromagnetic forward problem in the quasistatic regime, for head models with piecewise constant conductivity. The core of OpenMEEG consists of the symmetric Boundary Element Method, which is based on an extended Green Representation theorem. OpenMEEG is abl...

  3. Geothermal Exploration Case Studies on OpenEI (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, K.; Bennett, M.; Atkins, D.

    2014-03-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) resource assessment (Williams et al., 2008) outlined a mean 30 GWe of undiscovered hydrothermal resource in the western United States. One goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technology Office (GTO) is to accelerate the development of this undiscovered resource. DOE has focused efforts on helping industry identify hidden geothermal resources to increase geothermal capacity in the near term. Increased exploration activity will produce more prospects, more discoveries, and more readily developable resources. Detailed exploration case studies akin to those found in oil and gas (e.g. Beaumont and Foster, 1990-1992) will give developers central location for information gives models for identifying new geothermal areas, and guide efficient exploration and development of these areas. To support this effort, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been working with GTO to develop a template for geothermal case studies on the Geothermal Gateway on OpenEI. In 2012, the template was developed and tested with two case studies: Raft River Geothermal Area (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Raft_River_Geothermal_Area) and Coso Geothermal Area (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Coso_Geothermal_Area). In 2013, ten additional case studies were completed, and Semantic MediaWiki features were developed to allow for more data and the direct citations of these data. These case studies are now in the process of external peer review. In 2014, NREL is working with universities and industry partners to populate additional case studies on OpenEI. The goal is to provide a large enough data set to start conducting analyses of exploration programs to identify correlations between successful exploration plans for areas with similar geologic occurrence models.

  4. Analytic solutions for marginal deformations in open superstring field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okawa, Y.

    2007-04-15

    We extend the calculable analytic approach to marginal deformations recently developed in open bosonic string field theory to open superstring field theory formulated by Berkovits. We construct analytic solutions to all orders in the deformation parameter when operator products made of the marginal operator and the associated superconformal primary field are regular. (orig.)

  5. Restorative urban open space: Exploring the spatial configuration of human emotional fulfilment in urban open space

    OpenAIRE

    Thwaites, K.; Helleur, E.; Simkins, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    The capacity of outdoor settings to benefit human well being is well established by research. Examples of restorative settings can be found throughout history and are still applied today in health-care facilities, as healing or restorative gardens for the sick, but their wider significance in the urban public realm remains insufficiently explored. A conceptual framework for restorative urban open space based on mosaics of linked and nested spaces woven into the urban fabric is presented. The ...

  6. Slow mode shocks propagating in open and closed magnetic fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕建永; 魏奉思

    1999-01-01

    A 2-D MHD model is used to investigate the propagation of slow mode shocks in the open and closed magnetic fields of the meridional plane near the sun. The solutions demonstrate that a forward slow shock could retain its slow shock characteristics into interplanetary space in the magnetically open region; however, it can evolve into an intermediate shock through the helmet-type current sheet to the open magnetic field.

  7. Linear b-Gauges for Open String Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kiermaier, Michael; Zwiebach, Barton

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by Schnabl's gauge choice, we explore open string perturbation theory in gauges where a linear combination of antighost oscillators annihilates the string field. We find that in these linear b-gauges different gauge conditions are needed at different ghost numbers. We derive the full propagator and prove the formal properties which guarantee that the Feynman diagrams reproduce the correct on-shell amplitudes. We find that these properties can fail due to the need to regularize the propagator, and identify a large class of linear b-gauges for which they hold rigorously. In these gauges the propagator has a non-anomalous Schwinger representation and builds Riemann surfaces by adding strip-like domains. Projector-based gauges, like Schnabl's, are not in this class of gauges but we construct a family of regular linear b-gauges which interpolate between Siegel gauge and Schnabl gauge.

  8. Linear b-gauges for open string fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiermaier, Michael; Sen, Ashoke; Zwiebach, Barton

    2008-03-01

    Motivated by Schnabl's gauge choice, we explore open string perturbation theory in gauges where a linear combination of antighost oscillators annihilates the string field. We find that in these linear b-gauges different gauge conditions are needed at different ghost numbers. We derive the full propagator and prove the formal properties which guarantee that the Feynman diagrams reproduce the correct on-shell amplitudes. We find that these properties can fail due to the need to regularize the propagator, and identify a large class of linear b-gauges for which they hold rigorously. In these gauges the propagator has a non-anomalous Schwinger representation and builds Riemann surfaces by adding strip-like domains. Projector-based gauges, like Schnabl's, are not in this class of gauges but we construct a family of regular linear b-gauges which interpolate between Siegel gauge and Schnabl gauge.

  9. Exploration of Existentialism in“The Open Boat”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春蕾

    2015-01-01

    “The Open Boat” is one of Stephen Crane's popular stories. Though short, it is deeply philosophical. In the story, the four people, of different social backgrounds, are all seeking for survival in the sea of roaring waves, indicating metaphorically humankind's living conditions, which is of much absurdity, uncertainty and nothingness. In order to give meaning of the existence, man has to choose optimistically in the absurdity and nothingness. In the choosing, man's power of human nature reveals. This paper aims to explore the existential conditions of human beings in the story from a perspective of existentialism based mainly on Sartre's philosophy from the two aspects-the absurdity of existence and the power of humanity.

  10. Exploring Open-Ended Design Space of Mechatronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun; Wang, J.; Goodman, E.

    2004-01-01

    To realize design automation of mechatronic systems, there are two major issues to be dealt with: open-topology generation of mechatronic systems and simulation or analysis of those models. For the first issue, we exploit the strong topology exploration capability of genetic programming to create...... and evolve structures representing mechatronic systems. With the help of ERCs (ephemeral random constants) in genetic programming, we can also evolve the sizing of mechatronic system components along with the structures. The second issue, simulation and analysis of those system models, is made more complex...... when they represent mixed-energy-domain systems. We take advantage of bond graphs as a tool for multi- or mixed-domain modeling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Because there are many considerations in mechatronic system design that are not completely captured by a bond graph, we would like...

  11. Exploring Open-Ended Design Space of Mechatronic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhun Fan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available To realize design automation of mechatronic systems, there are two major issues to be dealt with: open-topology generation of mechatronic systems and simulation or analysis of those models. For the first issue, we exploit the strong topology exploration capability of genetic programming to create and evolve structures representing mechatronic systems. With the use of ERCs (ephemeral random constants in genetic programming, we can evolve the sizing of mechatronic system components together with the system structures simultaneously. The second issue, simulation and analysis of those system models, is made more complex when the systems are mixed-energy-domain systems. We take advantage of bond graphs as a tool for multi- or mixed-domain modeling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Because there are many considerations in mechatronic system design that are not completely captured by a bond graph, it is beneficial to generate multiple solutions, allowing the designer more latitude in choosing a model to implement. The approach in this paper is capable of providing a variety of design choices to the designer for further analysis, comparison and trade-off study. The approach is shown to be efficient and effective and is demonstrated in an example of open-ended real-world mechatronic system design application, a typewriter re-design problem.

  12. On designing open-ended interpretations for collaborative design exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattelmäki, Tuuli; Brandt, Eva; Vaajakallio, Kirsikka

    2011-01-01

    User-centred design is a widely acknowledged practice. Much attention has been paid to the methods, tools and processes on how to conduct design research and field studies with and about ‘users’ and existing or possible ‘contexts of use’. The underlying driver is that the design team will be bett...... interpretations which lead to empathic understanding and engagement. Rather than communicating the final results, design in supporting collaboration is applied in a process of exploring what it is that will create value for specific people....

  13. On designing open-ended interpretations for collaborative design exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattelmäki, Tuuli; Brandt, Eva; Vaajakallio, Kirsikka

    2011-01-01

    User-centred design is a widely acknowledged practice. Much attention has been paid to the methods, tools and processes on how to conduct design research and field studies with and about ‘users’ and existing or possible ‘contexts of use’. The underlying driver is that the design team will be bett...... interpretations which lead to empathic understanding and engagement. Rather than communicating the final results, design in supporting collaboration is applied in a process of exploring what it is that will create value for specific people....

  14. Opening the cusp. [using magnetic field topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooker, N. U.; Toffoletto, F. R.; Gussenhoven, M. S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the magnetic field topology (determined by the superposition of dipole, image, and uniform fields) for mapping the cusp to the ionosphere. The model results are compared to both new and published observations and are then used to map the footprint of a flux transfer event caused by a time variation in the merging rate. It is shown that the cusp geometry distorts the field lines mapped from the magnetopause to yield footprints with dawn and dusk protrusions into the region of closed magnetic flux.

  15. Large optical field enhancement for nanotips with large opening angles

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Sebastian; Lemell, Christoph; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically investigate optical near-fields at nanometric tips. We systematically study the dependence of field enhancement on the shape, size, and material of the tip. We confirm a strong dependence of the field enhancement factor on the radius of curvature. In addition, we find a remarkably strong increase of field enhancement with increasing opening angle of the nanotips. For gold and tungsten nanotips in the experimentally relevant parameter range (radius of curvature $\\geq 5\\,$nm at 800 nm laser wavelength), we obtain field enhancement factors of up to ${\\sim}35$ (Au) and ${\\sim}12$ (W) for wide opening angles. We confirm this strong dependence on the opening angle for many other materials studying the dependence of the field enhancement at nanotips on the dielectric response function. For dielectrics, the increase in field enhancement is traced back to the electrostatic force of the induced surface charge at the tip shank. For metals, the plasmonic response strongly increases the field enhancement ...

  16. The electromagnetic field for an open magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkila, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    The boundary-layer-dominated models of the earth EM field developed by Heikkila (1975, 1978, 1982, and 1983) and Heikkila et al. (1979) to account for deficiencies in the electric-field descriptions of quasi-steady-state magnetic-field-reconnection models (such as that of Cowley, 1980) are characterized, reviewing the arguments and indicating the most important implications. The mechanisms of boundary-layer formation and field direction reversal are explained and illustrated with diagrams, and it is inferred that boundary-layer phenomena rather than magnetic reconnection may be the cause of large-scale magnetospheric circulation, convection, plasma-sheet formation and sunward convection, and auroras, the boundary layer acting basically as a viscous process mediating solar-wind/magnetosphere interactions.

  17. Open source software integrated into data services of Japanese planetary explorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Ishihara, Y.; Otake, H.; Imai, K.; Masuda, K.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific data obtained by Japanese scientific satellites and lunar and planetary explorations are archived in DARTS (Data ARchives and Transmission System). DARTS provides the data with a simple method such as HTTP directory listing for long-term preservation while DARTS tries to provide rich web applications for ease of access with modern web technologies based on open source software. This presentation showcases availability of open source software through our services. KADIAS is a web-based application to search, analyze, and obtain scientific data measured by SELENE(Kaguya), a Japanese lunar orbiter. KADIAS uses OpenLayers to display maps distributed from Web Map Service (WMS). As a WMS server, open source software MapServer is adopted. KAGUYA 3D GIS (KAGUYA 3D Moon NAVI) provides a virtual globe for the SELENE's data. The main purpose of this application is public outreach. NASA World Wind Java SDK is used to develop. C3 (Cross-Cutting Comparisons) is a tool to compare data from various observations and simulations. It uses Highcharts to draw graphs on web browsers. Flow is a tool to simulate a Field-Of-View of an instrument onboard a spacecraft. This tool itself is open source software developed by JAXA/ISAS, and the license is BSD 3-Caluse License. SPICE Toolkit is essential to compile FLOW. SPICE Toolkit is also open source software developed by NASA/JPL, and the website distributes many spacecrafts' data. Nowadays, open source software is an indispensable tool to integrate DARTS services.

  18. Families in the Field: exploring northeastern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Kelda

    2017-04-01

    Northeastern Illinois topography is dominated by evidence of the Pleistocene: glacial moraines, kettle lakes, bogs, and of course, Lake Michigan - the fifth largest freshwater lake in the world. My high school students have grown up within this landscape and their familiarity provides a springboard for us to dive deeper into their understanding of continental glaciers and Ice Ages. However, these features have merely functioned as a background to their lives. My goal is to inspire, by having them stand in the field and imagine how it all would have appeared 11,000 years ago. For the past five years, the Geology teachers at Warren Township High School have been leading voluntary weekend hikes with our students and their families. The Geology teachers guide the hike with a more technical explanation of the landscape, and our students rise to the occasion as they share what they know with their parents, siblings, and peers. This opens lines of communication, increases student motivation, enhances the course material, and allows us to see on our landscape within the context of dynamic Earth systems.

  19. Exploring Open-Ended Design Space of Mechatronic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhun Fan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available To realize design automation of mechatronic systems, there are two major issues to be dealt with: opentopology generation of mechatronic systems and simulation or analysis of those models. For the first issue, we exploit the strong topology exploration capability of genetic programming to create and evolve structures representing mechatronic systems. With the use of ERCs (ephemeral random constants in genetic programming, we can evolve the sizing of mechatronic system components together with the system structures simultaneously. The second issue, simulation and analysis of those system models, is made more complex when the systems are mixed-energy-domain systems. We take advantage of bond graphs as a tool for multi- or mixed-domain modeling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Because there are many considerations in mechatronic system design that are not completely captured by a bond graph, it is beneficial to generate multiple solutions, allowing the designer more latitude in choosing a model to implement. The approach in this paper is capable of providing a variety of design choices to the designer for further analysis, comparison and trade-off study. The approach is shown to be efficient and effective and is demonstrated in an example of open-ended real-world mechatronic system design application, a typewriter re-design problem.

  20. The free energies of partially open coronal magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, B. C.; Smith, D. F.

    1993-01-01

    A simple model of the low corona is examined in terms of a static polytropic atmosphere in equilibrium with a global magnetic field. The question posed is whether magnetostatic states with partially open magnetic fields may contain magnetic energies in excess of those in fully open magnetic fields. Based on the analysis presented here, it is concluded that the cross-field electric currents in the pre-eruption corona are a viable source of the bulk of the energies in a mass ejection and its associated flare.

  1. Light-like tachyon condensation in Open String Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hellerman, Simeon

    2008-01-01

    We use open string field theory to study the dynamics of unstable branes in the bosonic string theory, in the background of a generic linear dilaton. We find a simple exact solution describing a dynamical interpolation between the perturbative vacuum and the recently discovered nonperturbative tachyon vacuum. In our solution, the open string tachyon increases exponentially along a null direction, after which nonlinearities set in and cause the solution to asymptote to a static state. In particular, the wild oscillations of the open string fields which plague the time-like rolling tachyon solution are entirely absent. Our model thus represents the first example proving that the true tachyon vacuum of open string field theory can be realized as the endpoint of a dynamical transition from the perturbative vacuum.

  2. Large optical field enhancement for nanotips with large opening angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sebastian; Wachter, Georg; Lemell, Christoph; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2015-06-01

    We theoretically investigate the dependence of the enhancement of optical near-fields at nanometric tips on the shape, size, and material of the tip. We confirm the strong dependence of the field enhancement factor on the radius of curvature. In addition, we find a surprisingly strong increase of field enhancement with increasing opening angle of the nanotips. For gold and tungsten nanotips in the experimentally relevant parameter range (radius of curvature ≥slant 5 nm at 800 nm laser wavelength), we obtain field enhancement factors of up to ∼ 35 for Au and ∼ 12 for W for large opening angles. We confirm this strong dependence on the opening angle for many other materials featuring a wide variety in their dielectric response. For dielectrics, the opening angle dependence is traced back to the electrostatic force of the induced surface charge at the tip shank. For metals, the plasmonic response strongly increases the field enhancement and shifts the maximum field enhancement to smaller opening angles.

  3. The Phantom Term in Open String Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    We show that given any two classical solutions in open string field theory and a singular gauge transformation relating them, it is possible to write the second solution as a gauge transformation of the first plus a singular, projector-like state which describes the shift in the open string background between the two solutions. This is the "phantom term." We give some applications in the computation of gauge invariant observables.

  4. Open archives within the field of environmental research

    OpenAIRE

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2003-01-01

    Presentation on the concept of open archives within the field of environmental research (and related areas such as agriculture, forestry and veterinary medicine ...). The presentation concerns open archives in general but relates to thes issue of public acces in accordance with the theme in the seminar - the UNECE Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (Aarhus Convention) ). The Organic Eprints archive is ...

  5. Open archives within the field of environmental research

    OpenAIRE

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2003-01-01

    Presentation on the concept of open archives within the field of environmental research (and related areas such as agriculture, forestry and veterinary medicine ...). The presentation concerns open archives in general but relates to thes issue of public acces in accordance with the theme in the seminar - the UNECE Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (Aarhus Convention) ). The Organic Eprints archive is ...

  6. Open Access Publishing in the Field of Medical Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuballa, Stefanie

    2017-05-01

    The open access paradigm has become an important approach in today's information and communication society. Funders and governments in different countries stipulate open access publications of funded research results. Medical informatics as part of the science, technology and medicine disciplines benefits from many research funds, such as National Institutes of Health in the US, Wellcome Trust in UK, German Research Foundation in Germany and many more. In this study an overview of the current open access programs and conditions of major journals in the field of medical informatics is presented. It was investigated whether there are suitable options and how they are shaped. Therefore all journals in Thomson Reuters Web of Science that were listed in the subject category "Medical Informatics" in 2014 were examined. An Internet research was conducted by investigating the journals' websites. It was reviewed whether journals offer an open access option with a subsequent check of conditions as for example the type of open access, the fees and the licensing. As a result all journals in the field of medical informatics that had an impact factor in 2014 offer an open access option. A predominantly consistent pricing range was determined with an average fee of 2.248 € and a median fee of 2.207 €. The height of a journals' open access fee did not correlate with the height of its Impact Factor. Hence, medical informatics journals have recognized the trend of open access publishing, though the vast majority of them are working with the hybrid method. Hybrid open access may however lead to problems in questions of double dipping and the often stipulated gold open access.

  7. String Field Theory Solution for Any Open String Background

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    We present an exact solution of open bosonic string field theory which can be used to describe any time-independent open string background. The solution generalizes an earlier construction of Kiermaier, Okawa, and Soler, and assumes the existence of boundary condition changing operators with nonsingular OPEs and vanishing conformal dimension. Our main observation is that boundary condition changing operators of this kind can describe nearly any open string background provided the background shift is accompanied by a timelike Wilson line of sufficient strength. As an application we analyze the tachyon lump describing the formation of a D$(p-1)$-brane in the string field theory of a D$p$-brane, for generic compactification radius. This not only provides a proof of Sen's second conjecture, but also gives explicit examples of higher energy solutions, confirming analytically that string field theory can "reverse" the direction of the worldsheet RG flow. We also find multiple D-brane solutions, demonstrating that s...

  8. Emotionality in growing pigs: is the open field a valid test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Ramona D; Healy, Susan D; Lawrence, Alistair B; Rutherford, Kenneth M D

    2011-10-24

    The ability to assess emotionality is important within animal welfare research. Yet, for farm animals, few tests of emotionality have been well validated. Here we investigated the construct validity of behavioural measures of pig emotionality in an open-field test by manipulating the experiences of pigs in three ways. In Experiment One (pharmacological manipulation), pigs pre-treated with Azaperone, a drug used to reduce stress in commercial pigs, were more active, spent more time exploring and vocalised less than control pigs. In Experiment Two (social manipulation), pigs that experienced the open-field arena with a familiar companion were also more exploratory, spent less time behaviourally idle, and were less vocal than controls although to a lesser degree than in Experiment One. In Experiment Three (novelty manipulation), pigs experiencing the open field for a second time were less active, explored less and vocalised less than they had done in the first exposure to the arena. A principal component analysis was conducted on data from all three trials. The first two components could be interpreted as relating to the form (cautious to exploratory) and magnitude (low to high arousal) of the emotional response to open-field testing. Based on these dimensions, in Experiment One, Azaperone pigs appeared to be less fearful than saline-treated controls. However, in Experiment Two, exposure to the arena with a conspecific did not affect the first two dimensions but did affect a third behavioural dimension, relating to oro-nasal exploration of the arena floor. In Experiment Three, repeat exposure altered the form but not the magnitude of emotional response: pigs were less exploratory in the second test. In conclusion, behavioural measures taken from pigs in an open-field test are sensitive to manipulations of their prior experience in a manner that suggests they reflect underlying emotionality. Behavioural measures taken during open-field exposure can be useful for making

  9. Open data and beyond: Exploring existing open data projects to prepare a successful open data strategy; Deelrapport privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulk, S.; Van Loenen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Bij de selectie van welke datasets als open data kunnen worden aangeboden wordt privacy vaak genoemd als aandachtspunt. Dat is terecht want aandacht voor privacy is noodzakelijk bij het aanbieden van open data. Privacy is een van de mogelijke argumenten om voor bepaalde gegevens geen open data belei

  10. Parallel multiphase field simulations with OpenPhase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegeler, Marvin; Shchyglo, Oleg; Kamachali, Reza Darvishi; Monas, Alexander; Steinbach, Ingo; Sutmann, Godehard

    2017-06-01

    The open-source software project OpenPhase allows the three-dimensional simulation of microstructural evolution using the multiphase field method. The core modules of OpenPhase and their implementation as well as their parallelization for a distributed-memory setting are presented. Especially communication and load-balancing strategies are discussed. Synchronization points are avoided by an increased halo-size, i.e. additional layers of ghost cells, which allow multiple stencil operations without data exchange. Load-balancing is considered via graph-partitioning and sub-domain decomposition. Results are presented for performance benchmarks as well as for a variety of applications, e.g. grain growth in polycrystalline materials, including a large number of phase fields as well as Mg-Al alloy solidification.

  11. Exploring Open-Ended Tasks as Teacher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Peter; Griffioen, Mel; Gray, Hayley; Powers, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The Task Types and Mathematics Learning project is investigating the opportunities and constraints that teachers experience when using particular types of mathematics tasks. Some assumptions underlying this aspect of the project are: (1) that teachers seeking a balanced curriculum choose to use a mix of types of tasks; (2) open-ended questions…

  12. An Exploration of Open Innovation: An Environmental Scanning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elci, Nuray

    2009-01-01

    Globalization and direction toward a knowledge economy, along with an economic downturn, is creating a competitive environment that calls for corporations to become more innovative. As the business environment becomes more competitive and dynamic, corporations are looking for new ways of achieving innovation. Open innovation is one approach that…

  13. Exploring Engaging Gamification Mechanics in Massive Online Open Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jen-Wei; Wei, Hung-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) have developed rapidly and become tremendously popular because of their plentiful gamification designs, such as reputation points, rewards, and goal setting. Although previous studies have mentioned a broad range of gamification designs that might influence MOOC learner engagement, most gamified MOOCs fail to…

  14. Exploring Coordination Structures in Open Source Software Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amrit, Chintan; Hegeman, J.H.; Hillegersberg, van Jos; Hillegersberg, van Jos; Harmsen, Frank; Amrit, Chintan; Geisberger, Eva; Keil, Patrick; Kuhrmann, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Coordination is difficult to achieve in a large globally distributed project setting. The problem is multiplied in open source software development projects, where most of the traditional means of coordination such as plans, system-level designs, schedules and defined process are not used. In order

  15. Exploring Engaging Gamification Mechanics in Massive Online Open Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jen-Wei; Wei, Hung-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) have developed rapidly and become tremendously popular because of their plentiful gamification designs, such as reputation points, rewards, and goal setting. Although previous studies have mentioned a broad range of gamification designs that might influence MOOC learner engagement, most gamified MOOCs fail to…

  16. Exploring business models for open innovation in rural living labs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schaffers, H

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available is a strategic step in the planning and preparation phases of Living Labs, setting the conditions for the subsequent phase of full operation. As Living Labs are instances of open innovation but also need to establish mechanisms to protect IPR, business...

  17. How Do Scientists Define Openness? Exploring the Relationship Between Open Science Policies and Research Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Nadine; Leonelli, Sabina; Weckowska, Dagmara; Castle, David; Dupré, John

    2016-06-01

    This article documents how biomedical researchers in the United Kingdom understand and enact the idea of "openness." This is of particular interest to researchers and science policy worldwide in view of the recent adoption of pioneering policies on Open Science and Open Access by the U.K. government-policies whose impact on and implications for research practice are in need of urgent evaluation, so as to decide on their eventual implementation elsewhere. This study is based on 22 in-depth interviews with U.K. researchers in systems biology, synthetic biology, and bioinformatics, which were conducted between September 2013 and February 2014. Through an analysis of the interview transcripts, we identify seven core themes that characterize researchers' understanding of openness in science and nine factors that shape the practice of openness in research. Our findings highlight the implications that Open Science policies can have for research processes and outcomes and provide recommendations for enhancing their content, effectiveness, and implementation.

  18. Remote Laboratory and Animal Behaviour: An Interactive Open Field System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Lorenzo; Ratti, Giovannino

    2007-01-01

    Remote laboratories can provide distant learners with practical acquisitions which would otherwise remain precluded. Our proposal here is a remote laboratory on a behavioural test (open field test), with the aim of introducing learners to the observation and analysis of stereotyped behaviour in animals. A real-time video of a mouse in an…

  19. Magnetar giant flares in multipolar magnetic fields. I. Fully and partially open eruptions of flux ropes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lei [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China); Yu, Cong, E-mail: muduri@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: cyu@ynao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Object, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2014-04-01

    We propose a catastrophic eruption model for the enormous energy release of magnetars during giant flares, in which a toroidal and helically twisted flux rope is embedded within a force-free magnetosphere. The flux rope stays in stable equilibrium states initially and evolves quasi-statically. Upon the loss of equilibrium, the flux rope cannot sustain the stable equilibrium states and erupts catastrophically. During the process, the magnetic energy stored in the magnetosphere is rapidly released as the result of destabilization of global magnetic topology. The magnetospheric energy that could be accumulated is of vital importance for the outbursts of magnetars. We carefully establish the fully open fields and partially open fields for various boundary conditions at the magnetar surface and study the relevant energy thresholds. By investigating the magnetic energy accumulated at the critical catastrophic point, we find that it is possible to drive fully open eruptions for dipole-dominated background fields. Nevertheless, it is hard to generate fully open magnetic eruptions for multipolar background fields. Given the observational importance of the multipolar magnetic fields in the vicinity of the magnetar surface, it would be worthwhile to explore the possibility of the alternative eruption approach in multipolar background fields. Fortunately, we find that flux ropes may give rise to partially open eruptions in the multipolar fields, which involve only partial opening of background fields. The energy release fractions are greater for cases with central-arcaded multipoles than those with central-caved multipoles that emerged in background fields. Eruptions would fail only when the centrally caved multipoles become extremely strong.

  20. Dose response explorer: an integrated open-source tool for exploring and modelling radiotherapy dose-volume outcome relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqa, I El [Washington University, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Suneja, G [Brown Medical School, Providence, RI (United States); Lindsay, P E [Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Hope, A J [Washington University, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Alaly, J R [Washington University, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Vicic, M [Washington University, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Bradley, J D [Washington University, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Apte, A [Washington University, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Deasy, J O [Washington University, Saint Louis, MO (United States)

    2006-11-21

    Radiotherapy treatment outcome models are a complicated function of treatment, clinical and biological factors. Our objective is to provide clinicians and scientists with an accurate, flexible and user-friendly software tool to explore radiotherapy outcomes data and build statistical tumour control or normal tissue complications models. The software tool, called the dose response explorer system (DREES), is based on Matlab, and uses a named-field structure array data type. DREES/Matlab in combination with another open-source tool (CERR) provides an environment for analysing treatment outcomes. DREES provides many radiotherapy outcome modelling features, including (1) fitting of analytical normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) and tumour control probability (TCP) models, (2) combined modelling of multiple dose-volume variables (e.g., mean dose, max dose, etc) and clinical factors (age, gender, stage, etc) using multi-term regression modelling, (3) manual or automated selection of logistic or actuarial model variables using bootstrap statistical resampling, (4) estimation of uncertainty in model parameters, (5) performance assessment of univariate and multivariate analyses using Spearman's rank correlation and chi-square statistics, boxplots, nomograms, Kaplan-Meier survival plots, and receiver operating characteristics curves, and (6) graphical capabilities to visualize NTCP or TCP prediction versus selected variable models using various plots. DREES provides clinical researchers with a tool customized for radiotherapy outcome modelling. DREES is freely distributed. We expect to continue developing DREES based on user feedback.

  1. Dose response explorer: an integrated open-source tool for exploring and modelling radiotherapy dose volume outcome relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Naqa, I.; Suneja, G.; Lindsay, P. E.; Hope, A. J.; Alaly, J. R.; Vicic, M.; Bradley, J. D.; Apte, A.; Deasy, J. O.

    2006-11-01

    Radiotherapy treatment outcome models are a complicated function of treatment, clinical and biological factors. Our objective is to provide clinicians and scientists with an accurate, flexible and user-friendly software tool to explore radiotherapy outcomes data and build statistical tumour control or normal tissue complications models. The software tool, called the dose response explorer system (DREES), is based on Matlab, and uses a named-field structure array data type. DREES/Matlab in combination with another open-source tool (CERR) provides an environment for analysing treatment outcomes. DREES provides many radiotherapy outcome modelling features, including (1) fitting of analytical normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) and tumour control probability (TCP) models, (2) combined modelling of multiple dose-volume variables (e.g., mean dose, max dose, etc) and clinical factors (age, gender, stage, etc) using multi-term regression modelling, (3) manual or automated selection of logistic or actuarial model variables using bootstrap statistical resampling, (4) estimation of uncertainty in model parameters, (5) performance assessment of univariate and multivariate analyses using Spearman's rank correlation and chi-square statistics, boxplots, nomograms, Kaplan-Meier survival plots, and receiver operating characteristics curves, and (6) graphical capabilities to visualize NTCP or TCP prediction versus selected variable models using various plots. DREES provides clinical researchers with a tool customized for radiotherapy outcome modelling. DREES is freely distributed. We expect to continue developing DREES based on user feedback.

  2. Some Computations in Background Independent Open-String Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Edward

    1993-01-01

    Recently, background independent open-string field theory has been formally defined in the space of all two-dimensional world-sheet theories. In this paper, to make the construction more concrete, I compute the action for an off-shell tachyon field of a certain simple type. From the computation it emerges that, although the string field action does not coincide with the world-sheet (matter) partition function in general, these functions do coincide on shell. This can be demonstrated in general, as long as matter and ghosts are decoupled.

  3. Strategic foresight for collaborative exploration of new business fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heger, Tobias; Rohrbeck, René

    2012-01-01

    To ensure long-term competitiveness, companies need to develop the ability to explore, plan, and develop new business fields. A suitable approach faces multiple challenges because it needs to (1) integrate multiple perspectives, (2) ensure a high level of participation of the major stakeholders......-organizational business field exploration project in the telecommunications industry....

  4. Easy to open? Exploring the 'openability' of hospital food and beverage packaging by older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Alison F; Walton, Karen L; Tapsell, Linda C

    2016-03-01

    Food is increasingly a packaged commodity, both in the community and in institutionalised settings such as hospitals, where many older people are malnourished. Previous research with patients aged over 65 years in NSW public hospitals identified difficulties opening milk, water, juices, cereal and tetra packs. The aim of this paper was to assess the ability of well older people living in the community to open food and beverage items routinely used in NSW hospitals in order to gain further insights into the older person/pack interaction and the role of hand and finger strength in pack opening. A sample of 40 older people in good health aged over 65 years from 3 community settings participated in the study. The attempts at pack opening were observed, the time taken to open the pack was measured and the correlation between grip and pinch strengths with opening times was determined. Tetra packs, water bottles, cereal, fruit cups, desserts, biscuits and cheese portions appeared to be the most difficult food products to open. Ten percent of the sample could not open the water bottles and 39% could not open cheese portions. The results were consistent with the previous research involving hospitalised older adults, adding emphasis to the conclusion that food and beverage packaging can be a potential barrier to adequate nutrition when particular types of packaged products are used in hospitals or the community. The ageing population is rapidly becoming a larger and more important group to consider in the provision of goods and services. Designers, manufacturers and providers of food and beverage products need to consider the needs and abilities of these older consumers to ensure good 'openability' and promote adequate nutritional intakes.

  5. Background Independent Open String Field Theory with Constant B field On the Annulus

    CERN Document Server

    Rashkov, R; Yang, Y

    2001-01-01

    We study Witten's background independent open-string field theory in the presence of a constant B-field at one loop level. The Green's function and the partition function with a constant B-field are evaluated for an annulus.

  6. Open data and beyond: Exploring existing open data projects to prepare a successful open data strategy; Deelrapport Aansprakelijkheid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulk, S.; Van Loenen, B.; Ploeger, H.D.

    2012-01-01

    Mogelijke aansprakelijkheid is een veel gehoord bezwaar tegen het aanbieden van open data. Dat het gebruik van open data risico’s met zich meebrengt is voorstelbaar. Als zich fouten of onvolledigheden in de data voordoen dan kunnen anderen daardoor schade lijden. Ook als de data juist en volledig is

  7. Exploring the Potential of the Massive, Open, Online Astronomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Carmen; Impey, C. D.; Wenger, M.

    2014-01-01

    Astronomy: State of the Art is a massive, open, online course (MOOC) in astronomy. Course content was released weekly, over 7 weeks, in the spring of 2013. More than 10 hours of video lectures were produced and deployed along with supplementary readings, podcasts, and realtime Q&A sessions with professor Chris Impey. All content is still available online as a self-paced course. Over 5,000 students have enrolled in the course through the online course platform Udemy. This poster presents student engagement data, and a discussion of lessons learned and opportunities for future improvement.

  8. Open Drug Discovery Toolkit (ODDT): a new open-source player in the drug discovery field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcikowski, Maciej; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Siedlecki, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    There has been huge progress in the open cheminformatics field in both methods and software development. Unfortunately, there has been little effort to unite those methods and software into one package. We here describe the Open Drug Discovery Toolkit (ODDT), which aims to fulfill the need for comprehensive and open source drug discovery software. The Open Drug Discovery Toolkit was developed as a free and open source tool for both computer aided drug discovery (CADD) developers and researchers. ODDT reimplements many state-of-the-art methods, such as machine learning scoring functions (RF-Score and NNScore) and wraps other external software to ease the process of developing CADD pipelines. ODDT is an out-of-the-box solution designed to be easily customizable and extensible. Therefore, users are strongly encouraged to extend it and develop new methods. We here present three use cases for ODDT in common tasks in computer-aided drug discovery. Open Drug Discovery Toolkit is released on a permissive 3-clause BSD license for both academic and industrial use. ODDT's source code, additional examples and documentation are available on GitHub (https://github.com/oddt/oddt).

  9. Exploring active galaxies with integral field spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, James E. H.; Miller, Bryan W.; Gerssen, Joris; Allington-Smith, Jeremy R.

    2004-11-01

    Integral Field Spectroscopy provides a powerful new tool for disentangling the complex structure of Active Galactic Nuclei& -- allowing 2D mapping of the distribution, kinematics and excitation of ionized gas and of stellar velocity profiles and populations. Such comprehensive datasets are likely to reveal important clues about the physics of the narrow line region, interactions with the host galaxy and central dynamical forces. Here we present observations of the central regions of NGC1068, obtained using the visible-wavelength GMOS-IFU at Gemini North and NGC4151, taken with a prototype near-infrared fibre IFU at the UK Infrared Telescope.

  10. uvbybeta photometry of early type open cluster and field stars

    CERN Document Server

    Handler, G

    2011-01-01

    The beta Cephei stars and slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars are massive main sequence variables. The strength of their pulsational driving strongly depends on the opacity of iron-group elements. As many of those stars naturally occur in young open clusters, whose metallicities can be determined in several fundamental ways, it is logical to study the incidence of pulsation in several young open clusters. To provide the foundation for such an investigation, Str\\"omgren-Crawford uvbybeta photometry of open cluster target stars was carried out to determine effective temperatures, luminosities, and therefore cluster memberships. In the course of three observing runs, uvbybeta photometry for 168 target stars was acquired and transformed into the standard system by measurements of 117 standard stars. The list of target stars also included some known cluster and field beta Cephei stars, as well as beta Cephei and SPB candidates that are targets of the asteroseismic part of the Kepler satellite mission. The uvbybeta phot...

  11. Higher Spins as Rolling Tachyons in Open String Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Polyakov, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    We find a simple analytic solution in open string field theory which, in the on-shell limit, generates a tower of higher spin vertex operators in bosonic string theory. The solution is related to irregular off-shell vertex operators for Gaiotto states. The wavefunctions for the irregular vertex operators are described by equations following from the cubic effective action for generalized rolling tachyons, indicating that the evolution from flat to collective higher-spin background in string field theory occurs according to cosmological pattern. We discuss the relation between nonlocalities of the rolling tachyon action and those of higher spin interactions.

  12. Gauge Fixing of Modified Cubic Open Superstring Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kohriki, Maiko; Kunitomo, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The gauge-fixing problem of modified cubic open superstring field theory is discussed in detail both for the Ramond and Neveu-Schwarz sectors in the Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) framework. We prove for the first time that the same form of action as the classical gauge-invariant one with the ghost-number constraint on the string field relaxed gives the master action satisfying the BV master equation. This is achieved by identifying independent component fields based on the analysis of the kernel structure of the inverse picture changing operator. The explicit gauge-fixing conditions for the component fields are discussed. In a kind of $b_0=0$ gauge, we explicitly obtain the NS propagator which has poles at the zeros of the Virasoro operator $L_0$.

  13. An open cycle gas core fusion rocket for space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammash, T.; Godfrey, T.

    A nuclear propulsion system that utilizes fusion reactions to heat a plasma in a magnetically confined device is examined as a potential rocket. It makes use of a high density plasma in a magnetic mirror geometry with a collision mean free path much shorter than its length. Under these conditions the plasma behaves like a fluid with confinement properties dictated by gasdynamic laws. Accordingly, the plasma escape from the device is analogous to the flow of a gas into vacuum from a vessel with a hole. Such a system is capable of producing a very high specific impulse albeit at modest thrust. One approach for enhancing the thrust is to use an auxiliary hydrogen propellant that could be regeneratively heated before it is introduced into the reactor chamber. As is flows past the fusion plasma it will be further heated by the radiation (bremsstrahlung and synchrotron) emanating from the plasma, and upon emergence from the nozzle it will generate the desired thrust. The system thus functions much like an open cycle gas core rocket with very attractive propulsive capabilities. In this paper we present the underlying physics principles of such a concept and assess its capability by applying the results to a round trip mission to Mars. It is shown that the propulsion parameters exceed those of a gas core fission reactor and without many of major hydrodynamic problems confronted by the latter.

  14. [Association between the canine monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) gene polymorphisms and behavior of puppies in open-field test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Hui; Xu, Han-Kun; Mao, Da-Gan; Ma, Da-Jun; Chen, Peng; Yang, Li-Guo

    2006-11-01

    Excitability, activity and exploration behavior of puppies in a novel open-field were tested in a total of 204 two-month-old German shepherd dog, labrador retriever or English springer spaniel puppies. The polymorphisms of monoamine oxidase B gene (MAOB) were detected by PCR-RFLP. Statistics analysis indicated that genotype and allele frequencies of the polymorphisms were significantly different among three breeds (P open-field test. The results showed that MAOB gene polymorphisms had a significant effect on walking time, squares crossed, lying time, the times of standing up against walls(P open-field test and TT genotype has favorable effects in these behavior traits.

  15. HACKER ETHICS, FIELDS OF EXPERIMENTATION AND OPEN EDUCATION POSSIBILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Sampaio Coelho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a discussion about open education, based on the concept of rhizome, articulated by Deleuze and Guattari in “A Thousand Plateaus”, and the "wandering lines", present in theFernand Deligny's cartography in "The arachnean and other texts". The paper explores how teachers can act as “Transformative Intellectuals” in the cyberculture context, opposing the banking model of education, adopting a critical perspective of teaching in the utilization of digital culture processes in their Pedagogical practices. In this regard, the discussion ends by suggesting a reflection about the potential of Open Educational Resources (OER and how they can be considered possibilities for wandering and deterritorialization in the context of Brazilian education.

  16. Open and Editable: Exploring Library Engagement in Open Educational Resource Adoption, Adaptation and Authoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Anita R.

    2015-01-01

    Open Educational Resources (OER) have saved students millions of dollars in textbook costs and greatly expanded access to a wide variety of educational materials for countless numbers of students and life-long learners. OER have also saved teachers time and effort by allowing them to reuse, modify, and build on materials developed by other…

  17. Exploring the Supply Side: Factors Related to Charter School Openings in NYC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saultz, Andrew; Fitzpatrick, Dan; Jacobsen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    School choice policies have led to a proliferation of new schools opening. While economic theory suggests that new charters would open in high demand locations, limited work examines whether this is, indeed, occurring. Framing our study in geography, we explore both space factors and place factors as contrasting explanations for where new charters…

  18. Nonlinear magnetic field transport in opening switch plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R. J.; Auer, P. L.; Sudan, R. N.; Oliver, B. V.; Seyler, C. E.; Greenly, J. B.

    1993-04-01

    The nonlinear transport of magnetic field in collisionless plasmas, as present in the plasma opening switch (POS), using the implicit multifluid simulation code anthem [J. Comput. Phys. 71, 429 (1987)] is studied. The focus is on early time behavior in the electron-magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) limit, with the ions fixed, and the electrons streaming as a fluid under the influence of ve×B Hall forces. Through simulation, magnetic penetration and magnetic exclusion waves are characterized, due to the Hall effect in the presence of transverse density gradients, and the interaction of these Hall waves with nonlinear diffusive disturbances from electron velocity advection, (veṡ∇)ve, is studied. It is shown how these mechanisms give rise to the anode magnetic insulation layer, central diffusion, and cathode potential hill structures seen in earlier opening switch plasmas studies.

  19. Exposure to a maternal cafeteria diet changes open-field behaviour in the developing offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, Abigail; Davey, William G; McKenna, Emily; Voigt, Jörg-Peter W

    2017-04-01

    The early postnatal period is a sensitive period in rodents as behavioural systems are developing and maturing during this time. However, little is currently known about the behavioural effects of feeding a hyper-energetic cafeteria diet (CD) during the lactational period when offspring behaviour is tested during early adolescence. To this end, 23days old offspring from dams (Wistar) fed on CD during lactation were tested in either the open-field or the elevated plus-maze for exploration and anxiety-related behaviour. On postnatal day 9, maternal behaviour and non-maternal behaviour of the dam was assessed. It was hypothesized that lactational CD feeding would reduce anxiety in the offspring. CD-fed dams had a higher energy intake, due to an overconsumption of sugars and fats. When offspring from these dams were exposed to the open field after weaning, their locomotor activity was increased. They entered the more aversive inner zone of the open-field after a shorter latency, made more entries into and spent more time in the inner zone. Anxiety-related behaviour was not affected upon exposure to the elevated plus maze, suggesting anxiolysis in the open-field only. Increased maternal licking/grooming behaviour could possibly contribute to the anxiolytic phenotype as observed in the offspring from the CD group. In conclusion, we demonstrate that lactational overfeeding impacts on the development of behaviour in the early adolescent rat. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Exploring the Quality and Usability of OpenStreetMap Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braune, Christopher; Klump, Jens

    2014-05-01

    OpenStreetMap (OSM) is an international project which provides free geographic data by creating and distributing continuously new geodata on a strictly voluntary basis [1]. The open availability of global geographical data invites a wide use of OSM data for a range of fields and applications in many different user groups. Though ongoing contribution of map data by OSM volunteers, and by new volunteers joining OSM, the total volume of OSM data increases steadily. The aim of this study is to explore the global OSM dataset and to define the quality of the dataset through its intrinsic properties instead of comparing its spatial location accuracy to a reference dataset. For instance, one hypothesis states that the spatial object density of OSM will correlated with population density. Other studies have already confirmed this correlation for specific study areas [2], but not on a global scale. Another aspect of this study is to explore the semantic properties of tags used to describe OSM elements. The project includes the implementation of suitable hard- and software environments and the definition of study parameters in terms of quality and usability oriented to the ISO 19113: Geographic information - Quality principles. Common tools for OSM data experience problems with the handling of object tags because unknown key-value combinations (elements of tags) are not supported in some software applications. This means that in the these objects may be missing the data subset used by a specific application. Approximately 36% of key-value pairs in OSM are unique. Only 10% of key-value pairs are widespread and commonly used world wide. Considering the total number of OSM elements exceeding 2 billion, the heterogeneity of tags used to characterise OSM objects offers both a trove of semantic richness but also poses a challenge to semantic interpretation of the global OSM dataset. References: [1] Offical OpenStreetMap Wiki, URL: http://wiki.openstreetmap.org (January 2014) [2

  1. Field emission from open ended aluminum nitride nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondare, V. N.; Balasubramanian, C.; Shende, S. V.; Joag, D. S.; Godbole, V. P.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Bhadbhade, M.

    2002-06-01

    This letter reports the field emission measurements from the nanotubes of aluminum nitride which were synthesized by gas phase condensation using the solid-vapor equilibria. A dc arc plasma reactor was used for producing the vapors of aluminum in a reactive nitrogen atmosphere. Nanoparticles and nanotubes of aluminum nitride were first characterized by transmission electron microscope and tube dimensions were found to be varying from 30 to 200 nm in diameter and 500 to 700 nm in length. These tubes were mixed with nanoparticles of size range between 5 and 200 nm in diameter. Tungsten tips coated with these nanoparticles and tubes were used as a field emitter. The field emission patterns display very interesting features consisting of sharp rings which were often found to change their shapes. The patterns are attributed to the open ended nanotubes of aluminum nitride. A few dot patterns corresponding to the nanoparticles were also seen to occur. The Fowler-Nordheim plots were seen to be nonlinear in nature, which reflects the semi-insulating behavior of the emitter. The field enhancement factor is estimated to be 34 500 indicating that the field enhancement due to the nanometric size of the emitter is an important cause for the observed emission.

  2. How to create successful Open Hardware projects - About White Rabbits and open fields

    CERN Document Server

    van der Bij, E; Lewis, J; Stana, T; Wlostowski, T; Gousiou, E; Serrano, J; Arruat, M; Lipinski, M M; Daniluk, G; Voumard, N; Cattin, M

    2013-01-01

    CERN's accelerator control group has embraced "Open Hardware" (OH) to facilitate peer review, avoid vendor lock-in and make support tasks scalable. A web-based tool for easing collaborative work was set up and the CERN OH Licence was created. New ADC, TDC, fine delay and carrier cards based on VITA and PCI-SIG standards were designed and drivers for Linux were written. Often industry was paid for developments, while quality and documentation was controlled by CERN. An innovative timing network was also developed with the OH paradigm. Industry now sells and supports these designs that find their way into new fields.

  3. Singular surfaces in the open field line region of a diverted tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, A.

    1995-05-01

    The structure of the open field lines of a slightly nonaxisymmetric, poloidally diverted tokamak is explored by numerical integration of the field line equations for a simple model field. In practice, the nonaxisymmetry could be produced self-consistently by the nonlinear evolution of a free-boundary MHD mode, or it could be produced by field errors, or it could be imposed externally by design. In the presence of a nonaxisymmetric perturbation, the tokamak is shown to develop open field line regions of differing topology separated by singular surfaces. It is argued that the singular surfaces can be expected to play a role analogous to that of rational toroidal flux surfaces, in terms of constraining ideal MHD perturbations and thus constraining the free-energy that can be tapped by ideal MHD instabilities. The possibility of active control of free-boundary instabilities by means of currents driven on the open singular surfaces, which are directly accessible from the divertor plates, is discussed. Also discussed is the possibility of early detection of imminent disruptions through localized measurement of the singular surface currents.

  4. PathlinesExplorer — Image-based exploration of large-scale pathline fields

    KAUST Repository

    Nagoor, Omniah H.

    2015-10-25

    PathlinesExplorer is a novel image-based tool, which has been designed to visualize large scale pathline fields on a single computer [7]. PathlinesExplorer integrates explorable images (EI) technique [4] with order-independent transparency (OIT) method [2]. What makes this method different is that it allows users to handle large data on a single workstation. Although it is a view-dependent method, PathlinesExplorer combines both exploration and modification of visual aspects without re-accessing the original huge data. Our approach is based on constructing a per-pixel linked list data structure in which each pixel contains a list of pathline segments. With this view-dependent method, it is possible to filter, color-code, and explore large-scale flow data in real-time. In addition, optimization techniques such as early-ray termination and deferred shading are applied, which further improves the performance and scalability of our approach.

  5. EXPLORING OPEN SEARCH STRATEGIES AND THEIR PERCEIVED IMPACT ON INNOVATION PERFORMANCE—EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE

    OpenAIRE

    KAISA HENTTONEN; PAAVO RITALA; TIINA JAUHIAINEN

    2011-01-01

    Given Chesbrough's idea of open innovation, it could be said that external knowledge is an important element in the optimisation of in-house innovation. External knowledge is distributed among various actors and is accessible through many channels. However, we still do not know much about the search strategies that affect innovation performance. Our study therefore explores the relationship between open knowledge search strategies and company-level innovative performance. This study examines ...

  6. Open and Closed String field theory interpreted in classical Algebraic Topology

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    There is an interpretation of open string field theory in algebraic topology. An interpretation of closed string field theory can be deduced from this open string theory to obtain as well the interpretation of open and closed string field theory combined.

  7. Open and Closed String field theory interpreted in classical Algebraic Topology

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    There is an interpretation of open string field theory in algebraic topology. An interpretation of closed string field theory can be deduced from this open string theory to obtain as well the interpretation of open and closed string field theory combined.

  8. Keldysh field theory for driven open quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieberer, L M; Buchhold, M; Diehl, S

    2016-09-01

    Recent experimental developments in diverse areas-ranging from cold atomic gases to light-driven semiconductors to microcavity arrays-move systems into the focus which are located on the interface of quantum optics, many-body physics and statistical mechanics. They share in common that coherent and driven-dissipative quantum dynamics occur on an equal footing, creating genuine non-equilibrium scenarios without immediate counterpart in equilibrium condensed matter physics. This concerns both their non-thermal stationary states and their many-body time evolution. It is a challenge to theory to identify novel instances of universal emergent macroscopic phenomena, which are tied unambiguously and in an observable way to the microscopic drive conditions. In this review, we discuss some recent results in this direction. Moreover, we provide a systematic introduction to the open system Keldysh functional integral approach, which is the proper technical tool to accomplish a merger of quantum optics and many-body physics, and leverages the power of modern quantum field theory to driven open quantum systems.

  9. Keldysh field theory for driven open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieberer, L. M.; Buchhold, M.; Diehl, S.

    2016-09-01

    Recent experimental developments in diverse areas—ranging from cold atomic gases to light-driven semiconductors to microcavity arrays—move systems into the focus which are located on the interface of quantum optics, many-body physics and statistical mechanics. They share in common that coherent and driven-dissipative quantum dynamics occur on an equal footing, creating genuine non-equilibrium scenarios without immediate counterpart in equilibrium condensed matter physics. This concerns both their non-thermal stationary states and their many-body time evolution. It is a challenge to theory to identify novel instances of universal emergent macroscopic phenomena, which are tied unambiguously and in an observable way to the microscopic drive conditions. In this review, we discuss some recent results in this direction. Moreover, we provide a systematic introduction to the open system Keldysh functional integral approach, which is the proper technical tool to accomplish a merger of quantum optics and many-body physics, and leverages the power of modern quantum field theory to driven open quantum systems.

  10. Inexpensive Open-Source Data Logging in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickert, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    I present a general-purpose open-source field-capable data logger, which provides a mechanism to develop dense networks of inexpensive environmental sensors. This data logger was developed as a low-power variant of the Arduino open-source development system, and is named the ALog ("Arduino Logger") BottleLogger (it is slim enough to fit inside a Nalgene water bottle) version 1.0. It features an integrated high-precision real-time clock, SD card slot for high-volume data storage, and integrated power switching. The ALog can interface with sensors via six analog/digital pins, two digital pins, and one digital interrupt pin that can read event-based inputs, such as those from a tipping-bucket rain gauge. We have successfully tested the ALog BottleLogger with ultrasonic rangefinders (for water stage and snow accumulation and melt), temperature sensors, tipping-bucket rain gauges, soil moisture and water potential sensors, resistance-based tools to measure frost heave, and cameras that it triggers based on events. The source code for the ALog, including functions to interface with a a range of commercially-available sensors, is provided as an Arduino C++ library with example implementations. All schematics, circuit board layouts, and source code files are open-source and freely available under GNU GPL v3.0 and Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported licenses. Through this work, we hope to foster a community-driven movement to collect field environmental data on a budget that permits citizen-scientists and researchers from low-income countries to collect the same high-quality data as researchers in wealthy countries. These data can provide information about global change to managers, governments, scientists, and interested citizens worldwide. Watertight box with ALog BottleLogger data logger on the left and battery pack with 3 D cells on the right. Data can be collected for 3-5 years on one set of batteries.

  11. New Exploration Blocks In China's Offshore Areas Open to Foreign Firms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ CNOOC is offering 10 new exploration blocks offshore China to international oil and gas companies for PSC (Production Sharing Contract) exploration and 2 new areas for contracts or agreements, according to the statement announced by the offshore oil giant on June 6, 2003. All interested companies can make their inquiries with CNOOC's legal and contract department. In addition, the remaining deepwater blocks continue to be open to interested parties.

  12. On-table Diagnostic Accuracy and the Clinical Significance of Routine Exploration in Open Appendectomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheuk Fan Shum

    2005-10-01

    Conclusion: Based on these results, it seems that the on-table diagnostic accuracy in open appendectomies is low and surgeons' on-table diagnosis should not be the determining factor for whether further exploration is necessary. Exploration for other intra-abdominal pathology should be routine irrespective of the on-table diagnosis, the surgeon's experience and patient gender and age. An alternative is minimal-access surgery in which inspection of other intra-abdominal organs can be performed more easily.

  13. Strategic foresight for collaborative exploration of new business fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heger, Tobias; Rohrbeck, René

    2012-01-01

    To ensure long-term competitiveness, companies need to develop the ability to explore, plan, and develop new business fields. A suitable approach faces multiple challenges because it needs to (1) integrate multiple perspectives, (2) ensure a high level of participation of the major stakeholders a...

  14. Variable stars in the field of open cluster NGC 2126

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-Fang Liu; Zhen-Yu Wu; Xiao-Bin Zhang; Jiang-Hua Wu; Jun Ma; Zhao-Ji Jiang; Jian-Sheng Chen; Xu Zhou

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of a time-series CCD photometric survey of variable stars in the field of open cluster NGC 2126. In about a one square degree field covering the cluster, a total of 21 variable candidates are detected during this survey, of which 16 are newly found. The periods, classifications and spectral types of 14 newly discovered variables are discussed, which consist of six eclipsing binary systems, three pulsating variable stars, three long period variables, one RS CVn star, and one W UMa or δ Scuti star. In addition, there are two variable candidates, the properties of which cannot be determined. By a method based on fitting observed spectral energy distributions of stars with theoretical ones, the membership probabilities and the fundamental parameters of this cluster are determined. As a result, five variables are probably members of NGC 2126. The fundamental parameters of this cluster are determined as: metallicity to be 0.008 Z , age log(t)=8.95, distance modulus (m - M)0 = 10.34 and reddening value E(B -V) = 0.55 mag.

  15. Exploration of Open Educational Resources in Non-English Speaking Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristobal Cobo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, open educational resources (OER initiatives have created new possibilities for knowledge-sharing practices. This research examines how, where, and when OER are attracting attention in the higher education sector and explores to what extent the OER discussion has moved beyond the English-speaking world. This study analysed English, Spanish, and Portuguese OER queries over a long-term period (2007-2011. The data retrieval was conducted using four online platforms: two academic journal databases (Web of Knowledge and Scopus, one video-sharing Web site (YouTube, and one document-sharing Web site (Scribd. The number (more than 32,860 of search results collected indicate an increasing interest in online OER discussion across languages, particularly outside academic journal databases. Additionally, a widening ‘language gap’ between OER discussions in English and other languages was identified in several platforms. This research reports some of the cultural and language challenges caused by the expansion of the OER discussion and highlights relevant findings in this field.

  16. Open Innovation, Triple Helix and Regional Innovation Systems: Exploring CATAPULT Centres in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, Christopher; Danson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Through the lens of UK CATAPULT Centres this conceptual paper presents an examination of the links between open innovation, the Triple Helix model and regional innovation systems. Highlighting the importance of boundary-spanning intermediaries, the combined role of these concepts is explored in detail. A conceptual model is then proposed which…

  17. FINESSE: Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, Jennifer; Lim, Darlene; Colaprete, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program aimed at generating strategic knowledge in preparation for the human and robotic exploration of the Moon, near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and Phobos and Deimos. We follow the philosophy that "science enables exploration and exploration enables science." 1) FINESSE Science: Understand the effects of volcanism and impacts as dominant planetary processes on the Moon, NEAs, and Phobos & Deimos. 2) FINESSE Exploration: Understand which exploration concepts of operations (ConOps) and capabilities enable and enhance scientific return. To accomplish these objectives, we are conducting an integrated research program focused on scientifically-driven field exploration at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve in Idaho and at the West Clearwater Lake Impact Structure in northern Canada. Field deployments aimed at reconnaissance geology and data acquisition were conducted in 2014 at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve. Targets for data acquisition included selected sites at Kings Bowl eruptive fissure, lava field and blowout crater, Inferno Chasm vent and outflow channel, North Crater lava flow and Highway lava flow. Field investigation included (1) differential GPS (dGPS) measurements of lava flows, channels (and ejecta block at Kings Bowl); (2) LiDAR imaging of lava flow margins, surfaces and other selected features; (3) digital photographic documentation; (4) sampling for geochemical and petrographic analysis; (5) UAV aerial imagery of Kings Bowl and Inferno Chasm features; and (6) geologic assessment of targets and potential new targets. Over the course of the 5-week field FINESSE campaign to the West Clearwater Impact Structure (WCIS) in 2014, the team focused on several WCIS research topics, including impactites, central uplift formation, the impact-generated hydrothermal system, multichronometer

  18. Exploration Trend of Large Gas Fields in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jingming; Wei Guoqi; Zhao Qun; Li Xiaojun

    2008-01-01

    @@ China has abundant natural gas resources with low exploration level. The discovery rate of resources is 10% on the average, boasting a great potential. By the end of 2006, the ascertained geological gas reserves in China has amounted to 5.4×1012m3, among which 9 gas fields has 1000×108m3 of ascertained geological reserves or more.The "large gas fields" are referred to those gas fields with recoverable reserves exceeding 85 billion cubic meters.Since the Sixth Five-Year Plan, China's gas industry has developed rapidly and gas reserve and output has witnessed a substantial increase, in which the discovery of large gas fields has played a very important role. With the progress of technology, more gas resources will be discovered with gas reserves growing rapidly in China.

  19. Exploring Dense and Cold QCD in Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrer, E J

    2016-01-01

    Strong magnetic fields are commonly generated in off-central relativistic heavy-ion collisions in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Lab and in the Large Hadron Collider at CERN and have been used to probe the topological configurations of the QCD vacua. A strong magnetic field can affect the character and location of the QCD critical point, influence the QCD phases, and lead to anomalous transport of charge. To take advantage of the magnetic field as a probe of QCD at higher baryon densities, we are going to need experiments capable to scan the lower energy region. In this context, the nuclotron-based ion collider facility (NICA) at JINR offers a unique opportunity to explore such a region and complement alternative programs at RHIC and other facilities. In this paper we discuss some relevant problems of the interplay between QCD and magnetic fields and the important role the experiments at NICA can play in tackling them.

  20. Exploring dense and cold QCD in magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, E. J.; de la Incera, V.

    2016-08-01

    Strong magnetic fields are commonly generated in off-central relativistic heavy-ion collisions in the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Lab and in the Large Hadron Collider at CERN and have been used to probe the topological configurations of the QCD vacua. A strong magnetic field can affect the character and location of the QCD critical point, influence the QCD phases, and lead to anomalous transport of charge. To take advantage of the magnetic field as a probe of QCD at higher baryon densities, we are going to need experiments capable to scan the lower energy region. In this context, the nuclotron-based ion collider facility (NICA) at JINR offers a unique opportunity to explore such a region and complement alternative programs at RHIC and other facilities. In this paper we discuss some relevant problems of the interplay between QCD and magnetic fields and the important role the experiments at NICA can play in tackling them.

  1. Influence of initial visual field sensitivity on visual field loss progression in open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hentova-Senćanić Paraskeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is important to know the risk factors for visual field defect progression in order to predict the future development of glaucoma. Objective. To investigate the influence of visual field initial sensitivity on the rate of visual field progression. Methods. A minimum of five visual fields were performed using computerized perimetry (Octopus over a mean follow- up 4-year period (48.85±17.84 months in 64 persons (114 eyes with primary open angle glaucoma. The rate of change of the whole central visual field and each of the seven regions of the field were measured by linear regression analysis of the mean sensitivity value versus time. Based on the slope of the regression line of visual field mean sensitivity over time the eyes were divided into two groups: the group with stable and the group with progressive visual field. The comparison of the mean sensitivity of the whole central visual field between the groups was performed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. The Spearman rang correlation coefficient and the Spearman probability p values were calculated to assess the mean sensitivity of the whole central visual field and of each visual field regions determined at the beginning of the study. Results. The initial mean sensitivity of the whole central visual field was lower in the group with progressive visual field (16.62±6.35 dB. Correlation between the initial mean sensitivity and the slope of the regression line was negative. The lowest mean sensitivity was in the group with progressive visual field in the upper temporal (13.73±7.35 dB, nasal (14.74±7.23 dB and upper nasal (15.03±7.75 dB regions. Conclusion. The lower mean sensitivity value of the visual field, especially in the nasal and upper nasal visual field regions, carries a greater risk for delayed progressive loss of the visual field in persons with glaucoma.

  2. Open data and beyond: Exploring existing open data projects to prepare a successful open data strategy: Deelrapport organisatorische aspecten voor een succesvolle open data strategie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bregt, A.K.; Castelein, W.; Dignum, V.

    2012-01-01

    In dit rapport wordt ingegaan op de organisatorische aspecten van open data. De keus voor een bepaalde organisatorische invulling is uiteraard sterk afhankelijk van de interne besluitvorming, mogelijkheden en ambities van Alliander zelf. Dit rapport moet dan ook gezien worden als een schets van aspe

  3. Science with a wide-field UV transient explorer

    CERN Document Server

    Sagiv, I; Ofek, E O; Waxman, E; Aharonson, O; Nakar, E; Maoz, D; Trakhtenbrot, B; Kulkarni, S R; Phinney, E S; Topaz, J; Beichman, C; Murthy, J; Worden, S P

    2013-01-01

    The time-variable electromagnetic sky has been well-explored at a wide range of wavelengths. Numerous high-energy space missions take advantage of the dark Gamma-ray and X-ray sky and utilize very wide field detectors to provide almost continuous monitoring of the entire celestial sphere. In visible light, new wide-field ground-based surveys cover wide patches of sky with ever decreasing cadence, progressing from monthly-weekly time scale surveys to sub-night sampling. In the radio, new powerful instrumentation offers unprecedented sensitivity over wide fields of view, with pathfinder experiments for even more ambitious programs underway. In contrast, the ultra-violet (UV) variable sky is relatively poorly explored, even though it offers exciting scientific prospects. Here, we review the potential scientific impact of a wide-field UV survey on the study of explosive and other transient events, as well as known classes of variable objects, such as active galactic nuclei and variable stars. We quantify our pred...

  4. GPU computing with OpenCL to model 2D elastic wave propagation: exploring memory usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturrarán-Viveros, Ursula; Molero-Armenta, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Graphics processing units (GPUs) have become increasingly powerful in recent years. Programs exploring the advantages of this architecture could achieve large performance gains and this is the aim of new initiatives in high performance computing. The objective of this work is to develop an efficient tool to model 2D elastic wave propagation on parallel computing devices. To this end, we implement the elastodynamic finite integration technique, using the industry open standard open computing language (OpenCL) for cross-platform, parallel programming of modern processors, and an open-source toolkit called [Py]OpenCL. The code written with [Py]OpenCL can run on a wide variety of platforms; it can be used on AMD or NVIDIA GPUs as well as classical multicore CPUs, adapting to the underlying architecture. Our main contribution is its implementation with local and global memory and the performance analysis using five different computing devices (including Kepler, one of the fastest and most efficient high performance computing technologies) with various operating systems.

  5. Foundation of CS-DC e-laboratory: Open Systems Exploration for Ecosystems Leveraging

    OpenAIRE

    Funabashi, Masatoshi; Hanappe, Peter; Isozaki, Takashi; Maes, Annemarie; Sasaki, Takahiro; Steels, Luc; Yoshida, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    International audience; 3 OKNO Koolmijnenkaai 30, 1080 Brussels, Belgium http://okno.be 4 SooN Vlaamse Steenweg 66, 1000 Brussels, Belgium http://annemariemaes.net Abstract. We established a Complex Systems Digital Campus(CS-DC) e-laboratory " Open Systems Exploration for Ecosystems Leveraging " in view of redesigning sustainable social-ecological systems related to food production ranging over food, health, community, economy, and environment. 6 projects have begun to collabo...

  6. Exploring TechQuests Through Open Source and Tools That Inspire Digital Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, K.; Ouyang, Y.; Kilb, D.; Taylor, N.; Krey, B.

    2008-12-01

    "There is little doubt that K-12 students need to understand and appreciate the Earth on which they live. They can achieve this understanding only if their teachers are well prepared". Dan Barstow, Director of Center for Earth and Space Science Education at TERC. The approach of San Diego County's Cyberinfrastructure Training, Education, Advancement, and Mentoring (SD Cyber-TEAM) project is to build understandings of Earth systems for middle school teachers and students through a collaborative that has engaged the scientific community in the use of cyber-based tools and environments for learning. The SD Cyber-TEAM has used Moodle, an open source management system with social networking tools, that engage digital native students and their teachers in collaboration and sharing of ideas and research related to Earth science. Teachers participate in on-line professional dialog through chat, wikis, blogs, forums, journals and other tools and choose the tools that will best fit their classroom. The use of Moodle during the Summer Cyber Academy developed a cyber-collaboratory environment where teaching strategies were discussed, supported and actualized by participants. These experiences supported digital immigrants (teachers) in adapting teaching strategies using technologies that are most attractive and familiar to students (digital natives). A new study by the National School Boards Association and Grunwald Associates LLC indicated that "the online behaviors of U.S. teens and 'tweens shows that 96 percent of students with online access use social networking technologies, such as chatting, text messaging, blogging, and visiting online communities such as Facebook, MySpace, and Webkinz". While SD Cyber-TEAM teachers are implementing TechQuests in classrooms they use these social networking elements to capture student interest and address the needs of digital natives. Through the Moodle environment, teachers have explored a variety of learning objects called Tech

  7. Giant fields, petroleum systems and exploration maturity of Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGregor, D.S. [ed.] [BP Exploration Operating Co. Ltd., Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1998-12-31

    The giant petroleum fields of eastern Algeria can be divided into six significant petroleum systems. More than 60% of the giant fields and 80% of the reserves within them lie in a specific setting in reservoirs immediately below or above the Hercynian unconformity, and below the Liassic salt seal. The second main reservoirs are Early Devonian sandstones. Timing of generation and preservation potential, as controlled by tectonic history, seal type and source rock burial, are key controls on the distribution of petroleum in these giant fields, particularly for oil. Field size distributions within the six petroleum systems can be related to structural style and to differing levels of exploration maturity within each system. Comparisons can be made between the productive trap types and petroleum systems of Algeria and analogous but more heavily drilled basins elsewhere in the world. Such comparisons suggest that further giant fields lie undiscovered in Algeria, particularly in subtle forms of traps, and in the 250-500 MMBOE (million barrels oil equivalent) reserves range. (author)

  8. Overview of NASA Finesse (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) Science and Exploration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, J. L.; Lim, D.S.S.; Hughes, S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Garry, B.; Sears, D.; Neish, C.; Osinski, G. R.; Hodges, K.; Downs, M.; Busto, J.; Cohen, B.; Caldwell, B.; Jones, A. J. P.; Johnson, S.; Kobayashi, L.; Colaprete, A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) project was selected as a research team by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). SSERVI is a joint Institute supported by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD). As such, FINESSE is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program to generate strategic knowledge in preparation for human and robotic exploration of other planetary bodies including our Moon, Mars moons Phobos and Deimos, and near-Earth asteroids. FINESSE embodies the philosophy that "science enables exploration and exploration enables science".

  9. Effects of septal cholinergic lesion on rat exploratory behavior in an open-field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Lamprea

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The medial septum participates in the modulation of exploratory behavior triggered by novelty. Also, selective lesions of the cholinergic component of the septohippocampal system alter the habituation of rats to an elevated plus-maze without modifying anxiety indices. We investigated the effects of the intraseptal injection of the cholinergic immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin (SAP on the behavior of rats in an open-field. Thirty-nine male Wistar rats (weight: 194-230 g were divided into three groups, non-injected controls and rats injected with either saline (0.5 µl or SAP (237.5 ng/0.5 µl. Twelve days after surgery, the animals were placed in a square open-field (120 cm and allowed to freely explore for 5 min. After the test, the rats were killed by decapitation and the septum, hippocampus and frontal cortex were removed and assayed for acetylcholinesterase activity. SAP increased acetylcholinesterase activity in the septum, hippocampus and frontal cortex and decreased the total distance run (9.15 ± 1.51 m in comparison to controls (13.49 ± 0.91 m. The time spent in the center and at the periphery was not altered by SAP but the distance run was reduced during the first and second minutes (2.43 ± 0.36 and 1.75 ± 0.34 m compared to controls (4.18 ± 0.26 and 3.14 ± 0.25 m. SAP-treated rats showed decreased but persistent exploration throughout the session. These results suggest that septohippocampal cholinergic mechanisms contribute to at least two critical processes, one related to the motivation to explore new environments and the other to the acquisition and storage of spatial information (i.e., spatial memory.

  10. Post-training scopolamine treatment induced maladaptive behavior in open field habituation task in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Popović

    Full Text Available The effects of scopolamine on memory consolidation are controversial and depend on several factors (i.e. site of administration, time of administration and testing, dose, cognitive task, experimental protocol, specie, strain, etc.. Generally, the range dose of systemic administered scopolamine, used in memory consolidation studies, has varied from 0.05 to 50 mg/kg. However, according to the literature, the most frequently used doses of scopolamine efficient on memory consolidation, are 1 and 30 mg/kg, low and high doses, respectively. In open field habituation studies only lower doses of scopolamine were used to test memory consolidation. Therefore, in the present study we compared the effects of low (1 mg/kg and high (30 mg/kg scopolamine dose, on the open field habituation task, in male Wistar rats. Scopolamine was administered immediately after the acquisition task and animals were retested 48 h later on. On the retested day, the ambulation and rearing in the open field decreased in the same manner in all tested groups. In saline- and 1 mg/kg scopolamine-treated animals, the time spent in grooming significantly decreased in the habituation task, while the same parameter significantly increased in animals treated with 30 mg/kg of scopolamine. The defecation rate significantly decreased (control group, maintained (1 mg/kg of scopolamine treated animals or significantly increased (30 mg/kg of scopolamine treated group on retention test. In conclusion, the present data suggest that post-training scopolamine administration does not affect locomotion neither exploration in the habituation to a novel environment, but increases defecation and grooming, two behaviours associated with fearful and stressful situations.

  11. Science with a wide-field UV transient explorer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagiv, I.; Gal-Yam, A.; Ofek, E. O.; Waxman, E.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Topaz, J. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Aharonson, O. [Helen Kimmel Center for Planetary Science, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Kulkarni, S. R.; Phinney, E. S. [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nakar, E.; Maoz, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 93387 Tel Aviv (Israel); Beichman, C. [Division of Geophysics and Planetary Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91105 (United States); Murthy, J. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Worden, S. P. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The time-variable electromagnetic sky has been well-explored at a wide range of wavelengths. In contrast, the ultra-violet (UV) variable sky is relatively poorly explored, even though it offers exciting scientific prospects. Here, we review the potential scientific impact of a wide-field UV survey on the study of explosive and other transient events, as well as known classes of variable objects, such as active galactic nuclei and variable stars. We quantify our predictions using a fiducial set of observational parameters which are similar to those envisaged for the proposed ULTRASAT mission. We show that such a mission would be able to revolutionize our knowledge about massive star explosions by measuring the early UV emission from hundreds of events, revealing key physical parameters of the exploding progenitor stars. Such a mission would also detect the UV emission from many tens of tidal-disruption events of stars by supermassive black holes at galactic nuclei and enable a measurement of the rate of such events. The overlap of such a wide-field UV mission with existing and planned gravitational-wave and high-energy neutrino telescopes makes it especially timely.

  12. Image-based Exploration of Large-Scale Pathline Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Nagoor, Omniah H.

    2014-05-27

    While real-time applications are nowadays routinely used in visualizing large nu- merical simulations and volumes, handling these large-scale datasets requires high-end graphics clusters or supercomputers to process and visualize them. However, not all users have access to powerful clusters. Therefore, it is challenging to come up with a visualization approach that provides insight to large-scale datasets on a single com- puter. Explorable images (EI) is one of the methods that allows users to handle large data on a single workstation. Although it is a view-dependent method, it combines both exploration and modification of visual aspects without re-accessing the original huge data. In this thesis, we propose a novel image-based method that applies the concept of EI in visualizing large flow-field pathlines data. The goal of our work is to provide an optimized image-based method, which scales well with the dataset size. Our approach is based on constructing a per-pixel linked list data structure in which each pixel contains a list of pathlines segments. With this view-dependent method it is possible to filter, color-code and explore large-scale flow data in real-time. In addition, optimization techniques such as early-ray termination and deferred shading are applied, which further improves the performance and scalability of our approach.

  13. Reconstruction of Open Solar Magnetic Flux and Interplanetary Magnetic Field in the 20Th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V. G.; Miletsky, E. V.

    2004-10-01

    We reconstruct mean magnitudes of the open solar magnetic field since 1915 using α magnetic synoptic charts of the Sun. The obtained series allows estimation of the interplanetary magnetic field. They also confirm the known conclusion about the secular increase of the solar open magnetic flux in the first half of the 20th century.

  14. User Driven Development of Software Tools for Open Data Discovery and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlobinski, Sascha; Keppel, Frank; Dihe, Pascal; Boot, Gerben; Falkenroth, Esa

    2016-04-01

    The use of open data in research faces challenges not restricted to inherent properties such as data quality, resolution of open data sets. Often Open data is catalogued insufficiently or fragmented. Software tools that support the effective discovery including the assessment of the data's appropriateness for research have shortcomings such as the lack of essential functionalities like support for data provenance. We believe that one of the reasons is the neglect of real end users requirements in the development process of aforementioned software tools. In the context of the FP7 Switch-On project we have pro-actively engaged the relevant user user community to collaboratively develop a means to publish, find and bind open data relevant for hydrologic research. Implementing key concepts of data discovery and exploration we have used state of the art web technologies to provide an interactive software tool that is easy to use yet powerful enough to satisfy the data discovery and access requirements of the hydrological research community.

  15. Energy Momentum Tensor and Marginal Deformations in Open String Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, A

    2004-01-01

    Marginal boundary deformations in a two dimensional conformal field theory correspond to a family of classical solutions of the equations of motion of open string field theory. In this paper we develop a systematic method for relating the parameter labelling the marginal boundary deformation in the conformal field theory to the parameter labelling the classical solution in open string field theory. This is done by first constructing the energy-momentum tensor associated with the classical solution in open string field theory using Noether method, and then comparing this to the answer obtained in the conformal field theory by analysing the boundary state. We also use this method to demonstrate that in open string field theory the tachyon lump solution on a circle of radius larger than one has vanishing pressure along the circle direction, as is expected for a codimension one D-brane.

  16. Exploring Infiniband Hardware Virtualization in OpenNebula towards Efficient High-Performance Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pais Pitta de Lacerda Ruivo, Tiago [IIT, Chicago; Bernabeu Altayo, Gerard [Fermilab; Garzoglio, Gabriele [Fermilab; Timm, Steven [Fermilab; Kim, Hyun-Woo [Fermilab; Noh, Seo-Young [KISTI, Daejeon; Raicu, Ioan [IIT, Chicago

    2014-11-11

    has been widely accepted that software virtualization has a big negative impact on high-performance computing (HPC) application performance. This work explores the potential use of Infiniband hardware virtualization in an OpenNebula cloud towards the efficient support of MPI-based workloads. We have implemented, deployed, and tested an Infiniband network on the FermiCloud private Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) cloud. To avoid software virtualization towards minimizing the virtualization overhead, we employed a technique called Single Root Input/Output Virtualization (SRIOV). Our solution spanned modifications to the Linux’s Hypervisor as well as the OpenNebula manager. We evaluated the performance of the hardware virtualization on up to 56 virtual machines connected by up to 8 DDR Infiniband network links, with micro-benchmarks (latency and bandwidth) as well as w a MPI-intensive application (the HPL Linpack benchmark).

  17. Plenario: An Open Data Discovery and Exploration Platform for Urban Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catlett, Charlie; Malik, Tanu; Goldstein, Brett J.; Giuffrida, Jonathan; Shao, Yetong; Panella, Alessandro; Eder, Derek; van Zanten, Eric; Mitchum, Robert; Thaler, Severin; Foster, Ian

    2014-12-01

    The past decade has seen the widespread release of open data concerning city services, conditions, and activities by government bodies and public institutions of all sizes. Hundreds of open data portals now host thousands of datasets of many different types. These new data sources represent enormous po- tential for improved understanding of urban dynamics and processes—and, ultimately, for more livable, efficient, and prosperous communities. However, those who seek to realize this potential quickly discover that discovering and applying those data relevant to any particular question can be extraordinarily dif- ficult, due to decentralized storage, heterogeneous formats, and poor documentation. In this context, we introduce Plenario, a platform designed to automating time-consuming tasks associated with the discovery, exploration, and application of open city data—and, in so doing, reduce barriers to data use for researchers, policymakers, service providers, journalists, and members of the general public. Key innovations include a geospatial data warehouse that allows data from many sources to be registered into a common spatial and temporal frame; simple and intuitive interfaces that permit rapid discovery and exploration of data subsets pertaining to a particular area and time, regardless of type and source; easy export of such data subsets for further analysis; a user-configurable data ingest framework for automated importing and periodic updating of new datasets into the data warehouse; cloud hosting for elastic scaling and rapid creation of new Plenario instances; and an open source implementation to enable community contributions. We describe here the architecture and implementation of the Plenario platform, discuss lessons learned from its use by several communities, and outline plans for future work.

  18. Open file data on the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippman, M.J.; Aguirre, B.D.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1977-04-01

    Some of the unpublished data presently available on open file at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory are listed and described. In addition, in the files are a number of internal memoranda of the Commission Federal de Electricidad of Mexico (CFE) on chemical characteristics of the produced fluids and incrustations; published papers on Cerro Prieto and the geologic setting of the Salton Trough; and data on the hydrogeology of the Mexicali Valley. (MHR)

  19. Exploring perturbative conformal field theory in Mellin space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizami, Amin A.; Rudra, Arnab; Sarkar, Sourav; Verma, Mritunjay

    2017-01-01

    We explore the Mellin representation of correlation functions in conformal field theories in the weak coupling regime. We provide a complete proof for a set of Feynman rules to write the Mellin amplitude for a general tree level Feynman diagram involving only scalar operators. We find a factorised form involving beta functions associated to the propagators, similar to tree level Feynman rules in momentum space for ordinary QFTs. We also briefly consider the case where a generic scalar perturbation of the free CFT breaks conformal invariance. Mellin space still has some utility and one can consider non-conformal Mellin representations. In this context, we find that the beta function corresponding to conformal propagator uplifts to a hypergeometric function.

  20. Exploring Perturbative Conformal Field Theory in Mellin space

    CERN Document Server

    Nizami, Amin A; Sarkar, Sourav; Verma, Mritunjay

    2016-01-01

    We explore the Mellin representation of correlation functions in conformal field theories in the weak coupling regime. We provide a complete proof for a set of Feynman rules to write the Mellin amplitude for a general tree level Feynman diagram involving only scalar operators. We find a factorised form involving beta functions associated to the propagators, similar to tree level Feynman rules in momentum space for ordinary QFTs. We also briefly consider the case where a generic scalar perturbation of the free CFT breaks conformal invariance. Mellin space still has some utility and one can consider non-conformal Mellin representations. In this context, we find that the beta function corresponding to conformal propagator uplifts to a hypergeometric function.

  1. $A_\\infty$ structure from the Berkovits formulation of open superstring field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Theodore; Takezaki, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    By formulating open superstring field theory based on the small Hilbert space of the superconformal ghost sector, an action for the Neveu-Schwarz sector with an $A_\\infty$ structure has recently been constructed. We transform this action to the Wess-Zumino-Witten-like form and show that this theory is related to the Berkovits formulation of open superstring field theory based on the large Hilbert space by partial gauge fixing and field redefinition.

  2. Open-Axial-Field Magnet at ISR intersection I8

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    This axial field spectrometer left the central collision region unobstructed in order to ease analysis of secondary particles emitted at large angle. The ISR circulating beams were passing through a hole in the magnet poles.

  3. Exploring the magnetic field configuration in BL Lac using GMVA

    CERN Document Server

    Rani, B; Hodgson, J; Koyama, S; Zensus, J A; Fuhrmann, L; Marscher, A P; Jorstad, S G

    2016-01-01

    The high radio frequency polarization imaging of non-thermal emission from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is a direct way to probe the magnetic field strength and structure in the immediate vicinity of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and is crucial in testing the jet-launching scenario. To explore the the magnetic field configuration at the base of jets in blazars, we took advantage of the full polarization capabilities of the Global Millimeter VLBI Array (GMVA). With an angular resolution of $\\sim$50 micro-arcseconds ($\\mu$as) at 86 GHz, one could resolve scales up to $\\sim$450 gravitational radii (for a 10$^9$ solar mass black hole at a redshift of 0.1). We present here the preliminary results of our study on the blazar BL~Lac. Our results suggest that on sub-mas scales the core and the central jet of BL Lac are significantly polarized with two distinct regions of polarized intensity. We also noted a great morphological similarity between the 7mm/3mm VLBI images at very similar angular resolution.

  4. An Exploration of OpenCL for a Numerical Relativity Application

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhary, Niket K; Navada, Sandeep; Khanna, Gaurav

    2010-01-01

    Currently there is considerable interest in making use of many-core processor architectures, such as Nvidia and AMD graphics processing units (GPUs) for scientific computing. In this work we explore the use of the Open Computing Language (OpenCL) for a typical Numerical Relativity application: a time-domain Teukolsky equation solver (a linear, hyperbolic, partial differential equation solver using finite-differencing). OpenCL is the only vendor-agnostic and multi-platform parallel computing framework that has been adopted by all major processor vendors. Therefore, it allows us to write portable source-code and run it on a wide variety of compute hardware and perform meaningful comparisons. The outcome of our experimentation suggests that it is relatively straightforward to obtain order-of-magnitude gains in overall application performance by making use of many-core GPUs over multi-core CPUs and this fact is largely independent of the specific hardware architecture and vendor. We also observe that a single hig...

  5. Wide Field CCD photometry around nine open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, S; Ogura, K; Mito, H; Tarusawa, K; Sagar, R

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study the evolution of core and corona of nine open clusters using the projected radial density profiles derived from homogeneous CCD photometric data obtained through the 105-cm Kiso Schmidt telescope. The age and galactocentric distance of the target clusters varies from 16 Myr to 2000 Myr and 9 kpcto 10.8 kpc respectively. Barring Be 62, which is young open cluster, other clusters show a uniform reddening across the cluster region. The reddening in Be 62varies from $E(B-V)_{min}$= 0.70 mag to $E(B-V)_{max}$= 1.00 mag. The corona of six of the clusters in the present sample is found to be elongated, however on the basis of the present sample it is not possible to establish any correlation between the age and shape of the core. The elongated core in the case of young cluster Be 62 may reflect the initial conditions in the parental molecular cloud. The other results of the present study are (i) Core radius `$r_c$' and corona size $`r_{cn}$'/cluster radius $`r_{cl}$' are linearly correlated. (...

  6. The power of research exploration within education: lessons from an international field hydrology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Najm, M. R.; Stewart, R. D.; Rupp, D. E.; Selker, J. S.; Lane, J. W.; Casanova, F.; Arumí, J.; Rivera, D.

    2011-12-01

    Educating the next generation of scientists requires new educational methods and unconventional approaches to facilitate the interdisciplinary scholarship required to cope with fast-paced developments in the geosciences. We believe incorporation of field training with active research missions is an effective educational model. By participating in active research and open science dialogue, students are exposed to real-world examples of the principles and processes of complex systems in a manner that allows them to develop a deeper understanding of the subject. We find students are highly motivated by the knowledge that data they collect will advance the research mission; such an environment stokes their passions and imaginations and allows the students to explore the roots of their interest in geoscience. In this context, a two-week educational field course on hydrologic processes and measurements was integrated with ongoing research in Chile to understand the effect of soil shrinkage and swelling properties on watershed hydrologic response. Students witnessed the iterative process of field-experiment design and became part of science in the making. They experienced the complexity of field work and developed problem-solving skills through the myriad of challenges presented in the acquisition of field data in a remote area. All of these factors contributed to an atmosphere of creativity that led to an outstanding research and educational experience. We find the coupling of field training with active research to be extremely rewarding, and time- and cost-effective education in this fast-paced and cost-cautious age.

  7. Comments on complete actions for open superstring field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Hiroaki

    2016-11-01

    We clarify a Wess-Zumino-Witten-like structure including Ramond fields and propose one systematic way to construct gauge invariant actions: Wess-Zumino-Witten-like complete action S WZW. We show that Kunitomo-Okawa's action proposed in arXiv:1508.00366 can obtain a topological parameter dependence of Ramond fields and belongs to our WZW-like framework. In this framework, once a WZW-like functional {{A}}_{η }={{A}}_{η}[Ψ ] of a dynamical string field Ψ is constructed, we obtain one realization of S WZW[Ψ] parametrized by Ψ. On the basis of this way, we construct an action tilde{S} whose on-shell condition is equivalent to the Ramond equations of motion proposed in arXiv:1506.05774. Using these results, we provide the equivalence of two theories: arXiv:1508.00366 and arXiv:1506.05774.

  8. [OPEN FIELD BEHAVIOR AS A PREDICTIVE CRITERIA REFLECTING RATS CORTICOSTERONELEVEL BEFORE AND AFTER STRESS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umriukhin, P E; Grigorchuk, O S

    2015-12-01

    In the presented study we investigated the possibility to use the open field behavior data for prediction of corticosterone level in rat blood plasma before and after stress. It is shown that the most reliable open field behavior parameters, reflecting high probability of significant upregulation of corticosterone after 3 hours of immobilization, are the short latency of first movement and low locomotor activity during the test. Rats with high corticosterone at normal non-stress conditions are characterized by low locomotor activity and on the contrary long latency period for the entrance of open field center.

  9. Exploring Differences between Self-Regulated Learning Strategies of High and Low Achievers in Open Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geduld, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    Open distance students differ in their preparedness for higher education studies. Students who are less self-regulated risk failure and drop out in the challenging milieu of open distance learning. In this study, the differences between the application of self-regulated learning strategies by low and high achievers were explored. A multi-method…

  10. A Field Survey of Window-Opening Behavior and Thermal Conditions in Apartments of Surabaya, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Arethusa, Meita Tristida; Kubota, Tetsu; Nugroho, Agung Murti; Antaryama, I Gusti Ngurah; Ekasiwi, Sri Nastiti; Uno, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in apartments of Surabaya, Indonesia to investigate occupants’ window-opening behavior and their thermal conditions. A total of 347 households were interviewed and about 30 houses were covered for measurements of thermal conditions. It was seen that occupants in the naturally ventilated apartments tend to open windows or doors as much as possible at least during daytime for satisfying air flow and ventilation in particular. The average duration of opening windows/...

  11. A New Catalog of Variable Stars in the Field of the Open Cluster M37

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, S -W; Hartman, J D

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive re-analysis of stellar photometric variability in the field of the open cluster M37 following the application of a new photometry and de-trending method to MMT/Megacam image archive. This new analysis allows a rare opportunity to explore photometric variability over a broad range of time-scales, from minutes to a month. The intent of this work is to examine the entire sample of over 30,000 objects for periodic, aperiodic, and sporadic behaviors in their light curves. We show a modified version of the fast $\\chi^{2}$ periodogram algorithm (F$\\chi^{2}$) and change-point analysis (CPA) as tools for detecting and assessing the significance of periodic and non-periodic variations. The benefits of our new photometry and analysis methods are evident. A total of 2306 stars exhibit convincing variations that are induced by flares, pulsations, eclipses, starspots, and unknown causes in some cases. This represents a 60% increase in the number of variables known in this field. Moreover, 30 of t...

  12. A hybrid analytical model for open-circuit field calculation of multilayer interior permanent magnet machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Xia, Changliang; Yan, Yan; Geng, Qiang; Shi, Tingna

    2017-08-01

    Due to the complicated rotor structure and nonlinear saturation of rotor bridges, it is difficult to build a fast and accurate analytical field calculation model for multilayer interior permanent magnet (IPM) machines. In this paper, a hybrid analytical model suitable for the open-circuit field calculation of multilayer IPM machines is proposed by coupling the magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC) method and the subdomain technique. In the proposed analytical model, the rotor magnetic field is calculated by the MEC method based on the Kirchhoff's law, while the field in the stator slot, slot opening and air-gap is calculated by subdomain technique based on the Maxwell's equation. To solve the whole field distribution of the multilayer IPM machines, the coupled boundary conditions on the rotor surface are deduced for the coupling of the rotor MEC and the analytical field distribution of the stator slot, slot opening and air-gap. The hybrid analytical model can be used to calculate the open-circuit air-gap field distribution, back electromotive force (EMF) and cogging torque of multilayer IPM machines. Compared with finite element analysis (FEA), it has the advantages of faster modeling, less computation source occupying and shorter time consuming, and meanwhile achieves the approximate accuracy. The analytical model is helpful and applicable for the open-circuit field calculation of multilayer IPM machines with any size and pole/slot number combination.

  13. Open Effective Field Theories from Deeply Inelastic Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, Eric; Hammer, Hans-Werner; Lepage, G. Peter

    2017-01-01

    Effective field theories have often been applied to systems with inelastic reactions that produce particles with large momenta outside the domain of validity of the effective theory. The effects of the deeply inelastic reactions have been taken into account in previous work by adding local anti-Hermitian terms to the effective Hamiltonian density. We show that an additional modification is required in equations governing the density matrix when multi-particle states are considered. We define an effective density matrix by tracing out states containing high-momentum particles, and show that it satisfies a Lindblad equation, with Lindblad operators determined by the anti-Hermitian terms in the effective Hamiltonian density. This research was supported in part by the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and the Simons Foundation.

  14. Open Effective Field Theories from Deeply Inelastic Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Braaten, Eric; Lepage, G Peter

    2016-01-01

    Effective field theories have often been applied to systems with deeply inelastic reactions that produce particles with large momenta outside the domain of validity of the effective theory. The effects of the deeply inelastic reactions have been taken into account in previous work by adding local anti-Hermitian terms to the effective Hamiltonian. Here we show that when multi-particle systems are considered, an additional modification is required in equations governing the density matrix. We define an effective density matrix by tracing over the states containing high-momentum particles, and show that it satisfies a Lindblad equation, with local Lindblad operators determined by the anti-Hermitian terms in the effective Hamiltonian density.

  15. "I CAMMINI DELLA REGINA" - Open Source based tools for preserving and culturally exploring historical traffic routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannata, Massimiliano; Colombo, Massimo; Antonovic, Milan; Cardoso, Mirko; Delucchi, Andrea; Gianocca, Giancarlo; Brovelli, Maria Antonia

    2015-04-01

    "I CAMMINI DELLA REGINA" (The Via Regina Paths) is an Interreg project funded within the transnational cooperation program between Italy and Switzerland 2007-2013. The aim of this project is the preservation and valorization of the cultural heritage linked to the walking historically paths crossing, connecting and serving the local territories. With the approach of leveraging the already existing tools, which generally consist of technical descriptions of the paths, the project uses the open source geospatial technologies to deploy innovative solutions which can fill some of the gaps in historical-cultural tourism offers. The Swiss part, and particularly the IST-SUPSI team, has been focusing its activities in the realization of two innovative solutions: a mobile application for the survey of historical paths and a storytelling system for immersive cultural exploration of the historical paths. The former, based on Android, allows to apply in a revised manner a consolidated and already successfully used methodology of survey focused on the conservation of the historical paths (Inventory of historical traffic routes in Switzerland). Up to now operators could rely only on hand work based on a combination of notes, pictures and GPS devices synthesized in manually drawn maps; this procedure is error prone and shows many problems both in data updating and extracting for elaborations. Thus it has been created an easy to use interface which allows to map, according to a newly developed spatially enabled data model, paths, morphological elements, and multimedia notes. When connected to the internet the application can send the data to a web service which, after applying linear referencing and further elaborating the data, makes them available using open standards. The storytelling system has been designed to provide users with cultural insights embedded in a multimedial and immersive geospatial portal. Whether the tourist is exploring physically or virtually the desired

  16. Open Exploration of the Time Domain with the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey (CRTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djorgovski, Stanislav G.; Drake, Andrew J.; Mahabal, Ashish A.; Graham, Matthew; Donalek, Ciro; Kembhavi, Ajit; Meylan, Georges; Longo, Giuseppe; Christensen, Eric J.; Larson, Stephen M.; CRTS

    2015-01-01

    Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey (CRTS; http://crts.caltech.edu) is systematically exploring and characterizing the faint, variable sky. It uses data streams generated by the Catalina Sky Survey, which searches for near-Earth asteroids, to search for variable objects and transient events. The CRTS survey has been in operation since 2008, with the archival data going back to 2005. A continuation of the survey has been funded by the NSF, and we are forming an international consortium for an expanded and extended coverage and a broader scientific exploitation. We have a completely open data policy: all discovered transient events are published in real time with no proprietary delay period, and all data are made public, in order to better serve the entire community, and maximize the scientific returns. The survey covers the total area of ~33,000 deg2, down to ~19-21 mag per exposure, with time baselines from 10 min to ~9 years, and growing; there are now typically ~ 300-400 exposures per pointing, and coadded images reach deeper than ~ 23 mag. The area coverage rate will increase substantially as new cameras are being deployed, and possible new data streams opened. The survey has so far detected nearly 10,000 unique, high-amplitude transients, including ~2,500 supernovae (for the last 5 years we published more supernovae than any other survey), >1,200 CVs (the great majority of them previously uncatalogued), >3,000 of blazars and other AGN, and a broad variety of other types of objects. We have ~500 million light curves, which are have been made public and which are being updated continuously. This is an unprecedented data set for the exploration of the time domain, in terms of the area, depth, and temporal coverage. Numerous scientific projects have been enabled by this data stream, including: discoveries of ultraluminous and otherwise peculiar SNe; unusual CVs and dwarf novae; mapping of the structure in the Galactic halo using RR Lyrae; variability

  17. Geochemical exploration of the Chipilapa geothermal field, El Salvador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieva, David; Verma, Mahendra Pal; Santoyo, Edgar; Portugal, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Campos, Alejandro [Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa, Santa Tecla (El Salvador)

    1997-12-01

    Results of the geochemical exploration of the Ahuachapan-Chipilapa areas are presented. The procedure for interpreting the chemical composition of very dilute thermal waters is emphasised. Three groups of thermal waters are described, two with a geothermal brine component and one resulting from steam condensation. The model for one of the groups (Type 2) leads to predictions of temperature and chloride concentration that are reasonably close to those of the geothermal liquid feeding Chipilapa well CH-7B. In particular, it was predicted correctly that the salinities in the Chipilapa areas would be considerably lower than those in the Ahuachapan field. It is shown that the simultaneous modeling of the carbon dioxide concentration and isotopic composition of fumarole steam allows discrimination between primary and secondary steam. The composition of all fumarole samples is described as steam originating from a single reservoir fluid at 250degC, and composition {delta}{sup 18}O= - 4.1, {delta}D=-46, CO{sub 2}=5 x 10{sup -5} molar fraction. The total discharge composition of CH-7B confirms the trend observed in the Ahuachapan field of decreasing reservoir salinities towards the east. Postulating the existence of a deep reservoir brine in the eastern (Chipilapa) section of the system, with lower salinity but otherwise similar temperatures and isotopic composition to the Ahuachapan brine, allows for the generation of relatively simple models that explain the formation of the CH-7B brine, and the three groups of thermal waters. Type 1 waters are noteworthy in the sense that they result from a ternary mixture of meteoric water, geothermal brine and high-temperature steam condensate. The possibility that the east-west trend in salinity results from a process of dilution of brine with condensate from steam separated at very high temperatures is discussed. The distribution of the different types of hydrothermal manifestations delineates a lateral discharge system, with the

  18. Exploring innovation through open networks: A review and initial research questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Ye

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The open innovation strategy as an emerging approach towards innovation is beginning to receive attention from organisations and researchers. Open innovation signifies opening up of internal R&D by leveraging inflow and outflow of knowledge. Open network is one mechanism of open innovation, which brings solvers from different domains to work on problems posted by seekers. Since solvers and seekers serve as the foundation for the realisation of the open innovation strategy, such understanding is imperative to encourage participation and realise benefits from open networks. This article investigates the potential factors that can promote solvers' and seekers' participation in open networks.

  19. A detailed ethological analysis of the mouse open field test: effects of diazepam, chlordiazepoxide and an extremely low frequency pulsed magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choleris, E; Thomas, A W; Kavaliers, M; Prato, F S

    2001-05-01

    The open field test (OFT) is a widely used procedure for examining the behavioral effects of drugs and anxiety. Detailed ethological assessments of animal behavior are lacking. Here we present a detailed ethological assessment of the effects of acute treatment with the benzodiazepines, diazepam (DZ, 1.5mg/kg) and chlordiazepoxide (CDP, 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg), as well as exposure to a non-pharmacological agent, a specific pulsed extremely low frequency magnetic field (MAG) on open field behavior. We examined the duration, frequency and time course of various behaviors (i.e. exploration, walk, rear, stretch attend, return, groom, sit, spin turn, jump and sleep) exhibited by male mice in different regions of a novel open field. Both DZ and CDP consistently reduced the typical anxiety-like behaviors of stretch attend and wall-following (thigmotaxis), along with that of an additional new measure: 'returns', without producing any overall effects on total locomotion. The drugs also differed in their effects. CDP elicited a shift in the locomotor pattern from a 'high explore' to a 'high walk', while DZ mainly elicited alterations in sit and groom. The MAG treatment was repeated twice with both exposures reducing horizontal and vertical (rearing) activity and increasing grooming and spin turns. However, the anxiety-like behaviors of stretch attend and return were marginally reduced by only the first exposure. We conclude that a detailed ethological analysis of the OFT allows not only the detection of specific effects of drugs and non-pharmacological agents (i.e. pulsed magnetic field) on anxiety-like behaviors, but also permits the examination of non-specific effects, in particular those on general activity.

  20. Multidisciplinary exploration of the Tendaho Graben geothermal fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armadillo, Egidio; Rizzello, Daniele; Verdoya, Massimo; Pasqua, Claudio; Marini, Luigi; Meqbel, Naser; Stimac, Jim; Kebede, Solomon; Mengiste, Andarge; Hailegiorgis, Getenesch; Abera, Fitsum; Mengesha, Kebede

    2017-04-01

    The NW-SE trending Tendaho Graben is the major extensional feature of the Afar, Ethiopia. Rifting and volcanic activity within the graben occurred mostly between 1.8 and 0.6 Ma, but extended to at least 0.2 Ma. Very recent (0.22- 0.03 Ma) activity is focused along the southern part of the younger and active Manda Hararo Rift, which is included in the north-western part of the graben. Extension gave rise to about 1600 m of vertical displacement (verified by drilling) of the basaltic Afar Stratoid sequence, over a crust with a mean thickness of about 23 km. The infill of graben, overlying the Stratoids, consists of volcanic and sedimentary deposits that have been drilled by six exploratory wells. Within the graben, two main geothermal fields have been explored by intensive geological, geochemical and geophysical surveys over an area that approximately covers a square sector of 40x40 km. Both new and existing data sets have been integrated. The Dubti-Ayrobera system is located along the central axis of the graben. Available data, acquired in the last three decades, comprise more than two thousands gravity and magnetic stations, 229 magnetotelluric stations and structural-geological and geochemical observations. The Alalobeda system is located along the SW flank of the graben, at about 25 km from the Dubti-Ayrobera system and has been very recently studied by means of gravimetric (300 stations), magnetotelluric and TDEM (140 stations) geological and geochemical surveys. The new residual magnetic anomaly map has been used to map the younger normal polarity basalt distribution and infer the location of the unknown main rift axis. The bedrock surface resulting by the 3D inversion of the new residual Bouguer anomaly enlightens the main normal faults hindered by sediments and the secondary structures represented by horsts and grabens. The three-dimensional resistivity models allow mapping the sedimentary infill of the graben, fracture zones in the Afar Stradoids bedrock and

  1. Spin noise explores local magnetic fields in a semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhov, Ivan I.; Kozlov, Gleb G.; Smirnov, Dmitrii S.; Glazov, Mikhail M.; Efimov, Yurii P.; Eliseev, Sergei A.; Lovtcius, Viacheslav A.; Petrov, Vladimir V.; Kavokin, Kirill V.; Kavokin, Alexey V.; Zapasskii, Valerii S.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of spin noise spectroscopy of the last decade has led to a number of remarkable achievements in the fields of both magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy. In this report, we demonstrate a new – magnetometric – potential of the spin noise spectroscopy and use it to study magnetic fields acting upon electron spin-system of an n-GaAs layer in a high-Q microcavity probed by elliptically polarized light. Along with the external magnetic field, applied to the sample, the spin noise spectrum revealed the Overhauser field created by optically oriented nuclei and an additional, previously unobserved, field arising in the presence of circularly polarized light. This “optical field” is directed along the light propagation axis, with its sign determined by sign of the light helicity. We show that this field results from the optical Stark effect in the field of the elliptically polarized light. This conclusion is supported by theoretical estimates. PMID:26882994

  2. Exploring Lifelong Learners Engaged in an Astronomy-Related Massively Open Online Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Impey, Chris David; Wenger, Matthew; Formanek, Martin; Romine, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Massively open online courses (MOOCs) are becoming increasingly popular ways to reach diverse lifelong learners all over the world. Although MOOCs resemble more formal classes (e.g. videos of content, quizzes, activities), they are often used by informal audiences from home. Recently, MOOCs have become more utilized by universities to conduct outreach as they explore how to use MOOCs to reach new potential learners. Despite the rapid adaption of MOOCs, little is known about individuals who choose to take a MOOC, how they interact with the course materials, and what motivates them to finish the course.We present results of a study of lifelong learners engaged in an astronomy "101" MOOC. Through analysis of registered learners' behaviors as well as self-reported responses to a survey about science, we were able to characterize a subset of the learners engaged in the MOOC during its first offering. Overall, 25363 learners from over 100 countries registered for the MOOC. Of those, 14900 accessed at least one part of the course. Learners were recruited to complete a survey of their knowledge and attitudes towards science. Of the learner group who opened the course, 2889 individuals completed the survey, 2465 of those were able to be linked to their usage of the MOOC through a unique identifier.Learners represented a wide-range of ages, professions, and previous science experience. The best predictors for MOOC completion were engagement in the first activity and first writing assignment and engagement in the online forum. Learners were very interested in science prior to their registration, had higher basic science knowledge that most undergraduate students enrolled in a parallel astronomy course, and used online searches and science sites to get their information about science. As we reach out to a worldwide audience to learners in these massively open online courses, understanding their motivations and behaviors will be essential. This work is helping us understand and

  3. Laparoscopic hepatic left lateral Iobectomy combined with fiber choledochoscopic exploration of the common bile duct and traditional open operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Zhang; ShaoGeng Zhang; Yi Jiang; Peng-Fen Gao; Hai-Ying Xie; Zhi-Hong Xie

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the possibilities and advantages of laparoscopic hepatic left lateral Iobectomy combined with fiber choledochoscopic exploration of the common bile duct compaired with traditional open operation.METHODS:Laparoscopic hepatic left lateral Iobectomy combined with fiber choledochoscopic exploration of the common bile duct and traditional open operation were performed in two groups of patients who had gallstones in the left lobe of liver and in the common bile duct.The hospitalization time,hospitalization costs,operation time,operative complications and post-operative liver functions of the two groups of patients were studied.RESULTS:The operation time and post-operative liver functions of the two groups of patients had no significant differences,while the hospitalization time,hospitalization costs and operative complications of the laparoscopic hepatic left lateral Iobectomy combined with fiber choledochoscopic exploration in the common bile duct group were significantly lower than those in the traditional open operation group.CONCLUSION:For patients with gallstones in the left lobe of liver and in the common bile duct,laparoscopic hepatic left lateral Iobectomy combined with fiber choledochoscopic exploration of the common bile duct can significantly shorten the hospitalization time,reduce the hospitalization costs and the post-operative complications,without prolonging the operation time and bringing about more liver function damages compared with traditional open operation.This kind of operation has more advantages than traditional open operation.

  4. Visual Overlay on OpenStreetMap Data to Support Spatial Exploration of Urban Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing volumes of spatial data about urban areas are captured and made available via volunteered geographic information (VGI sources, such as OpenStreetMap (OSM. Hence, new opportunities arise for regional exploration that can lead to improvements in the lives of citizens through spatial decision support. We believe that the VGI data of the urban environment could be used to present a constructive overview of the regional infrastructure with the advent of web technologies. Current location-based services provide general map-based information for the end users with conventional local search functionality, and hence, the presentation of the rich urban information is limited. In this work, we analyze the OSM data to classify the geo entities into consequential categories with facilities, landscape and land use distribution. We employ a visual overlay of heat map and interactive visualizations to present the regional characterization on OSM data classification. In the proposed interface, users are allowed to express a variety of spatial queries to exemplify their geographic interests. They can compare the characterization of urban areas with respect to multiple spatial dimensions of interest and can search for the most suitable region. The search experience is further enhanced via efficient optimization and interaction methods to support the decision making of end users. We report the end user acceptability and efficiency of the proposed system via usability studies and performance analysis comparison.

  5. LISIRD 2: Applying Standards and Open Source Software in Exploring and Serving Scientific Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A.; Lindholm, D. M.; Ware Dewolfe, A.; Lindholm, C.; Pankratz, C. K.; Snow, M.; Woods, T. N.

    2009-12-01

    The LASP Interactive Solar IRradiance Datacenter (LISIRD), http://lasp.colorado.edu/lisird, seeks to provide exploration of and access to solar irradiance data, models and other related data. These irradiance datasets, from the SME, UARS, TIMED, and SORCE missions, are primarily a function of time and often also wavelength. Their measurements are typically made on a scale of seconds and derived products are provided at daily cadence. The first version of the LISIRD site was built using non standard, proprietary software. The non standard application structure and tight coupling to a variety of dataset representations made changes arduous and maintenance difficult. Eventually the software vender decided to no longer support a critical software component, further decreasing the viability of the site. In LISIRD 2, through the application of the Java EE standard coupled with open source software to fetch and plot the data, the functionality of the original site is being improved while the code structure is being streamlined and simplified. With a relatively minimal effort, the new site can access and serve a greater variety of datasets in an easier fashion, and produce responsive, interactive plots of datasets overlaid and/or linked in time. And it does so using a significantly smaller code base that is, at the same time, much more flexible and extensible. In particular, LISIRD 2 heavily leverages powerful, flexible functionality provided by the Time Series Data Server (TSDS). The OPeNDAP compliant TSDS supports requests for any data that are function of time. It can support scalar, vector, and spectra data types. Through the use of the Unidata NetCDF-Java library and NcML, the TSDS supports multiple input and output formats and is easily extended to support more. It also supports a variety of filters that can be chained and applied to the data on the server before being delivered. TSDS thinning capabilities make it easy for the clients to request appropriate data

  6. Of hopes, villains and Trojan horses – Open Access academic publishing and its battle fields

    OpenAIRE

    Šimukovič, Elena

    2015-01-01

    During its growth Open Access academic publishing has become a complex construction with sophisticated terms and modalities built into it. Multiple actors and interests involved make it to a value-laden field with different ideologies and tensions or even battles between them. However, taken-for-granted assumptions are rarely questioned or made explicit. Therefore, the overall aim of the PhD project is to capture the dynamics of the Open Access movement, the role it plays in anticipated chang...

  7. Exploring Group Cohesion in a Higher Education Field Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcarne, Brian Keith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain understanding into the experience of group cohesion for university students participating in an academic field experience. A mixed methods approach was used following a two-phase, sequential research design to help provide a more complete explanation of how group cohesion was impacted by the field experience.…

  8. Performance Analysis of Field Orientation of Induction Motor Drive Under Open Gate of IGBT Fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Mohamed Salem

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper  presents a performance analysis of three phase induction motor drive system when fed from three-phase inverter with one IGBT open gate. The drive system is based on indirect rotor field oriented. The performance characteristics of the drive are investigated at healthy operating condition and at faulty condition with IGBT of upper phase leg is opened. The Total Harmonic Distortion of phases current in case opened IGBT are derived. The Simulation of the case study is carried out by using the Matlab/Simulink package on 1.1 kW, 220/380V, 50 Hz three phase induction motor.

  9. Exploring the Origin and Dynamics of Solar Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Hazra, Soumitra

    2016-01-01

    The Sun is a magnetically active star and is the source of the solar wind, electromagnetic radiation and energetic particles which affect the heliosphere and the Earths atmosphere. The magnetic field of the Sun is responsible for most of the dynamic activity of the Sun. This thesis research seeks to understand solar magnetic field generation and the role that magnetic fields play in the dynamics of the solar atmosphere. Specifically, this thesis focuses on two themes: in the first part, we study the origin and behaviour of solar magnetic fields using magnetohydrodynamic dynamo theory and modelling, and in the second part, utilizing observations and data analysis we study two major problems in solar physics, namely, the coronal heating problem and initiation mechanisms of solar flares.

  10. Analytic Solution for Tachyon Condensation in Berkovits' Open Superstring Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    We present an analytic solution for tachyon condensation on a non-BPS D-brane in Berkovits' open superstring field theory. The solution is presented as a product of $2\\times 2$ matrices in two distinct $GL_2$ subgroups of the open string star algebra. All string fields needed for for computation of the nonpolynomial action can be derived in closed form, and the action produces the expected non-BPS D-brane tension in accordance with Sen's conjecture. We also comment on how D-brane charges may be encoded in the topology of the tachyon vacuum gauge orbit.

  11. FINESSE Spaceward Bound - Teacher Engagement in NASA Science and Exploration Field Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. J. P.; Heldmann, J. L.; Sheely, T.; Karlin, J.; Johnson, S.; Rosemore, A.; Hughes, S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Lim, D. S. S.; Garry, W. B.

    2016-01-01

    The FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team of NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program aimed at generating strategic knowledge in preparation for the human and robotic exploration of the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids, and the moons of Mars. The FINESSE science program is infused with leading edge exploration concepts since "science enables exploration and exploration enables science." The FINESSE education and public outreach program leverages the team's field investigations and educational partnerships to share the excitement of lunar, Near Earth Asteroid, and martian moon science and exploration locally, nationally, and internationally. The FINESSE education plan is in line with all of NASA's Science Mission Directorate science education objectives, particularly to enable STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education and leverage efforts through partnerships.

  12. Overview of NASA FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) Science and Exploration Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Hughes, S.; Kobs, S.; Garry, B.; Osinski, G. R.; Hodges, K.; Kobayashi, L.; Colaprete, A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) project is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program to generate strategic knowledge in preparation for human and robotic exploration of other planetary bodies including our moon, Mars' moons Phobos and Deimos, and near-Earth asteroids. Scientific study focuses on planetary volcanism (e.g., the formation of volcanoes, evolution of magma chambers and the formation of multiple lava flow types, as well as the evolution and entrapment of volatile chemicals) and impact cratering (impact rock modification, cratering mechanics, and the chronologic record). FINESSE conducts multiple terrestrial field campaigns (Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve in Idaho for volcanics, and West Clearwater Impact Structure in Canada for impact studies) to study such features as analogs relevant to our moon, Phobos, Deimos, and asteroids. Here we present the science and exploration results from two deployments to Idaho (2014, 2015) and our first deployment to Canada (2014). FINESSE was selected as a research team by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). SSERVI is a joint effort by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD).

  13. Open channel flows of magnetic fluid induced by traveling magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Takuya; Okubo, Masaaki; Yamane, Ryuichiro

    A theoretical analysis is made on laminar open channel flows of magnetic fluid induced by a non uniform traveling magnetic field which is applied with a stator of a single-sided linear induction motor. The induced flows are mainly in the direction opposite to the traveling direction of the magnetic field and in proportion to the phase velocity of the magnetic field. The velocity profiles are greatly affected by dimensionless wave number of the magnetic field. Near the bottom of the channel, the theoretical velocity distributions agree well with experimental ones which are measured with a laser optical fiber velocity sensor. However, the experimental velocity distributions become larger near the free surface.

  14. Exploring the Relationship between Experienced Students' Preference for Open- and Closed-Book Examinations, Approaches to Learning and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannopoulou, Evangelia; Milienos, Fotios S.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between university students' approaches to learning and preference for the open- and closed-book examinations was investigated for 144 Greek undergraduate (56 third- and 88 fourth-year) students attending a Philosophy, Education and Psychology Department. The approaches were explored by the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory…

  15. Diazepam-induced decrease in anxiety-like behaviors of marmoset monkeys exposed to a novel open-field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagni, Priscila; Komorowski, Mara; Melo, Gabriela C; Lima, Talita; Barros, Marilia

    2012-01-01

    Unfamiliar environments can be a source of stress, fear and anxiety for marmoset monkeys. In spite of existing data, the influence of putative anxiolytics on the effects of novel environments has yet to be tested in primates. Therefore, the behavior of adult black tufted-ear marmosets to a single brief (15 min) exposure to a novel environment was analyzed in the presence and absence of diazepam (DZP). Marmosets were pre-treated with vehicle (n=5) or diazepam (0.5 mg/kg, ip; n=5) and submitted to a 15 min free exploration trial within a rectangular open-field arena. DZP-treated subjects, compared to vehicle controls, demonstrated significantly lower rates of (phee) contact calls and exploration, while a higher scan duration. Sojourn time in the arena's central zone was also significantly higher in the former group and sedation was not observed. Thus, pre-treatment with the benzodiazepine DZP decreased several anxiety-related behaviors induced by subjecting the marmosets to a new environment. The results also indicate that, as with rodent subjects, the open-field may provide a useful simple paradigm for assessing anxiety-like behaviors in this primate and, as such, constitutes a unique opportunity for direct comparative studies between rodents and marmoset monkeys in terms of anxiety and/or sedation.

  16. Bose–Einstein condensates and scalar fields; exploring the similitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellanos, E. [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico); Macías, A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, A.P. 55-534, México D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Núñez, D. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C.U., A.P. 70-543, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2014-01-14

    We analyze the the remarkable analogy between the classical Klein–Gordon equation for a test scalar field in a flat and also in a curved background, and the Gross–Pitaevskii equation for a Bose–Einstein condensate trapped by an external potential. We stress here that the solution associated with the Klein–Gordon equation (KG) in a flat space time has the same mathematical structure, under certain circumstances, to those obtained for the Gross–Pitaevskii equation, that is, a static soliton solution. Additionally, Thomas–Fermi approximation is applied to the 3–dimensional version of this equation, in order to calculate some thermodynamical properties of the system in curved a space–time back ground. Finally, we stress the fact that a gravitational background provides, in some cases, a kind of confining potential for the scalar field, allowing us to remarks even more the possible connection between scalar fields and the phenomenon of Bose–Einstein condensation.

  17. Wave fields and spectra of Rayleigh waves in poroelastic media in the exploration seismic frequency band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Xu, Yixian; Xia, Jianghai

    2012-12-01

    A better understanding of the influences of different surface fluid drainage conditions on the propagation and attenuation of surface waves as the stipulated frequency is varied is a key issue to apply surface wave method to detect subsurface hydrological properties. Our study develops three-dimensional dynamical Green's functions in poroelastic media for Rayleigh waves of possible free surface conditions: permeable - "open pore," impermeable - "closed pore," and partially permeable boundaries. The full transient response of wave fields and spectra due to a stress impulse wavelet on the surface are investigated in the exploration seismic frequency band for typical surface drainage conditions, viscous coupling-damping, solid frame properties and porous fluid flowing configuration. Our numerical results show that, due to the slow dilatational wave - P2 wave, two types of Rayleigh waves, designated as R1 and R2 waves, exist along the surface. R1 wave possesses high energy as classic Rayleigh waves in pure elastic media for each porous materials. A surface fluid drainage condition is a significant factor to influence dispersion and attenuation, especially attenuation of R1 waves. R2 wave for closed pore and partially permeable surfaces is only observed for a low coupling-damping coefficient. The non-physical wave for partially surface conditions causes the R1 wave radiates into the R2 wave in the negative attenuation frequency range. It makes weaker R1 wave and stronger R2 wave to closed pore surface. Moreover, it is observed that wave fields and spectra of R1 wave are sensitive to frame elastic moduli change for an open pore surface, and to pore fluid flow condition change for closed pore and partially permeable surface.

  18. Complete Action for Open Superstring Field Theory with Cyclic $A_\\infty$ Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Theodore; Takezaki, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    We construct a gauge invariant action for the Neveu-Schwarz and Ramond sectors of open superstring field theory realizing a cyclic $A_\\infty$ structure, providing the first complete and fully explicit solution to the classical Batalin-Vilkovisky master equation in superstring field theory. We also demonstrate the equivalence of our action to the Wess-Zumino-Witten-based construction of Kunitomo and one of the authors.

  19. Complete action for open superstring field theory with cyclic A ∞ structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Theodore; Okawa, Yuji; Takezaki, Tomoyuki

    2016-08-01

    We construct a gauge invariant action for the Neveu-Schwarz and Ramond sectors of open superstring field theory realizing a cyclic A ∞ structure, providing the first complete and fully explicit solution to the classical Batalin-Vilkovisky master equation in superstring field theory. We also demonstrate the equivalence of our action to the Wess-Zumino-Witten-based construction of Kunitomo and one of the authors.

  20. Tongues, bottles, and disconnected loops: The opening and closing of the interplanetary magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McComas, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Space and Atmospheric Sciences Group

    1994-06-01

    For years the field of Space Physics has had a problem, a really big problem for it occurs on the largest spatial scales in Space physics -- across the entire region under the Sun`s influence, the heliosphere. The problem is that the Sun appears to keep opening new magnetic flux into interplanetary space with no obvious way for this flux to close back off again. This state of affairs, without some previously unknown method for closing the open interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), leads to an ever growing amount of magnetic flux in interplanetary space: the magnetic flux catastrophe. Recently, considerable progress has been made in understanding why this catastrophic state is not the observed state of the heliosphere. This brief article paints the newly emerging picture of the opening and closing of the IMF and how these processes may account for the observed variation in the amount of magnetic flux in interplanetary space over the solar cycle.

  1. Magnetar Giant Flares in Multipolar Magnetic Fields --- I. Fully and Partially Open Eruptions of Flux Ropes

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    We propose a catastrophic eruption model for magnetar's enormous energy release during giant flares, in which a toroidal and helically twisted flux rope is embedded within a force-free magnetosphere. The flux rope stays in stable equilibrium states initially and evolves quasi-statically. Upon the loss of equilibrium point is reached, the flux rope cannot sustain the stable equilibrium states and erupts catastrophically. During the process, the magnetic energy stored in the magnetosphere is rapidly released as the result of destabilization of global magnetic topology. The magnetospheric energy that could be accumulated is of vital importance for the outbursts of magnetars. We carefully establish the fully open fields and partially open fields for various boundary conditions at the magnetar surface and study the relevant energy thresholds. By investigating the magnetic energy accumulated at the critical catastrophic point, we find that it is possible to drive fully open eruptions for dipole dominated background...

  2. Automated TV based system for open field studies: Effects of methamphetamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanger, H.J.; Vanwersch, R.A.P.; Wolthuis, O.L.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described whereby open field behaviour of rats can be automatically registered using a TV camera, a video converter, an X-Y recorder and a papertape puncher. Use is made of the scanning properties of the TV camera to obtain the X and Y coordinates of the rat's position and to print this

  3. A Handheld Open-Field Infant Keratometer (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To design and evaluate a new infant keratometer that incorporates an unobstructed view of the infant with both eyes (open-field design). Methods: The design of the open-field infant keratometer is presented, and details of its construction are given. The design incorporates a single-ring keratoscope for measurement of corneal astigmatism over a 4-mm region of the cornea and includes a rectangular grid target concentric within the ring to allow for the study of higher-order aberrations of the eye. In order to calibrate the lens and imaging system, a novel telecentric test object was constructed and used. The system was bench calibrated against steel ball bearings of known dimensions and evaluated for accuracy while being used in handheld mode in a group of 16 adult cooperative subjects. It was then evaluated for testability in a group of 10 infants and toddlers. Results: Results indicate that while the device achieved the goal of creating an open-field instrument containing a single-ring keratoscope with a concentric grid array for the study of higher-order aberrations, additional work is required to establish better control of the vertex distance. Conclusion: The handheld open-field infant keratometer demonstrates testability suitable for the study of infant corneal astigmatism. Use of collimated light sources in future iterations of the design must be incorporated in order to achieve the accuracy required for clinical investigation. PMID:21212850

  4. Semiochemical lures reduce emigration and enhance pest control services in open-field predator augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augmentation biocontrol is a commercially viable pest management tactic in enclosed glasshouse environments, but is far less effective in open-field agriculture where newly released enemies rapidly disperse from release sites. We tested the potential for behavior-modifying semiochemicals to increase...

  5. FieldTrip: Open source software for advanced analysis of MEG, EEG, and invasive electrophysiological data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostenveld, R.; Fries, P.; Maris, E.; Schoffelen, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes FieldTrip, an open source software package that we developed for the analysis of MEG, EEG, and other electrophysiological data. The software is implemented as a MATLAB toolbox and includes a complete set of consistent and user-friendly high-level functions that allow experimenta

  6. Field Trial of 40 Gb/s Optical Transport Network using Open WDM Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Petersen, Martin Nordal;

    2013-01-01

    An experimental field-trail deployment of a 40Gb/s open WDM interface in an operational network is presented, in cross-carrier interconnection scenario. Practical challenges of integration and performance measures for both native and alien channels are outlined....

  7. The thermal behaviour of a threedimensional object placed in the open field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.A.M.

    1982-01-01

    In this thesis the energy-exchange between the atmosphere and a three-dimensional obstacle, placed in the open field is studied.This problem is part of a research program carried out by the infrared group of the Physics Laboratory TNO and is mainly concerned with the discrimination of objects and ba

  8. Variable stars in two open clusters within the Kepler/K2-Campaign-0 field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nardiello, D.; Bedin, L. R.; Nascimbeni, V.

    2015-01-01

    and exoplanetary transits in four fields containing five nearby open clusters spanning a broad range of ages. More in detail, our project will (1) constitute a preparatory survey for the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher for the Northern hemisphere (HARPS-N) mounted at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo...

  9. Antioxidant effects of nerolidol in mice hippocampus after open field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira Neto, José Damasceno; de Almeida, Antonia Amanda Cardoso; da Silva Oliveira, Johanssy; Dos Santos, Pauline Sousa; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of nerolidol in mice hippocampus against oxidative stress in neuronal cells compared to ascorbic acid (positive control) as well as evaluated the nerolidol sedative effects by open field test compared to diazepam (positive control). Thirty minutes prior to behavioral observation on open field test, mice were intraperitoneally treated with vehicle, nerolidol (25, 50 and 75 mg/kg), diazepam (1 mg/kg) or ascorbic acid (250 mg/kg). To clarify the action mechanism of of nerolidol on oxidative stress in animals subjected to the open field test, Western blot analysis of Mn-superoxide dismutase and catalase in mice hippocampus were performed. In nerolidol group, there was a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels when compared to negative control (vehicle). However, a significant increase was observed in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in this group when compared to the other groups. Vehicle, diazepam, ascorbic acid and nerolidol groups did not affected Mn-superoxide dismutase, catalase mRNA or protein levels. Our findings strongly support the hypothesis that oxidative stress occurs in hippocampus. Nerolidol showed sedative effects in animals subjected to the open field test. Oxidative process plays a crucial role on neuronal pathological consequence, and implies that antioxidant effects could be achieved using this sesquiterpene.

  10. Heritability of feather pecking and open-field response of laying hens at two different ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Buitenhuis, A.J.; Ask, B.; Uitdehaag, K.A.; Koene, P.; Poel, van der J.J.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to estimate heritabilities. (h(2)) of feather pecking and open-field response of laying hens at two different ages. An F-2 cross, originating from a high and a low feather pecking line of laying hens, was used for the experiment. Each of the 630 birds of the F-

  11. Exploring the scope of open innovation: a bibliometric review of a decade of research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovacs, Adrian; Looy, Van Bart; Cassiman, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The concept of open innovation has attracted considerable attention since Henry Chesbrough first coined it to capture firms’ increasing reliance on external sources of innovation. Although open innovation has developed into a prospering topic in innovation management research, it has also triggered

  12. Exploring the scope of open innovation: a bibliometric review of a decade of research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovacs, Adrian; Looy, Van Bart; Cassiman, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The concept of open innovation has attracted considerable attention since Henry Chesbrough first coined it to capture the increasing reliance of firms on external sources of innovation. Although open innovation has flourished as a topic within innovation management research, it has also triggered de

  13. Open Science Strategies in Research Policies: A Comparative Exploration of Canada, the US and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasthiotakis, Helen; Kretz, Andrew; Sá, Creso

    2015-01-01

    Several movements have emerged related to the general idea of promoting "openness" in science. Research councils are key institutions in bringing about changes proposed by these movements, as sponsors and facilitators of research. In this paper we identify the approaches used in Canada, the US and the UK to advance open science, as a…

  14. New approaches to explore the Earth's magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Moretto, T.; Friis-Christensen, Eigil

    2002-01-01

    New strategies are presented for the analysis of the high-precision geomagnetic data that are currently obtained by the low-orbiting satellites Orsted, CHAMP and Orsted-2/SAC-C. The measured magnetic field is the sum of contributions from various sources in the core, crust, ionosphere...... and magnetosphere, and the accuracy of core and crustal field models is affected by ionospheric and magnetospheric source contributions. A proper parameterization of these external sources, together with a careful data pre-selection, is necessary to avoid spurious effects. In addition, the advantage of having...... multiple satellite missions measuring simultaneously over different regions of the Earth is discussed, and swarm, a proposed constellation consisting of 6 satellites in two different orbit planes, is presented....

  15. Exploring the thermodynamics of non-commutative scalar fields

    CERN Document Server

    Brito, Francisco A

    2015-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic properties of the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in the context of the quantum field theory with non-commutative target space. Our main goal is to investigate in which temperature and/or energy regimes the non-commutativity can characterize some influence in the BEC properties described by a relativistic massive non-commutative boson gas. The non-commutative parameters play a key role in the modified dispersion relations of the non-commutative fields, leading to a new phenomenology. We have obtained the condensate fraction, internal energy, pressure and specific heat of the system and taken ultra-relativistic (UR) and non-relativistic limits (NR). The non-commutative effects in the thermodynamic properties of the system are discussed. We found that there appear interesting signatures around the critical temperature.

  16. Widening access through openness in higher education in the developing world: A Bourdieusian field analysis of experiences from the National Open University of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kayode Olakulehin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bourdieu has argued that higher education is a field that reproduces social inequality, thus complicating how openness widens access to higher education in the developing world. Drawing on the experiences of the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN, this paper critically analyses and evaluates the rationale, approach, difficulties, opportunities, outcomes and benefits of NOUN’s experience in widening access to higher education in Nigeria using Bourdieu’s field theory. We argue that the success of efforts for openness in higher education in a developing world context involves steering the contradictory tensions of openness and access across competing policy and practice fields. We offer this theorisation as a future social theoretical agenda for reflexive research for improving the effectiveness of praxis to widen access through openness in higher education in the developing world.

  17. Exploratory behaviour in the open field test adapted for larval zebrafish: impact of environmental complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Farooq; Richardson, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and characterize a novel (standard) open field test adapted for larval zebrafish. We also developed and characterized a variant of the same assay consisting of a colour-enriched open field; this was used to assess the impact of environmental complexity on patterns of exploratory behaviours as well to determine natural colour preference/avoidance. We report the following main findings: (1) zebrafish larvae display characteristic patterns of exploratory behaviours in the standard open field, such as thigmotaxis/centre avoidance; (2) environmental complexity (i.e. presence of colours) differentially affects patterns of exploratory behaviours and greatly attenuates natural zone preference; (3) larvae displayed the ability to discriminate colours. As reported previously in adult zebrafish, larvae showed avoidance towards blue and black; however, in contrast to the reported adult behaviour, larvae displayed avoidance towards red. Avoidance towards yellow and preference for green and orange are shown for the first time, (4) compared to standard open field tests, exposure to the colour-enriched open field resulted in an enhanced expression of anxiety-like behaviours. To conclude, we not only developed and adapted a traditional rodent behavioural assay that serves as a gold standard in preclinical drug screening, but we also provide a version of the same test that affords the possibility to investigate the impact of environmental stress on behaviour in larval zebrafish while representing the first test for assessment of natural colour preference/avoidance in larval zebrafish. In the future, these assays will improve preclinical drug screening methodologies towards the goal to uncover novel drugs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title.

  18. Field Survey - A Journey of Exploration and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Kiran

    2017-04-01

    You can teach a student a lesson a day but if you teach him to learn by creating curiosity ,he will continue the learning process for life.This abstract is a manifestation of my innate desire as an educator to build students cognitive level of thinking and refine their processes to gain knowledge from the environment ,process it and put it to optimum use. This field survey has been planned and conducted for students of 12th grade (+16yrs). At this level students are introduced to various aspects of Human geography and how human intervention has harnessed environmental resources for its growth and development. They are also encouraged to observe how humans have adapted to the environment and in this process also modified it to satisfy their needs and demands. Students are also sensitized to the understand how geography has evolved as a scientific subject of enquiry. Hence it calls for a deeper understanding and analysis of issues from the local to the global level. Through the pedagogical approach of field survey, they have been oriented to the process of conducting Research -as a well-defined procedure. It involves three phases 1. Planning and preliminary preparation before the survey, 2. During the field survey 3. After the survey compilation, computation and presentation. This activity has been planned over a period of 3 months and as of now the topic and area of case study have been selected. The general concern was studying low rainfall and agriculturally less productive regions hence a case study of a drought prone village- Hiware Bazaar in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra was undertaken. The site Hiware Bazar has been selected as it is based on the principles of sustainable development and water shed development programme to combat severe drought. The statement of the problem has been defined along with the outlined objectives ,scope of study and the time frame needed to gather the information. The field visit spanned over 5 days for data collection has

  19. Real analytic solutions for marginal deformations in open superstring field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Yuji

    2007-09-01

    We construct analytic solutions for marginal deformations satisfying the reality condition in open superstring field theory formulated by Berkovits when operator products made of the marginal operator and the associated superconformal primary field are regular. Our strategy is based on the recent observation by Erler that the problem of finding solutions for marginal deformations in open superstring field theory can be reduced to a problem in the bosonic theory of finding a finite gauge parameter for a certain pure-gauge configuration labeled by the parameter of the marginal deformation. We find a gauge transformation generated by a real gauge parameter which infinitesimally changes the deformation parameter and construct a finite gauge parameter by its path-ordered exponential. The resulting solution satisfies the reality condition by construction.

  20. Real analytic solutions for marginal deformations in open superstring field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Okawa, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    We construct analytic solutions for marginal deformations satisfying the reality condition in open superstring field theory formulated by Berkovits when operator products made of the marginal operator and the associated superconformal primary field are regular. Our strategy is based on the recent observation by Erler that the problem of finding solutions for marginal deformations in open superstring field theory can be reduced to a problem in the bosonic theory of finding a finite gauge parameter for a certain pure-gauge configuration labeled by the parameter of the marginal deformation. We find a gauge transformation generated by a real gauge parameter which infinitesimally changes the deformation parameter and construct a finite gauge parameter by its path-ordered exponential. The resulting solution satisfies the reality condition by construction.

  1. Connecting Solutions in Open String Field Theory with Singular Gauge Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    We show that any pair of classical solutions of open string field theory can be related by a formal gauge transformation defined by a gauge parameter $U$ without an inverse. We investigate how this observation can be used to construct new solutions. We find that a choice of gauge parameter consistently generates a new solution only if the BRST charge maps the image of $U$ into itself. When this occurs, we argue that $U$ naturally defines a star algebra projector which describes a surface of string connecting the boundary conformal field theories of the classical solutions related by $U$. We also note that singular gauge transformations give the solution space of open string field theory the structure of a category, and we comment on the physical interpretation of this observation.

  2. Frequency dependence of the acoustic field generated from a spherical cavity transducer with open ends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Faqi; Zeng, Deping; He, Min; Wang, Zhibiao, E-mail: dzhang@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: wangzhibiao@haifu.com.cn [State Key Laboratory of Ultrasound Engineering in Medicine Co-founded by Chongqing and the Ministry of Science and Technology, College of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 401121 (China); Song, Dan; Lei, Guangrong [National Engineering Research Center of Ultrasound Medicine, Chongqing 401121 (China); Lin, Zhou; Zhang, Dong, E-mail: dzhang@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: wangzhibiao@haifu.com.cn [Institute of Acoustics, Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, MOE, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, Junru [Department of Physics, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Resolution of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) focusing is limited by the wave diffraction. We have developed a spherical cavity transducer with two open ends to improve the focusing precision without sacrificing the acoustic intensity (App Phys Lett 2013; 102: 204102). This work aims to theoretically and experimentally investigate the frequency dependence of the acoustic field generated from the spherical cavity transducer with two open ends. The device emits high intensity ultrasound at the frequency ranging from 420 to 470 kHz, and the acoustic field is measured by a fiber optic probe hydrophone. The measured results shows that the spherical cavity transducer provides high acoustic intensity for HIFU treatment only in its resonant modes, and a series of resonant frequencies can be choosen. Furthermore, a finite element model is developed to discuss the frequency dependence of the acoustic field. The numerical simulations coincide well with the measured results.

  3. Widening Access through Openness in Higher Education in the Developing World: A Bourdieusian Field Analysis of Experiences from the National Open University of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olakulehin, Felix Kayode; Singh, Gurmit

    2013-01-01

    Bourdieu has argued that higher education is a field that reproduces social inequality, thus complicating how openness widens access to higher education in the developing world. Drawing on the experiences of the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN), this paper critically analyses and evaluates the rationale, approach, difficulties,…

  4. CVExplorer: identifying candidate developers by mining and exploring their open source contributions.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greene, GJ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Open source code contributions contain a large amount of technical skill information about developers, which can help to identify suitable candidates for a particular development job and therefore impact the success of a development team. We develop...

  5. Near-field wireless sensing of single and multiple open-ended micro coils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yousaf

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present near-field wireless sensing of single and multiple open-ended micro coils using an electrically small loop antenna. Wirelessly characterized parameters of open-ended micro coils include its resonance frequency, quality factor and inductance. Moreover a wireless frequency-dependent analytical model was developed. Micro coil inductance was extracted from the wirelessly measured signal using a constraint-based least-squares approach. Wireless measurements and analytical fit of micro coils are in strong agreement which validates the analytical model. Finite element method (FEM simulations of the coupled system were done in COMSOL Multiphysics.

  6. On closed-string twist-field correlators and their open-string descendants

    CERN Document Server

    Anastasopoulos, Pascal; Richter, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In a recent paper we have proposed the possibility that the lightest massive string states could be identified with open strings living at intersections of D-branes forming small angles. In this note, we reconsider the relevant twist-field correlation functions and perform the analysis of the sub-dominant physical poles in the various channels. Our derivation is new in that it is based on the algebraic procedure for the construction of open string models starting from their closed-string `parents' rather than on the stress-tensor method. We also indicate possible generalizations and diverse applications of our approach.

  7. Closed String S-matrix Elements in Open String Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Garousi, M R; Garousi, Mohammad R

    2005-01-01

    Using the gauge invariant operators corresponding to on-shell closed string states in open string field theory, we study the tree level S-matrix element of two arbitrary closed string states, and the S-matrix element of one closed string and two open string states. By mapping the world-sheet of the amplitudes to the upper half z-plane, and by evaluating the correlators in the ghost parts, we show that the S-matrix elements are exactly identical to the corresponding disk level S-matrix elements in bosonic string theory.

  8. Closed String S-matrix Elements in Open String Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garousi, Mohammad R.; Maktabdaran, G. R.

    2005-03-01

    We study the S-matrix elements of the gauge invariant operators corresponding to on-shell closed strings, in open string field theory. In particular, we calculate the tree level S-matrix element of two arbitrary closed strings, and the S-matrix element of one closed string and two open strings. By mapping the world-sheet of these amplitudes to the upper half z-plane, and by evaluating explicitly the correlators in the ghost part, we show that these S-matrix elements are exactly identical to the corresponding disk level S-matrix elements in perturbative string theory.

  9. Eifel field operation campaign supporting Moon Mars and NEO exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard H.; Offringa, Marloes

    2016-07-01

    As follow-up on the 2009 Eifel field campaign new field tests with our ExoGeoLab lander were conducted in November 2015 and February 2016. The two phase campaign was used to test the usability of a mock-up lander as test bench for experiments and its remote control in a Moon, Mars analogue environment. In a real mission such a lander could be used in a robotic or manned mission as scientific tool for scientists on Earth to do preliminary study on in-situ collected rocks. This could be useful for example for a sample return mission where scientists on Earth can determine if sample is interesting enough for a more detailed study. The prototype lander is one of the components of the ExoGeoLab project from ESA and ILEWG. Several student projects have prepared the lander for a geological field campaign in lunar and Martian analogue terrain. The lander can be divided in three sections which are used to store several components of the lander. The lower compartment can be used to store a rover or used as laboratory. The middle compartment is used for the lander computer(s), spectrometers and the associated cables. The top plate is used for a telescope which in our case is used to observe the environment around the lander and to guide astronauts during their EVA. As closest volcanic are there is chosen to do the Eifel area, Germany. Several stages of volcanism from Devon till Quaternary resulted in a variation of rocks which is analogue to volcanic rocks from Moon, Mars and other near Earth objects. Several topics we would like to test were pre-defined. Functional tests and demo were performed at European astronaut centre prior to the campaign. The latest updates with respect to the remote control were tested. The pressurised transport vehicle was equipped as remote base for (scientific) support during the campaign. The new instrument set-up were tested and some spectra were measured on collected rocks. The telescope was used to study the environment around the lander

  10. Field flow fractionation techniques to explore the "nano-world".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contado, Catia

    2017-04-01

    Field flow fractionation (FFF) techniques are used to successfully characterize several nanomaterials by sizing nano-entities and producing information about the aggregation/agglomeration state of nanoparticles. By coupling FFF techniques to specific detectors, researchers can determine particle-size distributions (PSDs), expressed as mass-based or number-based PSDs. This review considers FFF applications in the food, biomedical, and environmental sectors, mostly drawn from the past 4 y. It thus underlines the prominent role of asymmetrical flow FFF within the FFF family. By concisely comparing FFF techniques with other techniques suitable for sizing nano-objects, the advantages and the disadvantages of these instruments become clear. A consideration of select recent publications illustrates the state of the art of some lesser-known FFF techniques and innovative instrumental set-ups.

  11. Exploring Multimodal Registers in and Across Organizations and Institutional Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate; Jancsary, Dennis; Höllerer, Markus

    In this article, we develop methodology that enables a systematic analysis of the structuralaspects of multimodal discourse from larger amounts of data. While existing research in visualorganization studies has provided interesting insights into the content and meaning(s) of visualand multimodal...... repertoires of expression that the visualoffers and argue that studying such registers substantially contributes to understanding thedistribution of meanings in and across organizations and institutional fields, but also acrosspoints in time. By drawing on the social semiotic concept of ‘metafunction’, we...... develop codingadvice that aims at facilitating the analysis of larger quantities of visual data while stillacknowledging the particular performativity of the visual mode. We illustrate our ideas withempirical data on the reporting of Austrian publicly traded corporations about Corporate Social...

  12. Exploration 3-D Seismic Field Test/Native Tribes Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Chen, K.C.; Guo, Genliang; Johnson, W.I.; Reeves,T.K.; Sharma,Bijon

    1999-04-27

    To determine current acquisition procedures and costs and to further the goals of the President's Initiative for Native Tribes, a seismic-survey project is to be conducted on Osage tribal lands. The goals of the program are to demonstrate the capabilities, costs, and effectiveness of 3-D seismic work in a small-operator setting and to determine the economics of such a survey. For these purposes, typical small-scale independent-operator practices are being followed and a shallow target chose in an area with a high concentration of independent operators. The results will be analyzed in detail to determine if there are improvements and/or innovations which can be easily introduced in field-acquisition procedures, in processing, or in data manipulation and interpretation to further reduce operating costs and to make the system still more active to the small-scale operator.

  13. Direct observation of ring-opening dynamics in strong-field ionized selenophene using femtosecond inner-shell absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Florian; Chatterley, Adam S.; Pemmaraju, C. D.; Closser, Kristina D.; Prendergast, David; Neumark, Daniel M.; Leone, Stephen R.; Gessner, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    Femtosecond extreme ultraviolet transient absorption spectroscopy is used to explore strong-field ionization induced dynamics in selenophene (C4H4Se). The dynamics are monitored in real-time from the viewpoint of the Se atom by recording the temporal evolution of element-specific spectral features near the Se 3d inner-shell absorption edge (˜58 eV). The interpretation of the experimental results is supported by first-principles time-dependent density functional theory calculations. The experiments simultaneously capture the instantaneous population of stable molecular ions, the emergence and decay of excited cation states, and the appearance of atomic fragments. The experiments reveal, in particular, insight into the strong-field induced ring-opening dynamics in the selenophene cation, which are traced by the emergence of non-cyclic molecules as well as the liberation of Se+ ions within an overall time scale of approximately 170 fs. We propose that both products may be associated with dynamics on the same electronic surfaces but with different degrees of vibrational excitation. The time-dependent inner-shell absorption features provide direct evidence for a complex relaxation mechanism that may be approximated by a two-step model, whereby the initially prepared, excited cyclic cation decays within τ1 = 80 ± 30 fs into a transient molecular species, which then gives rise to the emergence of bare Se+ and ring-open cations within an additional τ2 = 80 ± 30 fs. The combined experimental and theoretical results suggest a close relationship between σ* excited cation states and the observed ring-opening reactions. The findings demonstrate that the combination of femtosecond time-resolved core-level spectroscopy with ab initio estimates of spectroscopic signatures provide new insights into complex, ultrafast photochemical reactions such as ring-opening dynamics in organic molecules in real-time and with simultaneous sensitivity for electronic and structural

  14. Exploration and development of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.; Halfman, S.E.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    A multidisciplinary effort to locate, delineate, and characterize the geothermal system at Cerro Prieto, Baja California, Mexico, began about 25 years ago. It led to the identification of an important high-temperature, liquid-dominated geothermal system which went into production in 1973. Initially, the effort was undertaken principally by the Mexican electric power agency, the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Starting in 1977 a group of US organizations sponsored by the US Department of Energy, joined CFE in this endeavor. An evaluation of the different studies carried out at Cerro Prieto has shown that: (1) surface electrical resistivity and seismic reflection surveys are useful in defining targets for exploratory drilling; (2) the mineralogical studies of cores and cuttings and the analysis of well logs are important in designing the completion of wells, identifying geological controls on fluid movement, determining thermal effects and inferring the thermal history of the field; (3) geochemical surveys help to define zones of recharge and paths of fluid migration; and (4) reservoir engineering studies are necessary in establishing the characteristics of the reservoir and in predicting its response to fluid production.

  15. Piranti Lunak Pengujian Struktur Matematika Grup, Ring, Field Berbasis Osp (Open Source Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngarap Im Manik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This design of a computer software is a development and continuation of the software made on the previous research (2009/2010. However, this further research developed and expanded the scopes of testing more on the Siclic Group, Isomorphism Group, Semi Group, Sub Group and Abelian Group, Factor Ring, Sub Ring and Polynomial Ring; developed on the OSP (Open Source Program-based. The software was developed using the OSP-based language programming, such Java, so it is open and free to use for its users. This research succeeded to develop an open source software of Java program that can be used for testing specific mathematical Groups, such Ciclic Group, Isomorphism Group, Semi Group, Sub Group and Abelian Group, and Rings, Commutative Ring, Division Ring, Ideal Sub Ring, Ring Homomorphism, Ring Epimorphism and Fields. By the results, the software developed was able to test as same as the results from manual testing.

  16. Oval gradient coils for an open magnetic resonance imaging system with a vertical magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Koki; Abe, Mitsushi; Kose, Katsumi; Terada, Yasuhiko

    2017-05-01

    Existing open magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems use biplanar gradient coils for the spatial encoding of signals. We propose using novel oval gradient coils for an open vertical-field MRI. We designed oval gradients for a 0.3 T open MRI system and showed that such a system could outperform a traditional biplanar gradient system while maintaining adequate gradient homogeneity and subject accessibility. Such oval gradient coils would exhibit high efficiency, low inductance and resistance, and high switching capability. Although the designed oval Y and Z coils showed more heat dissipation and less cooling capability than biplanar coils with the same gap, they showed an efficient heat-dissipation path to the surrounding air, which would alleviate the heat problem. The performance of the designed oval-coil system was demonstrated experimentally by imaging a human hand.

  17. WISE: The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Wright, E. L.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Cohen, M.; Cutri, R.; Gautier, T. N.; Jarrett, T.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Leisawitz, D.; Lonsdale, C.; Mainzer, A.; Mather, J.; McLean, I.; McMillan, R.; Mendez, B.; Padgett, D.; Ressler, M.; Skrutskie, M.; Stanford, S. A.; Walker, R.

    2009-01-01

    WISE will map the entire sky at 3.3, 4.7, 12 and 23 microns with sensitivities of 0.12, 0.16. 0.65, and 2.6 mJy. WISE will find the most luminous galaxies in the universe, the closest stars to the Sun, and detect most main belt asteroids larger than 3 km. WISE will be placed into a Sun-synchronous polar orbit on a Delta 7320-10 rocket, rotating at a constant rate while a scan mirror freezes the line of sight during each exposure, covering the sky in 6 months following a one month checkout. Orbit to orbit overlap provides 8 or more exposures at each location. The instrument, provided by the Space Dynamics Laboratory, includes an all-reflective aluminum telescope with a 40 cm primary built by SSG-Tinsley, a solid hydrogen cryostat built by Lockheed-Martin's Advanced Technology Center, and 1024x1024 pixel Si:As and HgCdTe arrays built by DRS and Teledyne. Dichroic beamsplitters allow simultaneous images in the four bands over a 47'x47' field of view with 5" resolution to be obtained every 11 seconds. Ball Aerospace is providing the spacecraft, including a 500W fixed solar array, Li-ion battery, two star trackers, reaction wheels, and torque rods. The 50 GB per day of images are losslessly compressed, stored in flash memory, and downlinked at 100 Mbps four times per day using a fixed antenna and TDRSS satellites. The Infrared Processing and Analysis Center will process the data and deliver the image atlas and source catalog, with a preliminary release 6 months after the survey, and a final release 2 years after the survey. JPL manages the project for UCLA PI Ned Wright, and conducts mission operations. Education and Public Outreach is provided by UC Berkeley's Space Science Laboratory. WISE hardware is presently being integrated and tested, with launch scheduled in November 2009.

  18. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Asslef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of II outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  19. Opening up natural gas exploration and production in Mexico, liberalism or nationalism; L'ouverture de l'exploration et de la production de gaz naturel au Mexique, liberalisme ou nationalisme?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Padilla, V. [Universite Nationale Autonome UNAM (Mexico); Cavatorta, T.; Favennec, J.P. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil Malmaison (France)

    2002-11-01

    Mexico, which not long ago did not want to call on international oil companies to conduct exploration and production activities in its territory, is changing. After a small opening carried out by President Zedillo (1994-2000), President Vicente Fox wishes to conduct much more radical changes, by opening natural gas fields to major groups. But the President's party is still a minority in Congress, and the majority nationalist party refuses any constitutional amendment allowing the granting of mining rights. Thus, Vicente Fox is considering using special service agreements, known as 'Multiple Service contracts' (CSMs) which would first apply to developing proven gas reserves, and then to areas with greater geological risks, including oil areas. Many major international companies answered the CSM call for bids, as they cannot stay away from a country opening up with as much hydrocarbons, all the more since they feel that legally, such contracts are compliant with the Mexican Constitution and Law. However, they expressed concerns regarding the unbalance of the contracts in terms or risk sharing and profits, saying that such an unbalance put Mexico in a unfavourable position compared with other exporting countries such as Venezuela and Iran. These first CSMs in Cuenca de Burgos between PEMEX and international companies are only a first co-operation step. But a true opening of Mexico request essential institutional reforms that need a majority at Congress. Though Chamber of Representatives elections are scheduled for 2003, Senate elections will not take place before 2006. (authors)

  20. Open Science CBS Neuroimaging Repository: Sharing ultra-high-field MR images of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Christine Lucas; Schäfer, Andreas; Trampel, Robert; Villringer, Arno; Turner, Robert; Bazin, Pierre-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging at ultra high field opens the door to quantitative brain imaging at sub-millimeter isotropic resolutions. However, novel image processing tools to analyze these new rich datasets are lacking. In this article, we introduce the Open Science CBS Neuroimaging Repository: a unique repository of high-resolution and quantitative images acquired at 7 T. The motivation for this project is to increase interest for high-resolution and quantitative imaging and stimulate the development of image processing tools developed specifically for high-field data. Our growing repository currently includes datasets from MP2RAGE and multi-echo FLASH sequences from 28 and 20 healthy subjects respectively. These datasets represent the current state-of-the-art in in-vivo relaxometry at 7 T, and are now fully available to the entire neuroimaging community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Momotombo Geothermal Field, Nicaragua: Exploration and development case history study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-07-01

    This case history discusses the exploration methods used at the Momotombo Geothermal Field in western Nicaragua, and evaluates their contributions to the development of the geothermal field models. Subsequent reservoir engineering has not been synthesized or evaluated. A geothermal exploration program was started in Nicaragua in 1966 to discover and delineate potential geothermal reservoirs in western Nicaragua. Exploration began at the Momotombo field in 1970 using geological, geochemical, and geophysical methods. A regional study of thermal manifestations was undertaken and the area on the southern flank of Volcan Momotombo was chosen for more detailed investigation. Subsequent exploration by various consultants produced a number of geotechnical reports on the geology, geophysics, and geochemistry of the field as well as describing production well drilling. Geological investigations at Momotombo included photogeology, field mapping, binocular microscope examination of cuttings, and drillhole correlations. Among the geophysical techniques used to investigate the field sub-structure were: Schlumberger and electromagnetic soundings, dipole mapping and audio-magnetotelluric surveys, gravity and magnetic measurements, frequency domain soundings, self-potential surveys, and subsurface temperature determinations. The geochemical program analyzed the thermal fluids of the surface and in the wells. This report presents the description and results of exploration methods used during the investigative stages of the Momotombo Geothermal Field. A conceptual model of the geothermal field was drawn from the information available at each exploration phase. The exploration methods have been evaluated with respect to their contributions to the understanding of the field and their utilization in planning further development. Our principal finding is that data developed at each stage were not sufficiently integrated to guide further work at the field, causing inefficient use of

  2. Opening Options: Making Field Education Work in a Private Practice Clinic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooradian, John K.; Knaggs, Constance; Hock, Robert; LaCharite, David

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of social work field placements in a private practice setting to prepare MSW students for clinical work. The authors used "autoethnography", which is personal narrative that explores the writer's experience of life, to describe interpersonal and contextual characteristics, as well as procedures implemented to conduct…

  3. Gauge invariant observables from Takahashi-Tanimoto scalar solutions in open string field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Zeze, Syoji

    2014-01-01

    Using Maccaferri's formula, we derive new wedge based solutions of open string field theory. The solutions are gauge equivalent to the Takahashi-Tanimoto scalar solutions. The classical action and the gauge invariant overlap are evaluated analytically. We find a perturbative vacuum solution whose gauge invariant observables vanish. We also identify a tachyon vacuum solution whose gauge invariant observables are identical to those of the Erler-Schnabl solution.

  4. Modeling and measuring sound propagation of hooded crow calls in open field habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth Kragh; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Attenborough, Keith

    representative of crow territorial communication and taking into account ground effect and air turbulence, we predict an optimal transmission frequency range between 0,5-1.6 kHz. In a natural open field crow habitat we measure, with sender and receiver heights of 2.8 m and transmission distances up to 320 m...... composite measures of sound degradation during transmission without taking the ground effect into account....

  5. Management of whitefly-transmitted viruses in open-field production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidot, Moshe; Legg, James P; Wintermantel, William M; Polston, Jane E

    2014-01-01

    Whiteflies are a key pest of crops in open-field production throughout the tropics and subtropics. This is due in large part to the long and diverse list of devastating plant viruses transmitted by these vectors. Open-field production provides many challenges to manage these viruses and in many cases adequate management has not been possible. Diseases caused by whitefly-transmitted viruses have become limiting factors in open-field production of a wide range of crops, i.e., bean golden mosaic disease in beans, tomato yellow leaf curl disease in tomato, cassava mosaic disease and cassava brown streak disease in cassava, and cotton leaf crumple disease in cotton. While host resistance has proven to be the most cost-effective management solution, few examples of host resistance have been developed to date. The main strategy to limit the incidence of virus-infected plants has been the application of insecticides to reduce vector populations aided to some extent by the use of selected cultural practices. However, due to concerns about the effect of insecticides on pollinators, consumer demand for reduced pesticide use, and the ability of the whitefly vectors to develop insecticide-resistance, there is a growing need to develop and deploy strategies that do not rely on insecticides. The reduction in pesticide use will greatly increase the need for genetic resistance to more viruses in more crop plants. Resistance combined with selected IPM strategies could become a viable means to increase yields in crops produced in open fields despite the presence of whitefly-transmitted viruses.

  6. Chronic Toxoplasma gondii in Nurr1-null heterozygous mice exacerbates elevated open field activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B Eells

    Full Text Available Latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii is common in humans (approximately 30% of the global population and is a significant risk factor for schizophrenia. Since prevalence of T. gondii infection is far greater than prevalence of schizophrenia (0.5-1%, genetic risk factors are likely also necessary to contribute to schizophrenia. To test this concept in an animal model, Nurr1-null heterozygous (+/- mice and wild-type (+/+ mice were evaluate using an emergence test, activity in an open field and with a novel object, response to bobcat urine and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI prior to and 6 weeks after infection with T. gondii. In the emergence test, T. gondii infection significantly decreased the amount of time spent in the cylinder. Toxoplasma gondii infection significantly elevated open field activity in both +/+ and +/- mice but this increase was significantly exacerbated in +/- mice. T. gondii infection reduced PPI in male +/- mice but this was not statistically significant. Aversion to bobcat urine was abolished by T. gondii infection in +/+ mice. In female +/- mice, aversion to bobcat urine remained after T. gondii infection while the male +/- mice showed no aversion to bobcat urine. Antibody titers of infected mice were a critical variable associated with changes in open field activity, such that an inverted U shaped relationship existed between antibody titers and the percent change in open field activity with a significant increase in activity at low and medium antibody titers but no effect at high antibody titers. These data demonstrate that the Nurr1 +/- genotype predisposes mice to T. gondii-induced alterations in behaviors that involve dopamine neurotransmission and are associated with symptoms of schizophrenia. We propose that these alterations in murine behavior were due to further exacerbation of the altered dopamine neurotransmission in Nurr1 +/- mice.

  7. How To Explore Weak Ties in the Biotechnological Field: The Role of Technological Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    In the recent years a number of articles have focused on the open innovation paradigm and distinguished between different inter-organisational search strategies related to innovation performance. In this paper I rely on an in-depth case study in order to examine how it is possible to explore inte...

  8. Drilling and Automation for Mars Exploration - 3rd Field Test on Devon Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacny, K.; Paulsen, G.; Davis, K.; Glass, B.

    2007-03-01

    The third Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration field test took place inside the Haughton Crater on Devon Island in the Canadian High Arctic in July 2006. This season's objective was to demonstrate autonomous drilling capabilities while drilling with a

  9. Ambipolar transport via trapped-electron whistler instability along open magnetic field lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zehua; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2012-09-28

    An open field line plasma is bounded by a chamber wall which intercepts the magnetic field. Steady state requires an upstream plasma source balancing the particle loss to the boundary. In cases where the electrons have a long mean free path, ambipolarity in parallel transport critically depends on collisionless detrapping of the electrons via wave-particle interaction. The trapped-electron whistler instability, whose nonlinear saturation produces a spectrum of whistler waves that is responsible for the electron detrapping flux, is shown to be an unusually robust kinetic instability, which is essential to the universality of the ambipolar constraint in plasma transport.

  10. Simulation of future global warming scenarios in rice paddies with an open-field warming facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehmani Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To simulate expected future global warming, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters have previously been used to warm open-field canopies of upland crops such as wheat. Through the use of concrete-anchored posts, improved software, overhead wires, extensive grounding, and monitoring with a thermal camera, the technology was safely and reliably extended to paddy rice fields. The system maintained canopy temperature increases within 0.5°C of daytime and nighttime set-point differences of 1.3 and 2.7°C 67% of the time.

  11. Higher spin modes as rolling tachyons in open string field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Dimitri

    2016-09-01

    We find a simple analytic solution in open string field theory which, in the on-shell limit, generates a tower of higher-spin vertex operators in bosonic string theory. The solution is related to irregular off-shell vertex operators for Gaiotto states. The wave functions for the irregular vertex operators are described by equations following from the cubic effective action for generalized rolling tachyons, indicating that the evolution from flat to collective higher-spin background in string field theory occurs according to cosmological pattern. We discuss the relation between nonlocalities of the rolling tachyon action and those of higher-spin interactions.

  12. Gap opening and tuning in single-layer graphene with combined electric and magnetic field modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Xin; Wang Hai-Long; Pan Hui; Xu Huai-Zhe

    2011-01-01

    The energy band structure of single-layer graphene under one-dimensional electric and magnetic field modulation is theoretically investigated. The criterion for bandgap opening at the Dirac point is analytically derived with a two-fold degeneracy second-order perturbation method. It is shown that a direct or an indirect bandgap semiconductor could be realized in a single-layer graphene under some specific configurations of the electric and magnetic field arrangement. Due to the bandgap generated in the single-layer graphene, the Klein tunneling observed in pristine graphene is completely suppressed.

  13. An Application-oriented Open Software Platform for Multi-purpose Field Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kjeld

    Field robotics has become an increasingly active research area in the past 50 years, and there is great potential in using autonomous field robots to perform precision tasks in biological production and related applications. But the products available on the market today are limited to small robots...... that solve simple tasks such as mowing, and automatic tractor steering that navigates through a planned route under the supervision of an operator. The outdoor environment in which the robot operates is often very complex. This places great demands on the robot's ability to perceive the environment and based...... open software platform for multi-purpose field robotics will reduce the resources required for experimental research considerably due to reuse of existing work across projects and robotic platforms. This thesis describes the FroboMind field robot software platform developed in this work and presents...

  14. An Application-oriented Open Software Platform for Multi-purpose Field Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kjeld

    Field robotics has become an increasingly active research area in the past 50 years, and there is great potential in using autonomous field robots to perform precision tasks in biological production and related applications. But the products available on the market today are limited to small robots...... on this behave in a way that is appropriate and productive with respect to the given task while being safe for nearby people, animals and objects. Researchers are challenged by the considerable resources required to develop robot software capable of supporting experiments in such a complex perception...... open software platform for multi-purpose field robotics will reduce the resources required for experimental research considerably due to reuse of existing work across projects and robotic platforms. This thesis describes the FroboMind field robot software platform developed in this work and presents...

  15. Agricultural and management practices and bacterial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Seynnaeve, Marleen; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-12-23

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive), Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7%) versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%). The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards.

  16. Green house gas emissions from open field burning of agricultural residues in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, S; Shrivastava, Rajnish; Saxena, Mohini

    2010-10-01

    In India, about 435.98 MMT of agro-residues are produced every year, out of which 313.62 MMT are surplus. These residues are either partially utilized or un-utilised due to various constraints. To pave the way for subsequent season for agriculture activity, the excess crop residues are burnt openly in the fields, unmindful of their ill effects on the environment. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the severity of air pollution through emission of green house gases (GHGs) due to open field burning of agro-residues in India. Open field burning of surplus agro-residues in India results in the emission of GHG. Emissions of CH4 and N2O in 1997-98 and 2006-07 have been 3.73 and 4.06 MMT CO2 equivalent, which is an increase of 8.88% over a decade. About three-fourths of GHG emissions from agro-residues burning were CH4 and the remaining one-fourth were N2O. Burning of wheat and paddy straws alone contributes to about 42% of GHGs. These GHG emissions can be avoided once the agro-residues are employed for sustainable, cost-effective and environment- friendly options like power generation.

  17. Ontogeny of sex differences in open-field ambulation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slob, A K; Huizer, T; Van der Werff ten Bosch, J J

    1986-01-01

    The effects of age and gonads were studied in rats subjected to open-field tests, during which ambulation behavior was recorded. Subjects were three groups of male and female rats: sham-operation on day 1 and day 21; gonadectomy on day 1 and sham-operation on day 21; and sham-operation on day 1 and gonadectomy on day 21. Half of each group were tested in a circular open field (3 min/day, 3 consecutive days) on days 28-30; the others were tested on days 47-49. Representatives of both batches were tested again in a square open field on days 76-78. There was a sex difference in ambulation at 77 days, but not at earlier ages. In animals gonadectomized on day 1 or day 21 the sex difference in adulthood failed to occur, because castration caused the males to ambulate as much as sham-operated and ovariectomized females. On the basis of our results and reports in the literature it is suggested that testicular secretions around puberty have an organizing effect on ambulation behavior. The intact adult male rat ambulates less than the adult female and this difference persists after castration in adulthood. Castration well before puberty prevents the development of the adult sex difference.

  18. Catastrophe of coronal magnetic flux ropes in fully open magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Guoqiang(李国强); HU; Youqiu(胡友秋)

    2002-01-01

    The catastrophe of coronal magnetic flux ropes is closely related to solar explosive phenomena, such as prominence eruptions, coronal mass ejections, and two-ribbon solar flares. Using a 2-dimensional, 3-component ideal MHD model in Cartesian coordinates, numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the equilibrium property of a coronal magnetic flux rope which is embedded in a fully open background magnetic field. The flux rope emerges from the photosphere and enters the corona with its axial and annular magnetic fluxes controlled by a single "emergence parameter". For a flux rope that has entered the corona, we may change its axial and annular fluxes artificially and let the whole system reach a new equilibrium through numerical simulations. The results obtained show that when the emergence parameter, the axial flux, or the annular flux is smaller than a certain critical value, the flux rope is in equilibrium and adheres to the photosphere. On the other hand, if the critical value is exceeded, the flux rope loses equilibrium and erupts freely upward, namely, a catastrophe takes place. In contrast with the partly-opened background field, the catastrophic amplitude is infinite for the case of fully-opened background field.

  19. Agricultural and Management Practices and Bacterial Contamination in Greenhouse versus Open Field Lettuce Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Holvoet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive, Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7% versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%. The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards.

  20. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between feather pecking and open-field reponse in laying hens at two different ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Buitenhuis, A.J.; Ask, B.; Uitdehaag, K.A.; Koene, P.; Poel, van der J.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2004-01-01

    The object of this research was to study the relationship between feather pecking and open-field activity in laying hens at two different ages. A population of 550 birds of a laying hen cross was subjected to an open-field test at 5 and 29 weeks of age and to a social feather pecking test at 6 and 3

  1. Massive Open Online Change? Exploring the Discursive Construction of the "MOOC" in Newspapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwyn, Neil; Bulfin, Scott; Pangrazio, Luci

    2015-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have been a prominent topic of recent educational discussion and debate. MOOCs are, in essence, university-affiliated courses offered to large groups of online learners for little or no cost and are seen by many as a bellwether for change and reform across higher education systems. This study uses content and…

  2. Exploring the impact of socio-technical core-periphery structures in open source software development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amrit, Chintan; Hillegersberg, van Jos

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we apply the social network concept of core-periphery structure to the socio-technical structure of a software development team. We propose a socio-technical pattern that can be used to locate emerging coordination problems in Open Source projects. With the help of our tool and method

  3. Massive Open Online Change? Exploring the Discursive Construction of the "MOOC" in Newspapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwyn, Neil; Bulfin, Scott; Pangrazio, Luci

    2015-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have been a prominent topic of recent educational discussion and debate. MOOCs are, in essence, university-affiliated courses offered to large groups of online learners for little or no cost and are seen by many as a bellwether for change and reform across higher education systems. This study uses content and…

  4. National innovation policy and global open innovation: Exploring balances, tradeoffs and complementarities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Carter Walter; Sverre, Herstad; Ebersberger, Bernd;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to suggest a framework for examining the way national policy mixes are responding to the challenges and opportunities of globally distributed knowledge networks, cross-sectoral technology flows and consequently open innovation processes occurring on an international scale...

  5. "Digital Futures in Teacher Education": Exploring Open Approaches towards Digital Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszczynska, Anna; Merchant, Guy; Pountney, Richard,

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a project "Digital Futures in Teacher Education" (DeFT) undertaken as part of the third phase of the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) UK Open Educational Resources (OER) programme. It builds on previous work (Gruszczynska and Pountney, 2012, 2013) that has addressed attempts to embed OER…

  6. Temperament in bullheads: do laboratory and field explorative behaviour variables correlate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobler, Alexander; Engelen, Brecht; Knaepkens, Guy; Eens, Marcel

    2009-10-01

    The relevance of temperament traits for life history strategy or productivity is increasingly acknowledged. Temperament traits are often either observed in captivity or in the wild, but studies combining both observations are very rare. We examine whether exploratory behaviour in the bullhead (Cottus perifretum), assayed under laboratory conditions, predicts this behaviour under field conditions. Forty-three PIT-tagged individuals were first assayed for exploration of a novel environment in the aquarium and then released into an unfamiliar stream stretch, where they were later relocated using a mobile antenna. Explorative behaviour assayed in the laboratory was significantly positively related to the exploration in the field, thus predicting distance moved in the field release. Both in the laboratory and in the field, explorative behaviour was not related to individual body length. When bullheads that did not leave the refuge in the aquarium (laboratory assay) and, therefore, did not explore the new environment were excluded from the analysis, the correlation between laboratory and field explorative behaviour variables became weaker. However, overall, our results illustrate that exploration rate of bullheads in isolated single-individual experiments can be used to predict this behaviour in the natural ecosystem.

  7. Rehabilitation of Reading and Visual Exploration in Visual Field Disorders: Transfer or Specificity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuett, Susanne; Heywood, Charles A.; Kentridge, Robert W.; Dauner, Ruth; Zihl, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Reading and visual exploration impairments in unilateral homonymous visual field disorders are frequent and disabling consequences of acquired brain injury. Compensatory therapies have been developed, which allow patients to regain sufficient reading and visual exploration performance through systematic oculomotor training. However, it is still…

  8. Exploration of solar photospheric magnetic field data sets using the UCSD tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, B. V.; Yu, H.-S.; Buffington, A.; Hick, P. P.; Nishimura, N.; Nozaki, N.; Tokumaru, M.; Fujiki, K.; Hayashi, K.

    2016-12-01

    This article investigates the use of two different types of National Solar Observatory magnetograms and two different coronal field modeling techniques over 10 years. Both the "open-field" Current Sheet Source Surface (CSSS) and a "closed-field" technique using CSSS modeling are compared. The University of California, San Diego, tomographic modeling, using interplanetary scintillation data from Japan, provides the global velocities to extrapolate these fields outward, which are then compared with fields measured in situ near Earth. Although the open-field technique generally gives a better result for radial and tangential fields, we find that a portion of the closed extrapolated fields measured in situ near Earth comes from the direct outward mapping of these fields in the low solar corona. All three closed-field components are nonzero at 1 AU and are compared with the appropriate magnetometer values. A significant positive correlation exists between these closed-field components and the in situ measurements over the last 10 years. We determine that a small fraction of the static low-coronal component flux, which includes the Bn (north-south) component, regularly escapes from closed-field regions. The closed-field flux fraction varies by about a factor of 3 from a mean value during this period, relative to the magnitude of the field components measured in situ near Earth, and maximizes in 2014. This implies that a relatively more efficient process for closed-flux escape occurs near solar maximum. We also compare and find that the popular Potential Field Source Surface and CSSS model closed fields are nearly identical in sign and strength.

  9. Displacement and stress fields around rock fractures opened by irregular overpressure variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigekazu eKusumoto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many rock fractures are entirely driven open by fluids such as ground water, geothermal water, gas, oil, and magma. These are a subset of extension fractures (mode I cracks; e.g., dikes, mineral veins and joints referred to as hydrofractures. Field measurements show that many hydrofractures have great variations in aperture. However, most analytical solutions for fracture displacement and stress fields assume the loading to be either constant or with a linear variation. While these solutions have been widely used, it is clear that a fracture hosted by heterogeneous and anisotropic rock is normally subject to loading that is neither constant nor with a linear variation. Here we present new general solutions for the displacement and stress fields around hydrofractures, modelled as two-dimensional elastic cracks, opened by irregular overpressure variations given by the Fourier cosine series. Each solution has two terms. The first term gives the displacement and stress fields due to the average overpressure acting inside the crack; it is given by the initial term of the Fourier coefficients expressing the overpressure variation. The second term gives the displacement and stress fields caused by the overpressure variation; it is given by general terms of the Fourier coefficients and solved through numerical integration. Our numerical examples show that the crack aperture variation closely reflects the overpressure variation. Also, that the general displacement and stress fields close to the crack follow the overpressure variation but tend to be more uniform far from the crack. The present solutions can be used to estimate the displacement and stress fields around any fluid-driven crack, that is, any hydrofracture, as well as its aperture, provided the variation in overpressure can be described by Fourier series. The solutions add to our understanding of local stresses, displacements, and fluid transport associated with hydrofractures in the crust.

  10. From "Closing Doors" to "Opening Doors": Exploring gender and subject choice in UK schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ann

    2015-12-01

    Two reports drawing on the National (English) Pupil Database are discussed: the It's Different for Girls and the Closing Doors reports (2012 and 2013, respectively), both of which examine the experience of girls studying physics in England. The UK government has responded to these studies by launching the "Opening Doors" project (June 2014), which will focus on a whole-school approach to addressing gender imbalance in progression to post-16 studies.

  11. Knowledge creation in virtual communities – Exploring practices in open source software hacker communities

    OpenAIRE

    Matheus, Thomas; Sarma, Meera

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers an exploratory conceptual and theoretical examination of knowledge creation within virtual communities of hackers. By distinguishing between different types of virtual communities, we argue that hacker communities involved in free and open source activities possess special structural and processual characteristics that are conducive to innovative product development. Drawing on diverse literatures, this paper thus builds an initial understanding of how a hacker community is ...

  12. BIG GEO DATA MANAGEMENT: AN EXPLORATION WITH SOCIAL MEDIA AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS OPEN DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Arias Munoz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The term Big Data has been recently used to define big, highly varied, complex data sets, which are created and updated at a high speed and require faster processing, namely, a reduced time to filter and analyse relevant data. These data is also increasingly becoming Open Data (data that can be freely distributed made public by the government, agencies, private enterprises and among others. There are at least two issues that can obstruct the availability and use of Open Big Datasets: Firstly, the gathering and geoprocessing of these datasets are very computationally intensive; hence, it is necessary to integrate high-performance solutions, preferably internet based, to achieve the goals. Secondly, the problems of heterogeneity and inconsistency in geospatial data are well known and affect the data integration process, but is particularly problematic for Big Geo Data. Therefore, Big Geo Data integration will be one of the most challenging issues to solve. With these applications, we demonstrate that is possible to provide processed Big Geo Data to common users, using open geospatial standards and technologies. NoSQL databases like MongoDB and frameworks like RASDAMAN could offer different functionalities that facilitate working with larger volumes and more heterogeneous geospatial data sources.

  13. Big Geo Data Management: AN Exploration with Social Media and Telecommunications Open Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Munoz, C.; Brovelli, M. A.; Corti, S.; Zamboni, G.

    2016-06-01

    The term Big Data has been recently used to define big, highly varied, complex data sets, which are created and updated at a high speed and require faster processing, namely, a reduced time to filter and analyse relevant data. These data is also increasingly becoming Open Data (data that can be freely distributed) made public by the government, agencies, private enterprises and among others. There are at least two issues that can obstruct the availability and use of Open Big Datasets: Firstly, the gathering and geoprocessing of these datasets are very computationally intensive; hence, it is necessary to integrate high-performance solutions, preferably internet based, to achieve the goals. Secondly, the problems of heterogeneity and inconsistency in geospatial data are well known and affect the data integration process, but is particularly problematic for Big Geo Data. Therefore, Big Geo Data integration will be one of the most challenging issues to solve. With these applications, we demonstrate that is possible to provide processed Big Geo Data to common users, using open geospatial standards and technologies. NoSQL databases like MongoDB and frameworks like RASDAMAN could offer different functionalities that facilitate working with larger volumes and more heterogeneous geospatial data sources.

  14. Phillips Curve In A Small Open Economy: A Time Series Exploration Of North Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shahbaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available he paper explores the existence and the stability of Phillips curve for North Cyprus, a small developing economy, using time series data. ADF unit root test is employed to check for stationarity. ARDL and DOLS approaches to cointegration have been used to explore the long run relation and ECM to understand short run dynamics. The predictive properties DOLS are better than those of the conventional methods. The estimates point to the existence of Phillips curve both in the long and the short run. CUSUM and CUSUMsq tests confirm a stable relation.

  15. Water Column Exploration Field Trial I (EX0904, EM302) aboard the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in the Gorda Ridge, off the coasts of Oregon and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This cruise is a water column exploration field trial cruise, designed to test and refine operations for conducting water column exploration using NOAA Ship Okeanos...

  16. Acoustic modeling of a three-dimensional rectangular opened enclosure coupled with a semi-infinite exterior field at the baffled opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guoyong; Shi, Shuangxia; Liu, Zhigang

    2016-11-01

    A modeling method is proposed for the acoustic analysis of a three-dimensional (3D) rectangular opened enclosure coupled with a semi-infinite exterior field by a rectangular opening of arbitrary size, and with general wall impedance. In contrast to existing modeling methods that solve the differential equations, the energy principle in combination with a 3D modified Fourier cosine series is employed in the present method for the modeling of this system. Under this theoretical framework, the effect of an opening in the wall of a rectangular enclosure is taken into account via the work done by the sound pressure acting on the opening between the finite enclosure and exterior domain. The sound pressure inside the opened enclosure is expressed as the combination of a 3D trigonometric cosine series and one supplementary 2D expansion introduced to ensure uniform convergence of the solution over the entire solution domain including opening boundary. The acoustic responses of the opened enclosure are obtained based on the energy expressions for the enclosure system. The effectiveness and reliability of the current method are checked against the results obtained by the boundary element method and experimental results, and excellent agreement is achieved. The effects of sizes and positions of the opening and wall impedance on the acoustic behaviors of opened enclosure system are investigated.

  17. Characteristics of geometric distortion correction with increasing field-of-view in open-configuration MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Cheolpyo; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Han, Bong Soo

    2014-07-01

    Open-configuration magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems are becoming increasingly desirable for musculoskeletal imaging and image-guided radiotherapy because of their non-claustrophobic configuration. However, geometric image distortion in large fields-of-view (FOV) due to field inhomogeneity and gradient nonlinearity hinders the practical applications of open-type MRI. We demonstrated the use of geometric distortion correction for increasing FOV in open MRI. Geometric distortion was modeled and corrected as a global polynomial function. The appropriate polynomial order was identified as the minimum difference between the coordinates of control points in the distorted MR image space and those predicted by polynomial modeling. The sixth order polynomial function was found to give the optimal value for geometric distortion correction. The area of maximum distortion was<1 pixel with an FOV of 285mm. The correction performance error was increased at most 1.2% and 2.9% for FOVs of 340mm and~400mm compared with the FOV of 285mm. In particular, unresolved distortion was generated by local deformation near the gradient coil center. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. "Festival of Flight Special": Opening Space for Next Generation Explorers. NASA CONNECT[TM]. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Program will ultimately move from the explorations of the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle missions to a new period of pioneering in which people and businesses are more routinely traveling, working, and living in space. (Author/NB)

  19. Exploration Case Studies on OpenEI; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, K. R.

    2015-05-11

    This poster details the goal of developing a database of geothermal case studies for future exploration efforts in new areas. The goal of this effort is to develop a template for geothermal case studies in a crowd-sourced platform to allow contributions from the entire geothermal community, and this should be broken down into queriable properties in order to be more helpful.

  20. Comparison between visual field defect in pigmentary glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilforushan, Naveed; Yadgari, Maryam; Jazayeri, Anisalsadat

    2016-10-01

    To compare visual field defect patterns between pigmentary glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma. Retrospective, comparative study. Patients with diagnosis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and pigmentary glaucoma (PG) in mild to moderate stages were enrolled in this study. Each of the 52 point locations in total and pattern deviation plot (excluding 2 points adjacent to blind spot) of 24-2 Humphrey visual field as well as six predetermined sectors were compared using SPSS software version 20. Comparisons between 2 groups were performed with the Student t test for continuous variables and the Chi-square test for categorical variables. Thirty-eight eyes of 24 patients with a mean age of 66.26 ± 11 years (range 48-81 years) in the POAG group and 36 eyes of 22 patients with a mean age of 50.52 ± 11 years (range 36-69 years) in the PG group were studied. (P = 0.00). More deviation was detected in points 1, 3, 4, and 32 in total deviation (P = 0.03, P = 0.015, P = 0.018, P = 0.023) and in points 3, 4, and 32 in pattern deviation (P = 0.015, P = 0.049, P = 0.030) in the POAG group, which are the temporal parts of the field. It seems that the temporal area of the visual field in primary open-angle glaucoma is more susceptible to damage in comparison with pigmentary glaucoma.

  1. Field-oriented control of five-phase induction motor with open-end stator winding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listwan Jacek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of the five-phase squirrel-cage induction motor and the system of the dual five-phase voltage source inverter have been presented. The control methods and control systems of the field-oriented control of the five-phase induction motor with an open-end stator winding are described. The structures of the direct fieldoriented control system (DFOC and the Indirect Field-oriented control system (IFOC with PI controllers in outer and inner control loops are analyzed. A method of space vector modulation used to control the system of the dual five-phase voltage source inverter has been discussed. The results of simulation studies of the field-oriented control methods are presented. Comparative analysis of the simulation results was carried out.

  2. Open-Loop Control in Quantum Optics: Two-Level Atom in Modulated Optical Field

    CERN Document Server

    Saifullah, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    The methods of mathematical control theory are widely used in the modern physics, but still they are less popular in quantum science. We will discuss the aspects of control theory, which are the most useful in applications to the real problems of quantum optics. We apply this technique to control the behavior of the two-level quantum particles (atoms) in the modulated external optical field in the frame of the so called "semi classical model", where quantum two-level atomic system (all other levels are neglected) interacts with classical electromagnetic field. In this paper we propose a simple model of feedforward (open-loop) control for the quantum particle system, which is a basement for further investigation of two-level quantum particle in the external one-dimensional optical field.

  3. Automated tracing of open-field coronal structures for an optimized large-scale magnetic field reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uritsky, V. M.; Davila, J. M.; Jones, S. I.

    2014-12-01

    Solar Probe Plus and Solar Orbiter will provide detailed measurements in the inner heliosphere magnetically connected with the topologically complex and eruptive solar corona. Interpretation of these measurements will require accurate reconstruction of the large-scale coronal magnetic field. In a related presentation by S. Jones et al., we argue that such reconstruction can be performed using photospheric extrapolation methods constrained by white-light coronagraph images. Here, we present the image-processing component of this project dealing with an automated segmentation of fan-like coronal loop structures. In contrast to the existing segmentation codes designed for detecting small-scale closed loops in the vicinity of active regions, we focus on the large-scale geometry of the open-field coronal features observed at significant radial distances from the solar surface. The coronagraph images used for the loop segmentation are transformed into a polar coordinate system and undergo radial detrending and initial noise reduction. The preprocessed images are subject to an adaptive second order differentiation combining radial and azimuthal directions. An adjustable thresholding technique is applied to identify candidate coronagraph features associated with the large-scale coronal field. A blob detection algorithm is used to extract valid features and discard noisy data pixels. The obtained features are interpolated using higher-order polynomials which are used to derive empirical directional constraints for magnetic field extrapolation procedures based on photospheric magnetograms.

  4. Investment in Open Innovation Service Providers: NASA's Innovative Strategy for Solving Space Exploration Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Jennifer A.; Rando, Cynthia; Baumann, David; Richard, Elizabeth; Davis, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to expand routes for open communication and create additional opportunities for public involvement with NASA, Open Innovation Service Provider (OISP) methodologies have been incorporated as a tool in NASA's problem solving strategy. NASA engaged the services of two OISP providers, InnoCentive and Yet2.com, to test this novel approach and its feasibility in solving NASA s space flight challenges. The OISPs were chosen based on multiple factors including: network size and knowledge area span, established process, methodology, experience base, and cost. InnoCentive and Yet2.com each met the desired criteria; however each company s approach to Open Innovation is distinctly different. InnoCentive focuses on posting individual challenges to an established web-based network of approximately 200,000 solvers; viable solutions are sought and granted a financial award if found. Based on a specific technological need, Yet2.com acts as a talent scout providing a broad external network of experts as potential collaborators to NASA. A relationship can be established with these contacts to develop technologies and/or maintained as an established network of future collaborators. The results from the first phase of the pilot study have shown great promise for long term efficacy of utilizing the OISP methodologies. Solution proposals have been received for the challenges posted on InnoCentive and are currently under review for final disposition. In addition, Yet2.com has identified new external partners for NASA and we are in the process of understanding and acting upon these new opportunities. Compared to NASA's traditional routes for external problem solving, the OISP methodologies offered NASA a substantial savings in terms of time and resources invested. In addition, these strategies will help NASA extend beyond its current borders to build an ever expanding network of experts and global solvers.

  5. Investment in Open Innovation Service Providers: NASA's Innovative Strategy for Solving Space Exploration Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Jennifer A.; Rando, Cynthia; Baumann, David; Richard, Elizabeth; Davis, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to expand routes for open communication and create additional opportunities for public involvement with NASA, Open Innovation Service Provider (OISP) methodologies have been incorporated as a tool in NASA's problem solving strategy. NASA engaged the services of two OISP providers, InnoCentive and Yet2.com, to test this novel approach and its feasibility in solving NASA s space flight challenges. The OISPs were chosen based on multiple factors including: network size and knowledge area span, established process, methodology, experience base, and cost. InnoCentive and Yet2.com each met the desired criteria; however each company s approach to Open Innovation is distinctly different. InnoCentive focuses on posting individual challenges to an established web-based network of approximately 200,000 solvers; viable solutions are sought and granted a financial award if found. Based on a specific technological need, Yet2.com acts as a talent scout providing a broad external network of experts as potential collaborators to NASA. A relationship can be established with these contacts to develop technologies and/or maintained as an established network of future collaborators. The results from the first phase of the pilot study have shown great promise for long term efficacy of utilizing the OISP methodologies. Solution proposals have been received for the challenges posted on InnoCentive and are currently under review for final disposition. In addition, Yet2.com has identified new external partners for NASA and we are in the process of understanding and acting upon these new opportunities. Compared to NASA's traditional routes for external problem solving, the OISP methodologies offered NASA a substantial savings in terms of time and resources invested. In addition, these strategies will help NASA extend beyond its current borders to build an ever expanding network of experts and global solvers.

  6. Self-Guided Field Explorations: Integrating Earth Science into Students' Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, K. C.; Kirkby, S.

    2013-12-01

    Self-guided field explorations are a simple way to transform an earth science class into a more pedagogically effective experience. Previous experience demonstrated that self-guided student explorations of museum and aquarium exhibits were both extremely popular and remarkably effective. That success led our program to test an expansion of the concept to include self-guided student explorations in outdoor field settings. Preliminary assessment indicates these self-guided field explorations are nearly as popular with students as the museum and aquarium explorations and are as pedagogically effective. Student gains on post-instruction assessment match or exceed those seen in instructor-assisted, hands-on, small group laboratory activities and completely eclipse gains achieved by traditional lecture instruction. As importantly, self-guided field explorations provide a way to integrate field experiences into large enrollment courses where the sheer scale of class trips makes them logistically impossible. This expands course breadth, integrating new topics that could not be as effectively covered by the original class structure. Our introductory program assessed two models of self-guided field explorations. A walking/cycling exploration of the Saint Anthony Falls area, a mile from campus, focuses on the intersections of geological processes with human history. Students explore the geology behind the waterfalls' evolution as well as its subsequent social and economic impacts on human history. A second exploration focuses on the campus area geology, including its building stones as well as its landscape evolution. In both explorations, the goal was to integrate geology with the students' broader understanding of the world they live in. Although the explorations' creation requires a significant commitment, once developed, self-guided explorations are surprisingly low maintenance. These explorations provide a model of a simple, highly effective pedagogical tool that is

  7. Exploring the Effects of Contest Mechanisms on Idea Shortlisting in an Open Idea Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merz, Alexander Benedikt; Seeber, Isabella; Maier, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    conceptually associated with advancing idea development, the effect of IT-enabled contest mechanisms on idea shortlisting lacks empirical assessment. We draw on data from an online idea competition to improve our understanding of determinants for idea shortlisting. We conceptualize and operationalize three......Picking the most promising from a multitude of crowd-generated ideas challenges organizations that employ open idea competitions. Hence, hosts of such contests often filter submitted ideas into shortlists to help juries selecting the winning ideas. While contest communities and rewards have been...

  8. Quasimodal expansion of electromagnetic fields in open two-dimensionnal structures

    CERN Document Server

    Vial, Benjamin; Nicolet, André; Commandré, Mireille

    2013-01-01

    A quasimodal expansion method (QMEM) is developed to model and understand the scattering properties of arbitrary shaped two-dimensional (2-D) open structures. In contrast with the bounded case which have only discrete spectrum (real in the lossless media case), open resonators show a continuous spectrum composed of radiation modes and may also be characterized by resonances associated to complex eigenvalues (quasimodes). The use of a complex change of coordinates to build Perfectly Matched Layers (PMLs) allows the numerical computation of those quasimodes and of approximate radiation modes. Unfortunately, the transformed operator at stake is no longer self-adjoint, and classical modal expansion fails. To cope with this issue, we consider an adjoint eigenvalue problem which eigenvectors are bi-orthogonal to the eigenvectors of the initial problem. The scattered field is expanded on this complete set of modes leading to a reduced order model of the initial problem. The different contributions of the eigenmodes ...

  9. Lunar Exploration: Opening a Window into the History and Evolution of the Inner Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, Ian A

    2014-01-01

    The lunar geological record contains a rich archive of the history of the inner Solar System, including information relevant to understanding the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system, the geological evolution of rocky planets, and our local cosmic environment. This paper provides a brief review of lunar exploration to-date, and describes how future exploration initiatives will further advance our understanding of the origin and evolution of the Moon, the Earth-Moon system, and of the Solar System more generally. It is concluded that further advances will require the placing of new scientific instruments on, and the return of additional samples from, the lunar surface. Some of these scientific objectives can be achieved robotically, for example by in situ geochemical and geophysical measurements and through carefully targeted sample return missions. However, in the longer term, we argue that lunar science would greatly benefit from renewed human operations on the surface of the Moon, such as would be ...

  10. Lunar exploration: opening a window into the history and evolution of the inner Solar System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Ian A; Joy, Katherine H

    2014-09-13

    The lunar geological record contains a rich archive of the history of the inner Solar System, including information relevant to understanding the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system, the geological evolution of rocky planets, and our local cosmic environment. This paper provides a brief review of lunar exploration to-date and describes how future exploration initiatives will further advance our understanding of the origin and evolution of the Moon, the Earth-Moon system and of the Solar System more generally. It is concluded that further advances will require the placing of new scientific instruments on, and the return of additional samples from, the lunar surface. Some of these scientific objectives can be achieved robotically, for example by in situ geochemical and geophysical measurements and through carefully targeted sample return missions. However, in the longer term, we argue that lunar science would greatly benefit from renewed human operations on the surface of the Moon, such as would be facilitated by implementing the recently proposed Global Exploration Roadmap.

  11. Open-Access, Low-Magnetic-Field MRI System for Lung Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Ross W.; Rosen, Matthew S.; Tsai, Leo L.; Walsworth, Ronald L.; Hrovat, Mirko I.; Patz, Samuel; Ruset, Iullian C.; Hersman, F. William

    2009-01-01

    An open-access magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system is being developed for use in research on orientational/gravitational effects on lung physiology and function. The open-access geometry enables study of human subjects in diverse orientations. This system operates at a magnetic flux density, considerably smaller than the flux densities of typical other MRI systems, that can be generated by resistive electromagnet coils (instead of the more-expensive superconducting coils of the other systems). The human subject inhales air containing He-3 or Xe-129 atoms, the nuclear spins of which have been polarized by use of a laser beam to obtain a magnetic resonance that enables high-resolution gas space imaging at the low applied magnetic field. The system includes a bi-planar, constant-current, four-coil electromagnet assembly and associated electronic circuitry to apply a static magnetic field of 6.5 mT throughout the lung volume; planar coils and associated circuitry to apply a pulsed magnetic-field-gradient for each spatial dimension; a single, detachable radio-frequency coil and associated circuitry for inducing and detecting MRI signals; a table for supporting a horizontal subject; and electromagnetic shielding surrounding the electromagnet coils.

  12. Combining field observations and numerical modeling to better understand fault opening and hydromechanics at depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, E.; Pollard, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    This study adds field observations and numerical modeling results to the mounting evidence that fault surface irregularities cause local variations in slip, opening, and stress distributions along faults. A two-dimensional displacement discontinuity boundary element model (DDM) in conjunction with a complementarity algorithm is used to model both idealized and natural fault geometries in order to predict the locations and magnitudes of fault opening, and the style and spatial distribution of off-fault damage, both of which influence local fluid flow. Field observations of exhumed small faults in granodiorite from the central Sierra Nevada, California, help to constrain the numerical models. The Sierran faults exhibit sections of opening that became conduits for fluid flow and void spaces for precipitation of hydrothermal minerals; these sections are often surrounded by fractured and altered wall rock, presumably due to local stress concentrations and the influx of chemically reactive fluids. We are further developing the DDM with complementarity to add internal fluid pressure or normal cohesion along the fault surfaces, which are assigned independently of other contact properties, such as the frictional strength and coefficient of friction. While variable frictional strength or internal normal stress along a planar fault may produce opening or perturb the local stress state, these boundary conditions do not accurately mimic the mechanical behavior of faults with non-planar geometries. We advocate using the nomenclature 'lee' and 'stoss' to describe curved faults rather than 'releasing' and 'restraining bends', because the implied mechanical conditions are not necessarily met. Numerical experiments for idealized curved model faults demonstrate that fault opening can occur along lee sides of the curves, with the enhancing effects of fluid pressure and despite the countervailing effects of increased confining pressure with depth. Ambient effective compressive stresses

  13. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer 2013 Field Season on the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobecker, E.; Malik, M.; Skarke, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    During the 2013 field season, Okeanos Explorer used its suite of state-of-the-art sonars to systematically map and explore our nation's waters off the Atlantic seaboard, specifically the Atlantic Canyons and New England Seamounts. High resolution three dimensional maps created from the ship's sonars were used to select sites for fine-resolution exploration with the new 6000 meter remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Deep Discoverer. Scientists onboard and onshore around the world were actively engaged in all steps of the exploration process, from the identification of broad-scale mapping targets, to the planning and real-time refining of 300 to 1500 meter long planned ROV dive tracks. Live video feeds were available to the general public through the award winning website www.oceanexplorer.noaa.gov. Important exploration milestones during the Okeanos Explorer 2013 Field Season include: the completion of comprehensive, high-resolution multibeam mapping of the continental shelf break from Cape Hatteras to the northern U.S. Atlantic offshore border, totaling over 100,000 square kilometers of new seafloor data within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone; the first successful field season of the ROV Deep Discoverer, which conducted over 40 successful dives; and initial mapping site characterization of eight of the outer seamounts of the New England Seamount Chain. All data collected by Okeanos Explorer are available via the NOAA public archives with metadata records within 60 to 90 days of the end of each cruise.

  14. Open field trial of genetically modified parthenocarpic tomato: seedlessness and fruit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandolfini Tiziana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parthenocarpic tomato lines transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene have been cultivated under open field conditions to address some aspects of the equivalence of genetically modified (GM fruit in comparison to controls (non-GM. Results Under open field cultivation conditions, two tomato lines (UC 82 transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene produced parthenocarpic fruits. DefH9-RI-iaaM fruits were either seedless or contained very few seeds. GM fruit quality, with the exception of a higher β-carotene level, did not show any difference, neither technological (colour, firmness, dry matter, °Brix, pH nor chemical (titratable acidity, organic acids, lycopene, tomatine, total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity – TEAC, when compared to that of fruits from control line. Highly significant differences in quality traits exist between the tomato F1 commercial hybrid Allflesh and the three UC 82 genotypes tested, regardless of whether or not they are GM. Total yield per plant did not differ between GM and parental line UC 82. Fruit number was increased in GM lines, and GM fruit weight was decreased. Conclusion The use in the diet of fruits from a new line or variety introduces much greater changes than the consumption of GM fruits in comparison to its genetic background. Parthenocarpic fruits, produced under open field conditions, contained 10-fold less seeds than control fruits. Thus parthenocarpy caused by DefH9-RI-iaaM gene represents also a tool for mitigating GM seeds dispersal in the environment.

  15. Mississippi exploration field trials using microbial, radiometrics, free soil gas, and other techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, J.S.; Brown, L.R.; Thieling, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    The Mississippi Office of Geology has conducted field trials using the surface exploration techniques of geomicrobial, radiometrics, and free soil gas. The objective of these trials is to determine if Mississippi oil and gas fields have surface hydrocarbon expression resulting from vertical microseepage migration. Six fields have been surveyed ranging in depth from 3,330 ft to 18,500 ft. The fields differ in trapping styles and hydrocarbon type. The results so far indicate that these fields do have a surface expression and that geomicrobial analysis as well as radiometrics and free soil gas can detect hydrocarbon microseepage from pressurized reservoirs. All three exploration techniques located the reservoirs independent of depth, hydrocarbon type, or trapping style.

  16. Exploring the use of storytelling in quantitative research fields using a multiple case study method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lori N. Hamlet

    The purpose of this study was to explore the emerging use of storytelling in quantitative research fields. The focus was not on examining storytelling in research, but rather how stories are used in various ways within the social context of quantitative research environments. In-depth interviews were conducted with seven professionals who had experience using storytelling in their work and my personal experience with the subject matter was also used as a source of data according to the notion of researcher-as-instrument. This study is qualitative in nature and is guided by two supporting theoretical frameworks, the sociological perspective and narrative inquiry. A multiple case study methodology was used to gain insight about why participants decided to use stories or storytelling in a quantitative research environment that may not be traditionally open to such methods. This study also attempted to identify how storytelling can strengthen or supplement existing research, as well as what value stories can provide to the practice of research in general. Five thematic findings emerged from the data and were grouped under two headings, "Experiencing Research" and "Story Work." The themes were found to be consistent with four main theoretical functions of storytelling identified in existing scholarly literature: (a) sense-making; (b) meaning-making; (c) culture; and (d) communal function. The five thematic themes that emerged from this study and were consistent with the existing literature include: (a) social context; (b) quantitative versus qualitative; (c) we think and learn in terms of stories; (d) stories tie experiences together; and (e) making sense and meaning. Recommendations are offered in the form of implications for various social contexts and topics for further research are presented as well.

  17. Coherent field emission from a multi-walled carbon nanotube with two open-ended branches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Xin; Zhang Geng-Min; Wang Ming-Sheng; Zhang Zhao-Xiang; Yu Jie; Zhao Xing-Yu; Guo Deng-Zhu; Xue Zeng-Quan

    2009-01-01

    Interference fringes are obtained in a field-emission microscopy (FEM) study of a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) with two open-ended branches.The FEM pattern,which is composed of three parallel streaks,can be interpreted by using classical Young's double-slit interference with the ends of the two MWCNT branches treated as two secondary sources of the electron wave.The origin of the coherency of the electron beams from the two branches is discussed on the basis of the quantitative analysis of the FEM pattern.The result suggests a new approach to obtaining a coherent electron source.

  18. Pathological behavior of the open-shell restricted self-consistent-field equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moscardo, F.; Alvarez-Collado, J.R.

    1979-02-01

    The possible solutions of open-shell restricted self-consistent-field equations for a doublet are studied for Li and Na atoms, according to the values of the parameters implied in those equations. A similar behavior, characterized by the presence of several variational solutions is observed in both atoms. Some of these solutions can be assigned to excited configurations. Excitation energies are in good agreement with experimental data. Doublet stability for the solutions obtained has been studied, discussing the saddle-point character present in those solutions associated to excited configurations.

  19. Reconstructing the open-field magnetic geometry of solar corona using coronagraph images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.; Jones, Shaela; Burkepile, Joan

    2015-04-01

    The upcoming Solar Probe Plus and Solar Orbiter missions will provide an new insight into the inner heliosphere magnetically connected with the topologically complex and eruptive solar corona. Physical interpretation of these observations will be dependent on the accurate reconstruction of the large-scale coronal magnetic field. We argue that such reconstruction can be performed using photospheric extrapolation codes constrained by white-light coronagraph images. The field extrapolation component of this project is featured in a related presentation by S. Jones et al. Here, we focus on our image-processing algorithms conducting an automated segmentation of coronal loop structures. In contrast to the previously proposed segmentation codes designed for detecting small-scale closed loops in the vicinity of active regions, our technique focuses on the large-scale geometry of the open-field coronal features observed at significant radial distances from the solar surface. Coronagraph images are transformed into a polar coordinate system and undergo radial detrending and initial noise reduction followed by an adaptive angular differentiation. An adjustable threshold is applied to identify candidate coronagraph features associated with the large-scale coronal field. A blob detection algorithm is used to identify valid features against a noisy background. The extracted coronal features are used to derive empirical directional constraints for magnetic field extrapolation procedures based on photospheric magnetograms. Two versions of the method optimized for processing ground-based (Mauna Loa Solar Observatory) and satellite-based (STEREO Cor1 and Cor2) coronagraph images are being developed.

  20. EXPLORATION BY MEANS OF GEOPHYSICAL METHODS OF GEOTHERMAL FIELDS AND CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Züheyr KAMACI

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy which is one of the reuseable energy resources, can save as much as 77 million barrels of petroleum equivalent annually when used in the production of electricity and heating-environment. Geophysical exploration methods plays in important role in the fields of geothermal exploration, development and observational studies. Thermal and geoelectrical methods are the most effective methods which shows the temperature variation anomalies and mechanical drilling places. But, when the other methods of gravity, magnetic, radiometric, well geophysics and well logs can be used in conjunction with seismic tomography, apart from the mentioned geophysical exploration method, better results could be obtained. From the above mentioned facts various case history reports are given from our country and worldwide to determine geothermal energy resources by using geophysical exploration technique application. From these results of studies a 55 °C hot water artessian aquifer is found in the Uşak-Banaz geothermal field by applying geoelectrical methods.

  1. Economies: An Open Access Journal for the Field of Development Macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Fendel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Economies (ISSN 2227-7099 is a new international, peer-reviewed open access journal for the academic fields of development economics and macroeconomics. While the latter seems to be clearly defined, development economics is not, because it is related to nearly all traditional economic sub-disciplines such as macroeconomics, international trade and finance, as well as microeconomics and public finance. Typically, academic field journals of development economics cover all those economic sub-disciplines. Economies instead focuses mainly on the macroeconomic perspective of economic development and it intends to publish academic research that is of strong macroeconomic policy relevance. In general, contributions in Economies should foster understanding of the macroeconomic process of economic development, with the process of development not exclusively being reserved to what we typically call developing countries. Also, the group of developed economies is still developing in the sense of improving their living standards further.

  2. Towards an Open Software Platform for Field Robots in Precision Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kjeld; Larsen, Morten; Nielsen, Søren H

    2014-01-01

    software complexity. A lack of collaboration between research groups contributes to the problem. Scientific publications describe methods and results from the work, but little field robot software is released and documented for others to use. We hypothesize that a common open software platform tailored......Robotics in precision agriculture has the potential to improve competitiveness and increase sustainability compared to current crop production methods and has become an increasingly active area of research. Tractor guidance systems for supervised navigation and implement control have reached...... the market, and prototypes of field robots performing precision agriculture tasks without human intervention also exist. But research in advanced cognitive perception and behaviour that is required to enable a more efficient, reliable and safe autonomy becomes increasingly demanding due to the growing...

  3. Image-guided spinal injection procedures in open high-field MRI with vertical field orientation: feasibility and technical features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streitparth, F.; Walter, T.; Wonneberger, U.; Wagner, M.; Hermann, K.G.; Hamm, B.; Teichgraeber, U. [Charite, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Chopra, S. [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Department of General, Visceral, and Transplantation Surgery, Berlin (Germany); Wichlas, F. [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    We prospectively evaluated the feasibility and technical features of MR-guided lumbosacral injection procedures in open high-field MRI at 1.0 T. In a CuSO{sub 4}.5H{sub 2}O phantom and five human cadaveric spines, fluoroscopy sequences (proton-density-weighted turbo spin-echo (PDw TSE), T1w TSE, T2w TSE; balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP), T1w gradient echo (GE), T2w GE) were evaluated using two MRI-compatible 20-G Chiba-type needles. Artefacts were analysed by varying needle orientation to B{sub 0}, frequency-encoding direction and slice orientation. Image quality was described using the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Subsequently, a total of 183 MR-guided nerve root (107), facet (53) and sacroiliac joint (23) injections were performed in 53 patients. In vitro, PDw TSE sequence yielded the best needle-tissue contrasts (CNR = 45, 18, 15, 9, and 8 for needle vs. fat, muscle, root, bone and sclerosis, respectively) and optimal artefact sizes (width and tip shift less than 5 mm). In vivo, PDw TSE sequence was sufficient in all cases. The acquisition time of 2 s facilitated near-real-time MRI guidance. Drug delivery was technically successful in 100% (107/107), 87% (46/53) and 87% (20/23) of nerve root, facet and sacroiliac joint injections, respectively. No major complications occurred. The mean procedure time was 29 min (range 19-67 min). MR-guided spinal injections in open high-field MRI are feasible and accurate using fast TSE sequence designs. (orig.)

  4. Exploration practices and prospect of Upper Paleozoic giant gas fields in the Ordos Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Shengli Xi; Xinshe Liu; Peilong Meng

    2015-01-01

    Natural gas resources is abundant in the Ordos Basin, where six gas fields with more than 100 billion cubic meters of gas reserves have been successively developed and proved, including Jingbian, Yulin, Zizhou, Wushenqi, Sulige and Shenmu. This study aims to summarize the fruitful results and functional practices achieved in the huge gas province exploration, which will be regarded as guidance and reference for the further exploration and development in this basin. Based on the past five deca...

  5. Exploring Psychology in the Field: Steps and Examples From the Used-Car Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Devin G

    2016-07-01

    The growing availability of large datasets in a variety of domains presents an opportunity for researchers to use field data to better understand psychological concepts. I discuss, from an empirical economics point of view, steps for how to study cognition in large datasets. I use two recent papers that explore psychology in the used-car market as motivating examples. These examples help illustrate the potential importance of big data as a way to explore human psychology and cognition.

  6. Open release of male mosquitoes infected with a wolbachia biopesticide: field performance and infection containment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda O'Connor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis (LF is a globally significant disease, with 1.3 billion persons in 83 countries at risk. A coordinated effort of administering annual macrofilaricidal prophylactics to the entire at-risk population has succeeded in impacting and eliminating LF transmission in multiple regions. However, some areas in the South Pacific are predicted to persist as transmission sites, due in part to the biology of the mosquito vector, which has led to a call for additional tools to augment drug treatments. Autocidal strategies against mosquitoes are resurging in the effort against invasive mosquitoes and vector borne disease, with examples that include field trials of genetically modified mosquitoes and Wolbachia population replacement. However, critical questions must be addressed in anticipation of full field trials, including assessments of field competitiveness of transfected males and the risk of unintended population replacement. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report the outcome of field experiments testing a strategy that employs Wolbachia as a biopesticide. The strategy is based upon Wolbachia-induced conditional sterility, known as cytoplasmic incompatibility, and the repeated release of incompatible males to suppress a population. A criticism of the Wolbachia biopesticide approach is that unintended female release or horizontal Wolbachia transmission can result in population replacement instead of suppression. We present the outcome of laboratory and field experiments assessing the competitiveness of transfected males and their ability to transmit Wolbachia via horizontal transmission. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results demonstrate that Wolbachia-transfected Aedes polynesiensis males are competitive under field conditions during a thirty-week open release period, as indicated by mark, release, recapture and brood-hatch failure among females at the release site. Experiments demonstrate the males to be 'dead end hosts

  7. Exploring open innovation with a patient focus in drug discovery: an evolving paradigm of patient engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allarakhia, Minna

    2015-06-01

    It is suggested in this article that patient engagement should occur further upstream during the drug discovery stage. 'Lead patients', namely those patients who are proactive with respect to their health, possess knowledge of their disease and resulting symptoms. They are also well informed about the conventional as well as non-conventional treatments for disease management; and so can provide a nuanced perspective to drug design. Understanding how patients view the management of their diseases and how they view the use of conventional versus non-conventional interventions is of imperative importance to researchers. Indeed, this can provide insight into how conventional treatments might be designed from the outset to encourage compliance and positive health outcomes. Consequently, a continuum of lead patient engagement is employed that focuses on drug discovery processes ranging from participative, informative to collaborative engagement. This article looks at a variety of open innovation models that are currently employed across this engagement spectrum. It is no longer sufficient for industry stakeholders to consider conventional therapies as the only mechanisms being sought after by patients. Without patient engagement, the industry risks being re-prioritized in terms of its role in the patient journey towards not only recovery of health, but also sustained health and wellness before disease onset.

  8. Explosive events in connection with small scale flux emergence in open field regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galsgaard, Klaus; Moreno-Insertis, Fernando, , Prof

    In recent years observations have shown that the emergence of new magnetic flux from the convection zone into the open field regions in the corona may generate spectacular jet phenomena. A smaller number of jets seem to end their near steady state phase in one or more spectacular eruptions where material is accelerated away from the solar surface reaching fairly high velocities. To investigate the jet phenomena, we have conducted a number of numerical MHD experiments that investigate the general interaction between an emerging bipolar flux region and the open coronal magnetic field. Under the correct conditions, this generates a well defined jet phase and the model explains many of the general characteristics of the typical Eiffel tower jets. Towards the end phase of the jet, the remains of the emerged flux system may experience some violent eruptions. This talk will discuss the general characteristics of these eruptions, aiming at providing an explanation to why they occur, and how they develop in general. These jets and eruptions may be what is taking place in some of the so-called breakout models described in a number of recent observational papers.

  9. Solutions from boundary condition changing operators in open string field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kiermaier, Michael; Soler, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    We construct analytic solutions of open string field theory using boundary condition changing (bcc) operators. We focus on bcc operators with vanishing conformal weight such as those for regular marginal deformations of the background. For any Fock space state phi, the component string field of the solution Psi exhibits a remarkable factorization property: it is given by the matter three-point function of phi with a pair of bcc operators, multiplied by a universal function that only depends on the conformal weight of phi. This universal function is given by a simple integral expression that can be computed once and for all. The three-point functions with bcc operators are thus the only needed physical input of the particular open string background described by the solution. We illustrate our solution with the example of the rolling tachyon profile, for which we prove convergence analytically. The form of our solution, which involves bcc operators instead of explicit insertions of the marginal operator, can b...

  10. Deep, Wide-field CCD Photometry for the Open Cluster NGC3532

    CERN Document Server

    Clem, James L; Hoard, D W; Wachter, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a deep, wide-field CCD survey for the open cluster NGC~3532. Our new $BV(RI)_{c}$ photometry effectively covers a one square degree area and reaches an unprecedented depth of $V\\sim21$ to reveal that NGC~3532 is a rich open cluster that harbors a large number of faint, low-mass stars. We employ a number of methods to reduce the impact of field star contamination in the cluster color-magnitude diagrams, including supplementing our photometry with $JHK_{s}$ data from the 2MASS catalog. These efforts allow us to define a robust sample of candidate main sequence stars suitable for a purely empirical determination of the cluster's parameters by comparing them to the well-established Hyades main sequence. Our results confirm previous findings that NGC~3532 lies fairly near to the Sun [$(m-M)_0=8.46\\pm0.05$; $492^{+12}_{-11}$~pc] and has an extremely low reddening for its location near the Galactic plane [$E(B-V)=0.028\\pm0.006$]. Moreover, an age of $\\sim300$\\,Myr has been derived for the c...

  11. Place and Response Learning in the Open-field Tower Maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatova, Olga; Campolattaro, Matthew M; Toufexis, Donna J; Mabry, Erin A

    2015-10-28

    This protocol describes how the Open-field Tower Maze (OFTM) paradigm is used to study spatial learning in rodents. This maze is especially useful for examining how rats learn to use a place- or response-learning to successfully navigate in an open-field arena. Additionally, this protocol describes how the OFTM differs from other behavioral maze paradigms that are commonly used to study spatial learning in rodents. The OFTM described in this article was adapted from the one previously described by Cole, Clipperton, and Walt (2007). Specifically, the OFTM was created to test spatial learning in rodents without the experimenter having to consider how "stress" might play a role as a confounding variable. Experiments have shown that stress-alone can significantly affect cognitive function(1). The representative results section contains data from an experiment that used the OFTM to examine the effects of estradiol treatment on place- and response-learning in adult female Sprague Dawley rats(2). Future studies will be designed to examine the role of the hippocampus and striatum in place- and response-learning in the OFTM.

  12. Function of the centromedial amygdala in reward devaluation and open-field activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, K; Glueck, A C; Annicchiarico, I; Papini, M R

    2015-09-10

    The present research aimed at determining the role played by the amygdala in reward devaluation using transient inactivation induced by lidocaine microinfusions into the centromedial region. Two situations involving reward devaluation were tested in rats: consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) and anticipatory negative contrast (ANC). In cSNC, rats exposed to a downshift from 32% to 4% sucrose consume less 4% sucrose than rats always exposed to 4% sucrose. Extensive evidence suggests that reward devaluation in the cSNC situation is accompanied by negative emotion. In ANC, rats consume less 4% sucrose when each session is closely followed by access to 32% sucrose rather than by 4% sucrose. Evidence suggests that reward devaluation in the ANC situation does not involve negative emotions; rather, ANC appears to involve Pavlovian anticipation of the higher value solution. To test the effects of lidocaine microinfusions in a situation known to induce negative emotion, but unrelated to reward devaluation, animals were also exposed to a lighted open field. Centromedial amygdala inactivation reduced the cSNC effect and increased exploratory behavior in the open field, both effects consistent with a reduction in negative emotional state. However, no detectable effects of amygdala inactivation were observed in the ANC situation. These results suggest that, first, the function of the amygdala is not unique to reward devaluation and, second, it is concerned with tagging the devaluation experience with aversive valence.

  13. Antagonism of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine-induced inhibition of exploratory activity in an emergence procedure, the open field test, in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meert, T F; Melis, W; Aerts, N; Clincke, G

    1997-08-01

    The effects of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) were studied on exploratory behaviour in the open field test, using a procedure designed to evaluate the emergence of rats into a novel environment. mCPP reduced the exploratory activity in a dose-related manner after subcutaneous (s.c.), intraperitoneal (i.p.) and intravenous (i.v.) administration. The inhibition was manifest in all the parameters used to quantify the exploration of the open field area. Additional neuroendocrine experiments in a parallel group of rats revealed a dose-related increase in plasma prolactin and ACTH levels after i.v. mCPP, pointing to a general state of arousal in these mCPP-treated animals. A number of 5-HT antagonists were tested for their ability to prevent or reverse the behavioural inhibition induced by an i.v. injection of 1.0 g/kg mCPP given 15 min before testing in the open field. The antagonists were injected s.c. or given orally at various time intervals before mCPP, or they were injected i.v. 10 min after mCPP. The lowest active doses for the attentuation of the mCPP-induced behavioural inhibition after s.c., oral and i.v. administration, respectively, were 0.04, 40 and 10 mg/kg for pizotifen; 0.16, 0.16 and 0.16 mg/kg for mianserin; 0.63, 0.16 and 0.16 mg/kg for methysergide, and 0.16, 2.5 and 2.5 mg/kg for ritanserin. The lowest active doses of mirtazapine after s.c. and i.v. treatment were 0.01 and 0.16 mg/kg. These data indicate that mixed 5-HT1/5-HT2 receptor antagonists such as pizotifen and methysergide, and mixed 5-HT and catecholamine antagonists such as mianserin and mirtazapine are more potent antagonists of mCPP-induced behavioural inhibition in rats than the more selective 5-HT2A/5-HT2C antagonist ritanserin.

  14. [Performance of an open low-field MR unit in routine examination of knee lesions and comparison with high field systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahlensieck, M; Schnieber, O

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the diagnostic value of a low-field open MR system in the diagnosis of knee lesions and to compare it with that of high-field MR systems. In 139 knees,arthroscopic investigations were used as the gold standard to calculate sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and accuracy of the low-field open MR system. Figures for high field systems were taken from the literature. The values for the open MR system relative to arthroscopy were as follows: sensitivity 66%,specificity 95%,positive predictive value 64%,negative predictive value 92%, and accuracy 82%. The corresponding values taken from 10 relevant publications for highfield systems were: sensitivity 81%, specificity 90%, accuracy 90%. A lower diagnostic performance has to be expected using open low field MR units for knee lesions in comparison to high field units. Sedative drugs can make it possible for claustrophobic patients to be investigated in high-field units. The use of open low-field scanners may still be indicated in very adipose patients who do not fit into closed units.

  15. Exploring SETAC's roles in the global dialogue on sustainability--an opening debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Ron; Kapustka, Larry; Stahl, Cynthia; Fava, Jim; Lavoie, Emma; Robertson, Cory; Sanderson, Hans; Scott, Heidi; Seager, Tom; Vigon, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    A combination platform-debate session was held at the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) North America annual meeting in Boston (November 2011). The session was organized by members of the Advisory Group on Sustainability, newly formed and approved as a global entity by the SETAC World Council just prior to the meeting. The platform portion of the session provided a historical backdrop for the debate that was designed to explore SETAC's role in the sustainability dialogue. The debate portion presented arguments for and against the proposition that "Science is the primary contribution of SETAC to the global dialogue on sustainability." Although the debate was not designed to achieve a definitive sustainability policy for SETAC, the audience clearly rejected the proposition, indicating a desire from the SETAC membership for an expanded role in global sustainability forums. This commentary details the key elements of the session, identifies the contribution the Advisory Group will have at the World Congress in Berlin (May 2012), and invites interested persons to become active in the Advisory Group.

  16. Cost Effective Open Geometry HTS MRI System amended to BSCCO 2212 Wire for High Field Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennth Marken

    2006-08-11

    The original goal of this Phase II Superconductivity Partnership Initiative project was to build and operate a prototype Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system using high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils wound from continuously processed dip-coated BSCCO 2212 tape conductor. Using dip-coated tape, the plan was for MRI magnet coils to be wound to fit an established commercial open geometry, 0.2 Tesla permanent magnet system. New electronics and imaging software for a prototype higher field superconducting system would have added significantly to the cost. However, the use of the 0.2 T platform would allow the technical feasibility and the cost issues for HTS systems to be fully established. Also it would establish the energy efficiency and savings of HTS open MRI compared with resistive and permanent magnet systems. The commercial goal was an open geometry HTS MRI running at 0.5 T and 20 K. This low field open magnet was using resistive normal metal conductor and its heat loss was rather high around 15 kolwatts. It was expected that an HTS magnet would dissipate around 1 watt, significantly reduce power consumption. The SPI team assembled to achieve this goal was led by Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology (OST), who developed the method of producing commercial dip coated tape. Superconductive Components Inc. (SCI), a leading US supplier of HTS powders, supported the conductor optimization through powder optimization, scaling, and cost reduction. Oxford Magnet Technology (OMT), a joint venture between Oxford Instruments and Siemens and the world’s leading supplier of MRI magnet systems, was involved to design and build the HTS MRI magnet and cryogenics. Siemens Magnetic Resonance Division, a leading developer and supplier of complete MRI imaging systems, was expected to integrate the final system and perform imaging trials. The original MRI demonstration project was ended in July 2004 by mutual consent of Oxford Instruments and Siemens. Between

  17. Cost Effective Open Geometry HTS MRI System amended to BSCCO 2212 Wire for High Field Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennth Marken

    2006-08-11

    The original goal of this Phase II Superconductivity Partnership Initiative project was to build and operate a prototype Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system using high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils wound from continuously processed dip-coated BSCCO 2212 tape conductor. Using dip-coated tape, the plan was for MRI magnet coils to be wound to fit an established commercial open geometry, 0.2 Tesla permanent magnet system. New electronics and imaging software for a prototype higher field superconducting system would have added significantly to the cost. However, the use of the 0.2 T platform would allow the technical feasibility and the cost issues for HTS systems to be fully established. Also it would establish the energy efficiency and savings of HTS open MRI compared with resistive and permanent magnet systems. The commercial goal was an open geometry HTS MRI running at 0.5 T and 20 K. This low field open magnet was using resistive normal metal conductor and its heat loss was rather high around 15 kolwatts. It was expected that an HTS magnet would dissipate around 1 watt, significantly reduce power consumption. The SPI team assembled to achieve this goal was led by Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology (OST), who developed the method of producing commercial dip coated tape. Superconductive Components Inc. (SCI), a leading US supplier of HTS powders, supported the conductor optimization through powder optimization, scaling, and cost reduction. Oxford Magnet Technology (OMT), a joint venture between Oxford Instruments and Siemens and the world’s leading supplier of MRI magnet systems, was involved to design and build the HTS MRI magnet and cryogenics. Siemens Magnetic Resonance Division, a leading developer and supplier of complete MRI imaging systems, was expected to integrate the final system and perform imaging trials. The original MRI demonstration project was ended in July 2004 by mutual consent of Oxford Instruments and Siemens. Between

  18. Genetically modified parthenocarpic eggplants: improved fruit productivity under both greenhouse and open field cultivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandolfini Tiziana

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parthenocarpy, or fruit development in the absence of fertilization, has been genetically engineered in eggplant and in other horticultural species by using the DefH9-iaaM gene. The iaaM gene codes for tryptophan monoxygenase and confers auxin synthesis, while the DefH9 controlling regions drive expression of the gene specifically in the ovules and placenta. A previous greenhouse trial for winter production of genetically engineered (GM parthenocarpic eggplants demonstrated a significant increase (an average of 33% increase in fruit production concomitant with a reduction in cultivation costs. Results GM parthenocarpic eggplants have been evaluated in three field trials. Two greenhouse spring trials have shown that these plants outyielded the corresponding untransformed genotypes, while a summer trial has shown that improved fruit productivity in GM eggplants can also be achieved in open field cultivation. Since the fruits were always seedless, the quality of GM eggplant fruits was improved as well. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the DefH9-iaaM gene is expressed during late stages of fruit development. Conclusions The DefH9-iaaM parthenocarpic gene is a biotechnological tool that enhances the agronomic value of all eggplant genotypes tested. The main advantages of DefH9-iaaM eggplants are: i improved fruit productivity (at least 30–35% under both greenhouse and open field cultivation; ii production of good quality (marketable fruits during different types of cultivation; iii seedless fruit with improved quality. Such advantages have been achieved without the use of either male or female sterility genes.

  19. Open-field mouse brain PET: design optimisation and detector characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyme, Andre Z.; Judenhofer, Martin S.; Gong, Kuang; Bec, Julien; Selfridge, Aaron; Du, Junwei; Qi, Jinyi; Cherry, Simon R.; Meikle, Steven R.

    2017-08-01

    Open-field’ PET, in which an animal is free to move within an enclosed space during imaging, is a very promising advance for neuroscientific research. It provides a key advantage over conventional imaging under anesthesia by enabling functional changes in the brain to be correlated with an animal’s behavioural response to environmental or pharmacologic stimuli. Previously we have demonstrated the feasibility of open-field imaging of rats using motion compensation techniques applied to a commercially available PET scanner. However, this approach of ‘retro-fitting’ motion compensation techniques to an existing system is limited by the inherent geometric and performance constraints of the system. The goal of this project is to develop a purpose-built PET scanner with geometry, motion tracking and imaging performance tailored and optimised for open-field imaging of the mouse brain. The design concept is a rail-based sliding tomograph which moves according to the animal’s motion. Our specific aim in this work was to evaluate candidate scanner designs and characterise the performance of a depth-of-interaction detector module for the open-field system. We performed Monte Carlo simulations to estimate and compare the sensitivity and spatial resolution performance of four scanner geometries: a ring, parallel plate, and two box variants. Each system was based on a detector block consisting of a 23  ×  23 array of 0.785  ×  0.785  ×  20 mm3 LSO crystals (overall dim. 19.6  ×  19.6  ×  20 mm). We found that a DoI resolution capability of 3 mm was necessary to achieve approximately uniform sub-millimetre spatial resolution throughout the FoV for all scanners except the parallel-plate geometry. With this DoI performance, the sensitivity advantage afforded by the box geometry with overlapping panels (16% peak absolute sensitivity, a 36% improvement over the ring design) suggests this unconventional design is best

  20. Keeping the door open: Exploring experiences of, and responses to, university students who disclose mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna McAuliffe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available University educators increasingly manage situations where students disclose serious mental health issues. This is a significant issue, particularly for health and human service professions, as the importance of valuing the lived experience of mental illness lies alongside concerns for professional practice standards. Thus the responsibilities of students to disclose their mental health status and the responsibilities of Universities to provide appropriate support within established disability frameworks must be clear. However, students often do not know who they should disclose to, what will happen to disclosed information, and who has access to this information. Student's often fear embarrassment, stigma, and shame about disclosing mental illness, which is compounded by the diverse attitudes, experiences, and beliefs of educators. Consequently, this paper will review existing literature on university responses to, and students’ experiences of, mental illness in order to set a research agenda for this topic. The authors argue that such research must be undertaken urgently, in a context of inclusivity in higher education that gives voice to the experiences of students, their families and carers, university staff, and practitioners in the field.

  1. The Exploration to OpenGL Programming Using MFC%使用MFC实现OpenGL应用程序的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚艳玲; 谷保庆

    2007-01-01

    OpenGL是目前国际流行的开放式图形标准,具有功能强大的三维图形库.本文介绍了OpenGL在Windows平台下的基本编程模型、探讨了使用MFC实现OpenGL应用程序的基本要点.

  2. Exploring the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars: II. New magnetic field measurements in cluster and field stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, S; Ilyin, I; Kharchenko, N V; Oskinova, L M; Langer, N; Gonzalez, J F; Kholtygin, A F; Briquet, M

    2013-01-01

    Theories on the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars remain poorly developed, because the properties of their magnetic field as function of stellar parameters could not yet be investigated. To investigate whether magnetic fields in massive stars are ubiquitous or appear only in stars with a specific spectral classification, certain ages, or in a special environment, we acquired 67 new spectropolarimetric observations for 30 massive stars. Among the observed sample, roughly one third of the stars are probable members of clusters at different ages, whereas the remaining stars are field stars not known to belong to any cluster or association. Spectropolarimetric observations were obtained during four different nights using the low-resolution spectropolarimetric mode of FORS2 (FOcal Reducer low dispersion Spectrograph) mounted on the 8-m Antu telescope of the VLT. Furthermore, we present a number of follow-up observations carried out with the high-resolution spectropolarimeters SOFIN mounted at the Nordic O...

  3. Research on the Field of Education Policy: Exploring Different Levels of Approach and Abstraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardes, Jefferson; Tello, César

    2016-01-01

    This paper, of theoretical nature, explores the levels of approach and abstraction of research in the field of education policy: description, analysis and understanding. Such categories were developed based on concepts of Bourdieu's theory and on the grounds of epistemological studies focused on education policy and meta-research. This paper…

  4. Student Conscientiousness, Self-Regulated Learning, and Science Achievement: An Explorative Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilam, Billie; Zeidner, Moshe; Aharon, Irit

    2009-01-01

    This explorative field study examined the mediating role of self-regulated learning (SRL) in the relationship between the personality trait of conscientiousness, SRL, and science achievement in a sample of junior high school students. Over the course of an entire academic year, data on enacted SRL were collected each week for 52 eighth-grade…

  5. Inequality and Doctoral Education: Exploring the "Rules" of Doctoral Study through Bourdieu's Notion of Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopaul, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    While studies have examined a myriad of issues in doctoral study, much of this research has not employed the tools of major social and cultural thinkers to the dynamics of doctoral education. This paper explores the use of Bourdieu's notion of field to render visible the practices and contexts of doctoral education that produce inequalities across…

  6. Level Truncation and Rolling the Tachyon in the Lightcone Basis for Open String Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, T G

    2004-01-01

    A recent paper by Gross and Erler (hep-th/0406199) showed that by making a certain well-defined, unitary transformation on the mode basis for the open bosonic string--one that identifies the lightcone component of position with the string midpoint--it is possible to render the action for cubic string field theory local in lightcone time. In this basis, then, cubic string field theory possesses a well-defined initial value formulation and a conserved Hamiltonian. With this new understanding it seems natural to study time dependent solutions representing the the decay of an unstable D-branes. In this paper we study such solutions using level truncation of mode oscillators in the lightcone basis, finding both homogenous solutions by perturbatively expanding the string field in modes $e^{nt}$, and inhomogenous solutions by integrating the equations of motion on a lattice. Truncating the theory to level $(\\tilde{2},\\tilde{4})$ in $\\alpha^+$ oscillators, we find time dependent solutions whose behavior seems to conv...

  7. Towards an Open Software Platform for Field Robots in Precision Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjeld Jensen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Robotics in precision agriculture has the potential to improve competitiveness and increase sustainability compared to current crop production methods and has become an increasingly active area of research. Tractor guidance systems for supervised navigation and implement control have reached the market, and prototypes of field robots performing precision agriculture tasks without human intervention also exist. But research in advanced cognitive perception and behaviour that is required to enable a more efficient, reliable and safe autonomy becomes increasingly demanding due to the growing software complexity. A lack of collaboration between research groups contributes to the problem. Scientific publications describe methods and results from the work, but little field robot software is released and documented for others to use. We hypothesize that a common open software platform tailored to field robots in precision agriculture will significantly decrease development time and resources required to perform experiments due to efficient reuse of existing work across projects and robot platforms. In this work we present the FroboMind software platform and evaluate the performance when applied to precision agriculture tasks.

  8. Flow Fields with Vortex in a Small Semi-open Axial Fan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Norimasa. Shiomi; Yoichi Kinoue; Ying zi Jin; Toshiaki Setoguchi; Kenji Kaneko

    2009-01-01

    In order to clarify the effect of tip clearance (TC) size on fan performance and the flow field at rotor outlet in a small semi-open axial fan, the experimental investigation was carried out. The tip diameter of test fan rotor was 180mm and test TC sizes were 1 mm (TC=1 mm) and 4mm (TC=4mm). Fan characteristics tests were carried out for two cases of TC size and three-dimensional velocity fields at rotor outlet were measured using a single slant hot-wire probe at four flow-rate conditions. As a result, it was found that the pressure -flow-rate characteristics curves for two cases showed almost the same tendency. However, the ensemble averaged velocity profiles along radial measurement stations of TC=4mm largely changed compared with that of TC=1mm in cases of small flow-rate condition. From the phase-locked averaging results, it was also found that the vortex existed in the rotor outlet flow field of high flow-rate condition for each TC case. Compared with the vortices for TC=1mm and TC=4mm, the vortex for TC=4mm was stronger than that for TC=1mm.

  9. Variable stars in the open cluster NGC 6791 and its surrounding field

    CERN Document Server

    De Marchi, F; Montalto, M; Piotto, G; Desidera, S; Bedin, L R; Claudi, R; Ferro, A Arellano; Bruntt, H; Stetson, P B

    2007-01-01

    Aims: This work presents a high--precision variability survey in the field of the old, super metal-rich open cluster NGC 6791. Methods: The data sample consists of more than 75,000 high-precision CCD time series measurements in the V band obtained mainly at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, with additional data from S. Pedro Martir and Loiano observatories, over a time span of ten nights. The field covers an area of 42x28 arcmin^2. Results: We have discovered 260 new variables and re-determined periods and amplitudes of 70 known variable stars. By means of a photometric evaluation of the membership in NGC 6791, and a preliminary membership based on the proper motions, we give a full description of the variable content of the cluster and surrounding field in the range 16

  10. A comparison of subscription and open access journals in construction management and related fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Christer Bjork

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has profoundly changed the technical infrastructure for the publishing of scientific peer reviewed journals. The traditional business model of selling the content to subscribers is increasingly being challenged by Open Access journals, which are either run at low cost by voluntary academics or which sell dissemination services to authors. In addition authors in many fields are taking advantage of the legal possibilities of uploading free manuscript versions to institutional or subject-based repositories, in order to increase readership and impact. Construction Management is lagging behind many other fields in utilising the potential of the web for efficient dissemination results, in particular to academics outside the leading universities in industrialised countries. This study looks closer at the current publishing situation in construction management and related fields and compares empirical data about 16 OA journals and 16 traditional subscription journals. Of the articles published in 2011 in the subscription journals only 9 % could be found as OA copies. The overall OA availability (including article in OA journals was 14 % for Construction Management and Economics and 29 for construction IT scholarship. 

  11. Did Open Solar Magnetic Field Increase during the Last 100 Years: A Reanalysis of Geomagnetic Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Mursula, K; Karinen, A

    2004-01-01

    Long-term geomagnetic activity presented by the aa index has been used to show that the heliospheric magnetic field has more than doubled during the last 100 years. However, serious concern has been raised on the long-term consistency of the aa index and on the centennial rise of the solar magnetic field. Here we reanalyze geomagnetic activity during the last 100 years by calculating the recently suggested IHV (Inter-Hour Variability) index as a measure of local geomagnetic activity for seven stations. We find that local geomagnetic activity at all stations follows the same qualitative long-term pattern: an increase from early 1900s to 1960, a dramatic dropout in 1960s and a (mostly weaker) increase thereafter. Moreover, at all stations, the activity at the end of the 20th century has a higher average level than at the beginning of the century. This agrees with the result based on the aa index that global geomagnetic activity, and thereby, the open solar magnetic field has indeed increased during the last 100...

  12. Development and application of explorative tools in the field of architectural geometry: L-systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petruševski Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of L-Systems was created as base for axiomatic theory of biologic growth. L-systems are applied in computer graphics for fractal generation, as well as in models of biological structures and simulations of their growth. Within generic architecture, by applying L-systems, the natural growth mechanisms are used as generators of architectural geometry. After mathematical and logical explanations of the chosen generic concept of L-systems, this study examines its generic potential, which is the base for development of specific explorative tools in the field of architectural geometry. Within a wider research activity titled 'Generic Explorations', the original software parametric tools have been developed, allowing generation of a complex architectural geometry based on the concept of L-systems. Variation of parametric values facilitates creation and further exploration of generated spatial forms. The paper presents possibilities of developed explorative tools, their particularities, as well as an overview of their initial application results.

  13. Dose-response effects of systemic anandamide administration in mice sequentially submitted to the open field and elevated plus-maze tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ribeiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system is involved in the control of many physiological functions, including the control of emotional states. In rodents, previous exposure to an open field increases the anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze. Anxiolytic-like effects of pharmacological compounds that increase endocannabinoid levels have been well documented. However, these effects are more evident in animals with high anxiety levels. Several studies have described characteristic inverted U-shaped dose-response effects of drugs that modulate the endocannabinoid levels. However, there are no studies showing the effects of different doses of exogenous anandamide, an endocannabinoid, in animal models of anxiety. Thus, in the present study, we determined the dose-response effects of exogenous anandamide at doses of 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/kg in C57BL/6 mice (N = 10/group sequentially submitted to the open field and elevated plus-maze. Anandamide was diluted in 0.9% saline, ethyl alcohol, Emulphor® (18:1:1 and administered ip (0.1 mL/10 g body weight; control animals received the same volume of anandamide vehicle. Anandamide at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg (but not of 0.01 or 1 mg/kg increased (P < 0.05 the time spent and the distance covered in the central zone of the open field, as well as the exploration of the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. Thus, exogenous anandamide, like pharmacological compounds that increase endocannabinoid levels, promoted a characteristic inverted U-shaped dose-response effect in animal models of anxiety. Furthermore, anandamide (0.1 mg/kg induced an anxiolytic-like effect in the elevated plus-maze (P < 0.05 after exposing the animals to the open field test.

  14. Dose-response effects of systemic anandamide administration in mice sequentially submitted to the open field and elevated plus-maze tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A; Ferraz-de-Paula, V; Pinheiro, M L; Palermo-Neto, J

    2009-06-01

    The endocannabinoid system is involved in the control of many physiological functions, including the control of emotional states. In rodents, previous exposure to an open field increases the anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze. Anxiolytic-like effects of pharmacological compounds that increase endocannabinoid levels have been well documented. However, these effects are more evident in animals with high anxiety levels. Several studies have described characteristic inverted U-shaped dose-response effects of drugs that modulate the endocannabinoid levels. However, there are no studies showing the effects of different doses of exogenous anandamide, an endocannabinoid, in animal models of anxiety. Thus, in the present study, we determined the dose-response effects of exogenous anandamide at doses of 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/kg in C57BL/6 mice (N = 10/group) sequentially submitted to the open field and elevated plus-maze. Anandamide was diluted in 0.9% saline, ethyl alcohol, Emulphor (18:1:1) and administered ip (0.1 mL/10 g body weight); control animals received the same volume of anandamide vehicle. Anandamide at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg (but not of 0.01 or 1 mg/kg) increased (P open field, as well as the exploration of the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. Thus, exogenous anandamide, like pharmacological compounds that increase endocannabinoid levels, promoted a characteristic inverted U-shaped dose-response effect in animal models of anxiety. Furthermore, anandamide (0.1 mg/kg) induced an anxiolytic-like effect in the elevated plus-maze (P open field test.

  15. Nonequilibrium effective field theory for absorbing state phase transitions in driven open quantum spin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchhold, Michael; Everest, Benjamin; Marcuzzi, Matteo; Lesanovsky, Igor; Diehl, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Phase transitions to absorbing states are among the simplest examples of critical phenomena out of equilibrium. The characteristic feature of these models is the presence of a fluctuationless configuration which the dynamics cannot leave, which has proved a rather stringent requirement in experiments. Recently, a proposal to seek such transitions in highly tunable systems of cold-atomic gases offers to probe this physics and, at the same time, to investigate the robustness of these transitions to quantum coherent effects. Here, we specifically focus on the interplay between classical and quantum fluctuations in a simple driven open quantum model which, in the classical limit, reproduces a contact process, which is known to undergo a continuous transition in the "directed percolation" universality class. We derive an effective long-wavelength field theory for the present class of open spin systems and show that, due to quantum fluctuations, the nature of the transition changes from second to first order, passing through a bicritical point which appears to belong instead to the "tricritical directed percolation" class.

  16. Variable stars in the field of the open cluster NGC 7789

    CERN Document Server

    Mochejska, B J

    1999-01-01

    We present the results of our search for variable stars in the intermediate-age open cluster NGC 7789. We have found 45 variable stars: 35 eclipsing binaries, five pulsating variables and five miscellaneous variables. Most of the eclipsing binaries show W UMa type of variability, with periods shorter than one day. Four systems exhibit unusual behavior: two, V4276 and V6698, are probably RS CVn stars, another, V3283, is a possible cataclysmic binary. The nature of the fourth binary, V2130, is unclear: the system exhibits assymetric maxima. Among the pulsating variables two, V3407C and V4805 are background RR Lyrae stars and one, V6736, is a delta Scuti variable which is a blue straggler belonging to the cluster. Some of the miscellaneous variables may have periods longer than the five day timespan of our observations. We also present a color-magnitude diagram for the NGC 7789 open cluster, fairly complete down to V ~ 20. The relatively large number of variables found in the comparison field (14 compared to 31 ...

  17. From the Berkovits formulation to the Witten formulation in open superstring field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Iimori, Yuki; Okawa, Yuji; Torii, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    The Berkovits formulation of open superstring field theory is based on the large Hilbert space of the superconformal ghost sector. We discuss its relation to the Witten formulation based on the small Hilbert space. We introduce a one-parameter family of conditions for partial gauge fixing of the Berkovits formulation such that the cubic interaction of the theory under the partial gauge fixing reduces to that of the Witten formulation in a singular limit. The local picture-changing operator at the open-string midpoint in the Witten formulation is regularized in our approach, and the divergence in on-shell four-point amplitudes coming from collision of picture-changing operators is resolved. The quartic interaction inherited from the Berkovits formulation plays a role of adjusting different behaviors of the picture-changing operators in the $s$ channel and in the $t$ channel of Feynman diagrams with two cubic vertices, and correct amplitudes in the world-sheet theory are reproduced. While gauge invariance at th...

  18. From the Berkovits formulation to the Witten formulation in open superstring field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimori, Yuki; Noumi, Toshifumi; Okawa, Yuji; Torii, Shingo

    2014-03-01

    The Berkovits formulation of open superstring field theory is based on the large Hilbert space of the superconformal ghost sector. We discuss its relation to the Witten formulation based on the small Hilbert space. We introduce a one-parameter family of conditions for partial gauge fixing of the Berkovits formulation such that the cubic interaction of the theory under the partial gauge fixing reduces to that of the Witten formulation in a singular limit. The local picture-changing operator at the open-string midpoint in the Witten formulation is regularized in our approach, and the divergence in on-shell four-point amplitudes coming from collision of picture-changing operators is resolved. The quartic interaction inherited from the Berkovits formulation plays a role of adjusting different behaviors of the picture-changing operators in the s channel and in the t channel of Feynman diagrams with two cubic vertices, and correct amplitudes in the world-sheet theory are reproduced. While gauge invariance at the second order in the coupling constant is obscured in the Witten formulation by collision of picture-changing operators, it is well defined in our approach and is recovered by including the quartic interaction inherited from the Berkovits formulation.

  19. From the Berkovits formulation to the Witten formulation in open superstring field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iimori, Yuki [Department of Physics, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Noumi, Toshifumi [Mathematical Physics Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center,Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Okawa, Yuji [Institute of Physics, The University of Tokyo,Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Torii, Shingo [Mathematical Physics Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center,Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2014-03-07

    The Berkovits formulation of open superstring field theory is based on the large Hilbert space of the superconformal ghost sector. We discuss its relation to the Witten formulation based on the small Hilbert space. We introduce a one-parameter family of conditions for partial gauge fixing of the Berkovits formulation such that the cubic interaction of the theory under the partial gauge fixing reduces to that of the Witten formulation in a singular limit. The local picture-changing operator at the open-string midpoint in the Witten formulation is regularized in our approach, and the divergence in on-shell four-point amplitudes coming from collision of picture-changing operators is resolved. The quartic interaction inherited from the Berkovits formulation plays a role of adjusting different behaviors of the picture-changing operators in the s channel and in the t channel of Feynman diagrams with two cubic vertices, and correct amplitudes in the world-sheet theory are reproduced. While gauge invariance at the second order in the coupling constant is obscured in the Witten formulation by collision of picture-changing operators, it is well defined in our approach and is recovered by including the quartic interaction inherited from the Berkovits formulation.

  20. Open Field Study of Some Zea mays Hybrids, Lipid Compounds and Fumonisins Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Giorni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipid molecules are increasingly recognized as signals exchanged by organisms interacting in pathogenic and/or symbiotic ways. Some classes of lipids actively determine the fate of the interactions. Host cuticle/cell wall/membrane components such as sphingolipids and oxylipins may contribute to determining the fate of host–pathogen interactions. In the present field study, we considered the relationship between specific sphingolipids and oxylipins of different hybrids of Zea mays and fumonisin by F. verticillioides, sampling ears at different growth stages from early dough to fully ripe. The amount of total and free fumonisin differed significantly between hybrids and increased significantly with maize ripening. Oxylipins and phytoceramides changed significantly within the hybrids and decreased with kernel maturation, starting from physiological maturity. Although the correlation between fumonisin accumulation and plant lipid profile is certain, the data collected so far cannot define a cause-effect relationship but open up new perspectives. Therefore, the question—“Does fumonisin alter plant lipidome or does plant lipidome modulate fumonisin accumulation?”—is still open.

  1. Scattering of Discrete States in Two Dimensional Open String Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sevic, B U

    1993-01-01

    This is the second in a series of papers devoted to open string field theory in two dimensions. In this paper we aim to clarify the origin and the role of discrete physical states in the theory. To this end, we study interactions of discrete states and generic tachyons. In particular, we discuss at length four point amplitudes. We show that behavior of the correlation functions is governed by the number of generic tachyons involved and values of the kinematic invariants $s$, $t$ and $u$. Divergence of certain classes of correlators is shown to be the consequence of the fact certain kinematic invariants are non--positive integers in that case. Explicit examples are included. We check our results by standard conformal technique.

  2. Open and closed loop manipulation of charged microchiplets in an electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, J. P., E-mail: jplu@parc.com; Thompson, J. D.; Whiting, G. L.; Biegelsen, D. K.; Raychaudhuri, S.; Lujan, R.; Veres, J.; Lavery, L. L.; Völkel, A. R.; Chow, E. M. [Palo Alto Research Center, Inc., 3333 Coyote Hill Rd., Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States)

    2014-08-04

    We demonstrate the ability to orient, position, and transport microchips (“chiplets”) with electric fields. In an open-loop approach, modified four phase traveling wave potential patterns manipulate chiplets in a dielectric solution using dynamic template agitation techniques. Repeatable parallel assembly of chiplets is demonstrated to a positional accuracy of 6.5 μm using electrodes of 200 μm pitch. Chiplets with dipole surface charge patterns are used to show that orientation can be controlled by adding unique charge patterns on the chiplets. Chip path routing is also demonstrated. With a closed-loop control system approach using video feedback, dielectric, and electrophoretic forces are used to achieve positioning accuracy of better than 1 μm with 1 mm pitch driving electrodes. These chip assembly techniques have the potential to enable future printer systems where inputs are electronic chiplets and the output is a functional electronic system.

  3. The Zuni-Bandera Volcanic Field, NM: An Analog for Exploring Planetary Volcanic Terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Garry, W. B.; Zimbelman, J. R.; Crumpler, L. S.; Aubele, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    The Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, near Grants, New Mexico, is comprised of volcanic deposits from several basaltic eruptions during the last million years. This vent field exhibits a diverse group of coalesced lava flows and displays well-preserved volcanic features including a’a and pahoehoe flows, collapsed lava tubes, cinder cones and low shields. The McCartys flow is a 48-km long inflated basalt flow and is the youngest in the field at around 3000 years old. Over the last three years we have used the Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, and the McCartys flow in particular, as a terrestrial analog for exploring planetary volcanic fields, and understanding the role of lava sheet inflation in flow field development. We have conducted three different styles of analog tests, 1) basic field science focused on understanding lava sheet inflation, 2) mission operations tests related to EVA design and real-time modification of traverse plans, and 3) science enabling technology tests. The Zuni-Bandera field is an ideal location for each style of analog test because it provides easy access to a diverse set of volcanic features with variable quality of preservation. However, many limitations must also be considered in order to maximize lessons learned. The McCartys flow displays well-preserved inflation plateaus that rise up to 15 m above the surrounding field. The preservation state enables textures and morphologies indicative of this process to be characterized. However, the pristine nature of the flow does not compare well with the much older and heavily modified inflated flows of Mars and the Moon. Older flows west of McCartys add value to this aspect of analog work because of their degraded surfaces, development of soil horizons, loose float, and limited exposure of outcrops, similar to what might be observed on the Moon or Mars. EVA design tests and science enabling technology tests at the Zuni-Bandera field provide the opportunity to document and interpret the relationships

  4. Maternal environment alters social interactive traits but not open-field behavior in Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamuro, Yutaka

    2008-10-01

    Although it is recognized that the genetic background governs behavioral phenotypes, environmental factors also play a critical role in the development of various behavioral processes. The maternal environment has a major impact on pups, and the cross-fostering procedure is used to determine the influence of early life experiences. The present study examined the influence of maternal environment on behavioral traits in inbred Fischer 344 (F344) rats. F344/DuCrlCrlj and Wistar (Crlj:WI) pups were fostered from postnatal day 1 as follows: Wistar pups raised by Wistar dams, F344 raised by Wistar, Wistar raised by F344, and F344 raised by F344. At 10 weeks of age, rats were randomly assigned to an open-field test and social interaction test. In the open-field test, irrespective of the rearing conditions, the activity during the first 1 min was significantly lower in F344 rats than in Wistar rats. Latency to the onset of movement showed no difference between groups. In the social interaction test, the recognition performance during the first 1 min in F344 raised by F344 was significantly shorter than that in the other groups. The onset of recognition to a novel social partner in F344 raised by F344 was significantly delayed, and the delay disappeared upon cross-fostering by Wistar dams. These results raise the possibility that the behavioral phenotype of F344 rats results from the interplay of genetic factors and maternal environment during early life, and that F344 rats are a strain with high susceptibility to rearing conditions for the formation of their emotionality.

  5. Jet outflow and open field line measurements on the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftman, D.; Gupta, D.; Roche, T.; Thompson, M. C.; Giammanco, F.; Conti, F.; Marsili, P.; Moreno, C. D.

    2016-11-01

    Knowledge and control of the axial outflow of plasma particles and energy along open-magnetic-field lines are of crucial importance to the stability and longevity of the advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma. An overview of the diagnostic methods used to perform measurements on the open field line plasma on C-2U is presented, including passive Doppler impurity spectroscopy, microwave interferometry, and triple Langmuir probe measurements. Results of these measurements provide the jet ion temperature and axial velocity, electron density, and high frequency density fluctuations.

  6. Interacting Open Bosonic String in the Proper-Time Gauge: Covariant Open Bosonic String Field Theory on Multiple D-Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Taejin

    2016-01-01

    We construct a covariant open bosonic string field theory on multiple D-branes, which reduces to a non-Abelian group Yang-Mills gauge theory in the zero-slope limit. Making use of the first quantized open bosonic string in the proper time gauge, we convert the string amplitudes given by the Polyakov path integrals on string world sheets into those of the second quantized theory. On multiple D-branes, the string field takes values in the Lie-algebra of $U(N)$ group and the three-string vertex function must be invariant under the global $U(N)$ transformation. This requirement together with the condition that the string field theory reduces to the non-Abelian gauge field theory in the zero-slope limit, uniquely determines the three-string vertex function. We also examine the effective four-string vertex diagrams generated perturbatively by the three-string vertex at tree level. In the zero-slope limit they reduce to the tree diagrams with four external gauge fields with an intermediate massless gauge field propa...

  7. Inexpensive, Low Power, Open-Source Data Logging in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandell, C. T.; Wickert, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    Collecting a robust data set of environmental conditions with commercial equipment is often cost prohibitive. I present the ALog, a general-purpose, inexpensive, low-power, open-source data logger that has proven its durability on long-term deployments in the harsh conditions of high altitude glaciers and humid river deltas. The ALog was developed to fill the need for a capable, rugged, easy-to-use, inexpensive, open-source hardware targeted at long-term remote deployment in nearly any environment. Building on the popular Arduino platform, the hardware features a high-precision clock, full size SD card slot for high-volume data storage, screw terminals, six analog inputs, two digital inputs, one digital interrupt, 3.3V and 5V power outputs, and SPI and I2C communication capability. The design is focused on extremely low power consumption allowing the Alog to be deployed for years on a single set of common alkaline batteries. The power efficiency of the Alog eliminates the difficulties associated with field power collection including additional hardware and installation costs, dependence on weather conditions, possible equipment failure, and the transport of bulky/heavy equipment to a remote site. Battery power increases suitable data collection sites (too shaded for photovoltaics) and allows for low profile installation options (including underground). The ALog has gone through continuous development with over four years of successful data collection in hydrologic field research. Over this time, software support for a wide range of sensors has been made available such as ultrasonic rangefinders (for water level, snow accumulation and glacial melt), temperature sensors (air and groundwater), humidity sensors, pyranometers, inclinometers, rain gauges, soil moisture and water potential sensors, resistance-based tools to measure frost heave, and cameras that trigger on events. The software developed for use with the ALog allows simple integration of established

  8. Optimal path-finding through mental exploration based on neural energy field gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yihong; Wang, Rubin; Zhu, Yating

    2017-02-01

    Rodent animal can accomplish self-locating and path-finding task by forming a cognitive map in the hippocampus representing the environment. In the classical model of the cognitive map, the system (artificial animal) needs large amounts of physical exploration to study spatial environment to solve path-finding problems, which costs too much time and energy. Although Hopfield's mental exploration model makes up for the deficiency mentioned above, the path is still not efficient enough. Moreover, his model mainly focused on the artificial neural network, and clear physiological meanings has not been addressed. In this work, based on the concept of mental exploration, neural energy coding theory has been applied to the novel calculation model to solve the path-finding problem. Energy field is constructed on the basis of the firing power of place cell clusters, and the energy field gradient can be used in mental exploration to solve path-finding problems. The study shows that the new mental exploration model can efficiently find the optimal path, and present the learning process with biophysical meaning as well. We also analyzed the parameters of the model which affect the path efficiency. This new idea verifies the importance of place cell and synapse in spatial memory and proves that energy coding is effective to study cognitive activities. This may provide the theoretical basis for the neural dynamics mechanism of spatial memory.

  9. Exploration of the Rotokawa geothermal field, Taupo volcanic zone, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, P.R.L. (Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand))

    1988-11-10

    The Rotokawa geothermal field is located 7 km east of Wairakei, New Zealand, and has been investigated for its sulphur resources and power potential over the past 50 years. Exploration of the field has slow and mostly unsystematic. The depths of the drill holes are less than 50 m until 1964. Since 1965 the exploration has been carried out systematically. Three, one and four exploration wells were drilled in 1965-66, 1977, and 1984-86 respectively. Finding Jurassic greywackes and argillites at a depth of 2200 m below a thick (ca. 900 m)sequence of two pyroxene andesite lava flows had an important significance, because the Jurassic rocks are the basement rocks for the North Island. The Rotokawa geothermal field represents an important resource with an assessed potential of 49 MW (proven), 100 MW (probable) and 200 MW (possible), though these figures are considered to be probably optimistic. Further exploratory drilling is needed. The main development problems at this stage are: (1) encountering good subsurface permeability, (2) identifying and combating corrosive CO{sub 2}-rich fluids, (3) determining the most favorable reinjection conditions; this is a problem, ironically enhanced by the hot temperature and the consequently high silica contents of the thermal fluids, (4) establishing an acceptable development plan for the field which accommodates the requirements of both the sulphur mining interests, the power producers, and especially the Ngati Tahu maori owners of the land. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Open Clusters as Probes of the Galactic Magnetic Field: I. Cluster Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Hoq, Sadia

    2015-01-01

    Stars in open clusters are powerful probes of the intervening Galactic magnetic field, via background starlight polarimetry, because they provide constraints on the magnetic field distances. We use 2MASS photometric data for a sample of 31 clusters in the outer Galaxy, for which near-IR polarimetric data were obtained, to determine the cluster distances, ages, and reddenings via fitting theoretical isochrones to cluster color-magnitude diagrams. The fitting approach uses an objective chi^2 minimization technique to derive the cluster properties and their uncertainties. We found the ages, distances, and reddenings for 24 of the clusters, and the distances and reddenings for six additional clusters that were either sparse or faint in the near-IR. The derived ranges of log(age), distance, and E(B-V) were 7.25-9.63, ~670-6160 pc, and 0.02-1.46 mag, respectively. The distance uncertainties ranged from ~8 to 20%. The derived parameters were compared to previous studies, and most cluster parameters agree within our ...

  11. Development of a Field-Aligned Integrated Conductivity Model Using the SAMI2 Open Source Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Kyle; Gearheart, Michael; West, Keith

    2003-03-01

    The SAMI2 open source code is a middle and low latitude ionspheric model developed by the Naval Research Lab for the dual purposes of research and education. At the time of this writing the source code has no component for the integrated magnetic field-aligned conductivity. The dependence of human activities on conditions in the space environment, such as communications, has grown and will continue to do so. With this growth comes higher financial stakes, as changes in the space environment have greater economic impact. In order to minimize the adverse effects of these changes, predictive models are being developed. Among the geophysical parameters that affect communications is the conductivity in the ionosphere. As part of the commitment of Texas A & M Univeristy-Commerce to build a strong undergraduate research program, a team consisting of two students and a faculty mentor are developing a model of the integrated field-aligned conductivity using the SAMI2 code. The current status of the research and preliminary results are presented as well as a summary of future work.

  12. Variable Stars in the Field of the Open Cluster NGC 2126

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shun-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Wu, Jiang-Hua; Ma, Jun; Jiang, Zhao-Ji; Chen, Jian-Sheng; Zhou, Xu

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of a time-series CCD photometric survey of variable stars in the field of the open cluster NGC 2126. In about one square degree field covering the cluster, a total number of 21 variable candidates are detected during this survey, of which 16 are newly found. The periods, classifications and spectral types of 14 newly discovered variables are discussed, which consist of six eclipsing binaries systems, three pulsating variable stars, three long period variables, one RS CVn star, and one W UMa or $\\delta$ Scuti star. In addition, there are two variable candidates, the properties of which cannot be determined in this paper. By a method based on fitting spectral energy distributions(SEDs) of stars with theoretical ones, the membership probabilities and the fundamental parameters of this cluster are determined. As a result, five variables are probably members of NGC 2126. The fundamental parameters of the this cluster are determined as: the metallicity to be 0.008 $Z_\\odot$, the age $\\log(t)$=...

  13. Prediction of the diffuse-field transmission loss of interior natural-ventilation openings and silencers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibby, Chris; Hodgson, Murray

    2017-01-01

    The work reported here, part of a study on the performance and optimal design of interior natural-ventilation openings and silencers ("ventilators"), discusses the prediction of the acoustical performance of such ventilators, and the factors that affect it. A wave-based numerical approach-the finite-element method (FEM)-is applied. The development of a FEM technique for the prediction of ventilator diffuse-field transmission loss is presented. Model convergence is studied with respect to mesh, frequency-sampling and diffuse-field convergence. The modeling technique is validated by way of predictions and the comparison of them to analytical and experimental results. The transmission-loss performance of crosstalk silencers of four shapes, and the factors that affect it, are predicted and discussed. Performance increases with flow-path length for all silencer types. Adding elbows significantly increases high-frequency transmission loss, but does not increase overall silencer performance which is controlled by low-to-mid-frequency transmission loss.

  14. New variable stars discovered in the fields of three Galactic open clusters using the VVV Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Palma, Tali; Dékány, Istvan; Clariá, Juan J; Alonso-García, Javier; Gramajo, Luciana V; Alegría, Sebastian Ramírez; Bonatto, Charles

    2016-01-01

    This project is a massive near-infrared (NIR) search for variable stars in highly reddened and obscured open cluster (OC) fields projected on regions of the Galactic bulge and disk. The search is performed using photometric NIR data in the $J$-, $H$- and $K_s$- bands obtained from the Vista Variables in the V\\'ia L\\'actea (VVV) Survey. We performed in each cluster field a variability search using Stetson's variability statistics to select the variable candidates. Later, those candidates were subjected to a frequency analysis using the Generalized Lomb-Scargle and the Phase Dispersion Minimization algorithms. The number of independent observations range between 63 and 73. The newly discovered variables in this study, 157 in total in three different known OCs, are classified based on their light curve shapes, periods, amplitudes and their location in the corresponding color-magnitude $(J-K_s,K_s)$ and color-color $(H-K_s,J-H)$ diagrams. We found 5 possible Cepheid stars which, based on the period-luminosity rel...

  15. Field portable low temperature porous layer open tubular cryoadsorption headspace sampling and analysis part II: Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Megan; Bukovsky-Reyes, Santiago; Bruno, Thomas J

    2016-01-15

    This paper details the sampling methods used with the field portable porous layer open tubular cryoadsorption (PLOT-cryo) approach, described in Part I of this two-part series, applied to several analytes of interest. We conducted tests with coumarin and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (two solutes that were used in initial development of PLOT-cryo technology), naphthalene, aviation turbine kerosene, and diesel fuel, on a variety of matrices and test beds. We demonstrated that these analytes can be easily detected and reliably identified using the portable unit for analyte collection. By leveraging efficiency-boosting temperature control and the high flow rate multiple capillary wafer, very short collection times (as low as 3s) yielded accurate detection. For diesel fuel spiked on glass beads, we determined a method detection limit below 1 ppm. We observed greater variability among separate samples analyzed with the portable unit than previously documented in work using the laboratory-based PLOT-cryo technology. We identify three likely sources that may help explain the additional variation: the use of a compressed air source to generate suction, matrix geometry, and variability in the local vapor concentration around the sampling probe as solute depletion occurs both locally around the probe and in the test bed as a whole. This field-portable adaptation of the PLOT-cryo approach has numerous and diverse potential applications.

  16. OPEN CLUSTERS AS PROBES OF THE GALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD. I. CLUSTER PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoq, Sadia; Clemens, D. P., E-mail: shoq@bu.edu, E-mail: clemens@bu.edu [Institute for Astrophysical Research, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Stars in open clusters are powerful probes of the intervening Galactic magnetic field via background starlight polarimetry because they provide constraints on the magnetic field distances. We use 2MASS photometric data for a sample of 31 clusters in the outer Galaxy for which near-IR polarimetric data were obtained to determine the cluster distances, ages, and reddenings via fitting theoretical isochrones to cluster color–magnitude diagrams. The fitting approach uses an objective χ{sup 2} minimization technique to derive the cluster properties and their uncertainties. We found the ages, distances, and reddenings for 24 of the clusters, and the distances and reddenings for 6 additional clusters that were either sparse or faint in the near-IR. The derived ranges of log(age), distance, and E(B−V) were 7.25–9.63, ∼670–6160 pc, and 0.02–1.46 mag, respectively. The distance uncertainties ranged from ∼8% to 20%. The derived parameters were compared to previous studies, and most cluster parameters agree within our uncertainties. To test the accuracy of the fitting technique, synthetic clusters with 50, 100, or 200 cluster members and a wide range of ages were fit. These tests recovered the input parameters within their uncertainties for more than 90% of the individual synthetic cluster parameters. These results indicate that the fitting technique likely provides reliable estimates of cluster properties. The distances derived will be used in an upcoming study of the Galactic magnetic field in the outer Galaxy.

  17. Field determination of multipollutant, open area combustion source emission factors with a hexacopter unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurell, J.; Mitchell, W.; Chirayath, V.; Jonsson, J.; Tabor, D.; Gullett, B.

    2017-10-01

    An emission sensor/sampler system was coupled to a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) hexacopter unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to characterize gases and particles in the plumes emitted from open burning of military ordnance. The UAV/sampler was tested at two field sites with test and sampling flights spanning over 16 h of flight time. The battery-operated UAV was remotely maneuvered into the plumes at distances from the pilot of over 600 m and at altitudes of up to 122 m above ground level. While the flight duration could be affected by sampler payload (3.2-4.6 kg) and meteorological conditions, the 57 sampling flights, ranging from 4 to 12 min, were typically terminated when the plume concentrations of CO2 were diluted to near ambient levels. Two sensor/sampler systems, termed ;Kolibri,; were variously configured to measure particulate matter, metals, chloride, perchlorate, volatile organic compounds, chlorinated dioxins/furans, and nitrogen-based organics for determination of emission factors. Gas sensors were selected based on their applicable concentration range, light weight, freedom from interferents, and response/recovery times. Samplers were designed, constructed, and operated based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methods and quality control criteria. Results show agreement with published emission factors and good reproducibility (e.g., 26% relative standard deviation for PM2.5). The UAV/Kolibri represents a significant advance in multipollutant emission characterization capabilities for open area sources, safely and effectively making measurements heretofore deemed too hazardous for personnel or beyond the reach of land-based samplers.

  18. Window opening behaviour: simulations of occupant behaviour in residential buildings using models based on a field survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentina, Fabi; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Window opening behaviour has been shown to have a significant impact on airflow rates and hence energy consumption. Nevertheless, the inhabitant behaviour related to window opening in residential buildings is currently poorly investigated through both field surveys and building energy simulations....... In particular, reliable information regarding user behaviour in residential buildings is crucial for suitable prediction of building performance (energy consumption, indoor environmental quality, etc.). To face this issue, measurements of indoor climate and outdoor environmental parameters and window “opening...... and closing” actions were performed in 15 dwellings from January to August 2008 in Denmark. Probabilistic models of inhabitants’ window “opening and closing” behaviour were developed and implemented in the energy simulation software IDA ICE to improve window opening and closing strategies in simulations...

  19. Pollination deficit in open-field tomato crops (Solanum lycopersicum L., Solanaceae in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Scaramussa Deprá

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available More than 70% of world’s crops benefit from biotic pollination, and bees are their main pollinators. Despite the fact that some of these insects have been broadly studied, understanding the interactions between plant crops and their pollinators with a local scale approach is necessary when aiming to apply proper protective and management measures to pollinators and their respective crops. In this context, we analyzed the pollination status of open-field tomato crops (Solanum lycopersicum L., regarding fruit-set, visitation rate and the quality of fruits. We recorded the formation of fruits through spontaneous self-pollination and open-pollination, and the occurrence of pollinators in 24 areas of open-field tomato crops. We performed experiments of apomixis, spontaneous self-pollination, manual cross pollination and supplemental cross pollination (simulating the pollinator behavior in a greenhouse. The fruit quality was evaluated according to circumference, weight, volume and number of seeds. Higher production of fruits after open-pollination compared to spontaneous self-pollination indicates the importance of pollinators to increment productivity of S. lycopersicum in the study area. The circumference and the number of seeds from tomatoes of the greenhouse plantation did not differ between spontaneous self-pollination and the manual cross pollination. In the open-field crops the number of seeds was higher for fruits resulting from open-pollination. Our results indicate that the importance of bees is mainly related to the increase in fruit production, thus incrementing the productivity of tomato crops.

  20. Pollination deficit in open-field tomato crops (Solanum lycopersicum L., Solanaceae in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Gaglianone

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available More than 70% of world’s crops benefit from biotic pollination, and bees are their main pollinators. Despite the fact that some of these insects have been broadly studied, understanding the interactions between plant crops and their pollinators with a local scale approach is necessary when aiming to apply proper protective and management measures to pollinators and their respective crops. In this context, we analyzed the pollination status of open-field tomato crops (Solanum lycopersicum L., regarding fruit-set, visitation rate and the quality of fruits. We recorded the formation of fruits through spontaneous self-pollination and open-pollination, and the occurrence of pollinators in 24 areas of open-field tomato crops. We performed experiments of apomixis, spontaneous self-pollination, manual cross pollination and supplemental cross pollination (simulating the pollinator behavior in a greenhouse. The fruit quality was evaluated according to circumference, weight, volume and number of seeds. Higher production of fruits after open-pollination compared to spontaneous self-pollination indicates the importance of pollinators to increment productivity of S. lycopersicum in the study area. The circumference and the number of seeds from tomatoes of the greenhouse plantation did not differ between spontaneous self-pollination and the manual cross pollination. In the open-field crops the number of seeds was higher for fruits resulting from open-pollination. Our results indicate that the importance of bees is mainly related to the increase in fruit production, thus incrementing the productivity of tomato crops.

  1. Open Imaging Nephelometer Scattering Measurements from the 2014 Discover-AQ Field Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, R.; Orozco, D.; Dolgos, G.; Martins, J. V.

    2014-12-01

    After greenhouse gases, aerosols are thought to have the largest contribution to total atmospheric radiative forcing, but they are frequently cited as the single largest source of uncertainty among all anthropogenic radiative forcing components. Remote sensing allows for global measurements of aerosol properties, however validation of these measurements and the climatological assumptions used in their retrieval algorithms require high quality in situ sampling. The Laboratory for Aerosols, Clouds and Optics (LACO) at the University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) has developed the Imaging Nephelometer, a novel and highly accurate instrument concept designed to significantly aid in situ optical scattering measurements. Imaging Nephelometers allow for measurements of scattering coefficient, phase function and polarized phase function over a wide angular range of 2 to 178 degrees with an angular resolution of less than half of a degree. The simple layout of these devices also permits the construction of an instrument that is compact enough to be deployed on a variety of airborne platforms. Additionally, a version of this instrument that is capable of in situ sampling in open-air, free from sample biases potentially introduced by an inlet or containment apparatus, has recently been constructed. This instrument, known as the Open Imaging NEPHelometer (OI-NEPH), was flown on the P3 aircraft in the summer of 2014 during the Colorado portion of the Discover-AQ field mission (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality). This presentation will focus on the results of the OI-NEPH's successful science flights during this field experiment. The P3's flights during this mission focused primarily on vehicle, agriculture, biomass burning and industrial processing emissions over the Colorado Front Range. Emphasis will be placed on any observed differences in scattering properties between the measurements

  2. THE FIELD STUDY AS AN EDUCATIONAL TECHNIQUE IN OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi VASSALA

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The main characteristic of Distance Learning is that the student is taught and learns without his tutor’s physical presence in the classroom. The opportunity for a direct (face to face communication between all members of the educational group [tutor counselor (TC and students] in Distance Learning is offered by the Tutorials/Contact Sessions (CS. Although these CSs are not compulsory, it is estimated that they are of high importance, since among other things, they help in clarifying difficult to understand points and they also help in the cognitive subject becoming more fully comprehensible by the student (Holmberg 1995. For the discussion of the various issues at the CSs many different educational techniques within the framework of adult education such as teamwork, short lectures, debates, questions and answers, case studies, simulations, role play, etc are used in combination. These are techniques raising the student’s interest, facilitating his/her participation in the learning process and developing interaction between TC and students and between students themselves. They also create a learning and research environment; encourage the students to work in a group and to learn by acting (Kokkos 1998. One of these educational techniques is the field study, which is the subject of this paper. To this day, no research has been carried out for the possibility of implementation of this technique in Distance Learning nor have any results of such implementation been studied. This paper comprising of three parts contains a general presentation of the field study as a teaching technique in the first part while in the second part the successive stages of development of this technique in Distance Learning are analyzed. Finally, in the third part the students’ views of Hellenic Open University on this technique are presented.

  3. New variable stars discovered in the fields of three Galactic open clusters using the VVV survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, T.; Minniti, D.; Dékány, I.; Clariá, J. J.; Alonso-García, J.; Gramajo, L. V.; Ramírez Alegría, S.; Bonatto, C.

    2016-11-01

    This project is a massive near-infrared (NIR) search for variable stars in highly reddened and obscured open cluster (OC) fields projected on regions of the Galactic bulge and disk. The search is performed using photometric NIR data in the J-, H- and Ks- bands obtained from the Vista Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) Survey. We performed in each cluster field a variability search using Stetson's variability statistics to select the variable candidates. Later, those candidates were subjected to a frequency analysis using the Generalized Lomb-Scargle and the Phase Dispersion Minimization algorithms. The number of independent observations range between 63 and 73. The newly discovered variables in this study, 157 in total in three different known OCs, are classified based on their light curve shapes, periods, amplitudes and their location in the corresponding color-magnitude (J -Ks ,Ks) and color-color (H -Ks , J - H) diagrams. We found 5 possible Cepheid stars which, based on the period-luminosity relation, are very likely type II Cepheids located behind the bulge. Among the newly discovered variables, there are eclipsing binaries, δ Scuti, as well as background RR Lyrae stars. Using the new version of the Wilson & Devinney code as well as the "Physics Of Eclipsing Binaries" (PHOEBE) code, we analyzed some of the best eclipsing binaries we discovered. Our results show that these studied systems turn out to be ranging from detached to double-contact binaries, with low eccentricities and high inclinations of approximately 80°. Their surface temperatures range between 3500 K and 8000 K.

  4. Using possibilities of some agricultural wastes in open-field banana cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÖTEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Usage of farmyard manure is the one of the major factors to increase production cost in banana cultivation. Besides increasing the production costs, other disadvantages of farmyard manure are playing active role on carrying diseases and pests and also difficulty in obtaining. Due to the stated disadvantages, the use farmyard manure of banana farmers is decreasing. Therefore, we need alternative ways to increase the organic matter capacity of the soil. The effects of alternative applications to farmyard manure, namely banana waste and mushroom compost were investigated. The objective of the study was to evaluate effects of these applications on some morphological properties (plant height, plant circumference and number of leaves, yield (number of hands, number of fingers, bunch weight, finger weight and length and quality properties (flesh/skin ratio, total soluble solids matter, sugars etc. under open-field banana cultivation. The experiment was conducted in Kargıcak location of Alanya in randomized complete block design (RCBD with 3 replications. Experimental results revealed that using of farmyard manure and waste treatments positively affected the yield parameters like the number of hands and fingers, finger length, finger weight and bunch weight. On the other hand, treatments did not have a statistically significant effect on fruit quality parameters like soluble solids content, titratable acidity, pH and ash.

  5. OPSO - The OpenGL based Field Acquisition and Telescope Guiding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škoda, P.; Fuchs, J.; Honsa, J.

    2006-07-01

    We present OPSO, a modular pointing and auto-guiding system for the coudé spectrograph of the Ondřejov observatory 2m telescope. The current field and slit viewing CCD cameras with image intensifiers are giving only standard TV video output. To allow the acquisition and guiding of very faint targets, we have designed an image enhancing system working in real time on TV frames grabbed by BT878-based video capture card. Its basic capabilities include the sliding averaging of hundreds of frames with bad pixel masking and removal of outliers, display of median of set of frames, quick zooming, contrast and brightness adjustment, plotting of horizontal and vertical cross cuts of seeing disk within given intensity range and many more. From the programmer's point of view, the system consists of three tasks running in parallel on a Linux PC. One C task controls the video capturing over Video for Linux (v4l2) interface and feeds the frames into the large block of shared memory, where the core image processing is done by another C program calling the OpenGL library. The GUI is, however, dynamically built in Python from XML description of widgets prepared in Glade. All tasks are exchanging information by IPC calls using the shared memory segments.

  6. Amnesia of inhibitory avoidance by scopolamine is overcome by previous open-field exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colettis, Natalia C.; Snitcofsky, Marina; Kornisiuk, Edgar E.; Gonzalez, Emilio N.; Quillfeldt, Jorge A.

    2014-01-01

    The muscarinic cholinergic receptor (MAChR) blockade with scopolamine either extended or restricted to the hippocampus, before or after training in inhibitory avoidance (IA) caused anterograde or retrograde amnesia, respectively, in the rat, because there was no long-term memory (LTM) expression. Adult Wistar rats previously exposed to one or two open-field (OF) sessions of 3 min each (habituated), behaved as control animals after a weak though over-threshold training in IA. However, after OF exposure, IA LTM was formed and expressed in spite of an extensive or restricted to the hippocampus MAChR blockade. It was reported that during and after OF exposure and reexposure there was an increase in both hippocampal and cortical ACh release that would contribute to “prime the substrate,” e.g., by lowering the synaptic threshold for plasticity, leading to LTM consolidation. In the frame of the “synaptic tagging and capture” hypothesis, plasticity-related proteins synthesized during/after the previous OF could facilitate synaptic plasticity for IA in the same structure. However, IA anterograde amnesia by hippocampal protein synthesis inhibition with anisomycin was also prevented by two OF exposures, strongly suggesting that there would be alternative interpretations for the role of protein synthesis in memory formation and that another structure could also be involved in this “OF effect.” PMID:25322799

  7. Open-source tools for dynamical analysis of Liley's mean-field cortex model

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Kevin R

    2012-01-01

    Mean-field models of the mammalian cortex treat this part of the brain as a two-dimensional excitable medium. The electrical potentials, generated by the excitatory and inhibitory neuron populations, are described by nonlinear, coupled, partial differential equations, that are known to generate complicated spatio-temporal behaviour. We focus on the model by Liley {\\sl et al.} (Network: Comput. Neural Syst. (2002) 13, 67-113). Several reductions of this model have been studied in detail, but a direct analysis of its spatio-temporal dynamics has, to the best of our knowledge, never been attempted before. Here, we describe the implementation of implicit time-stepping of the model and the tangent linear model, and solving for equilibria and time-periodic solutions, using the open-source library PETSc. By using domain decomposition for parallelization, and iterative solving of linear problems, the code is capable of parsing some dynamics of a macroscopic slice of cortical tissue with a sub-millimetre resolution.

  8. Mitigation of marine biofouling on tubes of open rack vaporizers using electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueba, Alfredo; Vega, Luis M; García, Sergio; Otero, Félix M; Madariaga, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    This study quantitatively evaluates the antifouling action of the continuous physical treatment with electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of seawater used as heat exchanger fluid in an open rack vaporizer (ORV) pilot plant to reduce the growth of biofouling on external rib-tube surfaces. The results demonstrate that the biofilm adhered on the treated rib-tubes was reduced by 33% in thickness and by 44% in dissolved solids regarding the biofilm adhered on the untreated control rib-tubes. The lower conductivity and Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ionic content in the effluent of the treated seawater confirmed that the EMFs accelerated the process of ionic calcium nucleation and precipitation as calcium carbonate. The precipitation of ions dissolved affected the inter-molecular interactions among extracellular polymers, thereby weakening the biofouling film matrix and reducing its adhesion capacity. The drag of small particles by the flow of seawater had an erosive action and decreased the biofouling film thickness. Consequently, the antifouling methods treatment with EMFs allowed reduce the negative effect that the biofouling have for the heat transfer equipment used in the regasification process and keep the highest techno-economic operating conditions.

  9. Pharmacological differences between memory consolidation of habituation to an open field and inhibitory avoidance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianna M.R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Rats implanted bilaterally with cannulae in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus or the entorhinal cortex were submitted to either a one-trial inhibitory avoidance task, or to 5 min of habituation to an open field. Immediately after training, they received intrahippocampal or intraentorhinal 0.5-µl infusions of saline, of a vehicle (2% dimethylsulfoxide in saline, of the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphono pentanoic acid (AP5, of the protein kinase A inhibitor Rp-cAMPs (0.5 µg/side, of the calcium-calmodulin protein kinase II inhibitor KN-62, of the dopaminergic D1 antagonist SCH23390, or of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor PD098059. Animals were tested in each task 24 h after training. Intrahippocampal KN-62 was amnestic for habituation; none of the other treatments had any effect on the retention of this task. In contrast, all of them strongly affected memory of the avoidance task. Intrahippocampal Rp-cAMPs, KN-62 and AP5, and intraentorhinal Rp-cAMPs, KN-62, PD098059 and SCH23390 caused retrograde amnesia. In view of the known actions of the treatments used, the present findings point to important biochemical differences in memory consolidation processes of the two tasks.

  10. Advanced Discontinuous Galerkin Algorithms and First Open-Field Line Turbulence Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammett, G. W.; Hakim, A.; Shi, E. L.

    2016-10-01

    New versions of Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) algorithms have interesting features that may help with challenging problems of higher-dimensional kinetic problems. We are developing the gyrokinetic code Gkeyll based on DG. DG also has features that may help with the next generation of Exascale computers. Higher-order methods do more FLOPS to extract more information per byte, thus reducing memory and communications costs (which are a bottleneck at exascale). DG uses efficient Gaussian quadrature like finite elements, but keeps the calculation local for the kinetic solver, also reducing communication. Sparse grid methods might further reduce the cost significantly in higher dimensions. The inner product norm can be chosen to preserve energy conservation with non-polynomial basis functions (such as Maxwellian-weighted bases), which can be viewed as a Petrov-Galerkin method. This allows a full- F code to benefit from similar Gaussian quadrature as used in popular δf gyrokinetic codes. Consistent basis functions avoid high-frequency numerical modes from electromagnetic terms. We will show our first results of 3 x + 2 v simulations of open-field line/SOL turbulence in a simple helical geometry (like Helimak/TORPEX), with parameters from LAPD, TORPEX, and NSTX. Supported by the Max-Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics, the SciDAC Center for the Study of Plasma Microturbulence, and DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  11. Exploration and development of Uenotai geothermal field, Akita prefecture, northeastern Japan. Uenotai chinetsu chitai no tansa to sono kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naka, T. (Akita Geothermal Energy Co., Akita (Japan)); Okada, H. (Dowa Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-08-30

    This paper describes exploration and development of the Uenotai geothermal field where a geothermal power plant is being build to start power generation scheduled for 1994. Geothermal reservoir beds at the Uenotai field are of fracture type. The beds consist not only of fracture zones generated from fault motions, but also autobrecciated lava structure, lithofacial boundaries including different lithofacies at lava bottom, intrusive rock circumference, and fault fracture zones crossing complexly with these formations, forming passages of geothermal fluids and the basis for heat convection. The heat source is thought to be the Quaternary magma source located deep under the upheaval area in Mt. Oyasu, where geothermal reservoir beds of hot water dominant type, steam dominant type, and high-temperature seam type exist. The produced hot water is of an alkaline NaCl type. The pre-Tertiary deposit in the Uenotai area under development would be the most important bed for the development, and geothermal reservoir beds of steam dominant type at 500 m below sea level or deeper are the target for the development. The scale of the development has been established under an assumption that it is most effective to produce steam at 232 t/h maintaining the well opening pressure at 9.5 KSCA to generate power at 27500kW. 18 refs., 16 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Coherent time evolution of highly excited Rydberg states in pulsed electric field Opening a stringent way to selectively field-ionize the highly excited states

    CERN Document Server

    Tada, M; Ogawa, I; Funahashi, H; Yamamoto, K; Matsuki, S

    2000-01-01

    Coherent time evolution of highly excited Rydberg states in Rb (98 < n < 150) under pulsed electric field in high slew-rate regime was investigated with the field ionization detection. The electric field necessary to ionize the Rydberg states was found to take discrete values successively depending on the slew rate. Specifically the slew-rate dependence of the ionization field varies with the quantum defect value of the states, i.e. with the energy position of the states relative to the adjacent manifold. This discrete transitional behavior of the ionization field observed for the first time is considered to be a manifestation of the strong coherence effect in the time evolution of the Rydberg states in pulsed electric field and opens a new effective way to stringently select a low-l state from the nearby states by field ionization.

  13. An Investigation of the Mechanism of Traumatic Brain Injury Caused by Blast in the Open Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ke

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is a signature wound of modern warfare. The current incomplete understanding of its injury mechanism impedes the development of strategies for effective protection of bTBI. Despite a considerable amount of experimental animal studies focused on the evaluation of brain neurotrauma caused by blast exposure, there is very limited knowledge on the biomechanical responses of the gyrenecephalic brain subjected to primary free-field blast waves imposed in vivo, and the correlation analysis between the biomechanical responses and its injury outcomes. Such information is crucial to the development of injury criteria of bTBI. This study aims to evaluate the external and internal mechanical responses of the brain against different levels of blast loading with Yucatan swine in free field, and to conduct correlational studies with brain tissue damage. To better understand primary bTBI, we have implemented an open field experimental model to apply controlled shock waves on swine head. The applied pressure levels of shock waves were predicted by finite element modeling and verified with calibrated testing. Biomechanical responses of primary blasts such as intracranial pressure (ICP), head kinetics, strain rate of skull, were measured in vivo during the blasts. A positive correlation between incident overpressure (IOP) and its corresponding biomechanical responses of the brain was observed. A parallel group of non-instrumented animals were used to collect injury data 72 hours post experiment. Cellular responses governed by primary blasts, such as neuronal degeneration and apoptosis were studied via immunohistochemistry. Representative fluorescent-stained images were examined under microscope. A positive correlation was found between the amount of degenerative neurons and the blast level. Significant elevation of apoptosis was found in the high-level blast. Comparisons between brains with varies ICP readings demonstrate differences of the

  14. Discovery of 13 New Variable Stars in the Field of the Open Cluster NGC 2168 (M35)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juei-Hwa Hu; Wing-Huen Ip; Xiao-Bin Zhang; Zhao-Ji Jiang; Jun Ma; Xu Zhou

    2005-01-01

    A wide-field time-series CCD photometric survey of variable stars in the field of the open cluster NGC 2168 was carried out using the BATC Schmidt telescope. In total 13 new variable stars are discovered with three W UMa systems,one EA type and two EB type eclipsing binaries (one of them could be a W UMa system), and seven pulsating stars including three candidates of δ Scuti stars.

  15. About Frequency Characteristics of Electric Fields of Cylindrical Piezoceramic Antenna with Screen in the Form of an Open Ring Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.T. Gusak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to rigorous method of “related” fields the analytical expressions to describe electric fields of piezoceramic cylindrical antennas with screen in the form of an open ring layer of finite thickness was obtained. As a result of numerical analysis the quantity relations and the features of frequency characteristics of the electric current and the input impedance of the antenna with screen depending on the parameters of the antenna elements were found.

  16. Exploration practices and prospect of Upper Paleozoic giant gas fields in the Ordos Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengli Xi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas resources is abundant in the Ordos Basin, where six gas fields with more than 100 billion cubic meters of gas reserves have been successively developed and proved, including Jingbian, Yulin, Zizhou, Wushenqi, Sulige and Shenmu. This study aims to summarize the fruitful results and functional practices achieved in the huge gas province exploration, which will be regarded as guidance and reference for the further exploration and development in this basin. Based on the past five decades' successful exploration practices made by PetroChina Changqing Oilfield Company, we first comb the presentation of geological theories at different historical stages as well as the breakthrough in the course. Then, we analyze a complete set of adaptive techniques obtained from the long-time technological research and conclude historical experiences and effective measures in terms of broadening exploration ideas, such as the fluvial delta reservoir-forming theory, giant tight gas reservoir-forming theory, the idea of sediment source system in the southern basin, etc., and innovating technical and management mechanism, such as all-digit seismic prediction, fine logging evaluation for gas formations, stimulation of tight sand reservoirs, flat project and benchmarking management, and so on.

  17. Field Geological Exploration of the Ashikule Volcano Group in Western Kunlun Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Jiandong; Zhao Bo; Zhang Liuyi; Chen Zhengquan

    2012-01-01

    From May 4 to May 30, 2011, a field exploration of the Ashikule basin in the Western Kunlun Mountains area was conducted by a research team from the Institute of Geology, China Earthquake Administration and Earthquake Administration of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. This work is financially supported by the special fund for China earthquake research project " The Comprehensive Scientific Exploration of the Ms7.3 Yutian Earthquake in 2008 and the Ashikule Volcano Group". Through detailed field survey on geological and geomorphological features of the Ashikule volcano group, which is one of the highest altitude volcanic plateaus (about 5000m) in the world, we have determined the total number of volcanoes, the eruption type and structural parameters, and approximate active history of the volcano group. Our studies have provided field evidence for resolving past controversies such as the authenticity of the news report about the eruption event on May 27, 1951, the eruption pattern of the Daheishan volcano, and the reality of the Gaotaishan volcano.

  18. Caffeine and sleep-deprivation mediated changes in open-field behaviours, stress response and antioxidant status in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olakunle Onaolapo

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Repeated caffeine consumption and/or acute sleep-deprivation led to significant changes in pattern of open-field behaviour and stress/antioxidant response in mice. Responses seen in the study are probably due to modulatory effects of caffeine on the total body response to stressful stimuli.

  19. Electroantennogram responses of tsetse flies (Glossina pallidipes) to host odours in an open field and riverine woodland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskamp, K.E; den Otter, C.J; Noorman, N

    1998-01-01

    The present study was initiated to gain insight into the way in which tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) sense odours at different locations in odour plumes in both an open field and a wooded area. We recorded the antennal responses (EAGs) from stationary living female G. pallidipes 15 m upwind and at var

  20. Centimetre-precision guidance of moving implements in the open field: a simulation based on GPS measurements.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, H.L.; Willigenburg, van L.G.; Zuydam, van R.P.

    1998-01-01

    High quality and sustainable agricultural production in the open field will be supported by centimetre-precision guidance of agricultural implements. In this paper, a complete guidance system is proposed and simulated using real sensor data obtained from a real time kinematic (RTK) differential glob

  1. Measurements and predictions of hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix) call propagation over open field habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth Kragh; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Attenborough, Keith

    2008-01-01

    In a study of hooded crow communication over open fields an excellent correspondence is found between the attenuation spectra predicted by a "turbulence-modified ground effect plus atmospheric absorption" model, and crow call attenuation data. Sound propagation predictions and background noise...

  2. The stimulatory effects of caffeine with oseltamivir (Tamiflu) on light-dark behavior and open-field behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Hidemori; Toda, Akihisa; Imoto, Masumi; Nishimura, Satoko; Kuroki, Hiroaki; Soeda, Shinji; Shimeno, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Shigenori; Eyanagi, Reiko

    2010-01-22

    Abnormal behaviors and death associated with the use of oseltamivir (Tamiflu) have emerged as a major issue in influenza patients taking the drug. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the effects of oseltamivir on the behavior of mice using light-dark and open-field preference tests. Oseltamivir (75 and 150 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) alone affected neither time spent in the open area in the light-dark preference test nor ambulation in the open-field test at 2h post-injection. However, a non-selective adenosine A(1)/A(2) receptor antagonist, caffeine (10mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with oseltamivir (150 mg/kg, i.p.) increased time spent in the open area in the light-dark preference test. This enhancement was not inhibited by a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, flumazenil (10-20mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c.)). Enhancement of ambulation in the open-field test was also observed when caffeine (10mg/kg, i.p.) was combined with oseltamivir (150 mg/kg, i.p.). This enhancement was inhibited by a dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist, haloperidol (0.1mg/kg, s.c.). Furthermore, an adenosine A(2) receptor antagonist, SCH58261 (3mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with oseltamivir (150 mg/kg, i.p.) increased ambulation in the open-field test, while an adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist, DPCPX (1-3mg/kg, i.p.) did not. These findings suggest that the actions of oseltamivir may involve the dopamine and adenosine systems. Our findings suggest that due to the interaction between central blockade of adenosine A(2) receptors by caffeine, and oseltamivir-induced behavioral changes, patients being treated with oseltamivir should be closely monitored.

  3. Exploring the use of Virtual Field Trips with elementary school teachers: A collaborative action research approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jeffrey Lance

    This research examines how elementary school teachers, when supported, use Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) to address the curricula in meaningful ways. I conducted a qualitative study with six teachers, in a collaborative action research context over a six month period. The teachers, five males and one female, all taught either grade five or six and utilized Virtual Field Trips within a variety of curricula areas including science, social studies, music and language arts. In addition, the thesis examines resulting integration of technology into the regular classroom program as a product of the utilization of Virtual Field Trips. The process of collaborative action research was applied as a means of personal and professional growth both for the participants and the researcher/facilitator. By the end of the research study, all participants had learned to integrate Virtual Field Trips into their classroom program, albeit with different levels of success and in different curricula areas. The development of attitudes, skills and knowledge for students and teachers alike was fostered through the participation in Virtual Field Trips. A common concern regarding the utilization of Virtual Field Trips was the time spent locating an appropriate site that met curricula expectations. Participation in the collaborative action research process allowed each teacher to grow professionally, personally and socially. Each participant strongly encouraged the utilization of a long term project with a common area of exploration as a means for positive professional development. Implications and recommendations for future research on the utilization of Virtual Field Trips, as well as the viability of collaborative action research to facilitate teacher development are presented.

  4. Axial Myopia Is Associated with Visual Field Prognosis of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qiu

    Full Text Available To identify whether myopia was associated with the visual field (VF progression of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG.A total of 270 eyes of 270 POAG followed up for more than 3 years with ≥9 reliable VFs by Octopus perimetry were retrospectively reviewed. Myopia was divided into: mild myopia (-2.99 diopter [D], 0, moderate myopia (-5.99, 3.00 D, marked myopia (-9.00, -6.00 D and non-myopia (0 D or more. An annual change in the mean defect (MD slope >0.22 dB/y and 0.30 dB/y was defined as fast progression, respectively. Logistic regression was performed to determine prognostic factors for VF progression.For the cutoff threshold at 0.22 dB/y, logistic regression showed that vertical cup-to-disk ratio (VCDR; p = 0.004 and the extent of myopia (p = 0.002 were statistically significant. When logistic regression was repeated after excluding the extent of myopia, axial length (AL; p = 0.008, odds ratio [OR] = 0.796 reached significance, as did VCDR (p = 0.001. Compared to eyes with AL≤23 mm, the OR values were 0.334 (p = 0.059, 0.309 (p = 0.044, 0.266 (p = 0.019, 0.260 (p = 0.018, respectively, for 23 26 mm. The significance of vertical cup-to-disk ratio of (p = 0.004 and the extent of myopia (p = 0.008 did not change for the cutoff threshold at 0.30dB/y.VCDR and myopia were associated with VF prognosis of POAG. Axial myopia may be a protective factor against VF progression.

  5. Effects of Open-field Warming and Precipitation Manipulation on the Growth of Pinus densiflora Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M. J.; Yoon, S. J.; Han, S. H.; Yun, H. M.; Chang, H.; Son, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of open-field artificial warming and precipitation manipulation on Pinus densiflora seedling growth. The temperature in warming plots have been set to be 3°C higher than control plots using infrared lamps since April, 2013. Precipitation manipulation consisted of precipitation decrease plots (-30%) with deployment of rain-capturing transparent panels, precipitation increase plots (+30%) with pump installation and drip-irrigation, and control plots. Two-year-old P. densiflora seedlings were planted in April, 2013. Seedling height and root collar diameter were measured in April and November, 2013 and April, 2014, and biomass were measured in April, 2013 and April, 2014. During the period of April to November, 2013, increments of seedling height and root collar diameter were not significantly different between control and warming plots. However, in April, 2014 seedling heights, new shoot lengths and weights were higher in warming plots than in control plots, with all precipitation manipulation treatments (pdensiflora. Lower shoot to root ratio in warming plots with precipitation decrease treatment might be resulted from water stress. In previous studies about artificial warming and/or precipitation manipulation, the effects were increase, decrease or no difference in growth. As these results suggest, responses of growth are species-specific and/or are dependent on the stage of growth and the treatment types of climate change experiments. Therefore, to examine the effects of climate changes on plant growth, multi-factor and long-term studies on diverse species are needed.

  6. Aplication of AVO Technique to Gas Exploration in Liaohe Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Changqing; Zhou Faping

    1996-01-01

    @@ Introduction AVO (Amplitude Versus Offset) technique uses prestack seismic data to predict reservoirs and detect hydrocarbon. We used AVO to find gas for the first time in Liaohe Oil Fields. Both real and synthetic data show that the typical AVO characteristics of gas reservoirs in Liaohe Basin appears dominantly as dim spots and occasionally bright spots. But the bright spot reservoirs are only restricted at depths less than 1 000 m These features can function as detection criteria for the application of AVO to gas exploration in Damintun Depression. which have been proved by real data to be right and reliable.

  7. The First Hundred Brown Dwarfs Discovered by the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cushing, Michael C.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Wright, Edward L.; Mainzer, Amanda K.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; McLean, Ian S.; Bauer, James M.; Benford, Dominic J.; Lake, Sean E.; Petty, Sara M.; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Beichman, Charles; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Stern, Daniel; Vacca, William D.

    2011-01-01

    We present ground-based spectroscopic verification of six Y dwarfs also Cushing et al.), eighty-nine T dwarfs, eight L dwarfs, and one M dwarf identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Eighty of these are cold brown dwarfs with spectral types > or =T6, six of which have been announced earlier in Mainzer et al. and I3urgasser et al. We present color-color and colortype diagrams showing the locus of M, L, T, and Y dwarfs in WISE color space. "

  8. Ab Initio Exploration of the Potential Energy Surface of the O_2-SO_2 Open-Shell Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Wafaa M.; Hougen, Jon T.

    2016-06-01

    The O_2-SO_2 complex is believed to be a precursor to acid rain. The previously observed FTMW spectrum suggested internal motions within the complex, but their nature was not identified. Development of an effective Hamiltonian for an open-shell molecule with tunneling requires knowledge of the potential energy surface (PES) and the intrinsic reaction coordinates (IRC) for the paths between minima. A recent ab initio study reported two different nonplanar minima in the ground electronic state of O_2-SO_2. These predictions were based on geometry optimization calculations at the MP2/aug-cc-pVnZ level of theory, with n = 2 and 3. The current work is focused on a highly correlated ab initio investigation of the global PES (a 9-D problem) in the ground triplet electronic state of O_2-SO_2. Because of the high dimensionality in the complex, the PES calculations are partitioned into several two-dimensional cuts through the PES. We have so far explored only a 3-D part of the global PES to look for stable planar configurations. These calculations included geometry optimization, frequency, and single point energy calculations. Calculations were performed using UCCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV(n+D)Z,where n = 2 and 3, level of theory. We used an axis system that defines the radial and the angular van der Waals coordinates for a planar complex as RvW, θ_1, and θ_2. The bond length (RvW) is the distance between the center of mass of the O_2 unit and the S atom. θ_1 and θ_2 are the angles between the van der Waals bond and the O_2 internuclear axis or one of the SO bonds in the SO_2 moiety, respectively. Full geometry optimization calculations predicted a minimum of C_s symmetry in which both the O_2 and SO_2 units are tilted with respect to the van der Waals bond, and RvW = 3.63 {Å}. 3-D PES surface calculations, which involve the RvW, θ_1, and θ_2 vdW coordinates, showed that the optimized structure is the global minimum. In addition, a local minimum at RvW = 3.9 {Å}, which

  9. Field experiments on solar geoengineering: report of a workshop exploring a representative research portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, David W; Duren, Riley; MacMartin, Douglas G

    2014-12-28

    We summarize a portfolio of possible field experiments on solar radiation management (SRM) and related technologies. The portfolio is intended to support analysis of potential field research related to SRM including discussions about the overall merit and risk of such research as well as mechanisms for governing such research and assessments of observational needs. The proposals were generated with contributions from leading researchers at a workshop held in March 2014 at which the proposals were critically reviewed. The proposed research dealt with three major classes of SRM proposals: marine cloud brightening, stratospheric aerosols and cirrus cloud manipulation. The proposals are summarized here along with an analysis exploring variables such as space and time scale, risk and radiative forcing. Possible gaps, biases and cross-cutting considerations are discussed. Finally, suggestions for plausible next steps in the development of a systematic research programme are presented.

  10. Pulling on the Long Tail with Flyover Country, a Mobile App to Expose, Visualize, Discover, and Explore Open Geoscience Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrbo, A.; Loeffler, S.; Ai, S.; McEwan, R.

    2015-12-01

    The ultimate EarthCube product has been described as a mobile app that provides all of the known geoscience data for a geographic point or polygon, from the top of the atmosphere to the core of the Earth, throughout geologic time. The database queries are hidden from the user, and the data are visually rendered for easy recognition of patterns and associations. This fanciful vision is not so remote: NSF EarthCube and Geoinformatics support has already fostered major advances in database interoperability and harmonization of APIs; numerous "domain repositories," databases curated by subject matter experts, now provide a vast wealth of open, easily-accessible georeferenced data on rock and sediment chemistry and mineralogy, paleobiology, stratigraphy, rock magnetics, and more. New datasets accrue daily, including many harvested from the literature by automated means. None of these constitute big data - all are part of the long tail of geoscience, heterogeneous data consisting of relatively small numbers of measurements made by a large number of people, typically on physical samples. This vision of mobile data discovery requires a software package to cleverly expose these domain repositories' holdings; currently, queries mainly come from single investigators to single databases. The NSF-funded mobile app Flyover Country (FC; fc.umn.edu), developed for geoscience outreach and education, has been welcomed by data curators and cyberinfrastructure developers as a testing ground for their API services, data provision, and scalability. FC pulls maps and data within a bounding envelope and caches them for offline use; location-based services alert users to nearby points of interest (POI). The incorporation of data from multiple databases across domains requires parsimonious data requests and novel visualization techniques, especially for mapping of data with a time or stratigraphic depth component. The preservation of data provenance and authority is critical for researcher

  11. Quality or quantity? Exploring the relationship between Public Open Space attributes and mental health in Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jacinta; Wood, Lisa J; Knuiman, Matthew; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2012-05-01

    Mental health is a public health priority globally. Public Open Space (POS) may enhance mental health by facilitating contact with nature and the development of supportive relationships. Despite growing interest in the influence of the built environment on mental health, associations between POS attributes and mental health remain relatively unexplored. In particular, few studies have examined the relative effects of the quantity and quality of POS within a neighbourhood on mental health. Guided by a social-ecological framework, this study investigated the relationship between POS attributes (i.e., quantity and quality) and better mental health (i.e., low risk of psychological distress) in residents of new housing developments in the Perth metropolitan area, Western Australia. The extent to which relationships between POS attributes and mental health were confounded by psychosocial factors (e.g., social support, sense of community) and frequent use of POS was also explored. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey (n = 911), a POS audit, and Geographical Information Systems, and was analysed using logistic regression. Approximately 80% of survey participants were at low risk of psychological distress. Residents of neighbourhoods with high quality POS had higher odds of low psychosocial distress than residents of neighbourhoods with low quality POS. This appeared to be irrespective of whether or not they used POS. However, the quantity of neighbourhood POS was not associated with low psychological distress. From a mental health perspective, POS quality within a neighbourhood appears to be more important than POS quantity. This finding has policy implications and warrants further investigation.

  12. Ultralow field emission from thinned, open-ended, and defected carbon nanotubes by using microwave hydrogen plasma processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jian-Hua, E-mail: jhdeng1983@163.com [College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Cheng, Lin; Wang, Fan-Jie; Yu, Bin; Li, Guo-Zheng; Li, De-Jun [College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Cheng, Guo-An [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Thinned, open-ended, and defected carbon nanotubes were prepared by using hydrogen plasma processing. The processed carbon nanotubes have far better field emission performance than that of the pristine ones. - Highlights: • CVD prepared CNT arrays were processed by microwave hydrogen plasma. • Thinned, open-ended, and defected CNTs were obtained. • Processed CNTs have far better field emission performance than the pristine ones. • Processed CNTs have applicable emission stability after being perfectly aged. - Abstract: Ultralow field emission is achieved from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by using microwave hydrogen plasma processing. After the processing, typical capped CNT tips are removed, with thinned, open-ended, and defected CNTs left. Structural analyses indicate that the processed CNTs have more SP{sup 3}-hybridized defects as compared to the pristine ones. The morphology of CNTs can be readily controlled by adjusting microwave powers, which change the shape of CNTs by means of hydrogen plasma etching. Processed CNTs with optimal morphology are found to have an ultralow turn-on field of 0.566 V/μm and threshold field of 0.896 V/μm, much better than 0.948 and 1.559 V/μm of the as-grown CNTs, respectively. This improved FE performance is ascribed to the structural changes of CNTs after the processing. The thinned and open-ended shape of CNTs can facilitate electron tunneling through barriers and additionally, the increased defects at tube walls can serve as new active emission sites. Furthermore, our plasma processed CNTs exhibit excellent field emission stability at a large emission current density of 10.36 mA/cm{sup 2} after being perfectly aged, showing promising prospects in applications as high-performance vacuum electron sources.

  13. Seeking Signs of Life in Nili Patera with Icelandic Sinter Field Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skok, J. R.; Farmer, J. D.; Parente, M.; Gaskin, J.; Kaasalainen, H.; Tobler, D.; Jerman, G.

    2015-12-01

    The past decade of Martian orbital and surface exploration has made it clear that the planet could have supported life as we know it in many places throughout much of it's history. The next step in exploration will be to find the evidence for and characterize any preserved Martian life. The jump from confirming habitability to finding life will be difficult and likely require a systemic surface exploration of multiple, specific sites. One site, the sinter mounds of the Nili Patera caldera, provides the ideal combination of hot, neutral to alkaline waters that can develop or support life and the sinter precipitation to preserve it. Nili Patera also provides deposits that are well mapped from orbit allowing a mission to pinpoint the target rocks. With this target known, we can develop the mission, the payload and the science to fit the goals. Several sinter field sites in Iceland were selected for mission testing. They were selected to provide diversity in scale, chemistry and complexity. At each site, we asked the same questions that would drive a mission to Mars. Was there life? What are its preserved properties? What are the environmental history of the sinters and the volcanic history of the local terrain? These questions were investigated with spectral, compositional and morphological analysis. By investigating these questions in Iceland, we will determine which observations, in terms of terrain access and instrument selection are required for mission success on Mars. We report the results from the August 2015 expedition, the first of two planned field seasons. This summer was focused on finalizing the field locations, acquiring mapping data and an initial sampling campaign to determine expected composition and calibrate instruments for year two. With this information, we will determine an investigation plan consistent with a range of mission types from robotic lander to sample return to human exploration. We will also determine the instruments required by the

  14. Open and Closed String Vertices for branes with magnetic field and T-duality

    CERN Document Server

    Pesando, I

    2009-01-01

    We discuss carefully the vertices which describe the dipole open strings and closed strings on a D-brane with magnetic flux on a torus. Translation invariance along closed cycles forces surprisingly closed string vertices written in open string formalism to acquire Chan-Paton like matrices. Moreover the one loop amplitudes have a single trace for the part of gauge group with the magnetic flux. These peculiarities are also required by consistency of the action of T-duality in the open string sector. In this way we can show to all orders in perturbation theory the equivalence of the T-dual open string theories, gravitational interactions included. We provide also a new and direct derivation of the bosonic boundary state in presence of constant magnetic and Kalb-Ramond background based on Sciuto-Della Selva-Saito vertex formalism.

  15. Open and closed string vertices for branes with magnetic field and T-duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesando, Igor

    2010-02-01

    We discuss carefully the vertices which describe the dipole open strings and closed strings on a D-brane with magnetic flux on a torus. Translation invariance along closed cycles forces surprisingly closed string vertices written in open string formalism to acquire Chan-Paton like matrices. Moreover the one loop amplitudes have a single trace for the part of gauge group with the magnetic flux. These peculiarities are also required by consistency of the action of T-duality in the open string sector. In this way we can show to all orders in perturbation theory the equivalence of the T-dual open string theories, gravitational interactions included. We provide also a new and direct derivation of the bosonic boundary state in presence of constant magnetic and Kalb-Ramond background based on Sciuto-Della Selva-Saito vertex formalism.

  16. Species-specific photosynthetic responses of four coniferous seedlings to open-field experimental warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S.; Yoon, S. J.; Yoon, T. K.; Han, S. H.; Lee, J.; Lee, D.; Kim, S.; Hwang, J.; Cho, M.; Son, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Temperature increase under climate change is expected to affect photosynthesis of tree species. Biochemical models generally suggest that the elevated temperature increases the photosynthetic carbon fixation, however, many opposing results were reported as well. We aimed to examine the photosynthetic responses of four coniferous seedlings to projected future temperature increase, by conducting an open-field warming experiment. Experimental warming set-up using infra-red heater was built in 2011 and the temperature in warming plots has been regulated to be consistently 3oC higher than that of control plots. The seeds of Abies holophylla (AH), A. koreana (AK), Pinus densiflora (PD), and P. koraiensis (PK) were planted in each 1 m × 1 m plot (n=3) in April, 2012. Monthly net photosynthetic rates (Pn; μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) of 1-year-old seedlings (n=9) from June to November, 2013 were measured using CIRAS-2 (PP-Systems, UK) and photosynthetic parameters (the apparent quantum yield; ф; µmol CO2 mol-1, the dark respiration rate; Rd; µmol CO2 mol-1, and the light compensation point; LCP; µmol mol-1 s-1) were also calculated from the light-response curve of photosynthesis in August, 2013. Chlorophyll contents were measured using DMSO extraction method. Monthly Pn was generally higher for PD and decreased for AK in warmed plots than in control plots (Fig. 1). Pn of AK and PK did not show any significant difference, however, Pn of PK in October and November increased by experimental warming. Pn of PD also showed the highest increase in November and this distinct increase of Pn in autumn might be caused by delayed cessation of photosynthesis by temperature elevation. ф and Rd in warmed plots were higher for PD and lower for AK, while LCP did not significantly differ by treatments for all species. Because ф is considered to be related to the efficiency of harvesting and using light, the change in ф might have caused the response of Pn to warming in this study. Decreases

  17. How the Story Unfolds: Exploring Ways Faculty Develop Open-Ended and Closed-Ended Case Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Leslie M.; Cliff, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Open-ended or closed-ended case study design schemes offer different educational advantages. Anatomy and physiology faculty members who participated in a conference workshop were given an identical case about blood doping and asked to build either an open-ended study or a closed-ended study. The workshop participants created a rich array of case…

  18. Hinode magnetic-field observations of solar flares for exploring the energy storage and trigger mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Toshifumi; Inoue, Satoshi; Kawabata, Yusuke

    2015-08-01

    Solar flares abruptly release the free energy stored as a non-potential magnetic field in the corona and may be accompanied by eruptions of the coronal plasma. Magnetic reconnection is considered as a physical process in which the magnetic energy is converted to kinetic energy, thermal energy, and particle acceleration, but the location of magnetic reconnection is difficult to identify directly because of low emission measure at the reconnection region. We are still lack of observational knowledge on the 3D magnetic configuration and physical conditions for leading to flare trigger. Accurate measurements of vector magnetic fields at the solar photosphere, provided by the Solar Optical Telescope onboard Hinode, help us in exploring how the free energy is stored in the solar atmosphere and how the release of the energy is triggered. This presentation will review the magnetic field configuration and possible candidates for flare trigger primarily based on Hinode observations of some large flare events, which may include X5.4/X1.3 flares on 7 March 2012, X1.2 flare on 7 January 2014 and two M-class flares on 2 February 2014. The 7 March 2012 events were observed in an active region with delta-type sunspots, showing a strong shear in the entire magnetic system. For the sheared magnetic structure, the inclusion of a small-scale trigger field was identified near the polarity inversion line with excitation of a high-speed material flow in the horizontally oriented magnetic field formed nearly in parallel to the polarity inversion line. The observations suggest that gas dynamics at the solar surface play a vital role of leading to the onset of flares. The 7 January 2014 event is an exceptional event which most scientists would not be able to predict its occurrence. The flare unexpectedly happened apart from the sheared magnetic field region. The M-class flares on 2 February 2014 were observed in the magnetic field configuration, in which four magnetic domains were

  19. Transfer-matrix simulations of field emission from bundles of open and closed (5,5) carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, A.; Miskovsky, N. M.; Cutler, P. H.; Lambin, Ph.

    2003-12-01

    We present simulations of field emission from bundles of metallic (5,5) carbon nanotubes, which are either ideally open or closed. The scattering calculations are achieved using a transfer-matrix methodology for consideration of three-dimensional aspects of both the emitting structure and the surface barrier. Band-structure effects are reproduced by using pseudopotentials and enforcing the incident states to first travel through a periodic repetition of the tubes’ basic cell before entering the region containing the fields. The bundles consist of three and six identical structures, which are placed at the corners of equilateral triangles. In all cases, the closed emitters are found to emit less current than the open ones and to be more sensitive to the electric field in their response to neighboring tubes. Due to the enhanced screening of the electric field, the bundles’ emission rates are reduced compared to those of the isolated tubes. It turns out that the rates characterizing bundle and isolated emitters are related by a simple formula, whose dependence on the electric field suggests deviations from the Fowler-Nordheim equation at high fields. Finally, the position of peaks associated with quasilocalized states on top of the closed emitters appears to be a strong indicator of the tubes’ environment.

  20. Exploring the maize rhizosphere microbiome in the field: A glimpse into a highly complex system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, Jason A; Ley, Ruth E

    2013-09-01

    Maize is one of the most economically important crops in the world. Understanding how the genetics and management of this staple crop interact with local field environments is vital to securing sustainable harvests. The interface zone between the plant root and its surrounding soil, or rhizosphere, supports essential interactions between roots and local soils. These interactions include the exchange of carbon for nutrients and are strongly influenced by the microbial constituents of the soil, or the microbiome. In a recent multi-environment study, we explored the diversity and heritability of the maize rhizosphere microbiome at flowering time. We assessed the bacterial diversity of the maize rhizosphere by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes obtained from soil surrounding the roots of 27 genetically diverse maize inbreds grown in five field environments. We then partitioned variation in α- and β-diversity of the microbiome across plant inbreds in the different fields. The results of this study revealed the heritability and significance of genotype-by-environment interactions on the maize rhizosphere microbiome at a single time point. Longitudinal studies detailing the maize rhizosphere throughout an entire growing season are currently underway and should provide a more detailed view of how plant genotypes interact with the environment to shape the microbiome. Future efforts will aim to incorporate these interactions into genetic models of economically important traits such as yield.

  1. Free and Open Source Software for Geospatial in the field of planetary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigeri, A.

    2012-12-01

    Information technology applied to geospatial analyses has spread quickly in the last ten years. The availability of OpenData and data from collaborative mapping projects increased the interest on tools, procedures and methods to handle spatially-related information. Free Open Source Software projects devoted to geospatial data handling are gaining a good success as the use of interoperable formats and protocols allow the user to choose what pipeline of tools and libraries is needed to solve a particular task, adapting the software scene to his specific problem. In particular, the Free Open Source model of development mimics the scientific method very well, and researchers should be naturally encouraged to take part to the development process of these software projects, as this represent a very agile way to interact among several institutions. When it comes to planetary sciences, geospatial Free Open Source Software is gaining a key role in projects that commonly involve different subjects in an international scenario. Very popular software suites for processing scientific mission data (for example, ISIS) and for navigation/planning (SPICE) are being distributed along with the source code and the interaction between user and developer is often very strict, creating a continuum between these two figures. A very widely spread library for handling geospatial data (GDAL) has started to support planetary data from the Planetary Data System, and recent contributions enabled the support to other popular data formats used in planetary science, as the Vicar one. The use of Geographic Information System in planetary science is now diffused, and Free Open Source GIS, open GIS formats and network protocols allow to extend existing tools and methods developed to solve Earth based problems, also to the case of the study of solar system bodies. A day in the working life of a researcher using Free Open Source Software for geospatial will be presented, as well as benefits and

  2. Involvement of regions of the 4th and 7th chromosomes in the open-field activity of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Y; Martin, B; Venault, P; Chapouthier, G

    1995-09-01

    Reactivity to a new environment was studied in mice, using an open-field procedure in two strains, C57BL/6By and ABP/Le, the F1 populations and the intercrosses F2 and backcross segregating populations. The analysis of the behavioral traits: peripheral and central activities, leaning, rearing and defecation in the parental strains made it possible to show that the ABP/Le strain was more reactive than C57BL/6By. In addition, the study of segregating, for four phenotypic markers, in F2 and backcross populations strongly suggested that two autosomal regions were involved in the control of open-field behavior: one in chromosomal region comprising the b locus on chromosome 4 and one in chromosomal region comprising the p locus on chromosome 7.

  3. Binocular Glaucomatous Visual Field Loss and Its Impact on Visual Exploration - A Supermarket Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aehling, Kathrin; Heister, Martin; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Schiefer, Ulrich; Papageorgiou, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Advanced glaucomatous visual field loss may critically interfere with quality of life. The purpose of this study was to (i) assess the impact of binocular glaucomatous visual field loss on a supermarket search task as an example of everyday living activities, (ii) to identify factors influencing the performance, and (iii) to investigate the related compensatory mechanisms. Ten patients with binocular glaucoma (GP), and ten healthy-sighted control subjects (GC) were asked to collect twenty different products chosen randomly in two supermarket racks as quickly as possible. The task performance was rated as “passed” or “failed” with regard to the time per correctly collected item. Based on the performance of control subjects, the threshold value for failing the task was defined as μ+3σ (in seconds per correctly collected item). Eye movements were recorded by means of a mobile eye tracker. Eight out of ten patients with glaucoma and all control subjects passed the task. Patients who failed the task needed significantly longer time (111.47 s ±12.12 s) to complete the task than patients who passed (64.45 s ±13.36 s, t-test, p<0.001). Furthermore, patients who passed the task showed a significantly higher number of glances towards the visual field defect (VFD) area than patients who failed (t-test, p<0.05). According to these results, glaucoma patients with defects in the binocular visual field display on average longer search times in a naturalistic supermarket task. However, a considerable number of patients, who compensate by frequent glancing towards the VFD, showed successful task performance. Therefore, systematic exploration of the VFD area seems to be a “time-effective” compensatory mechanism during the present supermarket task. PMID:25162522

  4. Binocular glaucomatous visual field loss and its impact on visual exploration--a supermarket study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Sippel

    Full Text Available Advanced glaucomatous visual field loss may critically interfere with quality of life. The purpose of this study was to (i assess the impact of binocular glaucomatous visual field loss on a supermarket search task as an example of everyday living activities, (ii to identify factors influencing the performance, and (iii to investigate the related compensatory mechanisms. Ten patients with binocular glaucoma (GP, and ten healthy-sighted control subjects (GC were asked to collect twenty different products chosen randomly in two supermarket racks as quickly as possible. The task performance was rated as "passed" or "failed" with regard to the time per correctly collected item. Based on the performance of control subjects, the threshold value for failing the task was defined as μ+3σ (in seconds per correctly collected item. Eye movements were recorded by means of a mobile eye tracker. Eight out of ten patients with glaucoma and all control subjects passed the task. Patients who failed the task needed significantly longer time (111.47 s ±12.12 s to complete the task than patients who passed (64.45 s ±13.36 s, t-test, p < 0.001. Furthermore, patients who passed the task showed a significantly higher number of glances towards the visual field defect (VFD area than patients who failed (t-test, p < 0.05. According to these results, glaucoma patients with defects in the binocular visual field display on average longer search times in a naturalistic supermarket task. However, a considerable number of patients, who compensate by frequent glancing towards the VFD, showed successful task performance. Therefore, systematic exploration of the VFD area seems to be a "time-effective" compensatory mechanism during the present supermarket task.

  5. Binocular glaucomatous visual field loss and its impact on visual exploration--a supermarket study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Katrin; Kasneci, Enkelejda; Aehling, Kathrin; Heister, Martin; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Schiefer, Ulrich; Papageorgiou, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Advanced glaucomatous visual field loss may critically interfere with quality of life. The purpose of this study was to (i) assess the impact of binocular glaucomatous visual field loss on a supermarket search task as an example of everyday living activities, (ii) to identify factors influencing the performance, and (iii) to investigate the related compensatory mechanisms. Ten patients with binocular glaucoma (GP), and ten healthy-sighted control subjects (GC) were asked to collect twenty different products chosen randomly in two supermarket racks as quickly as possible. The task performance was rated as "passed" or "failed" with regard to the time per correctly collected item. Based on the performance of control subjects, the threshold value for failing the task was defined as μ+3σ (in seconds per correctly collected item). Eye movements were recorded by means of a mobile eye tracker. Eight out of ten patients with glaucoma and all control subjects passed the task. Patients who failed the task needed significantly longer time (111.47 s ±12.12 s) to complete the task than patients who passed (64.45 s ±13.36 s, t-test, p visual field defect (VFD) area than patients who failed (t-test, p visual field display on average longer search times in a naturalistic supermarket task. However, a considerable number of patients, who compensate by frequent glancing towards the VFD, showed successful task performance. Therefore, systematic exploration of the VFD area seems to be a "time-effective" compensatory mechanism during the present supermarket task.

  6. Airborne Open Polar/Imaging Nephelometer for Ice Particles in Cirrus Clouds and Aerosols Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, JV [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Open Imaging Nephelometer (O-I-Neph) instrument is an adaptation of a proven laboratory instrument built and tested at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC), the Polarized Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph). The instrument design of both imaging nephelometers uses a narrow-beam laser source and a wide-field-of-view imaging camera to capture the entire scattering-phase function in one image, quasi-instantaneously.

  7. Clinical effects of buprenorphine on open field behaviour and gait symmetry in healthy and lame weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Ellen; van Nes, Arie; Back, Willem; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2015-12-01

    Lameness in pigs decreases animal welfare and economic profit for the farmer. An important reason for impaired welfare in lame animals is pain due to lameness. No direct measurement of pain is possible in animals, and methods to indirectly detect and quantify the amount of pain an animal is experiencing are urgently needed. In this study, two methods to assess pain associated with lameness in pigs were evaluated to determine if they were sensitive enough to detect a lameness reduction as an effect of an experimental analgesic medication. Asymmetry associated with lameness was objectively quantified using pressure mat kinetic parameters: peak vertical force (PVF), load rate (LR), vertical impulse (VI) and peak vertical pressure (PVP). Locomotor activity was assessed in an open field test. A dose of 0.04 mg/kg buprenorphine, a strong analgesic, was used to treat 10 lame pigs, while eight other lame pigs, treated with physiological saline solution, served as controls. Buprenorphine decreased lameness-associated asymmetry for pressure mat LR (P = 0.002), VI (P = 0.003) and PVP (P = 0.001) and increased activity of the lame pigs in the open field (P = 0.023), while saline-treated animals did not show any changes in asymmetry and became less active in the open field (P open field test are both sensitive enough to detect the analgesic effects of buprenorphine when used to treat moderate to severe clinical pain in a relatively small group of affected pigs. The methods used in this study may also provide promising additional tools for future research into early pain recognition and lameness treatment in pigs.

  8. Automated Classification of Periodic Variable Stars detected by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    CERN Document Server

    Masci, Frank J; Grillmair, Carl J; Cutri, Roc M

    2014-01-01

    We describe a methodology to classify periodic variable stars identified in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) full-mission single-exposure Source Database. This will assist in the future construction of a WISE periodic-Variable Source Database that assigns variables to specific science classes as constrained by the WISE observing cadence with statistically meaningful classification probabilities. We have analyzed the WISE light curves of 8273 variable stars identified in previous optical variability surveys (MACHO, GCVS, and ASAS) and show that Fourier decomposition techniques can be extended into the mid-IR to assist with their classification. Combined with other periodic light-curve features, this sample is then used to train a machine-learned classifier based on the random forest (RF) method. Consistent with previous classification studies of variable stars in general, the RF machine-learned classifier is superior to other methods in terms of accuracy, robustness against outliers, and relative...

  9. Novel compact photoacoustic imaging system to explore the applications in the medical imaging field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irisawa, Kaku; Wada, Takatsugu; Hayakawa, Toshiro; Ishihara, Miya

    2017-04-01

    PhotoAcoustic (PA) imaging is a promising imaging method using the pulsed-laser light source and ultrasound detector. PA image shows the features of optical contrast in biological tissue with ultrasound-like depth and resolution. In the human body, Hemoglobin of the blood is strong optical absorber, so the high-contrast blood distribution (vascular) image is obtained by PA imaging. Recently, FUJIFILM has developed the PA imaging system to explore its application in medical imaging field. In this system, the fusion of PA and conventional ultrasound image is realized, for example, ultrasound Doppler image is superposed to the PA and B-mode image. The system features and some results of clinical studies will be introduced.

  10. Searching for links between magnetic fields and stellar evolution. I. A survey of magnetic fields in open cluster A- and B-type stars with FORS1

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnulo, S; Landstreet, J D; Mason, E; Silaj, J; Wade, G A

    2006-01-01

    About 5% of upper main sequence stars are permeated by a strong magnetic field, the origin of which is still matter of debate. With this work we provide observational material to study how magnetic fields change with the evolution of stars on the main sequence, and to constrain theory explaining the presence of magnetic fields in A and B-type stars. Using FORS1 in spectropolarimetric mode at the ESO VLT, we have carried out a survey of magnetic fields in early-type stars belonging to open clusters and associations of various ages. We have measured the magnetic field of 235 early-type stars with a typical uncertainty of about 100 G. In our sample, 97 stars are Ap or Bp stars. For these targets, the median error bar of our field measurements was about 80 G. A field has been detected in about 41 of these stars, 37 of which were not previously known as magnetic stars. For the 138 normal A and B-type stars, the median error bar was 136 G, and no field was detected in any of them.

  11. A target field design of open multi-purpose RF coil for musculoskeletal MR imaging at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Zhang, Rui; Zhou, Diange; Wang, Xiaoying; Huang, Kefu; Zhang, Jue

    2016-10-01

    Musculoskeletal MR imaging under multi-angle situations plays an increasingly important role in assessing joint and muscle tissues system. However, there are still limitations due to the closed structures of most conventional RF coils. In this study, a time-harmonic target-field method was employed to design open multi-purpose coil (OMC) for multi-angle musculoskeletal MR imaging. The phantom imaging results suggested that the proposed OMC could achieve homogeneously distributed magnetic field and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 239.04±0.83 in the region of interest (ROI). The maximum temperature in the heating hazard test was 16°C lower than the standard regulation, which indicated the security of the designed OMC. Furthermore, to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed OMC for musculoskeletal MR imaging, especially for multi-angle imaging, a healthy volunteer was examined for MR imaging of elbow, ankle and knee using OMC. The in vivo imaging results showed that the proposed OMC is effective for MR imaging of musculoskeletal tissues at different body parts, with satisfied B1 field homogeneity and SNR. Moreover, the open structure of the OMC could provide a large joint movement region. The proposed open multi-purpose coil is feasible for musculoskeletal MR imaging, and potentially, it is more suitable for the evaluation of musculoskeletal tissues under multi-angle conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Present status and trend of oil/gas field exploration technology in polar region. Part 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saka, Koji

    1988-10-01

    The supporting system necessary for the oil/gas field exploration in the polar region includes the transportation of material/equipment between the support base and production site, maintenance/repair of exploration/production equipment, salvage and other systems. For the transportation, ice breakers, supply boats, trucks, helicopters and aircrafts are used. To heighten the ice breaker in ice breaking capacity, there is progress in bow shape, paint coating and power source, of which the main feature is the adoption of spoon shaped bow and diesel or turbine engine. For the transportation of personnel and material/equipment, the aircraft, and long flight range and high transport capacity helicopter being used, the hovercraft and vertical take-off and landing aircraft will be further introduced in no distant future. Besides, Archimedian screw type amphibian vehicle is in expectation for the various work use, and manned or unmanned submarine boat for the submarine work/maintenance use, diving unit for the submarine maintenance/inspection use and submarine burying unit for the pipeline burying use are developed. 23 figures, 18 tables.

  13. Open-field host specificity test of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of Tropical Soda Apple (Solanaceae) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    An open-field experiment was conducted to asses the suitability of the South American leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth for biological control of Solanum viarum Dunal in the USA. An open-field test with eggplant, Solanum melongena L., was conducted on the campus of the University of Buen...

  14. IMPAIRED LEARNING AND ABNORMAL OPEN-FIELD BEHAVIORS OF RATS AFTER EARLY POSTNATAL ANOXIA AND THE BENEFICIAL EFFECT OF THE CALCIUM-ANTAGONIST NIMODIPINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NYAKAS, C; MARKEL, E; SCHUURMAN, T; LUITEN, PGM

    1991-01-01

    Perinatal anoxia/hypoxia is considered a serious risk factor for normal brain development. Anoxia induced by repeated asphyxia at 2 and 4 days after birth resulted in a transient hyperactivity in the small open-field, and a behavioural depression in adult open-field activity of male Wistar rats. The

  15. Priority Fields of Teachers’ Professional Development in Terms of Open Education Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avshenyuk Nataliya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of teachers’ professional development within the concept of “open educational resources”. The author analyzes the project “Massive Open Online Courses” (MOOC as one of the modern achievements in the area of information and communication technology (ICT for the development of adult education, namely teachers’ professional development in the context of globalization. It has been determined that MOOC is an innovative form of free distance learning, which is represented by full-fledged interactive training courses based on open access to the Internet for the simultaneous participation of a large number of people. Conceptual bases of creation and functioning MOOC, which are based on two key principles of the theory of learning organization - Cognitive behaviorism and Connectivism have been characterized. It has been found out that most of the discussions developed around the main implementation problems of MOOC are: the presence of two different types of MOOC; the role of the teacher in MOOC; participation of students in MOOC; understanding and use of “mass” in MOOC; tracking the border between openness of MOOC and control over their quality. The analysis of the contemporary MOOC platforms shows that the most popular pedagogical-oriented courses are: the development of students’ thinking; e-learning and digital culture; schools: history of school education, educational policy; how to become a developer of blended learning technologies as well as development of educational technologies.

  16. Attracted to open access journals: A bibliometric author analysis in the field of biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2009-01-01

    countries and is thus a supplement to the existing author surveys and interviews. Design/methodology/approach - Bibliometric analyses of both publishing behaviour and citing behaviour in relation to OA publishing provides evidence of the impact of open access on developing countries. Findings - The results...

  17. The integration of open access journals in the scholarly communication system: Three science fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2009-01-01

    The greatest number of open access journals (OAJs) is found in the sciences and their influence is growing. However, there are only a few studies on the acceptance and thereby integration of these OAJs in the scholarly communication system. Even fewer studies provide insight into the differences...

  18. Attracted to open access journals: A bibliometric author analysis in the field of biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2009-01-01

    countries and is thus a supplement to the existing author surveys and interviews. Design/methodology/approach - Bibliometric analyses of both publishing behaviour and citing behaviour in relation to OA publishing provides evidence of the impact of open access on developing countries. Findings - The results...

  19. Differential phase contrast 2.0-Opening new 'fields' for an established technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohr, Matthias; Schregle, Ralph [Physics Faculty, Regensburg University, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Jetter, Michael; Waechter, Clemens [Institute for Semiconductor Optics and Functional Interfaces, Stuttgart University, Pfaffenwaldring 57, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Wunderer, Thomas; Scholz, Ferdinand [Institute for Optoelectronics, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 45, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Zweck, Josef, E-mail: josef.zweck@physik.uni-regensburg.de [Physics Faculty, Regensburg University, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    Differential phase contrast microscopy has become known as a high resolution imaging technique for magnetic micro-structures in the past. The method senses the local induction by measuring the deflection of the probe beam after it passes through a specimen area carrying a magnetic field. Little attention has been paid, however, to the fact that this technique is also capable of measuring electric fields. An application of the technique to measure piezoelectric polarization fields inside multi-layered structures such as quantum wells is demonstrated. For this purpose, piezoelectric fields within non-centrosymmetric crystal structures, based on GaN/InGaN/GaN quantum wells, are investigated. It can be shown that the technique is sensitive to these fields and yields detailed information about the field distribution. The specific information and experimental limitations as well as artefacts of the technique will be discussed in detail and first measurements are shown. The main advantages turn out to be high sensitivity for electric fields, combined with a very high resolution, which is limited only by the STEM probe size. Another advantage is the large achievable field of view. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We describe a technique which allows the determination of inner electric fields in matter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inner fields are believed to be one major reason for the so-called efficiency 'droop' in green solid state lasers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The technique used is differential phase contrast, used for the first time for inner electric field determination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The technique is complementary to electron holography, offers a wider field of view and reveals new structures.

  20. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTROSCOPY OF BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Adam C.; Cushing, Michael C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Eisenhardt, Peter R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Skrutskie, M. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Griffith, Roger L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Marsh, Kenneth A., E-mail: Adam.Schneider@Utoledo.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-10

    We present a sample of brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for which we have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared grism spectroscopy. The sample (22 in total) was observed with the G141 grism covering 1.10–1.70 μm, while 15 were also observed with the G102 grism, which covers 0.90–1.10 μm. The additional wavelength coverage provided by the G102 grism allows us to (1) search for spectroscopic features predicted to emerge at low effective temperatures (e.g.,ammonia bands) and (2) construct a smooth spectral sequence across the T/Y boundary. We find no evidence of absorption due to ammonia in the G102 spectra. Six of these brown dwarfs are new discoveries, three of which are found to have spectral types of T8 or T9. The remaining three, WISE J082507.35+280548.5 (Y0.5), WISE J120604.38+840110.6 (Y0), and WISE J235402.77+024015.0 (Y1), are the 19th, 20th, and 21st spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to date. We also present HST grism spectroscopy and reevaluate the spectral types of five brown dwarfs for which spectral types have been determined previously using other instruments.

  1. Spatial variations of hydrocarbon contamination and soil properties in oil exploring fields across China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuting; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Jian; Li, Guanghe

    2012-11-30

    Successful site remediation is critically based on a comprehensive understanding of distribution of contaminants, soil physico-chemical and microbial properties in oil contaminated sites. One hundred and ten topsoils were sampled from seven typical oil fields in different geoclimate regions across north to south China to investigate the spatial variances of oil contaminations and soil parameters. Oil concentrations and compositions, soil geochemical properties and microbial populations were analyzed and statistic analysis methods were used to analyze the spatial pattern of soil variables. The results indicated that oil contaminations were serious in most oil exploring areas in China, especially with high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from petrogenic origin. Ordination analyses indicated a relatively distinct spatial pattern that all soil samples grouped mainly by geographic locations, instead of distributing along contamination or other geochemical variable gradient. Microbial populations were found to be statistically positively correlated with soil nitrogen, phosphorus and water content, and negatively correlated with salt pH and soluble salts (Phydrocarbon-contaminated fields across large spatial scales, which is important for the environmental protection and further remediation in oil contaminated sites according to local conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chronic ethanol intake-induced changes in open-field behavior and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ⅳ expression in nucleus accumbens of rats: naloxone reversal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Wei-liang BIAN; Gui-qin XIE; Sheng-zhong CUI; Mei-ling WU; Yue-hua LI; Ling-li QUE; Xiao-ru YUAN

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of chronic ethanol intake on the locomotor activity and the levels of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ⅳ (CaM kinase Ⅳ) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats. Simultaneously, the effects of non-selective opioid antagonist (naloxone) on the CaM kinase Ⅳ expression in the NAc and ethanol consumption of rats were also observed. Methods: Ethanol was administered in drinking water at the concentrations of 6% (v/v), for 28 d. The locomotor activity of rats was investigated in the open-field apparatus. CaM kinase Ⅳ levels in the NAc were analyzed using Western blotting. Results: Rats consuming ethanol solution exhibited a significant decrease of ambulation activity, accompanied by a reduced frequency of explorative rearing in an open-field task on d 7 and d 14 of chronic ethanol ingestion, whereas presumed adaptation to the neurological effects of ethanol was observed on d 28. Chronic ethanol intake elicited a significant decrease of the CaM kinase Ⅳ expression in the nuclei, but not in the cytoplasm of the NAc on d 28. Naloxone treatment significantly attenu-ated ethanol intake of rats and antagonized the decrease of CaM kinase Ⅳ in the nuclei of NAc neurons. The cytosolic CaM kinase Ⅳ protein levels of the NAc also increased in rats exposed to ethanol plus naloxone. Conclusion: Chronic ethanol intake-induced changes in explorative behavior is mediated at least partly by changes in CaM kinase Ⅳ signaling in the nuclei of the NAc, and naloxone attenuates ethanol consumption through antagonizing the downregulation of CaM kinase Ⅳ in the NAc.

  3. Ultralow field emission from thinned, open-ended, and defected carbon nanotubes by using microwave hydrogen plasma processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jian-Hua; Cheng, Lin; Wang, Fan-Jie; Yu, Bin; Li, Guo-Zheng; Li, De-Jun; Cheng, Guo-An

    2015-01-01

    Ultralow field emission is achieved from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by using microwave hydrogen plasma processing. After the processing, typical capped CNT tips are removed, with thinned, open-ended, and defected CNTs left. Structural analyses indicate that the processed CNTs have more SP3-hybridized defects as compared to the pristine ones. The morphology of CNTs can be readily controlled by adjusting microwave powers, which change the shape of CNTs by means of hydrogen plasma etching. Processed CNTs with optimal morphology are found to have an ultralow turn-on field of 0.566 V/μm and threshold field of 0.896 V/μm, much better than 0.948 and 1.559 V/μm of the as-grown CNTs, respectively. This improved FE performance is ascribed to the structural changes of CNTs after the processing. The thinned and open-ended shape of CNTs can facilitate electron tunneling through barriers and additionally, the increased defects at tube walls can serve as new active emission sites. Furthermore, our plasma processed CNTs exhibit excellent field emission stability at a large emission current density of 10.36 mA/cm2 after being perfectly aged, showing promising prospects in applications as high-performance vacuum electron sources.

  4. Exploring a Third Confirmed Case of Hemoperitoneum following Open Inguinal Hernia Repair Caused by Sampson Artery Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Jordan; Jagtiani, Manoj; Schmelzer, David; Wolodiger, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Hemoperitoneum is a rare complication of open inguinal hernia repair. This is the third reported case of this complication attributed to the same bleeding source: Sampson's artery. Sampson's artery courses along the round ligament of the uterus in the inguinal canal of females, originating from the arcade formed between the uterine and ovarian arteries. Usually obliterated in postembryonic development, this artery can persist in some adult female patients. Disruption of Sampson's artery can lead to hemoperitoneum following ligation of the uterine round ligament during open inguinal hernia repair in females. This case report describes a third confirmed case of hemoperitoneum complicating an open inguinal hernia repair. We review all three reported cases to date and discuss the recurring signs, symptoms, epidemiologic factors, and diagnostic findings associated. Our review suggests that females of childbearing age, particularly those in the peripartum period, are most at risk of developing this rare complication. PMID:28487804

  5. Exploring a Third Confirmed Case of Hemoperitoneum following Open Inguinal Hernia Repair Caused by Sampson Artery Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Hebert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoperitoneum is a rare complication of open inguinal hernia repair. This is the third reported case of this complication attributed to the same bleeding source: Sampson’s artery. Sampson’s artery courses along the round ligament of the uterus in the inguinal canal of females, originating from the arcade formed between the uterine and ovarian arteries. Usually obliterated in postembryonic development, this artery can persist in some adult female patients. Disruption of Sampson’s artery can lead to hemoperitoneum following ligation of the uterine round ligament during open inguinal hernia repair in females. This case report describes a third confirmed case of hemoperitoneum complicating an open inguinal hernia repair. We review all three reported cases to date and discuss the recurring signs, symptoms, epidemiologic factors, and diagnostic findings associated. Our review suggests that females of childbearing age, particularly those in the peripartum period, are most at risk of developing this rare complication.

  6. A New Analysis in the Field of the Open Cluster Collinder 223

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. L. Tadross

    2004-01-01

    The present study of the open cluster Collinder 223 (Cr 223) depended greatly on the photoelectric data of Claria and Lapasset. We use the data in conjunction with the AAO/DSS1 image of the cluster in a re-investigation to improve the main parameters of Cr 223, including the stellar density, the position of the cluster's center, the cluster's diameter. Its luminosity function, mass function, and total mass are also estimated.

  7. MONITORING OF IN-FIELD VARIABILITY FOR SITE SPECIFIC CROP MANAGEMENT THROUGH OPEN GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Řezník

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural sector is in a unique position due to its strategic importance around the world. It is crucial for both citizens (consumers and the economy (both regional and global, which, ideally, should ensure that the whole sector is a network of interacting organisations. It is important to develop new tools, management methods, and applications to improve the management and logistic operations of agricultural producers (farms and agricultural service providers. From a geospatial perspective, this involves identifying cost optimization pathways, reducing transport, reducing environmental loads, and improving the energy balance, while maintaining production levels, etc. This paper describes the benefits of, and open issues arising from, the development of the Open Farm Management Information System. Emphasis is placed on descriptions of available remote sensing and other geospatial data, and their harmonization, processing, and presentation to users. At the same time, the FOODIE platform also offers a novel approach of yield potential estimations. Validation for one farm demonstrated 70% successful rate when comparing yield results at a farm counting 1’284 hectares on one hand and results of a theoretical model of yield potential on the other hand. The presented Open Farm Management Information System has already been successfully registered under Phase 8 of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS Architecture Implementation Pilot in order to support the wide variety of demands that are primarily aimed at agriculture and water pollution monitoring by means of remote sensing.

  8. Monitoring of In-Field Variability for Site Specific Crop Management Through Open Geospatial Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Řezník, T.; Lukas, V.; Charvát, K.; Charvát, K., Jr.; Horáková, Š.; Křivánek, Z.; Herman, L.

    2016-06-01

    The agricultural sector is in a unique position due to its strategic importance around the world. It is crucial for both citizens (consumers) and the economy (both regional and global), which, ideally, should ensure that the whole sector is a network of interacting organisations. It is important to develop new tools, management methods, and applications to improve the management and logistic operations of agricultural producers (farms) and agricultural service providers. From a geospatial perspective, this involves identifying cost optimization pathways, reducing transport, reducing environmental loads, and improving the energy balance, while maintaining production levels, etc. This paper describes the benefits of, and open issues arising from, the development of the Open Farm Management Information System. Emphasis is placed on descriptions of available remote sensing and other geospatial data, and their harmonization, processing, and presentation to users. At the same time, the FOODIE platform also offers a novel approach of yield potential estimations. Validation for one farm demonstrated 70% successful rate when comparing yield results at a farm counting 1'284 hectares on one hand and results of a theoretical model of yield potential on the other hand. The presented Open Farm Management Information System has already been successfully registered under Phase 8 of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Architecture Implementation Pilot in order to support the wide variety of demands that are primarily aimed at agriculture and water pollution monitoring by means of remote sensing.

  9. Implementation of the Forest Service Open Space Conservation Strategy in Washington State: Exploring the Role of the National Forest System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard J. Pringle; Lee K. Cerveny; Gordon A. Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The loss of open space was declared one of the “four threats to the health of our nation’s forests” by former USDA Forest Service Chief Dale Bosworth in 2004. Since then, the agencywide Open Space Conservation Strategy (OSCS) was released and the “four threats” were incorporated into the agency’s National Strategic Plan. These actions indicate that the OSCS is in the...

  10. Ontogeny and adolescent alcohol exposure in Wistar rats: open field conflict, light/dark box and forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desikan, Anita; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2014-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that heavy drinking and alcohol abuse and dependence peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood. Studies in animal models have demonstrated that alcohol exposure during adolescence can cause a modification in some aspects of behavioral development, causing the "adolescent phenotype" to be retained into adulthood. However, the "adolescent phenotype" has not been studied for a number of behavioral tests. The objective of the present study was to investigate the ontogeny of behaviors over adolescence/young adulthood in the light/dark box, open field conflict and forced swim test in male Wistar rats. These data were compared to previously published data from rats that received intermittent alcohol vapor exposure during adolescence (AIE) to test whether they retained the "adolescent phenotype" in these behavioral tests. Three age groups of rats were tested (post-natal day (PD) 34-42; PD55-63; PD69-77). In the light/dark box test, younger rats escaped the light box faster than older adults, whereas AIE rats returned to the light box faster and exhibited more rears in the light than controls. In the open field conflict test, both younger and AIE rats had shorter times to first enter the center, spent more time in the center of the field, were closer to the food, and consumed more food than controls. In the forced swim test no clear developmental pattern emerged. The results of the light/dark box and the forced swim test do not support the hypothesis that adolescent ethanol vapor exposure can "lock-in" all adolescent phenotypes. However, data from the open field conflict test suggest that the adolescent and the AIE rats both engaged in more "disinhibited" and food motivated behaviors. These data suggest that, in some behavioral tests, AIE may result in a similar form of behavioral disinhibition to what is seen in adolescence.

  11. 3DFD Simulation of Asymmetric Wave Field by Side-wall Acoustic Tool in Open and Cased Wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    We developed a parallelized scheme of 3D finite difference (3DFD) with non-uniform staggered grid to simulate the eccentric borehole acoustic field with side-wall acoustic logging tools in open and cased wells. Higher accuracy and lower computation cost were achieved with this scheme for modeling such an asymmetric wave field generated by a high frequency source near or on the borehole wall. We also modeled the cases with and without considering the effects of the tool body. The simulation results demonstrated that the logging tool body would attenuate the direct waves but have only little influence on the interface waves in such a borehole condition. The effects of the tool body on the wave field were significant only when the contrast of the elastic properties between tool body and borehole fluid was large.

  12. Teaching and Learning in the Tropics: An Epistemic Exploration of "the Field" in a Development Studies Field Trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kamna

    2015-01-01

    Development studies employs theories, tools and methods often found in geography, including the international field trip to a "developing" country. In 2013 and 2014, I led a two-week trip to Ethiopia. To better comprehend the effects of "the field" on students' learning, I introduced an assessed reflexive field diary to…

  13. Teaching and Learning in the Tropics: An Epistemic Exploration of "the Field" in a Development Studies Field Trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kamna

    2015-01-01

    Development studies employs theories, tools and methods often found in geography, including the international field trip to a "developing" country. In 2013 and 2014, I led a two-week trip to Ethiopia. To better comprehend the effects of "the field" on students' learning, I introduced an assessed reflexive field diary to…

  14. An exploration of future patterns of the contributions to OpenStreetMap and development of a contribution index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokar Arsanjani, J; Mooney, P; Helbich, M; Zipf, A

    2015-01-01

    OpenStreetMap (OSM) represents one of the most well-known examples of a collaborative mapping project. Major research efforts have so far dealt with data quality analysis but the modality of OSM's evolution across space and time has barely been noted. This study aims to analyze spatio-temporal patte

  15. Development of an exploration land robot using low-cost and Open Source platforms for educational purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, D.; Trejo, H.; Ordoñez, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present the didactic experience of building a low-cost robot composed of sensors, actuators, general electronics and already available frameworks. The control of the robot is through the usage of commercial Open Source platforms as Arduino; and the Raspberry Pi. The experience ranges from general conceptualization, mechanical, electric and electronic design, microcontroller programming and communications.

  16. Open-System Quantum Annealing in Mean-Field Models with Exponential Degeneracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-25

    Research Center, Mail Stop 269-3, Moffett Field, California 94035 USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035, USA 2Google, 150 Main...principle, be reproduced using an analog quantum annealer. Before outlining the formal calculation, we discuss the qualitative picture of the effect of...performance (computation time) of SA and QA is charac- terized by the numerical scaling factors in the exponent (in front ofN),whichhave tobecarefully

  17. New Frontiers in Ocean Exploration: The 2011 E/V NAUTILUS Field Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, K. L.; Ballard, R. D.; Coleman, D. F.; Roman, C.; Brennan, M. L.; Turanli, T.; Duman, M.; Carey, S.; Nomikou, P.; Marani, M.; Rosi, M.; Austin, J. A.; Canals, M.; Karson, J.; Mayer, L. A.; Makovsky, Y.; Scientific Team of the 2011 Nautilus Expedition

    2011-12-01

    In the summer of 2011, the Exploration Vessel NAUTILUS is undertaking a four-month expedition to the Black, Aegean and Mediterranean Seas, and North Atlantic Ocean. The primary goal of the NAUTILUS is to create a focus of international leadership for the development and integration of leading-edge technologies, educational programs, field operations, and public outreach programs for ocean exploration, in partnership with NOAA, National Geographic Society, Office of Naval Research, and other sponsors. To do so, the program uses a complement of deep submergence vehicle systems and "telepresence" technologies to engage scientists, educators and the public, both at sea and ashore, allowing them to become integral members of the on-board exploration team. When discoveries are made, experts ashore are notified and brought aboard virtually within a short period of time to help guide shipboard response before the ship moves on. The 2011 expedition is currently in progress, and is comprised of eight areas of interest. Extensive sidescan mapping is taking place off the Turkish coasts of the Black and Aegean Seas, and will be followed by remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives on targets of archaeological, geological and biological interest. In the Black Sea, additional work on the porewater chemistry of the sediments in the oxic, suboxic and anoxic zones will take place. High-resolution multibeam, stereo imaging and structured light mapping, as well as sediment and water sampling, will be carried out at two locations in the Hellenic Volcanic Arc, the Kolumbo underwater volcano and deep Cretan Basin. We will also carry out transects on the unexplored slopes of the volcanic Christianna Domes, located near Santorini volcano. We will use ROVs equipped with MAPRs and ORP sensors to search for and investigate hydrothermal activity on seamounts and other suspected venting sites in the Aeolian Arc and Straits of Sicily. In the western Mediterranean, the submarine canyons and Mazarron

  18. Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation in a Weak Ligand Field: Leveraging Open Shell First Row Transition Metal Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirik, Paul James

    2017-01-12

    Unique features of Earth abundant transition metal catalysts are reviewed in the context of catalytic carbon-carbon bond forming reactions. Aryl-substituted bis(imino)pyridine iron and cobalt dihalide compounds, when activated with alkyl aluminum reagents, form highly active catalysts for the polymerization of ethylene. Open shell iron and cobalt alkyl complexes have been synthesized that serve as single component olefin polymerization catalysts. Reduced bis(imino)pyridine iron- and cobalt dinitrogen compounds have also been discovered that promote the unique [2+2] cycloaddition of unactivated terminal alkenes. Electronic structure studies support open shell intermediates, a deviation from traditional strong field organometallic compounds that promote catalytic C-C bond formation.

  19. Field measurements of aerosol production from whitecaps in the open ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Norris

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous measurements of near-surface aerosol and bubble spectra were made during five buoy deployments in the open ocean of the North Atlantic and used to estimate aerosol fluxes per unit area of whitecap. The measurements were made during two cruises as part of the SEASAW project, a UK contribution to the international SOLAS program. The mean bubble number concentrations for each deployment are in broad agreement with other open ocean spectra and are consistently one to two orders of magnitude lower than previous laboratory and surf zone studies. This suggests that the aerosol fluxes estimated above open ocean whitecaps will differ to those from over the surf zone and laboratory whitecaps due to the differences in the size and number of bursting bubbles. Production fluxes per unit area of whitecap are estimated from the mean aerosol concentration for each buoy deployment. They are found to increase with wind speed, and span the range of values found by previous laboratory and surf-zone studies for particles with radius at 80% humidity, R80 < 1 μm, but to drop off more rapidly with increasing size for larger particles. A possible cause of this difference in behavior is the significant difference in bubble spectra. Estimates of the mean sea spray flux were made by scaling the whitecap production fluxes with in-situ estimates of whitecap fraction. The sea spray fluxes are also compared with simultaneous individual eddy covariance flux estimates made during the cruise, and with a sea spray source function derived from them.

  20. Heart Rate Variability in Nonlinear Rats with Different Orientation and Exploratory Activity in the Open Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kur'yanova, E V; Teplyi, D L; Zhukova, Yu D; Zhukovina, N V

    2015-12-01

    The basic behavioral activity of nonlinear rats was evaluated from the sum of crossed peripheral and central squares and peripheral and central rearing postures in the open fi eld test. This index was low (30 episodes). Male rats with high score of orientation and exploratory activity were characterized by higher indexes of total heart rate variability than rats with low or intermediate activity. Specimens with a greater contribution of VLF waves into the total power spectrum of heart rate variability were shown to dominate among the rats with high behavioral activity. Our results are consistent with the notions of a suprasegmental nature of VLF waves.

  1. The spectral analysis of motion: An "open field" activity test example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have described the new mathematical approach, with spectral analysis of the data to evaluate position and motion in the „„open field““ experiments. The aim of this work is to introduce several new parameters mathematically derived from experimental data by means of spectral analysis, and to quantitatively estimate the quality of the motion. Two original software packages (TRACKER and POSTPROC were used for transforming a video data to a log file, suitable for further computational analysis, and to perform analysis from the log file. As an example, results obtained from the experiments with Wistar rats in the „open field“ test are included. The test group of animals was treated with diazepam. Our results demonstrate that all the calculated parameters, such as movement variability, acceleration and deceleration, were significantly lower in the test group compared to the control group. We believe that the application of parameters obtained by spectral analysis could be of great significance in assessing the locomotion impairment in any kind of motion. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41007 i br. ON174028

  2. A partially open porous media flow with chaotic advection: towards a model of coupled fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Guy; Lester, Daniel; Ord, Alison; Kulkarni, Pandurang; Trefry, Mike; Hobbs, Bruce E; Regenaur-Lieb, Klaus; Morris, Jeffery

    2010-01-13

    In nature, dissipative fluxes of fluid, heat and/or reacting species couple to each other and may also couple to deformation of a surrounding porous matrix. We use the well-known analogy of Hele-Shaw flow to Darcy flow to make a model porous medium with porosity proportional to local cell height. Time- and space-varying fluid injection from multiple source/sink wells lets us create many different kinds of chaotic flows and chemical concentration patterns. Results of an initial time-dependent potential flow model illustrate that this is a partially open flow, in which parts of the material transported by the flow remain in the cell forever and parts pass through with residence time and exit time distributions that have self-similar features in the control parameter space of the stirring. We derive analytically the existence boundary in stirring control parameter space between where isolated fluid regions can and cannot remain forever in the open flow. Experiments confirm the predictions.

  3. Effect of flow field on open channel flow properties using numerical investigation and experimental comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khazaee, I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Torbat-e-jam branch, Islamic Azad University, Torbat-e-jam (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadiun, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahrood branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    In this paper a complete three-dimensional and two phase CFD model for flow distribution in an open channel investigated. The finite volume method (FVM) with a dynamic Sub grid-scale was carried out for seven cases of different aspect ratios, different inclination angles or slopes and convergence-divergence condition. The volume of fluid (VOF) method was used to allow the free-surface to deform freely with the underlying turbulence. The discharge through open channel flow is often evaluated by velocity-area integration method from the measurement of velocity at discrete locations in the measuring section. The variation of velocity along horizontal and vertical directions is thus very important to decide the location of the sensors. The aspect ratio of the channel, slope of the channel and divergence- convergence of the channel have investigated and the results show that the depth of water at the end of the channel is higher at AR=0.8 against the AR=0.4 and AR=1.2. Also it is clear that by increasing the inclination angle or slope of the channel in case1, case4 and case5 the depth of the water increases. Also it is clear that the outlet mass flow rate is at a minimum value at a range of inclination angle of the channel.

  4. Integrated Geophysical Exploration Program at the Rye Patch Geothermal Field, Pershing County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Teplow

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of the geophysical exploration program was to use an integrated suite of detailed geophysical surveys to locate and map commercially productive zones in the Rye Patch geothermal field. The focus of the surveys was the production zone in Well 44-28 located at a depth of 3400' below surface. The primary goal of the program was to map the extension of the specific producing feature in 44-28 so that step-out wells could be targeted accurately. The second goal of the program was to identify additional production drilling targets that may be hydrologically independent from the 44-28 zone. The geophysical program was designed to measure a range of physical rock characteristics including magnetic, electrical, density, and sonic properties. This was done to help overcome the limitations and ambiguities inherent to any particular geophysical method. The studies and methodologies employed in the Rye Patch geophysical program are discussed. This report presents the results and a discussion of those results from each of the surveys and studies performed. Correlations among the data sets and between the data sets and the known producing zones are discussed, and drilling targets are presented as the end product of the correlations observed in the geophysical and geologic data.

  5. Characterization of High Proper Motion Objects from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    CERN Document Server

    Luhman, K L

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of high proper motion objects that we have found in a recent study and in this work with multi-epoch astrometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using photometry and proper motions from 2MASS and WISE, we have identified the members of this sample that are likely to be late type, nearby, or metal poor. We have performed optical and near-infrared spectroscopy on 41 objects, from which we measure spectral types that range from M4-T2.5. This sample includes 11 blue L dwarfs and five subdwarfs; the latter were also classified as such in the recent study by Kirkpatrick and coworkers. Based on their spectral types and photometry, several of our spectroscopic targets may have distances of <20 pc with the closest at ~12 pc. The tangential velocities implied by the spectrophotometric distances and proper motions indicate that four of the five subdwarfs are probably members of the Galactic halo while several other objects, including the early-T dwarf WISE J210529.08-623558....

  6. Characterization of high proper motion objects from the wide-field infrared survey explorer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhman, K. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Sheppard, Scott S., E-mail: kluhman@astro.psu.edu [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    We present an analysis of high proper motion objects that we have found in a recent study and in this work with multi-epoch astrometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using photometry and proper motions from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey and WISE, we have identified the members of this sample that are likely to be late-type, nearby, or metal-poor. We have performed optical and near-infrared spectroscopy on 41 objects, from which we measure spectral types that range from M4-T2.5. This sample includes 11 blue L dwarfs and 5 subdwarfs; the latter were also classified as such in the recent study by Kirkpatrick and coworkers. Based on their spectral types and photometry, several of our spectroscopic targets may have distances of <20 pc with the closest at ∼12 pc. The tangential velocities implied by the spectrophotometric distances and proper motions indicate that four of the five subdwarfs are probably members of the Galactic halo while several other objects, including the early-T dwarf WISE J210529.08–623558.7, may belong to the thick disk.

  7. Automated classification of periodic variable stars detected by the wide-field infrared survey explorer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masci, Frank J.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Cutri, Roc M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hoffman, Douglas I., E-mail: fmasci@ipac.caltech.edu [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We describe a methodology to classify periodic variable stars identified using photometric time-series measurements constructed from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) full-mission single-exposure Source Databases. This will assist in the future construction of a WISE Variable Source Database that assigns variables to specific science classes as constrained by the WISE observing cadence with statistically meaningful classification probabilities. We have analyzed the WISE light curves of 8273 variable stars identified in previous optical variability surveys (MACHO, GCVS, and ASAS) and show that Fourier decomposition techniques can be extended into the mid-IR to assist with their classification. Combined with other periodic light-curve features, this sample is then used to train a machine-learned classifier based on the random forest (RF) method. Consistent with previous classification studies of variable stars in general, the RF machine-learned classifier is superior to other methods in terms of accuracy, robustness against outliers, and relative immunity to features that carry little or redundant class information. For the three most common classes identified by WISE: Algols, RR Lyrae, and W Ursae Majoris type variables, we obtain classification efficiencies of 80.7%, 82.7%, and 84.5% respectively using cross-validation analyses, with 95% confidence intervals of approximately ±2%. These accuracies are achieved at purity (or reliability) levels of 88.5%, 96.2%, and 87.8% respectively, similar to that achieved in previous automated classification studies of periodic variable stars.

  8. Local Interstellar Magnetic Field Determined from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer Ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Funsten, H. O.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Pogorelov, N. V.

    2016-02-01

    The solar wind emanating from the Sun interacts with the local interstellar medium (LISM), forming the heliosphere. Hydrogen energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) produced by the solar-interstellar interaction carry important information about plasma properties from the boundaries of the heliosphere, and are currently being measured by NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). IBEX observations show the existence of a “ribbon” of intense ENA emission projecting a circle on the celestial sphere that is centered near the local interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) vector. Here we show that the source of the IBEX ribbon as a function of ENA energy outside the heliosphere, uniquely coupled to the draping of the ISMF around the heliopause, can be used to precisely determine the magnitude (2.93 ± 0.08 μG) and direction (227.°28 ± 0.°69, 34.°62 ± 0.°45 in ecliptic longitude and latitude) of the pristine ISMF far (∼1000 AU) from the Sun. We find that the ISMF vector is offset from the ribbon center by ∼8.°3 toward the direction of motion of the heliosphere through the LISM, and their vectors form a plane that is consistent with the direction of deflected interstellar neutral hydrogen, thought to be controlled by the ISMF. Our results yield draped ISMF properties close to that observed by Voyager 1, the only spacecraft to directly measure the ISMF close to the heliosphere, and give predictions of the pristine ISMF that Voyager 1 has yet to sample.

  9. The First Ultra-Cool Brown Dwarf Discovered by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    CERN Document Server

    Mainzer, A; Skrutskie, M; Gelino, C R; Kirkpatrick, J Davy; Jarrett, T; Masci, F; Marley, M; Saumon, D; Wright, E; Beaton, R; Dietrich, M; Eisenhardt, P; Garnavich, P; Kuhn, O; Leisawitz, D; Marsh, K; McLean, I; Padgett, D; Rueff, K

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of the first new ultra-cool brown dwarf found with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The object's preliminary designation is WISEPC J045853.90+643451.9. Follow-up spectroscopy with the LUCIFER instrument on the Large Binocular Telescope indicates that it is a very late-type T dwarf with a spectral type approximately equal to T9. Fits to an IRTF/SpeX 0.8-2.5 micron spectrum to the model atmospheres of Marley and Saumon indicate an effective temperature of approximately 600 K as well as the presence of vertical mixing in its atmosphere. The new brown dwarf is easily detected by WISE, with a signal-to-noise ratio of ~36 at 4.6 microns. Current estimates place it at a distance of 6 to 10 pc. This object represents the first in what will likely be hundreds of nearby brown dwarfs found by WISE that will be suitable for follow up observations, including those with the James Webb Space Telescope. One of the two primary scientific goals of the WISE mission is to find the coolest, ...

  10. The Discovery of Y Dwarfs Using Data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)

    CERN Document Server

    Cushing, Michael C; Gelino, Christopher R; Griffith, Roger L; Skrutskie, Michael F; Mainzer, Amanda K; Marsh, Kenneth A; Beichman, Charles A; Burgasser, Adam J; Prato, Lisa A; Simcoe, Robert A; Marley, Mark S; Saumon, D; Freedman, Richard S; Eisenhardt, Peter R; Wright, Edward L

    2011-01-01

    We present the discovery of seven ultracool brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Near-infrared spectroscopy reveals deep absorption bands of H_2O and CH_4 that indicate all seven of the brown dwarfs have spectral types later than UGPS J072227.51-054031.2, the latest type T dwarf currently known. The spectrum of WISEP J182831.08+265037.8 is distinct in that the heights of the J- and H-band peaks are approximately equal in units of f_lambda, so we identify it as the archetypal member of the Y spectral class. The spectra of at least two of the other brown dwarfs exhibit absorption on the blue wing of the H-band peak that we tentatively ascribe to NH_3. These spectral morphological changes provide a clear transition between the T dwarfs and the Y dwarfs. In order to produce a smooth near-infrared spectral sequence across the T/Y dwarf transition, we have reclassified UGPS J0722-0540 as the T9 spectral standard and tentatively assign WISEP J173835.52+273258.9 as the Y0 spect...

  11. The First Hundred Brown Dwarfs Discovered by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkpatrick, J Davy; Gelino, Christopher R; Griffith, Roger L; Skrutskie, Michael F; Marsh, Kenneth A; Wright, Edward L; Mainzer, Amanda K; Eisenhardt, Peter R; McLean, Ian S; Thompson, Maggie A; Bauer, James M; Benford, Dominic J; Bridge, Carrie R; Lake, Sean E; Petty, Sara M; Stanford, S Adam; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Bailey, Vanessa; Beichman, Charles A; Bochanski, John J; Burgasser, Adam J; Capak, Peter L; Cruz, Kelle L; Hinz, Philip M; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S; Knox, Russell P; Manohar, Swarnima; Masters, Daniel; Morales-Calderon, Maria; Prato, Lisa A; Rodigas, Timothy J; Salvato, Mara; Schurr, Steven D; Scoville, Nicholas Z; Simcoe, Robert A; Stapelfeldt, Karl R; Stern, Daniel; Stock, Nathan D; Vacca, William D

    2011-01-01

    We present ground-based spectroscopic verification of six Y dwarfs (see Cushing et al), eighty-nine T dwarfs, eight L dwarfs, and one M dwarf identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Eighty of these are cold brown dwarfs with spectral types greater than or equal to T6, six of which have been announced earlier in Mainzer et al and Burgasser et al. We present color-color and color-type diagrams showing the locus of M, L, T, and Y dwarfs in WISE color space. Near-infrared classifications as late as early Y are presented and objects with peculiar spectra are discussed. After deriving an absolute WISE 4.6 um (W2) magnitude vs. spectral type relation, we estimate spectrophotometric distances to our discoveries. We also use available astrometric measurements to provide preliminary trigonometric parallaxes to four our discoveries, which have types of L9 pec (red), T8, T9, and Y0; all of these lie within 10 pc of the Sun. The Y0 dwarf, WISE 1541-2250, is the closest at 2.8 (+1.3,-0.6) pc; if this ...

  12. Research Internship on Pulse Electromagnetic Fields (PEMF) and Microwave Applications for Deep Space Exploration Medical Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehir, Austin

    2016-01-01

    Throughout my internship, I worked under Dr. Diane Byerly on Pulse Electromagnetic Fields (PEMF) in the Biomedical Engineering for Exploration Space Technology Laboratory (BEEST). I conducted experiments and analyzed the impact coil size, placement, and contour have on flux densities. Using this information, I optimized coil configurations for future patient use. This was achieved by using a fiberglass leg casting and PEMF coils to evaluate the different flux densities produced at different locations on the leg. The fiberglass casting was an improvement on the prior test that used cylindrical tubing to determine the flux densities generated. The cast allowed for the natural bends of the leg to be taken into consideration in the experiment. Also, I investigated the impact that a Helmholtz coil configuration has on the flux densities produced in a leg. This configuration produces a constant magnetic field throughout the targeted area. This information supports the Helmholtz configuration for future medical testing using the PEMF technology being developed at JSC. A preliminary study using test subjects is scheduled for this summer at Methodist Hospital in Sugarland that will incorporate the data obtained from the tests I conducted to ensure accurate results. In addition, I supported the microwave laundry project for sanitizing clothes in space. I worked in the BEEST lab assisting in the preparation of bacterial inoculations and microwave testing to determine the efficacy of radiation on eradicating Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in inoculated fabric specimens. I performed S-band microwave tests to quantify the impact that increased layers of cloth and salt concentration have on both kill rate and temperature. NASA will use the information I obtained throughout my internship to aid in the design of a laundry enclosure system for the International Space Station. I also assisted in protocol development for the use of high frequency microwave energy for a number of

  13. Female mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA mice exhibit hyperactivity and a reduced sense of danger in the open field test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Langford-Smith

    Full Text Available Reliable behavioural tests in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases allow us to study the natural history of disease and evaluate the efficacy of novel therapies. Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA (MPS IIIA or Sanfilippo A, is a severe, neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the heparan sulphate catabolising enzyme, sulfamidase. Undegraded heparan sulphate accumulates, resulting in lysosomal enlargement and cellular dysfunction. Patients suffer a progressive loss of motor and cognitive function with severe behavioural manifestations and premature death. There is currently no treatment. A spontaneously occurring mouse model of the disease has been described, that has approximately 3% of normal enzyme activity levels. Behavioural phenotyping of the MPS IIIA mouse has been previously reported, but the results are conflicting and variable, even after full backcrossing to the C57BL/6 background. Therefore we have independently backcrossed the MPS IIIA model onto the C57BL/6J background and evaluated the behaviour of male and female MPS IIIA mice at 4, 6 and 8 months of age using the open field test, elevated plus maze, inverted screen and horizontal bar crossing at the same circadian time point. Using a 60 minute open field, we have demonstrated that female MPS IIIA mice are hyperactive, have a longer path length, display rapid exploratory behaviour and spend less time immobile than WT mice. Female MPS IIIA mice also display a reduced sense of danger and spend more time in the centre of the open field. There were no significant differences found between male WT and MPS IIIA mice and no differences in neuromuscular strength were seen with either sex. The altered natural history of behaviour that we observe in the MPS IIIA mouse will allow more accurate evaluation of novel therapeutics for MPS IIIA and potentially other neurodegenerative disorders.

  14. Effects of ethanol in an open field apparatus: modification by U50488H and WIN 44441-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorecky, L A; Patel, V; Roberts, P

    1989-02-01

    The effects of U50488H, a kappa agonist, and WIN 44441-3, a kappa antagonist, and their modification of the effects of ethanol, on the behavior of rats in a modified open field apparatus, was examined. Crossover activity was increased by U50488H. Headpoke activity was decreased by WIN 44441-3 and increased by U50488H. Rearing activity was increased by WIN 44441-3 but was not affected by U50488H. The effect of both drugs was dose related, with the largest doses having no effect. Ethanol (0.5 g/kg) stimulated crossover activity while it depressed rearing, headpoke and corner activities; except for crossover activity the 2.0 g/kg dose of ethanol depressed these activities. Pretreatment with WIN 44441-3 (0.5 mg/kg) potentiated the stimulant effect of ethanol on crossover activity and partially reversed the depressant effect of ethanol on rearing and headpoke activities. U50488H potentiated the ethanol-induced depression of headpoke and reversed the depression of corner activity. Pretreatment with U50488H had no effect on ethanol's action on crossover and rearing behaviors. Our results indicate that kappa opiate receptors may mediate some behaviors exhibited by rats in a modified open field apparatus. Activation of these receptors increases locomotor and headpoke activity but had no effect on rearing activity. Furthermore, the 0.5 g/kg dose of ethanol has differential effects on different measures of open field behavior, while the 2.0 g/kg dose was largely depressant. Our data suggest that some of these effects of ethanol may be mediated via kappa opioid receptors.

  15. Exploring the downside of open knowledge resources: The case of indigenous knowledge systems and practices in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Flor, Alexander Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    The paper is based on the challenges encountered by the researcher while conducting a study titled “Design, Development and Testing of an Indigenous Knowledge Management System Using Mobile Device Video Capture and Web 2.0 Protocols.” During the conduct of the study the researcher observed a marked reluctance from organized indigenous people’s groups to participate in the initiative. It soon became apparent that interfacing indigenous knowledge with open access concepts held complicated issue...

  16. Seedling Emergence and Phenotypic Response of Common Bean Germplasm to Different Temperatures under Controlled Conditions and in Open Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. DE RON

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and uniform seed germination and seedling emergence under diverse environmental conditions is a desirable characteristic for crops. Common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L. differ in their low temperature tolerance regarding growth and yield. Cultivars tolerant to low temperature during the germination and emergence stages and carriers of the grain quality standards demanded by consumers are needed for the success of the bean crop. The objectives of this study were i to screen the seedling emergence and the phenotypic response of bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled chamber and field conditions to display stress-tolerant genotypes with good agronomic performances and yield potential, and ii to compare the emergence of bean seedlings under controlled environment and in open field conditions to assess the efficiency of genebanks standard germination tests for predicting the performance of the seeds in the field. Three trials were conducted with 28 dry bean genotypes in open field and in growth chamber under low, moderate and warm temperature. Morpho-agronomic data were used to evaluate the phenotypic performance of the different genotypes. Cool temperatures resulted in a reduction of the rate of emergence in the bean genotypes, however, emergence and early growth of bean could be under different genetic control and these processes need further research to be suitably modeled. Nine groups arose from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA representing variation in emergence time and proportion of emergence in the controlled chamber and in the open field indicating a trend to lower emergence in large and extra-large seeded genotypes. Screening of seedling emergence and phenotypic response of the bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled growth chambers and under field conditions showed several genotypes, as landraces 272, 501, 593 and the cultivar Borlotto, with stress-tolerance at emergence and high

  17. Preliminary Results from NEOWISE: An Enhancement to the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer for Solar System Science

    OpenAIRE

    Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Dailey, J.; Eisenhardt, P.; McMillan, R. S.; Wright, E.; Walker, R.; Jedicke, R.; Spahr, T.; Tholen, D.; Alles, R; Beck, R.

    2011-01-01

    The \\emph{Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer} has surveyed the entire sky at four infrared wavelengths with greatly improved sensitivity and spatial resolution compared to its predecessors, the \\emph{Infrared Astronomical Satellite} and the \\emph{Cosmic Background Explorer}. NASA's Planetary Science Division has funded an enhancement to the \\WISE\\ data processing system called "NEOWISE" that allows detection and archiving of moving objects found in the \\WISE\\ data. NEOWISE has mined the \\WIS...

  18. Mass Communication in Ferment: Open Questions in the Historiography of the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gertrude J.

    Thomas S. Kuhn's paradigm theory, which explains the growth of science, can be used to challenge three aspects of the received history of North American communications research: (1) the beginning point of the field and its periodization, (2) the development of mass media studies as an articulated subfield, and (3) the role of new technologies in…

  19. Mass Communication in Ferment: Open Questions in the Historiography of the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gertrude J.

    Thomas S. Kuhn's paradigm theory, which explains the growth of science, can be used to challenge three aspects of the received history of North American communications research: (1) the beginning point of the field and its periodization, (2) the development of mass media studies as an articulated subfield, and (3) the role of new technologies in…

  20. Exploration of Regional Open Innovation Driving Mechanism and Path%区域开放式创新驱动机理和路径探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱斌; 曾威强

    2015-01-01

    Open innovation is a new concept of economic development strategy and innovation drive is a new requirement for economic and social development. Based on the perspective of innovation driving process, regional open innovation driving mechanism can be divided into four steps, namely innovative resource collection, innovative input and output, innovative achievement transformation,and innovative spread and diffusion. These four steps interact with each other and progress in proper order and sequence,and form a complete regional dynamic system of open innovation drive. Finally the paper proposes that we must promote open innovation and innovation ability,explore new ways of innovation cooperation and strengthen the construction of open innovation service system to realize open innovation drive.%开放式创新是经济发展战略新理念,创新驱动是经济社会发展的新要求。基于创新驱动过程的视角,区域开放式创新驱动机理可分为创新资源收集、创新投入产出、创新成果转化、创新传播扩散四个不同阶段的驱动机制。四个不同阶段之间相互影响、循序推进,形成一个完整的区域开放式创新驱动的动态系统,很好地诠释了区域创新模式的发展过程。实现开放式创新驱动必须提升开放式创新主体的创新能力,探索创新合作新方式并加强开放式创新服务体系建设。

  1. The Software Design for the Wide-Field Infrared Explorer Attitude Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark O.; Barnes, Kenneth C.; Melhorn, Charles M.; Phillips, Tom

    1998-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE), currently scheduled for launch in September 1998, is the fifth of five spacecraft in the NASA/Goddard Small Explorer (SMEX) series. This paper presents the design of WIRE's Attitude Control System flight software (ACS FSW). WIRE is a momentum-biased, three-axis stabilized stellar pointer which provides high-accuracy pointing and autonomous acquisition for eight to ten stellar targets per orbit. WIRE's short mission life and limited cryogen supply motivate requirements for Sun and Earth avoidance constraints which are designed to prevent catastrophic instrument damage and to minimize the heat load on the cryostat. The FSW implements autonomous fault detection and handling (FDH) to enforce these instrument constraints and to perform several other checks which insure the safety of the spacecraft. The ACS FSW implements modules for sensor data processing, attitude determination, attitude control, guide star acquisition, actuator command generation, command/telemetry processing, and FDH. These software components are integrated with a hierarchical control mode managing module that dictates which software components are currently active. The lowest mode in the hierarchy is the 'safest' one, in the sense that it utilizes a minimal complement of sensors and actuators to keep the spacecraft in a stable configuration (power and pointing constraints are maintained). As higher modes in the hierarchy are achieved, the various software functions are activated by the mode manager, and an increasing level of attitude control accuracy is provided. If FDH detects a constraint violation or other anomaly, it triggers a safing transition to a lower control mode. The WIRE ACS FSW satisfies all target acquisition and pointing accuracy requirements, enforces all pointing constraints, provides the ground with a simple means for reconfiguring the system via table load, and meets all the demands of its real-time embedded environment (16 MHz Intel

  2. Transient behavior of a flare-associated solar wind. I - Gas dynamics in a radial open field region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, F.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical investigation is conducted into the way in which a solar wind model initially satisfying both steady state and energy balance conditions is disturbed and deformed, under the assumption of heating that correspoonds to the energy release of solar flares of an importance value of approximately 1 which occur in radial open field regions. Flare-associated solar wind transient behavior is modeled for 1-8 solar radii. The coronal temperature around the heat source region rises, and a large thermal conductive flux flows inward to the chromosphere and outward to interplanetary space along field lines. The speed of the front of expanding chromospheric material generated by the impingement of the conduction front on the upper chromosphere exceeds the local sound velocity in a few minutes and eventually exceeds 100 million cm/sec.

  3. Exploring the potential of open big data from ticketing websites to characterize travel patterns within the Chinese high-speed rail system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Sheng; Yuan, Jinfu; Qiu, Yanning; Luan, Xiali; Han, Shanrui; Zhou, Wen; Xu, Chi

    2017-01-01

    Big data have contributed to deepen our understanding in regards to many human systems, particularly human mobility patterns and the structure and functioning of transportation systems. Resonating the recent call for 'open big data,' big data from various sources on a range of scales have become increasingly accessible to the public. However, open big data relevant to travelers within public transit tools remain scarce, hindering any further in-depth study on human mobility patterns. Here, we explore ticketing-website derived data that are publically available but have been largely neglected. We demonstrate the power, potential and limitations of this open big data, using the Chinese high-speed rail (HSR) system as an example. Using an application programming interface, we automatically collected the data on the remaining tickets (RTD) for scheduled trains at the last second before departure in order to retrieve information on unused transit capacity, occupancy rate of trains, and passenger flux at stations. We show that this information is highly useful in characterizing the spatiotemporal patterns of traveling behaviors on the Chinese HSR, such as weekend traveling behavior, imbalanced commuting behavior, and station functionality. Our work facilitates the understanding of human traveling patterns along the Chinese HSR, and the functionality of the largest HSR system in the world. We expect our work to attract attention regarding this unique open big data source for the study of analogous transportation systems.

  4. Towards an Open Software Platform for Field Robots in Precision Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Kjeld Jensen; Morten Larsen; Nielsen, Søren H.; Leon B. Larsen; Kent S. Olsen; Rasmus N. Jørgensen

    2014-01-01

    Robotics in precision agriculture has the potential to improve competitiveness and increase sustainability compared to current crop production methods and has become an increasingly active area of research. Tractor guidance systems for supervised navigation and implement control have reached the market, and prototypes of field robots performing precision agriculture tasks without human intervention also exist. But research in advanced cognitive perception and behaviour that is required to ena...

  5. Open field release of genetically engineered sterile male Aedes aegypti in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Lacroix

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease. In the absence of specific drugs or vaccines, control focuses on suppressing the principal mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, yet current methods have not proven adequate to control the disease. New methods are therefore urgently needed, for example genetics-based sterile-male-release methods. However, this requires that lab-reared, modified mosquitoes be able to survive and disperse adequately in the field. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult male mosquitoes were released into an uninhabited forested area of Pahang, Malaysia. Their survival and dispersal was assessed by use of a network of traps. Two strains were used, an engineered 'genetically sterile' (OX513A and a wild-type laboratory strain, to give both absolute and relative data about the performance of the modified mosquitoes. The two strains had similar maximum dispersal distances (220 m, but mean distance travelled of the OX513A strain was lower (52 vs. 100 m. Life expectancy was similar (2.0 vs. 2.2 days. Recapture rates were high for both strains, possibly because of the uninhabited nature of the site. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: After extensive contained studies and regulatory scrutiny, a field release of engineered mosquitoes was safely and successfully conducted in Malaysia. The engineered strain showed similar field longevity to an unmodified counterpart, though in this setting dispersal was reduced relative to the unmodified strain. These data are encouraging for the future testing and implementation of genetic control strategies and will help guide future field use of this and other engineered strains.

  6. Orthopedic and interventional applications at low field MRI with horizontally open configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskinen, S.K.; Parkkola, R.K.; Karhu, J.; Komu, M.E.S.; Kormano, M.J. [Diagnostic Radiology, Turku Univ. Hospital (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The recently introduced horizontally open configuration imagers allow imaging of knee, hip or shoulder during whole range of motion, which is not possible in conventional MR imagers. Special joint motion devices can be used to provide accurate and reproducible studies. In cervical spine, functional MR imaging may be useful in evaluating alarligament stability in patients with late sequelae of a whiplash injury, and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who are clinically suspected of having a cervical myelopathy or superior migration of the odontoid process. In shoulder, full range of motion abduction study may be helpful in assessing the supraspinatus tendon impingement. To evaluate patellofemoral malalignment, quadriceps loading is recommended since associated contracting muscles and related soft tissue structures can be evaluated. The position of the femoral head relative to the acetabulum during different positions can be assessed. Open-configuration scanners provide an access to patients during scanning procedure, and therefore permit interventional procedures to be monitored with MRI. Such interventions include aspiration cytology/biopsy and different drainage procedures. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die kuerzlich eingefuehrten bildgebenden Systeme mit horizontal offener Konfiguration ermoeglichen die Darstellung von Knie, Huefte oder Schulter ueber den gesamten Bewegungsbereich, war bisher mit konventionellen MR-Systemen nicht moeglich. Fuer genauere und reproduzierbare Untersuchungen koennen spezielle Gelenkbewegungsgeraete verwendet werden. Bei der Halswirbelsaeule kann die funktionelle NMR-Darstellung im Hinblick auf die Beurteilung der Stabilitaet der Ligamenta alaria bei Patienten mit Spaetfolgen eines Schleudertraumas und bei Patienten mit rheumatoider Arthritis von Nutzen sein, wenn klinisch eine zervikale Myelopathie oder superiore migration des Dens axis vermutet wird. Bei der Schulter kann eine Abduktionsstudie des vollen Bewegungsbereichs bei der Beurteilung

  7. Exploring the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars: A survey of O-type stars in clusters and in the field

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, S; Kharchenko, N V; Langer, N; de Wit, W J; Ilyin, I; Kholtygin, A F; Piskunov, A E; Przybilla, N

    2011-01-01

    To investigate statistically whether magnetic fields in massive stars are ubiquitous or appear in stars with specific spectral classification, certain ages, or in a special environment, we acquired 41 new spectropolarimetric observations for 36 stars. Among the observed sample roughly half of the stars are probable members of clusters at different ages, whereas the remaining stars are field stars not known to belong to any cluster or association. Spectropolarimetric observations were obtained during three different nights using the low-resolution spectropolarimetric mode of FORS2 (FOcal Reducer low dispersion Spectrograph) mounted on the 8-m Antu telescope of the VLT. To assess the membership in open clusters and associations, we used astrometric catalogues with the best currently available kinematic and photometric data. A field at a significance level of 3sigma was detected in ten O-type stars. Importantly, the largest longitudinal magnetic fields were measured in two Of?p stars: =-381+-122G for CPD-282561 ...

  8. THE DISCOVERY OF Y DWARFS USING DATA FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER (WISE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, Michael C.; Mainzer, A.; Eisenhardt, Peter R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 321-520, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Beichman, Charles A. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Skrutskie, Michael F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Burgasser, Adam J. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Prato, Lisa A. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Simcoe, Robert A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Building 37, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Marley, Mark S.; Freedman, Richard S. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 254-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Saumon, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS F663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Wright, Edward L., E-mail: michael.cushing@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2011-12-10

    We present the discovery of seven ultracool brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Near-infrared spectroscopy reveals deep absorption bands of H{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} that indicate all seven of the brown dwarfs have spectral types later than UGPS J072227.51-054031.2, the latest-type T dwarf currently known. The spectrum of WISEP J182831.08+265037.8 is distinct in that the heights of the J- and H-band peaks are approximately equal in units of f{sub {lambda}}, so we identify it as the archetypal member of the Y spectral class. The spectra of at least two of the other brown dwarfs exhibit absorption on the blue wing of the H-band peak that we tentatively ascribe to NH{sub 3}. These spectral morphological changes provide a clear transition between the T dwarfs and the Y dwarfs. In order to produce a smooth near-infrared spectral sequence across the T/Y dwarf transition, we have reclassified UGPS 0722-05 as the T9 spectral standard and tentatively assign WISEP J173835.52+273258.9 as the Y0 spectral standard. In total, six of the seven new brown dwarfs are classified as Y dwarfs: four are classified as Y0, one is classified as Y0 (pec?), and WISEP J1828+2650 is classified as >Y0. We have also compared the spectra to the model atmospheres of Marley and Saumon and infer that the brown dwarfs have effective temperatures ranging from 300 K to 500 K, making them the coldest spectroscopically confirmed brown dwarfs known to date.

  9. LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD DETERMINED FROM THE INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER RIBBON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Heerikhuisen, J.; Pogorelov, N. V. [Department of Space Science, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Funsten, H. O., E-mail: ezirnstein@swri.edu [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    The solar wind emanating from the Sun interacts with the local interstellar medium (LISM), forming the heliosphere. Hydrogen energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) produced by the solar-interstellar interaction carry important information about plasma properties from the boundaries of the heliosphere, and are currently being measured by NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). IBEX observations show the existence of a “ribbon” of intense ENA emission projecting a circle on the celestial sphere that is centered near the local interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) vector. Here we show that the source of the IBEX ribbon as a function of ENA energy outside the heliosphere, uniquely coupled to the draping of the ISMF around the heliopause, can be used to precisely determine the magnitude (2.93 ± 0.08 μG) and direction (227.°28 ± 0.°69, 34.°62 ± 0.°45 in ecliptic longitude and latitude) of the pristine ISMF far (∼1000 AU) from the Sun. We find that the ISMF vector is offset from the ribbon center by ∼8.°3 toward the direction of motion of the heliosphere through the LISM, and their vectors form a plane that is consistent with the direction of deflected interstellar neutral hydrogen, thought to be controlled by the ISMF. Our results yield draped ISMF properties close to that observed by Voyager 1, the only spacecraft to directly measure the ISMF close to the heliosphere, and give predictions of the pristine ISMF that Voyager 1 has yet to sample.

  10. Open access publishing in physics gains momentum

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "The first meeting of European particle physics funding agencies took place today at CERN to establish a consortium for Open Access publishing in particle physics, SCOAP3. This is the first time an antire scientific field is exploring the conversion of its reader-paid journals into an author-paid Open Access format." (1 page)

  11. Subchronic Oral Bromocriptine Methanesulfonate Enhances Open Field Novelty-Induced Behavior and Spatial Memory in Male Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olakunle James Onaolapo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to assess the neurobehavioral effects of subchronic, oral bromocriptine methanesulfonate using the open field and the Y-maze in healthy male mice. Sixty adult Swiss albino mice were assigned into three groups. Controls received normal saline, while test groups received bromocriptine methanesulfonate at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day, respectively, for a period of 21 days. Neurobehavioral tests were carried out on days 1 and 21 after administration. Open field assessment on day 1 after administration revealed significant increase in grooming at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, while horizontal and vertical locomotion showed no significant changes. Day 1 also showed no significant changes in Y-maze alternation. On day 21, horizontal locomotion, rearing, and grooming were increased significantly at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg doses after administration; also, spatial memory was significantly enhanced at 2.5 mg/kg. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the ability of oral bromocriptine to affect neurobehavior in normal mice. It also suggests that there is a cumulative effect of oral bromocriptine on the behaviors studied with more changes being seen after subchronic administration rather than after a single oral dose.

  12. Safety Evaluation of Self-assembling Peptide Gel after Intracranial Administration to Rats Using the Open Field Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Masashi; Sugaya, Chiemi; Sugiura, Yumiko; Nagai, Yusuke; Sakanishi, Kotaro

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembling peptides have been developed as clinical materials, which could scaffold to regenerate nerve cells and hemostatic materials in vivo. However, there has not been enough information for their in vivo application. The safety of self-assembling peptides for the application on the brain was examined using behavioral tests for each rat in this study. Self-assembling peptide gel was administered to the surface of the brain at a volume of 20 µL at 1.5%. After 2 months, the open field test and the prepulse inhibition (PPI) test were performed. There were no significant differences between the peptide gel and the control groups in locomotor distances and in %PPIs in the PPI test. The mean values of the percentage of time the rats stayed in the central area of the open field during the first 5 min and instances of center rearing or face washing in the peptide gel group were significantly higher than those in the control. There were amorphous substance in the subarachnoid region, and infiltrations of mononuclear cells were also observed in the self-assembling peptide gel group. Although the meaning of the effects observed in this study was not fully elucidated, the self-assembling gel produced marginal but significant behavioral and histological effects.

  13. Contrast-enhanced breast MR imaging of claustrophobic or oversized patients using an open low-field magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, M; Brizzi, D; Carbonaro, L; Chiaramondia, M; Kirchin, M A; Sardanelli, F

    2009-03-01

    A number of women who should undergo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the breast cannot use this diagnostic tool due to claustrophobia or excessive body size for the restricted confines of standard closed MR systems. Our aim was to evaluate the performance of open low-field magnet breast MR imaging in such patients using a high-relaxivity contrast agent. Of 397 consecutive patients undergoing breast MR imaging, 379 (95.5%) were studied at 1.5 T. Due to claustrophobia (n=15) or large body size (n=3), 18 patients (4.5%) were studied on a 0.2-T open magnet using a body coil. A 3D dynamic T1-weighted gradient-echo 94-s sequence was acquired with intravenous injection of gadobenate dimeglumine (0.1 mmol/kg). The standard of reference was pathological examination for 16 lesions classified with a maximal Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) score from 3 to 5, fine-needle aspiration cytology and >or=2-year follow-up for two lesions classified as BI-RADS 3, and >or=2-years follow-up for five lesions classified as BI-RADS 2. Diagnostic MR image quality was achieved for 20/23 lesions in 15/18 patients. Three lesions (two invasive cancers and a cyst) were not assessed due to patient movement and considered as two false negatives and one false positive. Thus, an 86% sensitivity [13/15; 95% confidence interval (CI): 70%-100%], an 87% specificity (7/8; 95% CI: 65%-100%) and an 87% accuracy (20/23; 95% CI: 73%-100%) were obtained. The intraclass correlation coefficient between MR and pathologic lesion size was 0.845. In claustrophobic or oversized patients, open low-field breast MR with gadobenate dimeglumine yields good diagnostic performance.

  14. A search for white dwarfs in the Galactic plane: the field and the open cluster population

    CERN Document Server

    Raddi, R; Gaensicke, B T; Hermes, J J; Napiwotzki, R; Koester, D; Tremblay, P -E; Barentsen, G; Farnhill, J H; Mohr-Smith, M; Drew, J E; Groot, P J; Guzman-Ramirez, L; Parker, Q A; Steeghs, D; Zijlstra, A

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the prospects for systematic searches of white dwarfs at low Galactic latitudes, using the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) H$\\alpha$ Photometric Survey of the Galactic plane and Bulge (VPHAS+). We targeted 17 white dwarf candidates along sightlines of known open clusters, aiming to identify potential cluster members. We confirmed all the 17 white dwarf candidates from blue/optical spectroscopy, and we suggest five of them to be likely cluster members. We estimated progenitor ages and masses for the candidate cluster members, and compared our findings to those for other cluster white dwarfs. A white dwarf in NGC 3532 is the most massive known cluster member (1.13 M$_{\\odot}$), likely with an oxygen-neon core, for which we estimate an $8.8_{-4.3}^{+1.2}$ M$_{\\odot}$ progenitor, close to the mass-divide between white dwarf and neutron star progenitors. A cluster member in Ruprecht 131 is a magnetic white dwarf, whose progenitor mass exceeded 2-3 M$_{\\odot}$. We stress that wider searches, and improved...

  15. Fascicular Visual Field Defects in Open-Angle Glaucoma: Evaluation with Microperimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrico, Loredana; Giannotti, Rossella; Fratipietro, Manuela; Malagola, Romualdo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Use of microperimetry (Mp-1), correlating with Humphrey perimetry (30-2 program), in patients affected by primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) with perimetric defects, in order to obtain an evaluation of the accuracy of the results obtained by Mp-1. Materials and Methods. In this study 40 eyes of 25 patients affected by POAG with perimetric defects were included. All patients underwent microperimetry test by Nidek Mp-1 (NAVIS software version 1.7.2, Nidek Technologies). Mean sensitivity values expressed in decibel (dB) of all tested dots and mean values for each quadrant obtained by microperimetric test were correlated with corresponding quadrants obtained by static perimetry analysis. Data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation and Bland-Altman analysis. Results. Interpolated data showed that mean sensitivity values in all spots tested by Mp-1 (11.98 dB, SD 4.31) may be significantly correlated with mean total values obtained by Humphrey 30-2 perimetry (17.95, SD 4.32), with correlation coefficient of 0.556. Conclusions. Topographic visualization of the perimetric alteration by microperimetry allows retesting areas with reduced sensitivity which are topographically visualized and displayable on the ocular fundus examination, avoiding worsening of the functional defect by better modulation of the antiglaucoma therapy and therefore it allows better monitoring of the pathologic functional damage.

  16. Open questions on the origin of life at anoxic geothermal fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkidjanian, Armen Y; Bychkov, Andrew Yu; Dibrova, Daria V; Galperin, Michael Y; Koonin, Eugene V

    2012-10-01

    We have recently reconstructed the 'hatcheries' of the first cells by combining geochemical analysis with phylogenomic scrutiny of the inorganic ion requirements of universal components of modern cells (Mulkidjanian et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:E821-830, 2012). These ubiquitous, and by inference primordial, proteins and functional systems show affinity to and functional requirement for K⁺, Zn²⁺, Mn²⁺, and phosphate. Thus, protocells must have evolved in habitats with a high K⁺/Na⁺ ratio and relatively high concentrations of Zn, Mn and phosphorous compounds. Geochemical reconstruction shows that the ionic composition conducive to the origin of cells could not have existed in marine settings but is compatible with emissions of vapor-dominated zones of inland geothermal systems. Under an anoxic, CO₂-dominated atmosphere, the ionic composition of pools of cool, condensed vapor at anoxic geothermal fields would resemble the internal milieu of modern cells. Such pools would be lined with porous silicate minerals mixed with metal sulfides and enriched in K⁺ ions and phosphorous compounds. Here we address some questions that have appeared in print after the publication of our anoxic geothermal field scenario. We argue that anoxic geothermal fields, which were identified as likely cradles of life by using a top-down approach and phylogenomics analysis, could provide geochemical conditions similar to those which were suggested as most conducive for the emergence of life by the chemists who pursuit the complementary bottom-up strategy.

  17. First field demonstration of cloud datacenter workflow automation employing dynamic optical transport network resources under OpenStack and OpenFlow orchestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyrkowiec, Thomas; Autenrieth, Achim; Gunning, Paul; Wright, Paul; Lord, Andrew; Elbers, Jörg-Peter; Lumb, Alan

    2014-02-10

    For the first time, we demonstrate the orchestration of elastic datacenter and inter-datacenter transport network resources using a combination of OpenStack and OpenFlow. Programmatic control allows a datacenter operator to dynamically request optical lightpaths from a transport network operator to accommodate rapid changes of inter-datacenter workflows.

  18. 基于OpenGL的动态模拟星空设计%Design of Simulation Star Field Based on OpenGL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张京

    2007-01-01

    基于OpenGL的动态模拟星空,用MFC建立OpenGL场景.采用OpenGL的辅助库画立体球体,把恒星的球面坐标转化为三维直角坐标,用恒星的点坐标建立显示列表,再根据恒星互相连接编号进行连线并建立星座显示列表.具体步骤包括OpenGL初始化、设置OpenGL场景、恒星坐标转换、建立模拟星空显示列表、设置视图变换及显示模拟星空.

  19. Understanding Children's Curiosity and Exploration through the Lenses of Lewin's Field Theory: On Developing an Appraisal Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chak, Amy

    2002-01-01

    Uses Lewin's field theory as a framework to appraise children's momentary state of curiosity and exploratory behavior. Discusses two levels of analysis: child-stimulus situation and child-stimulus-adult situation. Argues that a parent can be a barrier hindering a child's exploration, or a facilitator to remove barriers. (Author/SD)

  20. Assurance of Learning in an MBA Program: Exploration of the Value Added by the Graduate Major Field Test in Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Darrin; Grandzol, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The use of standardized tests as a piece of outcomes assessment has risen in recent years in order to satisfy external accrediting bodies such as the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International. The authors explore the value added by the Graduate Major Field Test in Business (GMFT-B) for assurance of learning in a master of…

  1. 有机化学开放性实验教学模式的探索%Exploring a Teaching Model of Organic Chemistry Open Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑清云; 申有名; 张向阳; 陈贞干

    2015-01-01

    A teaching model of organic chemistry open experiment was explored, using hierarchical progressive method including construction of basic training, integrated design, research and innovation of the three levels experimental teaching system. In addition, a comprehensive management of open experimental teaching was expounded based on the teacher′s scientific research topic and student innovation project in order to promote an open experimental teaching and establish a management information system compatible with the open experiment teaching. In order to mobilize the enthusiasm of students experiment and promote the coordinated development of students′ knowledge, ability and quality, an open experimental teaching mode was developed.%采用层次递进的方式,构建基础训练、综合设计、研究创新三个层次的实验教学体系,探索有机化学开放性实验教学模式;以教师科研课题及学生创新立项课题为基础,加强开放实验教学全方位管理,带动开放实验教学,建立与开放实验教学相适应的管理信息系统;以开放的实验教学模式,调动了学生实验积极性,促进了学生知识、能力、素质的协调发展。

  2. Exploring the downside of open knowledge resources: The case of indigenous knowledge systems and practices in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gonzalez Flor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on the challenges encountered by the researcher while conducting a study titled “Design, Development and Testing of an Indigenous Knowledge Management System Using Mobile Device Video Capture and Web 2.0 Protocols.” During the conduct of the study the researcher observed a marked reluctance from organized indigenous people’s groups to participate in the initiative. It soon became apparent that interfacing indigenous knowledge with open access concepts held complicated issues. The inhibiting factors enumerated and discussed in the paper deal with: honoring indigenous belief systems; respecting the privacy of indigenous peoples; dealing with indigenous knowledge system (IKS protocols; the significance of context in IKS; mainstream prejudice and value judgments among non-indigenous people users; and themisrepresentation of indigenous knowledge.

  3. Estimation of the Aral Sea state predictability based on the open data sources and the unique field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izhitskiy, Alexander; Ayzel, Georgy; Zavialov, Peter; Kurbaniyazov, Abilgazi

    2016-04-01

    The Aral Sea, formerly one of the four largest lakes in the world, has lost over 90% of its volume during the dramatical dessication mainly caused by the severe alteration of water budget of the basin. Shrinkage of the Aral Sea resulted in profound changes of the lake's ecosystem, that became a subject for a number of publications based on a wide range of methods such as field observations, remote sensing data analysis and numerical modeling. However, by the early 21th century, the number of field studies decreased significantly due to almost complete cessation of navigation and displacement of the Aral's shoreline far away from roads and other infrastructure. Thus, only a small amount of field data (salinity, temperature, etc.) for different regions of the lake is available for the last two decades. On the other hand, a set of the open data sources (sea level variability, atmospheric reanalysis) were developed for the region. The main idea of the presented study is to estimate the possibility of prediction of the Aral Sea state using coupled system of basic geoanalysis tools, numerical modeling of hydrological cycle (both for sea and land-surface interactions with atmosphere) and state-of-art machine learning techniques. Firstly, available in situ data, obtained in the Aral Sea by Shirshov Institute and other researchers, are concerned as the "base points of state" for each year within the studied period. Secondly, consistent patterns in the interannual variability of all other available parameters, taken from the open data sources and numerical modeling predictions, are founded out. As a result, such an approach allows predicting the future state of sea basing on the possible climatic scenario.

  4. A High-Throughput, Field-Based Phenotyping Technology for Tall Biomass Crops1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in omics technologies have not been accompanied by equally efficient, cost-effective, and accurate phenotyping methods required to dissect the genetic architecture of complex traits. Even though high-throughput phenotyping platforms have been developed for controlled environments, field-based aerial and ground technologies have only been designed and deployed for short-stature crops. Therefore, we developed and tested Phenobot 1.0, an auto-steered and self-propelled field-based high-throughput phenotyping platform for tall dense canopy crops, such as sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Phenobot 1.0 was equipped with laterally positioned and vertically stacked stereo RGB cameras. Images collected from 307 diverse sorghum lines were reconstructed in 3D for feature extraction. User interfaces were developed, and multiple algorithms were evaluated for their accuracy in estimating plant height and stem diameter. Tested feature extraction methods included the following: (1) User-interactive Individual Plant Height Extraction (UsIn-PHe) based on dense stereo three-dimensional reconstruction; (2) Automatic Hedge-based Plant Height Extraction (Auto-PHe) based on dense stereo 3D reconstruction; (3) User-interactive Dense Stereo Matching Stem Diameter Extraction; and (4) User-interactive Image Patch Stereo Matching Stem Diameter Extraction (IPaS-Di). Comparative genome-wide association analysis and ground-truth validation demonstrated that both UsIn-PHe and Auto-PHe were accurate methods to estimate plant height, while Auto-PHe had the additional advantage of being a completely automated process. For stem diameter, IPaS-Di generated the most accurate estimates of this biomass-related architectural trait. In summary, our technology was proven robust to obtain ground-based high-throughput plant architecture parameters of sorghum, a tall and densely planted crop species. PMID:28620124

  5. Association of Myopic Deformation of Optic Disc with Visual Field Progression in Paired Eyes with Open-Angle Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangai, Masanori; Ishikawa, Makoto; Yoshitomi, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The influence of myopia on glaucoma progression remains unknown, possibly because of the multifactorial nature of glaucoma and difficulty in assessing a solo contribution of myopia. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of myopia with visual field (VF) progression in glaucoma using a paired-eye design to minimize the influence of confounding systemic factors that are diverse among individuals. Methods This retrospective study evaluated 144 eyes of 72 subjects with open-angle glaucoma, with similar intra-ocular pressure between paired eyes, spherical equivalent (SE) ≤ -2 diopter (D), and axial length ≥ 24 mm. Paired eyes with faster and slower VF progression were grouped separately, according to the global VF progression rate assessed by automated pointwise linear regression analysis. The SE, axial length, tilt ratio and torsion angle of optic discs, Bruch’s membrane (BM) opening area, and gamma zone parapapillary atrophy (PPA) width were compared between the two groups. Factors associated with faster VF progression were determined by logistic regression analysis. Results The mean follow-up duration was 8.9 ± 4.4 years. The mean value of SE and axial length were -6.31 ± 1.88 D and 26.05 ± 1.12 mm, respectively. The mean global visual field progression rate was -0.32 ± 0.38 dB/y. Tilt ratio, BM opening area, and gamma zone PPA width were significantly greater in the eyes with faster VF progression than those with slower progression. In multivariate analysis, these factors were significantly associated with faster VF progression (all P < 0.05), while SE and axial length were not associated with it. Conclusion In myopic glaucoma subjects, tilt of the optic disc and temporal shifting and enlargement of the BM opening were associated with faster rate of VF progression between paired eyes. This suggests that myopia influences VF progression in glaucomatous eyes via optic disc deformations rather than via refractive error itself

  6. Cross-field motion of plasma blob-filaments and related particle flux in an open magnetic field line configuration on QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.Q., E-mail: hqliu@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 8168580 (Japan); Hanada, K. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 8168580 (Japan); Nishino, N. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 7398511 (Japan); Ogata, R.; Ishiguro, M. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 8168580 (Japan); Gao, X. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Zushi, H.; Nakamura, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Idei, H.; Hasegawa, M. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 8168580 (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    Blob-filaments have been observed by combined measurement with a fast camera and a movable Langmuir probe in an open magnetic field line configuration of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating plasma in QUEST. Blob-filaments extended along field lines do correspond to over-dense plasma structures and propagated across the field lines to the outer wall. The radial velocity of the blob structure, V{sub b}, was obtained by three methods and was dominantly driven by the E × B force. The radial velocity, size of the blob showed good agreements with the results obtained by sheath-connected interchange theoretical model. V{sub b} corresponds to roughly 0.02–0.07 of the local sound speed (C{sub s}) in QUEST. The higher moments (skewness S and kurtosis K) representing the shape of PDF of density fluctuation are studied. Their least squares fitting with quadratic polynomial is K = (1.60 ± 0.27)S{sup 2} − (0.46 ± 0.20). The larger blob structures, occurring only 10% of the time, can carry more than 60% loss of the entire radial particle flux.

  7. Field based geothermal exploration: Structural controls in the Tarutung Basin/North Central Sumatra (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukman, M.; Moeck, I.

    2012-04-01

    The Tarutung Basin is one of several basins along the prominent Sumatra Fault System (SFS) which represents a dextral strike slip fault zone segmented into individual fault strands. The basins are located at right-stepping transfer. The Tarutung Basin hosts geothermal manifestations such as hot springs and travertines indicating a geothermal system with some decent potential in the subsurface. As part of geothermal exploration, field geology is investigated focusing on how the structural setting controls the thermal manifestation distribution. A complex fault pattern is now newly mapped and evidences sinistral faults striking E-W (Silangkitang), normal faults striking SE-NW at the eastern strand of Tarutung Basin (Sitompul) and normal faults striking NW-SE at the western strand of the basin (Sitaka). These structures form an angle greater than 450 with respect to the current maximum principal stress which is oriented in N-S. Secondary sinistral shear fractures identified as antithetic Riedel shears can be correlated with hot spring locations at Silangkitang, forming an angle of 500 with respect to the current maximum stress. A large angle of normal fault and antithetic Riedel shear trend with respect to the current maximum stress direction indicates that the structures have been rotated. Unidentified dextral strike slip faults might exist at the eastern strand of Tarutung Basin to accommodate the clockwise rotation between the eastern boundary of the basin and the NW-SE striking normal fault of Panabungan. Normal faults striking parallel with the SFS East of the basin are interpreted as dilatational jogs caused by the clockwise rotated block movement with respect to the NW-SE fault trend sinistral shear along ENE-WSW faults. Silicified pryroclastics in association with large discharge at hot springs at these NW-SE striking normal faults support this hypothesis. As proposed by Nivinkovich (1976) and Nishimura (1986) Sumatra has rotated 20° clockwise since the last

  8. THE FIRST HUNDRED BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED BY THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER (WISE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davy Kirkpatrick, J.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Beichman, Charles A. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cushing, Michael C.; Mainzer, A.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Bauer, James M. [NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Skrutskie, Michael F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Wright, Edward L.; McLean, Ian S.; Lake, Sean E.; Petty, Sara M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Thompson, Maggie A. [The Potomac School, 1301 Potomac School Road, McLean, VA 22101 (United States); Benford, Dominic J. [Infrared Astrophysics Branch, NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bridge, Carrie R. [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, MS 220-6, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stanford, S. A. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bailey, Vanessa, E-mail: davy@ipac.caltech.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); and others

    2011-12-01

    We present ground-based spectroscopic verification of 6 Y dwarfs (see also Cushing et al.), 89 T dwarfs, 8 L dwarfs, and 1 M dwarf identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Eighty of these are cold brown dwarfs with spectral types {>=}T6, six of which have been announced earlier by Mainzer et al. and Burgasser et al. We present color-color and color-type diagrams showing the locus of M, L, T, and Y dwarfs in WISE color space. Near-infrared and, in a few cases, optical spectra are presented for these discoveries. Near-infrared classifications as late as early Y are presented and objects with peculiar spectra are discussed. Using these new discoveries, we are also able to extend the optical T dwarf classification scheme from T8 to T9. After deriving an absolute WISE 4.6 {mu}m (W2) magnitude versus spectral type relation, we estimate spectrophotometric distances to our discoveries. We also use available astrometric measurements to provide preliminary trigonometric parallaxes to four of our discoveries, which have types of L9 pec (red), T8, T9, and Y0; all of these lie within 10 pc of the Sun. The Y0 dwarf, WISE 1541-2250, is the closest at 2.8{sup +1.3}{sub -0.6} pc; if this 2.8 pc value persists after continued monitoring, WISE 1541-2250 will become the seventh closest stellar system to the Sun. Another 10 objects, with types between T6 and >Y0, have spectrophotometric distance estimates also placing them within 10 pc. The closest of these, the T6 dwarf WISE 1506+7027, is believed to fall at a distance of {approx}4.9 pc. WISE multi-epoch positions supplemented with positional info primarily from the Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera allow us to calculate proper motions and tangential velocities for roughly one-half of the new discoveries. This work represents the first step by WISE to complete a full-sky, volume-limited census of late-T and Y dwarfs. Using early results from this census, we present preliminary, lower limits to the space density of

  9. Exploring the "what if?" in geology through a RESTful open-source framework for cloud-based simulation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Jens; Robertson, Jess

    2016-04-01

    The spatial and temporal extent of geological phenomena makes experiments in geology difficult to conduct, if not entirely impossible and collection of data is laborious and expensive - so expensive that most of the time we cannot test a hypothesis. The aim, in many cases, is to gather enough data to build a predictive geological model. Even in a mine, where data are abundant, a model remains incomplete because the information at the level of a blasting block is two orders of magnitude larger than the sample from a drill core, and we have to take measurement errors into account. So, what confidence can we have in a model based on sparse data, uncertainties and measurement error? Our framework consist of two layers: (a) a ground-truth layer that contains geological models, which can be statistically based on historical operations data, and (b) a network of RESTful synthetic sensor microservices which can query the ground-truth for underlying properties and produce a simulated measurement to a control layer, which could be a database or LIMS, a machine learner or a companies' existing data infrastructure. Ground truth data are generated by an implicit geological model which serves as a host for nested models of geological processes as smaller scales. Our two layers are implemented using Flask and Gunicorn, which are open source Python web application framework and server, the PyData stack (numpy, scipy etc) and Rabbit MQ (an open-source queuing library). Sensor data is encoded using a JSON-LD version of the SensorML and Observations and Measurements standards. Containerisation of the synthetic sensors using Docker and CoreOS allows rapid and scalable deployment of large numbers of sensors, as well as sensor discovery to form a self-organized dynamic network of sensors. Real-time simulation of data sources can be used to investigate crucial questions such as the potential information gain from future sensing capabilities, or from new sampling strategies, or the

  10. Estimating the Rate of Progressive Visual Field Damage in Those with Open-Angle Glaucoma, from Cross-Sectional Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, Aimee Teo; Quigley, Harry A.; West, Sheila K.; Katz, Joanne; Munoz, Beatriz; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Tielsch, James M.; Friedman, David S.; Crowston, Jonathan; Taylor, Hugh R.; Varma, Rohit; Leske, M. Cristina; Bengtsson, Boel; Heijl, Anders; He, Mingguang; Foster, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the rate of visual field progression in open-angle glaucoma (OAG) subjects, by using data from population-based cross-sectional studies. Methods Subjects with OAG were identified in nine surveys of randomly sampled populations using standard criteria for glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Subjects were of European, African, Chinese, and Hispanic ethnicity. The measure of OAG damage was the mean deviation (MD) of an automated visual field test (Humphrey Field Analyzer; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, CA). The rate of progression was the mean of all subjects’ damage in the worse eye divided by an average time since onset. Time since onset was estimated from age-specific prevalence rates. Results A total of 1066 subjects with OAG contributed visual field data. The mean worsening in decibels per year was: European-derived, −1.12; Hispanic, −1.26; African-derived, −1.33; and Chinese −1.56 (difference among ethnicities, P = 0.16). The mean duration of disease was lowest among Chinese persons at 10.5 years (95% CI: 8.8–12.6) and was highest in African-derived subjects at 15.4 years (95% CI: 14.6–15.9). The progression rate was not consistently related to age or gender. By combining disease duration and progression rate, the model predicted that 15% or fewer of the worse eyes would reach the end of the field damage scale in the patient’s lifetime. Conclusions The estimates of typical worsening per year in the worse eye among subjects with OAG suggested slightly more rapid progression than in some clinic-based studies. The rate did not differ significantly by ethnicity or gender, but was worse in those with known, treated OAG and in pseudophakic subjects. PMID:18172076

  11. Effective field theory approach to open heavy flavor production in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Vitev, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We develop a version of Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) which includes finite quark masses, as well as Glauber gluons that describe the interaction of collinear partons with QCD matter. In the framework of this new effective field theory, labeled SCET$_{\\mathrm{M,G}}$, we derive the massive splitting functions in the vacuum and the QCD medium for the processes $Q\\to Qg$, $Q\\to gQ$ and $g\\to Q\\bar Q$. The numerical effects due to finite quark masses are sizable and our results are consistent with the traditional approach to parton energy loss in the soft gluon emission limit. In addition, we present a new framework for including the medium-induced full splitting functions consistent with next-to-leading order calculations in QCD for inclusive hadron production. Finally, we show numerical results for the suppression of $D$- and $B$-mesons in heavy ion collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=5.02$ TeV and 2.76 TeV and compare to available data from the LHC.

  12. Violet LED light enhances the recruitment of a thrip predator in open fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Takumi; Uehara, Takuya; Muraji, Masahiko; Yamaguchi, Terumi; Ichihashi, Takahisa; Suzuki, Takahiro; Kainoh, Yooichi; Shimoda, Masami

    2016-01-01

    The predatory bug Orius sauteri is an indigenous natural enemy of thrips and whiteflies in Asian countries. To put these bugs to practical use in pest management, methods to attract and retain the bugs in agricultural fields are needed. We previously showed that violet light (405 nm) attracts O. sauteri selectively. Many thrips and whiteflies are attracted to UV or green light. In this study, we examined the effect of violet-LED illumination on O. sauteri in pesticide-free eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) cultivation. In three cultivation trials, the density of O. sauteri on eggplant leaves was consistently higher in the illuminated plots; at least twice that of the non-illuminated plots. Simultaneously, the density of thrips declined markedly to less than half that of the non-illuminated plots. We identified three positive effects of violet light including an “immediate-effect” on predator attraction, a “persistent-effect” on predator reproduction, and a “secondary-effect” on the food web structure. Our results showed that illumination with violet light provides a powerful tool for integrated pest management. This is the first report on the use of illumination to manipulate the behavior of natural enemies. PMID:27604315

  13. First horizontal well opens new gas opportunities in the Sierra Chata Field Neuquen Basin-Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, C.A.; Nilson, G.J.; Acree, J.F.; Del Pino, M.A. [Devon Energy Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Anaya, L. [BJ Services Co. USA, Houston, TX (United States)

    2002-07-01

    This paper described the drilling activity surrounding the first horizontal re-entry gas well in the Sierra Chata field in the Neuquen basin in Argentina. In particular, a model forecast was compared with the final results. The re-entry well was originally designed to add gas reserves and to incorporate horizontal well technology to help access the thin sands with low permeability. A numeric simulation of the 1000 m horizontal well was used to predict an initial gas flow rate of 17.7 MMscfd with an estimated final recovery of 7.3 Bscf. This forecast was confirmed following the first year of production. Operational problems, however, were encountered and new solutions were needed to bring the well back on line. The use of an existing well bore saved $1 MM and improved the economics of the project. When re-entering the existing well bore, no new flow line was needed. Given the success of this first re-entry well, it was suggested that this technology can now be used for the Machiline formation which has low productivity for several reasons, including thin sands, low permeability and difficult access via vertical wells. The use of mud logs and resistivity/gamma ray logs while drilling was very important for geological control purposes. It was noted that a measurement while drilling (MWD) tool closer to the bit would have further improved the ability to stay within very thin target zones. 11 refs., 19 figs.

  14. Comparing Natural Gas Leakage Detection Technologies Using an Open-Source "Virtual Gas Field" Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Chandler E; Ravikumar, Arvind P; Brandt, Adam R

    2016-04-19

    We present a tool for modeling the performance of methane leak detection and repair programs that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of detection technologies and proposed mitigation policies. The tool uses a two-state Markov model to simulate the evolution of methane leakage from an artificial natural gas field. Leaks are created stochastically, drawing from the current understanding of the frequency and size distributions at production facilities. Various leak detection and repair programs can be simulated to determine the rate at which each would identify and repair leaks. Integrating the methane leakage over time enables a meaningful comparison between technologies, using both economic and environmental metrics. We simulate four existing or proposed detection technologies: flame ionization detection, manual infrared camera, automated infrared drone, and distributed detectors. Comparing these four technologies, we found that over 80% of simulated leakage could be mitigated with a positive net present value, although the maximum benefit is realized by selectively targeting larger leaks. Our results show that low-cost leak detection programs can rely on high-cost technology, as long as it is applied in a way that allows for rapid detection of large leaks. Any strategy to reduce leakage should require a careful consideration of the differences between low-cost technologies and low-cost programs.

  15. Lessons in modern digital field geology: Open source software, 3D techniques, and the new world of digital mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, Terry; Hurtado, Jose; Langford, Richard; Serpa, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Although many geologists refuse to admit it, it is time to put paper-based geologic mapping into the historical archives and move to the full potential of digital mapping techniques. For our group, flat map digital geologic mapping is now a routine operation in both research and instruction. Several software options are available, and basic proficiency with the software can be learned in a few hours of instruction and practice. The first practical field GIS software, ArcPad, remains a viable, stable option on Windows-based systems. However, the vendor seems to be moving away from ArcPad in favor of mobile software solutions that are difficult to implement without GIS specialists. Thus, we have pursued a second software option based on the open source program QGIS. Our QGIS system uses the same shapefile-centric data structure as our ArcPad system, including similar pop-up data entry forms and generic graphics for easy data management in the field. The advantage of QGIS is that the same software runs on virtually all common platforms except iOS, although the Android version remains unstable as of this writing. A third software option we are experimenting with for flat map-based field work is Fieldmove, a derivative of the 3D-capable program Move developed by Midland Valley. Our initial experiments with Fieldmove are positive, particularly with the new, inexpensive (problem. As spatial databases evolve these 3D models should be readily importable into the database.

  16. Exploring open-charm decay mode Λ _cbar{Λ }_c of charmonium-like state Y(4630)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuewen; Ke, Hong-Wei; Liu, Xiang; Li, Xue-Qian

    2016-10-01

    The newly observed X, Y, Z exotic states are definitely not in the standard Qbar{Q}' structures, thus their existence composes a challenge to our understanding on the fundamental principles of hadron physics. Therefore the studies on their decay patterns which are determined by the non-perturbative QCD will definitely shed light on the concerned physics. Generally the four-quark states might be in a molecular state or tetraquark or their mixture. In this work, we adopt the suggestion that Y(4630) is a charmonium-like tetraquark made of a diquark and an anti-diquark. If it is true, its favorable decay mode should be Y(4630) decaying into an open-charm baryon pair, since such a transition occurs via strong interaction and is super-OZI-allowed. In this work, we calculate the decay width of Y(4630)→ Λ _cbar{Λ }_c in the framework of the quark pair creation model. Our numerical results on the partial width computed in the tetraquark configuration coincide with the Belle data within a certain error tolerance.

  17. Exploring the Role of Distributed Learning in Distance Education at Allama Iqbal Open University: Academic Challenges at Postgraduate Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qadir BUKHSH

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed learning is derived from the concept of distributed resources. Different institutions around the globe connected through network and the learners are diverse, located in the different cultures and communities. Distributed learning provides global standards of quality to all learners through synchronous and asynchronous communications and provides the opportunity of flexible and independent learning with equity, low cost educational services and has become the first choice of the dispersed learners around the globe. The present study was undertaken to investigate the challenges faced by the Faculty Members of Department of Business Administration and Computer Science at Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad Pakistan. 25 Faculty Members were taken as sample of the study from both Departments (100% Sampling. The study was qualitative in nature and interview was the data collection tool. Data was analyzed by thematic analysis technique. The major challenges faced by the Faculty Members were as: bandwidth, synchronous learning activities, irregularity of the learners, feedback on individual work, designing and managing the learning activities, quality issues and training to use the network for teaching learning activities

  18. Modelling the long-term morphological evolution of a coupled open coast, inlet and estuary system to explore climate change impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maanen, Barend; Walkden, Mike; Barnes, John; Nicholls, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Coastal and shoreline management increasingly needs to account for morphological change occurring at decadal to centennial timescales. Critical aspects of geomorphic behaviour at these temporal scales emerge at a system level, such that accounting for the feedbacks between different landform components is of key importance. In this study we develop new methods to simulate the large-scale evolution of a coupled open coast - inlet - estuary system, allowing us to explore the system's response to climate change impacts and management interventions. The system explored here encompasses the Deben estuary (eastern England) and its adjacent shorelines. The estuary itself mainly consists of finer sediments. Sediments throughout the inlet, on the other hand, including the ebb-tidal delta itself, comprise a mixture of gravel and sand. The ebb-tidal shoals and sediment bypassing show broadly cyclic behaviour on a 10 to 30 year timescale. Neighbouring beaches consist of mixed sediment and are partially backed up by sedimentary cliffs, the behaviour of which is potentially influenced by the sediment bypassing at the inlet. In addition, the open coast has undergone major transformations as a result of numerous sea defences which have altered sediment availability and supply. The interlinked behaviour of this system is approached by coupling a new inlet model (MESO_i) with an existing, and recently extended, model for the open coast (SCAPE+). MESOi simulates the evolution at the mouth of the Deben at an aggregated scale, conceptualizing the inlet by different geomorphic features that are characterized mainly by their volume. The behaviour of the inlet shoals is influenced by the estuarine tidal prism, linking estuarine processes with inlet dynamics. SCAPE+ computes the shaping of the shore profile and has proven capable of providing valuable information in terms of decadal evolution and related cliff recession rates. Simulations conducted with this composition of models highlight

  19. A Monolithic, Non-Field-Widened Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer for Solar System Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to produce a monolithic Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (a Fourier Transform Interferometer) for use in Solar System exploration. In...

  20. Variable stars in one open cluster within the Kepler/K2-Campaign-5 field: M 67 (NGC 2682)

    CERN Document Server

    Nardiello, D; Bedin, L R; Piotto, G; Ochner, P; Cunial, A; Borsato, L; Granata, V

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we continue the release of high-level data products from the multiyear photometric survey collected at the 67/92 cm Schmidt Telescope in Asiago. The primary goal of the survey is to discover and to characterise variable objects and exoplanetary transits in four fields containing five nearby open clusters spanning a broad range of ages. This second paper releases a photometric catalogue, in five photometric bands, of the Solar-age, Solar-metallicity open cluster M 67 (NGC 2682). Proper motions are derived comparing the positions observed in 2013 at the Asiago's Schmidt Telescope with those extracted from WFI@2.2m MPG/ESO images in 2000. We also analyse the variable sources within M 67. We detected 68 variables, 43 of which are new detection. Variable periods and proper-motion memberships of a large majority of sources in our catalogue are improved with respect to previous releases. The entire catalogue will be available in electronic format. Besides the general interest on an improved catalogue, ...

  1. Transient behavior of flare-associated solar wind. II - Gas dynamics in a nonradial open field region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, F.

    1984-01-01

    Transient behavior of flare-associated solar wind in the nonradial open field region is numerically investigated, taking into account the thermal and dynamical coupling between the chromosphere and the corona. A realistic steady solar wind is constructed which passes through the inner X-type critical point in the rapidly diverging region. The wind speed shows a local maximum at the middle, O-type, critical point. The wind's density and pressure distributions decrease abruptly in the rapidly diverging region of the flow tube. The transient behavior of the wind following flare energy deposition includes ascending and descending conduction fronts. Thermal instability occurs in the lower corona, and ascending material flows out through the throat after the flare energy input ceases. A local density distribution peak is generated at the shock front due to the pressure deficit just behind the shock front.

  2. Comments on new multiple-brane solutions based on Hata-Kojita duality in open string field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Toru [Institute of Physics, The University of Tokyo,Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Department of Physics, Ochanomizu University,Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 2-1-1 (Japan)

    2014-05-06

    Recently, Hata and Kojita proposed a new energy formula for a class of solutions in Witten’s open string field theory based on a novel symmetry of correlation functions they found. Their energy formula can be regarded as a generalization of the conventional energy formula by Murata and Schnabl. Following their proposal, we investigate their new ansatz for the classical solution representing double D-branes. We present a regularized definition of this solution and show that the solution satisfies the equation of motion when it is contracted with the solution itself and when it is contracted with any states in the Fock space. However, the Ellwood invariant and the boundary state of the solution are the same as those for the perturbative vacuum. This result disagrees with an expectation from the Ellwood conjecture.

  3. On the exact open-closed vertex in plane-wave light-cone string field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lucietti, J; Sinha, A K; Lucietti, James; Schafer-Nameki, Sakura; Sinha, Aninda

    2003-01-01

    The open-closed vertex in the maximally supersymmetric type IIB plane-wave light-cone string field theory is considered and an explicit solution for the bosonic part of the vertex is derived, valid for all values of the mass parameter, \\mu. This vertex is of relevance to IIB plane-wave orientifolds, as well as IIB plane-wave strings in the presence of D-branes, and their gauge theory duals. Methods of complex analysis are used to develop a systematic procedure for obtaining the solution. This procedure is first applied to the vertex in flat space, and then extended to the plane-wave case. The plane-wave solution for the vertex requires introducing certain ``\\mu-deformed Gamma functions'', which are generalizations of the ordinary Gamma function. The behaviour of the Neumann matrices is graphically illustrated and their large-\\mu asymptotics are analysed.

  4. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes increase anxiety levels in rats and reduce exploratory activity in the open field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayapina, N V; Batalova, T A; Chaika, V V; Kuznetsov, V L; Sergievich, A A; Kolosov, V P; Perel'man, Yu M; Golokhvast, K S

    2015-01-01

    The results of the first study on the effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on the exploratory activity and the emotional state in laboratory rats assessed by the open field test are reported. During three or ten days, rats received 8-10 nm MWNTs added to their food at a dose of 500 mg/kg. It was demonstrated that, in the group of rats which were fed with MWNTs, the integrated anxiety level index began to increase as early as the third day of the experiment; on the tenth day, it appeared to be twice increased. It was also demonstrated that MWNTs decreased the integrated exploratory activity index nearly twofold on the third day and nearly fourfold on the tenth day.

  5. A theoretical study of asymptotic boundary conditions for the numerical solutions of open-boundary static electromagnetic-field problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马西奎; 韩社教

    2002-01-01

    Based on the multipole expansion theory of the potential, a satisfactory interpretation is put forward of the exact nature of the approximations of asymptotic boundary condition (called the ABC) techniques for the numerical solutions of open-boundary static electromagnetic-field problems, and a definite physical meaning is bestowed on ABC, which provide a powerful theoretical background for laying down the operating rules and the key to the derivation of asymptotic boundary conditions. This paper is also intended to reveal the shortcomings of the conventional higher-order ABC, and at the same time to give the concept of a new type of higher-order ABC, and to present a somewhat different formulation of the new nth-order ABC. In order to test its feasibility, several simple problems of electrostatic potentials are analyzed. The results are found to be much better than those of conventional higher-order ABCs.

  6. Exploring Possibilities for Transforming Established Subscription-based Scientific Journals into Open Access Journals. Present Situation, Transformation Criteria, and Exemplary Implementation within Trans-O-MIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haux, Reinhold; Kuballa, Stefanie; Schulze, Mareike; Böhm, Claudia; Gefeller, Olaf; Haaf, Jan; Henning, Peter; Mielke, Corinna; Niggemann, Florian; Schürg, Andrea; Bergemann, Dieter

    2016-12-07

    Based on today's information and communication technologies the open access paradigm has become an important approach for adequately communicating new scientific knowledge. Summarizing the present situation for journal transformation. Presenting criteria for adequate transformation as well as a specific approach for it. Describing our exemplary implementation of such a journal transformation. Studying the respective literature as well as discussing this topic in various discussion groups and meetings (primarily of editors and publishers, but also of authors and readers), with long term experience as editors and /or publishers of scientific publications as prerequisite. There is a clear will, particularly of political and funding organizations, towards open access publishing. In spite of this, there is still a large amount of scientific knowledge, being communicated through subscription-based journals. For successfully transforming such journals into open access, sixteen criteria for a goal-oriented, stepwise, sustainable, and fair transformation are suggested. The Tandem Model as transformation approach is introduced. Our exemplary implementation is done in the Trans-O-MIM project. It is exploring strategies, models and evaluation metrics for journal transformation. As instance the journal Methods of Information in Medicine will apply the Tandem Model from 2017 onwards. Within Trans-O-MIM we will reach at least nine of the sixteen criteria for adequate transformation. It was positive to implement Trans-O-MIM as international research project. After first steps for transforming Methods have successfully been made, challenges will remain, among others, in identifying appropriate incentives for open access publishing in order to support its transformation.

  7. Exploring the magnetic field complexity in M dwarfs at the boundary to full convection

    CERN Document Server

    Shulyak, D; Seemann, U; Kochukhov, O; Piskunov, N

    2014-01-01

    Based on detailed spectral synthesis we carry out quantitative measurements of the strength and complexity of surface magnetic fields in the four well-known M-dwarfs GJ 388, GJ 729, GJ 285, and GJ 406 populating the mass regime around the boundary between partially and fully convective stars. Very high resolution R=100000, high signal-to-noise (up to 400) near-infrared Stokes I spectra were obtained with CRIRES at ESO's Very Large Telescope covering regions of the FeH Wing-Ford transitions at 1mum. The field distributions in all four stars are characterized by three distinct groups of field components, the data are neither consistent with a smooth distribution of different field strengths, nor with one average field strength covering the full star. We find evidence of a subtle difference in the field distribution of GJ 285 compared to the other three targets. GJ 285 also has the highest average field of 3.5kG and the strongest maximum field component of 7-7.5kG. The maximum local field strengths in our sample...

  8. Relationship between consecutive deterioration of mean deviation value and progression of visual field defect in open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naito T

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tomoko Naito,1 Keiji Yoshikawa,2 Shiro Mizoue,3 Mami Nanno,4 Tairo Kimura,5 Hirotaka Suzumura,6 Ryuji Takeda,7 Fumio Shiraga1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama, 2Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime, 4Kagurazaka Minamino Eye Clinic, 5Ueno Eye Clinic, 6Suzumura Eye Clinic, Tokyo, 7Department of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara, Japan Purpose: To analyze the relationship between consecutive deterioration of mean deviation (MD value and glaucomatous visual field (VF progression in open-angle glaucoma (OAG, including primary OAG and normal tension glaucoma.Patients and methods: The subjects of the study were patients undergoing treatment for OAG who had performed VF tests at least 10 times with a Humphrey field analyzer (SITA standard, C30-2 program. The VF progression was defined by a significantly negative MD slope (MD slope worsening at the final VF test during the follow-up period. The relationship between the MD slope worsening and the consecutive deterioration of MD value were retrospectively analyzed.Results: A total of 165 eyes of 165 patients were included in the analysis. Significant progression of VF defects was observed in 72 eyes of 72 patients (43.6%, while no significant progression was evident in 93 eyes of 93 patients (56.4%. There was significant relationship between the frequency of consecutive deterioration of MD value and MD slope worsening (P<0.0001, Cochran–Armitage trend test. A significant association was observed for MD slope worsening in the eyes with three (odds ratio: 2.1, P=0.0224 and four (odds ratio: 3.6, P=0.0008 consecutive deterioration of MD value in multiple logistic regression analysis, but no significant association in the eyes with two consecutive deterioration (odds ratio: 1.1, P=0.8282. The eyes with VF progression had significantly lower intraocular pressure reduction rate (P<0

  9. Exploring the magnetic field complexity in M dwarfs at the boundary to full convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulyak, D.; Reiners, A.; Seemann, U.; Kochukhov, O.; Piskunov, N.

    2014-03-01

    Context. Magnetic fields play a pivotal role in the formation and evolution of low-mass stars, but the dynamo mechanisms generating these fields are poorly understood. Measuring cool star magnetism is a complicated task because of the complexity of cool star spectra and the subtle signatures of magnetic fields. Aims: Based on detailed spectral synthesis, we carry out quantitative measurements of the strength and complexity of surface magnetic fields in the four well-known M dwarfs GJ 388, GJ 729, GJ 285, and GJ 406 that populate the mass regime around the boundary between partially and fully convective stars. Very high-resolution (R = 100 000), high signal-to-noise (up to 400), near-infrared Stokes I spectra were obtained with CRIRES at ESO's Very Large Telescope covering regions of the FeH Wing-Ford transitions at 1μm and Na i lines at 2.2μm. Methods: A modified version of the Molecular Zeeman Library (MZL) was used to compute Landé g-factors for FeH lines. We determined the distribution of magnetic fields by magnetic spectral synthesis performed with the Synmast code. We tested two different magnetic geometries to probe the influence of field orientation effects. Results: Our analysis confirms that FeH lines are excellent indicators of surface magnetic fields in low-mass stars of type M, particularly in comparison to profiles of Na i lines that are heavily affected by water lines and that suffer problems with continuum normalization. The field distributions in all four stars are characterized by three distinct groups of field components, and the data are consistent neither with a smooth distribution of different field strengths nor with one average field strength covering the full star. We find evidence of a subtle difference in the field distribution of GJ 285 compared to the other three targets. GJ 285 also has the highest average field of 3.5 kG and the strongest maximum field component of 7-7.5 kG. The maximum local field strengths in our sample seem to be

  10. Control of the Tomato Leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in Open-Field Tomatoes by Indigenous Natural Enemies Occurring in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltiel-Harpaz, Liora; Gerling, Dan; Graph, Shaul; Kedoshim, Hendrika; Azolay, Lotem; Rozenberg, Tamir; Nachache, Yaakov; Steinberg, Shimon; Allouche, Arnon; Alon, Tamar

    2016-02-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), had established in Israel by 2010, attacking both open-field tomatoes and greenhouse crops.We searched for its natural enemies in open-field tomatoes, and tried to determine their potential for controlling this pest. We surveyed the local natural enemies in open tomato fields and measured their impact on pest populations in an unsprayed field. We assessed the suppressive ability of the dominant hemipteran predator, Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter, against T. absoluta under controlled laboratory conditions and evaluated the impact of its augmentation on T. absoluta control in open-field tomatoes. We found five natural enemy species:the predator, N. tenuis, two braconids, and two eulophids. Predation accounted for 64.5±9.2% (mean ± SE) of T. absoluta larval mortality, whereas parasitism accounted for 20.96±7.5%. Together, they eliminated the pest population at tomato harvest time. Under controlled conditions, predation by N. tenuis rose from 58 to 72% with increased density of T. absoluta, suggesting positive density dependence. The reduction of T. absoluta (83%) by N. tenuis was higher than that of Bemisia tabaci (32%), suggesting a preference of N. tenuis for T. absoluta. Augmentation of N.tenuis was as effective as conventional treatment insecticide treatment, and plant damage was low and did not seem to affect yield. Results indicate that reduced pesticide use enables indigenous natural enemies, particularly N.tenuis, to successfully control T. absoluta and prevent crop damage in open-field tomatoes.

  11. Using GIS in an Earth Sciences Field Course for Quantitative Exploration, Data Management and Digital Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Wouter A.; van de Grint, Liesbeth; Alberti, Koko; Karssenberg, Derek

    2017-01-01

    Field courses are essential for subjects like Earth Sciences, Geography and Ecology. In these topics, GIS is used to manage and analyse spatial data, and offers quantitative methods that are beneficial for fieldwork. This paper presents changes made to a first-year Earth Sciences field course in the French Alps, where new GIS methods were…

  12. Major Fields and Areas to Draw PetroChina's Oil and Gas Exploration Efforts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Xinlong

    2001-01-01

    @@ Based on the study released by China's Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development at PetroChina's exploration work conference held recently in Chengdu,Sichuan Province, PetroChina has proven 405 million tons of oil in place between January and September 2001,fulfilling 99 percent of the annual plan.The proven oil in place is estimated to reach 422 million tons by the end of the year. Meanwhile, the controlled oil in place reached 293 million tons,accounting for 84 percent of the annual plan.

  13. Results of the First Astronaut-Rover (ASRO) Field Experiment: Lessons and Directions for the Human Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Kosmo, J. J.; Trevino, R. C.; Thomas, H.; Eppler, D.; Bualat, M. G.; Baker, K.; Huber, E.; Sierhuis, M.; Grin, E. A.

    1999-01-01

    The first Astronaut-Rover Interaction field experiment (hereafter designated as the ASRO project) took place Feb. 22-27, 1999, in Silver Lake, Mojave Desert, CA. The ASRO project is the result of a joint project between NASA Ames Research Center and Johnson Space Center. In the perspective of the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) of the Solar System, this interaction - the astronaut and the rover as a complementary and interactive team - in the field is critical to assess but had never been tested before the Silver Lake experiment. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Hybrid Simulation of Supersonic Flow of Weakly Ionized Plasma along Open Field Magnetic Line Effect of Background Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laosunthara, Ampan; Akatsuka, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    In previous study, we experimentally examined physical properties of supersonic flow of weakly ionized expanding arc-jet plasma through an open magnetic field line (Bmax 0.16T). We found supersonic velocity of helium plasma up to Mach 3 and the space potential drop at the end of the magnets. To understand the plasma in numerical point of view, the flows of ion and neutral are treated by particle-based Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, electron is treated as a fluid. The previous numerical study, we assumed 2 conditions. Ion and electron temperatures were the same (LTE condition). Ion and electron velocities were the same (current-free condition). We found that ion velocity decreased by collision with residual gas molecules (background pressure). We also found that space potential changing with background pressure. In other words, it was indicated that electric field exists and the current-free assumption is not proper. In this study, we add electron continuity and electron momentum equations to obtain electron velocity and space potential. We find that space potential changing with background pressure slightly. It is indicated that electron is essential to space potential formation than ion.

  15. Evolution of electric-field-induced quasibound states and resonances in one-dimensional open quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olendski, O

    2016-01-01

    A comparative analysis of three different time-independent approaches to studying open quantum structures in uniform electric field $\\mathscr{E}$ was performed using the example of one-dimensional attractive or repulsive $\\delta$-potential and surface that supports the Robin boundary condition. The three considered methods exploit different properties of the scattering matrix $S(\\mathscr{E};E)$ as a function of energy $E$: its poles, real values, and zeros of the second derivative of its phase. The essential feature of the method of zeroing the resolvent, which produces complex energies, is the unlimited growth of the wave function at infinity, which is, however, eliminated by the time-dependent interpretation. The real energies at which the unitary scattering matrix becomes real correspond to the largest possible distortion, $S=+1$, or its absence at $S=-1$ which in either case leads to the formation of quasibound states. Depending on their response to increasing electric intensity, two types of field-induce...

  16. Frontier Fields: Engaging Educators, the Youth, and the Public in Exploring the Cosmic Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Brandon L.; Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Smith, Denise A.; Summers, Frank; Darnell, John A.; Ryer, Holly

    2015-01-01

    The Frontier Fields is a multi-cycle program of six deep-field observations of strong-lensing galaxy clusters that will be taken in parallel with six deep 'blank fields.' The three-year long collaborative program is led by observations from NASA's Great Observatories. The observations allow astronomers to look deeper into the universe than ever before, and potentially uncover galaxies that are as much as 100 times fainter than what the telescopes can typically observe. The Frontier Fields science program is ideal for informing audiences about scientific advances and topics in STEM. The study of galaxy properties, statistics, optics, and Einstein's theory of general relativity naturally leverages off of the science returns of the Frontier Fields program. As a result, the Space Telescope Science Institute's Office of Public Outreach (OPO) has initiated an education and public outreach (EPO) project to follow the progress of the Frontier Fields.For over two decades, the Hubble EPO program has sought to bring the wonders of the universe to the education community, the youth, and the public, and engage audiences in the adventure of scientific discovery. Program components include standards-based curriculum-support materials, exhibits and exhibit components, professional development workshops, and direct interactions with scientists. We are also leveraging our new social media strategy to bring the science program to the public in the form of an ongoing blog. The main underpinnings of the program's infrastructure are scientist-educator development teams, partnerships, and an embedded program evaluation component. OPO is leveraging this existing infrastructure to bring the Frontier Fields science program to the education community and the public in a cost-effective way.The Frontier Fields program has just completed its first year. This talk will feature the goals and current status of the Frontier Fields EPO program. We will highlight OPO's strategies and infrastructure

  17. [Exploration of basic restorative dental materials teaching in the field of dental technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan-ting

    2012-12-01

    This study was to compare the difference of the existing course materials of basic restorative dental with the past materials, found out the weakness of teaching mode before the reform, and explored the reform in education through teaching content, method and evaluation, in order to improve the teaching quality.

  18. Conduct of Geologic Field Work During Planetary Exploration: Why Geology Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean B.

    2010-01-01

    The science of field geology is the investigative process of determining the distribution of rock units and structures on a planet fs surface, and it is the first-order data set that informs all subsequent studies of a planet, such as geochemistry, geochronology, geophysics, or remote sensing. For future missions to the Moon and Mars, the surface systems deployed must support the conduct of field geology if these endeavors are to be scientifically useful. This lecture discussed what field geology is all about.why it is important, how it is done, how conducting field geology informs many other sciences, and how it affects the design of surface systems and the implementation of operations in the future.

  19. Earth-based rover field testing for exploration mission on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstel, Edward; Huntsberger, Terry; Baumgartner, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a high-level overview of the last major field operations test conducted in 2002 leading up to the MER mision. Objectives, approach, general results, and lessons learned are discussed.

  20. The Hubble Frontier Fields: Engaging Multiple Audiences in Exploring the Cosmic Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Brandon L.; Smith, Denise A.; Summers, Frank; Ryer, Holly; Slivinski, Carolyn; Lotz, Jennifer M.

    2017-06-01

    The Hubble Frontier Fields is a multi-cycle program of six deep-field observations of strong-lensing galaxy clusters taken in parallel with six deep “blank fields.” The three-year long collaborative program began in late 2013 and is led by observations from NASA’s Great Observatories. The observations, now complete, allow astronomers to look deeper into the universe than ever before, and potentially uncover galaxies that are as much as 100 times fainter than what the telescopes can typically observe. The Frontier Fields science program is ideal for informing audiences about scientific advances and topics in STEM. The study of galaxy properties, statistics, optics, and Einstein’s theory of general relativity naturally leverages off of the science returns of the Frontier Fields program. As a result, the Space Telescope Science Institute’s Office of Public Outreach (OPO) has engaged multiple audiences over the past three years to follow the progress of the Frontier Fields.For over two decades, the STScI outreach program has sought to bring the wonders of the universe to the public and engage audiences in the adventure of scientific discovery. In addition, we are leveraging the reach of the new NASA’s Universe of Learning education program to bring the science of the Frontier Fields to informal education audiences. The main underpinnings of the STScI outreach program and the Universe of Learning education program are scientist-educator development teams, partnerships, and an embedded program evaluation component. OPO is leveraging the infrastructure of these education and outreach programs to bring the Frontier Fields science program to the education community and the public in a cost-effective way.This talk will feature highlights over the past three years of the program. We will highlight OPO’s strategies and infrastructure that allows for the quick delivery of groundbreaking science to the education community and public.

  1. Field geologic observation and sample collection strategies for planetary surface exploration: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS geologist crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, José M.; Young, Kelsey; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Rice, James W.

    2013-10-01

    Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic fieldwork, the Desert RATS (Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crewmembers who participated in the 2010 field test. We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies related to duplication of samples and observations; logistical constraints on the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to "flexibly execute" their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

  2. Open solar flux estimates from near-Earth measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field: comparison of the first two perihelion passes of the Ulysses spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Results from all phases of the orbits of the Ulysses spacecraft have shown that the magnitude of the radial component of the heliospheric field is approximately independent of heliographic latitude. This result allows the use of near-Earth observations to compute the total open flux of the Sun. For example, using satellite observations of the interplanetary magnetic field, the average open solar flux was shown to have risen by 29% between 1963 and 1987 and using the aa geomagnetic index it was found to have doubled during the 20th century. It is therefore important to assess fully the accuracy of the result and to check that it applies to all phases of the solar cycle. The first perihelion pass of the Ulysses spacecraft was close to sunspot minimum, and recent data from the second perihelion pass show that the result also holds at solar maximum. The high level of correlation between the open flux derived from the various methods strongly supports the Ulysses discovery that the radial field component is independent of latitude. We show here that the errors introduced into open solar flux estimates by assuming that the heliospheric field's radial component is independent of latitude are similar for the two passes and are of order 25% for daily values, falling to 5% for averaging timescales of 27 days or greater. We compare here the results of four methods for estimating the open solar flux with results from the first and second perehelion passes by Ulysses. We find that the errors are lowest (1–5% for averages over the entire perehelion passes lasting near 320 days, for near-Earth methods, based on either interplanetary magnetic field observations or the aa geomagnetic activity index. The corresponding errors for the Solanki et al. (2000 model are of the order of 9–15% and for the PFSS method, based on solar magnetograms, are of the order of 13–47%. The model of Solanki et al. is based on the continuity equation of open flux, and uses

  3. NMDA receptor subunits in the adult rat hippocampus undergo similar changes after 5 minutes in an open field and after LTP induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Veronica Baez

    Full Text Available NMDA receptor subunits change during development and their synaptic expression is modified rapidly after synaptic plasticity induction in hippocampal slices. However, there is scarce information on subunits expression after synaptic plasticity induction or memory acquisition, particularly in adults. GluN1, GluN2A and GluN2B NMDA receptor subunits were assessed by western blot in 1 adult rats that had explored an open field (OF for 5 minutes, a time sufficient to induce habituation, 2 mature rat hippocampal neuron cultures depolarized by KCl and 3 hippocampal slices from adult rats where long term potentiation (LTP was induced by theta-burst stimulation (TBS. GluN1 and GluN2A, though not GluN2B, were significantly higher 70 minutes--but not 30 minutes--after a 5 minutes session in an OF. GluN1 and GluN2A total immunofluorescence and puncta in neurites increased in cultures, as evaluated 70 minutes after KCl stimulation. Similar changes were found in hippocampal slices 70 minutes after LTP induction. To start to explore underlying mechanisms, hippocampal slices were treated either with cycloheximide (a translation inhibitor or actinomycin D (a transcription inhibitor during electrophysiological assays. It was corroborated that translation was necessary for LTP induction and expression. The rise in GluN1 depends on transcription and translation, while the increase in GluN2A appears to mainly depend on translation, though a contribution of some remaining transcriptional activity during actinomycin D treatment could not be rouled out. LTP effective induction was required for the subunits to increase. Although in the three models same subunits suffered modifications in the same direction, within an apparently similar temporal course, further investigation is required to reveal if they are related processes and to find out whether they are causally related with synaptic plasticity, learning and memory.

  4. The insulin secretory action of novel polycyclic guanidines: discovery through open innovation phenotypic screening, and exploration of structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaghafi, Michael B; Barrett, David G; Willard, Francis S; Overman, Larry E

    2014-02-15

    We report the discovery of the glucose-dependent insulin secretogogue activity of a novel class of polycyclic guanidines through phenotypic screening as part of the Lilly Open Innovation Drug Discovery platform. Three compounds from the University of California, Irvine, 1-3, having the 3-arylhexahydropyrrolo[1,2-c]pyrimidin-1-amine scaffold acted as insulin secretagogues under high, but not low, glucose conditions. Exploration of the structure-activity relationship around the scaffold demonstrated the key role of the guanidine moiety, as well as the importance of two lipophilic regions, and led to the identification of 9h, which stimulated insulin secretion in isolated rat pancreatic islets in a glucose-dependent manner. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. String field representation of the Virasoro algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertes, Nicholas; Schnabl, Martin

    2016-12-01

    We construct a representation of the zero central charge Virasoro algebra using string fields in Witten's open bosonic string field theory. This construction is used to explore extensions of the KBc algebra and find novel algebraic solutions of open string field theory.

  6. String field representation of the Virasoro algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Mertes, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    We construct a representation of the zero central charge Virasoro algebra using string fields in Witten's open bosonic string field theory. This construction is used to explore extensions of the KBc algebra and find novel algebraic solutions of open string field theory.

  7. Exploring Direct 3D Interaction for Full Horizontal Parallax Light Field Displays Using Leap Motion Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamsi Kiran Adhikarla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the design and evaluation of direct 3D gesture interaction with a full horizontal parallax light field display. A light field display defines a visual scene using directional light beams emitted from multiple light sources as if they are emitted from scene points. Each scene point is rendered individually resulting in more realistic and accurate 3D visualization compared to other 3D displaying technologies. We propose an interaction setup combining the visualization of objects within the Field Of View (FOV of a light field display and their selection through freehand gesture tracked by the Leap Motion Controller. The accuracy and usefulness of the proposed interaction setup was also evaluated in a user study with test subjects. The results of the study revealed high user preference for free hand interaction with light field display as well as relatively low cognitive demand of this technique. Further, our results also revealed some limitations and adjustments of the proposed setup to be addressed in future work.

  8. Exploring graphene field effect transistor devices to improve spectral resolution of semiconductor radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Richard Karl [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howell, Stephen Wayne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Jeffrey B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hamilton, Allister B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Graphene, a planar, atomically thin form of carbon, has unique electrical and material properties that could enable new high performance semiconductor devices. Graphene could be of specific interest in the development of room-temperature, high-resolution semiconductor radiation spectrometers. Incorporating graphene into a field-effect transistor architecture could provide an extremely high sensitivity readout mechanism for sensing charge carriers in a semiconductor detector, thus enabling the fabrication of a sensitive radiation sensor. In addition, the field effect transistor architecture allows us to sense only a single charge carrier type, such as electrons. This is an advantage for room-temperature semiconductor radiation detectors, which often suffer from significant hole trapping. Here we report on initial efforts towards device fabrication and proof-of-concept testing. This work investigates the use of graphene transferred onto silicon and silicon carbide, and the response of these fabricated graphene field effect transistor devices to stimuli such as light and alpha radiation.

  9. Controlled progressive innate immune stimulation regimen prevents the induction of sickness behavior in the open field test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Q

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Qun Chen, Andrew J Tarr, Xiaoyu Liu, Yufen Wang, Nathaniel S Reed, Cameron P DeMarsh, John F Sheridan, Ning QuanDivision of Oral Biology, Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Peripheral immune activation by bacterial mimics or live replicating pathogens is well known to induce central nervous system activation. Sickness behavior alterations are often associated with inflammation-induced increases in peripheral proinflammatory cytokines (eg, interleukin [IL]-1β and IL-6. However, most researchers have used acute high dose endotoxin/bacterial challenges to observe these outcomes. Using this methodology may pose inherent risks in the translational interpretation of the experimental data in these studies. Studies using Escherichia coli have yet to establish the full kinetics of repeated E. coli peripheral injections. Therefore, we sought to examine the effects of repeated low dose E. coli on sickness behavior and local peripheral inflammation in the open field test. Results from the current experiments showed a behavioral dose response, where increased amounts of E. coli resulted in correspondingly increased sickness behavior. Furthermore, animals that received a subthreshold dose (ie, one that did not cause sickness behavior of E. coli 24 hours prior were able to withstand a larger dose of E. coli on the second day (a dose that would normally cause sickness behavior in mice without prior exposure without inducing sickness behavior. In addition, animals that received escalating subthreshold doses of E. coli on days 1 and 2 behaviorally tolerated a dose of E. coli 25 times higher than what would normally cause sickness behavior if given acutely. Lastly, increased levels of E. coli caused increased IL-6 and IL-1β protein expression in the peritoneal cavity, and this increase was blocked by administering a subthreshold dose of E. coli 24 hours prior. These data show that progressive

  10. IEEE Committee on Man and Radiation (COMAR) Technical Information Statement "exposure of medical personnel to electromagnetic fields from open magnetic resonance imaging systems".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassen, H; Schaefer, D J; Zaremba, L; Bushberg, J; Ziskin, M; Foster, K R

    2005-12-01

    Open magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems enable performing image-guided medical procedures for long periods of time very close to, or inside, the patient imaging area. Medical personnel can be exposed to relatively high static, gradient, and radiofrequency fields compared to most other MRI systems. The Committee on Man and Radiation of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers calculated or used existing data on magnetic flux densities and field strengths in or near the patient area to assess occupational exposure levels. Potential exposures to each field type were analyzed and compared to relevant values specified in international exposure limits including those of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection. Exposures of the head or torso of a worker to gradient fields near the center of the patient-imaging area can exceed most exposure limits even for times less than a second. Exposures to radiofrequency fields can exceed limits if sustained exposures (minutes or more) occur to parts of the body. Static magnetic fields used by present Open MRI systems are below exposure limits of all of the standards that address these fields. Overall results of this study suggest that manufacturers and others who program or operate Open MRI systems should take care to ensure that operating parameters produce exposures that comply with the relevant exposure limits. Also, since field levels fall off rapidly with increasing distance, user practices may be implemented that reduce exposures significantly.

  11. Making Sense of Distributed Leadership: Exploring the Multiple Usages of the Concept in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrowetz, David

    2008-01-01

    Background: The term "distributed leadership" is now widely used among scholars and practitioners in the field of educational leadership. Major actors in the nonprofit sector promote and financially support the development of distributed leadership. Unfortunately, there is confusion and ambiguity about what "distributed leadership" means, and…

  12. Exploring field vegetation reflectance as an indicator of soil contamination in river floodplains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, L.; Salas, E.A.; Clevers, J.G.; Wehrens, H.R.M.J.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Nienhuis, P.H.; Buydens, L.M.C.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between vegetation reflectance and elevated concentrations of the metals Ni, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb in river floodplain soils. High-resolution vegetation reflectance spectra in the visible to near-infrared (400-1350 nm) were obtained using a field radiometer. The rela

  13. Exploring field vegetation reflectance as an indicator of soil contamination in river floodplains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, L.; Salas, E.A.L.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Wehrens, H.R.M.J.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Nienhuis, P.H.; Buydens, L.M.C.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between vegetation reflectance and elevated concentrations of the metals Ni, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb in river floodplain soils. High-resolution vegetation reflectance spectra in the visible to near-infrared (400-1350 nm) were obtained using a field radiometer. The rela

  14. Exploring the Emotions in Pedagogical Content Knowledge about the Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Lina; Cañada, Florentina; Mellado, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise the changes in the Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) about electric fields of two Colombian physics teachers (Isabel and Alejandro) at the high school level (pupils of ages 17-19), the emotions and their relationship with PCK. The research was conducted during two consecutive years, before and…

  15. Open source software for electric field Monte Carlo simulation of coherent backscattering in biological media containing birefringence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosevich, Andrew J; Rogers, Jeremy D; Capoğlu, Ilker R; Mutyal, Nikhil N; Pradhan, Prabhakar; Backman, Vadim

    2012-11-01

    ABSTRACT. We present an open source electric field tracking Monte Carlo program to model backscattering in biological media containing birefringence, with computation of the coherent backscattering phenomenon as an example. These simulations enable the modeling of tissue scattering as a statistically homogeneous continuous random media under the Whittle-Matérn model, which includes the Henyey-Greenstein phase function as a special case, or as a composition of discrete spherical scatterers under Mie theory. The calculation of the amplitude scattering matrix for the above two cases as well as the implementation of birefringence using the Jones N-matrix formalism is presented. For ease of operator use and data processing, our simulation incorporates a graphical user interface written in MATLAB to interact with the underlying C code. Additionally, an increase in computational speed is achieved through implementation of message passing interface and the semi-analytical approach. Finally, we provide demonstrations of the results of our simulation for purely scattering media and scattering media containing linear birefringence.

  16. Imaging sequences for intraoperative MR-guided laparoscopic liver resection in 1.0-T high field open MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, S.S.; Schmidt, S.C.; Schumacher, G. [University Medicine Berlin, Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, Charite Campus Virchow Clinic, Berlin (Germany); Rump, J.; Streitparth, F.; Teichgraeber, U. [University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Charite Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany); Seebauer, C. [University Medicine Berlin, Department of Trauma Surgery, Charite Campus Virchow Clinic, Berlin (Germany); Voort, I.V. der [University Medicine Berlin, Department of Gastroenterology, Charite Campus Virchow Clinic, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    The aim of this study was to identify suitable interactive (dynamic) magnetic resonance (MR) sequences for real-time MR-guided liver dissection in a 1.0-T high field open MRI system. Four dynamic sequences encompassing balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP), T1W gradient echo (GRE), T2W GRE and T2W fast spin echo (FSE) were analysed regarding the image quality, artefact susceptibility and the performance of SNR and CNR. The T2W FSE sequence (1.5 s/image) was considered superior because of an intraoperative SNR of 6.9 ({+-}0.7) and CNR (vessel to parenchyma) of 5.6 ({+-}1.7) in the interventional setting. As a proof of concept, MR-guided laparoscopic liver resection was performed in two healthy domestic pigs by using the T2W FSE sequence. The additional MR images offered simultaneous multiplanar real-time visualisation of the liver vessels during the intervention and thereby increased the anatomical orientation of the surgeon. (orig.)

  17. Effect of light-dark changes on the locomotor activity in open field in adult rats and opossums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klejbor, I; Ludkiewicz, B; Turlejski, K

    2013-11-01

    There have been no reports on how the light-dark changes determine the locomotor activity of animals in the group of high reactivity (HR) and low reactivity (LR). In the present study we have compared selected parameters of the locomotor activity of the HR and the LR groups of the laboratory opossums and Wistar rats during consecutive, light and dark phases in the open field test. Sixty male Wistar adult rats, at an average weight of 350 g each, and 24 adult Monodelphis opossums of both sexes at an average weight of 120 g each were used. The animals' activity for 2 h daily between the hours of 17:30 and 19:30, in line with the natural light-dark cycle were recorded and then analysed using VideoTrack ver.2.0 (Vievpoint France). According to our results, we noted that a change of the experimental conditions from light to dark involves an increase in the locomotor activity in rats and opossums of the HR group, while there is no effect on the activity of the rats and opossums in the LR group. Locomotor activity in the HR rats, both in the light and dark conditions is characterised by a consistent pattern of change - higher activity in the first stage of the recording and a slowdown (habituation) in the second phase of the observation. The locomotor activity of the opossum, during both light and dark conditions, was observed to be at a consistently high level compared to the rats.

  18. Magnetic field observations on DE-A and -B. [Dynamics Explorer A and B satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farthing, W. H.; Sugiura, M.; Ledley, B. G.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Magnetic field observations are conducted on each of the DE-A and -B satellites by a triaxial fluxgate magnetometer. In the basic mode the instrumental resolution is + or - 1.5 nT; in addition, the DE-A magnetometer has two modes of higher resolution: + or - 0.25 nT and + or - 20 pT. The sampling rate is 16 vector samples per second in all modes. The experiment objectives include observations of field-aligned currents, magnetospheric equatorial currents, and ULF waves. These observations, taking full advantage of the specifically selected orbits of the two spacecraft and of the unique combination of instruments, are performed to achieve a better understanding of the electrodynamic coupling within the atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere system and of wave-particle interactions which contribute to the coupling processes.

  19. Exploring the Diversity of Field Strains of Brucella abortus Biovar 3 Isolated in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Sanogo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most widespread bacterial zoonotic diseases in the world, affecting both humans and domestic and wild animals. Identification and biotyping of field strains of Brucella are of key importance for a better knowledge of the epidemiology of brucellosis, for identifying appropriate antigens, for managing disease outbreaks and for setting up efficient preventive and control programmes. Such data are required both at national and regional level to assess potential threats for public health. Highly discriminative genotyping methods such as the multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA allow the comparison and assessment of genetic relatedness between field strains of Brucella within the same geographical area. In this study, MLVA biotyping data retrieved from the literature using a systematic review were compared using a clustering analysis and the Hunter-Gaston diversity index (HGDI. Thus, the analysis of the 42 MLVA genotyping results found in the literature on West Africa [i.e., from Ivory Coast (1, Niger (1, Nigeria (34, The Gambia (3, and Togo (3] did not allow a complete assessment of the actual diversity among field strains of Brucella. However, it provided some preliminary indications on the co-existence of 25 distinct genotypes of Brucella abortus biovar 3 in this region with 19 genotypes from Nigeria, three from Togo and one from Ivory Coast, The Gambia, and Niger. The strong and urgent need for more sustainable molecular data on prevailing strains of Brucella in this sub-region of Africa and also on all susceptible species including humans is therefore highlighted. This remains a necessary stage to allow a comprehensive understanding of the relatedness between field strains of Brucella and the epidemiology of brucellosis within West Africa countries.

  20. Exploring Ultrahigh Magnetic Field Processing of Materials for Developing Customized Microstructures and Enhanced Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludtka, GERALD M.

    2005-03-31

    Thermodynamic calculations based on Gibbs free energy in the magnetization-magnetic intensity-temperature (M-H-T) magnetic equation of state space demonstrate that significantly different phase equilibria may result for those material systems where the product and parent phases exhibit different magnetization responses. These calculations show that the Gibbs free energy is changed by a factor equal to -MdH, where M and H are the magnetization and applied field strength, respectively. Magnetic field processing is directly applicable to a multitude of alloys and compounds for dramatically influencing phase stability and phase transformations. This ability to selectively control microstructural stability and alter transformation kinetics through appropriate selection of the magnetic field strength promises to provide a very robust mechanism for developing and tailoring enhanced microstructures (and even nanostructures through accelerated kinetics) with superior properties for a broad spectrum of material applications. For this Industrial Materials for the Future (IMF) Advanced Materials for the Future project, ferrous alloys were studied initially since this alloy family exhibits ferromagnetism over part of its temperature range of stability and therefore would demonstrate the maximum impact of this novel processing mechanism. Additionally, with these ferrous alloys, the high-temperature parent phase, austenite, exhibits a significantly different magnetization response from the potential product phases, ferrite plus carbide or martensite; and therefore, the solid-state transformation behavior of these alloys will be dramatically influenced by the presence of ultrahigh magnetic fields. Finally, a thermodynamic calculation capability (within ThermoCalc for example) was developed during this project to enable parametric studies to be performed to predict the magnitude of the influence of magnetic processing variables on the phase stability (phase diagrams) in