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Sample records for open cluster metallicities

  1. Entrapment of metal clusters in metal-organic framework channels by extended hooks anchored at open metal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shou-Tian; Zhao, Xiang; Lau, Samuel; Fuhr, Addis; Feng, Pingyun; Bu, Xianhui

    2013-07-17

    Reported here are the new concept of utilizing open metal sites (OMSs) for architectural pore design and its practical implementation. Specifically, it is shown here that OMSs can be used to run extended hooks (isonicotinates in this work) from the framework walls to the channel centers to effect the capture of single metal ions or clusters, with the concurrent partitioning of the large channel spaces into multiple domains, alteration of the host-guest charge relationship and associated guest-exchange properties, and transfer of OMSs from the walls to the channel centers. The concept of the extended hook, demonstrated here in the multicomponent dual-metal and dual-ligand system, should be generally applicable to a range of framework types.

  2. Open cluster Dolidze 25: Stellar parameters and the metallicity in the Galactic anticentre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negueruela, I.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Lorenzo, J.; Castro, N.; Herrero, A.

    2015-12-01

    Context. The young open cluster Dolidze 25, in the direction of the Galactic anticentre, has been attributed a very low metallicity, with typical abundances between -0.5 and -0.7 dex below solar. Aims: We intend to derive accurate cluster parameters and accurate stellar abundances for some of its members. Methods: We have obtained a large sample of intermediate- and high-resolution spectra for stars in and around Dolidze 25. We used the fastwind code to generate stellar atmosphere models to fit the observed spectra. We derive stellar parameters for a large number of OB stars in the area, and abundances of oxygen and silicon for a number of stars with spectral types around B0. Results: We measure low abundances in stars of Dolidze 25. For the three stars with spectral types around B0, we find 0.3 dex (Si) and 0.5 dex (O) below the values typical in the solar neighbourhood. These values, even though not as low as those given previously, confirm Dolidze 25 and the surrounding H ii region Sh2-284 as the most metal-poor star-forming environment known in the Milky Way. We derive a distance 4.5 ± 0.3 kpc to the cluster (rG ≈ 12.3 kpc). The cluster cannot be older than ~3 Myr, and likely is not much younger. One star in its immediate vicinity, sharing the same distance, has Si and O abundances at most 0.15 dex below solar. Conclusions: The low abundances measured in Dolidze 25 are compatible with currently accepted values for the slope of the Galactic metallicity gradient, if we take into account that variations of at least ±0.15 dex are observed at a given radius. The area traditionally identified as Dolidze 25 is only a small part of a much larger star-forming region that comprises the whole dust shell associated with Sh2-284 and very likely several other smaller H ii regions in its vicinity. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, the Mercator Telescope, and the telescopes of the Isaac Newton Group.

  3. Ligand combination strategy for the preparation of novel low-dimensional and open-framework metal cluster materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhina, Ekaterina V.

    Low-dimensional and open-framework materials containing transition metals have a wide range of applications in redox catalysis, solid-state batteries, and electronic and magnetic devices. This dissertation reports on research carried out with the goal to develop a strategy for the preparation of low-dimensional and open-framework materials using octahedral metal clusters as building blocks. Our approach takes its roots from crystal engineering principles where the desired framework topologies are achieved through building block design. The key idea of this work is to induce directional bonding preferences in the cluster units using a combination of ligands with a large difference in charge density. This investigation led to the preparation and characterization of a new family of niobium oxychloride cluster compounds with original structure types exhibiting 1ow-dimensional or open-framework character. Most of these materials have framework topologies unprecedented in compounds containing octahedral clusters. Comparative analysis of their structural features indicates that the novel cluster connectivity patterns in these systems are the result of complex interplay between the effects of anisotropic ligand arrangement in the cluster unit and optimization of ligand-counterion electrostatic interactions. The important role played by these factors sets niobium oxychloride systems apart from cluster compounds with one ligand type or statistical ligand distribution where the main structure-determining factor is the total number of ligands. These results provide a blueprint for expanding the ligand combination strategy to other transition metal cluster systems and for the future rational design of cluster-based materials.

  4. Open source clustering software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoon, M J L; Imoto, S; Nolan, J; Miyano, S

    2004-06-12

    We have implemented k-means clustering, hierarchical clustering and self-organizing maps in a single multipurpose open-source library of C routines, callable from other C and C++ programs. Using this library, we have created an improved version of Michael Eisen's well-known Cluster program for Windows, Mac OS X and Linux/Unix. In addition, we generated a Python and a Perl interface to the C Clustering Library, thereby combining the flexibility of a scripting language with the speed of C. The C Clustering Library and the corresponding Python C extension module Pycluster were released under the Python License, while the Perl module Algorithm::Cluster was released under the Artistic License. The GUI code Cluster 3.0 for Windows, Macintosh and Linux/Unix, as well as the corresponding command-line program, were released under the same license as the original Cluster code. The complete source code is available at http://bonsai.ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp/mdehoon/software/cluster. Alternatively, Algorithm::Cluster can be downloaded from CPAN, while Pycluster is also available as part of the Biopython distribution.

  5. Properties of the open cluster system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janes, K.A.; Tilley, C.; Lynga, G.

    1988-01-01

    A system of weights corresponding to the precision of open cluster data is described. Using these weights, some properties of open clusters can be studied more accurately than was possible earlier. It is clear that there are three types of objects: unbound clusters, bound clusters in the thin disk, and older bound clusters. Galactic gradients of metallicity, longevity, and linear diameter are studied. Distributions at right angles to the galactic plane are discussed in the light of the different cluster types. The clumping of clusters in complexes is studied. An estimate of the selection effects influencing the present material of open cluster data is made in order to evaluate the role played by open clusters in the history of the galactic disk. 58 references

  6. Eclipsing binaries in open clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...

  7. New insights into the origin and evolution of the old, metal-rich open cluster NGC 6791

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Medina, Luis A.; Gieles, Mark; Pichardo, Barbara; Peimbert, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    NGC 6791 is one of the most studied open clusters, it is massive (˜5000 M⊙), located at the solar circle, old (˜8 Gyr) and yet the most metal-rich cluster ([Fe/H] ≃ 0.4) known in the Milky Way. By performing an orbital analysis within a Galactic model including spiral arms and a bar, we found that it is plausible that NGC 6791 formed in the inner thin disc or in the bulge, and later displaced by radial migration to its current orbit. We apply different tools to simulate NGC 6791, including direct N-body summation in time-varying potentials, to test its survivability when going through different Galactic environments. In order to survive the 8-Gyr journey moving on a migrating orbit, NGC 6791 must have been more massive, M0 ≥ 5 × 104 M⊙, when formed. We find independent confirmation of this initial mass in the stellar mass function, which is observed to be flat; this can only be explained if the average tidal field strength experienced by the cluster is stronger than what it is at its current orbit. Therefore, the birth place and journeys of NGC 6791 are imprinted in its chemical composition, in its mass-loss and in its flat stellar mass function, supporting its origin in the inner thin disc or in the bulge.

  8. Radial velocities and metallicities from infrared Ca ii triplet spectroscopy of open clusters. II. Berkeley 23, King 1, NGC 559, NGC 6603, and NGC 7245

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, R.; Casamiquela, L.; Ospina, N.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Jordi, C.; Monteagudo, L.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Open clusters are key to studying the formation and evolution of the Galactic disc. However, there is a deficiency of radial velocity and chemical abundance determinations for open clusters in the literature. Aims: We intend to increase the number of determinations of radial velocities and metallicities from spectroscopy for open clusters. Methods: We acquired medium-resolution spectra (R ~ 8000) in the infrared region Ca ii triplet lines (~8500 Å) for several stars in five open clusters with the long-slit IDS spectrograph on the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope (Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, Spain). Radial velocities were obtained by cross-correlation fitting techniques. The relationships available in the literature between the strength of infrared Ca ii lines and metallicity were also used to derive the metallicity for each cluster. Results: We obtain ⟨Vr⟩ = 48.6 ± 3.4, -58.4 ± 6.8, 26.0 ± 4.3, and -65.3 ± 3.2 km s-1 for Berkeley 23, NGC 559, NGC 6603, and NGC 7245, respectively. We found [ Fe/H ] = -0.25 ± 0.14 and -0.15 ± 0.18 for NGC 559 and NGC 7245, respectively. Berkeley 23 has low metallicity, [ Fe/H ] = -0.42 ± 0.13, which is similar to other open clusters in the outskirts of the Galactic disc. In contrast, we derived high metallicity ([ Fe/H ] = +0.43 ± 0.15) for NGC 6603, which places this system among the most metal-rich known open clusters. To our knowledge, this is the first determination of radial velocities and metallicities from spectroscopy for these clusters, except NGC 6603, for which radial velocities had been previously determined. We have also analysed ten stars in the line of sight to King 1. Because of the large dispersion obtained in both radial velocity and metallicity, we cannot be sure that we have sampled true cluster members. Based on observations made with the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the

  9. The origin and orbit of the old, metal-rich, open cluster NGC 6791. Insights from kinematics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jílková, L.; Carraro, G.; Jungwiert, Bruno; Minchev, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 541, April (2012), A64/1-A64/11 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014; GA ČR GD205/08/H005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : galaxy * kinematics and dynamics * open clusters and associations Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.084, year: 2012

  10. Metal interactions with boron clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: the structural and bonding features of metallaboranes and metallacarboranes; transition-metal derivatives of nido-boranes and some related species; interactions of metal groups with the octahydrotriborate (1-) anion, B 3 H 8 ; metallaboron cage compounds of the main group metals; closo-carborane-metal complexes containing metal-carbon and metal-boron omega-bonds; electrochemistry of metallaboron cage compounds; and boron clusters with transition metal-hydrogen bonds

  11. Yellow supergiants in open clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowell, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Superluminous giant stars (SLGs) have been reported in young globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). These stars appear to be in the post-asymptotic-giant-branch phase of evolution. This program was an investigation of galactic SLG candidates in open clusters, which are more like the LMC young globular clusters. These were chosen because luminosity, mass, and age determinations can be made for members since cluster distances and interstellar reddenings are known. Color magnitude diagrams were searched for candidates, using the same selection criteria as for SLGs in the LMC. Classification spectra were obtained of 115 program stars from McGraw-Hill Observatory and of 68 stars from Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Chile. These stars were visually classified on the MK system using spectral scans of standard stars taken at the respective observations. Published information was combined with this program's data for 83 stars in 30 clusters. Membership probabilities were assigned to these stars, and the clusters were analyzed according to age. It was seen that the intrinsically brightest supergiants are found in the youngest clusters. With increasing cluster age, the absolute luminosities attained by the supergiants decline. Also, it appears that the evolutionary tracks of luminosity class II stars are more similar to those of class I than of class III

  12. Electronic structure of metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wertheim, G.K.

    1989-01-01

    Photoemission spectra of valence electrons in metal clusters, together with threshold ionization potential measurements, provide a coherent picture of the development of the electronic structure from the isolated atom to the large metallic cluster. An insulator-metal transition occurs at an intermediate cluster size, which serves to define the boundary between small and large clusters. Although the outer electrons may be delocalized over the entire cluster, a small cluster remains insulating until the density of states near the Fermi level exceeds 1/kT. In large clusters, with increasing cluster size, the band structure approaches that of the bulk metal. However, the bands remain significantly narrowed even in a 1000-atom cluster, giving an indication of the importance of long-range order. The core-electron binding-energy shifts of supported metal clusters depend on changes in the band structure in the initial state, as well as on various final-state effects, including changes in core hole screening and the coulomb energy of the final-state charge. For cluster supported on amorphous carbon, this macroscopic coulomb shift is often dominant, as evidenced by the parallel shifts of the core-electron binding energy and the Fermi edge. Auger data confirm that final-state effects dominate in cluster of Sn and some other metals. Surface atom core-level shifts provide a valuable guide to the contributions of initial-state changes in band structure to cluster core-electron binding energy shifts, especially for Au and Pt. The available data indicate that the shift observed in supported, metallic clusters arise largely from the charge left on the cluster by photoemission. As the metal-insulator transition is approached from above, metallic screening is suppressed and the shift is determined by the local environment. (orig.)

  13. Size selected metal clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. The Optical Absorption Spectra of Small Silver Clusters (5-11) ... Soft Landing and Fragmentation of Small Clusters Deposited in Noble-Gas Films. Harbich, W.; Fedrigo, S.; Buttet, J. Phys. Rev. B 1998, 58, 7428. CO combustion on supported gold clusters. Arenz M ...

  14. THE OLD, SUPER-METAL-RICH OPEN CLUSTER, NGC 6791—ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES IN TURN-OFF STARS FROM KECK/HIRES SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant Boesgaard, Ann; Lum, Michael G. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Deliyannis, Constantine P., E-mail: boes@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: mikelum@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: cdeliyan@indiana.edu [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University 727 East 3rd Street, Swain Hall West 319, Bloomington, IN 47405-7105 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The study of star clusters has advanced our understanding of stellar evolution, Galactic chemical evolution, and nucleosynthesis. Here we investigate the composition of turn-off stars in the intriguing open cluster, NGC 6791, which is old, but super-metal-rich with high-resolution (R = 46,000) Keck/HIRES spectra. We find [Fe/H] = +0.30 ± 0.02 from measurements of some 40 unblended, unsaturated lines of both Fe I and Fe II in eight turn-off stars. Our O abundances come from the O I triplet near 7774 Å and we perform a differential analysis relative to the Sun from our Lunar spectrum also obtained with Keck/HIRES. The O results are corrected for small nLTE effects. We find consistent ratios of [O/Fe]{sub n} with a mean of –0.06 ± 0.02. This is low with respect to field stars that are also both old and metal-rich and continue the trend of decreasing [O/Fe] with increasing [Fe/H]. The small range in our oxygen abundances is consistent with a single population of stars. Our results for the alpha elements [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe], and [Ti/Fe] are near solar and compare well with those of the old, metal-rich field stars. The two Fe-peak elements, Cr and Ni, are consistent with Fe. These turn-off-star abundances provide benchmark abundances to investigate whether there are any observable abundance differences with the giants that might arise from nuclear-burning and dredge-up processes. Determinations of upper limits were found for Li by spectrum synthesis and are consistent with the upper limits in similar stars in the relatively old, super-metal-rich cluster NGC 6253. Our results support the prediction from standard theory that higher-metallicity stars deplete more Li. Probably no stars in NGC 6791 have retained their initial Li.

  15. Supersonic bare metal cluster beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Progress continued this past year on two principal fronts in the study of bare metal clusters: photoelectron spectroscopy of mass selected negative ions, and surface chemisorption of cluster ions levitated in a superconducting magnet as monitored by fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance

  16. Open Cluster Dynamics via Fundamental Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Cheng; Pang, Xiao-Ying

    2018-04-01

    Open clusters (OCs) are important objects for stellar dynamics studies. The short survival timescale of OCs makes them closely related to the formation of Galactic field stars. We motivate to investigate the dynamical evolution of OCs on the aspect of internal effect and the external influence. Firstly, we make use of the known OC catalog to obtain OCs masses, effective radii. Additionally, we estimate OCs kinematics properties by OC members cross-matched with radial velocity and metallicity from SDSSIV/APOGEE2. We then establish the fundamental plane of OCs based on the radial velocity dispersion, the effective radius, and average surface brightness. The deviation of the fundamental plane from the Virial Plane, so called the tilt, and the r.m.s. dispersion of OCs around the average plane are used to indicate the dynamical status of OCs. Parameters of the fitted plane will vary with cluster age and distance.

  17. Metal cluster compounds - chemistry and importance; clusters containing isolated main group element atoms, large metal cluster compounds, cluster fluxionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, B.

    1988-01-01

    This part of the review on metal cluster compounds deals with clusters containing isolated main group element atoms, with high nuclearity clusters and metal cluster fluxionality. It will be obvious that main group element atoms strongly influence the geometry, stability and reactivity of the clusters. High nuclearity clusters are of interest in there own due to the diversity of the structures adopted, but their intermediate position between molecules and the metallic state makes them a fascinating research object too. These both sites of the metal cluster chemistry as well as the frequently observed ligand and core fluxionality are related to the cluster metal and surface analogy. (author)

  18. Fission of Polyanionic Metal Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, S.; Jankowski, A.; Marx, G.; Schweikhard, L.; Wolfram, M.

    2018-04-01

    Size-selected dianionic lead clusters Pbn2 -, n =34 - 56 , are stored in a Penning trap and studied with respect to their decay products upon photoexcitation. Contrary to the decay of other dianionic metal clusters, these lead clusters show a variety of decay channels. The mass spectra of the fragments are compared to the corresponding spectra of the monoanionic precursors. This comparison leads to the conclusion that, in the cluster size region below about n =48 , the fission reaction Pbn2 -→Pbn-10 -+Pb10- is the major decay process. Its disappearance at larger cluster sizes may be an indication of a nonmetal to metal transition. Recently, the pair of Pb10- and Pbn-10 - were observed as pronounced fragments in electron-attachment studies [S. König et al., Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 421, 129 (2017), 10.1016/j.ijms.2017.06.009]. The present findings suggest that this combination is the fingerprint of the decay of doubly charged lead clusters. With this assumption, the dianion clusters have been traced down to Pb212 -, whereas the smallest size for the direct observation was as high as n =28 .

  19. Production of metal particles and clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmanus, S. P.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of producing novel metals or metal clusters in a low gravity environment was studied. The production of coordinately unsaturated metal carbonyls by thermolysis or photolysis of stable metal carbonyls has the potential to generate novel catalysts by this technique. Laser irradiation of available metal carbonyls was investigated. It is found that laser induced decomposition of metal carbonyls is feasible for producing a variety of coordinately unsaturated species. Formation of clustered species does occur but is hampered by weak metal-metal bonds.

  20. The old open cluster Melotte 66

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawarden, T.G.

    1976-01-01

    Photoelectric and photographic photometry of the open cluster Melotte 66 is presented. The colour-magnitude (CM) diagram shows most of the characteristics of an old cluster. The giant branch is broad with its blue edge populated preferentially by stars from the outer parts of the cluster. There is no detectable horizontal subgiant sequence. The main sequence turn-off colour, two-colour diagram and the colour difference between the turn-off and the subgiants are used to estimate the age and composition. Melotte 66 appears to have reddening E(B-V) = 0sup(m).17 and ultraviolet excess delta(U-B) approximately 0sup(m).1. The cluster is probably between 6 and 7 x 10 9 yr old. A distance modulus (m-M) 0 =12sup(m).4 is derived, which implies that the cluster lies about 750 pc from the galactic plane. (author)

  1. THE YOUNG OPEN CLUSTER BERKELEY 55

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negueruela, Ignacio; Marco, Amparo, E-mail: ignacio.negueruela@ua.es, E-mail: amparo.marco@ua.es [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2012-02-15

    We present UBV photometry of the highly reddened and poorly studied open cluster Berkeley 55, revealing an important population of B-type stars and several evolved stars of high luminosity. Intermediate-resolution far-red spectra of several candidate members confirm the presence of one F-type supergiant and six late supergiants or bright giants. The brightest blue stars are mid-B giants. Spectroscopic and photometric analyses indicate an age 50 {+-} 10 Myr. The cluster is located at a distance d Almost-Equal-To 4 kpc, consistent with other tracers of the Perseus Arm in this direction. Berkeley 55 is thus a moderately young open cluster with a sizable population of candidate red (super)giant members, which can provide valuable information about the evolution of intermediate-mass stars.

  2. Interstellar Extinction in 20 Open Star Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangwal, Geeta; Yadav, R. K. S.; Durgapal, Alok K.; Bisht, D.

    2017-12-01

    The interstellar extinction law in 20 open star clusters namely, Berkeley 7, Collinder 69, Hogg 10, NGC 2362, Czernik 43, NGC 6530, NGC 6871, Bochum 10, Haffner 18, IC 4996, NGC 2384, NGC 6193, NGC 6618, NGC 7160, Collinder 232, Haffner 19, NGC 2401, NGC 6231, NGC 6823, and NGC 7380 have been studied in the optical and near-IR wavelength ranges. The difference between maximum and minimum values of E(B - V) indicates the presence of non-uniform extinction in all the clusters except Collinder 69, NGC 2362, and NGC 2384. The colour excess ratios are consistent with a normal extinction law for the clusters NGC 6823, Haffner 18, Haffner 19, NGC 7160, NGC 6193, NGC 2401, NGC 2384, NGC 6871, NGC 7380, Berkeley 7, Collinder 69, and IC 4996. We have found that the differential colour-excess ΔE(B - V), which may be due to the occurrence of dust and gas inside the clusters, decreases with the age of the clusters. A spatial variation of colour excess is found in NGC 6193 in the sense that it decreases from east to west in the cluster region. For the clusters Berkeley 7, NGC 7380, and NGC 6871, a dependence of colour excess E(B - V) with spectral class and luminosity is observed. Eight stars in Collinder 232, four stars in NGC 6530, and one star in NGC 6231 have excess flux in near-IR. This indicates that these stars may have circumstellar material around them.

  3. Gas phase reactivity of thermal metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castleman, A.W. Jr.; Harms, A.C.; Leuchtner, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Reaction kinetics of metal cluster ions under well defined thermal conditions were studied using a flow tube reactor in combination with laser vaporization. Aluminum anions and cations were reacted with oxygen, and several species which are predicted jellium shell closings, were found to have special stability. Metal alloy cluster anions comprised of Al, V and Nb were also seen to react with oxygen. Alloy clusters with an even number of electrons reacted more slowly than odd electron species, and certain clusters appeared to be exceptionally unreactive. Copper cation clusters were observed to associate with carbon monoxide with reactivities that approach bulk behavior at surprisingly small cluster size. These reactions demonstrate how the rate of reaction changes with cluster size. (orig.)

  4. Gas phase reactivity of thermal metal clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleman, A. W., Jr.; Harms, A. C.; Leuchtner, R. E.

    1991-03-01

    Reaction kinetics of metal cluster ions under well defined thermal conditions were studied using a flow tube reactor in combination with laser vaporization. Aluminum anions and cations were reacted with oxygen, and several species which are predicted jellium shell closings, were found to have special stability. Metal alloy cluster anions comprised of Al, V and Nb were also seen to react with oxygen. Alloy clusters with an even number of electrons reacted more slowly than odd electron species, and certain clusters appeared to be exceptionally unreactive. Copper cation clusters were observed to associate with carbon monoxide with reactivities that approach bulk behavior at surprisingly small cluster size. These reactions demonstrate how the rate of reaction changes with cluster size.

  5. Photometric metal abundances for twenty clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennens, P.A.; Helfer, H.L.

    1975-01-01

    Metal abundances, colour excesses and distance moduli have been determined for individual giant stars, using UBViyz photometry, in NGC 188, 559, 752, 1245, 1342, 1907, 1912, 2099, 5139 (ω cen), 5316, 5617, 5822, 5823, 6067, IC 4651, 6819, 6940, 7142, 7261 and 7789. All six clusters with ages 3 to 8x10 9 yr have metal abundances agreeing with one another; their average value of [Fe/H]=-0.24+-0.05, agrees with the average found for the bright K-giants near the Sun. All six clusters are at least 140pc from the galactic plane. For the younger clusters less than approximately 10 9 yr old, one-third are metal deficient. The very young cluster, NGC 559, is probably very metal weak. (author)

  6. Collective excitations in deformed alkali metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipparini, E.; Stringari, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Povo

    1991-01-01

    A theoretical study of collective excitations in deformed metal clusters is presented. Sum rules are used to study the splittings of the dipole surface plasma resonance originating from the cluster deformation. The vibrating potential model is developed and used to predict the occurrence of a low lying collective mode of orbital magnetic nature. (orig.)

  7. Electron scattering on metal clusters and fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'yov, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives a survey of physical phenomena manifesting themselves in electron scattering on atomic clusters. The main emphasis is made on electron scattering on fullerenes and metal clusters, however some results are applicable to other types of clusters as well. This work is addressed to theoretical aspects of electron-cluster scattering, however some experimental results are also discussed. It is demonstrated that the electron diffraction plays important role in the formation of both elastic and inelastic electron scattering cross sections. It is elucidated the essential role of the multipole surface and volume plasmon excitations in the formation of electron energy loss spectra on clusters (differential and total, above and below ionization potential) as well as the total inelastic scattering cross sections. Particular attention is paid to the elucidation of the role of the polarization interaction in low energy electron-cluster collisions. This problem is considered for electron attachment to metallic clusters and the plasmon enhanced photon emission. Finally, mechanisms of electron excitation widths formation and relaxation of electron excitations in metal clusters and fullerenes are discussed. (authors)

  8. SPB stars in the open SMC cluster NGC 371

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoff, C.; Arentoft, T.; Glowienka, L.; Coutures, C.; Nielsen, T. B.; Dogan, G.; Grundahl, F.; Kjeldsen, H.

    2008-05-01

    Pulsation in β Cep and slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars are driven by the κ mechanism which depends critically on the metallicity. It has therefore been suggested that β Cep and SPB stars should be rare in the Magellanic Clouds which have lower metallicities than the solar neighbourhood. To test this prediction we have observed the open Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) cluster NGC 371 for 12 nights in order to search for β Cep and SPB stars. Surprisingly, we find 29 short-period B-type variables in the upper part of the main sequence, many of which are probably SPB stars. This result indicates that pulsation is still driven by the κ mechanism even in low-metallicity environments. All the identified variables have periods longer than the fundamental radial period which means that they cannot be β Cep stars. Within an amplitude detection limit of 5 mmag no stars in the top of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram show variability with periods shorter than the fundamental radial period. So if β Cep stars are present in the cluster they oscillate with amplitudes below 5 mmag, which is significantly lower than the mean amplitude of β Cep stars in the Galaxy. We see evidence that multimode pulsation is more common in the upper part of the main sequence than in the lower. We have also identified five eclipsing binaries and three periodic pulsating Be stars in the cluster field.

  9. Extragalactic globular clusters. I. The metallicity calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodie, J.P.; Huchra, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    The ability of absorption-line strength indices, measured from integrated globular cluster spectra, to predict mean cluster metallicity is explored. Statistical criteria, are used to identify the six best indices out of about 20 measured in a large sample of Galactic and M31 cluster spectra. Linear relations between index and metallicity have been derived along with new calibrations of infrared colors (V - K, J - K, and CO) versus Fe/H. Estimates of metallicity from the six spectroscopic index-metallicity relations have been combined in three different ways to identify the most efficient estimator and the minimum bias estimator of Fe/H - the weighted mean. This provides an estimate of Fe/H accurate to about 15 percent. 37 refs

  10. Towards a comprehensive knowledge of the open cluster Haffner 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatti, Andrés E.

    2017-03-01

    We turn our attention to Haffner 9, a Milky Way open cluster whose previous fundamental parameter estimates are far from being in agreement. In order to provide with accurate estimates, we present high-quality Washington CT1 and Johnson BVI photometry of the cluster field. We put particular care in statistically cleaning the colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) from field star contamination, which was found a common source in previous works for the discordant fundamental parameter estimates. The resulting cluster CMD fiducial features were confirmed from a proper motion membership analysis. Haffner 9 is a moderately young object (age ∼350 Myr), placed in the Perseus arm - at a heliocentric distance of ∼3.2 kpc - , with a lower limit for its present mass of ∼160 M⊙ and of nearly metal solar content. The combination of the cluster structural and fundamental parameters suggest that it is in an advanced stage of internal dynamical evolution, possibly in the phase typical of those with mass segregation in their core regions. However, the cluster still keeps its mass function close to that of the Salpeter's law.

  11. Reanalysis of 24 Nearby Open Clusters using Gaia data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Steffi X.; Reffert, Sabine; Röser, Siegfried; Schilbach, Elena; Kharchenko, Nina V.; Piskunov, Anatoly E.

    2018-04-01

    We have developed a fully automated cluster characterization pipeline, which simultaneously determines cluster membership and fits the fundamental cluster parameters: distance, reddening, and age. We present results for 24 established clusters and compare them to literature values. Given the large amount of stellar data for clusters available from Gaia DR2 in 2018, this pipeline will be beneficial to analyzing the parameters of open clusters in our Galaxy.

  12. TWO BARIUM STARS IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 5822

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katime Santrich, O. J.; Pereira, C. B.; De Castro, D. B., E-mail: osantrich@on.br, E-mail: claudio@on.br, E-mail: denise@on.br [Observatorio Nacional/MCT, Rua Gen. Jose Cristino, 77, 20921-400 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2013-08-01

    Open clusters are very useful examples to explain the constraint of the nucleosynthesis process with the luminosities of stars because the distances of the clusters are better known than those of field stars. We carried out a detailed spectroscopic analysis to derive the chemical composition of two red giants in the young open cluster NGC 5822, NGC 5822-2, and NGC 5822-201. We obtained abundances of C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Si, Ti, Ni, Cr, Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd. The atmospheric parameters of the studied stars and their chemical abundances were determined using high-resolution optical spectroscopy. We employed the local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code MOOG. The abundances of the light elements were derived using the spectral synthesis technique. We found that NGC 5822-2 and -201 have, respectively, a mean overabundance of the elements created by the s-process, ''s'', with the notation [s/Fe] of 0.77 {+-} 0.12 and 0.83 {+-} 0.05. These values are higher than those for field giants of similar metallicity. We also found that NGC 5822-2 and -201 have, respectively, luminosities of 140 L{sub Sun} and 76 L{sub Sun }, which are much lower than the luminosity of an asymptotic giant branch star. We conclude that NGC 5822-2 and NGC 5822-201 are two new barium stars first identified in the open cluster NGC 5822. The mass transfer hypothesis is the best scenario to explain the observed overabundances.

  13. (Electronic structure and reactivities of transition metal clusters)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The following are reported: theoretical calculations (configuration interaction, relativistic effective core potentials, polyatomics, CASSCF); proposed theoretical studies (clusters of Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir, Os, Ru; transition metal cluster ions; transition metal carbide clusters; bimetallic mixed transition metal clusters); reactivity studies on transition metal clusters (reactivity with H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, hydrocarbons; NO and CO chemisorption on surfaces). Computer facilities and codes to be used, are described. 192 refs, 13 figs.

  14. Variable stars in the field of open cluster NGC 2126

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shunfang; Wu Zhenyu; Zhang Xiaobin; Wu Jianghua; Ma Jun; Jiang Zhaoji; Chen Jiansheng; Zhou Xu

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of a time-series CCD photometric survey of variable stars in the field of open cluster NGC 2126. In about a one square degree field covering the cluster, a total of 21 variable candidates are detected during this survey, of which 16 are newly found. The periods, classifications and spectral types of 14 newly discovered variables are discussed, which consist of six eclipsing binary systems, three pulsating variable stars, three long period variables, one RS CVn star, and one W UMa or δ Scuti star. In addition, there are two variable candidates, the properties of which cannot be determined. By a method based on fitting observed spectral energy distributions of stars with theoretical ones, the membership probabilities and the fundamental parameters of this cluster are determined. As a result, five variables are probably members of NGC 2126. The fundamental parameters of this cluster are determined as: metallicity to be 0.008 Z o-dot , age log(t) = 8.95, distance modulus (m - M) 0 = 10.34 and reddening value E (B - V) = 0.55 mag.

  15. Stromvil Photometry of Clusters II. The Open Cluster M67

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, R. P.; Philip, A. G. D.; Straižys, V.

    1998-12-01

    Use of the Stromgren four-color photometric system with the addition of three filters (P, Z, S) of the Vilnius system allows classifying all the types of stars, even in the presence of significant reddening by interstellar dust (Strai\\v{z}ys et al, 1996). With this Stromvil system we have begun a long-term observational program on the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) on Mt. Graham, Arizona, (see Philip et al,1996). The Loral 2K by 2K CCD, prepared by M. Lesser of the University of Arizona CCD Lab, gives as high as 90% quantum efficiency in most of the filters and notably 65% at the u filter. To demonstrate the degree of success so far attained in this CCD Stromvil System, we present preliminary results on the open cluster M67. We will compare some of our photometry with the CCD results of B. A. Twarog (1987) and the photoelectric photometry of Nissen et al. (1987). REFERENCES Nissen, P.E., Twarog, B.A., and Crawford, D.L. 1987, A.J. 93,634 Philip, A.G. Davis, Boyle, R.P., Strai\\v{z}ys, V. 1996, Baltic Astronomy,5,445 Strai\\v{z}ys, V., Crawford, D.L., Philip, A.G.Davis 1996, Baltic Astronomy, 5,83 Twarog, B.A. 1987, A.J. 93,647

  16. The atomic structure of transition metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    Chemical reactions are used to probe the atomic (geometrical) structure of isolated clusters of transition metal atoms. The number of adsorbate molecules that saturate a cluster, and/or the binding energy of molecules to cluster surfaces, are determined as a function of cluster size. Systematics in these properties often make it possible to propose geometrical structures consistent with the experimental observations. We will describe how studies of the reactions of cobalt and nickel clusters with ammonia, water, and nitrogen provide important and otherwise unavailable structural information. Specifically, small (less than 20 atoms) clusters of cobalt and nickel atoms adopt entirely different structures, the former having packing characteristic of the bulk and the latter having pentagonal symmetry. These observations provide important input for model potentials that attempt to describe the local properties of transition metals. In particular, they point out the importance of a proper treatment of d-orbital binding in these systems, since cobalt and nickel differ so little in their d-orbital occupancy

  17. Wolf-Rayet stars in open clusters and associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundstroem, I.; Stenholm, B.

    1982-01-01

    The authors have made a search for line-of-sight coincidences between WR stars and open clusters using the new catalogue of galactic WR stars (van der Hucht et al., 1981, called the HCLS catalogue) and the catalogue of open cluster data (Lyngaa and Lundstroem, 1980). As a measure of the separation they used the angular distance between the WR star and the cluster centre expressed with the cluster angular radius, r', as unit. By comparing the results found from the real angular distributions of WR stars and open clusters with those found if the WR stars were redistributed by changing signs in their latitudes, it is concluded that the majority of WR stars with separations less than 3r' are true cluster members. For larger separations only a few stars can be expected to be members. The authors have therefore limited their investigation to those WR stars that were found within 5r' from an open cluster. (Auth.)

  18. Energetics of charged metal clusters containing vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogosov, Valentin V.; Reva, Vitalii I.

    2018-01-01

    We study theoretically large metal clusters containing vacancies. We propose an approach, which combines the Kohn-Sham results for monovacancy in a bulk of metal and analytical expansions in small parameters cv (relative concentration of vacancies) and RN,v -1, RN ,v being cluster radii. We obtain expressions of the ionization potential and electron affinity in the form of corrections to electron work function, which require only the characteristics of 3D defect-free metal. The Kohn-Sham method is used to calculate the electron profiles, ionization potential, electron affinity, electrical capacitance; dissociation, cohesion, and monovacancy-formation energies of the small perfect clusters NaN, MgN, AlN (N ≤ 270) and the clusters containing a monovacancy (N ≥ 12) in the stabilized-jellium model. The quantum-sized dependences for monovacancy-formation energies are calculated for the Schottky scenario and the "bubble blowing" scenario, and their asymptotic behavior is also determined. It is shown that the asymptotical behaviors of size dependences for these two mechanisms differ from each other and weakly depend on the number of atoms in the cluster. The contribution of monovacancy to energetics of charged clusters and the size dependences of their characteristics and asymptotics are discussed. It is shown that the difference between the characteristics for the neutral and charged clusters is entirely determined by size dependences of ionization potential and electron affinity. Obtained analytical dependences may be useful for the analysis of the results of photoionization experiments and for the estimation of the size dependences of the vacancy concentration including the vicinity of the melting point.

  19. New projectiles: multicharged metal clusters and biopolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della-Negra, S.; Gardes, D.; Le Beyec, Y.; Waast, B.

    1991-01-01

    Metal clusters and molecules are the one mean to realize simultaneous impacts of several atoms on a reduced surface(∼100A). The interaction characteristics is the non-linearity of energy deposition; the perturbation that the cluster produces, is above than the sum of the perturbation induced by its components, taken separately. The purpose of ORION project is to accelerate these new projectiles at ORSAY Tandem. The considered mass range is from 100 Daltons to 100 000 Daltons and energy range from MeV to GeV

  20. Open Clusters as Tracers of the Galactic Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantat-Gaudin, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Open clusters (OCs) are routinely used as reliable tracers of the properties and evolution of the galactic disk, as they can be found at all galactocentric distances and span a wide range of ages. More than 3000 OCs are listed in catalogues, although few have been studied in details. The goal of this work is to study the properties of open clusters. This work was conducted in the framework of the Gaia-ESO Survey (GES). GES is an observational campaign targeting more than 100,000 stars in all major components of the Milky Way, including stars in a hundred open clusters. It uses the FLAMES instrument at the VLT to produce high and medium-resolution spectra, which provide accurate radial velocities and individual elemental abundances. In this framework, the goals of the Thesis are: * to study the properties of OCs and of their stars from photometry and spectroscopy to derive their age, the extinction and the chemical composition of the stars, to begin to build a homogeneous data base. Looking at literature data it is clear that different authors derive substantially different chemical compositions, and in general OC parameters. * the study of OCs and their chemical homogeneity (or inhomogeneity) can cast light on what is still an open issue: the presence of multiple populations in clusters. While multiple generations of stars are now ubiquitously found in globular clusters in the Milky Way and in the Magellanic Clouds, they have not been yet detected in open clusters. What is the main driver of the self-pollution process? * to study the cluster formation process. All, or at least a significant fraction of stars form in clusters. Young clusters (a few Myr) can retain some of the properties of the molecular cloud they originate from and give us insight about the cluster assembly process. The first GES data release contains data for the young OC Gamma Velorum, in which two (dynamically different) subpopulations have been identified. This cluster can serve as a test case

  1. ROTATION PERIODS OF OPEN-CLUSTER STARS .3.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PROSSER, CF; SHETRONE, MD; DASGUPTA, A; BACKMAN, DE; LAAKSONEN, BD; BAKER, SW; MARSCHALL, LA; WHITNEY, BA; KUIJKEN, K; STAUFFER, [No Value

    We present the results from a photometric monitoring program of 15 open cluster stars and one weak-lined T Tauri star during late 1993/early 1994. Several slow rotators which are members of the Alpha Persei, Pleiades, and Hyades open clusters have been monitored and period estimates derived. Using

  2. WIYN Open Cluster Study. XXXII. Stellar Radial Velocities in the Old Open Cluster NGC 188

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Aaron M.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Harris, Hugh C.; McClure, Robert D.

    2008-06-01

    We present the results of our ongoing radial-velocity (RV) survey of the old (7 Gyr) open cluster NGC 188. Our WIYN 3.5 m data set spans a time baseline of 11 years, a magnitude range of 12 =3 measurements, finding 473 to be likely cluster members. We detect 124 velocity-variable cluster members, all of which are likely to be dynamically hard-binary stars. Using our single member stars, we find an average cluster radial velocity of -42.36 ± 0.04 km s-1. We use our precise RV and proper-motion membership data to greatly reduce field-star contamination in our cleaned color-magnitude diagram, from which we identify six stars of note that lie far from a standard single-star isochrone. We present a detailed study of the spatial distribution of cluster-member populations, and find the binaries to be centrally concentrated, providing evidence for the presence of mass segregation in NGC 188. We observe the BSs to populate a bimodal spatial distribution that is not centrally concentrated, suggesting that we may be observing two populations of BSs in NGC 188, including a centrally concentrated distribution as well as a halo population. Finally, we find NGC 188 to have a global RV dispersion of 0.64 ± 0.04 km s-1, which may be inflated by up to 0.23 km s-1 from unresolved binaries. When corrected for unresolved binaries, the NGC 188 RV dispersion has a nearly isothermal radial distribution. We use this mean-corrected velocity dispersion to derive a virial mass of 2300 ± 460 M sun .

  3. Structure and Mobility of Metal Clusters in MOFs: Au, Pd, and AuPd Clusters in MOF-74

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Lasse; Walton, Krista S.; Sholl, David S.

    2012-01-01

    is just as important for nanocluster adsorption as open Zn or Mg metal sites. Using the large number of clusters generated by the GA, we developed a systematic method for predicting the mobility of adsorbed clusters. Through the investigation of diffusion paths a relationship between the cluster......Understanding the adsorption and mobility of metal–organic framework (MOF)-supported metal nanoclusters is critical to the development of these catalytic materials. We present the first theoretical investigation of Au-, Pd-, and AuPd-supported clusters in a MOF, namely MOF-74. We combine density...... functional theory (DFT) calculations with a genetic algorithm (GA) to reliably predict the structure of the adsorbed clusters. This approach allows comparison of hundreds of adsorbed configurations for each cluster. From the investigation of Au8, Pd8, and Au4Pd4 we find that the organic part of the MOF...

  4. OPEN CLUSTERS IN THE MILKY WAY OUTER DISK: NEWLY DISCOVERED AND UNSTUDIED CLUSTERS IN THE SPITZER GLIMPSE-360, CYG-X, AND SMOG SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasowski, G.; Beaton, R. L.; Hamm, K. K.; Majewski, S. R.; Patterson, R. J.; Babler, B.; Churchwell, E.; Meade, M.; Whitney, B. A.; Benjamin, R. A.; Watson, C.

    2013-01-01

    Open stellar clusters are extremely valuable probes of Galactic structure, star formation, kinematics, and chemical abundance patterns. Near-infrared (NIR) data have enabled the detection of hundreds of clusters hidden from optical surveys, and mid-infrared (MIR) data are poised to offer an even clearer view into the most heavily obscured parts of the Milky Way. We use new MIR images from the Spitzer GLIMPSE-360, Cyg-X, and SMOG surveys to visually identify a large number of open cluster candidates in the outer disk of the Milky Way (65° < l < 265°). Using NIR color-magnitude diagrams, stellar isochrones, and stellar reddening estimates, we derive cluster parameters (metallicity, distance, reddening) for those objects without previous identification and/or parameters in the literature. In total, we present coordinates and sizes of 20 previously unknown open cluster candidates; for 7 of these we also present metallicity, distance, and reddening values. In addition, we provide the first estimates of these values for nine clusters that had been previously cataloged. We compare our cluster sizes and other derived parameters to those in the open cluster catalog of Dias et al. and find strong similarities except for a higher mean reddening for our objects, which signifies our increased detection sensitivity in regions of high extinction. The results of this cluster search and analysis demonstrate the ability of MIR imaging and photometry to augment significantly the current census of open clusters in the Galaxy

  5. Metallicity Spreads in M31 Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Terry

    2003-07-01

    Our recent deep HST photometry of the M31 halo globular cluster {GC} Mayall II, also called G1, has revealed a red-giant branch with a clear spread that we attribute to an intrinsic metallicity dispersion of at least 0.4 dex in [Fe/H]. The only other GC exhibiting such a metallicity dispersion is Omega Centauri, the brightest and most massive Galactic GC, whose range in [Fe/H] is about 0.5 dex. These observations are obviously linked to the fact that both G1 and Omega Cen are bright and massive GC, with potential wells deep enough to keep part of their gas, which might have been recycled, producing a metallicity scatter among cluster stars. These observations dramatically challenge the notion of chemical homogeneity as a defining characteristic of GCs. It is critically important to find out how common this phenomenon is and how it can constrain scenarios/models of GC formation. The obvious targets are other bright and massive GCs, which exist in M31 but not in our Galaxy where Omega Cen is an isolated giant. We propose to acquire, with ACS/HRC, deep imaging of 3 of the brightest M31 GCs for which we have observed velocity dispersion values similar to those observed in G1 and Omega Cen. A sample of GCs with chemical abundance dispersions will provide essential information about their formation mechanism. This would represent a major step for the studies of the origin and evolution of stellar populations.

  6. Membership determination of open clusters based on a spectral clustering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin-Hua

    2018-06-01

    We present a spectral clustering (SC) method aimed at segregating reliable members of open clusters in multi-dimensional space. The SC method is a non-parametric clustering technique that performs cluster division using eigenvectors of the similarity matrix; no prior knowledge of the clusters is required. This method is more flexible in dealing with multi-dimensional data compared to other methods of membership determination. We use this method to segregate the cluster members of five open clusters (Hyades, Coma Ber, Pleiades, Praesepe, and NGC 188) in five-dimensional space; fairly clean cluster members are obtained. We find that the SC method can capture a small number of cluster members (weak signal) from a large number of field stars (heavy noise). Based on these cluster members, we compute the mean proper motions and distances for the Hyades, Coma Ber, Pleiades, and Praesepe clusters, and our results are in general quite consistent with the results derived by other authors. The test results indicate that the SC method is highly suitable for segregating cluster members of open clusters based on high-precision multi-dimensional astrometric data such as Gaia data.

  7. Integrated spectral study of small angular diameter galactic open clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clariá, J. J.; Ahumada, A. V.; Bica, E.; Pavani, D. B.; Parisi, M. C.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents flux-calibrated integrated spectra obtained at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO, Argentina) for a sample of 9 Galactic open clusters of small angular diameter. The spectra cover the optical range (3800-6800 Å), with a resolution of ˜14 Å. With one exception (Ruprecht 158), the selected clusters are projected into the fourth Galactic quadrant (282o evaluate their membership status. The current cluster sample complements that of 46 open clusters previously studied by our group in an effort to gather a spectral library with several clusters per age bin. The cluster spectral library that we have been building is an important tool to tie studies of resolved and unresolved stellar content.

  8. Elemental abundances of intermediate-age open cluster NGC 3680

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitschang, A. W.; De Silva, G. M.; Zucker, D. B.

    2012-06-01

    We present a new abundance analysis of the intermediate-age Galactic open cluster NGC 3680, based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio VLT/UVES spectroscopic data. Several element abundances are presented for this cluster for the first time, but most notably we derive abundances for the light and heavy s-process elements Y, Ba, La and Nd. The serendipitous measurement of the rare-earth r-process element Gd is also reported. This cluster exhibits a significant enhancement of Na in giants as compared to dwarfs, which may be a proxy for an O to Na anticorrelation as observed in Galactic globular clusters but not open clusters. We also observe a step-like enhancement of heavy s-process elements towards higher atomic number, contrary to expectations from asymptotic giant branch nucleosynthesis models, suggesting that the r process played a significant role in the generation of both La and Nd in this cluster.

  9. Value, Cost, and Sharing: Open Issues in Constrained Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2006-01-01

    Clustering is an important tool for data mining, since it can identify major patterns or trends without any supervision (labeled data). Over the past five years, semi-supervised (constrained) clustering methods have become very popular. These methods began with incorporating pairwise constraints and have developed into more general methods that can learn appropriate distance metrics. However, several important open questions have arisen about which constraints are most useful, how they can be actively acquired, and when and how they should be propagated to neighboring points. This position paper describes these open questions and suggests future directions for constrained clustering research.

  10. Migration in the shearing sheet and estimates for young open cluster migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillen, Alice C.; Nolting, Eric; Minchev, Ivan; De Silva, Gayandhi; Chiappini, Cristina

    2018-04-01

    Using tracer particles embedded in self-gravitating shearing sheet N-body simulations, we investigate the distance in guiding centre radius that stars or star clusters can migrate in a few orbital periods. The standard deviations of guiding centre distributions and maximum migration distances depend on the Toomre or critical wavelength and the contrast in mass surface density caused by spiral structure. Comparison between our simulations and estimated guiding radii for a few young supersolar metallicity open clusters, including NGC 6583, suggests that the contrast in mass surface density in the solar neighbourhood has standard deviation (in the surface density distribution) divided by mean of about 1/4 and larger than measured using COBE data by Drimmel and Spergel. Our estimate is consistent with a standard deviation of ˜0.07 dex in the metallicities measured from high-quality spectroscopic data for 38 young open clusters (<1 Gyr) with mean galactocentric radius 7-9 kpc.

  11. Globular cluster metallicity scale: evidence from stellar models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarque, P.; King, C.R.; Diaz, A.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical giant branches have been constructed to determine their relative positions for metallicities in the range -2.3 0 )/sub 0,g/ based on these models is presented which yields good agreement over the observed range of metallicities for galactic globular clusters and old disk clusters. The metallicity of 47 Tuc and M71 given by this calibration is about -0.8 dex. Subject headings: clusters, globular: stars: abundances: stars: interiors

  12. Searching for multiple stellar populations in the massive, old open cluster Berkeley 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragaglia, A.; Gratton, R. G.; Carretta, E.; D'Orazi, V.; Sneden, C.; Lucatello, S.

    2012-12-01

    The most massive star clusters include several generations of stars with a different chemical composition (mainly revealed by an Na-O anti-correlation) while low-mass star clusters appear to be chemically homogeneous. We are investigating the chemical composition of several clusters with masses of a few 104 M⊙ to establish the lower mass limit for the multiple stellar population phenomenon. Using VLT/FLAMES spectra we determine abundances of Fe, O, Na, and several other elements (α, Fe-peak, and neutron-capture elements) in the old open cluster Berkeley 39. This is a massive open cluster: M ~ 104 M⊙, approximately at the border between small globular clusters and large open clusters. Our sample size of about 30 stars is one of the largest studied for abundances in any open cluster to date, and will be useful to determine improved cluster parameters, such as age, distance, and reddening when coupled with precise, well-calibrated photometry. We find that Berkeley 39 is slightly metal-poor, ⟨[Fe/H]⟩ = -0.20, in agreement with previous studies of this cluster. More importantly, we do not detect any star-to-star variation in the abundances of Fe, O, and Na within quite stringent upper limits. The rms scatter is 0.04, 0.10, and 0.05 dex for Fe, O, and Na, respectively. This small spread can be entirely explained by the noise in the spectra and by uncertainties in the atmospheric parameters. We conclude that Berkeley 39 is a single-population cluster. Based on observations collected at ESO telescopes under programme 386.B-0009.Tables 2 and 3 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Kinematic study of open clusters (Vande Putte+, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Putte, D. V.; Garnier, T. P.; Ferreras, I.; Mignani, R. P.; Cropper, M.

    2011-03-01

    The Galactic population of open clusters provides an insight into star formation in the Galaxy. The open cluster catalogue by Dias et al. (Cat. B/ocl) is a rich source of data, including kinematic information. This large sample made it possible to carry out a systematic analysis of 481 open cluster orbits, using parameters based on orbit eccentricity and separation from the Galactic plane. These two parameters may be indicative of origin, and we find them to be correlated. We also find them to be correlated with metallicity, another parameter suggested elsewhere to be a marker for origin in that high values of any of these two parameters generally indicate a low metallicity ([Fe/H]solar<-0.2dex). The resulting analysis points to four open clusters in the catalogue being of extragalactic origin by impact of high-velocity cloud on the disc: Berkeley 21, 32, 99 and Melotte 66, with a possible further four due to this origin (NGC 2158, 2420, 7789 and IC 1311). A further three may be due to Galactic globular cluster impact on the disc, i.e. of internal Galactic origin (NGC 6791, 1817 and 7044). (3 data files).

  14. Lithium in old open clusters - NGC 188

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, L.M.; Pilachowski, C.

    1988-01-01

    Echelle spectra which include the Li I line at 6707 A are reported for seven main-sequence stars and one subgiant in NGC 188. The Li I line is detected in five of the six dwarfs which are highly probable cluster members. The derived atmospheric Li/H ratios exceed the solar value by factors ranging approximately from 10 to 40, although these apparently closely solarlike stars are about twice as old as the sun. The variation of the lithium abundance with stellar mass along the main sequences of the Pleiades, the Hyades, NGC 752, and NGC 188 are compared. The resulting evolutionary pattern indicates that the lithium fraction in the Galactic gas has shown no appreciable change from Li/H of roughly 10 to the -9th since the birth of NGC 188 about 10 Gyr ago, except that the abundance could have been higher by an uncertain but possibly appreciable factor at the beginning of that epoch. 51 references

  15. Singlet-paired coupled cluster theory for open shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, John A.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2016-06-01

    Restricted single-reference coupled cluster theory truncated to single and double excitations accurately describes weakly correlated systems, but often breaks down in the presence of static or strong correlation. Good coupled cluster energies in the presence of degeneracies can be obtained by using a symmetry-broken reference, such as unrestricted Hartree-Fock, but at the cost of good quantum numbers. A large body of work has shown that modifying the coupled cluster ansatz allows for the treatment of strong correlation within a single-reference, symmetry-adapted framework. The recently introduced singlet-paired coupled cluster doubles (CCD0) method is one such model, which recovers correct behavior for strong correlation without requiring symmetry breaking in the reference. Here, we extend singlet-paired coupled cluster for application to open shells via restricted open-shell singlet-paired coupled cluster singles and doubles (ROCCSD0). The ROCCSD0 approach retains the benefits of standard coupled cluster theory and recovers correct behavior for strongly correlated, open-shell systems using a spin-preserving ROHF reference.

  16. Singlet-paired coupled cluster theory for open shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, John A.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2016-01-01

    Restricted single-reference coupled cluster theory truncated to single and double excitations accurately describes weakly correlated systems, but often breaks down in the presence of static or strong correlation. Good coupled cluster energies in the presence of degeneracies can be obtained by using a symmetry-broken reference, such as unrestricted Hartree-Fock, but at the cost of good quantum numbers. A large body of work has shown that modifying the coupled cluster ansatz allows for the treatment of strong correlation within a single-reference, symmetry-adapted framework. The recently introduced singlet-paired coupled cluster doubles (CCD0) method is one such model, which recovers correct behavior for strong correlation without requiring symmetry breaking in the reference. Here, we extend singlet-paired coupled cluster for application to open shells via restricted open-shell singlet-paired coupled cluster singles and doubles (ROCCSD0). The ROCCSD0 approach retains the benefits of standard coupled cluster theory and recovers correct behavior for strongly correlated, open-shell systems using a spin-preserving ROHF reference.

  17. Parameters of oscillation generation regions in open star cluster models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, V. M.; Putkov, S. I.

    2017-07-01

    We determine the masses and radii of central regions of open star cluster (OCL) models with small or zero entropy production and estimate the masses of oscillation generation regions in clustermodels based on the data of the phase-space coordinates of stars. The radii of such regions are close to the core radii of the OCL models. We develop a new method for estimating the total OCL masses based on the cluster core mass, the cluster and cluster core radii, and radial distribution of stars. This method yields estimates of dynamical masses of Pleiades, Praesepe, and M67, which agree well with the estimates of the total masses of the corresponding clusters based on proper motions and spectroscopic data for cluster stars.We construct the spectra and dispersion curves of the oscillations of the field of azimuthal velocities v φ in OCL models. Weak, low-amplitude unstable oscillations of v φ develop in cluster models near the cluster core boundary, and weak damped oscillations of v φ often develop at frequencies close to the frequencies of more powerful oscillations, which may reduce the non-stationarity degree in OCL models. We determine the number and parameters of such oscillations near the cores boundaries of cluster models. Such oscillations points to the possible role that gradient instability near the core of cluster models plays in the decrease of the mass of the oscillation generation regions and production of entropy in the cores of OCL models with massive extended cores.

  18. Deposition of metal Islands, metal clusters and metal containing single molecules on self-assembled monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speets, Emiel Adrianus

    2005-01-01

    The central topic of this thesis is the deposition of metals on Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs). Metals are deposited in the form of submicron scale islands, nanometer scale clusters, and as supramolecular, organometallic coordination cages. Several SAMs on various substrates were prepared and

  19. Simulation of old open clusters for UVIT on ASTROSAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindhu, N; Anu Radha, C; Annapurni, Subramaniam

    2015-01-01

    The Ultra Violet Imaging Telescope (UVIT) is one of the payloads on the first Indian multiwavelength satellite ASTROSAT, which is expected to be launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) in the year 2015. We have performed simulations of UV studies of old open clusters for the UVIT. The colour magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and spatial appearances have been created using 10 filters associated with the FUV channel (130–180 nm) and NUV channel (200–300 nm) that are available for observations on the UVIT, for the three old open clusters M67, NGC 188 and NGC 6791. The CMDs are simulated for different filter combinations, and they are used to identify the loci of various evolutionary sequences, white dwarfs, blue stragglers, red giants, subgiants, turn off stars and the main sequence of the clusters. The present work helps in identifying a potential area of study in the case of these three old open clusters by considering the availability of filters and the detection limits of the instrument. We also recommend filter combinations, which can be used to detect and study the above mentioned evolutionary stages. The simulations and the results presented here are essential for the optimal use of the UVIT for studies of old open clusters. (paper)

  20. CCD photometry of the distant young open cluster NGC 7510

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, R.; Bonn Univ.; Griffiths, W.K.

    1991-01-01

    CCD observations in B, V and I passbands have been used to generate deep V, (B-V) and V,(V-I) colour-magnitude diagrams for the open cluster NGC 7510. The sample consists of 592 stars reaching down to V=21 mag. There appears to be non-uniform extinction over the face of the cluster with the value of colour excess, E(B-V), ranging from 1.0 to 1.3 mag. The law of interstellar extinction in the direction of the cluster is found to be normal. A broad main sequence is clearly visible in both colour-magnitude diagrams. From the bluest part of the colour-magnitude diagrams, the true distance modulus to the cluster has been estimated as 12.5±0.3 mag and an upper limit of 10 Myr has been assigned for the cluster age. (author)

  1. Astrophysical parameters of ten poorly studied open star clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadross, Ashraf Latif; El-Bendary, Reda; Osman, Anas; Ismail, Nader; Bakry, Abdel Aziz

    2012-01-01

    We present the fundamental parameters of ten open star clusters, nominated from Kronberger et al. who presented some newly discovered stellar groups on the basis of the Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry and Digitized Sky Survey visual images. Star counts and photometric parameters (radius, membership, distance, color excess, age, luminosity function, mass function, total mass, and dynamical relaxation time) have been determined for these ten clusters for the first time. In order to calibrate our procedures, the main parameters (distance, age, and color excess) have been re-estimated for another five clusters, which are also studied by Kronberger et al. (research papers)

  2. The occurrence of peculiar stars in open clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, H.A.; Levato, H.

    1978-01-01

    The authors have classified on the MK system a total of 455 stars in 12 open clusters and associations. The classification is based on wide (1.2 mm) spectra of two reciprocal dispersions (39, 128 A mm -1 ) obtained with the Kitt Peak 2.1 m and 90 cm reflectors respectively. The higher dispersion is necessary to show the subtle peculiarities found in some stars. The clusters are the Orion Nebula cluster, Orion OB1 association, Lacerta OB1 association, IC 2602, IC 4665, Pleiades, M39, M34, NGC 2516, NGC 6633, NGC 6475, and Coma. (Auth.)

  3. Volume shift and charge instability of simple-metal clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Brajczewska, Marta; Vieira, Armando; Fiolhais, Carlos

    1996-01-01

    Experiment indicates that small clusters show changes (mostly contractions) of the bond lengths with respect to bulk values. We use the stabilized jellium model to study the self-expansion and self-compression of spherical clusters (neutral or ionized) of simple metals. Results from Kohn — Sham density functional theory are presented for small clusters of Al and Na, including negatively-charged ones. We also examine the stability of clusters with respect to charging

  4. Volume shift and charge instability of simple-metal clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajczewska, M.; Vieira, A.; Fiolhais, C.; Perdew, J. P.

    1996-12-01

    Experiment indicates that small clusters show changes (mostly contractions) of the bond lengths with respect to bulk values. We use the stabilized jellium model to study the self-expansion and self-compression of spherical clusters (neutral or ionized) of simple metals. Results from Kohn - Sham density functional theory are presented for small clusters of Al and Na, including negatively-charged ones. We also examine the stability of clusters with respect to charging.

  5. Search for and Investigation of Double Open Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalyalieva L. N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical and kinematical parameters of three pairs of open clusters, NGC 6755 and Czernik 39, NGC 1857 and Czernik 20, Berkeley 70 and SAI 47, are determined using the data from several photometric catalogs in order to confirm or disprove the binarity of these pairs.

  6. Collaborative Research of Open Star Clusters Alisher S. Hojaev

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some spectra of the young star candidates with dispersion 50 and 200 Å/mm were .... Color-magnitude diagram for o band and o band minus i band for stars in the region of NGC ... Statistical analysis for open cluster parameters investigation.

  7. A CCD photometric analysis of the old open cluster NGC 2420

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony-Twarog, B.J.; Twarog, B.A.; Kaluzny, J.; Shara, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    Precision CCD photometry on the BV system of the core of the old open cluster NGC 2420 is analyzed to explore the value of such an approach for open clusters, particularly in the areas of Galactic and stellar evolution. The unevolved main sequence is shown to be narrow and well defined to the completeness limit of V = 18.5, and the distribution of stars away from the main sequence is shown to be bimodal, with a secondary peak located approximately 0.7 mag above the fiducial main sequence. It is estimated that 50 percent of the cluster systems are binary. Near the turnoff the cluster exhibits some detailed structure. Fiducial relations are given for the cluster extending from the lower main sequence to the red giant branch 1.5 mag above the clump. Comparisons are made between the NGC 2420 cluster and NGC 2506, the isochrones of VandenBerg (1985), and 47 Tuc, in order to estimate cluster parameters, including reddening and metallicity. 68 refs

  8. Influence of reactive gas admixture on transition metal cluster nucleation in a gas aggregation cluster source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Tilo; Polonskyi, Oleksandr; Gojdka, Björn; Mohammad Ahadi, Amir; Strunskus, Thomas; Zaporojtchenko, Vladimir; Biederman, Hynek; Faupel, Franz

    2012-12-01

    We quantitatively assessed the influence of reactive gases on the formation processes of transition metal clusters in a gas aggregation cluster source. A cluster source based on a 2 in. magnetron is used to study the production rate of titanium and cobalt clusters. Argon served as working gas for the DC magnetron discharge, and a small amount of reactive gas (oxygen and nitrogen) is added to promote reactive cluster formation. We found that the cluster production rate depends strongly on the reactive gas concentration for very small amounts of reactive gas (less than 0.1% of total working gas), and no cluster formation takes place in the absence of reactive species. The influence of discharge power, reactive gas concentration, and working gas pressure are investigated using a quartz micro balance in a time resolved manner. The strong influence of reactive gas is explained by a more efficient formation of nucleation seeds for metal-oxide or nitride than for pure metal.

  9. Ruprecht 106 - A young metal-poor Galactic globular cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonanno, R.; Buscema, G.; Fusi Pecci, F.; Richer, H.B.; Fahlman, G.G.

    1990-01-01

    The first CCD photometric survey in the Galactic globular cluster Ruprecht 106 has been performed. The results show that Ruprecht 106 is a metal-poor cluster with (Fe/H) about -2 located at about 25 kpc from the Galactic center. A sizable, high centrally concentrated population of blue stragglers was detected. Significant differences in the positions of the turnoffs in the color-magnitude diagram are found compared to those in metal-poor clusters. The cluster appears younger than other typical metal-poor Galactic globulars by about 4-5 Gyr; if true, this object would represent the first direct proof of the existence of a significant age spread among old, very metal-poor clusters. 51 refs

  10. Rotation of small clusters in sheared metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delogu, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: When a Cu 50 Ti 50 metallic glass is shear-deformed, the irreversible rearrangement of local structures allows the rigid body rotation of clusters. Highlights: → A shear-deformed Cu 50 Ti 50 metallic glass was studied by molecular dynamics. → Atomic displacements occur at irreversible rearrangements of local structures. → The dynamics of such events includes the rigid body rotation of clusters. → Relatively large clusters can undergo two or more complete rotations. - Abstract: Molecular dynamics methods were used to simulate the response of a Cu 50 Ti 50 metallic glass to shear deformation. Attention was focused on the atomic displacements taking place during the irreversible rearrangement of local atomic structures. It is shown that the apparently disordered dynamics of such events hides the rigid body rotation of small clusters. Cluster rotation was investigated by evaluating rotation angle, axis and lifetimes. This permitted to point out that relatively large clusters can undergo two or more complete rotations.

  11. Ion beam induced nanosized Ag metal clusters in glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnke, H.-E.; Schattat, B.; Schubert-Bischoff, P.; Novakovic, N.

    2006-01-01

    Silver metal clusters have been formed in soda lime glass by high-energy heavy-ion irradiation at ISL. The metal cluster formation was detected with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS) in fluorescence mode, and the shape of the clusters was imaged with transmission electron microscopy. While annealing in reducing atmosphere alone, leads to the formation of metal clusters in Ag-containing glasses, where the Ag was introduced by ion-exchange, such clusters are not very uniform in size and are randomly distributed over the Ag-containing glass volume. Irradiation with 600-MeV Au ions followed by annealing, however, results in clusters more uniform in size and arranged in chains parallel to the direction of the ion beam

  12. ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCE RATIOS IN STARS OF THE OUTER GALACTIC DISK. IV. A NEW SAMPLE OF OPEN CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, David; Carney, Bruce W.; Friel, Eileen D.

    2012-01-01

    We present radial velocities and chemical abundances for nine stars in the old, distant open clusters Be18, Be21, Be22, Be32, and PWM4. For Be18 and PWM4, these are the first chemical abundance measurements. Combining our data with literature results produces a compilation of some 68 chemical abundance measurements in 49 unique clusters. For this combined sample, we study the chemical abundances of open clusters as a function of distance, age, and metallicity. We confirm that the metallicity gradient in the outer disk is flatter than the gradient in the vicinity of the solar neighborhood. We also confirm that the open clusters in the outer disk are metal-poor with enhancements in the ratios [α/Fe] and perhaps [Eu/Fe]. All elements show negligible or small trends between [X/Fe] and distance ( –1 ), but for some elements, there is a hint that the local (R GC GC > 13 kpc) samples may have different trends with distance. There is no evidence for significant abundance trends versus age ( –1 ). We measure the linear relation between [X/Fe] and metallicity, [Fe/H], and find that the scatter about the mean trend is comparable to the measurement uncertainties. Comparison with solar neighborhood field giants shows that the open clusters share similar abundance ratios [X/Fe] at a given metallicity. While the flattening of the metallicity gradient and enhanced [α/Fe] ratios in the outer disk suggest a chemical enrichment history different from that of the solar neighborhood, we echo the sentiments expressed by Friel et al. that definitive conclusions await homogeneous analyses of larger samples of stars in larger numbers of clusters. Arguably, our understanding of the evolution of the outer disk from open clusters is currently limited by systematic abundance differences between various studies.

  13. uvby and Hβ photometry of the open cluster IC 4996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, E.J.; Delgado, A.J.; Garcia-Pelayo, J.M.; Garrido, R.; Saez, M.

    1985-01-01

    Photoelectric uvby and Hβ observations have been obtained for 15 stars in the field of the open cluster IC 4996. An average colour excess of E(b-y)=0.473 is estimated for six observed members of the cluster, in good agreement with previous results. A comparison between the β-Msub(v) calibrations given by Crawford and by Eggen suggests that the first one takes better into account the evolutionary effects on the Hβ index. We have calculated a true distance modulus of 11.43 and an age of 7.5x10 6 years

  14. The Magellanic Bridge Cluster NGC 796: Deep Optical AO Imaging Reveals the Stellar Content and Initial Mass Function of a Massive Open Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalari, Venu M.; Carraro, Giovanni; Evans, Christopher J.; Rubio, Monica

    2018-04-01

    NGC 796 is a massive young cluster located 59 kpc from us in the diffuse intergalactic medium of the 1/5–1/10 Z⊙ Magellanic Bridge, allowing us to probe variations in star formation and stellar evolution processes as a function of metallicity in a resolved fashion, and providing a link between resolved studies of nearby solar-metallicity and unresolved distant metal-poor clusters located in high-redshift galaxies. In this paper, we present adaptive optics griHα imaging of NGC 796 (at 0.″5, which is ∼0.14 pc at the cluster distance) along with optical spectroscopy of two bright members to quantify the cluster properties. Our aim is to explore whether star formation and stellar evolution vary as a function of metallicity by comparing the properties of NGC 796 to higher-metallicity clusters. We find an age of {20}-5+12 Myr from isochronal fitting of the cluster main sequence in the color–magnitude diagram. Based on the cluster luminosity function, we derive a top-heavy stellar initial mass function (IMF) with a slope α = 1.99 ± 0.2, hinting at a metallicity and/or environmental dependence of the IMF, which may lead to a top-heavy IMF in the early universe. Study of the Hα emission-line stars reveals that classical Be stars constitute a higher fraction of the total B-type stars when compared with similar clusters at greater metallicity, providing some support to the chemically homogeneous theory of stellar evolution. Overall, NGC 796 has a total estimated mass of 990 ± 200 M⊙, and a core radius of 1.4 ± 0.3 pc, which classifies it as a massive young open cluster, unique in the diffuse interstellar medium of the Magellanic Bridge.

  15. OPEN CLUSTERS AS PROBES OF THE GALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD. I. CLUSTER PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoq, Sadia; Clemens, D. P., E-mail: shoq@bu.edu, E-mail: clemens@bu.edu [Institute for Astrophysical Research, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Stars in open clusters are powerful probes of the intervening Galactic magnetic field via background starlight polarimetry because they provide constraints on the magnetic field distances. We use 2MASS photometric data for a sample of 31 clusters in the outer Galaxy for which near-IR polarimetric data were obtained to determine the cluster distances, ages, and reddenings via fitting theoretical isochrones to cluster color–magnitude diagrams. The fitting approach uses an objective χ{sup 2} minimization technique to derive the cluster properties and their uncertainties. We found the ages, distances, and reddenings for 24 of the clusters, and the distances and reddenings for 6 additional clusters that were either sparse or faint in the near-IR. The derived ranges of log(age), distance, and E(B−V) were 7.25–9.63, ∼670–6160 pc, and 0.02–1.46 mag, respectively. The distance uncertainties ranged from ∼8% to 20%. The derived parameters were compared to previous studies, and most cluster parameters agree within our uncertainties. To test the accuracy of the fitting technique, synthetic clusters with 50, 100, or 200 cluster members and a wide range of ages were fit. These tests recovered the input parameters within their uncertainties for more than 90% of the individual synthetic cluster parameters. These results indicate that the fitting technique likely provides reliable estimates of cluster properties. The distances derived will be used in an upcoming study of the Galactic magnetic field in the outer Galaxy.

  16. METALS IN THE ICM: WITNESSES OF CLUSTER FORMATION AND EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Lovisari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The baryonic composition of galaxy clusters and groups is dominated by a hot, X-ray emitting Intra-Cluster Medium (ICM. The mean metallicity of the ICM has been found to be roughly 0.3 ÷ 0.5 times the solar value, therefore a large fraction of this gas cannot be of purely primordial origin. Indeed, the distribution and amount of metals in the ICM is a direct consequence of the past history of star formation in the cluster galaxies and of the processes responsible for the injection of enriched material into the ICM. We here shortly summarize the current views on the chemical enrichment, focusing on the observational evidence in terms of metallicity measurements in clusters, spatial metallicity distribution and evolution, and expectations from future missions.

  17. Disintegration of the Aged Open Cluster Berkeley 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Souradeep; Vaidya, Kaushar [Department of Physics, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani 333031, Rajasthan (India); Mishra, Ishan [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039, Assam (India); Chen, W. P., E-mail: f2012553@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, 300 Jhongda Road, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China)

    2017-10-01

    We present the analysis of the morphological shape of Berkeley 17, the oldest known open cluster (∼10 Gyr), using the probabilistic star counting of Pan-STARRS point sources, and confirm its core-tail shape, plus an antitail, previously detected with the 2MASS data. The stellar population, as diagnosed by the color–magnitude diagram and theoretical isochrones, shows many massive members in the clusters core, whereas there is a paucity of such members in both of the tails. This manifests mass segregation in this aged star cluster with the low-mass members being stripped away from the system. It has been claimed that Berkeley 17 is associated with an excessive number of blue straggler candidates. A comparison of nearby reference fields indicates that about half of these may be field contamination.

  18. Astrometric and photometric study of the open cluster NGC 2323

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin M.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of the open cluster NGC 2323 using astrometric and photometric data. In our study we used two methods that are able to separate open cluster’s stars from those that belong to the stellar background. Our results of calculations by these two methods indicate that: 1 according to the membership probability, NGC 2323 should contain 497 stars, 2 the cluster center should be at 07h 02m 48.s02 and -08° 20' 17''74,3 the limiting radius of NGC 2323 is 2.31 ± 0.04 pc, the surface number density at this radius is 98.16 stars pc −2, 4 the magnitude function has a maximum at about mv = 14 mag, 5 the total mass of NGC 2323 is estimated dynamically by using astrometric data to be 890 M_, and statistically by using photometric data to be 900 M_, and 6 the distance and age of the cluster are found to be equal to 900 ± 100 pc, and 140 ± 20 Myr, respectively. Finally the dynamical evolution parameter τ of the cluster is about 436.2.

  19. Orbital magnetism and dynamics in alkali metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterenko, V.O.; Kleinig, W.; Souza Cruz, FF. de; Marinelli, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    Two remarkable orbital magnetic resonances, M1 scissor mode and M2 twist mode, are predicted in deformed and spherical metal clusters, respectively. We show that these resonances provide a valuable information about many cluster properties (quadrupole deformation, magnetic susceptibility, single-particle spectrum, etc.)

  20. Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation Spectroscopy Of Metal Cluster-Adducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, D. M.; Kaldor, A.; Zakin, M. R.

    1987-01-01

    Recent development of the laser vaporization technique combined with mass-selective detection has made possible new studies of the fundamental chemical and physical properties of unsupported transition metal clusters as a function of the number of constituent atoms. A variety of experimental techniques have been developed in our laboratory to measure ionization threshold energies, magnetic moments, and gas phase reactivity of clusters. However, studies have so far been unable to determine the cluster structure or the chemical state of chemisorbed species on gas phase clusters. The application of infrared multiple photon dissociation IRMPD to obtain the IR absorption properties of metal cluster-adsorbate species in a molecular beam is described here. Specifically using a high power, pulsed CO2 laser as the infrared source, the IRMPD spectrum for methanol chemisorbed on small iron clusters is measured as a function of the number of both iron atoms and methanols in the complex for different methanol isotopes. Both the feasibility and potential utility of IRMPD for characterizing metal cluster-adsorbate interactions are demonstrated. The method is generally applicable to any cluster or cluster-adsorbate system dependent only upon the availability of appropriate high power infrared sources.

  1. Oxide-supported metal clusters: models for heterogeneous catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, A K; Goodman, D W

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the size-dependent electronic, structural and chemical properties of metal clusters on oxide supports is an important aspect of heterogeneous catalysis. Recently model oxide-supported metal catalysts have been prepared by vapour deposition of catalytically relevant metals onto ultra-thin oxide films grown on a refractory metal substrate. Reactivity and spectroscopic/microscopic studies have shown that these ultra-thin oxide films are excellent models for the corresponding bulk oxides, yet are sufficiently electrically conductive for use with various modern surface probes including scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). Measurements on metal clusters have revealed a metal to nonmetal transition as well as changes in the crystal and electronic structures (including lattice parameters, band width, band splitting and core-level binding energy shifts) as a function of cluster size. Size-dependent catalytic reactivity studies have been carried out for several important reactions, and time-dependent catalytic deactivation has been shown to arise from sintering of metal particles under elevated gas pressures and/or reactor temperatures. In situ STM methodologies have been developed to follow the growth and sintering kinetics on a cluster-by-cluster basis. Although several critical issues have been addressed by several groups worldwide, much more remains to be done. This article highlights some of these accomplishments and summarizes the challenges that lie ahead. (topical review)

  2. Split and Compensated Hyperfine Fields in Magnetic Metal Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.; Chudo, H.; Shiga, M.; Kohara, T.

    2004-01-01

    As prominent characteristics of magnetic metal cluster found in vanadium sulfides, we point out marked separation and compensation of the hyperfine field at the nuclear site; these are in somewhat discordance with the common sense for 3d transition-metal magnets, where the on-site isotropic field, scaling the ordered moment magnitude, is dominant.

  3. POLYMER COMPOSITE FILMS WITH SIZE-SELECTED METAL NANOPARTICLES FABRICATED BY CLUSTER BEAM TECHNIQUE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceynowa, F. A.; Chirumamilla, Manohar; Popok, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Formation of polymer films with size-selected silver and copper nanoparticles (NPs) is studied. Polymers are prepared by spin coating while NPs are fabricated and deposited utilizing a magnetron sputtering cluster apparatus. The particle embedding into the films is provided by thermal annealing...... after the deposition. The degree of immersion can be controlled by the annealing temperature and time. Together with control of cluster coverage the described approach represents an efficient method for the synthesis of thin polymer composite layers with either partially or fully embedded metal NPs....... Combining electron beam lithography, cluster beam deposition and thermal annealing allows to form ordered arrays of metal NPs on polymer films. Plasticity and flexibility of polymer host and specific properties added by coinage metal NPs open a way for different applications of such composite materials...

  4. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey: Galactic Neutron CaptureAbundance Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Julia; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Melendez, Matthew; Cunha, Katia; Majewski, Steven R.; Zasowski, Gail; APOGEE Team

    2017-06-01

    The evolution of elements, as a function or age, throughout the Milky Way disk provides a key constraint for galaxy evolution models. In an effort to provide these constraints, we have conducted an investigation into the r- and s- process elemental abundances for a large sample of open clusters as part of an optical follow-up to the SDSS-III/APOGEE-1 survey. Stars were identified as cluster members by the Open Cluster Chemical Abundance & Mapping (OCCAM) survey, which culls member candidates by radial velocity, metallicity and proper motion from the observed APOGEE sample. To obtain data for neutron capture elements in these clusters, we conducted a long-term observing campaign covering three years (2013-2016) using the McDonald Observatory Otto Struve 2.1-m telescope and Sandiford Cass Echelle Spectrograph (R ~ 60,000). We present Galactic neutron capture abundance gradients using 30+ clusters, within 6 kpc of the Sun, covering a range of ages from ~80 Myr to ~10 Gyr .

  5. Thermodynamics of Pore Filling Metal Clusters in Metal Organic Frameworks: Pd in UiO-66

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Lasse; Sholl, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have experimentally been demonstrated to be capable of supporting isolated transition-metal clusters, but the stability of these clusters with respect to aggregation is unclear. In this letter we use a genetic algorithm together with density functional theory...... calculations to predict the structure of Pd clusters in UiO-66. The cluster sizes examined are far larger than those in any previous modeling studies of metal clusters in MOFs and allow us to test the hypothesis that the physically separated cavities in UiO-66 could stabilize isolated Pd clusters. Our...... calculations show that Pd clusters in UiO-66 are, at best, metastable and will aggregate into connected pore filling structures at equilibrium....

  6. Spectroscopic Analyses of Neutron Capture Elements in Open Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Julia E.

    The evolution of elements as a function or age throughout the Milky Way disk provides strong constraints for galaxy evolution models, and on star formation epochs. In an effort to provide such constraints, we conducted an investigation into r- and s-process elemental abundances for a large sample of open clusters as part of an optical follow-up to the SDSS-III/APOGEE-1 near infrared survey. To obtain data for neutron capture abundance analysis, we conducted a long-term observing campaign spanning three years (2013-2016) using the McDonald Observatory Otto Struve 2.1-meter telescope and Sandiford Cass Echelle Spectrograph (SES, R(lambda/Deltalambda) ˜60,000). The SES provides a wavelength range of ˜1400 A, making it uniquely suited to investigate a number of other important chemical abundances as well as the neutron capture elements. For this study, we derive abundances for 18 elements covering four nucleosynthetic families- light, iron-peak, neutron capture and alpha-elements- for ˜30 open clusters within 6 kpc of the Sun with ages ranging from ˜80 Myr to ˜10 Gyr. Both equivalent width (EW) measurements and spectral synthesis methods were employed to derive abundances for all elements. Initial estimates for model stellar atmospheres- effective temperature and surface gravity- were provided by the APOGEE data set, and then re-derived for our optical spectra by removing abundance trends as a function of excitation potential and reduced width log(EW/lambda). With the exception of Ba II and Zr I, abundance analyses for all neutron capture elements were performed by generating synthetic spectra from the new stellar parameters. In order to remove molecular contamination, or blending from nearby atomic features, the synthetic spectra were modeled by a best-fit Gaussian to the observed data. Nd II shows a slight enhancement in all cluster stars, while other neutron capture elements follow solar abundance trends. Ba II shows a large cluster-to-cluster abundance spread

  7. Clustered field evaporation of metallic glasses in atom probe tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemp, J.; Gerstl, S.S.A.; Löffler, J.F.; Schönfeld, B.

    2016-01-01

    Field evaporation of metallic glasses is a stochastic process combined with spatially and temporally correlated events, which are referred to as clustered evaporation (CE). This phenomenon is investigated by studying the distance between consecutive detector hits. CE is found to be a strongly localized phenomenon (up to 3 nm in range) which also depends on the type of evaporating ions. While a similar effect in crystals is attributed to the evaporation of crystalline layers, CE of metallic glasses presumably has a different – as yet unknown – physical origin. The present work provides new perspectives on quantification methods for atom probe tomography of metallic glasses. - Highlights: • Field evaporation of metallic glasses is heterogeneous on a scale of up to 3 nm. • Amount of clustered evaporation depends on ion species and temperature. • Length scales of clustered evaporation and correlative evaporation are similar.

  8. Metal nanostructures: from clusters to nanocatalysis and sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, B. M.

    2017-12-01

    The properties of metal clusters and nanostructures composed of them are reviewed. Various existing methods for the generation of intense beams of metal clusters and their subsequent conversion into nanostructures are compared. Processes of the flow of a buffer gas with active molecules through a nanostructure are analyzed as a basis of using nanostructures for catalytic applications. The propagation of an electric signal through a nanostructure is studied by analogy with a macroscopic metal. An analysis is given of how a nanostructure changes its resistance as active molecules attach to its surface and are converted into negative ions. These negative ions induce the formation of positively charged vacancies inside the metal conductor and attract the vacancies to together change the resistance of the metal nanostructure. The physical basis is considered for using metal clusters and nanostructures composed of them to create new materials in the form of a porous metal film on the surface of an object. The fundamentals of nanocatalysis are reviewed. Semiconductor conductometric sensors consisting of bound nanoscale grains or fibers acting as a conductor are compared with metal sensors conducting via a percolation cluster, a fractal fiber, or a bunch of interwoven nanofibers formed in superfluid helium. It is shown that sensors on the basis of metal nanostructures are characterized by a higher sensitivity than semiconductor ones, but are not selective. Measurements using metal sensors involve two stages, one of which measures to high precision the attachment rate of active molecules to the sensor conductor, and in the other one the surface of metal nanostructures is cleaned from the attached molecules using a gas discharge plasma (in particular, capillary discharge) with a subsequent chromatography analysis for products of cleaning.

  9. Experimental studies of the chemistry of metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, E.K.; Riley, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    The procedures for studying chemical reactions of metal clusters in a continuous-flow reactor are described, and examples of such studies are given. Experiments to be discussed include kinetics and thermodynamics measurements, and determination of the composition of clusters saturated with various adsorbate reagents. Specific systems to be covered include the reaction of iron clusters with ammonia and with hydrogen, the reaction of nickel clusters with hydrogen and with ammonia, and the reaction of platinum clusters with ethylene. The last two reactions are characterized by complex, multi-step processes that lead to adsorbate decomposition and hydrogen desorption from the clusters. Methods for probing these processes will be discussed. 26 refs., 8 figs

  10. Self-assembled metal clusters on an alumina nanomesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchsbaum, A.

    2012-01-01

    Template mediated growth of metals has attracted much interest due to the remarkable magnetic and catalytic properties of clusters in the nanometer range and provides the opportunity to grow clusters with narrow size distributions. When the Ni3Al(111) surface is exposed to oxygen at elevated temperature a thin oxide film with a well-defined structure and uniform thickness grows and covers the alloy surface completely. The structure of the alumina film has been solved mainly by the help of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) combined with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The structure of the approx. 0.5 nm thick oxide film has sixfold symmetry and exhibits holes with a diameter of approx. 400 pm reaching down to the metal substrate at the corners of the (Sqrt(67) x Sqrt(67))R12.2° unit cell. The side length of the unit cell is 4.1 nm. The driving force for the formation of the oxide nanomesh is the reduction of the metal/oxide interface energy by the formation of energetically favorable Al-Ni bonds at the interface. Due to better wetting of metal on metal surfaces than on oxide surfaces, metal atoms prefer to bind to the substrate in the hole, not to the oxide. Therefore the oxide forms a template with a hexagonal 4.1 nm lattice for the growth of well-ordered metal clusters. Nevertheless, the growth of most metal clusters on top of the corner holes is not straightforward. Fe and Co atoms cannot jump into the corner holes due to a barrier for diffusion and nucleate at their second favorable adsorption site. However, Pd atoms trapped in these corner holes reduce the barrier for diffusion and create metallic nucleation sites where Fe as well as Co clusters can nucleate and form a well-ordered hexagonal arrangement on the oxide nanomesh. We have studied these Fe and Co clusters and applied different methods like STM and surface x-ray diffraction (SXRD) to determine the morphology and crystallography of the clusters. For Fe we found cluster growth with

  11. BV CCD photometry of the old open cluster NGC 2243

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergbusch, P.A.; Vandenberg, D.A.; Infante, L.

    1991-01-01

    The photometry of NGC 2243 is presented, which reaches approximately 4 mag below the turnoff point calibrated independently of studies of the cluster. The color-magnitude diagram (CMD) and luminosity function (LF) are calibrated by utilizing stars from the lists of Landolt and Graham. A strong binary sequence is noted in the CMD which contributes approximately 30 percent of the stars, a gap is observed in the turnoff region, and a clump of HB stars is located. The CMD data are compared to those for the cluster 47 Tuc and are found to match well, although a slightly higher metal abundance accounts for the redder giant branch of the NGC 2243. The distance modulus and the cluster age are calculated, and the Fe/H = -0.47, O/Fe = +0.23 isochrones are the only isochrones that reproduce the location of the giant branch. A flat mass spectrum characterizes the LF, and a small gap is found where V is 16.1. Convective overshooting in the cores of moderate mass stars is theorized as the cause of the gap, and other models of the structure are shown to provide inadequate descriptions. 41 refs

  12. Binarity and Variable Stars in the Open Cluster NGC 2126

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehlaeh, Nareemas; Mkrtichian, David; Kim, Seung-Lee; Lampens, Patricia; Komonjinda, Siramas; Kusakin, Anatoly; Glazunova, Ljudmila

    2018-04-01

    We present the results of an analysis of photometric time-series observations for NGC 2126 acquired at the Thai National Observatory (TNO) in Thailand and the Mount Lemmon Optical Astronomy Observatory (LOAO) in USA during the years 2004, 2013 and 2015. The main purpose is to search for new variable stars and to study the light curves of binary systems as well as the oscillation spectra of pulsating stars. NGC 2126 is an intermediate-age open cluster which has a population of stars inside the δ Scuti instability strip. Several variable stars are reported including three eclipsing binary stars, one of which is an eclipsing binary star with a pulsating component (V551 Aur). The Wilson-Devinney technique was used to analyze its light curves and to determine a new set of the system’s parameters. A frequency analysis of the eclipse-subtracted light curve was also performed. Eclipsing binaries which are members of open clusters are capable of delivering strong constraints on the cluster’s properties which are in turn useful for a pulsational analysis of their pulsating components. Therefore, high-resolution, high-quality spectra will be needed to derive accurate component radial velocities of the faint eclipsing binaries which are located in the field of NGC 2126. The new Devasthal Optical Telescope, suitably equipped, could in principle do this.

  13. THE BOTTOM OF THE WHITE DWARF COOLING SEQUENCE IN THE OLD OPEN CLUSTER NGC 2158

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedin, L. R.; Anderson, J.; Salaris, M.; King, I. R.; Piotto, G.; Cassisi, S.

    2010-01-01

    We use 10 orbits of Advanced Camera for Surveys observations to reach the end of the white dwarf (WD) cooling sequence in the solar-metallicity open cluster NGC 2158. Our photometry and completeness tests show that the end falls at magnitude m F606W = 27.5 ± 0.15, which implies an age between ∼1.8 and ∼2.0 Gyr, consistent with the age of 1.9 ± 0.2 Gyr obtained from fits to the main-sequence turn-off. The faintest WDs show a clear turn toward bluer colors, as predicted by theoretical isochrones.

  14. Red giants and yellow stragglers in the young open cluster NGC 2447

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, M. D.; Pereira, C. B.; Drake, N. A.

    2018-06-01

    In this work we analysed, using high-resolution spectroscopy, a sample of 12 single and 4 spectroscopic binary stars of the open cluster NGC 2447. For the single stars, we obtained atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of Li, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Si, Ti, Ni, Cr, Y, Zr, La, Ce, Nd, Eu. Rotational velocities were obtained for all the stars. The abundances of the light elements and Eu and the rotational velocities were derived using spectral synthesis technique. We obtained a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = -0.17 ± 0.05. We found that the abundances of all elements are similar to field giants and/or giants of open clusters, even for the s-process elements, which are enhanced as in other young open clusters. We show that the spectroscopic binaries NGC 2447-26, 38, and 42 are yellow-straggler stars, of which the primary is a giant star and the secondary a main-sequence A-type star.

  15. Lithium in Open Cluster Red Giants Hosting Substellar Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Joleen K.; Smith, Verne V.; Cunha, Katia; Carpenter, Kenneth G.

    2016-02-01

    We have measured stellar parameters, [Fe/H], lithium abundances, rotation, and 12C/13C in a small sample of red giants (RGs) in three open clusters that are each home to a RG star that hosts a substellar companion (SSC) (NGC 2423 3, NGC 4349 127, and BD+12 1917 in M67). Our goal is to explore whether the presence of SSCs influences the Li content. Both 12C/13C and stellar rotation are measured as additional tracers of stellar mixing. One of the companion hosts, NGC 2423 3, is found to be Li-rich with A(Li){}{{NLTE}} = 1.56 dex, and this abundance is significantly higher than the A(Li) of the two comparison stars in NGC 2423. All three SSC hosts have the highest A(Li) and 12C/13C when compared to the control RGs in their respective clusters; however, except for NGC 2423 3, at least one control star has similarly high abundances within the uncertainties. Higher A(Li) could suggest that the formation or presence of planets plays a role in the degree of internal mixing on or before the RG branch. However, a multitude of factors affect A(Li) during the RG phase, and when the abundances of our sample are compared with the abundances of RGs in other open clusters available in the literature, we find that they all fall well within a much larger distribution of A(Li) and 12C/13C. Thus, even the high Li in NGC 2423 3 cannot be concretely tied to the presence of the SSC.

  16. The effect of alkylating agents on model supported metal clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem-Senatalar, A.; Blackmond, D.G.; Wender, I. (Pittsburgh Univ., PA (USA). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering); Oukaci, R. (CERHYD, Algiers (Algeria))

    1988-01-01

    Interactions between model supported metal clusters and alkylating agents were studied in an effort to understand a novel chemical trapping technique developed for identifying species adsorbed on catalyst surfaces. It was found that these interactions are more complex than had previously been suggested. Studies were completed using deuterium-labeled dimethyl sulfate (DMS), (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, as a trapping agent to interact with the supported metal cluster ethylidyne tricobalt enneacarbonyl. Results showed that oxygenated products formed during the trapping reaction contained {minus}OCD{sub 3} groups from the DMS, indicating that the interaction was not a simple alkylation. 18 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. Low-energy electron collisions with metal clusters: Electron capture and cluster fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresin, V.V.; Scheidemann, A.; Knight, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have carried out the first measurement of absolute cross sections for the interaction between electrons and size-resolved free metal clusters. Integral inelastic scattering cross sections have been determined for electron-Na n cluster collisions in the energy range from 0.1 eV to 30 eV. At energies ≤1 eV, cross sections increase with decreasing impact energies, while at higher energies they remain essentially constant. The dominant processes are electron attachment in the low-energy range, and collision-induced fragmentation at higher energies. The magnitude of electron capture cross sections can be quantitatively explained by the effect of the strong polarization field induced in the cluster by the incident electron. The cross sections are very large, reaching values of hundreds of angstrom 2 ; this is due to the highly polarizable nature of metal clusters. The inelastic interaction range for fragmentation collisions is also found to considerably exceed the cluster radius, again reflecting the long-range character of electron-cluster interactions. The important role played by the polarization interaction represents a bridge between the study of collision processes and the extensive research on cluster response properties. Furthermore, insight into the mechanisms of electron scattering is important for understanding production and detection of cluster ions in mass spectrometry and related processes

  18. STAR CLUSTERS IN M31. II. OLD CLUSTER METALLICITIES AND AGES FROM HECTOSPEC DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, Nelson; Schiavon, Ricardo; Morrison, Heather; Harding, Paul; Rose, James A.

    2011-01-01

    We present new high signal-to-noise spectroscopic data on the M31 globular cluster (GC) system, obtained with the Hectospec multifiber spectrograph on the 6.5 m MMT. More than 300 clusters have been observed at a resolution of 5 A and with a median S/N of 75 per A, providing velocities with a median uncertainty of 6 km s -1 . The primary focus of this paper is the determination of mean cluster metallicities, ages, and reddenings. Metallicities were estimated using a calibration of Lick indices with [Fe/H] provided by Galactic GCs. These match well the metallicities of 24 M31 clusters determined from Hubble Space Telescope color-magnitude diagrams, the differences having an rms of 0.2 dex. The metallicity distribution is not generally bimodal, in strong distinction with the bimodal Galactic globular distribution. Rather, the M31 distribution shows a broad peak, centered at [Fe/H] = -1, possibly with minor peaks at [Fe/H] = -1.4, -0.7, and -0.2, suggesting that the cluster systems of M31 and the Milky Way had different formation histories. Ages for clusters with [Fe/H] > - 1 were determined using the automatic stellar population analysis program EZ A ges. We find no evidence for massive clusters in M31 with intermediate ages, those between 2 and 6 Gyr. Moreover, we find that the mean ages of the old GCs are remarkably constant over about a decade in metallicity (-0.95∼< [Fe/H] ∼<0.0).

  19. Searching for Be stars in the open cluster NGC 663

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, P. C.; Lin, C. C.; Chen, W. P.; Lee, C. D.; Ip, W. H.; Ngeow, C. C. [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, 300 Jhongda Road, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China); Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, M/S 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present Be star candidates in the open cluster NGC 663, identified by Hα imaging photometry with the Palomar Transient Factory Survey, as a pilot program to investigate how the Be star phenomena, the emission spectra, extended circumstellar envelopes, and fast rotation, correlate with massive stellar evolution. Stellar membership of the candidates was verified by 2MASS magnitudes and colors and by proper motions (PMs). We discover four new Be stars and exclude one known Be star from being a member due to its inconsistent PMs. The fraction of Be stars to member stars [N(Be)/N(members)] in NGC 663 is 3.5%. The spectral type of the 34 Be stars in NGC 663 shows bimodal peaks at B0–B2 and B5–B7, which is consistent with the statistics in most star clusters. Additionally, we also discover 23 emission-line stars of different types, including non-member Be stars, dwarfs, and giants.

  20. The CNO Bi-cycle in the Open Cluster NGC 752

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Keith; Schuler, S.; King, J.; The, L.

    2011-01-01

    The CNO bi-cycle is the primary energy source for main sequence stars more massive than the sun. To test our understanding of stellar evolution models using the CNO bi-cycle, we have undertaken light-element (CNO) abundance analysis of three main sequence dwarf stars and three red giant stars in the open cluster NGC 752 utilizing high resolution (R 50,000) spectroscopy from the Keck Observatory. Preliminary results indicate, as expected, there is a depletion of carbon in the giants relative to the dwarfs. Additional analysis is needed to determine if the amount of depletion is in line with model predictions, as seen in the Hyades open cluster. Oxygen abundances are derived from the high-excitation O I triplet, and there is a 0.19 dex offset in the [O/H] abundances between the giants and dwarfs which may be explained by non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE), although further analysis is needed to verify this. The standard procedure for spectroscopically determining stellar parameters used here allows for a measurement of the cluster metallicity, [Fe/H] = 0.04 ± 0.02. In addition to the Fe abundances we have determined Na, Mg, and Al abundances to determine the status of other nucleosynthesis processes. The Na, Mg and Al abundances of the giants are enhanced relative to the dwarfs, which is consistent with similar findings in giants of other open clusters. Support for K. Hawkins was provided by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program and the Department of Defense ASSURE program through Scientific Program Order No. 13 (AST-0754223) of the Cooperative Agreement No. AST-0132798 between the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) and the NSF.

  1. Metal cluster fission: jellium model and Molecular dynamics simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyalin, Andrey G.; Obolensky, Oleg I.; Solov'yov, Ilia

    2004-01-01

    Fission of doubly charged sodium clusters is studied using the open-shell two-center deformed jellium model approximation and it ab initio molecular dynamic approach accounting for all electrons in the system. Results of calculations of fission reactions Na_10^2+ --> Na_7^+ + Na_3^+ and Na_18...

  2. The incidence of chemically peculiar stars in open clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netopil, M.

    2013-07-01

    The formation and evolution of chemically peculiar (CP) stars is still a matter of debate, although the first representatives were detected already more than 110 years ago. From the astrophysical point of view, these objects are of particular interest, since they combine a wide variety of specific properties. This work deals with a subgroup of CP stars, showing beside overabundances of some iron-peak (e.g. Chromium) and rare earth elements like Europium, also strong ordered magnetic fields as well as a slow rotation. Based on a selection of well investigated close field stars, the possible connections of these properties were examined. However, the main research focus was the analysis of a relationship between the number of CP stars and their age. For this purpose, the results of the extensive Delta-a survey in open clusters were used. This photometric filter system allows an efficient and economic detection of magnetic CP stars due to a characteristic flux depression at 520 nm. Compared to field stars, open clusters offer the big advantage that for example the age and the distance can be determined more accurately on a statistical basis, since all member stars of an open cluster originate more or less at the same time from a single molecular cloud. After the membership analysis of all in Delta a investigated objects and the determination of the cluster parameters, it was shown that the occurrence of CP stars depend on age, but can be explained by the general evolution of stars. This entails amongst others that CP stars show their typical characteristics already as soon as they have arrived the main-sequence, or even before. Furthermore, we were able to detect at least one representative, probably still in its pre-main-sequence phase. (author) [German] Die Entstehung und Entwicklung von chemisch pekuliaren (CP) Sternen ist nach wie vor nicht restlos geklärt, und das obwohl die ersten Vertreter dieser Sterngruppe bereits vor mehr als 110 Jahren entdeckt wurden. Aus

  3. RUPRECHT 147: THE OLDEST NEARBY OPEN CLUSTER AS A NEW BENCHMARK FOR STELLAR ASTROPHYSICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Jason L.; Wright, Jason T.; Wolfgang, Angie; Brewer, John M.; Johnson, John Asher

    2013-01-01

    Ruprecht 147 is a hitherto unappreciated open cluster that holds great promise as a standard in fundamental stellar astrophysics. We have conducted a radial velocity survey of astrometric candidates with Lick, Palomar, and MMT observatories and have identified over 100 members, including 5 blue stragglers, 11 red giants, and 5 double-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB2s). We estimate the cluster metallicity from spectroscopic analysis, using Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME), and find it to be [M/H] = +0.07 ± 0.03. We have obtained deep CFHT/MegaCam g'r'i'z' photometry and fit Padova isochrones to the (g' – i') and Two Micron All Sky Survey (J – K S ) color-magnitude diagrams, using the τ 2 maximum-likelihood procedure of Naylor, and an alternative method using two-dimensional cross-correlations developed in this work. We find best fits for Padova isochrones at age t = 2.5 ± 0.25 Gyr, m – M = 7.35 ± 0.1, and A V = 0.25 ± 0.05, with additional uncertainty from the unresolved binary population and possibility of differential extinction across this large cluster. The inferred age is heavily dependent on our choice of stellar evolution model: fitting Dartmouth and PARSEC models yield age parameters of 3 Gyr and 3.25 Gyr, respectively. At ∼300 pc and ∼3 Gyr, Ruprecht 147 is by far the oldest nearby star cluster.

  4. jClustering, an open framework for the development of 4D clustering algorithms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Mateos-Pérez

    Full Text Available We present jClustering, an open framework for the design of clustering algorithms in dynamic medical imaging. We developed this tool because of the difficulty involved in manually segmenting dynamic PET images and the lack of availability of source code for published segmentation algorithms. Providing an easily extensible open tool encourages publication of source code to facilitate the process of comparing algorithms and provide interested third parties with the opportunity to review code. The internal structure of the framework allows an external developer to implement new algorithms easily and quickly, focusing only on the particulars of the method being implemented and not on image data handling and preprocessing. This tool has been coded in Java and is presented as an ImageJ plugin in order to take advantage of all the functionalities offered by this imaging analysis platform. Both binary packages and source code have been published, the latter under a free software license (GNU General Public License to allow modification if necessary.

  5. Mass spectrometric production of heterogeneous metal clusters using Knudsen cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljković Filip M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry or high-temperature method of mass spectrometry for decades gives new information about saturated vapor of hardly volatile compounds and it is an important method in the discovery of many new molecules, radicals, ions and clusters present in the gas phase. Since pioneering works until now, this method has been successfully applied to a large number of systems (ores, oxides, ceramics, glass materials, borides, carbides, sulfides, nitrates, metals, fullerenes, etc which led to the establishment of various research branches such as chemistry of clusters. This paper describes the basic principles of Knudsen cell use for both identification of chemical species created in the process of evaporation and determination of their ionization energies. Depending on detected ions intensities and the partial pressure of each gaseous component, as well as on changes in partial pressure with temperature, Knudsen cell mass spectrometry enables the determination of thermodynamic parameters of the tested system. A special attention is paid to its application in the field of small heterogeneous and homogeneous clusters of alkali metals. Furthermore, experimental results for thermodynamic parameters of some clusters, as well as capabilities of non-standard ways of using Knudsen cells in the process of synthesis of new clusters are presented herein. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172019

  6. Even-Odd Differences and Shape Deformation of Metal Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Hidetoshi, Nishioka; Yoshio, Takahashi; Department of Physics, Konan University; Faculty of General Education, Yamagata University

    1994-01-01

    The relation between even-odd difference of metal cluster and the deformation of equilibrium shape is studied in terms of two different models; (i) tri-axially deformed harmonic oscillator model, (ii) rectangular box model. Having assumed the matter density ρ kept constant for different shapes of a cluster, we can determine the equilibrium shape both for the two models. The enhancement of HOMO-LUMO gap is obtained and it is ascribed to Jahn-Teller effect. Good agreement of the calculated resu...

  7. Manipulating Light with Transition Metal Clusters, Organic Dyes, and Metal Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogut, Serdar [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-09-11

    The primary goals of our research program is to develop and apply state-of-the-art first-principles methods to predict electronic and optical properties of three systems of significant scientific and technological interest: transition metal clusters, organic dyes, and metal-organic frameworks. These systems offer great opportunities to manipulate light for a wide ranging list of energy-related scientific problems and applications. During this grant period, we focused our investigations on the development, implementation, and benchmarking of many-body Green’s function methods (GW approximation and the Bethe-Salpeter equation) to examine excited-state properties of transition metal/transition-metal-oxide clusters and organic molecules that comprise the building blocks of dyes and metal-organic frameworks.

  8. Scattering of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses on metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astapenko, V. A.; Sakhno, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    We have calculated and analyzed the probability of ultrashort electromagnetic pulse (USP) scattering on small metal clusters in the frequency range of plasmon resonances during the field action. The main attention is devoted to dependence of the probability of scattering on the pulse duration for various detunings of the USP carrier frequency from the plasmon resonance frequency. Peculiarities of the USP scattering from plasmon resonances with various figures of merit are revealed.

  9. Scattering of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses on metal clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astapenko, V. A., E-mail: astval@mail.ru; Sakhno, S. V. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    We have calculated and analyzed the probability of ultrashort electromagnetic pulse (USP) scattering on small metal clusters in the frequency range of plasmon resonances during the field action. The main attention is devoted to dependence of the probability of scattering on the pulse duration for various detunings of the USP carrier frequency from the plasmon resonance frequency. Peculiarities of the USP scattering from plasmon resonances with various figures of merit are revealed.

  10. Red Clump stars in Kepler open cluster NGC 6819

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedigamba O.P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We measure the large frequency separation, Δν, and the frequency of maximum amplitude, νmax, for 10 Red Clump (RC single member (SM stars in the Kepler open cluster NGC 6819. We derive luminosities and masses for each individual RC star. A comparison of the observations with an isochrone of Age = 2.5 Gyr, Z = 0.017 with no mass loss using a statistical techniques is made. A fractional mass loss of 5 ± 3 percent is obtained if we assume that no correction to Δν between RC and red-giant branch (RGB is necessary. However, models suggest that an effective correction of about 1.9 percent in Δν is required to obtain the correct mass of RC stars owing to the different internal structures of stars in the two evolutionary stages. In this case we find that the mass loss in the red giant branch is not significantly different from zero. This finding confirms that of [6]. It is clear that the mass estimate obtained by asteroseismology is not sufficient to deduce the mass loss on the red giant branch. However, it is clearly only a few percent at most.

  11. Be STARS IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6830

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Po-Chieh; Lin, Chien-Cheng; Lin, Hsing-Wen; Lee, Chien-De; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Ip, Wing-Huen; Chen, Wen-Ping; Chang, Chan-Kao; Huang, Li-Ching; Cheng, Yu-Chi; Ritter, Andreas; Konidaris, Nick; Chen, Hui-Chen; Malkan, Matthew A.; Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason; Edelson, Rick; Quimby, Robert; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Ofek, Eran O.

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of two new Be stars, and re-identify one known Be star in the open cluster NGC 6830. Eleven H α emitters were discovered using the H α imaging photometry of the Palomar Transient Factory Survey. Stellar membership of the candidates was verified with photometric and kinematic information using 2MASS data and proper motions. The spectroscopic confirmation was carried out by using the Shane 3 m telescope at the Lick observatory. Based on their spectral types, three H α emitters were confirmed as Be stars with H α equivalent widths greater than −10 Å. Two objects were also observed by the new spectrograph spectral energy distribution-machine (SED-machine) on the Palomar 60-inch Telescope. The SED-machine results show strong H α emission lines, which are consistent with the results of the Lick observations. The high efficiency of the SED-machine can provide rapid observations for Be stars in a comprehensive survey in the future.

  12. IR emission and UV extinction in two open clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackwell, J.A.; Hecht, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Recent models of interstellar extinction have shown the importance of understanding both the UV and IR properties of interstellar dust grains. IRAS data have shown variations in 60 and 100 micron emissions presumably due to the presence of IR cirrus, while recent observations in the UV by Fitzpatrick and Massa have identified components in the UV extinction curve which vary in different star regions. A Draine and Anderson model connects these results by proposing that different size variations in interstellar grains would cause distinct changes in both the IR emission and the UV extinction. In order to test this model it is necessary to make observations in well defined locations away from peculiar extinction regions. In the infrared this means looking away from the galactic plane so as to limit non-local sources of IR radiation. Two open clusters that are out of the galactic plane and which contain a number of late B and early A stars suitable for UV extinction studies, and whose IRAS data show variations in the 60/100 micron ratio were studied. Based on the Drain and Anderson model, variations were expected in their UV extinction curves that correlate with the IR cirrus emission

  13. Be STARS IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6830

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Po-Chieh; Lin, Chien-Cheng; Lin, Hsing-Wen; Lee, Chien-De; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Ip, Wing-Huen; Chen, Wen-Ping; Chang, Chan-Kao; Huang, Li-Ching; Cheng, Yu-Chi; Ritter, Andreas [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, 300 Jhongda Road, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China); Konidaris, Nick [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Chen, Hui-Chen [Department of Natural Sciences and Sustainable Development, Ministry of Science and Technology, 106, Sec. 2, Heping E. Road, Taipei 10622, Taiwan (China); Malkan, Matthew A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024 (United States); Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, M/S 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Edelson, Rick [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Quimby, Robert [Kavli-Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba (Japan); Ben-Ami, Sagi; Ofek, Eran O. [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); and others

    2016-05-01

    We report the discovery of two new Be stars, and re-identify one known Be star in the open cluster NGC 6830. Eleven H α emitters were discovered using the H α imaging photometry of the Palomar Transient Factory Survey. Stellar membership of the candidates was verified with photometric and kinematic information using 2MASS data and proper motions. The spectroscopic confirmation was carried out by using the Shane 3 m telescope at the Lick observatory. Based on their spectral types, three H α emitters were confirmed as Be stars with H α equivalent widths greater than −10 Å. Two objects were also observed by the new spectrograph spectral energy distribution-machine (SED-machine) on the Palomar 60-inch Telescope. The SED-machine results show strong H α emission lines, which are consistent with the results of the Lick observations. The high efficiency of the SED-machine can provide rapid observations for Be stars in a comprehensive survey in the future.

  14. Origin of γ-rays from young open clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannelli, F.; Bednarek, W.; Karakula, S.

    1996-01-01

    The young open cluster Berkeley 87 was predicted to be associated with the COS B γ-ray source 2CG 075+00 on the basis of the experimental evidence of the presence of a shock front around the Wolf - Rayet star ST3 placed in the inner part of the cluster. The CGRO phase-1 data confirm this identification. Protons accelerated at the shock boundary can produce π deg. via p-p interactions and then γ-rays. With the measured flux F γ (E > 100 MeV) ≅ 9x10 -7 ph cm -2 s -1 and the power-law proton spectrum with spectral index γ = 2, the cosmic-ray-energy-density in the inner part (∼ 0.8 pc radius) of Berk 87 is about 100 times greater than that in the vicinity of the Earth. We have calculated γ-ray spectra expected from the decay of π d eg. produced in p-p interactions. The spectra have been normalized to the observed flux of Berk 87 by using different input proton spectra. The comparison of these normalized spectra with the upper limit at 140 TeV, coming from the CASA-MIA experiment, provides constraints on the initial proton spectrum in Berk 87. The calculated γ-ray spectra of Berk 87 are also compared with the sensitivities of some present and future experiments for energies greater than 100 GeV, such as the Whipple and GAMT experiments. We suggest the possibility of measuring cosmic-ray induced lines, such as the 4.44 MeV and 6.13 MeV nuclear de-excitation lines of 12 C* and 16 O*, respectively, from Berk 87 with the COMPTEL instrument on board the CGRO. Also the positrons resulting from energetic particle interactions should produce 0.511 MeV annihilation radiation from Berk 87, which could be measured by the OSSE instrument on board the CGRO. (author)

  15. FURTHER DEFINITION OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS AROUND BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockcroft, Robert; Harris, William E.; Wehner, Elizabeth M. H.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Rothberg, Barry

    2009-01-01

    We combine the globular cluster (GC) data for 15 brightest cluster galaxies and use this material to trace the mass-metallicity relations (MMRs) in their globular cluster systems (GCSs). This work extends previous studies which correlate the properties of the MMR with those of the host galaxy. Our combined data sets show a mean trend for the metal-poor subpopulation that corresponds to a scaling of heavy-element abundance with cluster mass Z ∼ M 0.30±0.05 . No trend is seen for the metal-rich subpopulation which has a scaling relation that is consistent with zero. We also find that the scaling exponent is independent of the GCS specific frequency and host galaxy luminosity, except perhaps for dwarf galaxies. We present new photometry in (g',i') obtained with Gemini/GMOS for the GC populations around the southern giant ellipticals NGC 5193 and IC 4329. Both galaxies have rich cluster populations which show up as normal, bimodal sequences in the color-magnitude diagram. We test the observed MMRs and argue that they are statistically real, and not an artifact caused by the method we used. We also argue against asymmetric contamination causing the observed MMR as our mean results are no different from other contamination-free studies. Finally, we compare our method to the standard bimodal fitting method (KMM or RMIX) and find our results are consistent. Interpretation of these results is consistent with recent models for GC formation in which the MMR is determined by GC self-enrichment during their brief formation period.

  16. X-ray Observations of Eight Young Open Star Clusters: I ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    XMM-Newton View of Eight Young Open Star Clusters. 395 ... Multi-wavelength surveys of young open clusters provide an effective way to iden- tify young cluster .... First, the input images were built in two energy ranges, a soft band (0.3–2.0 keV) and ..... 3.2 Color-magnitude diagram of X-ray sources with NIR counterparts.

  17. INSIGHTS INTO PRE-ENRICHMENT OF STAR CLUSTERS AND SELF-ENRICHMENT OF DWARF GALAXIES FROM THEIR INTRINSIC METALLICITY DISPERSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaman, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Star clusters are known to have smaller intrinsic metallicity spreads than dwarf galaxies due to their shorter star formation timescales. Here we use individual spectroscopic [Fe/H] measurements of stars in 19 Local Group dwarf galaxies, 13 Galactic open clusters, and 49 globular clusters to show that star cluster and dwarf galaxy linear metallicity distributions are binomial in form, with all objects showing strong correlations between their mean linear metallicity Z-bar and intrinsic spread in metallicity σ(Z) 2 . A plot of σ(Z) 2 versus Z-bar shows that the correlated relationships are offset for the dwarf galaxies from the star clusters. The common binomial nature of these linear metallicity distributions can be explained with a simple inhomogeneous chemical evolution model, where the star cluster and dwarf galaxy behavior in the σ(Z) 2 - Z-bar diagram is reproduced in terms of the number of enrichment events, covering fraction, and intrinsic size of the enriched regions. The inhomogeneity of the self-enrichment sets the slope for the observed dwarf galaxy σ(Z) 2 - Z-bar correlation. The offset of the star cluster sequence from that of the dwarf galaxies is due to pre-enrichment, and the slope of the star cluster sequence represents the remnant signature of the self-enriched history of their host galaxies. The offset can be used to separate star clusters from dwarf galaxies without a priori knowledge of their luminosity or dynamical mass. The application of the inhomogeneous model to the σ(Z) 2 - Z-bar relationship provides a numerical formalism to connect the self-enrichment and pre-enrichment between star clusters and dwarf galaxies using physically motivated chemical enrichment parameters. Therefore we suggest that the σ(Z) 2 - Z-bar relationship can provide insight into what drives the efficiency of star formation and chemical evolution in galaxies, and is an important prediction for galaxy simulation models to reproduce.

  18. Catching Galactic open clusters in advanced stages of dynamical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, M. S.; Piatti, A. E.; Dias, W. S.; Maia, F. F. S.

    2018-04-01

    During their dynamical evolution, Galactic open clusters (OCs) gradually lose their stellar content mainly because of internal relaxation and tidal forces. In this context, the study of dynamically evolved OCs is necessary to properly understand such processes. We present a comprehensive Washington CT1 photometric analysis of six sparse OCs, namely: ESO 518-3, Ruprecht 121, ESO 134-12, NGC 6573, ESO 260-7 and ESO 065-7. We employed Markov chain Monte-Carlo simulations to robustly determine the central coordinates and the structural parameters and T1 × (C - T1) colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) cleaned from field contamination were used to derive the fundamental parameters. ESO 518-03, Ruprecht 121, ESO 134-12 and NGC 6573 resulted to be of nearly the same young age (8.2 ≤log(t yr-1) ≤ 8.3); ESO 260-7 and ESO065-7 are of intermediate age (9.2 ≤log(t yr-1) ≤ 9.4). All studied OCs are located at similar Galactocentric distances (RG ˜ 6 - 6.9 kpc), considering uncertainties, except for ESO 260-7 (RG = 8.9 kpc). These OCs are in a tidally filled regime and are dynamically evolved, since they are much older than their half-mass relaxation times (t/trh ≳ 30) and present signals of low-mass star depletion. We distinguished two groups: those dynamically evolving towards final disruptions and those in an advanced dynamical evolutionary stage. Although we do not rule out that the Milky Way potential could have made differentially faster their dynamical evolutions, we speculate here with the possibility that they have been mainly driven by initial formation conditions.

  19. Stellar activity with LAMOST - II. Chromospheric activity in open clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiang-Song; Zhao, Gang; Zhao, Jing-Kun; Bharat Kumar, Yerra

    2018-05-01

    We use the LAMOST spectra of member stars in Pleiades, M34, Praesepe, and Hyades to study how chromospheric activity varies as a function of mass and rotation at different age. We measured excess equivalent widths of H α, H β, and Ca II K based on estimated chromospheric contributions from old and inactive field dwarfs, and excess luminosities are obtained by normalizing bolometric luminosity, for more than 700 late-type stars in these open clusters. Results indicate two activity sequences in cool spot coverage and H α excess emission among GK dwarfs in Pleiades and M dwarfs in Praesepe and Hyades, paralleling with well-known rotation sequences. A weak dependence of chromospheric emission on rotation exists among ultrafast rotators in saturated regime with Rossby number Ro ≲ 0.1. In the unsaturated regime, chromospheric and coronal emission show similar dependence on Ro, but with a shift towards larger Ro, indicating chromospheric emission gets easily saturated than coronal emission, and/or convective turnover time-scales based on X-ray data do not work well with chromospheric emission. More interestingly, our analysis shows fully convective slow rotators obey the rotation-chromospheric activity relation similar to hotter stars, confirming the previous finding. We found correlations among H α, H β, and Ca II K emissions, in which H α losses are more important than Ca II K for cooler and more active stars. In addition, a weak correlation is seen between chromospheric emission and photospheric activity that shows dependence on stellar spectral type and activity level, which provides some clues on how spot configuration varies as a function of mass and activity level.

  20. Metal clusters on supported argon layers; Metallcluster auf dielektrischen Substraten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, Bernhard

    2011-10-21

    The deposition of small sodium clusters on supported Ar(001)-surfaces is simulated. Theoretical description is achieved by a hierarchical model consisting of time-dependent DFT and molecular dynamics. The valence electrons of the sodium atoms are considered by Kohn-Sham-Scheme with self interaction correction. The interaction of argon atoms and sodium ions is described by atom-atom potentials whereas the coupling to the QM electrons is done by local pseudo-potentials. A decisive part of the model is the dynamical polarizability of the rare-gas atoms. The optional metal support is considered by the method of image charges. The influence of the forces caused by image charges and the influence of the number of argon monolayers on structure, optical response and deposition dynamics of Na{sub 6} and Na{sub 8} is investigated. There is very little influence on cluster structure and only a small shift of the cluster perpendicular to the surface. Concerning optical response the position of the Mie plasmon peak stays robust whereas the details of spectral fragmentation react very sensitively to changes. The forces caused by image charges of the metal support play only a little role with the dynamics of deposition while the thickness of the argon surface strongly influences the dissipation. (orig.)

  1. A search for peculiar stars in the open cluster Hogg 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariddi, Stefano; Azatyan, Naira M.; Kurfürst, Petr; Štofanová, Lýdia; Netopil, Martin; Paunzen, Ernst; Pintado, Olga I.; Aidelman, Yael J.

    2018-01-01

    The study of chemically peculiar (CP) stars in open clusters provides valuable information about their evolutionary status. Their detection can be performed using the Δa photometric system, which maps a characteristic flux depression at λ ∼ 5200 Å. This paper aims at studying the occurrence of CP stars in the earliest stages of evolution of a stellar population by applying this technique to Hogg 16, a very young Galactic open cluster ( ∼ 25 Myr). We identified several peculiar candidates: two B-type stars with a negative Δa index (CD - 60 4701, CPD - 60 4706) are likely emission-line (Be) stars, even though spectral measurements are necessary for a proper classification of the second one; a third object (CD - 60 4703), identified as a Be candidate in literature, appears to be a background B-type supergiant with no significant Δa index, which does not rule out the possibility that it is indeed peculiar as the normality line of Δa for supergiants has not been studied in detail yet. A fourth object (CD - 60 4699) appears to be a magnetic CP star of 8 M⊙, but obtained spectral data seem to rule out this hypothesis. Three more magnetic CP star candidates are found in the domain of early F-type stars. One is a probable nonmember and close to the border of significance, but the other two are probably pre-main sequence cluster objects. This is very promising, as it can lead to very strong constraints to the diffusion theory. Finally, we derived the fundamental parameters of Hogg 16 and provide for the first time an estimate of its metal content.

  2. Investigation of Galactic open cluster remnants: the case of NGC 7193

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Angelo, Mateus; Francisco Coelho dos Santos, João, Jr.; Barbosa Corradi, Wagner José; Ferreira de Souza Maia, Francisco; Piatti, Andrés Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Galactic open clusters (OCs) that survive the early gas-expulsion phase are gradually destroyed over time by the action of disruptive dynamical processes. Their final evolutionary stages are characterized by a poorly populated concentration of stars called an open cluster remnant (OCR). This study is devoted to assessing the real physical nature of the OCR candidate NGC 7193. GMOS/Gemini spectroscopy of 53 stars in the inner target region were obtained to derive radial velocities and atmospheric parameters. We also employed photometric and proper motion data. The analysis method consists of the following steps: (i) analysis of the statistical resemblance between the cluster and a set of field samples with respect to the sequences defined in color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs); (ii) a 5-dimensional iterative exclusion routine was employed to identify outliers from kinematical and positional data; (iii) isochrone fitting to the Ks×(J-Ks) CMD of the remaining stars and the dispersion of spectral types along empirical sequences in the (J-H)×(H-Ks) diagram were checked. A group of stars was identified for which the mean heliocentric distance is compatible with that obtained via isochrone fitting and whose metallicities are compatible with each other. Fifteen of the member stars observed spectroscopically were identified together with another 19 probable members. Our results indicate that NGC 7193 is a genuine OCR, of a once very populous OC, for which the following parameters were derived: d = 501±46 pc, t=2.5+/-1.2 Gyr, =-0.17+/-0.23 and E(B-V)=0.05+/-0.05. Its luminosity and mass functions show depletion of low mass stars, confirming the OCR is in a dynamically evolved state. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the AURA under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: NSF (United States), STFC (United Kingdom), NRC (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), ARC (Australia), CNPq (Brazil) and CONICET (Argentina).

  3. A High-precision Trigonometric Parallax to an Ancient Metal-poor Globular Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T. M.; Casertano, S.; Strader, J.; Riess, A.; VandenBerg, D. A.; Soderblom, D. R.; Kalirai, J.; Salinas, R.

    2018-03-01

    Using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have obtained a direct trigonometric parallax for the nearest metal-poor globular cluster, NGC 6397. Although trigonometric parallaxes have been previously measured for many nearby open clusters, this is the first parallax for an ancient metal-poor population—one that is used as a fundamental template in many stellar population studies. This high-precision measurement was enabled by the HST/WFC3 spatial-scanning mode, providing hundreds of astrometric measurements for dozens of stars in the cluster and also for Galactic field stars along the same sightline. We find a parallax of 0.418 ± 0.013 ± 0.018 mas (statistical, systematic), corresponding to a true distance modulus of 11.89 ± 0.07 ± 0.09 mag (2.39 ± 0.07 ± 0.10 kpc). The V luminosity at the stellar main-sequence turnoff implies an absolute cluster age of 13.4 ± 0.7 ± 1.2 Gyr. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs GO-13817, GO-14336, and GO-14773.

  4. NMR in metal cluster compounds compared to glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staveren, M.P.J. van; Brom, H.B.; Jongh, L.J. de; Schmid, G.

    1991-01-01

    The field and temperature dependence of the 31 P nuclear spin lattice relaxation rate in the metal cluster compound Ru 55 (P(t-Bu) 3 ) 12 Cl 20 follows a power law: 1/T 1 ∝ T n B -m , with n = 1.5 ± 0.1 at 3.25 T and n = 1.3 ± 0.1 at 6.45 T; m ≅ 1.4. Such dependences have so far only been observed in inorganic glasses and been attributed to two level systems. The correspondence suggests that the relaxation rate is due to interaction of the P-nuclear moment with electronic spins of stochastically moving charge carriers, which are thought to be responsible for the electrical conductivity through hopping between neigboring cluster molecules. (orig.)

  5. Oligomeric rare-earth metal cluster complexes with endohedral transition metal atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Simon; Zimmermann, Sina; Brühmann, Matthias; Meyer, Eva; Rustige, Christian; Wolberg, Marike; Daub, Kathrin; Bell, Thomas; Meyer, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.meyer@uni-koeln.de

    2014-11-15

    Comproportionation reactions of rare-earth metal trihalides (RX{sub 3}) with the respective rare-earth metals (R) and transition metals (T) led to the formation of 22 oligomeric R cluster halides encapsulating T, in 19 cases for the first time. The structures of these compounds were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and are composed of trimers ((T{sub 3}R{sub 11})X{sub 15}-type, P6{sub 3}/m), tetramers ((T{sub 4}R{sub 16})X{sub 28}(R{sub 4}) (P-43m), (T{sub 4}R{sub 16})X{sub 20} (P4{sub 2}/nnm), (T{sub 4}R{sub 16})X{sub 24}(RX{sub 3}){sub 4} (I4{sub 1}/a) and (T{sub 4}R{sub 16})X{sub 23} (C2/m) types of structure) and pentamers ((Ru{sub 5}La{sub 14}){sub 2}Br{sub 39}, Cc) of (TR{sub r}){sub n} (n=2–5) clusters. These oligomers are further enveloped by inner (X{sup i}) as well as outer (X{sup a}) halido ligands, which possess diverse functionalities and interconnect like oligomers through i–i, i–a and/or a–i bridges. The general features of the crystal structures for these new compounds are discussed and compared to literature entries as well as different structure types with oligomeric T centered R clusters. Dimers and tetramers originating from the aggregation of (TR{sub 6}) octahedra via common edges are more frequent than trimers and pentamers, in which the (TR{sub r}) clusters share common faces. - Graphical abstract: Rare earth-metal cluster complexes with endohedral transition metal atoms (TR{sub 6}) may connect via common edges or faces to form dimers, trimers, tetramers and pentamers of which the tetramers are the most prolific. Packing effects and electron counts play an important role. - Highlights: • Rare-earth metal cluster complexes encapsulate transition metal atoms. • Oligomers are built via connection of octahedral clusters via common edges or faces. • Dimers through pentamers with closed structures are known. • Tetramers including a tetrahedron of endohedral atoms are the most prolific.

  6. RUPRECHT 147: THE OLDEST NEARBY OPEN CLUSTER AS A NEW BENCHMARK FOR STELLAR ASTROPHYSICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Jason L.; Wright, Jason T. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Wolfgang, Angie [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Brewer, John M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Johnson, John Asher, E-mail: jcurtis@psu.edu [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Ruprecht 147 is a hitherto unappreciated open cluster that holds great promise as a standard in fundamental stellar astrophysics. We have conducted a radial velocity survey of astrometric candidates with Lick, Palomar, and MMT observatories and have identified over 100 members, including 5 blue stragglers, 11 red giants, and 5 double-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB2s). We estimate the cluster metallicity from spectroscopic analysis, using Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME), and find it to be [M/H] = +0.07 {+-} 0.03. We have obtained deep CFHT/MegaCam g'r'i'z' photometry and fit Padova isochrones to the (g' - i') and Two Micron All Sky Survey (J - K{sub S} ) color-magnitude diagrams, using the {tau}{sup 2} maximum-likelihood procedure of Naylor, and an alternative method using two-dimensional cross-correlations developed in this work. We find best fits for Padova isochrones at age t = 2.5 {+-} 0.25 Gyr, m - M = 7.35 {+-} 0.1, and A{sub V} = 0.25 {+-} 0.05, with additional uncertainty from the unresolved binary population and possibility of differential extinction across this large cluster. The inferred age is heavily dependent on our choice of stellar evolution model: fitting Dartmouth and PARSEC models yield age parameters of 3 Gyr and 3.25 Gyr, respectively. At {approx}300 pc and {approx}3 Gyr, Ruprecht 147 is by far the oldest nearby star cluster.

  7. Asteroseismic inferences on red giants in open clusters NGC 6791, NGC 6819, and NGC 6811 using Kepler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hekker, S.; Basu, S.; Stello, D.

    2011-01-01

    and metallicity contribute to the observed difference in locations in the H-R diagram of the old metal-rich cluster NGC 6791 and the middle-aged solar-metallicity cluster NGC 6819. For the young cluster NGC 6811, the explanation of the position of the stars in the H-R diagram challenges the assumption of solar...

  8. Electronic structure of vacancies and vacancy clusters in simple metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manninen, M.; Nieminen, R.M.

    1978-05-01

    The self-consistent density functional approach has been applied in a study of electronic properties of vacancies and vacancy clusters in simple metals. The electron density profiles and potentials have been obtained for spherical voids of varying size. The formation energies and residual resistivities have been calculated for vacancies using both perturbational and variational inclusion of discrete lattice effects. The relation of the void properties to the plane surface ones is studied, and the inadequacy of the jellium-based methods to high-index faces is demonstrated. (author)

  9. Massive open star clusters using the VVV survey. II. Discovery of six clusters with Wolf-Rayet stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chené, A.-N.; Borissova, J.; Bonatto, C.; Majaess, D. J.; Baume, G.; Clarke, J. R. A.; Kurtev, R.; Schnurr, O.; Bouret, J.-C.; Catelan, M.; Emerson, J. P.; Feinstein, C.; Geisler, D.; de Grijs, R.; Hervé, A.; Ivanov, V. D.; Kumar, M. S. N.; Lucas, P.; Mahy, L.; Martins, F.; Mauro, F.; Minniti, D.; Moni Bidin, C.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The ESO Public Survey "VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea" (VVV) provides deep multi-epoch infrared observations for an unprecedented 562 sq. degrees of the Galactic bulge, and adjacent regions of the disk. Nearly 150 new open clusters and cluster candidates have been discovered in this survey. Aims: This is the second in a series of papers about young, massive open clusters observed using the VVV survey. We present the first study of six recently discovered clusters. These clusters contain at least one newly discovered Wolf-Rayet (WR) star. Methods: Following the methodology presented in the first paper of the series, wide-field, deep JHKs VVV observations, combined with new infrared spectroscopy, are employed to constrain fundamental parameters for a subset of clusters. Results: We find that the six studied stellar groups are real young (2-7 Myr) and massive (between 0.8 and 2.2 × 103 M⊙) clusters. They are highly obscured (AV ~ 5-24 mag) and compact (1-2 pc). In addition to WR stars, two of the six clusters also contain at least one red supergiant star, and one of these two clusters also contains a blue supergiant. We claim the discovery of 8 new WR stars, and 3 stars showing WR-like emission lines which could be classified WR or OIf. Preliminary analysis provides initial masses of ~30-50 M⊙ for the WR stars. Finally, we discuss the spiral structure of the Galaxy using the six new clusters as tracers, together with the previously studied VVV clusters. Based on observations with ISAAC, VLT, ESO (programme 087.D-0341A), New Technology Telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory (programme 087.D-0490A) and with the Clay telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory (programme CN2011A-086). Also based on data from the VVV survey (programme 172.B-2002).

  10. Damage clustering in metals: Importance, advances and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordlund, K.; Sand, A.E.; Granberg, F.; Levo, E.; Djurabekova, F.

    2016-01-01

    The damage produced in metals has traditionally been primarily characterized in terms of the total damage production, which typically is first estimated with the dpa number. As discussed in previous meetings of this CRP, the dpa is not actually very well suited for typical dense metals, since the number it gives is typically about 3 times larger than the number of actual defects produced, and 30 times smaller than the actual number of defects produced. Hence we developed the improved arc-dpa and rpa standards, that give in a simple analytical form a defect number that does correspond well to MD and experimental data. Section 2 summarizes the development of the arc-dpa and rpa standards. In sections 3 and 4 we discuss the role of damage clustering in damage production

  11. Spectra of matrix isolated metal atoms and clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, B.

    1977-01-01

    The matrix isolation spectra of all of the 40 presently known atomic metal species show strong matrix effects. The transition energies are increased, and the bands are broad and exhibit splitting of sublevels which are degenerate in the gas phase. Several models have been proposed for splitting of levels, but basic effects are not yet understood, and spectra cannot be predicted, yet it is possible to correlate gas phase and matrix in many of the systems. Selective production of diatomics and clusters via thermal and optical annealing of atomic species can be monitored by optical spectra, but yields spectroscopically complex systems which, however, especially in the case of transition metals, can be used as precursors in novel chemical reactions. A combination of absorption, emission, ir, Raman, ESR, and other methods is now quickly yielding data which will help correlate the increasing wealth of existing data. 55 references, 6 figures

  12. Bayesian investigation of isochrone consistency using the old open cluster NGC 188

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, Shane; Courteau, Stéphane [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 Canada (Canada); Von Hippel, Ted [Department of Physical Sciences, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States); Geller, Aaron M., E-mail: shane.hills@queensu.ca, E-mail: courteau@astro.queensu.ca, E-mail: ted.vonhippel@erau.edu, E-mail: a-geller@northwestern.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This paper provides a detailed comparison of the differences in parameters derived for a star cluster from its color–magnitude diagrams (CMDs) depending on the filters and models used. We examine the consistency and reliability of fitting three widely used stellar evolution models to 15 combinations of optical and near-IR photometry for the old open cluster NGC 188. The optical filter response curves match those of theoretical systems and are thus not the source of fit inconsistencies. NGC 188 is ideally suited to this study thanks to a wide variety of high-quality photometry and available proper motions and radial velocities that enable us to remove non-cluster members and many binaries. Our Bayesian fitting technique yields inferred values of age, metallicity, distance modulus, and absorption as a function of the photometric band combinations and stellar models. We show that the historically favored three-band combinations of UBV and VRI can be meaningfully inconsistent with each other and with longer baseline data sets such as UBVRIJHK{sub S}. Differences among model sets can also be substantial. For instance, fitting Yi et al. (2001) and Dotter et al. (2008) models to UBVRIJHK{sub S} photometry for NGC 188 yields the following cluster parameters: age = (5.78 ± 0.03, 6.45 ± 0.04) Gyr, [Fe/H] = (+0.125 ± 0.003, −0.077 ± 0.003) dex, (m−M){sub V} = (11.441 ± 0.007, 11.525 ± 0.005) mag, and A{sub V} = (0.162 ± 0.003, 0.236 ± 0.003) mag, respectively. Within the formal fitting errors, these two fits are substantially and statistically different. Such differences among fits using different filters and models are a cautionary tale regarding our current ability to fit star cluster CMDs. Additional modeling of this kind, with more models and star clusters, and future Gaia parallaxes are critical for isolating and quantifying the most relevant uncertainties in stellar evolutionary models.

  13. The same frequency of planets inside and outside open clusters of stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meibom, Søren; Torres, Guillermo; Fressin, Francois; Latham, David W; Rowe, Jason F; Ciardi, David R; Bryson, Steven T; Rogers, Leslie A; Henze, Christopher E; Janes, Kenneth; Barnes, Sydney A; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Isaacson, Howard; Fischer, Debra A; Howell, Steve B; Horch, Elliott P; Jenkins, Jon M; Schuler, Simon C; Crepp, Justin

    2013-07-04

    Most stars and their planets form in open clusters. Over 95 per cent of such clusters have stellar densities too low (less than a hundred stars per cubic parsec) to withstand internal and external dynamical stresses and fall apart within a few hundred million years. Older open clusters have survived by virtue of being richer and denser in stars (1,000 to 10,000 per cubic parsec) when they formed. Such clusters represent a stellar environment very different from the birthplace of the Sun and other planet-hosting field stars. So far more than 800 planets have been found around Sun-like stars in the field. The field planets are usually the size of Neptune or smaller. In contrast, only four planets have been found orbiting stars in open clusters, all with masses similar to or greater than that of Jupiter. Here we report observations of the transits of two Sun-like stars by planets smaller than Neptune in the billion-year-old open cluster NGC6811. This demonstrates that small planets can form and survive in a dense cluster environment, and implies that the frequency and properties of planets in open clusters are consistent with those of planets around field stars in the Galaxy.

  14. Tuning aromaticity in trigonal alkaline earth metal clusters and their alkali metal salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Halla, J Oscar C; Matito, Eduard; Blancafort, Lluís; Robles, Juvencio; Solà, Miquel

    2009-12-01

    In this work, we analyze the geometry and electronic structure of the [X(n)M(3)](n-2) species (M = Be, Mg, and Ca; X = Li, Na, and K; n = 0, 1, and 2), with special emphasis on the electron delocalization properties and aromaticity of the cyclo-[M(3)](2-) unit. The cyclo-[M(3)](2-) ring is held together through a three-center two-electron bond of sigma-character. Interestingly, the interaction of these small clusters with alkali metals stabilizes the cyclo-[M(3)](2-) ring and leads to a change from sigma-aromaticity in the bound state of the cyclo-[M(3)](2-) to pi-aromaticity in the XM(3) (-) and X(2)M(3) metallic clusters. Our results also show that the aromaticity of the cyclo-[M(3)](2-) unit in the X(2)M(3) metallic clusters depends on the nature of X and M. Moreover, we explored the possibility for tuning the aromaticity by simply moving X perpendicularly to the center of the M(3) ring. The Na(2)Mg(3), Li(2)Mg(3), and X(2)Ca(3) clusters undergo drastic aromaticity alterations when changing the distance from X to the center of the M(3) ring, whereas X(2)Be(3) and K(2)Mg(3) keep its aromaticity relatively constant along this process. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Order and chaos in nuclear and metal cluster deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radu, S.

    1995-08-01

    The vast amount of nuclear and metal cluster data indicates that shell structure and deformation are two simultaneous properties. A conflicting situation is therefore encountered as the shell structure, a firm expression of order, is apparently not compatible with the non-integrable nature of the models incorporating deformation. The main issue covered in this thesis is the intricate connection between deformation and chaotic behaviour in deformation models pertinent to nuclear structure and metal cluster physics. It is shown that, at least in some cases, it is possible to reconcile the occurrence of shell structure with non-integrability. The coupling of an axially deformed harmonic oscillator to an axially symmetric octupole term renders the problem non-integrable. The chaotic character of the motion is strongly dependent on the type of deformation, in that a prolate shape shows virtually no chaos, while in an oblate case the motion exhibits fully developed chaos when the octupole term is switched on. Whereas the problem is non-integrable, the quantum mechanical spectrum nevertheless shows some shell structure in the prolate case for particular, yet fairly large octupole strengths; for spherical or oblate deformation the shell structure disappears. This result is explained in terms of classical periodic orbits which are found by employing the 'removal of resonances method'. Particular emphasis is put on the effect of the hexadecapole deformation which is important in fission processes. The combined effect of octupole and hexadecapole deformation leads to important conclusions for the experimental work as a high degree of ambiguity is signaled for the interpretation of data. The ambiguity results from the discovery of a mutual cancellation of the octupole and hexadecapole deformation in prolate superdeformed systems. The phenomenological Nilsson model is treated in a similar way. It is argued that while in nuclei it produces good results for the low-lying levels

  16. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frinchaboy, Peter; O'Connell, Julia; Donor, John; Cunha, Katia; Thompson, Benjamin; Melendez, Matthew; Shetrone, Matthew; Zasowski, Gail; Majewski, Steven R.; APOGEE TEAM

    2018-01-01

    The Open Cluster Chemical Analysis and Mapping (OCCAM) survey aims to produce a comprehensive, uniform, infrared-based data set forhundreds of open clusters, and constrain key Galactic dynamical and chemical parameters using the SDSS/APOGEE survey and follow-up from the McDonald Observatory Otto Struve 2.1-m telescope and Sandiford Cass Echelle Spectrograph (R ~ 60,000). We report on multi-element radial abundance gradients obtained from a sample of over 30 disk open clusters. The APOGEE chemical abundances were derived automatically by the ASPCAP pipeline and these are part of the SDSS IV Data Release 14, optical follow-up were analyzed using equivalent width analysis and spectral synthesis. We present the current open cluster sample that spans a significant range in age allowing exploration of the evolution of the Galactic abundance gradients. This work is supported by an NSF AAG grants AST-1311835 & AST-1715662.

  17. Sulphur in the metal poor globular cluster NGC 6397

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, A.; Caffau, E.

    2011-10-01

    Sulphur (S) is a non-refractory α-element that is not locked into dust grains in the interstellar medium. Thus no correction to the measured, interstellar sulphur abundance is needed and it can be readily compared to the S content in stellar photospheres. Here we present the first measurement of sulphur in the metal poor globular cluster (GC) NGC 6397, as detected in a MIKE/Magellan high signal-to-noise, high-resolution spectrum of one red giant star. While abundance ratios of sulphur are available for a larger number of Galactic stars down to an [Fe/H] of ~ -3.5 dex, no measurements in globular clusters more metal poor than -1.5 dex have been reported so far. We find aNLTE, 3-D abundance ratio of [S/Fe] = +0.52 ± 0.20 (stat.) ± 0.08 (sys.), based on theS I, Multiplet 1 line at 9212.8 Å. This value is consistent with a Galactic halo plateau as typical of other α-elements in GCs and field stars, but we cannot rule out its membership with a second branch of increasing [S/Fe] with decreasing [Fe/H], claimed in the literature, which leads to a large scatter at metallicities around - 2 dex. The [S/Mg] and [S/Ca] ratios in this star are compatible with a Solar value to within the (large) uncertainties. Despite the very large scatter in these ratios across Galactic stars between literature samples, this indicates that sulphur traces the chemical imprints of the other α-elements in metal poor GCs. Combined with its moderate sodium abundance ([S/Na]NLTE = 0.48), the [S/Fe] ratio in this GC extends a global, positive S-Na correlation that is not seen in field stars and might indicate that proton-capture reactions contributed to the production of sulphur in the (metal poor) early GC environments. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  18. Near-infrared photometric study of open star cluster IC 1805

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, R.; Yu, Q.Z.

    1990-01-01

    The JHK magnitudes of 29 stars in the region of open star cluster IC 1805 were measured. These, and the existing infrared and optical observations, indicate a normal interstellar extinction law in the direction of the cluster. Further, most of the early-type stars have near-infrared fluxes as expected from their spectral types. Patchy distribution of ionized gas and dust appears to be the cause of nonuniform extinction across the cluster face. 36 refs

  19. Atomically precise arrays of fluorescent silver clusters: a modular approach for metal cluster photonics on DNA nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Stacy M; Schultz, Danielle E; Swasey, Steven; Gwinn, Elisabeth G

    2015-03-24

    The remarkable precision that DNA scaffolds provide for arraying nanoscale optical elements enables optical phenomena that arise from interactions of metal nanoparticles, dye molecules, and quantum dots placed at nanoscale separations. However, control of ensemble optical properties has been limited by the difficulty of achieving uniform particle sizes and shapes. Ligand-stabilized metal clusters offer a route to atomically precise arrays that combine desirable attributes of both metals and molecules. Exploiting the unique advantages of the cluster regime requires techniques to realize controlled nanoscale placement of select cluster structures. Here we show that atomically monodisperse arrays of fluorescent, DNA-stabilized silver clusters can be realized on a prototypical scaffold, a DNA nanotube, with attachment sites separated by <10 nm. Cluster attachment is mediated by designed DNA linkers that enable isolation of specific clusters prior to assembly on nanotubes and preserve cluster structure and spectral purity after assembly. The modularity of this approach generalizes to silver clusters of diverse sizes and DNA scaffolds of many types. Thus, these silver cluster nano-optical elements, which themselves have colors selected by their particular DNA templating oligomer, bring unique dimensions of control and flexibility to the rapidly expanding field of nano-optics.

  20. Map-based trigonometric parallaxes of open clusters - The Pleiades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatewood, George; Castelaz, Michael; Han, Inwoo; Persinger, Timothy; Stein, John

    1990-01-01

    The multichannel astrometric photometer and Thaw refractor of the University of Pittsburgh's Allegheny Observatory have been used to determine the trigonometric parallax of the Pleiades star cluster. The distance determined, 150 with a standard error of 18 parsecs, places the cluster slightly farther away than generally accepted. This suggests that the basis of many estimations of the cosmic distance scale is approximately 20 percent short. The accuracy of the determination is limited by the number and choice of reference stars. With careful attention to the selection of reference stars in several Pleiades regions, it should be possible to examine differences in the photometric and trigonometric modulus at a precision of 0.1 magnitudes.

  1. Linked cluster expansions for open quantum systems on a lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biella, Alberto; Jin, Jiasen; Viyuela, Oscar; Ciuti, Cristiano; Fazio, Rosario; Rossini, Davide

    2018-01-01

    We propose a generalization of the linked-cluster expansions to study driven-dissipative quantum lattice models, directly accessing the thermodynamic limit of the system. Our method leads to the evaluation of the desired extensive property onto small connected clusters of a given size and topology. We first test this approach on the isotropic spin-1/2 Hamiltonian in two dimensions, where each spin is coupled to an independent environment that induces incoherent spin flips. Then we apply it to the study of an anisotropic model displaying a dissipative phase transition from a magnetically ordered to a disordered phase. By means of a Padé analysis on the series expansions for the average magnetization, we provide a viable route to locate the phase transition and to extrapolate the critical exponent for the magnetic susceptibility.

  2. Intrinsic Variability in Multiple Systems and Clusters: Open Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampens, P.

    2006-04-01

    It is most interesting and rewarding to probe the stellar structure of stars which belong to a system originating from the same parent cloud as this provides additional and more accurate constraints for the models. New results on pulsating components in multiple systems and clusters are beginning to emerge regularly. Based on concrete studies, I will present still unsolved problems and discuss some of the issues which may affect our understanding of the pulsation physics in such systems but also in general.

  3. Contribution of radiation chemistry to the study of metal clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloni, J

    1998-11-01

    Radiation chemistry dates from the discovery of radioactivity one century ago by H. Becquerel and P. and M. Curie. The complex phenomena induced by ionizing radiation have been explained progressively. At present, the methodology of radiation chemistry, particularly in the pulsed mode, provides a powerful means to study not only the early processes after the energy absorption, but more generally a broad diversity of chemical and biochemical reaction mechanisms. Among them, the new area of metal cluster chemistry illustrates how radiation chemistry contributed to this field in suggesting fruitful original concepts, in guiding and controlling specific syntheses, and in the detailed elaboration of the mechanisms of complex and long-unsolved processes, such as the dynamics of nucleation, electron transfer catalysis and photographic development.

  4. ON THE ORIGIN OF HIGH-ALTITUDE OPEN CLUSTERS IN THE MILKY WAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Medina, L. A.; Pichardo, B.; Moreno, E.; Peimbert, A. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-264, 04510, México, D.F., México (Mexico); Velazquez, H., E-mail: lamartinez@astro.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 877, 22860 Ensenada, B.C., México (Mexico)

    2016-01-20

    We present a dynamical study of the effect of the bar and spiral arms on the simulated orbits of open clusters in the Galaxy. Specifically, this work is devoted to the puzzling presence of high-altitude open clusters in the Galaxy. For this purpose we employ a very detailed observationally motivated potential model for the Milky Way and a careful set of initial conditions representing the newly born open clusters in the thin disk. We find that the spiral arms are able to raise an important percentage of open clusters (about one-sixth of the total employed in our simulations, depending on the structural parameters of the arms) above the Galactic plane to heights beyond 200 pc, producing a bulge-shaped structure toward the center of the Galaxy. Contrary to what was expected, the spiral arms produce a much greater vertical effect on the clusters than the bar, both in quantity and height; this is due to the sharper concentration of the mass on the spiral arms, when compared to the bar. When a bar and spiral arms are included, spiral arms are still capable of raising an important percentage of the simulated open clusters through chaotic diffusion (as tested from classification analysis of the resultant high-z orbits), but the bar seems to restrain them, diminishing the elevation above the plane by a factor of about two.

  5. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey: Optical Extension for Neutron Capture Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, Matthew; O'Connell, Julia; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Donor, John; Cunha, Katia M. L.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Majewski, Steven R.; Zasowski, Gail; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Stassun, Keivan G.; APOGEE Team

    2017-01-01

    The Open Cluster Chemical Abundance & Mapping (OCCAM) survey is a systematic survey of Galactic open clusters using data primarily from the SDSS-III/APOGEE-1 survey. However, neutron capture elements are very limited in the IR region covered by APOGEE. In an effort to fully study detailed Galactic chemical evolution, we are conducting a high resolution (R~60,000) spectroscopic abundance analysis of neutron capture elements for OCCAM clusters in the optical regime to complement the APOGEE results. As part of this effort, we present Ba II, La II, Ce II and Eu II results for a few open clusters without previous abundance measurements using data obtained at McDonald Observatory with the 2.1m Otto Struve telescope and Sandiford Echelle Spectrograph.This work is supported by an NSF AAG grant AST-1311835.

  6. Construction and application of Red5 cluster based on OpenStack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaqing; Song, Jianxin

    2017-08-01

    With the application and development of cloud computing technology in various fields, the resource utilization rate of the data center has been improved obviously, and the system based on cloud computing platform has also improved the expansibility and stability. In the traditional way, Red5 cluster resource utilization is low and the system stability is poor. This paper uses cloud computing to efficiently calculate the resource allocation ability, and builds a Red5 server cluster based on OpenStack. Multimedia applications can be published to the Red5 cloud server cluster. The system achieves the flexible construction of computing resources, but also greatly improves the stability of the cluster and service efficiency.

  7. New open cluster candidates discovered in the XSTPS-GAC survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin-Cheng; Zhang, Hua-Wei; Zhang, Hui-Hua; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Huang, Yang; Wang, Song; Chen, Li; Zhao, Hai-Bin; Liu, Ji-Feng; Chen, Bing-Qiu; Xiang, Mao-Sheng; Tian, Zhi-Jia; Huo, Zhi-Ying; Wang, Chun

    2018-03-01

    The Xuyi Schmidt Telescope Photometric Survey of the Galactic Anti-center (XSTPS-GAC) is a photometric sky survey that covers nearly 6000 deg2 towards the Galactic Anti-center (GAC) in the g, r, i bands. Half of its survey field is located on the Galactic Anti-center disk, which makes XSTPS-GAC highly suitable to search for new open clusters in the GAC region. In this paper, we report new open cluster candidates discovered in this survey, as well as properties of these open cluster candidates, such as age, distance and reddening, derived by isochrone fitting in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD). These open cluster candidates are stellar density peaks detected in the star density maps by applying the method from Koposov et al. Each candidate is inspected in terms of its true color image composed from three XSTPS-GAC band images. Then its CMD is checked, in order to identify whether the central region stars have a clear isochrone-like trend differing from background stars. The parameters derived from isochrone fitting for these candidates are mainly based on three band photometry of XSTPS-GAC. Moreover, when these new candidates are able to be seen clearly in 2MASS data, their parameters are also derived based on the 2MASS (J – H, J) CMD. There are a total of 320 known open clusters rediscovered and 24 new open cluster candidates discovered in this work. Furthermore, the parameters of these new candidates, as well as another 11 previously known open clusters, are properly determined for the first time.

  8. Electroless deposition of metal nanoparticle clusters: Effect of pattern distance

    KAUST Repository

    Gentile, Francesco

    2014-04-03

    Electroless plating is a deposition technique in which metal ions are reduced as atoms on specific patterned sites of a silicon surface to form metal nanoparticles (NPs) aggregates with the desired characteristics. Those NPs, in turn, can be used as constituents of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates, which are devices where the electromagnetic field and effects thereof are giantly amplified. Here, the electroless formation of nanostructures was studied as a function of the geometry of the substrate. High resolution, electron beam lithography techniques were used to obtain nonperiodic arrays of circular patterns, in which the spacing of patterns was varied over a significant range. In depositing silver atoms in those circuits, the authors found that the characteristics of the aggregates vary with the pattern distance. When the patterns are in close proximity, the interference of different groups of adjacent aggregates cannot be disregarded and the overall growth is reduced. Differently from this, when the patterns are sufficiently distant, the formation of metal clusters of NPs is independent on the spacing of the patterns. For the particular subset of parameters used here, this critical correlation distance is about three times the pattern diameter. These findings were explained within the framework of a diffusion limited aggregation model, which is a simulation method that can decipher the formation of nanoaggregates at an atomic level. In the discussion, the authors showed how this concept can be used to fabricate ordered arrays of silver nanospheres, where the size of those spheres may be regulated on varying the pattern distance, for applications in biosensing and single molecule detection.

  9. Electroless deposition of metal nanoparticle clusters: Effect of pattern distance

    KAUST Repository

    Gentile, Francesco; Laura Coluccio, Maria; Candeloro, Patrizio; Barberio, Marianna; Perozziello, Gerardo; Francardi, Marco; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2014-01-01

    Electroless plating is a deposition technique in which metal ions are reduced as atoms on specific patterned sites of a silicon surface to form metal nanoparticles (NPs) aggregates with the desired characteristics. Those NPs, in turn, can be used as constituents of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates, which are devices where the electromagnetic field and effects thereof are giantly amplified. Here, the electroless formation of nanostructures was studied as a function of the geometry of the substrate. High resolution, electron beam lithography techniques were used to obtain nonperiodic arrays of circular patterns, in which the spacing of patterns was varied over a significant range. In depositing silver atoms in those circuits, the authors found that the characteristics of the aggregates vary with the pattern distance. When the patterns are in close proximity, the interference of different groups of adjacent aggregates cannot be disregarded and the overall growth is reduced. Differently from this, when the patterns are sufficiently distant, the formation of metal clusters of NPs is independent on the spacing of the patterns. For the particular subset of parameters used here, this critical correlation distance is about three times the pattern diameter. These findings were explained within the framework of a diffusion limited aggregation model, which is a simulation method that can decipher the formation of nanoaggregates at an atomic level. In the discussion, the authors showed how this concept can be used to fabricate ordered arrays of silver nanospheres, where the size of those spheres may be regulated on varying the pattern distance, for applications in biosensing and single molecule detection.

  10. Photometry Using Kepler "Superstamps" of Open Clusters NGC 6791 & NGC 6819

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Drury, Jason A.; Bellamy, Beau R.; Stello, Dennis; Bedding, Timothy R.; Reed, Mike; Quick, Breanna

    2015-09-01

    The Kepler space telescope has proven to be a gold mine for the study of variable stars. Usually, Kepler only reads out a handful of pixels around each pre-selected target star, omitting a large number of stars in the Kepler field. Fortunately, for the open clusters NGC 6791 and NGC 6819, Kepler also read out larger "superstamps" which contained complete images of the central region of each cluster. These cluster images can be used to study additional stars in the open clusters that were not originally on Kepler's target list. We discuss our work on using two photometric techniques to analyze these superstamps and present sample results from this project to demonstrate the value of this technique for a wide variety of variable stars.

  11. Photometry Using Kepler “Superstamps” of Open Clusters NGC 6791 & NGC 6819

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuehn Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kepler space telescope has proven to be a gold mine for the study of variable stars. Usually, Kepler only reads out a handful of pixels around each pre-selected target star, omitting a large number of stars in the Kepler field. Fortunately, for the open clusters NGC 6791 and NGC 6819, Kepler also read out larger “superstamps” which contained complete images of the central region of each cluster. These cluster images can be used to study additional stars in the open clusters that were not originally on Kepler’s target list. We discuss our work on using two photometric techniques to analyze these superstamps and present sample results from this project to demonstrate the value of this technique for a wide variety of variable stars.

  12. WIYN OPEN CLUSTER STUDY. XXIV. STELLAR RADIAL-VELOCITY MEASUREMENTS IN NGC 6819

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabetha Hole, K.; Geller, Aaron M.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Meibom, Soeren; Platais, Imants; Latham, David W.

    2009-01-01

    We present the current results from our ongoing radial-velocity (RV) survey of the intermediate-age (2.4 Gyr) open cluster NGC 6819. Using both newly observed and other available photometry and astrometry, we define a primary target sample of 1454 stars that includes main-sequence, subgiant, giant, and blue straggler stars, spanning a magnitude range of 11 ≤V≤ 16.5 and an approximate mass range of 1.1-1.6 M sun . Our sample covers a 23 arcminute (13 pc) square field of view centered on the cluster. We have measured 6571 radial velocities for an unbiased sample of 1207 stars in the direction of the open cluster NGC 6819, with a single-measurement precision of 0.4 km s -1 for most narrow-lined stars. We use our RV data to calculate membership probabilities for stars with ≥3 measurements, providing the first comprehensive membership study of the cluster core that includes stars from the giant branch through the upper main sequence. We identify 480 cluster members. Additionally, we identify velocity-variable systems, all of which are likely hard binaries that dynamically power the cluster. Using our single cluster members, we find a cluster average RV of 2.34 ± 0.05 km s -1 . We use our kinematic cluster members to construct a cleaned color-magnitude diagram from which we identify rich giant, subgiant, and blue straggler populations and a well defined red clump. The cluster displays a morphology near the cluster turnoff clearly indicative of core convective overshoot. Finally, we discuss a few stars of note, one of which is a short-period red-clump binary that we suggest may be the product of a dynamical encounter.

  13. Open-Source Sequence Clustering Methods Improve the State Of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylova, Evguenia; Navas-Molina, Jose A; Mercier, Céline; Xu, Zhenjiang Zech; Mahé, Frédéric; He, Yan; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Rognes, Torbjørn; Caporaso, J Gregory; Knight, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Sequence clustering is a common early step in amplicon-based microbial community analysis, when raw sequencing reads are clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to reduce the run time of subsequent analysis steps. Here, we evaluated the performance of recently released state-of-the-art open-source clustering software products, namely, OTUCLUST, Swarm, SUMACLUST, and SortMeRNA, against current principal options (UCLUST and USEARCH) in QIIME, hierarchical clustering methods in mothur, and USEARCH's most recent clustering algorithm, UPARSE. All the latest open-source tools showed promising results, reporting up to 60% fewer spurious OTUs than UCLUST, indicating that the underlying clustering algorithm can vastly reduce the number of these derived OTUs. Furthermore, we observed that stringent quality filtering, such as is done in UPARSE, can cause a significant underestimation of species abundance and diversity, leading to incorrect biological results. Swarm, SUMACLUST, and SortMeRNA have been included in the QIIME 1.9.0 release. IMPORTANCE Massive collections of next-generation sequencing data call for fast, accurate, and easily accessible bioinformatics algorithms to perform sequence clustering. A comprehensive benchmark is presented, including open-source tools and the popular USEARCH suite. Simulated, mock, and environmental communities were used to analyze sensitivity, selectivity, species diversity (alpha and beta), and taxonomic composition. The results demonstrate that recent clustering algorithms can significantly improve accuracy and preserve estimated diversity without the application of aggressive filtering. Moreover, these tools are all open source, apply multiple levels of multithreading, and scale to the demands of modern next-generation sequencing data, which is essential for the analysis of massive multidisciplinary studies such as the Earth Microbiome Project (EMP) (J. A. Gilbert, J. K. Jansson, and R. Knight, BMC Biol 12:69, 2014, http

  14. Magnetic properties of free alkali and transition metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heer, W. de; Milani, P.; Chatelain, A.

    1991-01-01

    The Stern-Gerlach deflections of small alkali clusters (N<6) and iron clusters (10< N<500) show that the paramagnetic alkali clusters always have a nondeflecting component, while the iron clusters always deflect in the high field direction. Both of these effects appear to be related to spin relaxation however in the case of alkali clusters it is shown that they are in fact caused by avoided level crossing in the Zeeman diagram. For alkali clusters the relatively weak couplings cause reduced magnetic moments where levels cross. For iron clusters however the total spin is strongly coupled to the molecular framework. Consequently this coupling is responsible for avoided level crossing which ultimately cause the total energy of the cluster to decrease with increasing magnetic field so that the iron clusters will deflect in one direction when introduced in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. Experiment and theory are discussed for both cases. (orig.)

  15. Plasmon resonances in large noble-metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soennichsen, C; Franzl, T; Wilk, T; Plessen, G von; Feldmann, J

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the optical properties of spherical gold and silver clusters with diameters of 20 nm and larger. The light scattering spectra of individual clusters are measured using dark-field microscopy, thus avoiding inhomogeneous broadening effects. The dipolar plasmon resonances of the clusters are found to have nearly Lorentzian line shapes. With increasing size we observe polaritonic red-shifts of the plasmon line and increased radiation damping for both gold and silver clusters. Apart from some cluster-to-cluster variations of the plasmon lines, agreement with Mie theory is reasonably good for the gold clusters. However, it is less satisfactory for the silver clusters, possibly due to cluster faceting or chemical effects

  16. Sejong Open Cluster Survey (SOS). 0. Target Selection and Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hwankyung; Lim, Beomdu; Bessell, Michael S.; Kim, Jinyoung S.; Hur, Hyeonoh; Chun, Moo-Young; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2013-06-01

    Star clusters are superb astrophysical laboratories containing cospatial and coeval samples of stars with similar chemical composition. We initiate the Sejong Open cluster Survey (SOS) - a project dedicated to providing homogeneous photometry of a large number of open clusters in the SAAO Johnson-Cousins' UBVI system. To achieve our main goal, we pay much attention to the observation of standard stars in order to reproduce the SAAO standard system. Many of our targets are relatively small sparse clusters that escaped previous observations. As clusters are considered building blocks of the Galactic disk, their physical properties such as the initial mass function, the pattern of mass segregation, etc. give valuable information on the formation and evolution of the Galactic disk. The spatial distribution of young open clusters will be used to revise the local spiral arm structure of the Galaxy. In addition, the homogeneous data can also be used to test stellar evolutionary theory, especially concerning rare massive stars. In this paper we present the target selection criteria, the observational strategy for accurate photometry, and the adopted calibrations for data analysis such as color-color relations, zero-age main sequence relations, Sp - M_V relations, Sp - T_{eff} relations, Sp - color relations, and T_{eff} - BC relations. Finally we provide some data analysis such as the determination of the reddening law, the membership selection criteria, and distance determination.

  17. Shell structures and chaos in nuclei and large metallic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiss, W.D.; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg; Nazmitdinov, R.G.; Radu, S.; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

    1995-01-01

    A reflection-asymmetric deformed oscillator potential is analyzed from the classical and quantum mechanical point of view. The connection between occurrence of shell structures and classical periodic orbits is studied using the ''removal of resonances method'' in a classical analysis. In this approximation, the effective single particle potential becomes separable and the frequencies of the classical trajectories are easily determined. It turns out that the winding numbers calculated in this way are in good agreement with the ones found from the corresponding quantum mechanical spectrum using the particle number dependence of the fluctuating part of the total energy. When the octupole term is switched on it is found that prolate shapes are stable against chaos and can exhibit shells where spherical and oblate cases become chaotic. An attempt is made to explain this difference in the quantum mechanical context by looking at the distribution of exceptional points which results from the matrix structure of the respective Hamiltonians. In a similar way we analyze the modified Nilsson model and discuss its consequences for metallic clusters. (orig.)

  18. X-ray emission from open star clusters with Spectrum-Rontgen-Gamma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, K.P.; Ojha, D.K.; Schnopper, H.W.

    1998-01-01

    The study of X-ray emission from co-evolving populations of stars in open dusters is extremely important for understanding the dynamo activity among the stars. With this objective, we propose to observe a number of open clusters in the X-ray and UV bands using SPECTRUM-Rontgen-Gamma. The high...... throughput of SPECTRUM-Rontgen-Gamma will help detect main sequence stars like Sun in middle-aged and old clusters. We will study the relationships between various parameters - age, rotation, abundance, UBV colors, X-ray luminosity, coronal temperature etc. X-ray spectra of younger and brighter populations...

  19. Color-magnitude diagrams for six metal-rich, low-latitude globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armandroff, Taft E.

    1988-01-01

    Colors and magnitudes for stars on CCD frames for six metal-rich, low-latitude, previously unstudied globular clusters and one well-studied, metal-rich cluster (47 Tuc) have been derived and color-magnitude diagrams have been constructed. The photometry for stars in 47 Tuc are in good agreement with previous studies, while the V magnitudes of the horizontal-branch stars in the six program clusters do not agree with estimates based on secondary methods. The distances to these clusters are different from prior estimates. Redding values are derived for each program cluster. The horizontal branches of the program clusters all appear to lie entirely redwards of the red edge of the instability strip, as is normal for their metallicities.

  20. Hierarchical cluster analysis of progression patterns in open-angle glaucoma patients with medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyoung Won; Rho, Seungsoo; Lee, Hye Sun; Lee, Naeun; Hong, Samin; Seong, Gong Je; Sung, Kyung Rim; Kim, Chan Yun

    2014-04-29

    To classify medically treated open-angle glaucoma (OAG) by the pattern of progression using hierarchical cluster analysis, and to determine OAG progression characteristics by comparing clusters. Ninety-five eyes of 95 OAG patients who received medical treatment, and who had undergone visual field (VF) testing at least once per year for 5 or more years. OAG was classified into subgroups using hierarchical cluster analysis based on the following five variables: baseline mean deviation (MD), baseline visual field index (VFI), MD slope, VFI slope, and Glaucoma Progression Analysis (GPA) printout. After that, other parameters were compared between clusters. Two clusters were made after a hierarchical cluster analysis. Cluster 1 showed -4.06 ± 2.43 dB baseline MD, 92.58% ± 6.27% baseline VFI, -0.28 ± 0.38 dB per year MD slope, -0.52% ± 0.81% per year VFI slope, and all "no progression" cases in GPA printout, whereas cluster 2 showed -8.68 ± 3.81 baseline MD, 77.54 ± 12.98 baseline VFI, -0.72 ± 0.55 MD slope, -2.22 ± 1.89 VFI slope, and seven "possible" and four "likely" progression cases in GPA printout. There were no significant differences in age, sex, mean IOP, central corneal thickness, and axial length between clusters. However, cluster 2 included more high-tension glaucoma patients and used a greater number of antiglaucoma eye drops significantly compared with cluster 1. Hierarchical cluster analysis of progression patterns divided OAG into slow and fast progression groups, evidenced by assessing the parameters of glaucomatous progression in VF testing. In the fast progression group, the prevalence of high-tension glaucoma was greater and the number of antiglaucoma medications administered was increased versus the slow progression group. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  1. Magnetic behavior of clusters of ferromagnetic transition metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanna, S. N.; Linderoth, Søren

    1991-01-01

    The effective magnetic moments of small iron and cobalt clusters have been calculated by assuming that the clusters undergo superparamagnetic relaxation. The effective moments per atom are found to be much below the bulk values, even at low temperatures (100 K). They increase with particle size a...... moments in small clusters compared to bulk as being due to melting of surface spins....

  2. The Problem of Hipparcos Distances to Open Clusters. II. Constraints from Nearby Field Theory. Report 2; ClustersConstraints from nearly Field Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderblom, David R.; King, Jeremy R.; Hanson, Robert B.; Jones, Burton F.; Fischer, Debra; Stauffer, John R.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the discrepancy between distances to nearby open clusters as determined by parallaxes from Hipparcos compared to traditional main-sequence fitting. The biggest difference is seen for the Pleiades, and our hypothesis is that if the Hipparcos distance to the Pleiades is correct, then similar subluminous zero-age main-sequence (ZAMS) stars should exist elsewhere, including in the immediate solar neighborhood. We examine a color-magnitude diagram of very young and nearby solar-type stars and show that none of them lie below the traditional ZAMS, despite the fact that the Hipparcos Pleiades parallax would place its members 0.3 mag below that ZAMS. We also present analyses and observations of solar-type stars that do lie below the ZAMS, and we show that they are subluminous because of low metallicity and that they have the kinematics of old stars.

  3. Chemisorption on size-selected metal clusters: activation barriers and chemical reactions for deuterium and aluminum cluster ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrold, M.F.; Bower, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe a new approach to investigating chemisorption on size-selected metal clusters. This approach involves investigating the collision-energy dependence of chemisorption using low-energy ion beam techniques. The method provides a direct measure of the activation barrier for chemisorption and in some cases an estimate of the desorption energy as well. They describe the application of this technique to chemisorption of deuterium on size-selected aluminum clusters. The activation barriers increase with cluster size (from a little over 1 eV for Al 10 + to around 2 eV for Al 27 + ) and show significant odd-even oscillations. The activation barriers for the clusters with an odd number of atoms are larger than those for the even-numbered clusters. In addition to chemisorption of deuterium onto the clusters, chemical reactions were observed, often resulting in cluster fragmentation. The main products observed were Al/sub n-1/D + , Al/sub n-2/ + , and Al + for clusters with n + and Al/sub n-1/D + for the larger clusters

  4. A method for determining the radius of an open cluster from stellar proper motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Néstor; Alfaro, Emilio J.; López-Martínez, Fátima

    2018-04-01

    We propose a method for calculating the radius of an open cluster in an objective way from an astrometric catalogue containing, at least, positions and proper motions. It uses the minimum spanning tree in the proper motion space to discriminate cluster stars from field stars and it quantifies the strength of the cluster-field separation by means of a statistical parameter defined for the first time in this paper. This is done for a range of different sampling radii from where the cluster radius is obtained as the size at which the best cluster-field separation is achieved. The novelty of this strategy is that the cluster radius is obtained independently of how its stars are spatially distributed. We test the reliability and robustness of the method with both simulated and real data from a well-studied open cluster (NGC 188), and apply it to UCAC4 data for five other open clusters with different catalogued radius values. NGC 188, NGC 1647, NGC 6603, and Ruprecht 155 yielded unambiguous radius values of 15.2 ± 1.8, 29.4 ± 3.4, 4.2 ± 1.7, and 7.0 ± 0.3 arcmin, respectively. ASCC 19 and Collinder 471 showed more than one possible solution, but it is not possible to know whether this is due to the involved uncertainties or due to the presence of complex patterns in their proper motion distributions, something that could be inherent to the physical object or due to the way in which the catalogue was sampled.

  5. Relaxation processes in optically excites metal clusters; Relaxationsprozesse in optisch angeregten Metallclustern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanzel, J.

    2007-08-10

    The present work is concerned with the dynamics of optically excited metal clusters in the gas phase. Small mass-selected gold and tungsten cluster anions (Au{sup -}{sub n}, n=5-8, 14, 20 and W{sup -}{sub n}, n=3-14) are studied using femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. Depending on the electronic structure in the valence region as well as on the optical excitation energy fundamentally different relaxation processes are observed. In small gold cluster anions excited with 1.56 eV an isolated electronically excited state is populated. The time-dependent measurements are strongly sizedependent and open insights into photoinduced geometry changes of the nuclear framework. Oscillatory vibrational wavepacket motion in Au{sup -}{sub 5}, an extremely longlived ({tau} >90 ns) electronically excited state in Au{sup -}{sub 6} as well as photoinduced melting in Au{sup -}{sub 7} and Au{sup -}{sub 8} is monitored in real time. By increasing the OPTICAL excitation energy to 3.12 eV a completely different scenario is observed. A multitude of electronically excited states can be reached upon optical excitation and as a consequence electronic relaxation processes that take place on a time scale of 1 ps are dominating. This is shown for Au{sup -}{sub 7}, Au{sup -}{sub 14} and Au{sup -}{sub 20}. Compared to gold clusters, tungsten clusters are characterized by a significantly higher electronic density of states in the valence region. Therefore electronic relaxation processes are much more likely and take place on a significantly faster time scale. The fast electronic relaxation processes are distinguished from pure vibrational relaxation. It is shown that already in the four atomic tungsten cluster W{sup -}{sub 4} electronic relaxation processes take place on a time scale of 30 fs. In all investigated tungsten cluster anions (W{sup -}{sub n}, n=3-14) an equilibrium between electronic and vibrational system is reached within around 1 ps after optical excitation which

  6. Spectroscopic determination of fundamental parameters of small angular diameter galactic open clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, A. V.; Claria, J. J.; Bica, E.; Parisi, M. C.; Torres, M. C.; Pavani, D. B.

    We present integrated spectra obtained at CASLEO (Argentina) for 9 galactic open clusters of small angular diameter. Two of them (BH 55 and Rup 159) have not been the target of previous research. The flux-calibrated spectra cover the spectral range approx. 3600-6900 A. Using the equivalent widths (EWs) of the Balmer lines and comparing the cluster spectra with template spectra, we determined E(B-V) colour excesses and ages for the present cluster sample. The parameters obtained for 6 of the clusters show good agreement with previous determinations based mainly on photometric methods. This is not the case, however, for BH 90, a scarcely reddened cluster, for which Moffat and Vogt (1975, Astron. and Astroph. SS, 20, 125) derived E(B-V) = 0.51. We explain and justify the strong discrepancy found for this object. According to the present analysis, 3 clusters are very young (Bo 14, Tr 15 and Tr 27), 2 are moderately young (NGC 6268 and BH 205), 3 are Hyades-like clusters (Rup 164, BH 90 and BH 55) and only one is an intermediate-age cluster (Rup 159).

  7. A multimembership catalogue for 1876 open clusters using UCAC4 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampedro, L.; Dias, W. S.; Alfaro, E. J.; Monteiro, H.; Molino, A.

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this work is to determine the cluster members of 1876 open clusters, using positions and proper motions of the astrometric fourth United States Naval Observatory (USNO) CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC4). For this purpose, we apply three different methods, all based on a Bayesian approach, but with different formulations: a purely parametric method, another completely non-parametric algorithm and a third, recently developed by Sampedro & Alfaro, using both formulations at different steps of the whole process. The first and second statistical moments of the members' phase-space subspace, obtained after applying the three methods, are compared for every cluster. Although, on average, the three methods yield similar results, there are also specific differences between them, as well as for some particular clusters. The comparison with other published catalogues shows good agreement. We have also estimated, for the first time, the mean proper motion for a sample of 18 clusters. The results are organized in a single catalogue formed by two main files, one with the most relevant information for each cluster, partially including that in UCAC4, and the other showing the individual membership probabilities for each star in the cluster area. The final catalogue, with an interface design that enables an easy interaction with the user, is available in electronic format at the Stellar Systems Group (SSG-IAA) web site (http://ssg.iaa.es/en/content/sampedro-cluster-catalog).

  8. TIME-SERIES SPECTROSCOPY OF TWO CANDIDATE DOUBLE DEGENERATES IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6633

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Kurtis A.; Chakraborty, Subho [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Texas A and M University-Commerce, P.O. Box 3011, Commerce, TX, 75429 (United States); Serna-Grey, Donald [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA, 98195 (United States); Gianninas, A.; Canton, Paul A., E-mail: Kurtis.Williams@tamuc.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK, 73019 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    SNe Ia are heavily used tools in precision cosmology, yet we still are not certain what the progenitor systems are. General plausibility arguments suggest there is potential for identifying double degenerate SN Ia progenitors in intermediate-age open star clusters. We present time-resolved high-resolution spectroscopy of two white dwarfs (WDs) in the field of the open cluster NGC 6633 that had previously been identified as candidate double degenerates in the cluster. However, three hours of continuous observations of each candidate failed to detect any significant radial velocity variations at the ≳10 km s{sup −1} level, making it highly unlikely that either WD is a double degenerate that will merge within a Hubble Time. The WD LAWDS NGC 6633 4 has a radial velocity inconsistent with cluster membership at the 2.5σ level, while the radial velocity of LAWDS NGC 6633 7 is consistent with cluster membership. We conservatively conclude that LAWDS 7 is a viable massive double degenerate candidate, though unlikely to be a Type Ia progenitor. Astrometric data from GAIA will likely be needed to determine if either WD is truly a cluster member.

  9. Living Colloidal Metal Particles from Solvated Metal Atoms. Clustering of Metal Atoms in Organic Media 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-23

    attributed to these solutions, especially toward heart disease. And in 1618 Antoni published Panacea Aurea : Auro Potabile 4 which centered on the...probably a slow process (discussed next under the electrophoresis section ). Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis, the movement of charged particles in...electrical properties. Experimental Section Preparation of a Typical Au-Acetone Colloid The metal atom reactor has been described previo sly. 3 9 ’ 5 9 ’ 6 0

  10. A new Be star in an open cluster - NGC 6871-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, James A.; Morrison, Nancy D.

    1988-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of H-alpha show that star eight in the open cluster NGC 6871 is a previously-undiscovered Be star. The H-alpha profile was observed to vary from clear emission to pure absorption over a period of ten days; later observations over a five-day interval show weak emission along with asymmetries and filling in of the profile.

  11. Age and helium content of the open cluster NGC 6791 from multiple eclipsing binary members. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, K.; VandenBerg, D. A.; Bruntt, H.

    2012-01-01

    Models of stellar structure and evolution can be constrained by measuring accurate parameters of detached eclipsing binaries in open clusters. Multiple binary stars provide the means to determine helium abundances in these old stellar systems, and in turn, to improve estimates of their age. In th...

  12. X-ray Observations of Eight Young Open Star Clusters: I ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X-ray Observations of Eight Young Open Star Clusters: I. Membership and X-ray Luminosity. Himali Bhatt, J. C. Pandey, K. P. Singh, Ram Sagar & Brijesh Kumar. J. Astrophys. Astr. 34(4), December 2013, pp. 393–429, c Indian Academy of Sciences. Supplementary Material. Supplementary Table 3 follows.

  13. Astrophysical parameters of open star clusters using 2MASS JHKs data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgapal, Alok; Bisht, Devendra; Yadav, Ramakant Singh

    2018-04-01

    In the present analysis we have estimated the fundamental parameters of two poorly studied open star clusters, namely Teutsch 61 and Czernik 3, using 2MASS JHKs data. We have used the color-magnitude and colour-colour diagrams to determine their fundamental parameters.

  14. Optical and ultraviolet study of five stars in the Pleiades open cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younan, K.F.; Dufton, P.L.

    1984-01-01

    Optical and ultraviolet observations of five low-reddened stars in the Pleiades open cluster have been obtained with an echelle spectrograph and the IUE satellite. The observed interstellar absorption lines have been analysed with different cloud models to estimate interstellar gas abundances for each line-of-sight. These results have been discussed in the light of current models for diatomic formation. (author)

  15. WIYN Open Cluster Study. XXXVI. Spectroscopic Binary Orbits in NGC 188

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    2000; Pleiades , Mermilliod et al. 1992; M67, Mathieu et al. 1990). Today, the advent of multi-object spectrographs permits surveys of larger stellar...open clusters (e.g., M67, Mathieu et al. (1990); Praesepe, Mermilliod et al. (1994); Pleiades , Bouvier et al. (1997); Hyades, Patience et al. (1998

  16. Comparing the OpenMP, MPI, and Hybrid Programming Paradigm on an SMP Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Gabriele; Jin, Hao-Qiang; anMey, Dieter; Hatay, Ferhat F.

    2003-01-01

    Clusters of SMP (Symmetric Multi-Processors) nodes provide support for a wide range of parallel programming paradigms. The shared address space within each node is suitable for OpenMP parallelization. Message passing can be employed within and across the nodes of a cluster. Multiple levels of parallelism can be achieved by combining message passing and OpenMP parallelization. Which programming paradigm is the best will depend on the nature of the given problem, the hardware components of the cluster, the network, and the available software. In this study we compare the performance of different implementations of the same CFD benchmark application, using the same numerical algorithm but employing different programming paradigms.

  17. Amplitudes of solar-like oscillations: Constraints from red giants in open clusters observed by Kepler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stello, Dennis; Huber, Daniel; Kallinger, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    implies that the stellar parameters can be measured to much higher precision than what is usually achievable for single stars. This makes clusters ideal for exploring the relation between the mode amplitude of solar-like oscillations and the global stellar properties. We have analyzed data obtained......Scaling relations that link asteroseismic quantities to global stellar properties are important for gaining understanding of the intricate physics that underpins stellar pulsations. The common notion that all stars in an open cluster have essentially the same distance, age, and initial composition...... with NASA's Kepler space telescope to study solar-like oscillations in 100 red giant stars located in either of the three open clusters, NGC 6791, NGC 6819, and NGC 6811. By fitting the measured amplitudes to predictions from simple scaling relations that depend on luminosity, mass, and effective...

  18. Size dependent magnetism of mass selected deposited transition metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, T.

    2002-05-01

    The size dependent magnetic properties of small iron clusters deposited on ultrathin Ni/Cu(100) films have been studied with circularly polarised synchrotron radiation. For X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies, the magnetic moments of size selected clusters were aligned perpendicular to the sample surface. Exchange coupling of the clusters to the ultrathin Ni/Cu(100) film determines the orientation of their magnetic moments. All clusters are coupled ferromagnetically to the underlayer. With the use of sum rules, orbital and spin magnetic moments as well as their ratios have been extracted from X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra. The ratio of orbital to spin magnetic moments varies considerably as a function of cluster size, reflecting the dependence of magnetic properties on cluster size and geometry. These variations can be explained in terms of a strongly size dependent orbital moment. Both orbital and spin magnetic moments are significantly enhanced in small clusters as compared to bulk iron, although this effect is more pronounced for the spin moment. Magnetic properties of deposited clusters are governed by the interplay of cluster specific properties on the one hand and cluster-substrate interactions on the other hand. Size dependent variations of magnetic moments are modified upon contact with the substrate. (orig.)

  19. The Problem of Hipparcos Distances to Open Clusters. Report 1; Constraints from Multicolor a Main-Sequence Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Stauffer, John; Soderblom, David R.; King, Jeremy R.; Hanson, Robert B.

    1998-01-01

    Parallax data from the Hipparcos mission allow the direct distance to open clusters to be compared with the distance inferred from main-sequence (MS) fitting. There are surprising differences between the two distance measurements. indicating either the need for changes in the cluster compositions or reddening, underlying problems with the technique of MS fitting, or systematic errors in the Hipparcos parallaxes at the 1 mas level. We examine the different possibilities, focusing on MS fitting in both metallicity-sensitive B-V and metallicity-insensitive V-I for five well-studied systems (the Hyades, Pleiades, alpha Per, Praesepe, and Coma Ber). The Hipparcos distances to the Hyades and alpha Per are within 1 sigma of the MS-fitting distance in B-V and V-I, while the Hipparcos distances to Coma Ber and the Pleiades are in disagreement with the MS-fitting distance at more than the 3 sigma level. There are two Hipparcos measurements of the distance to Praesepe; one is in good agreement with the MS-fitting distance and the other disagrees at the 2 sigma level. The distance estimates from the different colors are in conflict with one another for Coma but in agreement for the Pleiades. Changes in the relative cluster metal abundances, age related effects, helium, and reddening are shown to be unlikely to explain the puzzling behavior of the Pleiades. We present evidence for spatially dependent systematic errors at the 1 mas level in the parallaxes of Pleiades stars. The implications of this result are discussed.

  20. Comparison between XAS, AWAXS and DAFS applied to nanometer scale supported metallic clusters. Pt.1; monometallic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazin, D.C.; Sayers, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    The structural information found using three techniques related to synchrotron radiation are compared. XAS (X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy), AWAXS (Anomalous Wide Angle X-ray Scattering) and DAFS (Diffraction Anomalous Fine Structure) are applied to nanometer scale metallic clusters. (author)

  1. An efficient laser vaporization source for chemically modified metal clusters characterized by thermodynamics and kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masubuchi, Tsugunosuke; Eckhard, Jan F.; Lange, Kathrin; Visser, Bradley; Tschurl, Martin; Heiz, Ulrich

    2018-02-01

    A laser vaporization cluster source that has a room for cluster aggregation and a reactor volume, each equipped with a pulsed valve, is presented for the efficient gas-phase production of chemically modified metal clusters. The performance of the cluster source is evaluated through the production of Ta and Ta oxide cluster cations, TaxOy+ (y ≥ 0). It is demonstrated that the cluster source produces TaxOy+ over a wide mass range, the metal-to-oxygen ratio of which can easily be controlled by changing the pulse duration that influences the amount of reactant O2 introduced into the cluster source. Reaction kinetic modeling shows that the generation of the oxides takes place under thermalized conditions at less than 300 K, whereas metal cluster cores are presumably created with excess heat. These characteristics are also advantageous to yield "reaction intermediates" of interest via reactions between clusters and reactive molecules in the cluster source, which may subsequently be mass selected for their reactivity measurements.

  2. The influence of nanoscale morphology on the resistivity of cluster-assembled nanostructured metallic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barborini, E; Bertolini, G; Repetto, P; Leccardi, M; Vinati, S; Corbelli, G; Milani, P

    2010-01-01

    We have studied in situ the evolution of the electrical resistivity of Fe, Pd, Nb, W and Mo cluster-assembled films during their growth by supersonic cluster beam deposition. We observed resistivity of cluster-assembled films several orders of magnitude larger than the bulk, as well as an increase in resistivity by increasing the film thickness in contrast to what was observed for atom-assembled metallic films. This suggests that the nanoscale morphological features typical of ballistic films growth, such as the minimal cluster-cluster interconnection and the evolution of surface roughness with thickness, are responsible for the observed behaviour.

  3. Determining open cluster membership. A Bayesian framework for quantitative member classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Jonathan J.

    2018-01-01

    Aims: My goal is to develop a quantitative algorithm for assessing open cluster membership probabilities. The algorithm is designed to work with single-epoch observations. In its simplest form, only one set of program images and one set of reference images are required. Methods: The algorithm is based on a two-stage joint astrometric and photometric assessment of cluster membership probabilities. The probabilities were computed within a Bayesian framework using any available prior information. Where possible, the algorithm emphasizes simplicity over mathematical sophistication. Results: The algorithm was implemented and tested against three observational fields using published survey data. M 67 and NGC 654 were selected as cluster examples while a third, cluster-free, field was used for the final test data set. The algorithm shows good quantitative agreement with the existing surveys and has a false-positive rate significantly lower than the astrometric or photometric methods used individually.

  4. Mass spectrometric probes of metal cluster distributions and metastable ion decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, E.K.; Liu, K.; Cole, S.K.; Riley, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    The study of metal clusters has provided both an opportunity and a challenge to the application of mass spectrometry. These days the most often-used technique for cluster generation - laser vaporization - leads to extensive distributions of cluster sizes, from one to perhaps thousands of atoms, and most studies reported to date use excimer laser ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry for cluster detection. Our apparatus is a simple one-stage TOF design employing Wiley-McLauren spatial focusing and a one-meter drift tube. In a second apparatus employing a pulsed valve in the cluster source, we see asymmetric broadening of niobium cluster mass peaks under multiphoton ionization conditions, indicating metastable decay of parent cluster ions. Other studies of niobium clusters have shown no such asymmetric peaks. 2 figs

  5. Energy Characteristics of Small Metal Clusters Containing Vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, V. I.; Pogosov, V. V.

    2018-02-01

    Self-consistent calculations of spatial distributions of electrons, potentials, and energies of dissociation, cohesion, vacancy formation, and electron attachment, as well as the ionization potential of solid Al N , Na N clusters ( N ≥ 254), and clusters containing a vacancy ( N ≥ 12) have been performed using a model of stable jellium. The contribution of a monovacancy to the energy of the cluster, the size dependences of the characteristics, and their asymptotic forms have been considered. The calculations have been performed on the SKIT-3 cluster at the Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Rpeak = 7.4 Tflops).

  6. THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN THE CONTEXT OF NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICTY RELATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakeslee, John P.; Cantiello, Michele; Peng, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    Two recent empirical developments in the study of extragalactic globular cluster (GC) populations are the color-magnitude relation of the blue GCs (the 'blue tilt') and the nonlinearity of the dependence of optical GC colors on metallicity. The color-magnitude relation, interpreted as a mass-metallicity relation, is thought to be a consequence of self-enrichment. Nonlinear color-metallicity relations have been shown to produce bimodal color distributions from unimodal metallicity distributions. We simulate GC populations including both a mass-metallicity scaling relation and nonlinear color-metallicity relations motivated by theory and observations. Depending on the assumed range of metallicities and the width of the GC luminosity function (GCLF), we find that the simulated populations can have bimodal color distributions with a 'blue tilt' similar to observations, even though the metallicity distribution appears unimodal. The models that produce these features have the relatively high mean GC metallicities and nearly equal blue and red peaks characteristic of giant elliptical galaxies. The blue tilt is less apparent in the models with metallicities typical of dwarf ellipticals; the narrower GCLF in these galaxies has an even bigger effect in reducing the significance of their color-magnitude slopes. We critically examine the evidence for nonlinearity versus bimodal metallicities as explanations for the characteristic double-peaked color histograms of giant ellipticals and conclude that the question remains open. We discuss the prospects for further theoretical and observational progress in constraining the models presented here and for uncovering the true metallicity distributions of extragalactic GC systems.

  7. 25. Steenbock symposium -- Biosynthesis and function of metal clusters for enzymes: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This symposium was held June 10--14, 1997 in Madison, Wisconsin. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on biochemistry of enzymes that have an affinity for metal clusters. Attention is focused on the following: metal clusters involved in energy conservation and remediation; tungsten, molybdenum, and cobalt-containing enzymes; Fe proteins, and Mo-binding proteins; nickel enzymes; and nitrogenase.

  8. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF INTERMEDIATE-MASS STAR MEMBERS OF THE M6 (NGC 6405) OPEN CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kılıçoğlu, T.; Albayrak, B. [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, 06100, Tandoğan, Ankara (Turkey); Monier, R. [LESIA, UMR 8109, Observatoire de Paris Meudon, Place J. Janssen, Meudon (France); Richer, J. [Département de physique, Université de Montréal, 2900, Boulevard Edouard-Montpetit, Montréal QC, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Fossati, L., E-mail: tkilicoglu@ankara.edu.tr, E-mail: balbayrak@ankara.edu.tr, E-mail: Richard.Monier@obspm.fr, E-mail: Jacques.Richer@umontreal.ca, E-mail: lfossati@astro.uni-bonn.de [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie der Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121, Bonn (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    We present here the first abundance analysis of 44 late B-, A-, and F-type members of the young open cluster M6 (NGC 6405, age about 75 Myr). Low- and medium-resolution spectra, covering the 4500–5840 Å wavelength range, were obtained using the FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph attached to the ESO Very Large Telescopes. We determined the atmospheric parameters using calibrations of the Geneva photometry and by adjusting the H{sub β} profiles to synthetic ones. The abundances of up to 20 chemical elements, from helium to mercury, were derived for 19 late B, 16 A, and 9 F stars by iteratively adjusting synthetic spectra to the observations. We also derived a mean cluster metallicity of [Fe/H] = 0.07 ± 0.03 dex from the iron abundances of the F-type stars. We find that for most chemical elements, the normal late B- and A-type stars exhibit larger star-to-star abundance variations than the F-type stars probably because of the faster rotation of the B and A stars. The abundances of C, O, Mg, Si, and Sc appear to be anticorrelated with that of Fe, while the opposite holds for the abundances of Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Y, and Ba as expected if radiative diffusion is efficient in the envelopes of these stars. In the course of this analysis, we discovered five new peculiar stars: one mild Am, one Am, and one Fm star (HD 318091, CD-32 13109, GSC 07380-01211, CP1), one HgMn star (HD 318126, CP3), and one He-weak P-rich (HD 318101, CP4) star. We also discovered a new spectroscopic binary, most likely a SB2. We performed a detailed modeling of HD 318101, the new He-weak P-rich CP star, using the Montréal stellar evolution code XEVOL which self-consistently treats all particle transport processes. Although the overall abundance pattern of this star is properly reproduced, we find that detailed abundances (in particular the high P excess) resisted modeling attempts even when a range of turbulence profiles and mass-loss rates were considered. Solutions are proposed which are

  9. Clustering of near clusters versus cluster compactness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Gao; Yipeng Jing

    1989-01-01

    The clustering properties of near Zwicky clusters are studied by using the two-point angular correlation function. The angular correlation functions for compact and medium compact clusters, for open clusters, and for all near Zwicky clusters are estimated. The results show much stronger clustering for compact and medium compact clusters than for open clusters, and that open clusters have nearly the same clustering strength as galaxies. A detailed study of the compactness-dependence of correlation function strength is worth investigating. (author)

  10. Properties and origin of the old, metal rich, star cluster, NGC 6791

    OpenAIRE

    Carraro, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution I summarize the unique properties of the old, metal rich, star cluster NGC 6791, with particular emphasis on its population of extreme blue horizontal branch stars. I then conclude providing my personal view on the origin of this fascinating star cluster.

  11. Structure Determination of Anionic Metal Clusters via Infrared Resonance Enhanced Multiple Photon Electron Detachment Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haertelt, M.; Lapoutre, V. J. F.; Bakker, J. M.; Redlich, B.; Harding, D. J.; Fielicke, A.; Meijer, G.

    2011-01-01

    We report vibrational spectra of anionic metal clusters, measured via electron detachment following resonant absorption of multiple infrared photons. To facilitate the sequential absorption of the required large number of photons, the cluster beam interacts with the infrared radiation inside the

  12. Van der Waals coefficients for alkali metal clusters and their size

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we employ the hydrodynamic formulation of time-dependent density functional theory to obtain the van der Waals coefficients 6 and 8 of alkali metal clusters of various sizes including very large clusters. Such calculations become computationally very demanding in the orbital-based Kohn-Sham formalism, ...

  13. Effect of functionalization of boron nitride flakes by main group metal clusters on their optoelectronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debdutta; Chattaraj, Pratim Kumar

    2017-10-01

    The possibility of functionalizing boron nitride flakes (BNFs) with some selected main group metal clusters, viz. OLi4, NLi5, CLi6, BLI7 and Al12Be, has been analyzed with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) based computations. Thermochemical as well as energetic considerations suggest that all the metal clusters interact with the BNF moiety in a favorable fashion. As a result of functionalization, the static (first) hyperpolarizability (β ) values of the metal cluster supported BNF moieties increase quite significantly as compared to that in the case of pristine BNF. Time dependent DFT analysis reveals that the metal clusters can lower the transition energies associated with the dominant electronic transitions quite significantly thereby enabling the metal cluster supported BNF moieties to exhibit significant non-linear optical activity. Moreover, the studied systems demonstrate broad band absorption capability spanning the UV-visible as well as infra-red domains. Energy decomposition analysis reveals that the electrostatic interactions principally stabilize the metal cluster supported BNF moieties.

  14. AMPLITUDES OF SOLAR-LIKE OSCILLATIONS: CONSTRAINTS FROM RED GIANTS IN OPEN CLUSTERS OBSERVED BY KEPLER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stello, Dennis; Huber, Daniel; Bedding, Timothy R.; Benomar, Othman; Kallinger, Thomas; Basu, Sarbani; Mosser, BenoIt; Hekker, Saskia; Mathur, Savita; GarcIa, Rafael A.; Kjeldsen, Hans; Grundahl, Frank; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Verner, Graham A.; Chaplin, William J.; Elsworth, Yvonne P.; Meibom, Soeren; Molenda-Zakowicz, Joanna; Szabo, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Scaling relations that link asteroseismic quantities to global stellar properties are important for gaining understanding of the intricate physics that underpins stellar pulsations. The common notion that all stars in an open cluster have essentially the same distance, age, and initial composition implies that the stellar parameters can be measured to much higher precision than what is usually achievable for single stars. This makes clusters ideal for exploring the relation between the mode amplitude of solar-like oscillations and the global stellar properties. We have analyzed data obtained with NASA's Kepler space telescope to study solar-like oscillations in 100 red giant stars located in either of the three open clusters, NGC 6791, NGC 6819, and NGC 6811. By fitting the measured amplitudes to predictions from simple scaling relations that depend on luminosity, mass, and effective temperature, we find that the data cannot be described by any power of the luminosity-to-mass ratio as previously assumed. As a result we provide a new improved empirical relation which treats luminosity and mass separately. This relation turns out to also work remarkably well for main-sequence and subgiant stars. In addition, the measured amplitudes reveal the potential presence of a number of previously unknown unresolved binaries in the red clump in NGC 6791 and NGC 6819, pointing to an interesting new application for asteroseismology as a probe into the formation history of open clusters.

  15. CAMPAIGN: an open-source library of GPU-accelerated data clustering algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhoff, Kai J; Sosnick, Marc H; Hsu, William T; Pande, Vijay S; Altman, Russ B

    2011-08-15

    Data clustering techniques are an essential component of a good data analysis toolbox. Many current bioinformatics applications are inherently compute-intense and work with very large datasets. Sequential algorithms are inadequate for providing the necessary performance. For this reason, we have created Clustering Algorithms for Massively Parallel Architectures, Including GPU Nodes (CAMPAIGN), a central resource for data clustering algorithms and tools that are implemented specifically for execution on massively parallel processing architectures. CAMPAIGN is a library of data clustering algorithms and tools, written in 'C for CUDA' for Nvidia GPUs. The library provides up to two orders of magnitude speed-up over respective CPU-based clustering algorithms and is intended as an open-source resource. New modules from the community will be accepted into the library and the layout of it is such that it can easily be extended to promising future platforms such as OpenCL. Releases of the CAMPAIGN library are freely available for download under the LGPL from https://simtk.org/home/campaign. Source code can also be obtained through anonymous subversion access as described on https://simtk.org/scm/?group_id=453. kjk33@cantab.net.

  16. Study of II Galactic quadrant of Milky Way Galaxy using open clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Devendra; Ganesh, Shashikiran; Baliyan, Kiran Singh; Yadav, Ramakant Singh; Durgapal, Alok

    2018-04-01

    We have made UBV I CCD observations for the open clusters Teutsch 1, Riddle 4 and Czernik 6 using 1.04-m Sampurnanand telescope located at the ARIES observatory (Manora peak, Nainital, India). We have used 2MASS JHKS data for the clusters Teutsch 126, Teutsch 54 and Czernik 3. For the estimation of fundamental parameters, we have plotted radial density profiles, colour-magnitude and colour-colour diagrams. Using these inputs, we have studied the structure of Milky Way Galaxy in the second Galactic quadrant. We have considered the open clusters that are younger than 1 Gyrs and lay in the longitude range from 90 to 180 deg. Our study shows that up to 3.5 Kpc, the Galactic disc bends towards the southern hemisphere while after 3.5 Kpc it bends towards the northern hemisphere. The distribution of reddening with longitude and age shows a decreasing trend with the longitude and age of the clusters. Our study also indicates that younger clusters have more reddening than older ones.

  17. Metallicity Variations in the Type II Globular Cluster NGC 6934

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, A. F.; Yong, D.; Milone, A. P.; Piotto, G.; Lundquist, M.; Bedin, L. R.; Chené, A.-N.; Da Costa, G.; Asplund, M.; Jerjen, H.

    2018-06-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope photometric survey of Galactic globular clusters (GCs) has revealed a peculiar “chromosome map” for NGC 6934. In addition to a typical sequence, similar to that observed in Type I GCs, NGC 6934 displays additional stars on the red side, analogous to the anomalous Type II GCs, as defined in our previous work. We present a chemical abundance analysis of four red giants in this GC. Two stars are located on the chromosome map sequence common to all GCs, and another two lie on the additional sequence. We find (i) star-to-star Fe variations, with the two anomalous stars being enriched by ∼0.2 dex. Because of our small-size sample, this difference is at the ∼2.5σ level. (ii) There is no evidence for variations in the slow neutron-capture abundances over Fe, at odds with what is often observed in anomalous Type II GCs, e.g., M 22 and ω Centauri (iii) no large variations in light elements C, O, and Na, compatible with locations of the targets on the lower part of the chromosome map where such variations are not expected. Since the analyzed stars are homogeneous in light elements, the only way to reproduce the photometric splits on the sub-giant (SGB) and the red giant (RGB) branches is to assume that red RGB/faint SGB stars are enhanced in [Fe/H] by ∼0.2. This fact corroborates the spectroscopic evidence of a metallicity variation in NGC 6934. The observed chemical pattern resembles only partially the other Type II GCs, suggesting that NGC 6934 might belong either to a third class of GCs, or be a link between normal Type I and anomalous Type II GCs. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and Gemini Telescope at Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope.

  18. Four-color and Hβ photometry for open clusters I: NGC 2516

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snowden, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    Extensive uvby and Hβ photometry was obtained for stars in the region of the open cluster NGC 2516. A photometric analysis revealed variable reddening and a mean reddening of E(b - y) = 0.088 m. In addition to determining a new age of 137 x 10 6 years and a new adopted distance modulus of 8.01 m, several possible new variable stars were discovered, one of which may be an eclipsing Ap star. From the photometry of the Si-lambda4200 stars in the cluster it appears the absolute magnitudes and masses for this type of star are not as restricted as previously thought

  19. Isochrone Fittings for the Open Star Clusters NGC 3680 and Melotte 66

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemaud, Nikolas; Frinchaboy, P. M.; Thompson, B. A.

    2013-01-01

    I will be displaying the results from isochrone fittings on two open star clusters. The stellar evolution models used to generate the isochrones are from Dartmouth (Dotter et al. 2007) and Padova (Mango et al. 2008). Both of the models were applied to two star clusters: NGC 3680 and Melotte 66. The analysis is performed by utilizing infrared observations from the CPAPIR instrument; which is operated in conjunction with CTIO’s 1.5m telescope. This research was made possible by the NSF’s REU grant; award number 0851558.

  20. Metal Sulfide Cluster Complexes and their Biogeochemical Importance in the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, George W.; Rickard, David T.

    2005-01-01

    Aqueous clusters of FeS, ZnS and CuS constitute a major fraction of the dissolved metal load in anoxic oceanic, sedimentary, freshwater and deep ocean vent environments. Their ubiquity explains how metals are transported in anoxic environmental systems. Thermodynamic and kinetic considerations show that they have high stability in oxic aqueous environments, and are also a significant fraction of the total metal load in oxic river waters. Molecular modeling indicates that the clusters are very similar to the basic structural elements of the first condensed phase forming from aqueous solutions in the Fe-S, Zn-S and Cu-S systems. The structure of the first condensed phase is determined by the structure of the cluster in solution. This provides an alternative explanation of Ostwald's Rule, where the most soluble, metastable phases form before the stable phases. For example, in the case of FeS, we showed that the first condensed phase is nanoparticulate, metastable mackinawite with a particle size of 2 nm consisting of about 150 FeS subunits, representing the end of a continuum between aqueous FeS clusters and condensed material. These metal sulfide clusters and nanoparticles are significant in biogeochemistry. Metal sulfide clusters reduce sulfide and metal toxicity and help drive ecology. FeS cluster formation drives vent ecology and AgS cluster formation detoxifies Ag in Daphnia magna neonates. We also note a new reaction between FeS and DNA and discuss the potential role of FeS clusters in denaturing DNA

  1. New Cepheid variables in the young open clusters Berkeley 51 and Berkeley 55

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, M. E.; Negueruela, I.; Tabernero, H. M.; Clark, J. S.; Lewis, F.; Roche, P.

    2018-05-01

    As part of a wider investigation of evolved massive stars in Galactic open clusters, we have spectroscopically identified three candidate classical Cepheids in the little-studied clusters Berkeley 51, Berkeley 55 and NGC 6603. Using new multi-epoch photometry, we confirm that Be 51 #162 and Be 55 #107 are bona fide Cepheids, with pulsation periods of 9.83±0.01 d and 5.850±0.005 d respectively, while NGC 6603 star W2249 does not show significant photometric variability. Using the period-luminosity relationship for Cepheid variables, we determine a distance to Be 51 of 5.3^{+1.0}_{-0.8} kpc and an age of 44^{+9}_{-8} Myr, placing it in a sparsely-attested region of the Perseus arm. For Be 55, we find a distance of 2.2±0.3 kpc and age of 63^{+12}_{-11} Myr, locating the cluster in the Local arm. Taken together with our recent discovery of a long-period Cepheid in the starburst cluster VdBH222, these represent an important increase in the number of young, massive Cepheids known in Galactic open clusters. We also consider new Gaia (data release 2) parallaxes and proper motions for members of Be 51 and Be 55; the uncertainties on the parallaxes do not allow us to refine our distance estimates to these clusters, but the well-constrained proper motion measurements furnish further confirmation of cluster membership. However, future final Gaia parallaxes for such objects should provide valuable independent distance measurements, improving the calibration of the period-luminosity relationship, with implications for the distance ladder out to cosmological scales.

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF THE LITHIUM DEPLETION BOUNDARY AND AGE OF THE SOUTHERN OPEN CLUSTER BLANCO 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cargile, P. A.; James, D. J.; Jeffries, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    We present results from a spectroscopic study of the very low mass members of the Southern open cluster Blanco 1 using the Gemini-N telescope. We obtained intermediate resolution (R ∼ 4400) GMOS spectra for 15 cluster candidate members with I ∼ 14-20 mag, and employed a series of membership criteria-proximity to the cluster's sequence in an I/I - K s color-magnitude diagram (CMD), kinematics agreeing with the cluster systemic motion, magnetic activity as a youth indicator-to classify 10 of these objects as probable cluster members. For these objects, we searched for the presence of the Li I 6708 A feature to identify the lithium depletion boundary (LDB) in Blanco 1. The I/I - K s CMD shows a clear mass segregation in the Li distribution along the cluster sequence; namely, all higher mass stars are found to be Li poor, while lower mass stars are found to be Li rich. The division between Li-poor and Li-rich (i.e., the LDB) in Blanco 1 is found at I = 18.78 ± 0.24 and I - K s = 3.05 ± 0.10. Using current pre-main-sequence evolutionary models, we determine an LDB age of 132 ± 24 Myr. Comparing our derived LDB age to upper-main-sequence isochrone ages for Blanco 1, as well as for other open clusters with identified LDBs, we find good chronometric consistency when using stellar evolution models that incorporate a moderate degree of convective core overshoot.

  3. Subsampled open-reference clustering creates consistent, comprehensive OTU definitions and scales to billions of sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Jai Ram; He, Yan; Navas-Molina, Jose A; Walters, William A; Ursell, Luke K; Gibbons, Sean M; Chase, John; McDonald, Daniel; Gonzalez, Antonio; Robbins-Pianka, Adam; Clemente, Jose C; Gilbert, Jack A; Huse, Susan M; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Knight, Rob; Caporaso, J Gregory

    2014-01-01

    We present a performance-optimized algorithm, subsampled open-reference OTU picking, for assigning marker gene (e.g., 16S rRNA) sequences generated on next-generation sequencing platforms to operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for microbial community analysis. This algorithm provides benefits over de novo OTU picking (clustering can be performed largely in parallel, reducing runtime) and closed-reference OTU picking (all reads are clustered, not only those that match a reference database sequence with high similarity). Because more of our algorithm can be run in parallel relative to "classic" open-reference OTU picking, it makes open-reference OTU picking tractable on massive amplicon sequence data sets (though on smaller data sets, "classic" open-reference OTU clustering is often faster). We illustrate that here by applying it to the first 15,000 samples sequenced for the Earth Microbiome Project (1.3 billion V4 16S rRNA amplicons). To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest OTU picking run ever performed, and we estimate that our new algorithm runs in less than 1/5 the time than would be required of "classic" open reference OTU picking. We show that subsampled open-reference OTU picking yields results that are highly correlated with those generated by "classic" open-reference OTU picking through comparisons on three well-studied datasets. An implementation of this algorithm is provided in the popular QIIME software package, which uses uclust for read clustering. All analyses were performed using QIIME's uclust wrappers, though we provide details (aided by the open-source code in our GitHub repository) that will allow implementation of subsampled open-reference OTU picking independently of QIIME (e.g., in a compiled programming language, where runtimes should be further reduced). Our analyses should generalize to other implementations of these OTU picking algorithms. Finally, we present a comparison of parameter settings in QIIME's OTU picking workflows and

  4. Subsampled open-reference clustering creates consistent, comprehensive OTU definitions and scales to billions of sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai Ram Rideout

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a performance-optimized algorithm, subsampled open-reference OTU picking, for assigning marker gene (e.g., 16S rRNA sequences generated on next-generation sequencing platforms to operational taxonomic units (OTUs for microbial community analysis. This algorithm provides benefits over de novo OTU picking (clustering can be performed largely in parallel, reducing runtime and closed-reference OTU picking (all reads are clustered, not only those that match a reference database sequence with high similarity. Because more of our algorithm can be run in parallel relative to “classic” open-reference OTU picking, it makes open-reference OTU picking tractable on massive amplicon sequence data sets (though on smaller data sets, “classic” open-reference OTU clustering is often faster. We illustrate that here by applying it to the first 15,000 samples sequenced for the Earth Microbiome Project (1.3 billion V4 16S rRNA amplicons. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest OTU picking run ever performed, and we estimate that our new algorithm runs in less than 1/5 the time than would be required of “classic” open reference OTU picking. We show that subsampled open-reference OTU picking yields results that are highly correlated with those generated by “classic” open-reference OTU picking through comparisons on three well-studied datasets. An implementation of this algorithm is provided in the popular QIIME software package, which uses uclust for read clustering. All analyses were performed using QIIME’s uclust wrappers, though we provide details (aided by the open-source code in our GitHub repository that will allow implementation of subsampled open-reference OTU picking independently of QIIME (e.g., in a compiled programming language, where runtimes should be further reduced. Our analyses should generalize to other implementations of these OTU picking algorithms. Finally, we present a comparison of parameter settings in

  5. DETECTION OF SOLAR-LIKE OSCILLATIONS FROM KEPLER PHOTOMETRY OF THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6819

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stello, Dennis; Bedding, Timothy R.; Huber, Daniel; Basu, Sarbani; Bruntt, Hans; Mosser, BenoIt; Barban, Caroline; Goupil, Marie-Jo; Stevens, Ian R.; Chaplin, William J.; Elsworth, Yvonne P.; Hekker, Saskia; Brown, Timothy M.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen; Kjeldsen, Hans; Arentoft, Torben; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Ballot, Jerome; GarcIa, Rafael A.; Mathur, Savita

    2010-01-01

    Asteroseismology of stars in clusters has been a long-sought goal because the assumption of a common age, distance, and initial chemical composition allows strong tests of the theory of stellar evolution. We report results from the first 34 days of science data from the Kepler Mission for the open cluster NGC 6819-one of the four clusters in the field of view. We obtain the first clear detections of solar-like oscillations in the cluster red giants and are able to measure the large frequency separation, Δν, and the frequency of maximum oscillation power, ν max . We find that the asteroseismic parameters allow us to test cluster membership of the stars, and even with the limited seismic data in hand, we can already identify four possible non-members despite their having a better than 80% membership probability from radial velocity measurements. We are also able to determine the oscillation amplitudes for stars that span about 2 orders of magnitude in luminosity and find good agreement with the prediction that oscillation amplitudes scale as the luminosity to the power of 0.7. These early results demonstrate the unique potential of asteroseismology of the stellar clusters observed by Kepler.

  6. Formation of metal clusters in halloysite clay nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokurov, Vladimir A.; Stavitskaya, Anna V.; Chudakov, Yaroslav A.; Ivanov, Evgenii V.; Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Darrat, Yusuf A.; Lvov, Yuri M.

    2017-12-01

    We developed ceramic core-shell materials based on abundant halloysite clay nanotubes with enhanced heavy metal ions loading through Schiff base binding. These clay tubes are formed by rolling alumosilicate sheets and have diameter of c.50 nm, a lumen of 15 nm and length 1 μm. This allowed for synthesis of metal nanoparticles at the selected position: (1) on the outer surface seeding 3-5 nm metal particles on the tubes; (2) inside the tube's central lumen resulting in 10-12 nm diameter metal cores shelled with ceramic wall; and (3) smaller metal nanoparticles intercalated in the tube's wall allowing up to 9 wt% of Ru, and Ag loading. These composite materials have high surface area providing a good support for catalytic nanoparticles, and can also be used for sorption of metal ions from aqueous solutions.

  7. The astrophysical behavior of open clusters along the Milky Way Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Tadross

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to study the astrophysical behaviour of open clusters’ properties along the Milky Way Galaxy. Near-IR JHKS (2MASS photometry has been used for getting a homogeneous Catalog of 263 open clusters’ parameters, which are randomly selected and studied by the author through the last five years; most of them were studied for the first time. The correlations between the astrophysical parameters of these clusters have been achieved by morphological way and compared with the most recent works.

  8. Google Classroom and Open Clusters: An Authentic Science Research Project for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chelen H.; Linahan, Marcella; Cuba, Allison Frances; Dickmann, Samantha Rose; Hogan, Eleanor B.; Karos, Demetra N.; Kozikowski, Kendall G.; Kozikowski, Lauren Paige; Nelson, Samantha Brooks; O'Hara, Kevin Thomas; Ropinski, Brandi Lucia; Scarpa, Gabriella; Garmany, Catharine D.

    2016-01-01

    STEM education is about offering unique opportunities to our students. For the past three years, students from two high schools (Breck School in Minneapolis, MN, and Carmel Catholic High School in Mundelein, IL) have collaborated on authentic astronomy research projects. This past year they surveyed archival data of open clusters to determine if a clear turnoff point could be unequivocally determined. Age and distance to each open cluster were calculated. Additionally, students requested time on several telescopes to obtain original data to compare to the archival data. Students from each school worked in collaborative teams, sharing and verifying results through regular online hangouts and chats. Work papers were stored in a shared drive and on a student-designed Google site to facilitate dissemination of documents between the two schools.

  9. Kepler red-clump stars in the field and in open clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossini, D.; Miglio, A.; Salaris, M.

    2017-01-01

    Convective mixing in helium-core-burning (HeCB) stars is one of the outstanding issues in stellar modelling. The precise asteroseismic measurements of gravity-mode period spacing (Delta Pi(1)) have opened the door to detailed studies of the near-core structure of such stars, which had not been...... possible before. Here, we provide stringent tests of various core-mixing scenarios against the largely unbiased population of red-clump stars belonging to the old-open clusters monitored by Kepler, and by coupling the updated precise inference on Delta Pi(1) in thousands of field stars with spectroscopic...... constraints. We find that models with moderate overshooting successfully reproduce the range observed of Delta Pi(1) in clusters. In particular, we show that there is no evidence for the need to extend the size of the adiabatically stratified core, at least at the beginning of the HeCB phase. This conclusion...

  10. Tracing the Chemical Evolution of Metal-rich Galactic Bulge Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Gonzalez, Cesar; Saviane, Ivo; Geisler, Doug; Villanova, Sandro

    2018-01-01

    We present in this poster the metallicity characterization of the four metal rich Bulge Galactic Gobular Clusters, which have controversial metallicities. We analyzed our high-resolution spectra (using UVES-580nm and GIRAFFE-HR13 setups) for a large sample of RGB/AGB targets in each cluster in order to measure their metallicity and prove or discard the iron spread hypothesis. We have also characterized chemically stars with potentially different iron content by measuring light (O, Na, Mg, Al), alpha (Si, Ca, Ti), iron–peak (V, Cr, Ni, Mn) and s and r process (Y, Zr, Ba, Eu) elements. We have identified possible channels responsible for the chemical heterogeneity of the cluster populations, like AGB or massive fast-rotating stars contamination, or SN explosion. Also, we have analyzed the origin and evolution of these bulge GCs and their connection with the bulge itself.

  11. Dispersed metal cluster catalysts by design. Synthesis, characterization, structure, and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslan, Ilke [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dixon, David A. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Gates, Bruce C. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Katz, Alexander [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    To understand the class of metal cluster catalysts better and to lay a foundation for the prediction of properties leading to improved catalysts, we have synthesized metal catalysts with well-defined structures and varied the cluster structures and compositions systematically—including the ligands bonded to the metals. These ligands include supports and bulky organics that are being tuned to control both the electron transfer to or from the metal and the accessibility of reactants to influence catalytic properties. We have developed novel syntheses to prepare these well-defined catalysts with atomic-scale control the environment by choice and placement of ligands and applied state-of-the art spectroscopic, microscopic, and computational methods to determine their structures, reactivities, and catalytic properties. The ligands range from nearly flat MgO surfaces to enveloping zeolites to bulky calixarenes to provide controlled coverages of the metal clusters, while also enforcing unprecedented degrees of coordinative unsaturation at the metal site—thereby facilitating bonding and catalysis events at exposed metal atoms. With this wide range of ligand properties and our arsenal of characterization tools, we worked to achieve a deep, fundamental understanding of how to synthesize robust supported and ligand-modified metal clusters with controlled catalytic properties, thereby bridging the gap between active site structure and function in unsupported and supported metal catalysts. We used methods of organometallic and inorganic chemistry combined with surface chemistry for the precise synthesis of metal clusters and nanoparticles, characterizing them at various stages of preparation and under various conditions (including catalytic reaction conditions) and determining their structures and reactivities and how their catalytic properties depend on their compositions and structures. Key characterization methods included IR, NMR, and EXAFS spectroscopies to identify

  12. Membership, binarity, and rotation of F-G-K stars in the open cluster Blanco 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermilliod, J.-C.; Platais, I.; James, D. J.; Grenon, M.; Cargile, P. A.

    2008-07-01

    Context: The nearby open cluster Blanco 1 is of considerable astrophysical interest for formation and evolution studies of open clusters because it is the third highest Galactic latitude cluster known. It has been observed often, but so far no definitive and comprehensive membership determination is readily available. Aims: An observing programme was carried out to study the stellar population of Blanco 1, and especially the membership and binary frequency of the F5-K0 dwarfs. Methods: We obtained radial-velocities with the CORAVEL spectrograph in the field of Blanco 1 for a sample of 148 F-G-K candidate stars in the magnitude range 10 rate reaches 40% (27/68) if one includes the photometric binaries. The cluster mean heliocentric radial velocity is +5.53 ± 0.11 km s-1 based on the most reliable 49 members. The V sin i distribution is similar to that of the Pleiades, confirming the age similarities between the two clusters. Conclusions: This study clearly demonstrates that, in spite of the cluster's high Galactic latitude, three membership criteria - radial velocity, proper motion, and photometry - are necessary for performing a reliable membership selection. Furthermore, even with accurate and extensive data, ambiguous cases still remain. Based on observations collected with the Danish 1.54-m and the Swiss telescopes at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile, and with the old YALO 1-m telescope at the Cerro Tololo InterAmerican Observatory, Chile. Table [see full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full text] is also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/485/95

  13. Gaia Data Release 1 Open cluster astrometry: performance, limitations, and future prospects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Leeuwen, F.; Vallenari, A.; Jordi, C.; Lindegren, L.; Bastian, U.; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J.H.J.; Brown, A.G.A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C.A.L.; Fuchs, Jan; Koubský, Pavel; Votruba, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 601, May (2017), A19/1-A19/65 E-ISSN 1432-0746 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG15010 Grant - others:ESA(XE) ESA-PECS project No. 98058 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : astrometry * open clusters and associations * proper motion and parallax Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy , Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.014, year: 2016

  14. DISCOVERY OF 14 NEW SLOWLY PULSATING B STARS IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 7654

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Y. P.; Han, Z. W.; Zhang, X. B.; Deng, L. C.

    2012-01-01

    We carried out time-series BV CCD photometric observations of the open cluster NGC 7654 (Messier 52) to search for variable stars. Eighteen slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars have been detected, among which 14 candidates are newly discovered, three known ones are confirmed, and a previously found δ Scuti star is also identified as an SPB candidate. Twelve SPBs are probable cluster members based on membership analysis. This makes NGC 7654 the richest galactic open cluster in terms of SPB star content. It is also a new discovery that NGC 7654 hosts three γ Dor star candidates. We found that all these stars (18 SPB and 3 γ Dor stars) have periods longer than their corresponding fundamental radial mode. With such a big sample of g-mode pulsators in a single cluster, it is clear that multi-mode pulsation is more common in the upper part of the main sequence than in the lower part. All the stars span a narrow strip on the period-luminosity plane, which also includes the γ Dor stars at the low-luminosity extension. This result implies that there may be a single period-luminosity relation applicable to all g-mode main-sequence pulsators. As a by-product, three EA-type eclipsing binaries and an EW-type eclipsing binary are also discovered.

  15. A survey for low-mass stellar and substellar members of the Hyades open cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Stanislav; Eislöffel, Jochen

    2018-03-01

    Context. Unlike young open clusters (with ages 2MASS JHKs photometry Results: We present a photometric and proper motion survey covering 23.4 deg2 in the Hyades cluster core region. Using optical/IR colour-magnitude diagrams, we identify 66 photometric cluster member candidates in the magnitude range 14.m7 < I < 20.m5. The proper motion measurements are based on several all-sky surveys with an epoch difference of 60-70 yr for the bright objects. The proper motions allowed us to discriminate the cluster members from field objects and resulted in 14 proper motion members of the Hyades. We rediscover Hy 6 as a proper motion member and classify it as a substellar object candidate (BD) based on the comparison of the observed colour-magnitude diagram with theoretical model isochrones. Conclusions: With our results, the mass function of the Hyades continues to be shallow below 0.15 M⊙ indicating that the Hyades have probably lost their lowest mass members by means of dynamical evolution. We conclude that the Hyades core represents the "VLM/BD desert" and that most of the substeller objects may have already left the volume of the cluster.

  16. First-principles studies on graphene-supported transition metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Sanjubala; Khanna, Shiv N.; Gruner, Markus E.; Entel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical studies on the structure, stability, and magnetic properties of icosahedral TM 13 (TM = Fe, Co, Ni) clusters, deposited on pristine (defect free) and defective graphene sheet as well as graphene flakes, have been carried out within a gradient corrected density functional framework. The defects considered in our study include a carbon vacancy for the graphene sheet and a five-membered and a seven-membered ring structures for graphene flakes (finite graphene chunks). It is observed that the presence of defect in the substrate has a profound influence on the electronic structure and magnetic properties of graphene-transition metal complexes, thereby increasing the binding strength of the TM cluster on to the graphene substrate. Among TM 13 clusters, Co 13 is absorbed relatively more strongly on pristine and defective graphene as compared to Fe 13 and Ni 13 clusters. The adsorbed clusters show reduced magnetic moment compared to the free clusters

  17. Open clusters. I. Fundamental parameters of B stars in NGC 3766 and NGC 4755

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidelman, Y.; Cidale, L. S.; Zorec, J.; Arias, M. L.

    2012-08-01

    Context. Spectroscopic investigations of galactic open clusters are scarce and limited to a reduced sample of cluster members. Aims: We intend to perform a complete study of the physical parameters of two galactic clusters as well as of their individual members. Methods: To carry out this study, we used the BCD (Barbier-Chalonge-Divan) spectrophotometric system, which is based on the study of the Balmer discontinuity and is independent of interstellar and circumstellar extinction. Additional physical properties were derived from the line profiles (FWHM) and stellar evolution models. We analyzed low-resolution spectra around the Balmer discontinuity for normal B-type and Be stars in two open clusters: NGC 3766 and NGC 4755. We determined the stellar fundamental parameters, such as effective temperatures, surface gravities, spectral types, luminosity classes, absolute and bolometric magnitudes, and color gradient excesses. The stellar rotation velocity was also determined. Complementary information, mainly stellar mass, age, and radius of the star population were calculated using stellar evolution models. In some cases, the stellar fundamental parameters were derived for the first time. The obtained results allowed us also to determine the reddening, age, and distance to the clusters. Results: The cluster parameters obtained through the BCD method agree very well with those derived from classical methods based on photometric data. The BCD system also provides physical properties of the star members. This study enables us to test the good behavior of Mbol(λ1,D)-calibrations and detect systematic discrepancies between log g estimates from model atmospheres and those derived from stellar evolution models. To improve our knowledge on the formation and evolution of the clusters, more statistical studies on the initial mass luminosity and angular momentum distributions should be addressed. Therefore, the BCD spectrophotometric system could be a powerful tool for studying

  18. Computer simulations of small semiconductor and metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoni, W.

    1991-01-01

    A brief survey is presented of recent simulations of small clusters, made with both ab-initio and classical approaches, with particular emphasis on the application of the Car-Parrinello method. The discussion mainly focusses on the structural properties of a variety of materials and on the effects of temperature. (orig.)

  19. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey: Detailed Age and Abundance Gradients using DR12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Thompson, Benjamin A.; O'Connell, Julia; Meyer, Brianne; Donor, John; Majewski, Steven R.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Zasowski, Gail; Beers, Timothy C.; Beaton, Rachael; Cunha, Katia M. L.; Hearty, Fred; Nidever, David L.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Smith, Verne V.; Hayden, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    We present detailed abundance results for Galactic open clusters as part of the Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey, which is based primarily on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey/ Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment. Using 100 open clusters from the uniformly observed complete SDSS-III/APOGEE-1 DR12 dataset, we present age and multi-element abundance gradients for the disk of the Milky Way.This work is supported by an NSF AAG grant AST-1311835.

  20. Electronic structure of structural open derivatives of the [Mo6X14]2- cluster: [Mo5Cl13]2- and [Mo4I11]2-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miessner, H.; Korol'kov, D.V.

    1983-01-01

    The electronic structure of structural open derivatives of the [Mo 6 X 14 ] 2 - -cluster [Mo 5 Cl 13 ] 2 - and [Mo 4 I 11 ] 2 - has been studied by the EHMO method. In [Mo 5 Cl 13 ] 2 - 9 occupied MO's with dominant Mo4d character are responsible for the formation of the 8 metal-metal bonds. In [Mo 4 I 11 ] 2 - the stronger covalent character of the Mo-I bonds affects the localization and the energy of molecular orbitals and also the charge distribution. The metal-metal bonds are formed by 8 MO's containing considerable participation of halogen AO's contrary to the chloride cluster. There is no bonding between the Mo atoms at the wing tips of the Mo 4 butterfly and the reason for decreasing the dihedral angle between the Mo 3 planes in [Mo 4 I 11 ] 2 - compared with the octahedral angle is apparently the stabilization of the whole system (Mo-Mo and Mo-I bonds). The unpaired electron occupies in both clusters a slightly antibonding (with regard to the Mo-Mo bonds) orbital. (author)

  1. Measuring age differences among globular clusters having similar metallicities - A new method and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, D.A.; Bolte, M.; Stetson, P.B.

    1990-01-01

    A color-difference technique for estimating the relative ages of globular clusters with similar chemical compositions on the basis of their CM diagrams is described and demonstrated. The theoretical basis and implementation of the procedure are explained, and results for groups of globular clusters with m/H = about -2, -1.6, and -1.3, and for two special cases (Palomar 12 and NGC 5139) are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussed in detail. It is found that the more metal-deficient globular clusters are nearly coeval (differences less than 0.5 Gyr), whereas the most metal-rich globular clusters exhibit significant age differences (about 2 Gyr). This result is shown to contradict Galactic evolution models postulating halo collapse in less than a few times 100 Myr. 77 refs

  2. Metallicity in galactic clusters from high signal-to-noise spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesgaard, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    High-quality spectroscopic data on selected F dwarfs in six Galactic clusters are used to determine global (Fe/H) values for the clusters. For the two youngest clusters, Pleiades and Alpha Per, the (Fe/H) values are solar: 0.017 + or - 0.055. The Hyades and Praesepe are slightly metal-enhanced at (Fe/H) = + 0.125 + or - 0.032, even though they are an order of magnitude older than the Pleiades. Coma and the UMa Group at the age of the Hyades are slightly metal-deficient with (Fe/H) = - 0.082 + or - 0.039. The lack of an age-metallicity relationship indicates that the enrichment and mixing in the Galactic disk have not been uniform on time scales less than a billion years. 39 references

  3. The enigma of the open cluster M29 (NGC 6913) solved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straižys, V.; Milašius, K.; Černis, K.; Kazlauskas, A.; Zdanavičius, K.; Zdanavičius, J.; Laugalys, V. [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Vilnius University, Goštauto 12, Vilnius LT-01108 (Lithuania); Boyle, R. P. [Vatican Observatory Research Group, Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Vrba, F. J. [U.S. Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, P.O. Box 1149, Flagstaff, AZ 86002 (United States); Munari, U. [INAF Astronomical Observatory of Padova, I-36012, Asiago (VI) (Italy); Walborn, N. R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Janusz, R. [University School " Ignatianum," Cracow (Poland)

    2014-11-01

    Determining the distance to the open cluster M29 (NGC 6913) has proven difficult, with distances determined by various authors differing by a factor of two or more. To solve this problem, we have initiated a new photometric investigation of the cluster in the Vilnius seven-color photometric system, supplementing it with available data in the BV and JHK {sub s} photometric systems and spectra of the nine brightest stars of spectral classes O and B. Photometric spectral classes and luminosities of 260 stars in a 15' × 15' area down to V = 19 mag are used to investigate the interstellar extinction run with distance and to estimate the distance of the Great Cygnus Rift, ∼ 800 pc. The interstellar reddening law in the optical and near-infrared regions is found to be close to normal, with the ratio of extinction to color excess R{sub BV} = 2.87. The extinction A{sub V} of cluster members is between 2.5 and 3.8 mag, with a mean value of 2.97 mag, or E {sub B–V} = 1.03. The average distance of eight stars of spectral types O9-B2 is 1.54 ± 0.15 kpc. Two stars from the seven brightest stars are field stars: HDE 229238 is a background B0.5 supergiant and HD 194378 is a foreground F star. In the intrinsic color-magnitude diagram, seven fainter stars of spectral classes B3-B8 are identified as possible members of the cluster. The 15 selected members of the cluster of spectral classes O9-B8 plotted on the log L/L {sub ☉} versus log T {sub eff} diagram, together with the isochrones from the Padova database, give the age of the cluster as 5 ± 1 Myr.

  4. Nonequilibrium electron energy-loss kinetics in metal clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Guillon, C; Fatti, N D; Vallee, F

    2003-01-01

    Ultrafast energy exchanges of a non-Fermi electron gas with the lattice are investigated in silver clusters with sizes ranging from 4 to 26 nm using a femtosecond pump-probe technique. The results yield evidence for a cluster-size-dependent slowing down of the short-time energy losses of the electron gas when it is strongly athermal. A constant rate is eventually reached after a few hundred femtoseconds, consistent with the electron gas internal thermalization kinetics, this behaviour reflecting evolution from an individual to a collective electron-lattice type of coupling. The timescale of this transient regime is reduced in small nanoparticles, in agreement with speeding up of the electron-electron interactions with size reduction. The experimental results are in quantitative agreement with numerical simulations of the electron kinetics.

  5. Electronic properties of large metal clusters in Jellium and pseudo-jellium models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catara, F.; Van Giai, N.; Chomaz, P.

    1994-08-01

    The energy-density functional approach and jellium-like models are used to examine two important electronic properties of metal (Li, Na, K) clusters: their shell and supershell structures, and the behaviour of plasmon energies with increasing cluster sizes. A comparative study is made between predictions of the usual jellium model and those of the pseudo-jellium model where pseudo-Hamiltonians are used. (authors) 10 figs., 5 tabs., 16 refs

  6. METAL DEFICIENCY IN CLUSTER STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT Z = 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentino, F.; Daddi, E.; Strazzullo, V.; Gobat, R.; Bournaud, F.; Juneau, S.; Zanella, A. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Onodera, M.; Carollo, M. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich Wolfgang-Pauli-strasse 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Renzini, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Arimoto, N., E-mail: francesco.valentino@cea.fr [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2015-03-10

    We investigate the environmental effect on the metal enrichment of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) in the farthest spectroscopically confirmed and X-ray-detected cluster, CL J1449+0856 at z = 1.99. We combined Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 G141 slitless spectroscopic data, our thirteen-band photometry, and a recent Subaru/Multi-object InfraRed Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) near-infrared spectroscopic follow-up to constrain the physical properties of SFGs in CL J1449+0856 and in a mass-matched field sample. After a conservative removal of active galactic nuclei, stacking individual MOIRCS spectra of 6 (31) sources in the cluster (field) in the mass range 10 ≤ log(M/M{sub ⊙}) ≤ 11, we find a ∼4σ lower [N ii]/Hα ratio in the cluster than in the field. Stacking a subsample of 16 field galaxies with Hβ and [O iii] in the observed range, we measure an [O iii]/Hβ ratio fully compatible with the cluster value. Converting these ratios into metallicities, we find that the cluster SFGs are up to 0.25 dex poorer in metals than their field counterparts, depending on the adopted calibration. The low metallicity in cluster sources is confirmed using alternative indicators. Furthermore, we observe a significantly higher Hα luminosity and equivalent width in the average cluster spectrum than in the field. This is likely due to the enhanced specific star formation rate; even if lower dust reddening and/or an uncertain environmental dependence on the continuum-to-nebular emission differential reddening may play a role. Our findings might be explained by the accretion of pristine gas around galaxies at z = 2 and from cluster-scale reservoirs, possibly connected with a phase of rapid halo mass assembly at z > 2 and of a high galaxy merging rate.

  7. BVRI CCD photometry of the metal-poor globular cluster M68 (NGC 4590)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaino, G.; Liller, W.; Alvarado, F.; Wenderoth, E.

    1990-01-01

    BVRI photometry of the low metallicity globular cluster M68 (NGC 4590) was obtained with a CCD camera and the 2.2-m ESO telescope. The resulting BV color-magnitude diagrams are compared with the observations of McClure et al. (1987). The observations are also compared with theoretical isochrones, yielding a cluster age of 13 Gyr with a likely external uncertainty of 2 or 3 Gyr. 25 refs

  8. PROTOPLANETARY AND TRANSITIONAL DISKS IN THE OPEN STELLAR CLUSTER IC 2395

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balog, Zoltan [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, D-69117 (Germany); Siegler, Nick [NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Rieke, G. H.; Su, K. Y. L.; Gáspár, András [Steward Observatory, 933 N. Cherry Ave, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kiss, L. L. [Konkoly Observatory, Research Center for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, P.O. Box 67, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Muzerolle, James [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gutermuth, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Bell, Cameron P. M. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093, Zürich (Switzerland); Vinkó, J. [Dept. of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Young, E. T., E-mail: balog@mpia-hd.mpg.de [NASA Ames SOFIA Science Center, N211, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    We present new deep UBVRI images and high-resolution multi-object optical spectroscopy of the young (∼6–10 Myr old), relatively nearby (800 pc) open cluster IC 2395. We identify nearly 300 cluster members and use the photometry to estimate their spectral types, which extend from early B to middle M. We also present an infrared imaging survey of the central region using the IRAC and MIPS instruments on board the Spitzer Space Telescope , covering the wavelength range from 3.6 to 24 μ m. Our infrared observations allow us to detect dust in circumstellar disks originating over a typical range of radii from ∼0.1 to ∼10 au from the central star. We identify 18 Class II, 8 transitional disk, and 23 debris disk candidates, respectively, 6.5%, 2.9%, and 8.3% of the cluster members with appropriate data. We apply the same criteria for transitional disk identification to 19 other stellar clusters and associations spanning ages from ∼1 to ∼18 Myr. We find that the number of disks in the transitional phase as a fraction of the total with strong 24 μ m excesses ([8] – [24] ≥ 1.5) increases from (8.4 ± 1.3)% at ∼3 Myr to (46 ± 5)% at ∼10 Myr. Alternative definitions of transitional disks will yield different percentages but should show the same trend.

  9. Complex open-framework germanate built by 8-coordinated Ge 10 clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Huijuan

    2012-11-19

    A novel open-framework germanate |(C 5H 14N 2) 2(C 5H 12N 2) 0.5(H 2O) 2.5|[Ge 12.5O 26(OH) 2] with three-dimensional 10- and 11-ring channels, denoted as SU-67, has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions using 2-methylpiperazine (MPP) as the structure-directing agent (SDA). The synthesis is intimately related to that of JLG-5, a tubular germanate built from Ge 7 clusters. The influences of synthesis parameters are discussed. A strong influence of the hydrofluoric acid quantity on the resulting cluster building units can be concluded. The framework of SU-67 is based on an elaborate topological pattern of connected Ge 10 clusters forming intersecting 10- and 11-ring channels and has a low framework density (12.4 Ge atoms per 1000 ̊ 3). We have discovered that the topology of SU-67 is a new 8-connected nce-8-I4 1/acd net. Strong hydrogen bonding among the organic SDAs, water molecules, and Ge 10 clusters resulted in helical networks in SU-67. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  10. Photometric search for variable stars in the young open cluster Berkeley 59

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Sneh; Pandey, A. K.; Maheswar, G.; Mondal, Soumen; Kumar, Brijesh

    2011-12-01

    We present the time series photometry of stars located in the extremely young open cluster Berkeley 59. Using the 1.04-m telescope at Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), Nainital, we have identified 42 variables in a field of ˜13 × 13 arcmin2 around the cluster. The probable members of the cluster have been identified using a (V, V-I) colour-magnitude diagram and a (J-H, H-K) colour-colour diagram. 31 variables have been found to be pre-main-sequence stars associated with the cluster. The ages and masses of the pre-main-sequence stars have been derived from the colour-magnitude diagram by fitting theoretical models to the observed data points. The ages of the majority of the probable pre-main-sequence variable candidates range from 1 to 5 Myr. The masses of these pre-main-sequence variable stars have been found to be in the range of ˜0.3 to ˜3.5 M⊙, and these could be T Tauri stars. The present statistics reveal that about 90 per cent T Tauri stars have period dispersal of the discs of relatively massive stars.

  11. Metal oxide/polyaniline nanocomposites: Cluster size and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Metal oxide/polyaniline nanocomposites; structural properties; magnetic properties. 1. Introduction ... The powder obtained was ground in a motor and pestle, sonicated in ... Figure 1. XRD of (a) iron oxide nanoparticles and (b) iron oxide/PANI (1 : 0⋅4) composite. .... shape of the particles and the anisotropy energy, as also.

  12. Chemical probes of metal cluster structure--Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, E.K.; Zhu, L.; Ho, J.; Riley, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    Chemical reactivity is one of the few methods currently available for investigating the geometrical structure of isolated transition metal clusters. In this paper we summarize what is currently known about the structures of clusters of four transition metals, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu, in the size range from 13 to 180 atoms. Chemical probes used to determine structural information include reactions with H 2 (D 2 ), H 2 0, NH 3 and N 2 . Measurements at both low coverage and at saturation are discussed

  13. The stellar and substellar mass function in central region of the old open cluster Praesepe from deep LBT observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman B.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the mass function of open clusters of different ages allow us to study the efficiency with which brown dwarfs are evaporated from clusters to populate the field. Surveys in relatively old clusters (age ≳100 Myr do not suffer from problems found in young clusters, such as intra-cluster extinction and large uncertainties in brown dwarf models. In this paper, we present the results of a photometric survey to study the mass function of the old open cluster Praesepe (age of ~590 Myr and distance of ~190 pc, down to the substellar regime. We have performed optical (riz and Y-band photometric survey of Praesepe with the Large Binocular Telescope Camera, for a spatial coverage of 0.61 deg2 from ~90 MJ down to a 5σ detection limit at 40 MJ.

  14. Coulomb frustration of the multiphoton ionization of metallic clusters under intense EUV FEL evidenced by ion spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazza, T; Devetta, M; Milani, P; Motomura, K; Liu, X-J; Fukuzawa, H; Yamada, A; Nagaya, K; Iwayama, H; Sugishima, A; Mizoguchi, Y; Saito, N; Coreno, M; Nagasono, M; Tono, K; Togashi, T; Kimura, H; Okunishi, M; Fennel, Th; Senba, Y

    2015-01-01

    Free electron laser light sources delivering high intensity pulses of short wavelength radiation are opening novel possibilities for the investigation of matter at the nanoscale and for the discovery and understanding of new physical processes occurring at the exotic transient states they make accessible. Strong ionization of atomic constituents of a nano-sized sample is a representative example of such processes and the understanding of ionization dynamics is crucial for a realistic description of the experiments. We report here on multiple ionization experiments on free clusters of titanium, a high cohesive energy metal. The time of flight ion spectra reveal a saturation of the cluster ionization at ∼10 16 photons per pulse per cm 2 . Our results also show a clear lack of any explosion process, opposite to what is observed for a rare-gas cluster under similar conditions. A simple and generalized multi-step ionization model including Coulomb frustration of the photoemission process effectively reproduces with a good agreement the main features of the experimental observation and points to an interpretation of the data involving a substantial energy deposition into the cluster through electronic system heating upon scattering events within photoemission. (paper)

  15. THE METALLICITY BIMODALITY OF GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS: A TEST OF GALAXY ASSEMBLY AND OF THE EVOLUTION OF THE GALAXY MASS-METALLICITY RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonini, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    We build a theoretical model to study the origin of the globular cluster metallicity bimodality in the hierarchical galaxy assembly scenario. The model is based on empirical relations such as the galaxy mass-metallicity relation [O/H]-M star as a function of redshift, and on the observed galaxy stellar mass function up to redshift z ∼ 4. We make use of the theoretical merger rates as a function of mass and redshift from the Millennium simulation to build galaxy merger trees. We derive a new galaxy [Fe/H]-M star relation as a function of redshift, and by assuming that globular clusters share the metallicity of their original parent galaxy at the time of their formation, we populate the merger tree with globular clusters. We perform a series of Monte Carlo simulations of the galaxy hierarchical assembly, and study the properties of the final globular cluster population as a function of galaxy mass, assembly and star formation history, and under different assumptions for the evolution of the galaxy mass-metallicity relation. The main results and predictions of the model are the following. (1) The hierarchical clustering scenario naturally predicts a metallicity bimodality in the galaxy globular cluster population, where the metal-rich subpopulation is composed of globular clusters formed in the galaxy main progenitor around redshift z ∼ 2, and the metal-poor subpopulation is composed of clusters accreted from satellites, and formed at redshifts z ∼ 3-4. (2) The model reproduces the observed relations by Peng et al. for the metallicities of the metal-rich and metal-poor globular cluster subpopulations as a function of galaxy mass; the positions of the metal-poor and metal-rich peaks depend exclusively on the evolution of the galaxy mass-metallicity relation and the [O/Fe], both of which can be constrained by this method. In particular, we find that the galaxy [O/Fe] evolves linearly with redshift from a value of ∼0.5 at redshift z ∼ 4 to a value of ∼0.1 at

  16. Proofs of cluster formation and transitions in liquid metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    Calculational and experimental proofs are presented indicating to existence of clusters in liquid metals and alloys. Systems of liquid alloys both on the base of ferrous metals and non-ferrous metals (Fe-C, Ni-C, Co-C, Fe-Ni, Ni-Mo, Co-Cr, Co-V as well as In-Sn, Bi-Sn, Si-Ge and others) are studied experimentally. It is shown that the general feature of the systems studied is sensitivity of a volume to change in structure, to replacement fcc structure on bcc or to initiation-dissociation of intermetallic compounds AxBy. It is shown that both in pure liquid metals and in their.alloys there are clusters as ordered aggregate of atoms

  17. Atomic structures and covalent-to-metallic transition of lead clusters Pbn (n=2-22)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baolin; Zhao Jijun; Chen Xiaoshuang; Shi Daning; Wang Guanghou

    2005-01-01

    The lowest-energy structures and electronic properties of the lead clusters are studied by density-functional-theory calculations with Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr gradient correction. The lowest-energy structures of Pb n (n=2-22) clusters are determined from a number of structural isomers, which are generated from empirical genetic algorithm simulations. The competition between atom-centered compact structures and layered stacking structures leads to the alternative appearance of the two types of structures as global minimum. The size evolution of geometric and electronic properties from covalent bonding towards bulk metallic behavior in Pb clusters is discussed

  18. Structure of s - p bonded metal clusters with 8, 20 and 40 valence electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.

    1992-10-01

    From studies on some clusters of metals and semiconductors, there appear some similarities in the structure of clusters with a given number of atoms and having the number of valence electrons corresponding to a shell closing. Here we present results of the atomic and electronic structure of a few other clusters with 20 and 40 valence electrons, namely Sb 4 , Sn 5 and Sb 8 using the density functional molecular dynamics method. We suggest that the similarities in the structure and deviation from them may help to understand bonding characteristics in clusters and its evolution to bulk behaviour. Our results on Sb 8 cluster are preliminary but indicate that above room temperature its structure is two weakly interacting tetrahedra which is in general agreement with the observation of predominently antimony tetramers at T > 300 K. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs

  19. New Wolf-Rayet stars in Galactic open clusters - Sher 1 and the giant H II region core Westerlund 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Shara, Michael M.; Potter, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Two new Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars were found in open clusters: a WN4 star in the O9 cluster Sher 1 and a WN7 star in the O7 cluster Westerlund 2. This confirms a previous trend, namely that fainter, hotter WN stars tend to be older than brighter, cooler WN stars. This may be a consequence of evolution via extreme mass loss.

  20. A comprehensive study of the young open star cluster NGC 6611 based on deep VRI CCD images and 2MASS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Selim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have used Deep CCD images of the extremely young open star cluster NGC 6611, up to a limiting magnitude of V ∼ 22.86 mag in V, R and I passbands. The resulting color-magnitude V; (V–I diagram as well as their radial density profiles has been determined. Using 2MASS data, we confirmed the consistency between the 2MASS photometry, by fitting isochrones, the extinction E(V–I = 0.530 ± 0.04 mag, E(J–H = 0.31 ± 0.02, from the color magnitude diagram the cluster distance =2.2 ± 0.21 kpc and age = 3.6 Myr, based on the fitting of theoretical stellar isochrones of solar metallicity Z = 0.019. The distance modulus of the cluster is estimated at 12.3. The radial stellar density profiles and the cluster center have been determined by two methods. The core and cluster radii are determined from the radial stellar density profiles. Only about 40% of the cluster members are present in the core region. The cluster luminosity function has been calculated. The mass function slope of the entire cluster is ∼−0.67 ± 0.12. The effects of mass segregation, most probably due to dynamical evolution, have been observed in the cluster.

  1. On the role of resonances in photoionization of metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wopperer, P; Dinh, P M; Suraud, E; Reinhard, P G

    2013-01-01

    We analyze electron emission from irradiated clusters by means of time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) in real time. We focus on photo-electron spectra (PES) which deliver an invaluable tool to explore static and dynamical properties of irradiated species. We discuss, in particular, the role of resonances in the PES once the laser frequency is below the emission threshold which implies multiphoton processes. We show that the resonances in the electronic spectrum lead to the occurrence of several peaks in the PES and also strongly affect the standard scaling relations between ionization and the number of required photons for electronic emission.

  2. Impurity cluster interaction in fcc metals studied by PAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deicher, M.; Echt, O.; Recknagel, E.; Wichert, T.

    1981-01-01

    A defect configuration of high thermal stability has been observed by PAC in Au, showing the same properties as previously published configuration in Cu and Ni. We prove that these configurations cannot consist of any small defect complex with well-defined size; especially the observed influence of the damaging conditions on the thermal stability of the defects in Au and Cu would contradict such an assumption. It is shown that probe atoms trapped at large clusters of variable size can nevertheless experience a unique electric field gradient, and that in our case intrinsic stacking faults, formed by vacancies, can account for all the measured properties. (orig.)

  3. Phosphorus vacancy cluster model for phosphorus diffusion gettering of metals in Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Renyu; Trzynadlowski, Bart; Dunham, Scott T. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-02-07

    In this work, we develop models for the gettering of metals in silicon by high phosphorus concentration. We first performed ab initio calculations to determine favorable configurations of complexes involving phosphorus and transition metals (Fe, Cu, Cr, Ni, Ti, Mo, and W). Our ab initio calculations found that the P{sub 4}V cluster, a vacancy surrounded by 4 nearest-neighbor phosphorus atoms, which is the most favorable inactive P species in heavily doped Si, strongly binds metals such as Cu, Cr, Ni, and Fe. Based on the calculated binding energies, we build continuum models to describe the P deactivation and Fe gettering processes with model parameters calibrated against experimental data. In contrast to previous models assuming metal-P{sub 1}V or metal-P{sub 2}V as the gettered species, the binding of metals to P{sub 4}V satisfactorily explains the experimentally observed strong gettering behavior at high phosphorus concentrations.

  4. Nonlinear Color–Metallicity Relations of Globular Clusters. VII. Nonlinear Absorption-line Index versus Metallicity Relations and Bimodal Index Distributions of NGC 5128 Globular Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sooyoung; Yoon, Suk-Jin, E-mail: sjyoon0691@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy Evolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-01

    Spectroscopy on the globular cluster (GC) system of NGC 5128 revealed bimodality in absorption-line index distributions of its old GCs. GC division is a widely observed and studied phenomenon whose interpretation has depicted host galaxy formation and evolution such that it harbors two distinct metallicity groups. Such a conventional view of GC bimodality has mainly been based on photometry. The recent GC photometric data, however, presented an alternative perspective in which the nonlinear metallicity-to-color transformation is responsible for color bimodality of GC systems. Here we apply the same line of analysis to the spectral indices and examine the absorption-line index versus metallicity relations for the NGC 5128 GC system. NGC 5128 GCs display nonlinearity in the metallicity-index planes, most prominently for the Balmer lines and by a non-negligible degree for the metallicity-sensitive magnesium line. We demonstrate that the observed spectroscopic division of NGC 5128 GCs can be caused by the nonlinear nature of the metallicity-to-index conversions and thus one does not need to resort to two separate GC subgroups. Our analysis incorporating this nonlinearity provides a new perspective on the structure of NGC 5128's GC system, and a further piece to the global picture of the formation of GC systems and their host galaxies.

  5. Pulse laser-induced generation of cluster codes from metal nanoparticles for immunoassay applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yin Chang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have developed an assay for the detection of proteins by functionalized nanomaterials coupled with laser-induced desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS by monitoring the generation of metal cluster ions. We achieved selective detection of three proteins [thrombin, vascular endothelial growth factor-A165 (VEGF-A165, and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB] by modifying nanoparticles (NPs of three different metals (Au, Ag, and Pt with the corresponding aptamer or antibody in one assay. The Au, Ag, and Pt acted as metal bio-codes for the analysis of thrombin, VEGF-A165, and PDGF-BB, respectively, and a microporous cellulose acetate membrane (CAM served as a medium for an in situ separation of target protein-bound and -unbound NPs. The functionalized metal nanoparticles bound to their specific proteins were subjected to LDI-MS on the CAM. The functional nanoparticles/CAM system can function as a signal transducer and amplifier by transforming the protein concentration into an intense metal cluster ion signal during LDI-MS analysis. This system can selectively detect proteins at picomolar concentrations. Most importantly, the system has great potential for the detection of multiple proteins without any pre-concentration, separation, or purification process because LDI-MS coupled with CAM effectively removes all signals except for those from the metal cluster ions.

  6. Cluster expansion of the wavefunction. Symmetry-adapted-cluster expansion, its variational determination, and extension of open-shell orbital theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuji, H.; Hirao, K.

    1978-01-01

    The symmetry-adapted-cluster (SAC) expansion of an exact wavefunction is given. It is constructed from the generators of the symmetry-adapted excited configurations having the symmetry under consideration, and includes their higher-order effect and self-consistency effect. It is different from the conventional cluster expansions in several important points, and is suitable for applications to open-shell systems as well as closed-shell systems. The variational equation for the SAC wavefunction has a form similar to the generalized Brillouin theorem in accordance with the inclusion of the higher-order effect and the self-consistency effect. We have expressed some existing open-shell orbital theories equivalently in the conventional cluster expansion formulas, and on this basis, we have given the pseudo-orbital theory which is an extension of open-shell orbital theory in the SAC expansion formula

  7. The evoluation of the galactic globular clusters; I Metal abundance calibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.W.; Park, N.K.

    1984-01-01

    Five different calibrations of metal abundances of globular clusters are examined and these are compared with metallicity ranking parameters such as (Sp)sub(c), , Q39 and IR-indices. Except for the calibration *(Fe/H*)sub(H) by the high dispersion echelle analysis, the other calibration scales are correlated with the morphological parameters of red giant branch. In the *(Fe/H*)sub(Hsup(-))scale, the clusters later than approx.F8 have nearly a constant metal abundance, *(Fe/H*)sub(H)approx.-1.05, regardless of morphological characteristics of horizontal branch and red giant branch. By the two fundamental calibration scales of *(Fe/H*)sub(L) (derived by the low dispersion analysis), and *(Fe/H*)sub(delta S) (derived by the spectral analysis of RR Lyrae stars), the globular clusters are divided into the halo clusters with *(Fe/H*)<-1.0 and the disk clusters confined within the galactocentric distance rsub(G)=10 kpc and galactic plane distance absolute z=3 kpc. In this case the abundance gradient is given by d*(Fe/H*)/drsub(G)approx.-0.05kpcsup(-1) and d*(Fe/H*)/d absolute z approx. -0.08 kpcsup(-1) within rsub(G)=20 kpc and absolute z=10 kpc, respectively. According to these characteristics of the spatial distribution of globular clusters, the chemical evolution of the galactic globular clusters can be accounted for by the two-zone (disk-halo) slow collapse model when the *(Fe/H*)sub(Lsup(-)) or *(Fe/H*)sub(DELTA Ssup(-))scale is applied. In the case of *(Fe/H*)sub(Hsup(-))scale, the one-zone fast collapse model is preferred for the evolution of globular clusters. (Author)

  8. NEAR-IR PHOTOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF HB, MSTO, AND SGB FOR METAL POOR GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-W. Kim

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We report photometric features of the HB, MSTO, and SGB for a set of metal-poor Galactic globular clusters on the near-IR CMDs. The magnitude and color of the MSTO and SGB are measured on the fiducial normal points of the CMDs by applying a polynomial fit. The near-IR luminosity functions of horizontal branch stars in the classical second parameter pair M3 and M13 indicate that HB stars in M13 are dominated by hot stars that are rotatively faint in the infrared, whereas HB stars in M3 are brighter than those in M13. The luminosity functions of HB stars in the observed bulge clusters, except for NGC 6717, show a trend that the fainter hot HB stars are dominated in the relatively metal-poor clusters while the relatively metal-rich clusters contain the brighter HB stars. It is suggestive that NGC 6717 would be an extreme example of the second-parameter phenomenon for the bulge globular clusters.

  9. Optical trapping of metal-dielectric nanoparticle clusters near photonic crystal microcavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Camilo A; Huang, Ningfeng; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2012-09-01

    We predict the formation of optically trapped, metal-dielectric nanoparticle clusters above photonic crystal microcavities. We determine the conditions on particle size and position for a gold particle to be trapped above the microcavity. We then show that strong field redistribution and enhancement near the trapped gold nanoparticle results in secondary trapping sites for a pair of dielectric nanoparticles.

  10. The Open Connectome Project Data Cluster: Scalable Analysis and Vision for High-Throughput Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Randal; Roncal, William Gray; Kleissas, Dean; Lillaney, Kunal; Manavalan, Priya; Perlman, Eric; Berger, Daniel R.; Bock, Davi D.; Chung, Kwanghun; Grosenick, Logan; Kasthuri, Narayanan; Weiler, Nicholas C.; Deisseroth, Karl; Kazhdan, Michael; Lichtman, Jeff; Reid, R. Clay; Smith, Stephen J.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vogelstein, Joshua T.; Vogelstein, R. Jacob

    2013-01-01

    We describe a scalable database cluster for the spatial analysis and annotation of high-throughput brain imaging data, initially for 3-d electron microscopy image stacks, but for time-series and multi-channel data as well. The system was designed primarily for workloads that build connectomes— neural connectivity maps of the brain—using the parallel execution of computer vision algorithms on high-performance compute clusters. These services and open-science data sets are publicly available at openconnecto.me. The system design inherits much from NoSQL scale-out and data-intensive computing architectures. We distribute data to cluster nodes by partitioning a spatial index. We direct I/O to different systems—reads to parallel disk arrays and writes to solid-state storage—to avoid I/O interference and maximize throughput. All programming interfaces are RESTful Web services, which are simple and stateless, improving scalability and usability. We include a performance evaluation of the production system, highlighting the effec-tiveness of spatial data organization. PMID:24401992

  11. New red giant star in the Kepler open cluster NGC 6819

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komucyeya, E.; Abedigamba, O. P.; Jurua, E.; Anguma, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    A recent study indicated that 39 red giant stars showing solar-like oscillations were discovered in the field of Kepleropen cluster NGC 6819. The study was based on photometric distance estimates of 27 stars out of the 39. Using photometric method alone may not be adequate to confirm the membership of these stars. The stars were not previously known in literature to belong to the open cluster NGC 6819. In this study, Kepler data was used to study the membership of the 27 stars. A plot of apparent magnitude as a function of the large frequency separation, supplemented with the proper motion and radial velocity values from literature revealed KIC 5112840 to lie on the same plane with the well known members of the cluster. Echelle diagram was constructed, and the median gravity-mode period spacings (ΔP) calculated for KIC 5112840. A value of ΔP = 66.3 s was obtained, thus placing the red giant star KIC 5112840 on the Red Giant Branch stage of evolution. Our evolutionary status result using the approach in this paper is in agreement with what is in the available literature.

  12. TIME-RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY OF THE POLAR EU CANCRI IN THE OPEN CLUSTER MESSIER 67

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Kurtis A.; Howell, Steve B.; Liebert, James; Smith, Paul S.; Bellini, Andrea; Rubin, Kate H. R.; Bolte, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We present time-resolved spectroscopic and polarimetric observations of the AM Her system EU Cnc. EU Cnc is located near the core of the old open cluster Messier 67; new proper motion measurements indicate that EU Cnc is indeed a member of the star cluster, and this system therefore is useful to constrain the formation and evolution of magnetic cataclysmic variables. The spectra exhibit two-component emission features with independent radial velocity variations as well as time-variable cyclotron emission indicating a magnetic field strength of 41 MG. The period of the radial velocity and cyclotron hump variations are consistent with the previously known photometric period, and the spectroscopic flux variations are consistent in amplitude with previous photometric amplitude measurements. The secondary star is also detected in the spectrum. We also present polarimetric imaging measurements of EU Cnc that show a clear detection of polarization, and the degree of polarization drops below our detection threshold at phases when the cyclotron emission features are fading or not evident. The combined data are all consistent with the interpretation that EU Cnc is a low-state polar in the cluster Messier 67. The mass function of the system gives an estimate of the accretor mass of M WD ≥ 0.68 M ☉ with M WD ≈ 0.83 M ☉ for an average inclination. We are thus able to place a lower limit on the progenitor mass of the accreting white dwarf of ≥1.43 M ☉ .

  13. CCD BVRI and 2MASS photometry of the poorly studied open cluster NGC 6631

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Tadross

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we have obtained the BVRI CCD photometry down to a limiting magnitude of V∼20 for the southern poorly studied open cluster NGC 6631. It is observed from the 1.88 m Telescope of Kottamia Observatory in Egypt. About 3300 stars have been observed in an area of ∼10′×10′ around the cluster center. The main photometric parameters have been estimated and compared with the results that determined for the cluster using JHKs 2MASS photometric database. The cluster’s diameter is estimated to be 10 arcmin; the reddening E(B-V=0.68 ± 0.10 mag, E(J-H=0.21 ± 0.10 mag, the true modulus (m-Mo=12.16 ± 0.10 mag, which corresponds to a distance of 2700 ± 125 pc and age of 500 ± 50 Myr.

  14. The Open Connectome Project Data Cluster: Scalable Analysis and Vision for High-Throughput Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Randal; Roncal, William Gray; Kleissas, Dean; Lillaney, Kunal; Manavalan, Priya; Perlman, Eric; Berger, Daniel R; Bock, Davi D; Chung, Kwanghun; Grosenick, Logan; Kasthuri, Narayanan; Weiler, Nicholas C; Deisseroth, Karl; Kazhdan, Michael; Lichtman, Jeff; Reid, R Clay; Smith, Stephen J; Szalay, Alexander S; Vogelstein, Joshua T; Vogelstein, R Jacob

    2013-01-01

    We describe a scalable database cluster for the spatial analysis and annotation of high-throughput brain imaging data, initially for 3-d electron microscopy image stacks, but for time-series and multi-channel data as well. The system was designed primarily for workloads that build connectomes - neural connectivity maps of the brain-using the parallel execution of computer vision algorithms on high-performance compute clusters. These services and open-science data sets are publicly available at openconnecto.me. The system design inherits much from NoSQL scale-out and data-intensive computing architectures. We distribute data to cluster nodes by partitioning a spatial index. We direct I/O to different systems-reads to parallel disk arrays and writes to solid-state storage-to avoid I/O interference and maximize throughput. All programming interfaces are RESTful Web services, which are simple and stateless, improving scalability and usability. We include a performance evaluation of the production system, highlighting the effec-tiveness of spatial data organization.

  15. Linked-cluster perturbation theory for closed and open-shell systems: derivation of effective π-electron hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandow, B.H.

    1977-01-01

    The Brueckner--Goldstone form of linked-cluster perturbation theory is derived, together with its open-shell analog, by an elementary time-independent approach. This serves to focus attention on the physical interpretation of the results. The open-shell expansion is used to provide a straightforward justification for the effective π-electron Hamiltonians of planar organic molecules

  16. DETECTABILITY OF FREE FLOATING PLANETS IN OPEN CLUSTERS WITH THE JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacucci, Fabio; Ferrara, Andrea; D'Onghia, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations have shown the presence of extra-solar planets in Galactic open stellar clusters, such as in Praesepe (M44). These systems provide a favorable environment for planetary formation due to the high heavy-element content exhibited by the majority of their population. The large stellar density, and corresponding high close-encounter event rate, may induce strong perturbations of planetary orbits with large semimajor axes. Here we present a set of N-body simulations implementing a novel scheme to treat the tidal effects of external stellar perturbers on planetary orbit eccentricity and inclination. By simulating five nearby open clusters, we determine the rate of occurrence of bodies extracted from their parent stellar system by quasi-impulsive tidal interactions. We find that the specific free-floating planet production rate N-dot o (total number of free-floating planets per unit of time, normalized by the total number of stars), is proportional to the stellar density ρ * of the cluster: N-dot o =αρ ⋆ , with α = (23 ± 5) × 10 –6 pc 3 Myr –1 . For the Pleiades (M45), we predict that ∼26% of stars should have lost their planets. This raises the exciting possibility of directly observing these wandering planets with the James Webb Space Telescope in the near-infrared band. Assuming a surface temperature for the planet of ∼500 K, a free-floating planet of Jupiter size inside the Pleiades would have a specific flux of F ν (4.4 μm) ≈4 × 10 2  nJy, which would lead to a very clear detection (S/N ∼ 100) in only one hour of integration

  17. Detectability of Free Floating Planets in Open Clusters with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacucci, Fabio; Ferrara, Andrea; D'Onghia, Elena

    2013-12-01

    Recent observations have shown the presence of extra-solar planets in Galactic open stellar clusters, such as in Praesepe (M44). These systems provide a favorable environment for planetary formation due to the high heavy-element content exhibited by the majority of their population. The large stellar density, and corresponding high close-encounter event rate, may induce strong perturbations of planetary orbits with large semimajor axes. Here we present a set of N-body simulations implementing a novel scheme to treat the tidal effects of external stellar perturbers on planetary orbit eccentricity and inclination. By simulating five nearby open clusters, we determine the rate of occurrence of bodies extracted from their parent stellar system by quasi-impulsive tidal interactions. We find that the specific free-floating planet production rate \\dot{N}_o (total number of free-floating planets per unit of time, normalized by the total number of stars), is proportional to the stellar density ρsstarf of the cluster: \\dot{N}_o = \\alpha \\rho _\\star, with α = (23 ± 5) × 10-6 pc3 Myr-1. For the Pleiades (M45), we predict that ~26% of stars should have lost their planets. This raises the exciting possibility of directly observing these wandering planets with the James Webb Space Telescope in the near-infrared band. Assuming a surface temperature for the planet of ~500 K, a free-floating planet of Jupiter size inside the Pleiades would have a specific flux of F ν (4.4 μm) ≈4 × 102 nJy, which would lead to a very clear detection (S/N ~ 100) in only one hour of integration.

  18. DETECTABILITY OF FREE FLOATING PLANETS IN OPEN CLUSTERS WITH THE JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacucci, Fabio; Ferrara, Andrea [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); D' Onghia, Elena [University of Wisconsin, 475 Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Recent observations have shown the presence of extra-solar planets in Galactic open stellar clusters, such as in Praesepe (M44). These systems provide a favorable environment for planetary formation due to the high heavy-element content exhibited by the majority of their population. The large stellar density, and corresponding high close-encounter event rate, may induce strong perturbations of planetary orbits with large semimajor axes. Here we present a set of N-body simulations implementing a novel scheme to treat the tidal effects of external stellar perturbers on planetary orbit eccentricity and inclination. By simulating five nearby open clusters, we determine the rate of occurrence of bodies extracted from their parent stellar system by quasi-impulsive tidal interactions. We find that the specific free-floating planet production rate N-dot {sub o} (total number of free-floating planets per unit of time, normalized by the total number of stars), is proportional to the stellar density ρ{sub *} of the cluster: N-dot {sub o}=αρ{sub ⋆}, with α = (23 ± 5) × 10{sup –6} pc{sup 3} Myr{sup –1}. For the Pleiades (M45), we predict that ∼26% of stars should have lost their planets. This raises the exciting possibility of directly observing these wandering planets with the James Webb Space Telescope in the near-infrared band. Assuming a surface temperature for the planet of ∼500 K, a free-floating planet of Jupiter size inside the Pleiades would have a specific flux of F {sub ν} (4.4 μm) ≈4 × 10{sup 2} nJy, which would lead to a very clear detection (S/N ∼ 100) in only one hour of integration.

  19. Processes of conversion of a hot metal particle into aerogel through clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, B. M., E-mail: bmsmirnov@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    Processes are considered for conversion into a fractal structure of a hot metal micron-size particle that is located in a buffer gas or a gas flow and is heated by an external electric or electromagnetic source or by a plasma. The parameter of this heating is the particle temperature, which is the same in the entire particle volume because of its small size and high conductivity. Three processes determine the particle heat balance: particle radiation, evaporation of metal atoms from the particle surface, and heat transport to the surrounding gas due to its thermal conductivity. The particle heat balance is analyzed based on these processes, which are analogous to those for bulk metals with the small particle size, and its high temperature taken into account. Outside the particle, where the gas temperature is lower than on its surface, the formed metal vapor in a buffer gas flow is converted into clusters. Clusters grow as a result of coagulation until they become liquid, and then clusters form fractal aggregates if they are removed form the gas flow. Subsequently, associations of fractal aggregates join into a fractal structure. The rate of this process increases in medium electric fields, and the formed fractal structure has features of aerogels and fractal fibers. As a result of a chain of the above processes, a porous metal film may be manufactured for use as a filter or catalyst for gas flows.

  20. Applications of Open Source GMAW-Based Metal 3-D Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Yuenyong Nilsiam; Paul G. Sanders; Joshua M. Pearce

    2018-01-01

    The metal 3-D printing market is currently dominated by high-end applications, which make it inaccessible for small and medium enterprises, fab labs, and individual makers who are interested in the ability to prototype and additively manufacture final products in metal. Recent progress led to low-cost open-source metal 3-D printers using a gas metal arc welding (GMAW)-based print head. This reduced the cost of metal 3-D printers into the range of desktop prosumer polymer 3-D printers. Consequ...

  1. High-resolution Spectroscopic Observations of Single Red Giants in Three Open Clusters: NGC 2360, NGC 3680, and NGC 5822

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Suárez, V. J.; Sales Silva, J. V.; Katime Santrich, O. J.; Drake, N. A.; Pereira, C. B.

    2018-02-01

    Single stars in open clusters with known distances are important targets in constraining the nucleosynthesis process since their ages and luminosities are also known. In this work, we analyze a sample of 29 single red giants of the open clusters NGC 2360, NGC 3680, and NGC 5822 using high-resolution spectroscopy. We obtained atmospheric parameters, abundances of the elements C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Si, Ti, Ni, Cr, Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd, as well as radial and rotational velocities. We employed the local thermodynamic equilibrium atmospheric models of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code MOOG. Rotational velocities and light-element abundances were derived using spectral synthesis. Based on our analysis of the single red giants in these three open clusters, we could compare, for the first time, their abundance pattern with that of the binary stars of the same clusters previously studied. Our results show that the abundances of both single and binary stars of the open clusters NGC 2360, NGC 3680, and NGC 5822 do not have significant differences. For the elements created by the s-process, we observed that the open clusters NGC 2360, NGC 3680, and NGC 5822 also follow the trend already raised in the literature that young clusters have higher s-process element abundances than older clusters. Finally, we observed that the three clusters of our sample exhibit a trend in the [Y/Mg]-age relation, which may indicate the ability of the [Y/Mg] ratio to be used as a clock for the giants. Based on the observations made with the 2.2 m telescope at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile) under an agreement with Observatório Nacional and under an agreement between Observatório Nacional and Max-Planck Institute für Astronomie.

  2. Nonlocality and particle-clustering effects on the optical response of composite materials with metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. W.; Chung, H. Y.; Chiang, H.-P.; Lu, J. Y.; Chang, R.; Tsai, D. P.; Leung, P. T.

    2010-10-01

    The optical properties of composites with metallic nanoparticles are studied, taking into account the effects due to the nonlocal dielectric response of the metal and the coalescing of the particles to form clusters. An approach based on various effective medium theories is followed, and the modeling results are compared with those from the cases with local response and particles randomly distributed through the host medium. Possible observations of our modeling results are illustrated via a calculation of the transmission of light through a thin film made of these materials. It is found that the nonlocal effects are particularly significant when the particles coalesce, leading to blue-shifted resonances and slightly lower values in the dielectric functions. The dependence of these effects on the volume fraction and fractal dimension of the metal clusters is studied in detail.

  3. ANALYSIS OF DETACHED ECLIPSING BINARIES NEAR THE TURNOFF OF THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 7142

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandquist, Eric L.; Serio, Andrew W.; Orosz, Jerome [San Diego State University, Department of Astronomy, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Shetrone, Matthew, E-mail: esandquist@mail.sdsu.edu, E-mail: aserio@gemini.edu, E-mail: jorosz@mail.sdsu.edu, E-mail: shetrone@astro.as.utexas.edu [University of Texas, McDonald Observatory, HC75 Box 1337-L Fort Davis, TX 79734 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    We analyze extensive BVR{sub C}I{sub C} photometry and radial velocity measurements for three double-lined deeply eclipsing binary stars in the field of the old open cluster NGC 7142. The short period (P = 1.9096825 days) detached binary V375 Cep is a high probability cluster member, and has a total eclipse of the secondary star. The characteristics of the primary star (M = 1.288 {+-} 0.017 M{sub Sun }) at the cluster turnoff indicate an age of 3.6 Gyr (with a random uncertainty of 0.25 Gyr), consistent with earlier analysis of the color-magnitude diagram. The secondary star (M = 0.871 {+-} 0.008 M{sub Sun }) is not expected to have evolved significantly, but its radius is more than 10% larger than predicted by models. Because this binary system has a known age, it is useful for testing the idea that radius inflation can occur in short period binaries for stars with significant convective envelopes due to the inhibition of energy transport by magnetic fields. The brighter star in the binary also produces a precision estimate of the distance modulus, independent of reddening estimates: (m - M){sub V} = 12.86 {+-} 0.07. The other two eclipsing binary systems are not cluster members, although one of the systems (V2) could only be conclusively ruled out as a present or former member once the stellar characteristics were determined. That binary is within 0. Degree-Sign 5 of edge-on, is in a fairly long-period eccentric binary, and contains two almost indistinguishable stars. The other binary (V1) has a small but nonzero eccentricity (e = 0.038) in spite of having an orbital period under 5 days.

  4. Medium-induced change of the optical response of metal clusters in rare-gas matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Fengyuan; Guet, Claude

    2017-10-01

    Interaction with the surrounding medium modifies the optical response of embedded metal clusters. For clusters from about ten to a few hundreds of silver atoms, embedded in rare-gas matrices, we study the environment effect within the matrix random phase approximation with exact exchange (RPAE) quantum approach, which has proved successful for free silver clusters. The polarizable surrounding medium screens the residual two-body RPAE interaction, adds a polarization term to the one-body potential, and shifts the vacuum energy of the active delocalized valence electrons. Within this model, we calculate the dipole oscillator strength distribution for Ag clusters embedded in helium droplets, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon matrices. The main contribution to the dipole surface plasmon red shift originates from the rare-gas polarization screening of the two-body interaction. The large size limit of the dipole surface plasmon agrees well with the classical prediction.

  5. Tidal stripping stellar substructures around four metal-poor globular clusters in the galactic bulge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Sang-Hyun; Kang, Minhee; Jung, DooSeok; Sohn, Young-Jong

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the spatial density configuration of stars around four metal-poor globular clusters (NGC 6266, NGC 6626, NGC 6642, and NGC 6723) in the Galactic bulge region using wide-field deep J, H, and K imaging data obtained with the Wide Field Camera near-infrared array on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope. A statistical weighted filtering algorithm for the stars on the color–magnitude diagram is applied in order to sort cluster member candidates from the field star contamination. In two-dimensional isodensity contour maps of the clusters, we find that all four of the globular clusters exhibit strong evidence of tidally stripped stellar features beyond the tidal radius in the form of tidal tails or small density lobes/chunks. The orientations of the extended stellar substructures are likely to be associated with the effect of dynamic interaction with the Galaxy and the cluster's space motion. The observed radial density profiles of the four globular clusters also describe the extended substructures; they depart from theoretical King and Wilson models and have an overdensity feature with a break in the slope of the profile at the outer region of clusters. The observed results could imply that four globular clusters in the Galactic bulge region have experienced strong environmental effects such as tidal forces or bulge/disk shocks of the Galaxy during the dynamical evolution of globular clusters. These observational results provide further details which add to our understanding of the evolution of clusters in the Galactic bulge region as well as the formation of the Galaxy.

  6. Metals on graphene and carbon nanotube surfaces: From mobile atoms to atomtronics to bulk metals to clusters and catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Sarkar, Santanu C.

    2014-01-14

    In this Perspective, we present an overview of recent fundamental studies on the nature of the interaction between individual metal atoms and metal clusters and the conjugated surfaces of graphene and carbon nanotube with a particular focus on the electronic structure and chemical bonding at the metal-graphene interface. We discuss the relevance of organometallic complexes of graphitic materials to the development of a fundamental understanding of these interactions and their application in atomtronics as atomic interconnects, high mobility organometallic transistor devices, high-frequency electronic devices, organometallic catalysis (hydrogen fuel generation by photocatalytic water splitting, fuel cells, hydrogenation), spintronics, memory devices, and the next generation energy devices. We touch on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene grown on metals, the reactivity of its surface, and its use as a template for asymmetric graphene functionalization chemistry (ultrathin Janus discs). We highlight some of the latest advances in understanding the nature of interactions between metals and graphene surfaces from the standpoint of metal overlayers deposited on graphene and SWNT thin films. Finally, we comment on the major challenges facing the field and the opportunities for technological applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  7. Massive open star clusters using the VVV survey IV. WR 62-2, a new very massive star in the core of the VVV CL041 cluster

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chene, A.-N.; Alegria, S.R.; Borissova, J.; O'Leary, E.; Martins, F.; Hervé, Anthony; Kuhn, M.; Kurtev, R.; Consuelo Amigo Fuentes, P.; Bonatto, C.; Minniti, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 584, December (2015), A31/1-A31/8 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02385S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : open clusters and associations * VVV CL041 * massive star s Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  8. NGC 6705 a young α-enhanced open cluster from OCCASO data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casamiquela, L.; Carrera, R.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Jordi, C.; Chiappini, C.; Anders, F.; Antoja, T.; Miret-Roig, N.; Romero-Gomez, M.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Pancino, E.; Aguado, D. S.; del Pino, A.; Diaz-Perez, L.; Gallart, C.

    2018-03-01

    Context. The stellar [α/Fe] abundance is sometimes used as a proxy for stellar age, following standard chemical evolution models for the Galaxy, as seen by different observational results. Aim. In this work, we aim to show that the open cluster NGC 6705/M 11 has a significant α-enhancement [α/Fe] > 0.1 dex, despite its young age ( 300 Myr), challenging the current paradigm. Methods: We used high resolution (R > 65 000) high signal-to-noise ( 70) spectra of eight red clump stars, acquired within the OCCASO survey. We determined very accurate chemical abundances of several α elements, using an equivalent width methodology (Si, Ca and Ti), and spectral synthesis fits (Mg and O). Results: We obtain [Si/Fe] = 0.13 ± 0.05, [Mg/Fe] = 0.14 ± 0.07, [O/Fe] = 0.17 ± 0.07, [Ca/Fe] = 0.06 ± 0.05, and [Ti/Fe] = 0.03 ± 0.03. Our results place these clusters within the group of young [α/Fe]-enhanced field stars recently found by several authors in the literature. The ages of our stars have an uncertainty of around 50 Myr, much more precise than for field stars. By integrating the cluster's orbit in several non-axisymmetric Galactic potentials, we establish the M 11's most likely birth radius as lying between 6.8-7.5 kpc from the Galactic centre, not far from its current position. Conclusions: With the robust open cluster age scale, our results prove that a moderate [α/Fe]-enhancement is no guarantee for a star to be old, and that not all α-enhanced stars can be explained with an evolved blue straggler scenario. Based on our orbit calculations, we further argue against a Galactic bar origin of M 11. Full Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A66

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON THE METAL ENRICHMENT OF LOW-MASS GALAXIES IN NEARBY CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petropoulou, V.; Vilchez, J.; Iglesias-Paramo, J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia-C.S.I.C., Glorieta de la Astronomia, 18008 Granada (Spain)

    2012-04-20

    In this paper, we study the chemical history of low-mass star-forming (SF) galaxies in the local universe clusters Coma, A1367, A779, and A634. The aim of this work is to search for the imprint of the environment on the chemical evolution of these galaxies. Galaxy chemical evolution is linked to the star formation history, as well as to the gas interchange with the environment, and low-mass galaxies are well known to be vulnerable systems to environmental processes affecting both these parameters. For our study we have used spectra from the SDSS-III DR8. We have examined the spectroscopic properties of SF galaxies of stellar masses 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }, located from the core to the cluster's outskirts. The gas-phase O/H and N/O chemical abundances have been derived using the latest empirical calibrations. We have examined the mass-metallicity relation of cluster galaxies, finding well-defined sequences. The slope of these sequences, for galaxies in low-mass clusters and galaxies at large cluster-centric distances, follows the predictions of recent hydrodynamic models. A flattening of this slope has been observed for galaxies located in the core of the two more massive clusters of the sample, principally in Coma, suggesting that the imprint of the cluster environment on the chemical evolution of SF galaxies should be sensitive to both the galaxy mass and the host cluster mass. The H I gas content of Coma and A1367 galaxies indicates that low-mass SF galaxies, located at the core of these clusters, have been severely affected by ram-pressure stripping (RPS). The observed mass-dependent enhancement of the metal content of low-mass galaxies in dense environments seems plausible, according to hydrodynamic simulations. This enhanced metal enrichment could be produced by the combination of effects such as wind reaccretion, due to pressure confinement by the intracluster medium (ICM), and the truncation of gas infall, as a result of the RPS. Thus, the

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON THE METAL ENRICHMENT OF LOW-MASS GALAXIES IN NEARBY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petropoulou, V.; Vílchez, J.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the chemical history of low-mass star-forming (SF) galaxies in the local universe clusters Coma, A1367, A779, and A634. The aim of this work is to search for the imprint of the environment on the chemical evolution of these galaxies. Galaxy chemical evolution is linked to the star formation history, as well as to the gas interchange with the environment, and low-mass galaxies are well known to be vulnerable systems to environmental processes affecting both these parameters. For our study we have used spectra from the SDSS-III DR8. We have examined the spectroscopic properties of SF galaxies of stellar masses 10 8 -10 10 M ☉ , located from the core to the cluster's outskirts. The gas-phase O/H and N/O chemical abundances have been derived using the latest empirical calibrations. We have examined the mass-metallicity relation of cluster galaxies, finding well-defined sequences. The slope of these sequences, for galaxies in low-mass clusters and galaxies at large cluster-centric distances, follows the predictions of recent hydrodynamic models. A flattening of this slope has been observed for galaxies located in the core of the two more massive clusters of the sample, principally in Coma, suggesting that the imprint of the cluster environment on the chemical evolution of SF galaxies should be sensitive to both the galaxy mass and the host cluster mass. The H I gas content of Coma and A1367 galaxies indicates that low-mass SF galaxies, located at the core of these clusters, have been severely affected by ram-pressure stripping (RPS). The observed mass-dependent enhancement of the metal content of low-mass galaxies in dense environments seems plausible, according to hydrodynamic simulations. This enhanced metal enrichment could be produced by the combination of effects such as wind reaccretion, due to pressure confinement by the intracluster medium (ICM), and the truncation of gas infall, as a result of the RPS. Thus, the properties of the ICM

  11. NASICON Open Framework Structured Transition Metal Oxides for Lithium Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Begam, K.M.; Michael, M.S.; Prabaharan, S.R.S.

    2010-01-01

    We identified a group of NASICON open framework structured polyanion materials and examined the materials for rechargeable lithium battery application. We found that the open framework structure of these materials facilitated easy insertion/extraction of lithium into/from their structure. We synthesized the materials in lithium-rich [Li2M2(MoO4)3] and lithium-free [LixM2(MoO4)3] (M= Ni, Co) phases, for the first time, by means of a low temperature soft-combustion technique. The soft-combustio...

  12. THE UNIQUE Na:O ABUNDANCE DISTRIBUTION IN NGC 6791: THE FIRST OPEN(?) CLUSTER WITH MULTIPLE POPULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geisler, D.; Villanova, S.; Cummings, J.; Carraro, G.; Pilachowski, C.; Johnson, C. I.; Bresolin, F.

    2012-01-01

    Almost all globular clusters investigated exhibit a spread in their light element abundances, the most studied being an Na:O anticorrelation. In contrast, open clusters show a homogeneous composition and are still regarded as Simple Stellar Populations. The most probable reason for this difference is that globulars had an initial mass high enough to retain primordial gas and ejecta from the first stellar generation and thus formed a second generation with a distinct composition, an initial mass exceeding that of open clusters. NGC 6791 is a massive open cluster and warrants a detailed search for chemical inhomogeneities. We collected high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of 21 members covering a wide range of evolutionary status and measured their Na, O, and Fe content. We found [Fe/H] = +0.42 ± 0.01, in good agreement with previous values, and no evidence for a spread. However, the Na:O distribution is completely unprecedented. It becomes the first open cluster to show intrinsic abundance variations that cannot be explained by mixing, and thus the first discovered to host multiple populations. It is also the first star cluster to exhibit two subpopulations in the Na:O diagram with one being chemically homogeneous while the second has an intrinsic spread that follows the anticorrelation so far displayed only by globular clusters. NGC 6791 is unique in many aspects, displaying certain characteristics typical of open clusters, others more reminiscent of globulars, and yet others, in particular its Na:O behavior investigated here, that are totally unprecedented. It clearly had a complex and fascinating history.

  13. The Unique Na:O Abundance Distribution in NGC 6791: The First Open(?) Cluster with Multiple Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, D.; Villanova, S.; Carraro, G.; Pilachowski, C.; Cummings, J.; Johnson, C. I.; Bresolin, F.

    2012-09-01

    Almost all globular clusters investigated exhibit a spread in their light element abundances, the most studied being an Na:O anticorrelation. In contrast, open clusters show a homogeneous composition and are still regarded as Simple Stellar Populations. The most probable reason for this difference is that globulars had an initial mass high enough to retain primordial gas and ejecta from the first stellar generation and thus formed a second generation with a distinct composition, an initial mass exceeding that of open clusters. NGC 6791 is a massive open cluster and warrants a detailed search for chemical inhomogeneities. We collected high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of 21 members covering a wide range of evolutionary status and measured their Na, O, and Fe content. We found [Fe/H] = +0.42 ± 0.01, in good agreement with previous values, and no evidence for a spread. However, the Na:O distribution is completely unprecedented. It becomes the first open cluster to show intrinsic abundance variations that cannot be explained by mixing, and thus the first discovered to host multiple populations. It is also the first star cluster to exhibit two subpopulations in the Na:O diagram with one being chemically homogeneous while the second has an intrinsic spread that follows the anticorrelation so far displayed only by globular clusters. NGC 6791 is unique in many aspects, displaying certain characteristics typical of open clusters, others more reminiscent of globulars, and yet others, in particular its Na:O behavior investigated here, that are totally unprecedented. It clearly had a complex and fascinating history.

  14. Nanocomposite metal/plasma polymer films prepared by means of gas aggregation cluster source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polonskyi, O.; Solar, P.; Kylian, O.; Drabik, M.; Artemenko, A.; Kousal, J.; Hanus, J.; Pesicka, J.; Matolinova, I. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Kolibalova, E. [Tescan, Libusina trida 21, 632 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Slavinska, D. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Biederman, H., E-mail: bieder@kmf.troja.mff.cuni.cz [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2012-04-02

    Nanocomposite metal/plasma polymer films have been prepared by simultaneous plasma polymerization using a mixture of Ar/n-hexane and metal cluster beams. A simple compact cluster gas aggregation source is described and characterized with emphasis on the determination of the amount of charged clusters and their size distribution. It is shown that the fraction of neutral, positively and negatively charged nanoclusters leaving the gas aggregation source is largely influenced by used operational conditions. In addition, it is demonstrated that a large portion of Ag clusters is positively charged, especially when higher currents are used for their production. Deposition of nanocomposite Ag/C:H plasma polymer films is described in detail by means of cluster gas aggregation source. Basic characterization of the films is performed using transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopies. It is shown that the morphology, structure and optical properties of such prepared nanocomposites differ significantly from the ones fabricated by means of magnetron sputtering of Ag target in Ar/n-hexane mixture.

  15. Search for variable stars in the young open cluster Stock 18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Tirthendu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out multi-epoch deep I band photometry of the open cluster Stock 18 to search for variable stars in star forming regions. In the present study, we report identification of 28 periodic and 165 non-periodic variables stars. The periods of most of the periodic variables are in between 2 to 20 hours and their magnitude varies between 0.05 to 0.6 mag. We have derived spectral energy distributions for 48 probable pre-main sequence variables and the average age and mass is found to be 2.7 ± 0.3 Myrs and 2.7 ± 0.2 M⊙, respectively.

  16. Resonance chains in open systems, generalized zeta functions and clustering of the length spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkhofen, S; Faure, F; Weich, T

    2014-01-01

    In many non-integrable open systems in physics and mathematics, resonances have been found to be surprisingly ordered along curved lines in the complex plane. In this article we provide a unifying approach to these resonance chains by generalizing dynamical zeta functions. By means of a detailed numerical study we show that these generalized zeta functions explain the mechanism that creates the chains of quantum resonance and classical Ruelle resonances for three-disk systems as well as geometric resonances on Schottky surfaces. We also present a direct system-intrinsic definition of the continuous lines on which the resonances are strung together as a projection of an analytic variety. Additionally, this approach shows that the existence of resonance chains is directly related to a clustering of the classical length spectrum on multiples of a base length. Finally, this link is used to construct new examples where several different structures of resonance chains coexist. (paper)

  17. WIYN Open Cluster Study: Binary Orbits and Tidal Circularization in NGC 6819

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morscher, Meagan B.; Mathieu, R. D.; Kaeppler, S.; Hole, K. T.; Meibom, S.

    2006-12-01

    We are conducting a comprehensive stellar radial-velocity survey in NGC 6819, a rich, intermediate age ( 2.4 Gyr) open cluster with [Fe/H] -0.05. As of October 2006, we have obtained 7065 radial-velocity measurements of 1409 stars using the WIYN Hydra Multi-Object Spectrograph, with typical velocity measurement precisions of 0.4 km/s. Using an E/I criterion of 3, we have identified 282 velocity variables. In the past year we have expanded the number of final orbital solutions by 45 to a total of more than 80 solutions. In coeval stellar populations, circular binaries tend to have the shortest orbital periods, while longer period binaries show a distribution of non-zero eccentricities. The circularization of the shortest period orbits is the result of an exchange of stellar and orbital angular momentum due to tidal interactions. We defined a population’s tidal circularization period as the longest orbital period at which a binary of typical initial eccentricity has become circularized (e.g., has evolved to an eccentricity e = 0.01) over the lifetime of the cluster (Meibom & Mathieu, 2005, ApJ, 620, 970). We are studying the trend of increasing tidal circularization periods with population age. Preliminary results in NGC 6819 indicate a tidal circularization period of 7.5 days, which is consistent with this overall trend. We will recalculate the tidal circularization period in order to include the latest sample of orbital solutions. This comprehensive survey also allows us to investigate the relative spatial distributions of spectroscopic binaries and other constant-velocity cluster members of similar mass. We find the spectroscopic binaries to be more centrally concentrated at a statistically significant level, which we attribute to energy equipartition processes. MM was supported by REU NSF grant AST-0453442. RDM, SK, KTH, and SM were supported by NSF grant AST-0406615.

  18. Globular cluster formation and evolution in the context of cosmological galaxy assembly: open questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Duncan A.; Bastian, Nate; Gieles, Mark; Crain, Robert A.; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Larsen, Søren S.; Ploeckinger, Sylvia; Agertz, Oscar; Trenti, Michele; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Pfeffer, Joel; Gnedin, Oleg Y.

    2018-02-01

    We discuss some of the key open questions regarding the formation and evolution of globular clusters (GCs) during galaxy formation and assembly within a cosmological framework. The current state of the art for both observations and simulations is described, and we briefly mention directions for future research. The oldest GCs have ages greater than or equal to 12.5 Gyr and formed around the time of reionization. Resolved colour-magnitude diagrams of Milky Way GCs and direct imaging of lensed proto-GCs at z˜6 with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) promise further insight. GCs are known to host multiple populations of stars with variations in their chemical abundances. Recently, such multiple populations have been detected in ˜2 Gyr old compact, massive star clusters. This suggests a common, single pathway for the formation of GCs at high and low redshift. The shape of the initial mass function for GCs remains unknown; however, for massive galaxies a power-law mass function is favoured. Significant progress has been made recently modelling GC formation in the context of galaxy formation, with success in reproducing many of the observed GC-galaxy scaling relations.

  19. An open-source software package for multivariate modeling and clustering: applications to air quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuquan; Huang, Guohe; Zhao, Shan; Guo, Junhong

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents an open-source software package, rSCA, which is developed based upon a stepwise cluster analysis method and serves as a statistical tool for modeling the relationships between multiple dependent and independent variables. The rSCA package is efficient in dealing with both continuous and discrete variables, as well as nonlinear relationships between the variables. It divides the sample sets of dependent variables into different subsets (or subclusters) through a series of cutting and merging operations based upon the theory of multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The modeling results are given by a cluster tree, which includes both intermediate and leaf subclusters as well as the flow paths from the root of the tree to each leaf subcluster specified by a series of cutting and merging actions. The rSCA package is a handy and easy-to-use tool and is freely available at http://cran.r-project.org/package=rSCA . By applying the developed package to air quality management in an urban environment, we demonstrate its effectiveness in dealing with the complicated relationships among multiple variables in real-world problems.

  20. λ7774 Oxygen Triplet in Open Cluster Dwarfs: Pleiades and M34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, S.C.; King, J.R.; Hobbs, L.M.; Pinsonneault, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    We have undertaken a LTE analysis of the high-excitation 7774 A O I triplet in high-resolution, moderate signal-to-noise spectra of 15 Pleiades (HET/HRS) and 8 M34 (Keck/HIRES) open cluster dwarfs. Effective temperatures range from 5048 - 6172 K for the Pleiades sample and from 5290 - 6130 K for the M34 sample. Relative O abundances have been derived using model atmospheres interpolated from four different sets of ATLAS9 grids: with convective overshoot, without convective overshoot, with the mixing length parameter set to 0.5, and with the convective treatment of Canuto, Goldman, and Mazzitelli. In contrast to existing NLTE predictions, a dramatic increase in O I triplet abundance with decreasing temperature is seen for both clusters, regardless of atmospheric model. S I abundances of three Pleiads derived from the high-excitation λ6052.67 feature mimic the O I abundance behavior. O abundances have also been derived from the 6300 A [OI] feature in three Pleiads; the abundances exhibit a much lower mean value than the cool dwarf triplet results. These data suggest LTE abundances derived from the O I triplet for cool dwarfs (T eff =<5800 K) should be viewed with caution

  1. Application of siliceous metal product for preliminary deoxidizing of metal in open-hearth furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk'yanenko, A.A.; Evdokimov, A.V.; Kornilov, V.N.; Il'in, V.I.; Kuleshov, Yu.V.

    1995-01-01

    Metal wastes of abrasive processes-concomitant product of synthetic corundum production containing approximately 10 % Si - were tested for preliminary deoxidizing of metal in furnace to reduce manganese loss in burning and to increase the steel deoxidizing. The technology of preliminary deoxidizing of metal by siliceous metal product was mastered in the course of low carbon steel melting (st3sp, st4sp). The results of the study has shown that the use of siliceous metal product permits reducing the consumption of manganese-containing ferroalloys. 1 tab

  2. Catalytic dehydrogenation of alcohol over solid-state molybdenum sulfide clusters with an octahedral metal framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiguchi, Satoshi, E-mail: kamigu@riken.jp [Advanced Catalysis Research Group, RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako City, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Organometallic Chemistry Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako City, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Okumura, Kazu [School of Advanced Engineering, Kogakuin University, Nakano-machi, Hachioji City, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan); Nagashima, Sayoko; Chihara, Teiji [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama City, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Solid-state molybdenum sulfide clusters catalyzed the dehydrogenation of alcohol. • The dehydrogenation proceeded without the addition of any oxidants. • The catalytic activity developed when the cluster was activated at 300–500 °C in H{sub 2}. • The Lewis-acidic molybdenum atom and basic sulfur ligand were catalytically active. • The clusters function as bifunctional acid–base catalysts. - Abstract: Solid-state molybdenum sulfide clusters with an octahedral metal framework, the superconducting Chevrel phases, are applied to catalysis. A copper salt of a nonstoichiometric sulfur-deficient cluster, Cu{sub x}Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8–δ} (x = 2.94 and δ ≈ 0.3), is stored in air for more than 90 days. When the oxygenated cluster is thermally activated in a hydrogen stream above 300 °C, catalytic activity for the dehydrogenation of primary alcohols to aldehydes and secondary alcohols to ketones develops. The addition of pyridine or benzoic acid decreases the dehydrogenation activity, indicating that both a Lewis-acidic coordinatively unsaturated molybdenum atom and a basic sulfur ligand synergistically act as the catalytic active sites.

  3. Cluster-based bulk metallic glass formation in Fe-Si-B-Nb alloy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, C L; Wang, Q; Li, F W; Li, Y H; Wang, Y M; Dong, C [State Key Laboratory of Materials Modification, Dalian University of Technology (DUT), Dalian 116024 (China); Zhang, W; Inoue, A, E-mail: dong@dlut.edu.c [Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2009-01-01

    Bulk metallic glass formations have been explored in Fe-B-Si-Nb alloy system using the so-called atomic cluster line approach in combination with minor alloying guideline. The atomic cluster line refers to a straight line linking binary cluster to the third element in a ternary system. The basic ternary compositions in Fe-B-Si system are determined by the inetersection points of two cluster lines, namely Fe-B cluster to Si and Fe-Si cluster to B, and then further alloyed with 3-5 at. % Nb for enhancing glass forming abilities. BMG rods with a diameter of 3 mm are formed under the case of minor Nb alloying the basic intersecting compositions of Fe{sub 8}B{sub 3}-Si with Fe{sub 12}Si-B and Fe{sub 8}B{sub 2}-Si with Fe{sub 9}Si-B. The BMGs also exhibit high Vickers hardness (H{sub v}) of 1130-1164 and high Young's modulous (E) of 170-180 GPa

  4. Cluster perturbation theory for calculation of electronic properties of ensembles of metal nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhumagulov, Yaroslav V.; Krasavin, Andrey V.; Kashurnikov, Vladimir A.

    2018-05-01

    The method is developed for calculation of electronic properties of an ensemble of metal nanoclusters with the use of cluster perturbation theory. This method is applied to the system of gold nanoclusters. The Greens function of single nanocluster is obtained by ab initio calculations within the framework of the density functional theory, and then is used in Dyson equation to group nanoclusters together and to compute the Greens function as well as the electron density of states of the whole ensemble. The transition from insulator state of a single nanocluster to metallic state of bulk gold is observed.

  5. AGES AND METALLICITIES OF CLUSTER GALAXIES IN A779 USING MODIFIED STROeMGREN PHOTOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreedhar, Yuvraj Harsha; Rakos, Karl D.; Hensler, Gerhard; Zeilinger, Werner W. [University of Vienna, Institute of Astronomy, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Odell, Andrew P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ (United States)

    2012-03-01

    In the quest for the formation and evolution of galaxy clusters, Rakos and co-workers introduced a spectrophotometric method using modified Stroemgren photometry, but with the considerable debate toward the project's abilities, we re-introduce the system by testing for the repeatability of the modified Stroemgren colors and compare them with the Stroemgren colors, and check for the reproducibility of the ages and metallicities (using the Principle Component Analysis (PCA) technique and the GALEV models) for the six common galaxies in all three A779 data sets. As a result, a fair agreement between two filter systems was found to produce similar colors (with a precision of 0.09 mag in (uz - vz), 0.02 mag in (bz - yz), and 0.03 mag in (vz - vz)) and the generated ages and metallicities are also similar (with an uncertainty of 0.36 Gyr and 0.04 dex from PCA and 0.44 Gyr and 0.2 dex using the GALEV models). We infer that the technique is able to relieve the age-metallicity degeneracy by separating the age effects from the metallicity effects, but it is still unable to completely eliminate it. We further extend this paper to re-study the evolution of galaxies in the low mass, dynamically poor A779 cluster (as it was not elaborately analyzed by Rakos and co-workers in their previous work) by correlating the luminosity (mass), density, and radial distance with the estimated age, metallicity, and the star formation history. Our results distinctly show the bimodality of the young, low-mass, metal-poor population with a mean age of 6.7 Gyr ({+-} 0.5 Gyr) and the old, high-mass, metal-rich galaxies with a mean age of 9 Gyr ({+-} 0.5 Gyr). The method also observes the color evolution of the blue cluster galaxies to red (Butcher-Oemler phenomenon), and the downsizing phenomenon. Our analysis shows that modified Stroemgren photometry is very well suited for studying low- and intermediate-z clusters, as it is capable of observing deeper with better spatial resolution at

  6. Asteroseismology of old open clusters with Kepler: direct estimate of the integrated red giant branch mass-loss in NGC 6791 and 6819

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miglio, A.; Brogaard, Karsten Frank; Stello, D.

    2012-01-01

    Mass-loss of red giant branch (RGB) stars is still poorly determined, despite its crucial role in the chemical enrichment of galaxies. Thanks to the recent detection of solar-like oscillations in G–K giants in open clusters with Kepler, we can now directly determine stellar masses...... for a statistically significant sample of stars in the old open clusters NGC 6791 and 6819. The aim of this work is to constrain the integrated RGB mass-loss by comparing the average mass of stars in the red clump (RC) with that of stars in the low-luminosity portion of the RGB [i.e. stars with L≲L(RC)]. Stellar...... masses were determined by combining the available seismic parameters νmax and Δν with additional photometric constraints and with independent distance estimates. We measured the masses of 40 stars on the RGB and 19 in the RC of the old metal-rich cluster NGC 6791. We find that the difference between...

  7. Linear and nonlinear surface spectroscopy of supported size selected metal clusters and organic adsorbates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaemer, Martin Georg

    2012-03-08

    The spectroscopic investigation of supported size selected metal clusters over a wide wavelength range plays an important role for understanding their outstanding catalytic properties. The challenge which must be overcome to perform such measurements is the difficult detection of the weak spectroscopic signals from these samples. As a consequence, highly sensitive spectroscopic methods are applied, such as surface Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy and surface Second Harmonic Generation Spectroscopy. The spectroscopic apparatus developed is shown to have a sensitivity which is high enough to detect sub-monolayer coverages of adsorbates on surfaces. In the measured spectra of small supported silver clusters of the sizes Ag{sub 4}2, Ag{sub 2}1, Ag{sub 9}, and Ag atoms a stepwise transition from particles with purely metallic character to particles with molecule-like properties can be observed within this size range.

  8. Electronic relaxation dynamics of a metal atom deposited on argon cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awali, Slim

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is a study on the interaction between electronically excited atomic states and a non-reactive environment. We have theoretically and experimentally studied situations where a metal atom (Ba or K) is placed in a finite size environment (argon cluster). The presence of the medium affects the electronic levels of the atom. On the other side, the excitation of the atom induces a relaxation dynamics of the electronic energy through the deformation of the cluster. The experimental part of this work focuses on two aspects: the spectroscopy and the dynamics. In both cases a first laser electronically excites the metal atom and the second ionizes the excited system. The observable is the photoelectron spectrum recorded after photoionization and possibly information on the photoion which are also produced. This pump/probe technique, with also two lasers, provide the ultrafast dynamic when the lasers pulses used are of ultrashort (60 fs). The use of nanosecond lasers leads to resonance spectroscopic measurement, unresolved temporally, which give information on the position of the energy levels of the studied system. From a theoretical point-of-view, the excited states of M-Ar n were calculated at the ab initio level, using large core pseudo-potential to limit the active electrons of the metal to valence electrons. The study of alkali metals (potassium) is especially well adapted to this method since only one electron is active. The ab-initio calculation and a Monte-Carlo simulation where coupled to optimize the geometry of the KAr n (n = 1-10) cluster when K is in the ground state of the neutral and the ion, or excited in the 4p or 5s state. Calculations were also conducted in collaboration with B. Gervais (CIMAP, Caen) on KAr n clusters having several tens of argon atoms. Absorption spectra were also calculated. From an experimental point-of-view, we were able to characterize the excited states of potassium and barium perturbed by the clusters. In both cases a

  9. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: From Cluster Ions to Toxic metal Ions in Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz, Nicholas B. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation focused on using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to study cluster ions and toxic metal ions in biology. In Chapter 2, it was shown that primary, secondary and quarternary amines exhibit different clustering characteristics under identical instrument conditions. Carbon chain length also played a role in cluster ion formation. In Chapters 3 and 4, the effects of solvent types/ratios and various instrumental parameters on cluster ion formation were examined. It was found that instrument interface design also plays a critical role in the cluster ion distribution seen in the mass spectrum. In Chapter 5, ESI-MS was used to investigate toxic metal binding to the [Gln11]-amyloid β-protein fragment (1-16). Pb and Cd bound stronger than Zn, even in the presence of excess Zn. Hg bound weaker than Zn. There are endless options for future work on cluster ions. Any molecule that is poorly ionized in positive ion mode can potentially show an increase in ionization efficiency if an appropriate anion is used to produce a net negative charge. It is possible that drug protein or drug/DNA complexes can also be stabilized by adding counter-ions. This would preserve the solution characteristics of the complex in the gas phase. Once in the gas phase, CID could determine the drug binding location on the biomolecule. There are many research projects regarding toxic metals in biology that have yet to be investigated or even discovered. This is an area of research with an almost endless future because of the changing dynamics of biological systems. What is deemed safe today may show toxic effects in the future. Evolutionary changes in protein structures may render them more susceptible to toxic metal binding. As the understanding of toxicity evolves, so does the demand for new toxic metal research. New instrumentation designs and software make it possible to perform research that could not be done in the past. What was undetectable yesterday will

  10. DETERMINING THE AGE OF THE KEPLER OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6819 WITH A NEW TRIPLE SYSTEM AND OTHER ECLIPSING BINARY STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, Lauren N.; Sandquist, Eric L.; Jeffries, Mark W. Jr.; Orosz, Jerome A.

    2016-01-01

    As part of our study of the old (∼2.5 Gyr) open cluster NGC 6819 in the Kepler field, we present photometric (Kepler and ground-based BVR C I C ) and spectroscopic observations of the detached eclipsing binary WOCS 24009 (Auner 665; KIC 5023948) with a short orbital period of 3.6 days. WOCS 24009 is a triple-lined system, and we verify that the brightest star is physically orbiting the eclipsing binary using radial velocities and eclipse timing variations. The eclipsing binary components have masses M B  = 1.090 ± 0.010 M ⊙ and M C  = 1.075 ± 0.013 M ⊙ , and radii R B  = 1.099 ± 0.006 ± 0.005 R ⊙ and R C  = 1.069 ± 0.006 ± 0.013 R ⊙ . The bright non-eclipsing star resides at the cluster turnoff, and ultimately its mass will directly constrain the turnoff mass: our preliminary determination is M A  = 1.251 ± 0.057 M ⊙ . A careful examination of the light curves indicates that the fainter star in the eclipsing binary undergoes a very brief period of total eclipse, which enables us to precisely decompose the light of the three stars and place them in the color–magnitude diagram (CMD). We also present improved analysis of two previously discussed detached eclipsing stars in NGC 6819 (WOCS 40007 and WOCS 23009) en route to a combined determination of the cluster’s distance modulus (m − M) V  = 12.38 ± 0.04. Because this paper significantly increases the number of measured stars in the cluster, we can better constrain the age of the CMD to be 2.21 ± 0.10 ± 0.20 Gyr. Additionally, using all measured eclipsing binary star masses and radii, we constrain the age to 2.38 ± 0.05 ± 0.22 Gyr. The quoted uncertainties are estimates of measurement and systematic uncertainties (due to model physics differences and metal content), respectively

  11. New transition metal complexes and their ring-opened polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Paula

    An exciting new class of metallacycle (eta5-C5 H4Fe) (CO)2CH2SiR2 that undergoes ring-opening polymerization was recently reported by Sharma et al. [1]. We are interested in further expanding this research area by synthesizing related cyclopentadienyl derivatives containing Fe, Mo, and W in combination with other elements of the group 14. We report here the synthesis and crystal structure characterization of new germa-metallacyclobutanes of Mo and W. In addition, we have successfully synthesized and characterized new ring-opening polymers of the related germanium systems [(eta5-C5 H4Fe)(CO) 2(CH2GeR2)] n. The new polymers were characterized using various spectroscopic techniques and gel permeation chromatography. The recent report on the synthesis of a new class of siloxane polymers based upon base-catalyzed ring opening of phenylene-bridged cyclic siloxanes [2] encouraged us to investigate the related ferrocenyl (Fc, (C5H 5)Fe(C5H4)) siloxane systems. The incorporation of ferrocene could provide new materials with all the interesting properties usually associated with these groups such as thermal and photochemical stability, electrochemical activity and potentially conducting materials. Thus far a new required organometallic monomer containing Fc-R, where R = disilaoxacyclopentene 5 has been synthesized and completely characterized. Based-induced ring-opening polymerizations of 5 were attempted under different reaction conditions and produced, inter alia: (C5H5)Fe(C 5H4)C(SiMe2OH)=CH(SiMe2R), R = nBu (2), tBu (3), Ph (4). The single crystal X-ray structures and full spectroscopic analysis of such products has been accomplished. Furthermore, the reactivity of the ferrocenyl silanols concerning condensation and their behavior under acidic conditions has been investigated. 1Sharma, H.; Cervantes-Lee, F.; Pannell, K. H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 1326. 2 Loy, A. D.; Rahimian, K.; Samara, M. Angew. Chem. 1999, 38, 45.

  12. Magnetron sputtering cluster apparatus for formation and deposition of size-selected metal nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    selection is achieved using an electrostatic quadrupole mass selector. The deposited silver clusters are studied using atomic force microscopy. The height distributions show typical relative standard size deviation of 9-13% for given sizes in the range between 5-23 nm. Thus, the apparatus demonstrates good...... capability in formation of supported size-selected metal nanoparticles with controllable coverage for various practical applications....

  13. Giant metal sputtering yields induced by 20-5000 keV/atom gold clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, H.H.; Brunelle, A.; Della-Negra, S.; Depauw, J.; Jacquet, D.; Le Beyec, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Very large non-linear effects have been found in cluster-induced metal sputtering over a broad projectile energy interval for the first time. Recently available cluster beams from tandem accelerators have allowed sputtering yield measurements to be made with Au 1 to Au 5 from 20 keV/atom to 5 MeV/atom. The cluster-sputtering yield maxima were found at the same total energy but not at the same energy/atom as expected. For Au 5 a yield as high as 3000 was reached at 150 keV/atom while the Au 1 yield was only 55 at the same velocity. The Sigmund-Claussen thermal spike theory, which fits published data at low energy, cannot reproduce our extended new data set. (author)

  14. Stability and mobility of defect clusters and dislocation loops in metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osetsky, Y.N.; Bacon, D.J.; Serra, A.

    2000-01-01

    has been observed in the computer simulation of small vacancy loops in alpha-Fe. In the present paper we summarise results obtained by molecular dynamics simulations of defect clusters and small dislocation loops in alpha-Fe(bcc) and Cu(fcc). The structure and stability of vacancy and interstitial......According to the production bias model, glissile defect clusters and small dislocation loops play an important role in the microstructural evolution during irradiation under cascade damage conditions. The atomic scale computer simulations carried out in recent years have clarified many questions...... loops are reviewed, and the dynamics of glissile clusters assessed. The relevance and importance of these results in establishing a better understanding of the observed differences in the damage accumulation behaviour between bcc and fee metals irradiated under cascade damage conditions are pointed out...

  15. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS). XXVI. The Issues of Photometric Age and Metallicity Estimates for Globular Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powalka, Mathieu; Lançon, Ariane; Duc, Pierre-Alain [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l’Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Puzia, Thomas H.; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Zhang, Hongxin [Institute of Astrophysics, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Peng, Eric W. [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu, Chengze [Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Blakeslee, John P.; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Roediger, Joel; Gwyn, S. D. J. [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics Program, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Sánchez-Janssen, Rúben [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Durrell, Patrick R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH (United States); Cuillandre, Jean-Charles [AIM Paris Saclay, CNRS/INSU, CEA/Irfu,Université Paris Diderot, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Guhathakurta, Puragra [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Hudelot, Patrick, E-mail: mathieu.powalka@astro.unistra.fr [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS and UPMC, 98bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); and others

    2017-08-01

    Large samples of globular clusters (GC) with precise multi-wavelength photometry are becoming increasingly available and can be used to constrain the formation history of galaxies. We present the results of an analysis of Milky Way (MW) and Virgo core GCs based on 5 optical-near-infrared colors and 10 synthetic stellar population models. For the MW GCs, the models tend to agree on photometric ages and metallicities, with values similar to those obtained with previous studies. When used with Virgo core GCs, for which photometry is provided by the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS), the same models generically return younger ages. This is a consequence of the systematic differences observed between the locus occupied by Virgo core GCs and models in panchromatic color space. Only extreme fine-tuning of the adjustable parameters available to us can make the majority of the best-fit ages old. Although we cannot exclude that the formation history of the Virgo core may lead to more conspicuous populations of relatively young GCs than in other environments, we emphasize that the intrinsic properties of the Virgo GCs are likely to differ systematically from those assumed in the models. Thus, the large wavelength coverage and photometric quality of modern GC samples, such as those used here, is not by itself sufficient to better constrain the GC formation histories. Models matching the environment-dependent characteristics of GCs in multi-dimensional color space are needed to improve the situation.

  16. THE SLUGGS SURVEY: NGC 3115, A CRITICAL TEST CASE FOR METALLICITY BIMODALITY IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Jean P.; Conroy, Charlie; Arnold, Jacob A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J. [University of California Observatories and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Usher, Christopher; Forbes, Duncan A. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Strader, Jay, E-mail: brodie@ucolick.org [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    Due to its proximity (9 Mpc) and the strongly bimodal color distribution of its spectroscopically well-sampled globular cluster (GC) system, the early-type galaxy NGC 3115 provides one of the best available tests of whether the color bimodality widely observed in GC systems generally reflects a true metallicity bimodality. Color bimodality has alternatively been attributed to a strongly nonlinear color-metallicity relation reflecting the influence of hot horizontal-branch stars. Here, we couple Subaru Suprime-Cam gi photometry with Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy to accurately measure GC colors and a CaT index that measures the Ca II triplet. We find the NGC 3115 GC system to be unambiguously bimodal in both color and the CaT index. Using simple stellar population models, we show that the CaT index is essentially unaffected by variations in horizontal-branch morphology over the range of metallicities relevant to GC systems (and is thus a robust indicator of metallicity) and confirm bimodality in the metallicity distribution. We assess the existing evidence for and against multiple metallicity subpopulations in early- and late-type galaxies and conclude that metallicity bi/multimodality is common. We briefly discuss how this fundamental characteristic links directly to the star formation and assembly histories of galaxies.

  17. Interaction of Model Inhibitor Compounds with Minimalist Cluster Representations of Hydroxyl Terminated Metal Oxide Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Taylor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The computational modeling of corrosion inhibitors at the level of molecular interactions has been pursued for decades, and recent developments are allowing increasingly realistic models to be developed for inhibitor–inhibitor, inhibitor–solvent and inhibitor–metal interactions. At the same time, there remains a need for simplistic models to be used for the purpose of screening molecules for proposed inhibitor performance. Herein, we apply a reductionist model for metal surfaces consisting of a metal cation with hydroxide ligands and use quantum chemical modeling to approximate the free energy of adsorption for several imidazoline class candidate corrosion inhibitors. The approximation is made using the binding energy and the partition coefficient. As in some previous work, we consider different methods for incorporating solvent and reference systems for the partition coefficient. We compare the findings from this short study with some previous theoretical work on similar systems. The binding energies for the inhibitors to the metal hydroxide clusters are found to be intermediate to the binding energies calculated in other work for bare metal vs. metal oxide surfaces. The method is applied to copper, iron, aluminum and nickel metal systems.

  18. THE SLUGGS SURVEY: NGC 3115, A CRITICAL TEST CASE FOR METALLICITY BIMODALITY IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodie, Jean P.; Conroy, Charlie; Arnold, Jacob A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Usher, Christopher; Forbes, Duncan A.; Strader, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Due to its proximity (9 Mpc) and the strongly bimodal color distribution of its spectroscopically well-sampled globular cluster (GC) system, the early-type galaxy NGC 3115 provides one of the best available tests of whether the color bimodality widely observed in GC systems generally reflects a true metallicity bimodality. Color bimodality has alternatively been attributed to a strongly nonlinear color-metallicity relation reflecting the influence of hot horizontal-branch stars. Here, we couple Subaru Suprime-Cam gi photometry with Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy to accurately measure GC colors and a CaT index that measures the Ca II triplet. We find the NGC 3115 GC system to be unambiguously bimodal in both color and the CaT index. Using simple stellar population models, we show that the CaT index is essentially unaffected by variations in horizontal-branch morphology over the range of metallicities relevant to GC systems (and is thus a robust indicator of metallicity) and confirm bimodality in the metallicity distribution. We assess the existing evidence for and against multiple metallicity subpopulations in early- and late-type galaxies and conclude that metallicity bi/multimodality is common. We briefly discuss how this fundamental characteristic links directly to the star formation and assembly histories of galaxies.

  19. NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICITY RELATIONS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. III. ON THE DISCREPANCY IN METALLICITY BETWEEN GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS AND THEIR PARENT ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Suk-Jin; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Cho, Jaeil; Kim, Hak-Sub; Chung, Chul; Kim, Sooyoung; Lee, Young-Wook; Blakeslee, John P.; Peng, Eric W.; Sohn, Sangmo T.

    2011-01-01

    One of the conundrums in extragalactic astronomy is the discrepancy in observed metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) between the two prime stellar components of early-type galaxies—globular clusters (GCs) and halo field stars. This is generally taken as evidence of highly decoupled evolutionary histories between GC systems and their parent galaxies. Here we show, however, that new developments in linking the observed GC colors to their intrinsic metallicities suggest nonlinear color-to-metallicity conversions, which translate observed color distributions into strongly peaked, unimodal MDFs with broad metal-poor tails. Remarkably, the inferred GC MDFs are similar to the MDFs of resolved field stars in nearby elliptical galaxies and those produced by chemical evolution models of galaxies. The GC MDF shape, characterized by a sharp peak with a metal-poor tail, indicates a virtually continuous chemical enrichment with a relatively short timescale. The characteristic shape emerges across three orders of magnitude in the host galaxy mass, suggesting a universal process of chemical enrichment among various GC systems. Given that GCs are bluer than field stars within the same galaxy, it is plausible that the chemical enrichment processes of GCs ceased somewhat earlier than that of the field stellar population, and if so, GCs preferentially trace the major, vigorous mode of star formation events in galactic formation. We further suggest a possible systematic age difference among GC systems, in that the GC systems in more luminous galaxies are older. This is consistent with the downsizing paradigm whereby stars of brighter galaxies, on average, formed earlier than those of dimmer galaxies; this additionally supports the similar nature shared by GCs and field stars. Although the sample used in this study (the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Wide Field Channel, WFPC2, and WFC3 photometry for the GC systems in the Virgo galaxy cluster) confines our

  20. GLOBULAR CLUSTER ABUNDANCES FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION, INTEGRATED-LIGHT SPECTROSCOPY. II. EXPANDING THE METALLICITY RANGE FOR OLD CLUSTERS AND UPDATED ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; McWilliam, Andrew [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We present abundances of globular clusters (GCs) in the Milky Way and Fornax from integrated-light (IL) spectra. Our goal is to evaluate the consistency of the IL analysis relative to standard abundance analysis for individual stars in those same clusters. This sample includes an updated analysis of seven clusters from our previous publications and results for five new clusters that expand the metallicity range over which our technique has been tested. We find that the [Fe/H] measured from IL spectra agrees to ∼0.1 dex for GCs with metallicities as high as [Fe/H] = −0.3, but the abundances measured for more metal-rich clusters may be underestimated. In addition we systematically evaluate the accuracy of abundance ratios, [X/Fe], for Na i, Mg i, Al i, Si i, Ca i, Ti i, Ti ii, Sc ii, V i, Cr i, Mn i, Co i, Ni i, Cu i, Y ii, Zr i, Ba ii, La ii, Nd ii, and Eu ii. The elements for which the IL analysis gives results that are most similar to analysis of individual stellar spectra are Fe i, Ca i, Si i, Ni i, and Ba ii. The elements that show the greatest differences include Mg i and Zr i. Some elements show good agreement only over a limited range in metallicity. More stellar abundance data in these clusters would enable more complete evaluation of the IL results for other important elements.

  1. Performance Modeling of Hybrid MPI/OpenMP Scientific Applications on Large-scale Multicore Cluster Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we present a performance modeling framework based on memory bandwidth contention time and a parameterized communication model to predict the performance of OpenMP, MPI and hybrid applications with weak scaling on three large-scale multicore clusters: IBM POWER4, POWER5+ and Blue Gene/P, and analyze the performance of these MPI, OpenMP and hybrid applications. We use STREAM memory benchmarks to provide initial performance analysis and model validation of MPI and OpenMP applications on these multicore clusters because the measured sustained memory bandwidth can provide insight into the memory bandwidth that a system should sustain on scientific applications with the same amount of workload per core. In addition to using these benchmarks, we also use a weak-scaling hybrid MPI/OpenMP large-scale scientific application: Gyro kinetic Toroidal Code in magnetic fusion to validate our performance model of the hybrid application on these multicore clusters. The validation results for our performance modeling method show less than 7.77% error rate in predicting the performance of hybrid MPI/OpenMP GTC on up to 512 cores on these multicore clusters. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. Performance Modeling of Hybrid MPI/OpenMP Scientific Applications on Large-scale Multicore Cluster Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu; Taylor, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a performance modeling framework based on memory bandwidth contention time and a parameterized communication model to predict the performance of OpenMP, MPI and hybrid applications with weak scaling on three large-scale multicore clusters: IBM POWER4, POWER5+ and Blue Gene/P, and analyze the performance of these MPI, OpenMP and hybrid applications. We use STREAM memory benchmarks to provide initial performance analysis and model validation of MPI and OpenMP applications on these multicore clusters because the measured sustained memory bandwidth can provide insight into the memory bandwidth that a system should sustain on scientific applications with the same amount of workload per core. In addition to using these benchmarks, we also use a weak-scaling hybrid MPI/OpenMP large-scale scientific application: Gyro kinetic Toroidal Code in magnetic fusion to validate our performance model of the hybrid application on these multicore clusters. The validation results for our performance modeling method show less than 7.77% error rate in predicting the performance of hybrid MPI/OpenMP GTC on up to 512 cores on these multicore clusters. © 2011 IEEE.

  3. Quantum kinetic theory of metal clusters in an intense electromagnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Bonitz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantum kinetic theory for weakly inhomogeneous charged particle systems is derived within the framework of nonequilibrium Green's functions. The results are of relevance for valence electrons of metal clusters as well as for confined Coulomb systems, such as electrons in quantum dots or ultracold ions in traps and similar systems. To be specific, here we concentrate on the application to metal clusters, but the results are straightforwardly generalized. Therefore, we first give an introduction to the physics of correlated valence electrons of metal clusters in strong electromagnetic fields. After a brief overview on the jellium model and the standard density functional approach to the ground state properties, we focus on the extension of the theory to nonequilibrium. To this end a general gauge-invariant kinetic theory is developed. The results include the equations of motion of the two-time correlation functions, the equation for the Wigner function and an analysis of the spectral function. Here, the concept of an effective quantum potential is introduced which retains the convenient local form of the propagators. This allows us to derive explicit results for the spectral function of electrons in a combined strong electromagnetic field and a weakly inhomogeneous confinement potential.

  4. The Gaia-ESO Survey: the present-day radial metallicity distribution of the Galactic disc probed by pre-main-sequence clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, L.; Randich, S.; Magrini, L.; Jeffries, R. D.; Friel, E. D.; Sacco, G. G.; Pancino, E.; Bonito, R.; Bravi, L.; Franciosini, E.; Klutsch, A.; Montes, D.; Gilmore, G.; Vallenari, A.; Bensby, T.; Bragaglia, A.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Smiljanic, R.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Casey, A. R.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Donati, P.; Frasca, A.; Hourihane, A.; Jofré, P.; Lewis, J.; Lind, K.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Sousa, S. G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.

    2017-05-01

    Context. The radial metallicity distribution in the Galactic thin disc represents a crucial constraint for modelling disc formation and evolution. Open star clusters allow us to derive both the radial metallicity distribution and its evolution over time. Aims: In this paper we perform the first investigation of the present-day radial metallicity distribution based on [Fe/H] determinations in late type members of pre-main-sequence clusters. Because of their youth, these clusters are therefore essential for tracing the current interstellar medium metallicity. Methods: We used the products of the Gaia-ESO Survey analysis of 12 young regions (age ages is not easily explained by the models. Our results reveal a complex interplay of several processes (e.g. star formation activity, initial mass function, supernova yields, gas flows) that controlled the recent evolution of the Milky Way. Based on observations made with the ESO/VLT, at Paranal Observatory, under program 188.B-3002 (The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey).Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/601/A70

  5. Atmospheric parameters and metallicities for 2191 stars in the globular cluster M4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malavolta, Luca; Piotto, Giampaolo; Nascimbeni, Valerio; Sneden, Christopher; Milone, Antonino P.; Bedin, Luigi R.

    2014-01-01

    We report new metallicities for stars of Galactic globular cluster M4 using the largest number of stars ever observed at high spectral resolution in any cluster. We analyzed 7250 spectra for 2771 cluster stars gathered with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) FLAMES+GIRAFFE spectrograph at VLT. These medium-resolution spectra cover a small wavelength range, and often have very low signal-to-noise ratios. We approached this data set by reconsidering the whole method of abundance analysis of large stellar samples from beginning to end. We developed a new algorithm that automatically determines the atmospheric parameters of a star. Nearly all of the data preparation steps for spectroscopic analyses are processed on the syntheses, not the observed spectra. For 322 red giant branch (RGB) stars with V ≤ 14.7, we obtain a nearly constant metallicity, ([Fe/H]) = –1.07 (σ = 0.02). No difference in the metallicity at the level of 0.01 dex is observed between the two RGB sequences identified by Monelli et al. For 1869 subgiant and main-sequence stars with V > 14.7, we obtain ([Fe/H]) = –1.16 (σ = 0.09) after fixing the microturbulent velocity. These values are consistent with previous studies that have performed detailed analyses of brighter RGB stars at higher spectroscopic resolution and wavelength coverage. It is not clear if the small mean metallicity difference between brighter and fainter M4 members is real or is the result of the low signal-to-noise characteristics of the fainter stars. The strength of our approach is shown by recovering a metallicity close to a single value for more than 2000 stars, using a data set that is non-optimal for atmospheric analyses. This technique is particularly suitable for noisy data taken in difficult observing conditions

  6. Atmospheric parameters and metallicities for 2191 stars in the globular cluster M4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malavolta, Luca; Piotto, Giampaolo; Nascimbeni, Valerio [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sneden, Christopher [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Milone, Antonino P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bedin, Luigi R., E-mail: luca.malavolta@unipd.it, E-mail: giampaolo.piotto@unipd.it, E-mail: valerio.nascimbeni@unipd.it, E-mail: luigi.bedin@oapd.inaf.it, E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: milone@mso.anu.edu.au [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)

    2014-02-01

    We report new metallicities for stars of Galactic globular cluster M4 using the largest number of stars ever observed at high spectral resolution in any cluster. We analyzed 7250 spectra for 2771 cluster stars gathered with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) FLAMES+GIRAFFE spectrograph at VLT. These medium-resolution spectra cover a small wavelength range, and often have very low signal-to-noise ratios. We approached this data set by reconsidering the whole method of abundance analysis of large stellar samples from beginning to end. We developed a new algorithm that automatically determines the atmospheric parameters of a star. Nearly all of the data preparation steps for spectroscopic analyses are processed on the syntheses, not the observed spectra. For 322 red giant branch (RGB) stars with V ≤ 14.7, we obtain a nearly constant metallicity, ([Fe/H]) = –1.07 (σ = 0.02). No difference in the metallicity at the level of 0.01 dex is observed between the two RGB sequences identified by Monelli et al. For 1869 subgiant and main-sequence stars with V > 14.7, we obtain ([Fe/H]) = –1.16 (σ = 0.09) after fixing the microturbulent velocity. These values are consistent with previous studies that have performed detailed analyses of brighter RGB stars at higher spectroscopic resolution and wavelength coverage. It is not clear if the small mean metallicity difference between brighter and fainter M4 members is real or is the result of the low signal-to-noise characteristics of the fainter stars. The strength of our approach is shown by recovering a metallicity close to a single value for more than 2000 stars, using a data set that is non-optimal for atmospheric analyses. This technique is particularly suitable for noisy data taken in difficult observing conditions.

  7. Magneto-structural properties and magnetic anisotropy of small transition-metal clusters: a first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blonski, Piotr; Hafner, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    Ab initio density-functional calculations including spin-orbit coupling (SOC) have been performed for Ni and Pd clusters with three to six atoms and for 13-atom clusters of Ni, Pd, and Pt, extending earlier calculations for Pt clusters with up to six atoms (2011 J. Chem. Phys. 134 034107). The geometric and magnetic structures have been optimized for different orientations of the magnetization with respect to the crystallographic axes of the cluster. The magnetic anisotropy energies (MAE) and the anisotropies of spin and orbital moments have been determined. Particular attention has been paid to the correlation between the geometric and magnetic structures. The magnetic point group symmetry of the clusters varies with the direction of the magnetization. Even for a 3d metal such as Ni, the change in the magnetic symmetry leads to small geometric distortions of the cluster structure, which are even more pronounced for the 4d metal Pd. For a 5d metal the SOC is strong enough to change the energetic ordering of the structural isomers. SOC leads to a mixing of the spin states corresponding to the low-energy spin isomers identified in the scalar-relativistic calculations. Spin moments are isotropic only for Ni clusters, but anisotropic for Pd and Pt clusters, orbital moments are anisotropic for the clusters of all three elements. The magnetic anisotropy energies have been calculated. The comparison between MAE and orbital anisotropy invalidates a perturbation analysis of magnetic anisotropy for these small clusters.

  8. Electronic and magnetic properties of 3d transition metal-doped strontium clusters: Prospective magnetic superatoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Vikas; Sen, Prasenjit

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of TM-Sr clusters are studied using DFT methods. • CrSr 9 and MnSr 10 have enhanced stability in the CrSr n and MnSrn series. • These two clusters behave as magnetic superatoms. • A qualitative understanding of the magnetic coupling between two superatom units is offered. • Reactivity of these superatoms to molecular oxygen also studied. - Abstract: Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of 3d transition metal doped strontium clusters are studied using first-principles electronic structure methods based on density functional theory. Clusters with enhanced kinetic and thermodynamic stability are identified by studying their hardness, second order energy difference and adiabatic spin excitation energy. CrSr 9 and MnSr 10 are found to have enhanced stability. They retain their structural identities in assemblies, and are classified as magnetic superatoms. A qualitative understanding of the magnetic coupling between two cluster units is arrived at. Reactivity of these superatoms with O 2 molecule is also studied. Prospects for using these magnetic superatoms in applications are discussed

  9. A numerical study of spin-dependent organization of alkali-metal atomic clusters using density-functional method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xuan; Ito, Haruhiko; Torikai, Eiko

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the different geometric isomers of spin clusters composed of a small number of alkali-metal atoms using the UB3LYP density-functional method. The electron density distribution of clusters changes according to the value of total spin. Steric structures as well as planar structures arise when the number of atoms increases. The lowest spin state is the most stable and Li n , Na n , K n , Rb n , and Cs n with n = 2–8 can be formed in higher spin states. In the highest spin state, the preparation of clusters depends on the kind and the number of constituent atoms. The interaction energy between alkali-metal atoms and rare-gas atoms is smaller than the binding energy of spin clusters. Consequently, it is possible to self-organize the alkali-metal-atom clusters on a non-wetting substrate coated with rare-gas atoms.

  10. Metal-Organic Framework of Lanthanoid Dinuclear Clusters Undergoes Slow Magnetic Relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikaru Iwami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lanthanoid metal-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs can adopt a variety of new structures due to the large coordination numbers of Ln metal ions, and Ln-MOFs are expected to show new luminescence and magnetic properties due to the localized f electrons. In particular, some Ln metal ions, such as Dy(III and Tb(III ions, work as isolated quantum magnets when they have magnetic anisotropy. In this work, using 4,4′,4″-s-triazine-2,4,6-triyl-tribenzoic acid (H3TATB as a ligand, two new Ln-MOFs, [Dy(TATB(DMF2] (1 and [Tb(TATB(DMF2] (2, were obtained. The Ln-MOFs contain Ln dinuclear clusters as secondary building units, and 1 underwent slow magnetic relaxation similar to single-molecule magnets.

  11. New variable stars discovered in the fields of three Galactic open clusters using the VVV survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, T.; Minniti, D.; Dékány, I.; Clariá, J. J.; Alonso-García, J.; Gramajo, L. V.; Ramírez Alegría, S.; Bonatto, C.

    2016-11-01

    This project is a massive near-infrared (NIR) search for variable stars in highly reddened and obscured open cluster (OC) fields projected on regions of the Galactic bulge and disk. The search is performed using photometric NIR data in the J-, H- and Ks- bands obtained from the Vista Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) Survey. We performed in each cluster field a variability search using Stetson's variability statistics to select the variable candidates. Later, those candidates were subjected to a frequency analysis using the Generalized Lomb-Scargle and the Phase Dispersion Minimization algorithms. The number of independent observations range between 63 and 73. The newly discovered variables in this study, 157 in total in three different known OCs, are classified based on their light curve shapes, periods, amplitudes and their location in the corresponding color-magnitude (J -Ks ,Ks) and color-color (H -Ks , J - H) diagrams. We found 5 possible Cepheid stars which, based on the period-luminosity relation, are very likely type II Cepheids located behind the bulge. Among the newly discovered variables, there are eclipsing binaries, δ Scuti, as well as background RR Lyrae stars. Using the new version of the Wilson & Devinney code as well as the "Physics Of Eclipsing Binaries" (PHOEBE) code, we analyzed some of the best eclipsing binaries we discovered. Our results show that these studied systems turn out to be ranging from detached to double-contact binaries, with low eccentricities and high inclinations of approximately 80°. Their surface temperatures range between 3500 K and 8000 K.

  12. Three exciting areas of experimental physical sciences : high temperature superconductors, metal clusters and super molecules of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, C.N.

    1992-01-01

    The author has narrated his experience in carrying out research in three exciting areas of physical sciences. These areas are : high temperature superconductors, metal clusters and super molecules of carbon. (M.G.B.)

  13. Spectra of globular clusters in the Sombrero galaxy: evidence for spectroscopic metallicity bimodality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Brito, Alan; Hau, George K. T.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Spitler, Lee R.; Strader, Jay; Brodie, Jean P.; Rhode, Katherine L.

    2011-11-01

    We present a large sample of over 200 integrated-light spectra of confirmed globular clusters (GCs) associated with the Sombrero (M104) galaxy taken with the Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph (DEIMOS) instrument on the Keck telescope. A significant fraction of the spectra have signal-to-noise ratio levels high enough to allow measurements of GC metallicities using the method of Brodie & Huchra. We find a distribution of spectroscopic metallicities in the range -2.2 < [Fe/H] < +0.1 that is bimodal, with peaks at [Fe/H]˜-1.4 and -0.6. Thus, the GC system of the Sombrero galaxy, like a few other galaxies now studied in detail, reveals a bimodal spectroscopic metallicity distribution supporting the long-held belief that colour bimodality reflects two metallicity subpopulations. This further suggests that the transformation from optical colour to metallicity for old stellar populations, such as GCs, is not strongly non-linear. We also explore the radial and magnitude distribution with metallicity for GC subpopulations but small number statistics prevent any clear trends in these distributions. Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  14. Clustered atom-replaced structure in single-crystal-like metal oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Takeshi; Hayashi, Mariko; Ishii, Hirotaka; Yokoe, Daisaku; Yoshida, Ryuji; Kato, Takeharu; Nishijima, Gen; Matsumoto, Akiyoshi

    2018-06-01

    By means of metal organic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD), we replaced and localized two or more atoms in a single-crystalline structure having almost perfect orientation. Thus, we created a new functional structure, namely, clustered atom-replaced structure (CARS), having single-crystal-like metal oxide. We replaced metals in the oxide with Sm and Lu and localized them. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy results, where the Sm signal increases with the Lu signal in the single-crystalline structure, confirm evidence of CARS. We also form other CARS with three additional metals, including Pr. The valence number of Pr might change from 3+ to approximately 4+, thereby reducing the Pr–Ba distance. We directly observed the structure by a high-angle annular dark-field image, which provided further evidence of CARS. The key to establishing CARS is an equilibrium chemical reaction and a combination of additional larger and smaller unit cells to matrix cells. We made a new functional metal oxide with CARS and expect to realize CARS in other metal oxide structures in the future by using the above-mentioned process.

  15. Asteroseismology of the Open Clusters NGC 6791, NGC 6811, and NGC 6819 from 19 Months of Kepler Photometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsaro, Enrico; Stello, Dennis; Huber, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We studied solar-like oscillations in 115 red giants in the three open clusters, NGC 6791, NGC 6811, and NGC 6819, based on photometric data covering more than 19 months with NASA's Kepler space telescope. We present the asteroseismic diagrams of the asymptotic parameters δν02, δν01, and ϵ, which...

  16. Influence of a transition metal atom on the geometry and electronic structure of Mg and Mg-H clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siretskiy, M.Yu.; Shelyapina, M.G.; Fruchart, D.; Miraglia, S.; Skryabina, N.E.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the study of (MgH 2 ) n + M complexes (M = Ti or Ni) carried out within the framework of the cluster density functional theory (DFT) method. The influence of such transition metal atoms on the cluster geometry and electronic structure is discussed considering the stability of MgH 2 hydride.

  17. Major signal suppression from metal ion clusters in SFC/ESI-MS - Cause and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglind, Alfred; Hedeland, Mikael; Arvidsson, Torbjörn; Pettersson, Curt E

    2018-05-01

    The widening application area of SFC-MS with polar analytes and water-containing samples facilitates the use of quick and simple sample preparation techniques such as "dilute and shoot" and protein precipitation. This has also introduced new polar interfering components such as alkali metal ions naturally abundant in e.g. blood plasma and urine, which have shown to be retained using screening conditions in SFC/ESI-TOF-MS and causing areas of major ion suppression. Analytes co-eluting with these clusters will have a decreased signal intensity, which might have a major effect on both quantification and identification. When investigating the composition of the alkali metal clusters using accurate mass and isotopic pattern, it could be concluded that they were previously not described in the literature. Using NaCl and KCl standards and different chromatographic conditions, varying e.g. column and modifier, the clusters proved to be formed from the alkali metal ions in combination with the alcohol modifier and make-up solvent. Their compositions were [(XOCH 3 ) n  + X] + , [(XOH) n  + X] + , [(X 2 CO 3 ) n  + X] + and [(XOOCOCH 3 ) n  + X] + for X = Na + or K + in ESI+. In ESI-, the clusters depended more on modifier, with [(XCl) n  + Cl] - and [(XOCH 3 ) n  + OCH 3 ] - mainly formed in pure methanol and [(XOOCH) n  + OOCH] - when 20 mM NH 4 Fa was added. To prevent the formation of the clusters by avoiding methanol as modifier might be difficult, as this is a widely used modifier providing good solubility when analyzing polar compounds in SFC. A sample preparation with e.g. LLE would remove the alkali ions, however also introducing a time consuming and discriminating step into the method. Since the alkali metal ions were retained and affected by chromatographic adjustments as e.g. mobile phase modifications, a way to avoid them could therefore be chromatographic tuning, when analyzing samples containing them. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier

  18. Catalogue of Positions and Proper Motions of Stars in the Vicinity of Open Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protsyuk, Yu.I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Research Institute Mykolaiv Astronomical Observatory (MAO the catalogue of position and proper motions of stars in the 544 square areas of nearly (1×1°around the Galactic open clusters was created using photographic and CCD observations. 293 plates of (5×5°obtained with the MAO Zonal Astrograph (D=116 mm, F=2040 mm in 1962-1993 and more than 20 thousands CCD frames (0.7×0.7° obtained with KT-50 telescope (D=500 mm, F=3000 mm in 2011-2015 were used. Almost 270 thousands FITS files from the IVOA image archives with observational epoch from 1953 to 2010 were downloaded and processed. The created catalogue contains more than 2.3 million stars (7.5-18.5m in the ICRS system with the accuracy of positions on both coordinates ranged from 0.02" to 0.05". Inner accuracy of proper motions is ~0.004"/year.

  19. Catalogue of positions and proper motions of stars in the vicinity of open clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protsyuk, Yu. I.; Kovalchuk, O. M.; Mazhaev, O. E.

    2017-02-01

    A catalog of positions and proper motions of stars in 544 square areas of nearly (1 × 1)° around the Galactic open clusters has been created using photographic and CCD observations, at Research Institute "Mykolaiv Astronomical Observatory" (RI "MAO"). To this end, 293 plates of (5 × 5)° obtained with the MAO Zonal Astrograph (D=116 mm, F=2040 mm) in 1962-1993 and more than 20 thousand CCD frames (0.7 × 0.7)° obtained with KT-50 telescope (D=500 mm, F=3000 mm) in 2011-2015 have been used. Almost 270 thousand FITS files from the IVOA image archives with observational epoch from 1953 to 2010 have been downloaded and processed. The created catalogue contains more than 2.3 million stars having a magnitude of (7.5-18.5)m in the ICRS system, with accuracy of positions for both coordinates ranging from 0.02" to 0.05". Internal accuracy of proper motions is estimated as ~0.004"/year.

  20. Slow Cooling in Low Metallicity Clouds: An Origin of Globular Cluster Bimodality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ricardo; Bryan, Greg L.

    2018-05-01

    We explore the relative role of small-scale fragmentation and global collapse in low-metallicity clouds, pointing out that in such clouds the cooling time may be longer than the dynamical time, allowing the cloud to collapse globally before it can fragment. This, we suggest, may help to explain the formation of the low-metallicity globular cluster population, since such dense stellar systems need a large amount of gas to be collected in a small region (without significant feedback during the collapse). To explore this further, we carry out numerical simulations of low-metallicity Bonner-Ebert stable gas clouds, demonstrating that there exists a critical metallicity (between 0.001 and 0.01 Z⊙) below which the cloud collapses globally without fragmentation. We also run simulations including a background radiative heating source, showing that this can also produce clouds that do not fragment, and that the critical metallicity - which can exceed the no-radiation case - increases with the heating rate.

  1. SOLAR-LIKE OSCILLATIONS IN A METAL-POOR GLOBULAR CLUSTER WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stello, Dennis; Gilliland, Ronald L.

    2009-01-01

    We present analyses of variability in the red giant stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 6397, based on data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. We use a nonstandard data reduction approach to turn a 23 day observing run originally aimed at imaging the white dwarf population, into time-series photometry of the cluster's highly saturated red giant stars. With this technique we obtain noise levels in the final power spectra down to 50 parts per million, which allows us to search for low-amplitude solar-like oscillations. We compare the observed excess power seen in the power spectra with estimates of the typical frequency range, frequency spacing, and amplitude from scaling the solar oscillations. We see evidence that the detected variability is consistent with solar-like oscillations in at least one and perhaps up to four stars. With metallicities 2 orders of magnitude lower than those of the Sun, these stars present so far the best evidence of solar-like oscillations in such a low-metallicity environment.

  2. The microstructural origin of strain hardening in two-dimensional open-cell metal foams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangipudi, K. R.; van Buuren, S. W.; Onck, P. R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims at elucidating the microstructural origin of strain hardening in open-cell metal foams. We have developed a multiscale model that allows to study the development of plasticity at two length scales: (i) the development of plastic zones inside individual struts (microscopic scale) and

  3. Chemical study of the metal-rich globular cluster NGC 5927

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura-Guzmán, A.; Villanova, S.; Muñoz, C.; Tang, B.

    2018-03-01

    Globular clusters (GCs) are natural laboratories where stellar and chemical evolution can be studied in detail. In addition, their chemical patterns and kinematics can tell us to which Galactic structure (disc, bulge, halo or extragalactic) the cluster belongs to. NGC 5927 is one of most metal-rich GCs in the Galaxy and its kinematics links it to the thick disc. We present abundance analysis based on high-resolution spectra of seven giant stars. The data were obtained using Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph/Ultraviolet Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) spectrograph mounted on UT2 telescope of the European Southern Observatory. The principal objective of this work is to perform a wide and detailed chemical abundance analysis of the cluster and look for possible Multiple Populations (MPs). We determined stellar parameters and measured 22 elements corresponding to light (Na, Al), alpha (O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti), iron-peak (Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn), and heavy elements (Y, Zr, Ba, Ce, Nd, Eu). We found a mean iron content of [Fe/H] = -0.47 ± 0.02 (error on the mean). We confirm the existence of MPs in this GC with an O-Na anti-correlation, and moderate spread in Al abundances. We estimate a mean [α/Fe] = 0.25 ± 0.08. Iron-peak elements show no significant spread. The [Ba/Eu] ratios indicate a predominant contribution from SNeII for the formation of the cluster.

  4. Collective-field-corrected strong field approximation for laser-irradiated metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keil, Th; Bauer, D

    2014-01-01

    The strong field approximation (SFA) formulated in terms of so-called ‘quantum orbits’ led to much insight into intense-laser driven ionization dynamics. In plain SFA, the emitted electron is treated as a free electron in the laser field alone. However, with improving experimental techniques and more advanced numerical simulations, it becomes more and more obvious that the plain SFA misses interesting effects even on a qualitative level. Examples are holographic side lobes, the low-energy structure, radial patterns in photoelectron spectra at low kinetic energies and strongly rotated angular distributions. For this reason, increasing efforts have been recently devoted to Coulomb corrections of the SFA. In the current paper, we follow a similar line but consider ionization of metal clusters. It is known that photoelectrons from clusters can be much more energetic than those emitted from atoms or small molecules, especially if the Mie resonance of the expanding cluster is evoked. We develop a SFA that takes the collective field inside the cluster via the simple rigid-sphere model into account. Our approach is based on field-corrected quantum orbits so that the acceleration process (or any other spectral feature of interest) can be investigated in detail. (paper)

  5. Main sequence of the metal-poor globular cluster M30 (NGC 7099)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaino, G.; Liller, W.

    1980-01-01

    We present photographic photometry for 673 stars in the metal-poor globular cluster M30 (NGC 7099). The Racine wedge was used with the CTIO 1-m Yale telescope (Δm=3/sup m/.60), the CTIO 4-m telescope (Δm=6/sup m/.83), and the ESO 3.6-m telescope (Δm=4/sup m/.12) to extend the photoelectric limit from Vapprox. =16.3 to Vapprox. =20.4. For the main-sequence turn-off, we have determined its position to lie at V=18.4 +- 0.1 (m.e.) and B-V=0.49 +- 0.03 (m.e.). From these values, we calculate the intrinsic values M/sub v/ =3.87 and (B-V) 0 =0.47. For the cluster as a whole, we derive a distance modulus (m-M)/sub V/=14.53 +- 0.15 and reddening E(B-V)=0.02 +- 0.02. Using the models of Iben and Rood [Astrophys. J. 159, 605 (1970)] and the isochrones of Demarque and McClure [(1977), in Evolution of Galaxies and Stellar Populations, edited by B. Tinsley and R. B. Larson (Yale University Observatory, New Haven), p. 199], we deduce the cluster's age to be 14.5( +- 4.0) x 10 9 yr. The large uncertainty in this value emphasizes the dire need for more work on cluster evolution

  6. Tuning the magnetic properties of deposited transition metal clusters by decoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minar, Jan; Bornemann, S.; Ebert, H. [Dept. Chemie, LMU, Butenandtstr. 5-13, 81377 Muenchen (Germany); Staunton, J.B. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick (United Kingdom); Rusponi, S.; Brunne, H. [EPF Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    Using the fully relativistic version of the KKR-method for electronic structure calculations within local spin density functional theory (LSDA) the magnetic properties of Fe, Co and Ni clusters deposited on the Pt(111) surface have been investigated. Of central interest are the role of spin-orbit coupling as it influences the spontaneous formation and orientation of magnetic moments and gives rise amongst others to the occurrence of orbital magnetic moments, the magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) and magnetic circular dichroism in X-ray absorption (XMCD). Our systematic investigations of different clusters and nanostructures aim to reveal the mutual relationship among their spin-orbit induced properties. In addition they show how their various magnetic properties depend on the structural properties and chemical composition of the studied system. For large two-dimensional clusters we focussed especially on the dependency of the MAE on decoration with another transition metal. Our results are in qualitative agreement with recent experimental findings. We resolved the MAE contributions for inequivalent cluster atoms and will discuss the effect of the induced MAE within the Pt substrate.

  7. An updated survey of globular clusters in M 31. III. A spectroscopic metallicity scale for the Revised Bologna Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galleti, S.; Bellazzini, M.; Buzzoni, A.; Federici, L.; Fusi Pecci, F.

    2009-12-01

    Aims. We present a new homogeneous set of metallicity estimates based on Lick indices for the old globular clusters of the M 31 galaxy. The final aim is to add homogeneous spectroscopic metallicities to as many entries as possible of the Revised Bologna Catalog of M 31 clusters, by reporting Lick index measurements from any source (literature, new observations, etc.) on the same scale. Methods: New empirical relations of [Fe/H] as a function of [MgFe] and Mg2 indices are based on the well-studied galactic globular clusters, complemented with theoretical model predictions for -0.2≤ [Fe/H]≤ +0.5. Lick indices for M 31 clusters from various literature sources (225 clusters) and from new observations by our team (71 clusters) have been transformed into the Trager et al. system, yielding new metallicity estimates for 245 globular clusters of M 31. Results: Our values are in good agreement with recent estimates based on detailed spectral fitting and with those obtained from color magnitude diagrams of clusters imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope. The typical uncertainty on individual estimates is ≃±0.25 dex, as resulted from the comparison with metallicities derived from color magnitude diagrams of individual clusters. Conclusions: The metallicity distribution of M 31 globular cluster is briefly discussed and compared with that of the Milky Way. Simple parametric statistical tests suggest that the distribution is probably not unimodal. The strong correlation between metallicity and kinematics found in previous studies is confirmed. The most metal-rich GCs tend to be packed into the center of the system and to cluster tightly around the galactic rotation curve defined by the HI disk, while the velocity dispersion about the curve increases with decreasing metallicity. However, also the clusters with [Fe/H]<-1.0 display a clear rotation pattern, at odds with their Milky Way counterparts. Based on observations made at La Palma, at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque

  8. Synthesis and characterization of αzirconium (IV) hydrogenphosphate containing metallic copper clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Alexilda Oliveira de; Rangel, Maria do Carmo; Alves, Oswaldo Luiz

    2005-01-01

    The α-zirconium (IV) hydrogenphosphate (α-ZrP) has received great attention in the last years due to its properties like ion exchange, intercalation, ionic conductivity and catalytic activity. This work reports a method to produce metallic copper clusters on α-ZrP to be used as catalysts in petrochemical processes. It was found that the solids were non-crystalline regardless of the uptake of copper and the reduction. The specific surface area increased as a consequence of the increase of the interlayer distance to accept the copper ions between the layers. During the reduction, big clusters of copper (0,5-11μ) with different sizes and shapes were produced. (author)

  9. Applications of Open Source GMAW-Based Metal 3-D Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuenyong Nilsiam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The metal 3-D printing market is currently dominated by high-end applications, which make it inaccessible for small and medium enterprises, fab labs, and individual makers who are interested in the ability to prototype and additively manufacture final products in metal. Recent progress led to low-cost open-source metal 3-D printers using a gas metal arc welding (GMAW-based print head. This reduced the cost of metal 3-D printers into the range of desktop prosumer polymer 3-D printers. Consequent research established good material properties of metal 3-D printed parts with readily-available weld filler wire, reusable substrates, thermal and stress properties, toolpath planning, bead-width control, mechanical properties, and support for overhangs. These previous works showed that GMAW-based metal 3-D printing has a good adhesion between layers and is not porous inside the printed parts, but they did not proceed far enough to demonstrate applications. In this study, the utility of the GMAW approach to 3-D printing is investigated using a low-cost open-source metal 3-D printer and a converted Computer Numerical Control router machine to make useful parts over a range of applications including: fixing an existing part by adding a 3-D metal feature, creating a product using the substrate as part of the component, 3-D printing in high resolution of useful objects, near net objects, and making an integrated product using a combination of steel and polymer 3-D printing. The results show that GMAW-based 3-D printing is capable of distributed manufacturing of useful products for a wide variety of applications for sustainable development.

  10. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES IN NGC 5053: A VERY METAL-POOR AND DYNAMICALLY COMPLEX GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boberg, Owen M.; Friel, Eileen D.; Vesperini, Enrico [Astronomy Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)

    2015-05-10

    NGC 5053 provides a rich environment to test our understanding of the complex evolution of globular clusters (GCs). Recent studies have found that this cluster has interesting morphological features beyond the typical spherical distribution of GCs, suggesting that external tidal effects have played an important role in its evolution and current properties. Additionally, simulations have shown that NGC 5053 could be a likely candidate to belong to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (Sgr dSph) stream. Using the Wisconsin–Indiana–Yale–NOAO–Hydra multi-object spectrograph, we have collected high quality (signal-to-noise ratio ∼ 75–90), medium-resolution spectra for red giant branch stars in NGC 5053. Using these spectra we have measured the Fe, Ca, Ti, Ni, Ba, Na, and O abundances in the cluster. We measure an average cluster [Fe/H] abundance of −2.45 with a standard deviation of 0.04 dex, making NGC 5053 one of the most metal-poor GCs in the Milky Way (MW). The [Ca/Fe], [Ti/Fe], and [Ba/Fe] we measure are consistent with the abundances of MW halo stars at a similar metallicity, with alpha-enhanced ratios and slightly depleted [Ba/Fe]. The Na and O abundances show the Na–O anti-correlation found in most GCs. From our abundance analysis it appears that NGC 5053 is at least chemically similar to other GCs found in the MW. This does not, however, rule out NGC 5053 being associated with the Sgr dSph stream.

  11. Chemical Abundances in NGC 5053: A Very Metal-poor and Dynamically Complex Globular Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boberg, Owen M.; Friel, Eileen D.; Vesperini, Enrico

    2015-05-01

    NGC 5053 provides a rich environment to test our understanding of the complex evolution of globular clusters (GCs). Recent studies have found that this cluster has interesting morphological features beyond the typical spherical distribution of GCs, suggesting that external tidal effects have played an important role in its evolution and current properties. Additionally, simulations have shown that NGC 5053 could be a likely candidate to belong to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (Sgr dSph) stream. Using the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO-Hydra multi-object spectrograph, we have collected high quality (signal-to-noise ratio ˜ 75-90), medium-resolution spectra for red giant branch stars in NGC 5053. Using these spectra we have measured the Fe, Ca, Ti, Ni, Ba, Na, and O abundances in the cluster. We measure an average cluster [Fe/H] abundance of -2.45 with a standard deviation of 0.04 dex, making NGC 5053 one of the most metal-poor GCs in the Milky Way (MW). The [Ca/Fe], [Ti/Fe], and [Ba/Fe] we measure are consistent with the abundances of MW halo stars at a similar metallicity, with alpha-enhanced ratios and slightly depleted [Ba/Fe]. The Na and O abundances show the Na-O anti-correlation found in most GCs. From our abundance analysis it appears that NGC 5053 is at least chemically similar to other GCs found in the MW. This does not, however, rule out NGC 5053 being associated with the Sgr dSph stream.

  12. A Near-Infrared Surface Compositional Analysis of Blue Straggler Stars in Open Cluster M67

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Richard; Gosnell, Natalie M.; Sneden, Chris

    2017-06-01

    Blue straggler stars (BSSs) are stars whose evolutions have been directly impacted by binary system interactions. By obtaining additional mass from a companion, BSSs are able to live prolonged lives on the main sequence. BSSs bring confusions to studies that rely on a standard stellar evolutionary track when modeling stellar populations, since the presence of BSSs can make a population appear younger than it actually is. It is important to have a better understanding of the mechanisms that drive BSS formation so that BSSs may be correctly accounted for in future studies.Blue stagglers in clusters primarily form in one of two ways; either from a close binary system in which one star accretes mass from its companion star or from a hierarchical trinary system in which a close inner binary merges as a result of perturbations from a farther-orbiting third star. In order to investigate the nature of this mass transfer, We obtained IGRINS H-band high resolution spectra of 6 BSSs and 12 red giant stars in open cluster M67. Using a grid of synthetic spectra obtained from the line analysis code MOOG, we identified and fit abundances for absorption lines of iron, silicon, and carbon. Depending on the evolutionary stage of the donor star, the abundance of carbon in the resulting BSS can be affected by mixing during the mass transfer. By analyzing the abundance of carbon in our targets, we find that [Fe/H] ~= 0 and [C/H] ~= 0. We see no evidence of depletion of carbon from RGB-phase mass transfer or enhancement of carbon from AGB-phase mass transfer, implying that the mass transfer occured earlier in the donar star's evolution.Funding for this research comes from the John W. Cox endowment for the Advanced Studies in Astronomy. For support of this work we acknowledge NSF grants AST-1211585 and AST-1616040 to CS. The successful development of the IGRINS spectrograph has resulted from the combined efforts of teams at the University of Texas at Austin and the Korea Astronomy and

  13. Atmospheric Parameters and Metallicities for 2191 Stars in the Globular Cluster M4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavolta, Luca; Sneden, Christopher; Piotto, Giampaolo; Milone, Antonino P.; Bedin, Luigi R.; Nascimbeni, Valerio

    2014-02-01

    We report new metallicities for stars of Galactic globular cluster M4 using the largest number of stars ever observed at high spectral resolution in any cluster. We analyzed 7250 spectra for 2771 cluster stars gathered with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) FLAMES+GIRAFFE spectrograph at VLT. These medium-resolution spectra cover a small wavelength range, and often have very low signal-to-noise ratios. We approached this data set by reconsidering the whole method of abundance analysis of large stellar samples from beginning to end. We developed a new algorithm that automatically determines the atmospheric parameters of a star. Nearly all of the data preparation steps for spectroscopic analyses are processed on the syntheses, not the observed spectra. For 322 red giant branch (RGB) stars with V 14.7, we obtain lang[Fe/H]rang = -1.16 (σ = 0.09) after fixing the microturbulent velocity. These values are consistent with previous studies that have performed detailed analyses of brighter RGB stars at higher spectroscopic resolution and wavelength coverage. It is not clear if the small mean metallicity difference between brighter and fainter M4 members is real or is the result of the low signal-to-noise characteristics of the fainter stars. The strength of our approach is shown by recovering a metallicity close to a single value for more than 2000 stars, using a data set that is non-optimal for atmospheric analyses. This technique is particularly suitable for noisy data taken in difficult observing conditions.

  14. Room-Temperature Synthesis of Transition Metal Clusters and Main Group Polycations from Ionic Liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Ejaz

    2011-01-01

    Main group polycations and transition metal clusters had traditionally been synthesized via high-temperature routes by performing reactions in melts or by CTR, at room-temperature or lower temperature by using so-called superacid solvents, and at room-temperature in benzene–GaX3 media. Considering the major problems associated with higher temperature routes (e.g. long annealing time, risk of product decomposition, and low yield) and taking into account the toxicity of benzene and liquid SO2 i...

  15. The Gaia-ESO Survey: open clusters in Gaia-DR1 . A way forward to stellar age calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randich, S.; Tognelli, E.; Jackson, R.; Jeffries, R. D.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Pancino, E.; Re Fiorentin, P.; Spagna, A.; Sacco, G.; Bragaglia, A.; Magrini, L.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Alfaro, E.; Franciosini, E.; Morbidelli, L.; Roccatagliata, V.; Bouy, H.; Bravi, L.; Jiménez-Esteban, F. M.; Jordi, C.; Zari, E.; Tautvaišiene, G.; Drazdauskas, A.; Mikolaitis, S.; Gilmore, G.; Feltzing, S.; Vallenari, A.; Bensby, T.; Koposov, S.; Korn, A.; Lanzafame, A.; Smiljanic, R.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Heiter, U.; Hourihane, A.; Jofré, P.; Lewis, J.; Monaco, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Sbordone, L.; Sousa, S. G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Determination and calibration of the ages of stars, which heavily rely on stellar evolutionary models, are very challenging, while representing a crucial aspect in many astrophysical areas. Aims: We describe the methodologies that, taking advantage of Gaia-DR1 and the Gaia-ESO Survey data, enable the comparison of observed open star cluster sequences with stellar evolutionary models. The final, long-term goal is the exploitation of open clusters as age calibrators. Methods: We perform a homogeneous analysis of eight open clusters using the Gaia-DR1 TGAS catalogue for bright members and information from the Gaia-ESO Survey for fainter stars. Cluster membership probabilities for the Gaia-ESO Survey targets are derived based on several spectroscopic tracers. The Gaia-ESO Survey also provides the cluster chemical composition. We obtain cluster parallaxes using two methods. The first one relies on the astrometric selection of a sample of bona fide members, while the other one fits the parallax distribution of a larger sample of TGAS sources. Ages and reddening values are recovered through a Bayesian analysis using the 2MASS magnitudes and three sets of standard models. Lithium depletion boundary (LDB) ages are also determined using literature observations and the same models employed for the Bayesian analysis. Results: For all but one cluster, parallaxes derived by us agree with those presented in Gaia Collaboration (2017, A&A, 601, A19), while a discrepancy is found for NGC 2516; we provide evidence supporting our own determination. Inferred cluster ages are robust against models and are generally consistent with literature values. Conclusions: The systematic parallax errors inherent in the Gaia DR1 data presently limit the precision of our results. Nevertheless, we have been able to place these eight clusters onto the same age scale for the first time, with good agreement between isochronal and LDB ages where there is overlap. Our approach appears promising

  16. A new method for measuring metallicities of young super star clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazak, J. Zachary; Kudritzki, Rolf; Bresolin, Fabio; Davies, Ben; Bastian, Nate; Bergemann, Maria; Plez, Bertrand; Evans, Chris; Patrick, Lee; Schinnerer, Eva

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate how the metallicities of young super star clusters (SSC) can be measured using novel spectroscopic techniques in the J-band. The near-infrared flux of SSCs older than ∼6 Myr is dominated by tens to hundreds of red supergiant stars. Our technique is designed to harness the integrated light of that population and produces accurate metallicities for new observations in galaxies above (M83) and below (NGC 6946) solar metallicity. In M83 we find [Z] = +0.28 ± 0.14 dex using a moderate resolution (R ∼ 3500) J-band spectrum and in NGC 6496 we report [Z] = -0.32 ± 0.20 dex from a low resolution spectrum of R ∼ 1800. Recently commissioned low resolution multiplexed spectrographs on the Very Large Telescope (KMOS) and Keck (MOSFIRE) will allow accurate measurements of SSC metallicities across the disks of star-forming galaxies up to distances of 70 Mpc with single night observation campaigns using the method presented in this paper.

  17. Electronic structures and water reactivity of mixed metal sulfide cluster anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Arjun; Raghavachari, Krishnan [Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)

    2014-08-21

    The electronic structures and chemical reactivity of the mixed metal sulfide cluster anion (MoWS{sub 4}{sup −}) have been investigated with density functional theory. Our study reveals the presence of two almost isoenergetic structural isomers, both containing two bridging sulfur atoms in a quartet state. However, the arrangement of the terminal sulfur atoms is different in the two isomers. In one isomer, the two metals are in the same oxidation state (each attached to one terminal S). In the second isomer, the two metals are in different oxidation states (with W in the higher oxidation state attached to both terminal S). The reactivity of water with the two lowest energy isomers has also been studied, with an emphasis on pathways leading to H{sub 2} release. The reactive behavior of the two isomers is different though the overall barriers in both systems are small. The origin of the differences are analyzed and discussed. The reaction pathways and barriers are compared with the corresponding behavior of monometallic sulfides (Mo{sub 2}S{sub 4}{sup −} and W{sub 2}S{sub 4}{sup −}) as well as mixed metal oxides (MoWO{sub 4}{sup −})

  18. Link-Prediction Enhanced Consensus Clustering for Complex Networks (Open Access)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Link-Prediction Enhanced Consensus Clustering for Complex Networks Matthew Burgess1*, Eytan Adar1,2, Michael Cafarella1 1Computer...consensus clustering algorithm to enhance community detection on incomplete networks. Our framework utilizes existing community detection algorithms that...types of complex networks exhibit community structure: groups of highly connected nodes. Communities or clusters often reflect nodes that share similar

  19. The helium abundance in the metal-poor globular clusters M30 and NGC 6397

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mucciarelli, A.; Lovisi, L.; Lanzoni, B.; Ferraro, F. R. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    We present the helium abundance of the two metal-poor clusters M30 and NGC 6397. Helium estimates have been obtained by using the high-resolution spectrograph FLAMES at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope and by measuring the He I line at 4471 Å in 24 and 35 horizontal branch (HB) stars in M30 and NGC 6397, respectively. This sample represents the largest data set of He abundances collected so far in metal-poor clusters. The He mass fraction turns out to be Y = 0.252 ± 0.003 (σ = 0.021) for M30 and Y = 0.241 ± 0.004 (σ = 0.023) for NGC 6397. These values are fully compatible with the cosmological abundance, thus suggesting that the HB stars are not strongly enriched in He. The small spread of the Y distributions are compatible with those expected from the observed main sequence splitting. Finally, we find a hint of a weak anticorrelation between Y and [O/Fe] in NGC 6397 in agreement with the prediction that O-poor stars are formed by (He-enriched) gas polluted by the products of hot proton-capture reactions.

  20. Silver-induced reconstruction of an adeninate-based metal-organic framework for encapsulation of luminescent adenine-stabilized silver clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, Dries; Coutino-Gonzalez, Eduardo; Baekelant, Wouter; Bueken, Bart; Reinsch, Helge; Stassen, Ivo; Fenwick, Oliver; Richard, Fanny; Samorì, Paolo; Ameloot, Rob; Hofkens, Johan; Roeffaers, Maarten B J; De Vos, Dirk E

    2016-05-21

    Bright luminescent silver-adenine species were successfully stabilized in the pores of the MOF-69A (zinc biphenyldicarboxylate) metal-organic framework, starting from the intrinsically blue luminescent bio-MOF-1 (zinc adeninate 4,4'-biphenyldicarboxylate). Bio-MOF-1 is transformed to the MOF-69A framework by selectively leaching structural adenine linkers from the original framework using silver nitrate solutions in aqueous ethanol. Simultaneously, bright blue-green luminescent silver-adenine clusters are formed inside the pores of the recrystallized MOF-69A matrix in high local concentrations. The structural transition and concurrent changes in optical properties were characterized using a range of structural, physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques (steady-state and time-resolved luminescence, quantum yield determination, fluorescence microscopy). The presented results open new avenues for exploring the use of MOFs containing luminescent silver clusters for solid-state lighting and sensor applications.

  1. Wakefield radiation from the open end of an internally coated metallic tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ivanyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of radiation from the open end of a semi-infinite circular metallic waveguide with perfectly conducting walls and a thin internal low-conducting metal coating is considered. Electromagnetic fields are generated by the ultrarelativistic point charge moving along the axis of the waveguide. The far fields of radiation are obtained using the near-field to far-field recovery technique. The technique is extended for the nonmonochromatic waves. It is shown that the radiation has a narrow-band and narrow-directional character.

  2. Hot stars in young massive clusters: Mapping the current Galactic metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Diego; Najarro, Francisco; Davies, Ben; Trombley, Christine; Figer, Donald F.; Herrero, Artemio

    2013-06-01

    Young Massive Clusters (YMCs) with ages guarantee that these objects present the same chemical composition than the surrounding environment where they are recently born. Finally, the YMCs host very massive stars whose extreme luminosities allow to accomplish detailed spectroscopic analyses even in the most distant regions of the Milky Way. Our group has carried out ISAAC/VLT spectroscopic observations of hot massive stars belonging to several YMCs in different locations around the Galactic disk. As a result, high signal-to-noise, near-infrared spectra of dozens of blue massive stars (including many OB supergiants, Wolf-Rayet stars and a B hypergiant) have been obtained. These data are fully reduced, and NLTE spherical atmosphere modeling is in process. Several line diagnostics will be combined in order to calculate metal abundances accurately for each cluster. The diverse locations of the clusters will allow us to draw a two-dimensional chemical map of the Galactic disk for the first time. The study of the radial and azimuthal variations of elemental abundances will be crucial for understanding the chemical evolution of the Milky Way. Particularly, the ratio between Fe-peak and alpha elements will constitute a powerful tool to investigate the past stellar populations that originated the current Galactic chemistry.

  3. Theoretical study of electronic and dynamic properties of simple metal clusters in jellium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Amine Madjet, M.

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the electronic properties of alkali-metal clusters in various theoretical approximations and in the framework of the spherical jellium model. We have investigated the ground state properties of alkali clusters both in the LDA (local density approximation) and in HF (Hartree-Fock) theory. We have compared the LDA predictions of the ground state properties to predictions obtained within the HF theory. Such a comparison permitted us to check the validity of the local density functional theory in describing the ground state of a finite fermion system. For the study of collective dipolar excitations in clusters, we have considered an electromagnetic excitation. We have investigated the collective modes in the following approximations: random phase approximation (RPA), time-dependent local-density approximation (TDLDA) and the sum-rules approach. An assessment of the approximation for the continuum state within the RPA is made by comparing with TDLDA calculations for the static and dynamic electronic properties. The comparative study that we have done on the exchange-correlation effects on the electronic and optical properties have shown that the discrepancies with measured data are due mostly to the jellium approximation for the ionic background. (author). 69 refs., 30 figs., 18 tabs

  4. Density-functional theory study of ionic inhomogeneity in metal clusters using SC-ISJM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payami, Mahmoud; Mahmoodi, Tahereh

    2017-12-01

    In this work we have applied the recently formulated self-compressed inhomogeneous stabilized jellium model [51] to describe the equilibrium electronic and geometric properties of atomic-closed-shell simple metal clusters of AlN (N = 13, 19, 43, 55, 79, 87, 135, 141), NaN, and CsN (N = 9, 15, 27, 51, 59, 65, 89, 113). To validate the results, we have also performed first-principles pseudo-potential calculations and used them as our reference. In the model, we have considered two regions consisting of ;surface; and ;inner; ones, the border separating them being sharp. This generalization makes possible to decouple the relaxations of different parts of the system. The results show that the present model correctly predicts the size reductions seen in most of the clusters. It also predicts increase in size of some clusters, as observed from first-principles results. Moreover, the changes in inter-layer distances, being as contractions or expansions, are in good agreement with the atomic simulation results. For a more realistic description of the properties, it is possible to improve the method of choosing the surface thicknesses or generalize the model to include more regions than just two.

  5. Homochiral coordination polymers with helixes and metal clusters based on lactate derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhong-Xuan, E-mail: xuzhongxuan4201@163.com [Department of Chemistry, Zunyi Normal College, Zunyi, Guizhou 563002 (China); Ma, Yu-Lu [School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Lv, Guo-ling [Department of Chemistry, Zunyi Normal College, Zunyi, Guizhou 563002 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Utilizing the lactic acid derivatives (R)-4-(1-carboxyethoxy)benzoic acid (denoted: (R)-H{sub 2}CBA) and (S)-4-(1-carboxyethoxy)benzoic acid (denoted: (S)-H{sub 2}CBA)as chiral linkers to self-assemble with 4, 4′-bipyridine (denoted: BIP) and Cd(II) ions, a couple of three-dimensional homochiral coordination polymers, namely [Cd{sub 3}((R)-CBA){sub 3} (BIP){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]·xGuest (1-D) and [Cd{sub 3}((S)-CBA){sub 3}(BIP){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]·xGuest (1-L), have been synthesized under solvothermal reaction condition. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the two complexes contain single helical chains based on enantiopure ligands and cadmium clusters. Moreover, some physical characteristics such as PXRD, thermal stability, solid-state circular dichroism (CD) and luminescent were also investigated. - Graphical abstract: Utilizing enantiomeric lactic acid derivatives (R)-H{sub 2}CBA and (S)-H{sub 2}CBA to assemble with Cd{sup 2+} ions and ancillary BIP ligands, a couple of 3D homochiral coordination polymers with metal clusters and helical chains have been prepared by hydrothermal reaction. - Highlights: • Chiral lactic acid derivative. • Enantiomeric coordination polymer. • Helical chain. • Trinuclear cadmium cluster.

  6. Complex open-framework germanate built by 8-coordinated Ge 10 clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Huijuan; Peskov, Maxim; Sun, Junliang; Zou, Xiaodong

    2012-01-01

    cluster building units can be concluded. The framework of SU-67 is based on an elaborate topological pattern of connected Ge 10 clusters forming intersecting 10- and 11-ring channels and has a low framework density (12.4 Ge atoms per 1000 ̊ 3). We have

  7. Non-Hierarchical Clustering as a method to analyse an open-ended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apple

    Keywords: algebraic thinking; cluster analysis; mathematics education; quantitative analysis. Introduction. Extensive ..... C1, C2 and C3 represent the three centroids of the three clusters formed. .... 6ALd. All these strategies are algebraic and 'high- ... 1995), of the didactical aspects related to teaching .... Brazil, 18-23 July.

  8. Open reading frame 176 in the photosynthesis gene cluster of Rhodobacter capsulatus encodes idi, a gene for isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase.

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, F M; Baker, J A; Poulter, C D

    1996-01-01

    Isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) isomerase catalyzes an essential activation step in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. A database search based on probes from the highly conserved regions in three eukaryotic IPP isomerases revealed substantial similarity with ORF176 in the photosynthesis gene cluster in Rhodobacter capsulatus. The open reading frame was cloned into an Escherichia coli expression vector. The encoded 20-kDa protein, which was purified in two steps by ion exchange and hydrophobic...

  9. Rotational and radial velocities of 1.3-2.2 M {sub ☉} red giants in open clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlberg, Joleen K., E-mail: jcarlberg@dtm.ciw.edu [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This study presents the rotational distribution of red giant (RG) stars in 11 old to intermediate age open clusters. The masses of these stars are all above the Kraft break, so they lose negligible amounts of their birth angular momentum (AM) during the main-sequence (MS) evolution. However, they do span a mass range with quite different AM distributions imparted during formation, with the stars less massive than ∼1.6M {sub ☉} arriving on the MS with lower rotation rates than the more massive stars. The majority of RGs in this study are slow rotators across the entire red giant branch regardless of mass, supporting the picture that intermediate-mass stars rapidly spin down when they evolve off the MS and develop convection zones capable of driving a magnetic dynamo. Nevertheless, a small fraction of RGs in open clusters show some level of enhanced rotation, and faster rotators are as common in these clusters as in the field RG population. Most of these enhanced rotators appear to be red clump stars, which is also true of the underlying stellar sample, while others are clearly RGs that are above or below the clump. In addition to rotational velocities, the radial velocities (RVs) and membership probabilities of individual stars are also presented. Cluster heliocentric RVs for NGC 6005 and Pismis 18 are reported for the first time.

  10. A Long-Period Totally Eclipsing Binary Star at the Turnoff of the Open Cluster NGC 6819 Discovered with Kepler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandquist, Eric L.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Brogaard, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    We present the discovery of the totally eclipsing long-period (P = 771.8 d) binary system WOCS 23009 in the old open cluster NGC 6819 that contains both an evolved star near central hydrogen exhaustion and a low-mass (0.45 Msun) star. This system was previously known to be a single-lined spectros......We present the discovery of the totally eclipsing long-period (P = 771.8 d) binary system WOCS 23009 in the old open cluster NGC 6819 that contains both an evolved star near central hydrogen exhaustion and a low-mass (0.45 Msun) star. This system was previously known to be a single......-lined spectroscopic binary, but the discovery of an eclipse near apastron using data from the Kepler space telescope makes it clear that the system has an inclination that is very close to 90 degrees. Although the secondary star has not been identified in spectra, the mass of the primary star can be constrained using...... other eclipsing binaries in the cluster. The combination of total eclipses and a mass constraint for the primary star allows us to determine a reliable mass for the secondary star and radii for both stars, and to constrain the cluster age. Unlike well-measured stars of similar mass in field binaries...

  11. clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-09-27

    Sep 27, 2017 ... Author for correspondence (zh4403701@126.com). MS received 15 ... lic clusters using density functional theory (DFT)-GGA of the DMOL3 package. ... In the process of geometric optimization, con- vergence thresholds ..... and Postgraduate Research & Practice Innovation Program of. Jiangsu Province ...

  12. clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    environmental as well as technical problems during fuel gas utilization. ... adsorption on some alloys of Pd, namely PdAu, PdAg ... ried out on small neutral and charged Au24,26,27, Cu,28 ... study of Zanti et al.29 on Pdn (n = 1–9) clusters.

  13. Assessment of the accuracy of coupled cluster perturbation theory for open-shell systems. I. Triples expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Janus J; Matthews, Devin A; Jørgensen, Poul; Gauss, Jürgen

    2016-05-21

    The accuracy at which total energies of open-shell atoms and organic radicals may be calculated is assessed for selected coupled cluster perturbative triples expansions, all of which augment the coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) energy by a non-iterative correction for the effect of triple excitations. Namely, the second- through sixth-order models of the recently proposed CCSD(T-n) triples series [J. J. Eriksen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064108 (2014)] are compared to the acclaimed CCSD(T) model for both unrestricted as well as restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock (UHF/ROHF) reference determinants. By comparing UHF- and ROHF-based statistical results for a test set of 18 modest-sized open-shell species with comparable RHF-based results, no behavioral differences are observed for the higher-order models of the CCSD(T-n) series in their correlated descriptions of closed- and open-shell species. In particular, we find that the convergence rate throughout the series towards the coupled cluster singles, doubles, and triples (CCSDT) solution is identical for the two cases. For the CCSD(T) model, on the other hand, not only its numerical consistency, but also its established, yet fortuitous cancellation of errors breaks down in the transition from closed- to open-shell systems. The higher-order CCSD(T-n) models (orders n > 3) thus offer a consistent and significant improvement in accuracy relative to CCSDT over the CCSD(T) model, equally for RHF, UHF, and ROHF reference determinants, albeit at an increased computational cost.

  14. Assessment of the accuracy of coupled cluster perturbation theory for open-shell systems. I. Triples expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksen, Janus J., E-mail: janusje@chem.au.dk; Jørgensen, Poul [qLEAP Center for Theoretical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Matthews, Devin A. [The Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Gauss, Jürgen [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2016-05-21

    The accuracy at which total energies of open-shell atoms and organic radicals may be calculated is assessed for selected coupled cluster perturbative triples expansions, all of which augment the coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) energy by a non-iterative correction for the effect of triple excitations. Namely, the second- through sixth-order models of the recently proposed CCSD(T–n) triples series [J. J. Eriksen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064108 (2014)] are compared to the acclaimed CCSD(T) model for both unrestricted as well as restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock (UHF/ROHF) reference determinants. By comparing UHF- and ROHF-based statistical results for a test set of 18 modest-sized open-shell species with comparable RHF-based results, no behavioral differences are observed for the higher-order models of the CCSD(T–n) series in their correlated descriptions of closed- and open-shell species. In particular, we find that the convergence rate throughout the series towards the coupled cluster singles, doubles, and triples (CCSDT) solution is identical for the two cases. For the CCSD(T) model, on the other hand, not only its numerical consistency, but also its established, yet fortuitous cancellation of errors breaks down in the transition from closed- to open-shell systems. The higher-order CCSD(T–n) models (orders n > 3) thus offer a consistent and significant improvement in accuracy relative to CCSDT over the CCSD(T) model, equally for RHF, UHF, and ROHF reference determinants, albeit at an increased computational cost.

  15. A search for extra-solar planetary transits in the field of open cluster NGC 6819

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Rachel Amanda

    The technique of searching for extra-solar planetary transits is investigated. This technique, which relies on detecting the brief, shallow eclipses caused by planets passing across the line of sight to the primary star, requires high-precision time-series photometry of large numbers of stars in order to detect these statistically rare events. Observations of 18000 stars in the field including the intermediate-age open cluster NGC 6819 are presented. This target field constrasts with the stellar environment surveyed by the radial velocity technique, which concentrates on the Solar neighbourhood. I present the data-reduction techniques used to obtain high-precision photometry in a semi-automated fashion for tens of thousands of stars at a time, together with an algorithm designed to search the resulting lightcurves for the transit signatures of hot Jupiter type planets. I describe simulations designed to test the detection efficiency of this algorithm and, for comparison, predict the number of transits expected from this data, assuming that hot Jupiter planets similar to HD 209458 are as common in the field of NGC 6819 as they are in the Solar neighbourhood. While no planetary transits have yet been identified, the detection of several very low amplitude eclipses by stellar companions demonstrates the effectiveness of the method. This study also indicates that stellar activity and particularly blending are significant causes of false detections. A useful additional consequence of studying this time-series photometry is the census it provides of some of the variable stars in the field. I report on the discovery of a variety of newly-discovered variables, including Algol-type detached eclipsing binaries which are likely to consist of M-dwarf stars. Further study of these stars is strongly recommended in order to help constrain models of stellar structure at the very low mass end. I conclude with a summary of this work in the context of other efforts being made in this

  16. Blood trace metals in a sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis geographical cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedetti, Stefano; Lucchini, Giorgio; Del Bò, Cristian; Deon, Valeria; Marocchi, Alessandro; Penco, Silvana; Lunetta, Christian; Gianazza, Elisabetta; Bonomi, Francesco; Iametti, Stefania

    2017-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disorder with unknown etiology, in which genetic and environmental factors interplay to determine the onset and the course of the disease. Exposure to toxic metals has been proposed to be involved in the etiology of the disease either through a direct damage or by promoting oxidative stress. In this study we evaluated the concentration of a panel of metals in serum and whole blood of a small group of sporadic patients, all living in a defined geographical area, for which acid mine drainage has been reported. ALS prevalence in this area is higher than in the rest of Italy. Results were analyzed with software based on artificial neural networks. High concentrations of metals (in particular Se, Mn and Al) were associated with the disease group. Arsenic serum concentration resulted lower in ALS patients, but it positively correlated with disease duration. Comet assay was performed to evaluate endogenous DNA damage that resulted not different between patients and controls. Up to now only few studies considered geographically well-defined clusters of ALS patients. Common geographical origin among patients and controls gave us the chance to perform metallomic investigations under comparable conditions of environmental exposure. Elaboration of these data with software based on machine learning processes has the potential to be extremely useful to gain a comprehensive view of the complex interactions eventually leading to disease, even in a small number of subjects.

  17. Massive open star clusters using the VVV survey. I. Presentation of the data and description of the approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chené, A.-N.; Borissova, J.; Clarke, J. R. A.; Bonatto, C.; Majaess, D. J.; Moni Bidin, C.; Sale, S. E.; Mauro, F.; Kurtev, R.; Baume, G.; Feinstein, C.; Ivanov, V. D.; Geisler, D.; Catelan, M.; Minniti, D.; Lucas, P.; de Grijs, R.; Kumar, M. S. N.

    2012-09-01

    Context. The ESO Public Survey "VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea" (VVV) provides deep multi-epoch infrared observations for unprecedented 562 sq. degrees of the Galactic bulge, and adjacent regions of the disk. Aims: The VVV observations will foster the construction of a sample of Galactic star clusters with reliable and homogeneously derived physical parameters (e.g., age, distance, and mass, etc.). In this first paper in a series, the methodology employed to establish cluster parameters for the envisioned database are elaborated upon by analysing four known young open clusters: Danks 1, Danks 2, RCW 79, and DBS 132. The analysis offers a first glimpse of the information that can be gleaned from the VVV observations for clusters in the final database. Methods: Wide-field, deep JHKs VVV observations, combined with new infrared spectroscopy, are employed to constrain fundamental parameters for a subset of clusters. Results: Results are inferred from VVV near-infrared photometry and numerous low resolution spectra (typically more than 10 per cluster). The high quality of the spectra and the deep wide-field VVV photometry enables us to precisely and independently determine the characteristics of the clusters studied, which we compare to previous determinations. An anomalous reddening law in the direction of the Danks clusters is found, specifically E(J - H)/E(H - Ks) = 2.20 ± 0.06, which exceeds published values for the inner Galaxy. The G305 star forming complex, which includes the Danks clusters, lies beyond the Sagittarius-Carina spiral arm and occupies the Centaurus arm. Finally, the first deep infrared colour-magnitude diagram of RCW 79 is presented, which reveals a sizeable pre-main sequence population. A list of candidate variable stars in G305 region is reported. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the strength of the dataset and methodology employed, and constitutes the first step of a broader study which shall include reliable parameters for a sizeable

  18. Open clusters. II. Fundamental parameters of B stars in Collinder 223, Hogg 16, NGC 2645, NGC 3114, and NGC 6025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidelman, Y.; Cidale, L. S.; Zorec, J.; Panei, J. A.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The knowledge of accurate values of effective temperature, surface gravity, and luminosity of stars in open clusters is very important not only to derive cluster distances and ages but also to discuss the stellar structure and evolution. Unfortunately, stellar parameters are still very scarce. Aims: Our goal is to study five open clusters to derive stellar parameters of the B and Be star population and discuss the cluster properties. In a near future, we intend to gather a statistically relevant samples of Be stars to discuss their origin and evolution. Methods: We use the Barbier-Chalonge-Divan spectrophotometric system, based on the study of low-resolution spectra around the Balmer discontinuity, since it is independent of the interstellar and circumstellar extinction and provides accurate Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams and stellar parameters. Results: We determine stellar fundamental parameters, such as effective temperatures, surface gravities, spectral types, luminosity classes, absolute and bolometric magnitudes and colour gradient excesses of the stars in the field of Collinder 223, Hogg 16, NGC 2645, NGC 3114, and NGC 6025. Additional information, mainly masses and ages of cluster stellar populations, is obtained using stellar evolution models. In most cases, stellar fundamental parameters have been derived for the first time. We also discuss the derived cluster properties of reddening, age and distance. Conclusions: Collinder 223 cluster parameters are overline{E(B-V) = 0.25 ± 0.03} mag and overline{(mv - M_v)0 = 11.21 ± 0.25} mag. In Hogg 16, we clearly distinguish two groups of stars (Hogg 16a and Hogg 16b) with very different mean true distance moduli (8.91 ± 0.26 mag and 12.51 ± 0.38 mag), mean colour excesses (0.26 ± 0.03 mag and 0.63 ± 0.08 mag), and spectral types (B early-type and B late-/A-type stars, respectively). The farthest group could be merged with Collinder 272. NGC 2645 is a young cluster (age between 40 Myr and 69 Myr. In

  19. The role of electron localization in the atomic structure of transition-metal 13-atom clusters: the example of Co13, Rh13, and Hf13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Maurício J; Piquini, Paulo; Cândido, Ladir; Da Silva, Juarez L F

    2011-10-14

    The crystalline structure of transition-metals (TM) has been widely known for several decades, however, our knowledge on the atomic structure of TM clusters is still far from satisfactory, which compromises an atomistic understanding of the reactivity of TM clusters. For example, almost all density functional theory (DFT) calculations for TM clusters have been based on local (local density approximation--LDA) and semilocal (generalized gradient approximation--GGA) exchange-correlation functionals, however, it is well known that plain DFT fails to correct the self-interaction error, which affects the properties of several systems. To improve our basic understanding of the atomic and electronic properties of TM clusters, we report a DFT study within two nonlocal functionals, namely, the hybrid HSE (Heyd, Scuseria, and Ernzerhof) and GGA+U functionals, of the structural and electronic properties of the Co(13), Rh(13), and Hf(13) clusters. For Co(13) and Rh(13), we found that improved exchange-correlation functionals decrease the stability of open structures such as the hexagonal bilayer (HBL) and double simple-cubic (DSC) compared with the compact icosahedron (ICO) structure, however, DFT-GGA, DFT-GGA+U, and DFT-HSE yield very similar results for Hf(13). Thus, our results suggest that the DSC structure obtained by several plain DFT calculations for Rh(13) can be improved by the use of improved functionals. Using the sd hybridization analysis, we found that a strong hybridization favors compact structures, and hence, a correct description of the sd hybridization is crucial for the relative energy stability. For example, the sd hybridization decreases for HBL and DSC and increases for ICO in the case of Co(13) and Rh(13), while for Hf(13), the sd hybridization decreases for all configurations, and hence, it does not affect the relative stability among open and compact configurations.

  20. A Framework Based on Sustainability, Open Innovation, and Value Cocreation Paradigms—A Case in an Italian Maritime Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Rupo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a case study in an Italian maritime cluster seen through a multiple paradigms framework, based on Sustainability (SUS, Open Innovation (OI, and Value Co-creation (VCc. The proposed theoretical framework helps to interpret a true phenomenon consisting of the design of a new product with a prototype created in a network of multiple actors. The approach adopted stems in part from recent writings in qualitative research methodology and is quite apt in this context considering the qualitative, confirmatory nature of this work. The prototype named “TESEO I” was realized through open innovation aimed at sustainability, not only directed at environmental aspects but synergistically with value cocreation, which emerged from interaction among the actors, while also including social and economic aspects. The work concludes with a discussion of theoretical implications related to the proposed framework and the results that emerged from the case study, with both referring to sustainability, open innovation, and value cocreation.

  1. Assessment of PM10 and heavy metals concentration in a Ceramic Cluster (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belen Vicente, Ana; Pardo, Francisco; Sanfeliu, Teofilo; Bech, Joan

    2013-04-01

    Environmental pollution control is one of the most important goals in pollution risk assessment today. The aim of this study is conducting a retrospective view of the evolution of particulate matter (PM10) and heavy metals (As, Cd, Ni and Pb) at different localities in the Spanish cluster ceramic in the period between January 2007 and December 2011. The study area is in the province of Castellón. This province is a strategical area in the framework of European Union Pollution control. Approximately 80% of European ceramic tiles and ceramic frits manufacturers are concentrated in two areas, forming the so-called "Ceramics Clusters"; one is in Modena (Italy) and the other in Castellón (Spain). In this kind of areas, there are a lot of pollutants from this industry that represent an important contribution to soil contamination so it is necessary to control the air quality in them. These atmospheric particles are deposited in the ground through both dry and wet deposition. Soil is a major sink for heavy metals released into the environment. The level of pollution of soils by heavy metals depends on the retention capacity of the soil, especially on physical-chemical properties (mineralogy, grain size, organic matter) affecting soil particle surfaces and also on the chemical properties of the metal. The most direct consequences on the ground of air pollutants are acidification, salinization and the pollutions that can cause heavy metals as components of suspended particulate matter. For this purpose the levels of PM10 in ambient air and the corresponding annual and weekly trend were calculated. The results of the study show that the PM10 and heavy metals concentrations are below the limit values recommended by European Union Legislation for the protection of human health and ecosystems in the study period. There is an important reduction of them from 2009 in all control stations due to the economic crisis. References Moral, R., Gilkes, R.J., Jordán, M.M., 2005

  2. Ferromagnetism and suppression of metallic clusters in Fe implanted ZnO -- a phenomenon related to defects?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenholz, Elke; Zhou, S.; Potzger, K.; Talut, G.; Reuther, H.; Kuepper, K.; Grenzer, J.; Xu, Q.; Mucklich, A.; Helm, M.; Fassbender, J.; Arenholz, E.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated ZnO(0001) single crystals annealed in high vacuum with respect to their magnetic properties and cluster formation tendency after implant-doping with Fe. While metallic Fe cluster formation is suppressed, no evidence for the relevance of the Fe magnetic moment to the observed ferromagnetism was found. The latter along with the cluster suppression is discussed with respect to defects in the ZnO host matrix, since the crystalline quality of the substrates was lowered due to the preparation as observed by x-ray diffraction

  3. Ferromagnetism and suppression of metallic clusters in Fe implanted ZnO: a phenomenon related to defects?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shengqiang; Potzger, K; Talut, G; Reuther, H; Kuepper, K; Grenzer, J; Xu Qingyu; Muecklich, A; Helm, M; Fassbender, J; Arenholz, E

    2008-01-01

    We investigated ZnO(0 0 0 1) single crystals annealed in high vacuum with respect to their magnetic properties and cluster formation tendency after implant-doping with Fe. While metallic Fe cluster formation is suppressed, no evidence for the relevance of the Fe magnetic moment to the observed ferromagnetism was found. The latter along with the cluster suppression is discussed with respect to defects in the ZnO host matrix, since the crystalline quality of the substrates was lowered due to the preparation as observed by x-ray diffraction

  4. Formation of transition metal cluster adducts on the surface of single-walled carbon nanotubes: HRTEM studies

    KAUST Repository

    Kalinina, Irina V.

    2014-01-01

    We report the formation of chromium clusters on the outer walls of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The clusters were obtained by reacting purified SWNTs with chromium hexacarbonyl in dibutyl ether at 100°C. The functionalized SWNTs were characterized by thermogravimetic analysis, XPS, and high-resolution TEM. The curvature of the SWNTs and the high mobility of the chromium moieties on graphitic surfaces allow the growth of the metal clusters and we propose a mechanism for their formation. © 2014 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  5. Low Metallicities and Old Ages for Three Ultra-diffuse Galaxies in the Coma Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Meng; Conroy, Charlie; Law, David; van Dokkum, Pieter; Yan, Renbin; Wake, David; Bundy, Kevin; Merritt, Allison; Abraham, Roberto; Zhang, Jielai; Bershady, Matthew; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Drory, Niv; Grabowski, Kathleen; Masters, Karen; Pan, Kaike; Parejko, John; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Zhang, Kai

    2018-05-01

    A large population of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) was recently discovered in the Coma cluster. Here we present optical spectra of three such UDGs, DF 7, DF 44, and DF 17, which have central surface brightnesses of μ g ≈ 24.4–25.1 mag arcsec‑2. The spectra were acquired as part of an ancillary program within the SDSS-IV MaNGA Survey. We stacked 19 fibers in the central regions from larger integral field units (IFUs) per source. With over 13.5 hr of on-source integration, we achieved a mean signal-to-noise ratio in the optical of 9.5 Å‑1, 7.9 Å‑1, and 5.0 Å‑1, respectively, for DF 7, DF 44, and DF 17. Stellar population models applied to these spectra enable measurements of recession velocities, ages, and metallicities. The recession velocities of DF 7, DF 44, and DF 17 are {6599}-25+40 km s‑1, {6402}-39+41 km s‑1, and {8315}-43+43 km s‑1, spectroscopically confirming that all of them reside in the Coma cluster. The stellar populations of these three galaxies are old and metal-poor, with ages of {7.9}-2.5+3.6 Gyr, {8.9}-3.3+4.3 Gyr, and {9.1}-5.5+3.9 Gyr, and iron abundances of [Fe/H] -{1.0}-0.4+0.3, -{1.3}-0.4+0.4, and -{0.8}-0.5+0.5, respectively. Their stellar masses are (3–6) × 108 M ⊙. The UDGs in our sample are as old or older than galaxies at similar stellar mass or velocity dispersion (only DF 44 has an independently measured dispersion). They all follow the well-established stellar mass–stellar metallicity relation, while DF 44 lies below the velocity dispersion-metallicity relation. These results, combined with the fact that UDGs are unusually large for their stellar masses, suggest that stellar mass plays a more important role in setting stellar population properties for these galaxies than either size or surface brightness.

  6. Liquid-liquid phase separation and cluster formation at deposition of metals under inhomogeneous magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorobets, O. Yu; Gorobets, Yu I.; Rospotniuk, V. P.; Grebinaha, V. I.; Kyba, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The formation and dynamic of expansion and deformation of the liquid-liquid interface of an electrolyte at deposition of metals at the surface of the magnetized steel ball is considered in this paper. The electrochemical processes were investigated in an external magnetic field directed at an arbitrary angle to the force of gravity. These processes are accompanied by the formation of effectively paramagnetic clusters of electrochemical products - magnions. Tyndall effect was used for detection of the presence of magnions near the magnetized steel electrode in a solution. The shape of the interface separating the regions with different concentration of magnions, i.e. different magnetic susceptibilities, was described theoretically based on the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium which takes into account magnetic, hydrostatic and osmotic pressures.

  7. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Macrophytes, Water and Sediment of a Tropical Wetland System Using Hierarchical Cluster Analysis Technique

    OpenAIRE

    , N. Kumar J.I.; , M. Das; , R. Mukherji; , R.N. Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems is becoming a global phenomenon because these metals are indestructible and most of them have toxic effects on living organisms. Most of the fresh water bodies all over the world are getting contaminated thus declining their suitability. Therefore, monitoring and assessment of such freshwater systems has become an environmental concern. This study aims to elucidate the useful role of the cluster analysis to assess the relationship and interdependenc...

  8. LIGHT-ELEMENT ABUNDANCE VARIATIONS AT LOW METALLICITY: THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 5466

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetrone, Matthew; Martell, Sarah L.; Wilkerson, Rachel; Adams, Joshua; Siegel, Michael H.; Smith, Graeme H.; Bond, Howard E.

    2010-01-01

    We present low-resolution (R ≅850) spectra for 67 asymptotic giant branch (AGB), horizontal branch, and red giant branch (RGB) stars in the low-metallicity globular cluster NGC 5466, taken with the VIRUS-P integral-field spectrograph at the 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory. Sixty-six stars are confirmed, and one rejected, as cluster members based on radial velocity, which we measure to an accuracy of 16 km s -1 via template-matching techniques. CN and CH band strengths have been measured for 29 RGB and AGB stars in NGC 5466, and the band-strength indices measured from VIRUS-P data show close agreement with those measured from Keck/LRIS spectra previously taken for five of our target stars. We also determine carbon abundances from comparisons with synthetic spectra. The RGB stars in our data set cover a range in absolute V magnitude from +2 to -3, which permits us to study the rate of carbon depletion on the giant branch as well as the point of its onset. The data show a clear decline in carbon abundance with rising luminosity above the luminosity function 'bump' on the giant branch, and also a subdued range in CN band strength, suggesting ongoing internal mixing in individual stars but minor or no primordial star-to-star variation in light-element abundances.

  9. JMS: An Open Source Workflow Management System and Web-Based Cluster Front-End for High Performance Computing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K Brown

    Full Text Available Complex computational pipelines are becoming a staple of modern scientific research. Often these pipelines are resource intensive and require days of computing time. In such cases, it makes sense to run them over high performance computing (HPC clusters where they can take advantage of the aggregated resources of many powerful computers. In addition to this, researchers often want to integrate their workflows into their own web servers. In these cases, software is needed to manage the submission of jobs from the web interface to the cluster and then return the results once the job has finished executing. We have developed the Job Management System (JMS, a workflow management system and web interface for high performance computing (HPC. JMS provides users with a user-friendly web interface for creating complex workflows with multiple stages. It integrates this workflow functionality with the resource manager, a tool that is used to control and manage batch jobs on HPC clusters. As such, JMS combines workflow management functionality with cluster administration functionality. In addition, JMS provides developer tools including a code editor and the ability to version tools and scripts. JMS can be used by researchers from any field to build and run complex computational pipelines and provides functionality to include these pipelines in external interfaces. JMS is currently being used to house a number of bioinformatics pipelines at the Research Unit in Bioinformatics (RUBi at Rhodes University. JMS is an open-source project and is freely available at https://github.com/RUBi-ZA/JMS.

  10. JMS: An Open Source Workflow Management System and Web-Based Cluster Front-End for High Performance Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David K; Penkler, David L; Musyoka, Thommas M; Bishop, Özlem Tastan

    2015-01-01

    Complex computational pipelines are becoming a staple of modern scientific research. Often these pipelines are resource intensive and require days of computing time. In such cases, it makes sense to run them over high performance computing (HPC) clusters where they can take advantage of the aggregated resources of many powerful computers. In addition to this, researchers often want to integrate their workflows into their own web servers. In these cases, software is needed to manage the submission of jobs from the web interface to the cluster and then return the results once the job has finished executing. We have developed the Job Management System (JMS), a workflow management system and web interface for high performance computing (HPC). JMS provides users with a user-friendly web interface for creating complex workflows with multiple stages. It integrates this workflow functionality with the resource manager, a tool that is used to control and manage batch jobs on HPC clusters. As such, JMS combines workflow management functionality with cluster administration functionality. In addition, JMS provides developer tools including a code editor and the ability to version tools and scripts. JMS can be used by researchers from any field to build and run complex computational pipelines and provides functionality to include these pipelines in external interfaces. JMS is currently being used to house a number of bioinformatics pipelines at the Research Unit in Bioinformatics (RUBi) at Rhodes University. JMS is an open-source project and is freely available at https://github.com/RUBi-ZA/JMS.

  11. Development of New Open-Shell Perturbation and Coupled-Cluster Theories Based on Symmetric Spin Orbitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A new spin orbital basis is employed in the development of efficient open-shell coupled-cluster and perturbation theories that are based on a restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) reference function. The spin orbital basis differs from the standard one in the spin functions that are associated with the singly occupied spatial orbital. The occupied orbital (in the spin orbital basis) is assigned the delta(+) = 1/square root of 2(alpha+Beta) spin function while the unoccupied orbital is assigned the delta(-) = 1/square root of 2(alpha-Beta) spin function. The doubly occupied and unoccupied orbitals (in the reference function) are assigned the standard alpha and Beta spin functions. The coupled-cluster and perturbation theory wave functions based on this set of "symmetric spin orbitals" exhibit much more symmetry than those based on the standard spin orbital basis. This, together with interacting space arguments, leads to a dramatic reduction in the computational cost for both coupled-cluster and perturbation theory. Additionally, perturbation theory based on "symmetric spin orbitals" obeys Brillouin's theorem provided that spin and spatial excitations are both considered. Other properties of the coupled-cluster and perturbation theory wave functions and models will be discussed.

  12. ASTEROSEISMOLOGY OF THE OPEN CLUSTERS NGC 6791, NGC 6811, AND NGC 6819 FROM 19 MONTHS OF KEPLER PHOTOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsaro, Enrico; Stello, Dennis; Huber, Daniel; Bedding, Timothy R.; Benomar, Othman; White, Timothy R.; Bonanno, Alfio; Brogaard, Karsten; Kallinger, Thomas; Mosser, Benoit; Basu, Sarbani; Chaplin, William J.; Elsworth, Yvonne P.; Mathur, Savita; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; García, Rafael A.; Hekker, Saskia; Kjeldsen, Hans; Meibom, Søren; Hall, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    We studied solar-like oscillations in 115 red giants in the three open clusters, NGC 6791, NGC 6811, and NGC 6819, based on photometric data covering more than 19 months with NASA's Kepler space telescope. We present the asteroseismic diagrams of the asymptotic parameters δν 02 , δν 01 , and ε, which show clear correlation with fundamental stellar parameters such as mass and radius. When the stellar populations from the clusters are compared, we see evidence for a difference in mass of the red giant branch stars and possibly a difference in structure of the red clump stars, from our measurements of the small separations δν 02 and δν 01 . Ensemble échelle diagrams and upper limits to the linewidths of l = 0 modes as a function of Δν of the clusters NGC 6791 and NGC 6819 are also shown, together with the correlation between the l = 0 ridge width and the T eff of the stars. Lastly, we distinguish between red giant branch and red clump stars through the measurement of the period spacing of mixed dipole modes in 53 stars among all the three clusters to verify the stellar classification from the color-magnitude diagram. These seismic results also allow us to identify a number of special cases, including evolved blue stragglers and binaries, as well as stars in late He-core burning phases, which can be potentially interesting targets for detailed theoretical modeling.

  13. JMS: An Open Source Workflow Management System and Web-Based Cluster Front-End for High Performance Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David K.; Penkler, David L.; Musyoka, Thommas M.; Bishop, Özlem Tastan

    2015-01-01

    Complex computational pipelines are becoming a staple of modern scientific research. Often these pipelines are resource intensive and require days of computing time. In such cases, it makes sense to run them over high performance computing (HPC) clusters where they can take advantage of the aggregated resources of many powerful computers. In addition to this, researchers often want to integrate their workflows into their own web servers. In these cases, software is needed to manage the submission of jobs from the web interface to the cluster and then return the results once the job has finished executing. We have developed the Job Management System (JMS), a workflow management system and web interface for high performance computing (HPC). JMS provides users with a user-friendly web interface for creating complex workflows with multiple stages. It integrates this workflow functionality with the resource manager, a tool that is used to control and manage batch jobs on HPC clusters. As such, JMS combines workflow management functionality with cluster administration functionality. In addition, JMS provides developer tools including a code editor and the ability to version tools and scripts. JMS can be used by researchers from any field to build and run complex computational pipelines and provides functionality to include these pipelines in external interfaces. JMS is currently being used to house a number of bioinformatics pipelines at the Research Unit in Bioinformatics (RUBi) at Rhodes University. JMS is an open-source project and is freely available at https://github.com/RUBi-ZA/JMS. PMID:26280450

  14. The Open Cluster NGC 6811: An Eclipsing Binary, the Turnoff, and Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandquist, Eric L.; Jessen-Hansen, Jens; Shetrone, Matthew D.

    . The cluster's turnoff also falls completely within the instability strip, and the majority of the brightest main sequence stars have now been identified as δ Scuti pulsators. The eclipsing binary KIC 9777062/Sanders 195 is a cluster member slightly fainter than the turnoff, containing one star that falls...... stars to produce an improved age determination.We gratefully acknowledge support from the NSF to E.L.S. under grant AST-0908536 and for M.L. as part of the REU program at San Diego State University under grant AST-0850564, and from NASA under grants NNX12AC88G and NNX13AC19G....

  15. DETECTION OF WHITE DWARF COMPANIONS TO BLUE STRAGGLERS IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 188: DIRECT EVIDENCE FOR RECENT MASS TRANSFER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosnell, Natalie M.; Mathieu, Robert D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 475 N. Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Geller, Aaron M. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Sills, Alison [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Leigh, Nathan [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-183, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Knigge, Christian, E-mail: gosnell@astro.wisc.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 IBJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-01

    Several possible formation pathways for blue straggler stars have been developed recently, but no one pathway has yet been observationally confirmed for a specific blue straggler. Here we report the first findings from a Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Solar Blind Channel far-UV photometric program to search for white dwarf companions to blue straggler stars. We find three hot and young white dwarf companions to blue straggler stars in the 7 Gyr open cluster NGC 188, indicating that mass transfer in these systems ended less than 300 Myr ago. These companions are direct and secure observational evidence that these blue straggler stars were formed through mass transfer in binary stars. Their existence in a well-studied cluster environment allows for observational constraints of both the current binary system and the progenitor binary system, mapping the entire mass transfer history.

  16. Overlapping Open Clusters NGC 1750 and NGC 1758 behind the Taurus Dark Clouds. II. CCD Photometry in the Vilnius System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straižys V.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Seven-color photometry in the Vilnius system has been obtained for 420 stars down to V = 16 mag in the area containing the overlapping open clusters NGC 1750 and NGC 1758 in Taurus. Spectral and luminosity classes, color excesses, interstellar extinctions and distances are given for 287 stars. The classification of stars is based on their reddening-free Q-parameters. 18 stars observed photoelectrically were used as standards. The extinction vs. distance diagram exhibits the presence of one dust cloud at a distance of 175 pc which almost coincides with a distance of other dust clouds in the Taurus complex. The clusters NGC 1750 and NGC 1758 are found to be at the same distance of ~760 pc and may penetrate each other. Their interstellar extinction AV is 1.06 mag which corresponds to EB-V = 0.34 mag.

  17. Further validation of liquid metal MHD code for unstructured grid based on OpenFOAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jingchao; Chen, Hongli, E-mail: hlchen1@ustc.edu.cn; He, Qingyun; Ye, Minyou

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Specific correction scheme has been adopted to revise the calculating result for non-orthogonal meshes. • The developed MHD code based on OpenFOAM platform has been validated by benchmark cases under uniform and non-uniform magnetic field in round and rectangular ducts. • ALEX experimental results have been used to validate the MHD code based on OpenFOAM. - Abstract: In fusion liquid metal blankets, complex geometries involving contractions, expansions, bends, manifolds are very common. The characteristics of liquid metal flow in these geometries are significant. In order to extend the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) solver developed on OpenFOAM platform to be applied in the complex geometry, the MHD solver based on unstructured meshes has been implemented. The adoption of non-orthogonal correction techniques in the solver makes it possible to process the non-orthogonal meshes in complex geometries. The present paper focused on the validation of the code under critical conditions. An analytical solution benchmark case and two experimental benchmark cases were conducted to validate the code. Benchmark case I is MHD flow in a circular pipe with arbitrary electric conductivity of the walls in a uniform magnetic field. Benchmark cases II and III are experimental cases of 3D laminar steady MHD flow under fringing magnetic field. In all these cases, the numerical results match well with the benchmark cases.

  18. Further validation of liquid metal MHD code for unstructured grid based on OpenFOAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jingchao; Chen, Hongli; He, Qingyun; Ye, Minyou

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Specific correction scheme has been adopted to revise the calculating result for non-orthogonal meshes. • The developed MHD code based on OpenFOAM platform has been validated by benchmark cases under uniform and non-uniform magnetic field in round and rectangular ducts. • ALEX experimental results have been used to validate the MHD code based on OpenFOAM. - Abstract: In fusion liquid metal blankets, complex geometries involving contractions, expansions, bends, manifolds are very common. The characteristics of liquid metal flow in these geometries are significant. In order to extend the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) solver developed on OpenFOAM platform to be applied in the complex geometry, the MHD solver based on unstructured meshes has been implemented. The adoption of non-orthogonal correction techniques in the solver makes it possible to process the non-orthogonal meshes in complex geometries. The present paper focused on the validation of the code under critical conditions. An analytical solution benchmark case and two experimental benchmark cases were conducted to validate the code. Benchmark case I is MHD flow in a circular pipe with arbitrary electric conductivity of the walls in a uniform magnetic field. Benchmark cases II and III are experimental cases of 3D laminar steady MHD flow under fringing magnetic field. In all these cases, the numerical results match well with the benchmark cases.

  19. GLOBULAR AND OPEN CLUSTERS OBSERVED BY SDSS/SEGUE: THE GIANT STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Heather L.; Ma, Zhibo; Connor, Thomas; Schechtman-Rook, Andrew; Harding, Paul [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Clem, James L. [Department of Physics, Grove City College, 100 Campus Dr., Grove City, PA 16127 (United States); An, Deokkeun [Department of Science Education, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Casagrande, Luca [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, The Australian National University, ACT 2611 (Australia); Rockosi, Constance [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Yanny, Brian [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia IL 60510 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46656 (United States); Johnson, Jennifer A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Schneider, Donald P., E-mail: hlm5@case.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We present griz observations for the clusters M92, M13 and NGC 6791 and gr photometry for M71, Be 29 and NGC 7789. In addition we present new membership identifications for all these clusters, which have been observed spectroscopically as calibrators for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)/SEGUE survey; this paper focuses in particular on the red giant branch stars in the clusters. In a number of cases, these giants were too bright to be observed in the normal SDSS survey operations, and we describe the procedure used to obtain spectra for these stars. For M71, we also present a new variable reddening map and a new fiducial for the gr giant branch. For NGC 7789, we derived a transformation from T{sub eff} to g–r for giants of near solar abundance, using IRFM T{sub eff} measures of stars with good ugriz  and 2MASS photometry and SEGUE spectra. The result of our analysis is a robust list of known cluster members with correctly dereddened and (if needed) transformed gr photometry for crucial calibration efforts for SDSS and SEGUE.

  20. Age of the Kepler Open Cluster NGC 6811 from an Eclipsing Binary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitner, Marika; Sandquist, E. L.; Shetrone, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    provide an extremely precise age for the cluster. We present the results of modeling Kepler and ground-based photometry as well as radial velocities obtained at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, Nordic Optical Telescope, and MMT. We demonstrate that the stars have masses near 1.6 and 1.4 solar masses...

  1. A numerical study of spin-dependent organization of alkali-metal atomic clusters using density-functional method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xuan, E-mail: liu.x.ad@m.titech.ac.jp; Ito, Haruhiko [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Torikai, Eiko [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    We calculate the different geometric isomers of spin clusters composed of a small number of alkali-metal atoms using the UB3LYP density-functional method. The electron density distribution of clusters changes according to the value of total spin. Steric structures as well as planar structures arise when the number of atoms increases. The lowest spin state is the most stable and Li{sub n}, Na{sub n}, K{sub n}, Rb{sub n}, and Cs{sub n} with n = 2-8 can be formed in higher spin states. In the highest spin state, the preparation of clusters depends on the kind and the number of constituent atoms. The interaction energy between alkali-metal atoms and rare-gas atoms is smaller than the binding energy of spin clusters. Consequently, it is possible to self-organize the alkali-metal-atom clusters on a non-wetting substrate coated with rare-gas atoms.

  2. Effects of Carbonyl Bond and Metal Cluster Dissociation and Evaporation Rates on Predictions of Nanotube Production in HiPco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Carl D.; Smalley, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    The high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) process for producing single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) uses iron pentacarbonyl as the source of iron for catalyzing the Boudouard reaction. Attempts using nickel tetracarbonyl led to no production of SWNTs. This paper discusses simulations at a constant condition of 1300 K and 30 atm in which the chemical rate equations are solved for different reaction schemes. A lumped cluster model is developed to limit the number of species in the models, yet it includes fairly large clusters. Reaction rate coefficients in these schemes are based on bond energies of iron and nickel species and on estimates of chemical rates for formation of SWNTs. SWNT growth is measured by the co-formation of CO2. It is shown that the production of CO2 is significantly greater for FeCO due to its lower bond energy as compared with that ofNiCO. It is also shown that the dissociation and evaporation rates of atoms from small metal clusters have a significant effect on CO2 production. A high rate of evaporation leads to a smaller number of metal clusters available to catalyze the Boudouard reaction. This suggests that if CO reacts with metal clusters and removes atoms from them by forming MeCO, this has the effect of enhancing the evaporation rate and reducing SWNT production. The study also investigates some other reactions in the model that have a less dramatic influence.

  3. Independent control of metal cluster and ceramic particle characteristics during one-step synthesis of Pt/TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, H.; Madler, L.; Strobel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Rapid quenching during flame spray synthesis of Pt/TiO2 (0-10 Wt% Pt) is demonstrated as a versatile method for independent control of support (TiO2) and noble metal (Pt)cluster characteristics. Titania grain size, morphology, crystal phase structure, and crystal size were analyzed by nitrogen ad...

  4. Investigating the synthesis of ligated metal clusters in solution using a flow reactor and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Astrid; Laskin, Julia; Johnson, Grant E

    2014-09-18

    The scalable synthesis of ligated subnanometer metal clusters containing an exact number of atoms is of interest due to the highly size-dependent catalytic, electronic, and optical properties of these species. While significant research has been conducted on the batch preparation of clusters through reduction synthesis in solution, the processes of metal complex reduction as well as cluster nucleation, growth, and postreduction etching are still not well understood. Herein, we demonstrate a prototype temperature-controlled flow reactor for qualitatively studying cluster formation in solution at steady-state conditions. Employing this technique, methanol solutions of a chloro(triphenylphosphine)gold precursor, 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane capping ligand, and borane-tert-butylamine reducing agent were combined in a mixing tee and introduced into a heated capillary with a known length. In this manner, the temperature dependence of the relative abundance of different ionic reactants, intermediates, and products synthesized in real time was characterized qualitatively using online mass spectrometry. A wide distribution of doubly and triply charged cationic gold clusters was observed as well as smaller singly charged organometallic complexes. The results demonstrate that temperature plays a crucial role in determining the relative population of cationic gold clusters and, in general, that higher temperature promotes the formation of doubly charged clusters and singly charged organometallic complexes while reducing the abundance of triply charged species. Moreover, the distribution of clusters observed at elevated temperatures is found to be consistent with that obtained at longer reaction times at room temperature, thereby demonstrating that heating may be used to access cluster distributions characteristic of different stages of batch reduction synthesis in solution.

  5. A new family of Ln₇ clusters with an ideal D(3h) metal-centered trigonal prismatic geometry, and SMM and photoluminescence behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarakioti, Eleni C; Poole, Katye M; Cunha-Silva, Luis; Christou, George; Stamatatos, Theocharis C

    2014-08-14

    The first use of the flexible Schiff base ligand N-salicylidene-2-aminocyclohexanol in metal cluster chemistry has afforded a new family of Ln7 clusters with ideal D(3h) point group symmetry and metal-centered trigonal prismatic topology; solid-state and solution studies revealed SMM and photoluminescence behaviors.

  6. Infrared photometry of open star clusters Alessi 16, Chupina1, Juchert-Saloran1 and Patchick 78

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Selim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present JHKs near-infrared photometric study for the poorly studied open star clusters Alessi 16, Chupina1, Juchert-Saloran1 and Patchick 78 based on 2MASS data. Astrometry and photometric parameters have been calculated using the Redial Density Profile (RDP and Color Magnitude Diagrams (CMDs fittings. Radius, distance, reddening, age, Luminosity Function (LF, Mass Function (MF, total mass and relaxation time have been calculated from the analysis of 2MASS data. The stellar memberships have been determined using a new method.

  7. Generalized vibrating potential model for collective excitations in spherical, deformed and superdeformed systems: (1) atomic nuclei, (2) metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterenko, V.O.; Kleinig, W.

    1995-01-01

    The self-consistent vibrating potential model (VPM) is extended for description of Eλ collective excitations in atomic nuclei and metal clusters with practically any kind of static deformation. The model is convenient for a qualitative analysis and provides the RPA accuracy of numerical calculations. The VPM is applied to study Eλ giant resonances in spherical metal clusters and deformed and superdeformed nuclei. It is shown that the deformation splitting of superdeformed nuclei results in a very complicated (''jungle-like'') structure of the resonances, which makes the experimental observation of E2 and E3 giant resonances in superdeformed nuclei quite problematic. Calculations of E1 giant resonance in spherical sodium clusters Na 8 , Na 20 and Na 40 are presented, as a test of the VPM in this field. The results are in qualitative agreement with the experimental data. (orig.)

  8. Ab initio study of neutral (TiO2)n clusters and their interactions with water and transition metal atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çakır, D; Gülseren, O

    2012-01-01

    We have systematically investigated the growth behavior and stability of small stoichiometric (TiO 2 ) n (n = 1-10) clusters as well as their structural, electronic and magnetic properties by using the first-principles plane wave pseudopotential method within density functional theory. In order to find out the ground state geometries, a large number of initial cluster structures for each n has been searched via total energy calculations. Generally, the ground state structures for the case of n = 1-9 clusters have at least one monovalent O atom, which only binds to a single Ti atom. However, the most stable structure of the n = 10 cluster does not have any monovalent O atom. On the other hand, Ti atoms are at least fourfold coordinated for the ground state structures for n ≥ 4 clusters. Our calculations have revealed that clusters prefer to form three-dimensional structures. Furthermore, all these stoichiometric clusters have nonmagnetic ground state. The formation energy and the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gap for the most stable structure of (TiO 2 ) n clusters for each n have also been calculated. The formation energy and hence the stability increases as the cluster size grows. In addition, the interactions between the ground state structure of the (TiO 2 ) n cluster and a single water molecule have been studied. The binding energy (E b ) of the H 2 O molecule exhibits an oscillatory behavior with the size of the clusters. A single water molecule preferably binds to the cluster Ti atom through its oxygen atom, resulting an average binding energy of 1.1 eV. We have also reported the interaction of the selected clusters (n = 3, 4, 10) with multiple water molecules. We have found that additional water molecules lead to a decrease in the binding energy of these molecules to the (TiO 2 ) n clusters. Finally, the adsorption of transition metal (TM) atoms (V, Co and Pt) on the n = 10 cluster has been

  9. A Wide-Field Photometric Survey for Extratidal Tails Around Five Metal-Poor Globular Clusters in the Galactic Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Woo; Sohn, Sangmo T.; Park, Jang-Hyun; Han, Wonyong; Kim, Ho-Il; Lee, Young-Wook; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Lee, Sang-Gak; Sohn, Young-Jong

    2010-02-01

    Wide-field deep g'r'i' images obtained with the Megacam of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope are used to investigate the spatial configuration of stars around five metal-poor globular clusters M15, M30, M53, NGC 5053, and NGC 5466, in a field-of-view ~3°. Applying a mask filtering algorithm to the color-magnitude diagrams of the observed stars, we sorted cluster's member star candidates that are used to examine the characteristics of the spatial stellar distribution surrounding the target clusters. The smoothed surface density maps and the overlaid isodensity contours indicate that all of the five metal-poor globular clusters exhibit strong evidence of extratidal overdensity features over their tidal radii, in the form of extended tidal tails around the clusters. The orientations of the observed extratidal features show signatures of tidal tails tracing the clusters' orbits, inferred from their proper motions, and effects of dynamical interactions with the Galaxy. Our findings include detections of a tidal bridge-like feature and an envelope structure around the pair of globular clusters M53 and NGC 5053. The observed radial surface density profiles of target clusters have a deviation from theoretical King models, for which the profiles show a break at 0.5-0.7rt , extending the overdensity features out to 1.5-2rt . Both radial surface density profiles for different angular sections and azimuthal number density profiles confirm the overdensity features of tidal tails around the five metal-poor globular clusters. Our results add further observational evidence that the observed metal-poor halo globular clusters originate from an accreted satellite system, indicative of the merging scenario of the formation of the Galactic halo. Based on observations carried out at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France, and the University of Hawaii. This is part of the

  10. N-Heterocyclic Carbene Coinage Metal Complexes of the Germanium-Rich Metalloid Clusters [Ge9R3]− and [Ge9RI2]2− with R = Si(iPr3 and RI = Si(TMS3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix S. Geitner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on the synthesis of novel coinage metal NHC (N-heterocyclic carbene compounds of the germanium-rich metalloid clusters [Ge9R3]− and [Ge9RI2]2− with R = Si(iPr3 and RI = Si(TMS3. NHCDippCu{η3Ge9R3} with R = Si(iPr3 (1 represents a less bulky silyl group-substituted derivative of the known analogous compounds with R = Si(iBu3 or Si(TMS3. The coordination of the [NHCDippCu]+ moiety to the cluster unit occurs via one triangular face of the tri-capped trigonal prismatic [Ge9] cluster. Furthermore, a series of novel Zintl cluster coinage metal NHC compounds of the type (NHCM2{η3Ge9RI2} (RI = Si(TMS3 M = Cu, Ag and Au; NHC = NHCDipp or NHCMes is presented. These novel compounds represent a new class of neutral dinuclear Zintl cluster coinage metal NHC compounds, which are obtained either by the stepwise reaction of a suspension of K12Ge17 with Si(TMS3Cl and the coinage metal carbene complexes NHCMCl (M = Cu, Ag, Au, or via a homogenous reaction using the preformed bis-silylated cluster K2[Ge9(Si(TMS32] and the corresponding NHCMCl (M = Cu, Ag, Au complex. The molecular structures of NHCDippCu{η3Ge9(Si(iPr33} (1 and (NHCDippCu2{η3-Ge9(Si(TMS32} (2 were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction methods. In 2, the coordination of the [NHCDippCu]+ moieties to the cluster unit takes place via both open triangular faces of the [Ge9] entity. Furthermore, all compounds were characterized by means of NMR spectroscopy (1H, 13C, 29Si and ESI-MS.

  11. Super-solar Metallicity Stars in the Galactic Center Nuclear Star Cluster: Unusual Sc, V, and Y Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Tuan; Kerzendorf, Wolfgang; Konopacky, Quinn; Marcinik, Joseph M.; Ghez, Andrea; Lu, Jessica R.; Morris, Mark R.

    2018-03-01

    We present adaptive-optics assisted near-infrared high-spectral-resolution observations of late-type giants in the nuclear star cluster of the Milky Way. The metallicity and elemental abundance measurements of these stars offer us an opportunity to understand the formation and evolution of the nuclear star cluster. In addition, their proximity to the supermassive black hole (∼0.5 pc) offers a unique probe of the star formation and chemical enrichment in this extreme environment. We observed two stars identified by medium spectral-resolution observations as potentially having very high metallicities. We use spectral-template fitting with the PHOENIX grid and Bayesian inference to simultaneously constrain the overall metallicity, [M/H], alpha-element abundance [α/Fe], effective temperature, and surface gravity of these stars. We find that one of the stars has very high metallicity ([M/H] > 0.6) and the other is slightly above solar metallicity. Both Galactic center stars have lines from scandium (Sc), vanadium (V), and yttrium (Y) that are much stronger than allowed by the PHOENIX grid. We find, using the spectral synthesis code Spectroscopy Made Easy, that [Sc/Fe] may be an order of magnitude above solar. For comparison, we also observed an empirical calibrator in NGC 6791, the highest metallicity cluster known ([M/H] ∼ 0.4). Most lines are well matched between the calibrator and the Galactic center stars, except for Sc, V, and Y, which confirms that their abundances must be anomalously high in these stars. These unusual abundances, which may be a unique signature of nuclear star clusters, offer an opportunity to test models of chemical enrichment in this region.

  12. Comparison between XAS, AWAXS and DAFS applied to nanometer scale supported metallic clusters. Pt.2; bimetallic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazin, D.; Sayers, D.

    1993-01-01

    The structural information obtained using three techniques related to synchrotron radiation are compared. XAS (X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy), AWAXS (Anomalous Wide Angle X-ray Scattering) and DAFS (Diffraction Anomalous Fine Structure) are applied to the study of nanometer scale bimetallic clusters. (author)

  13. Metal nitride cluster as a template to tune the electronic and magnetic properties of rare-earth metal containing endohedral fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yang

    2013-10-16

    Rare-earth metal containing endohedral fullerenes have attracted much attention due to the feasibility of encaging metal atom, atoms or cluster inside of carbon cages. By switching the metal atom or cluster entrapped inside of the carbon cage the physical and chemical properties of the fullerene compounds can be tuned. The understanding of magnetic and electrochemical properties of endohedral fullerenes plays an essential role in fundamental scientific researches and potential applications in materials science. In this thesis, synthesizing novel rare-earth metal containing endohedral fullerene structures, studying the properties of these isolated endohedral fullerenes and the strategies of tuning the electronic and magnetic properties of endohedral fullerenes were introduced. The DC-arc discharging synthesis of different lanthanide metal-based (Ho, Ce and Pr) mixed metal nitride clusterfullerenes was achieved. Those rare-earth metal containing endohedral fullerenes were isolated by multi-step HPLC. The isolated samples were characterized by spectroscopic techniques included UV-vis-NIR, FTIR, Raman, LDI-TOF mass spectrometry, NMR and electrochemistry. The Ho-based mixed metal nitride clusterfullerenes Ho{sub x}M{sub 3-x}N rate at C{sub 80} (M= Sc, Lu, Y; x=1, 2) were synthesized by ''reactive gas atmosphere'' method or ''selective organic solid'' route. The isolated samples were characterized by LDI-TOF mass spectrometry, UV-vis-NIR, FTIR, Raman and NMR spectroscopy. The {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopic studies demonstrated exceptional NMR behaviors that resulted from switching the second metal inside of the mixed metal nitride cluster Ho{sub x}M{sub 3-x}N from Sc to Lu and further to Y. The LnSc{sub 2}N rate at C{sub 80} (Ln= Ce, Pr, Nd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Lu) MMNCFs were characterized by {sup 13}C and {sup 45}Sc NMR study respectively. According to Bleaney's theory and Reilley method, the separation of δ{sup PC} and δ{sup con

  14. Metal nitride cluster as a template to tune the electronic and magnetic properties of rare-earth metal containing endohedral fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Rare-earth metal containing endohedral fullerenes have attracted much attention due to the feasibility of encaging metal atom, atoms or cluster inside of carbon cages. By switching the metal atom or cluster entrapped inside of the carbon cage the physical and chemical properties of the fullerene compounds can be tuned. The understanding of magnetic and electrochemical properties of endohedral fullerenes plays an essential role in fundamental scientific researches and potential applications in materials science. In this thesis, synthesizing novel rare-earth metal containing endohedral fullerene structures, studying the properties of these isolated endohedral fullerenes and the strategies of tuning the electronic and magnetic properties of endohedral fullerenes were introduced. The DC-arc discharging synthesis of different lanthanide metal-based (Ho, Ce and Pr) mixed metal nitride clusterfullerenes was achieved. Those rare-earth metal containing endohedral fullerenes were isolated by multi-step HPLC. The isolated samples were characterized by spectroscopic techniques included UV-vis-NIR, FTIR, Raman, LDI-TOF mass spectrometry, NMR and electrochemistry. The Ho-based mixed metal nitride clusterfullerenes Ho x M 3-x N rate at C 80 (M= Sc, Lu, Y; x=1, 2) were synthesized by ''reactive gas atmosphere'' method or ''selective organic solid'' route. The isolated samples were characterized by LDI-TOF mass spectrometry, UV-vis-NIR, FTIR, Raman and NMR spectroscopy. The 13 C NMR spectroscopic studies demonstrated exceptional NMR behaviors that resulted from switching the second metal inside of the mixed metal nitride cluster Ho x M 3-x N from Sc to Lu and further to Y. The LnSc 2 N rate at C 80 (Ln= Ce, Pr, Nd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Lu) MMNCFs were characterized by 13 C and 45 Sc NMR study respectively. According to Bleaney's theory and Reilley method, the separation of δ PC and δ con from δ para was achieved by the primary 13 C and 45 Sc NMR analysis of LnSc 2 N rate at C 80 (I). The

  15. Evidence for the direct ejection of clusters from non-metallic solids during laser vaporization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomfield, L.A.; Yang, Y.A.; Xia, P.; Junkin, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the formation of molecular scale particles or clusters of alkali halides and semiconductors during laser vaporization of solids. By measuring the abundances of cluster ions produced in several different source configurations, the authors have determined that clusters are ejected directly from the source sample and do not need to grow from atomic or molecular vapor. Using samples of mixed alkali halide powders, the authors have found that unalloyed clusters are easily produced in a source that prevents growth from occurring after the clusters leave the sample surface. However, melting the sample or encouraging growth after vaporization lead to the production of alloyed cluster species. The sizes of the ejected clusters are initially random, but the population spectrum quickly becomes structured as hot, unstable-sized clusters decay into smaller particles. In carbon, large clusters with odd number of atoms decay almost immediately. The hot even clusters also decay, but much more slowly. The longest lived clusters are the magic C 50 and C 60 fullerenes. The mass spectrum of large carbon clusters evolves in time from structureless, to only the even clusters, to primarily C 50 and C 60 . If cluster growth is encouraged, the odd clusters reappear and the population spectrum again becomes relatively structureless

  16. ValWorkBench: an open source Java library for cluster validation, with applications to microarray data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancarlo, R; Scaturro, D; Utro, F

    2015-02-01

    The prediction of the number of clusters in a dataset, in particular microarrays, is a fundamental task in biological data analysis, usually performed via validation measures. Unfortunately, it has received very little attention and in fact there is a growing need for software tools/libraries dedicated to it. Here we present ValWorkBench, a software library consisting of eleven well known validation measures, together with novel heuristic approximations for some of them. The main objective of this paper is to provide the interested researcher with the full software documentation of an open source cluster validation platform having the main features of being easily extendible in a homogeneous way and of offering software components that can be readily re-used. Consequently, the focus of the presentation is on the architecture of the library, since it provides an essential map that can be used to access the full software documentation, which is available at the supplementary material website [1]. The mentioned main features of ValWorkBench are also discussed and exemplified, with emphasis on software abstraction design and re-usability. A comparison with existing cluster validation software libraries, mainly in terms of the mentioned features, is also offered. It suggests that ValWorkBench is a much needed contribution to the microarray software development/algorithm engineering community. For completeness, it is important to mention that previous accurate algorithmic experimental analysis of the relative merits of each of the implemented measures [19,23,25], carried out specifically on microarray data, gives useful insights on the effectiveness of ValWorkBench for cluster validation to researchers in the microarray community interested in its use for the mentioned task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Electronic Structure of Transition Metal Clusters, Actinide Complexes and Their Reactivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan Balasubramanian

    2009-07-18

    methods with all-electron Douglas-Kroll relativistic methods. We have the capabilities for computing full CI extrapolations including spin-orbit effects and several one-electron properties and electron density maps including spin-orbit effects. We are continuously collaborating with several experimental groups around the country and at National Labs to carry out computational studies on the DOE-BES funded projects. The past work in the last 3 years was primarily motivated and driven by the concurrent or recent experimental studies on these systems. We were thus significantly benefited by coordinating our computational efforts with experimental studies. The interaction between theory and experiment has resulted in some unique and exciting opportunities. For example, for the very first time ever, the upper spin-orbit component of a heavy trimer such as Au{sub 3} was experimentally observed as a result of our accurate computational study on the upper electronic states of gold trimer. Likewise for the first time AuH{sub 2} could be observed and interpreted clearly due to our computed potential energy surfaces that revealed the existence of a large barrier to convert the isolated AuH{sub 2} back to Au and H{sub 2}. We have also worked on yet to be observed systems and have made predictions for future experiments. We have computed the spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties of transition metal carbides transition metal clusters and compared our electronic states to the anion photodetachment spectra of Lai Sheng Wang. Prof Mike Morse and coworkers(funded also by DOE-BES) and Prof Stimle and coworkers(also funded by DOE-BES) are working on the spectroscopic properties of transition metal carbides and nitrides. Our predictions on the excited states of transition metal clusters such as Hf{sub 3}, Nb{sub 2}{sup +} etc., have been confirmed experimentally by Prof. Lombardi and coworkers using resonance Raman spectroscopy. We have also been studying larger complexes critical to the

  18. Electronic Structure of Transition Metal Clusters, Actinide Complexes and Their Reactivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, Krishnan

    2009-01-01

    methods with all-electron Douglas-Kroll relativistic methods. We have the capabilities for computing full CI extrapolations including spin-orbit effects and several one-electron properties and electron density maps including spin-orbit effects. We are continuously collaborating with several experimental groups around the country and at National Labs to carry out computational studies on the DOE-BES funded projects. The past work in the last 3 years was primarily motivated and driven by the concurrent or recent experimental studies on these systems. We were thus significantly benefited by coordinating our computational efforts with experimental studies. The interaction between theory and experiment has resulted in some unique and exciting opportunities. For example, for the very first time ever, the upper spin-orbit component of a heavy trimer such as Au 3 was experimentally observed as a result of our accurate computational study on the upper electronic states of gold trimer. Likewise for the first time AuH 2 could be observed and interpreted clearly due to our computed potential energy surfaces that revealed the existence of a large barrier to convert the isolated AuH 2 back to Au and H 2 . We have also worked on yet to be observed systems and have made predictions for future experiments. We have computed the spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties of transition metal carbides transition metal clusters and compared our electronic states to the anion photodetachment spectra of Lai Sheng Wang. Prof Mike Morse and coworkers(funded also by DOE-BES) and Prof Stimle and coworkers(also funded by DOE-BES) are working on the spectroscopic properties of transition metal carbides and nitrides. Our predictions on the excited states of transition metal clusters such as Hf 3 , Nb 2 + etc., have been confirmed experimentally by Prof. Lombardi and coworkers using resonance Raman spectroscopy. We have also been studying larger complexes critical to the environmental management of high

  19. Radiation clusters formation and evolution in FCC metals at low-temperature neutron irradiation up to small damage fluences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, A.V.; Shcherbakov, E.N.; Asiptsov, O.I.; Skryabin, L.A.; Portnykh, I.A.

    2006-01-01

    Methods of transmission electron microscopy and precision size measurements are used to study the formation of radiation-induced clusters in FCC metals (Ni, Pt, austenitic steels EhI-844, ChS-68) irradiated with fast neutron (E>0.1 MeV) fluences from 7 x 10 21 up to 3.5 x 10 22 m -2 at a temperature of 310 K. Using statistical thermodynamic methods the process of radiation clusters formation and evolution is described quantitatively. The change in the concentration of point defects under irradiation as well as size variations of irradiated specimens on annealing are calculated [ru

  20. Variable stars in metal-rich globular clusters. IV. Long-period variables in NGC 6496

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Mohamad A. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Layden, Andrew C.; Guldenschuh, Katherine A. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403 (United States); Reichart, D. E.; Ivarsen, K. M.; Haislip, J. B.; Nysewander, M. C.; LaCluyze, A. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Welch, Douglas L., E-mail: mabbas@ari.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: laydena@bgsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8 S 4M1 (Canada)

    2015-02-01

    We present VI-band photometry for stars in the metal-rich globular cluster NGC 6496. Our time-series data were cadenced to search for long-period variables (LPVs) over a span of nearly two years, and our variability search yielded the discovery of 13 new variable stars, of which 6 are LPVs, 2 are suspected LPVs, and 5 are short-period eclipsing binaries. An additional star was found in the ASAS database, and we clarify its type and period. We argue that all of the eclipsing binaries are field stars, while five to six of the LPVs are members of NGC 6496. We compare the period–luminosity distribution of these LPVs with those of LPVs in the Large Magellanic Cloud and 47 Tucanae, and with theoretical pulsation models. We also present a VI color–magnitude diagram, display the evolutionary states of the variables, and match isochrones to determine a reddening of E(B−V)= 0.21±0.02 mag and apparent distance modulus of 15.60±0.15 mag.

  1. Tribological coatings for complex mechanical elements produced by supersonic cluster beam deposition of metal dichalcogenide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzoni, C.; Buttery, M.; Hampson, M. R.; Roberts, E. W.; Ducati, C.; Lenardi, C.; Cavaliere, F.; Piseri, P.; Milani, P.

    2015-07-01

    Fullerene-like MoS2 and WS2 nanoparticles can be used as building blocks for the fabrication of fluid and solid lubricants. Metal dichalcogenide films have a very low friction coefficient in vacuum, therefore they have mostly been used as solid lubricants in space and vacuum applications. Unfortunately, their use is significantly hampered by the fact that in the presence of humidity, oxygen and moisture, the low-friction properties of these materials rapidly degrade due to oxidation. The use of closed-cage MoS2 and WS2 nanoparticles may eliminate this problem, although the fabrication of lubricant thin films starting from dichalcogenide nanoparticles is, to date, a difficult task. Here we demonstrate the use of supersonic cluster beam deposition for the coating of complex mechanical elements (angular contact ball bearings) with nanostructured MoS2 and WS2 thin films. We report structural and tribological characterization of the coatings in view of the optimization of tribological performances for aerospace applications.

  2. Stellar Population Properties of Ultracompact Dwarfs in M87: A Mass–Metallicity Correlation Connecting Low-metallicity Globular Clusters and Compact Ellipticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Xin; Puzia, Thomas H.; Peng, Eric W.; Liu, Chengze; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Eigenthaler, Paul; Lim, Sungsoon; Lançon, Ariane; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Roediger, Joel; Sánchez-Janssen, Ruben; Taylor, Matthew A.; Yu, Jincheng

    2018-05-01

    We derive stellar population parameters for a representative sample of ultracompact dwarfs (UCDs) and a large sample of massive globular clusters (GCs) with stellar masses ≳ 106 M ⊙ in the central galaxy M87 of the Virgo galaxy cluster, based on model fitting to the Lick-index measurements from both the literature and new observations. After necessary spectral stacking of the relatively faint objects in our initial sample of 40 UCDs and 118 GCs, we obtain 30 sets of Lick-index measurements for UCDs and 80 for GCs. The M87 UCDs have ages ≳ 8 Gyr and [α/Fe] ≃ 0.4 dex, in agreement with previous studies based on smaller samples. The literature UCDs, located in lower-density environments than M87, extend to younger ages and smaller [α/Fe] (at given metallicities) than M87 UCDs, resembling the environmental dependence of the stellar nuclei of dwarf elliptical galaxies (dEs) in the Virgo cluster. The UCDs exhibit a positive mass–metallicity relation (MZR), which flattens and connects compact ellipticals at stellar masses ≳ 108 M ⊙. The Virgo dE nuclei largely follow the average MZR of UCDs, whereas most of the M87 GCs are offset toward higher metallicities for given stellar masses. The difference between the mass–metallicity distributions of UCDs and GCs may be qualitatively understood as a result of their different physical sizes at birth in a self-enrichment scenario or of galactic nuclear cluster star formation efficiency being relatively low in a tidal stripping scenario for UCD formation. The existing observations provide the necessary but not sufficient evidence for tidally stripped dE nuclei being the dominant contributors to the M87 UCDs.

  3. Understanding hydrogen sorption in a metal-organic framework with open-metal sites and amide functional groups

    KAUST Repository

    Pham, Tony T.

    2013-05-09

    Grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) studies of the mechanism of hydrogen sorption in an rht-MOF known as Cu-TPBTM are presented. The MOF is a decorated/substituted isostructural analogue to the unembellished rht-MOF, PCN-61, that was studied previously [ Forrest, K. A.J. Phys. Chem. C 2012, 116, 15538-15549. ]. The simulations were performed using three different hydrogen potentials of increasing complexity. Simulated hydrogen sorption isotherms and calculated isosteric heat of adsorption, Qst, values were in excellent agreement with the reported experimental data for only a polarizable model in one of four experimentally observed crystal structure configurations. The study demonstrates the ability of modeling to distinguish the differential sorption of distinct strucures; one configuration is found to be dominant due to favorable interactions with substrates. In addition, it was discovered that the presence of polar amide groups had a significant effect on the electrostatics of the Cu2+ ions and directs the low-pressure physisorption of hydrogen in the MOF. This is in contrast to what was observed in PCN-61, where an exterior copper ion had a higher relative charge and was the favored loading site. This tunability of the electrostatics of the copper ions via chemical substitution on the MOF framework can be explained by the presence of the negatively charged oxygen atom of the amide group that causes the interior Cu2+ ion to exhibit a higher positive charge through an inductive effect. Further, control simulations, taking advantage of the flexibility afforded by theoretical modeling, include artificially modified charges for both Cu2+ ions chosen equal to or with a higher charge on the exterior Cu2+ ion. This choice resulted in distinctly different hydrogen sorption characteristics in Cu-TPBTM with no direct sorption on the open-metal sites. Thus, this study demonstrates both the tunable nature of MOF platforms and the possibility for rational design of sorption

  4. Blue stragglers in open clusters - a test of the binary hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manteiga, M.; Martinez, R.C.; Beckman, J.E.; Pickles, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A search for binaries among 17 blue stragglers in five galactic clusters, NGC 7789, 6633, 6819, 6939, and M 67, has been performed using measurements of radial velocity variations. The spectra were obtained with the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph attached to the f/15 Cassegrain focus of the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope at the Spanish Observatory of the Roque de los Muchachos. The wavelength coverage was 200 A, centered at 8510 A with a scale of 12.4 km/sec per pixel. All radial velocity determinations were made using cross-correlation techniques. A velocity resolution of about 3 km/sec/pixel was obtained for the standard radial velocity stars and the brighter program stars. For three of the blue stragglers variations in radial velocity greater than 30 km/sec are reported. 10 references

  5. CCD Photometry of the Open Cluster Tombaugh 5 in the Vilnius System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Es-v = 0.80 mag, d = 1.33 kpc and the age 251 Myr. Majaess et al. (2008) investigated the cluster using the J,H,I<s data from the 2MASS survey. By...000 stars in the compari- SOJ1 catalog. For the classification of some stars, additional information from the J-H vs. H-K, diagram of 2MASS (Skrutskie...22 16.91 2.74 1.88 0.98 0.36 0.82 1.25 35: 2MASS J03464290+5902134, the star is a close visual binary ( ~ 2") with a 613 3 48 40.0 +59 06 37 14.18

  6. [Ti8Zr2O12(COO)16] Cluster: An Ideal Inorganic Building Unit for Photoactive Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuai; Qin, Jun-Sheng; Xu, Hai-Qun; Su, Jie; Rossi, Daniel; Chen, Yuanping; Zhang, Liangliang; Lollar, Christina; Wang, Qi; Jiang, Hai-Long; Son, Dong Hee; Xu, Hongyi; Huang, Zhehao; Zou, Xiaodong; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2018-01-24

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) based on Ti-oxo clusters (Ti-MOFs) represent a naturally self-assembled superlattice of TiO 2 nanoparticles separated by designable organic linkers as antenna chromophores, epitomizing a promising platform for solar energy conversion. However, despite the vast, diverse, and well-developed Ti-cluster chemistry, only a scarce number of Ti-MOFs have been documented. The synthetic conditions of most Ti-based clusters are incompatible with those required for MOF crystallization, which has severely limited the development of Ti-MOFs. This challenge has been met herein by the discovery of the [Ti 8 Zr 2 O 12 (COO) 16 ] cluster as a nearly ideal building unit for photoactive MOFs. A family of isoreticular photoactive MOFs were assembled, and their orbital alignments were fine-tuned by rational functionalization of organic linkers under computational guidance. These MOFs demonstrate high porosity, excellent chemical stability, tunable photoresponse, and good activity toward photocatalytic hydrogen evolution reactions. The discovery of the [Ti 8 Zr 2 O 12 (COO) 16 ] cluster and the facile construction of photoactive MOFs from this cluster shall pave the way for the development of future Ti-MOF-based photocatalysts.

  7. Visible tunable lighting system based on polymer composites embedding ZnO and metallic clusters: from colloids to thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Truong, Thai Giang; Dierre, Benjamin; Grasset, Fabien; Saito, Noriko; Saito, Norio; Nguyen, Thi Kim Ngan; Takahashi, Kohsei; Uchikoshi, Tetsuo; Amela-Cortes, Marian; Molard, Yann; Cordier, St?phane; Ohashi, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The development of phosphor devices free of heavy metal or rare earth elements is an important issue for environmental reasons and energy efficiency. Different mixtures of ZnO nanocrystals with Cs2Mo6I8(OOC2F5)6 cluster compound (CMIF) dispersed into polyvinylpyrrolidone matrix have been prepared by very simple and low cost solution chemistry. The resulting solutions have been used to fabricate highly transparent and luminescent films by dip coating free of heavy metal or rare earth ...

  8. NEAR-INFRARED IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF THE SOUTHERN REGION OF THE YOUNG OPEN CLUSTER NGC 2264

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinas, Naibi; Lada, Elizabeth A. [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Teixiera, Paula S. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Lada, Charles J. [Harvard-Smithsonian CFA, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-08-01

    We have obtained JHK near-IR images and JH band low-resolution spectra of candidate members of the southern region of the young open cluster NGC 2264. We have determined spectral types from H-band spectra for 54 sources, 25 of which are classified for the first time. The stars in our sample cover a large range of spectral types (A8-M8). Using a cluster distance of 780 pc, we determined a median age of 1 Myr for this region of NGC 2264, with 90% of the stars being 5 Myr or younger. To improve the statistical significance of our sample, we included 66 additional cluster members within our field of view with optical spectral classification in the literature. We derived infrared excesses using stellar properties to model the photospheric emission for each source and the extinction to correct FLAMINGOS near-IR and Spitzer mid-IR photometry, and obtained a disk fraction of 51% {+-} 5% for the region. Binning the stars by stellar mass, we find a disk fraction of 38% {+-} 9% for the 0.1-0.3 solar mass group, 55% {+-} 6% for 0.3-1 solar masses, and 58% {+-} 10% for the higher than 1 solar mass group. The lower disk fraction for the lower mass stars is similar to the results found in non-cluster regions like Taurus and Chamaeleon, but differs from the older 3 Myr cluster IC 348 in which the disk fraction is lower for the higher mass stars. This mass-dependent disk fraction is accentuated in the sample with isochrone ages younger than 2 Myr. Here, we find that 45% {+-} 11% of the 0.1-0.3 solar mass stars have disks, 60% {+-} 7% of the 0.3-1 solar mass stars have disks, and all 1-3 solar mass stars have disks. Stellar masses might be an important factor in the ability of a system to form or retain a disk early on. However, regardless of the stellar mass, the large infrared excesses expected from optically thick disks disappear within the first 2 Myr for all stars in our study and small excesses from optically thin disks are found mostly in sources younger than 4 Myr.

  9. On the Chemical Abundances of Miras in Clusters: V1 in the Metal-rich Globular NGC 5927

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Orazi, V.; Magurno, D.; Bono, G.; Matsunaga, N.; Braga, V. F.; Elgueta, S. S.; Fukue, K.; Hamano, S.; Inno, L.; Kobayashi, N.; Kondo, S.; Monelli, M.; Nonino, M.; Przybilla, N.; Sameshima, H.; Saviane, I.; Taniguchi, D.; Thevenin, F.; Urbaneja-Perez, M.; Watase, A.; Arai, A.; Bergemann, M.; Buonanno, R.; Dall’Ora, M.; Da Silva, R.; Fabrizio, M.; Ferraro, I.; Fiorentino, G.; Francois, P.; Gilmozzi, R.; Iannicola, G.; Ikeda, Y.; Jian, M.; Kawakita, H.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Lemasle, B.; Marengo, M.; Marinoni, S.; Martínez-Vázquez, C. E.; Minniti, D.; Neeley, J.; Otsubo, S.; Prieto, J. L.; Proxauf, B.; Romaniello, M.; Sanna, N.; Sneden, C.; Takenaka, K.; Tsujimoto, T.; Valenti, E.; Yasui, C.; Yoshikawa, T.; Zoccali, M.

    2018-03-01

    We present the first spectroscopic abundance determination of iron, α-elements (Si, Ca, and Ti), and sodium for the Mira variable V1 in the metal-rich globular cluster NGC 5927. We use high-resolution (R ∼ 28,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (∼200) spectra collected with WINERED, a near-infrared (NIR) spectrograph covering simultaneously the wavelength range 0.91–1.35 μm. The effective temperature and the surface gravity at the pulsation phase of the spectroscopic observation were estimated using both optical (V) and NIR time-series photometric data. We found that the Mira is metal-rich ([Fe/H] = ‑0.55 ± 0.15) and moderately α-enhanced ([α/Fe] = 0.15 ± 0.01, σ = 0.2). These values agree quite well with the mean cluster abundances based on high-resolution optical spectra of several cluster red giants available in the literature ([Fe/H] = ‑ 0.47 ± 0.06, [α/Fe] = + 0.24 ± 0.05). We also found a Na abundance of +0.35 ± 0.20 that is higher than the mean cluster abundance based on optical spectra (+0.18 ± 0.13). However, the lack of similar spectra for cluster red giants and that of corrections for departures from local thermodynamical equilibrium prevents us from establishing whether the difference is intrinsic or connected with multiple populations. These findings indicate a strong similarity between optical and NIR metallicity scales in spite of the difference in the experimental equipment, data analysis, and in the adopted spectroscopic diagnostics. Based on spectra collected with the WINERED spectrograph available as a visitor instrument at the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT), La Silla, Chile (ESO Proposal: 098.D-0878(A), PI: G. Bono).

  10. Effect of clustering on the mechanical properties of SiC particulate-reinforced aluminum alloy 2024 metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Soon-Jik; Kim, Hong-Moule; Huh, Dae; Suryanarayana, C.; Chun, Byong Sun

    2003-01-01

    Al 2024-SiC metal matrix composite (MMC) powders produced by centrifugal atomization were hot extruded to investigate the effect of clustering on their mechanical properties. Fracture toughness and tension tests were conducted on specimens reinforced with different volume fractions of SiC. A model was proposed to suggest that the strength of the MMCs could be estimated from the load transfer model approach that takes into consideration the extent of clustering. This model has been successful in predicting the experimentally observed strength and fracture toughness values of the Al 2024-SiC MMCs. On the basis of experimental observations, it is suggested that the strength of particulate-reinforced MMCs may be calculated from the relation: σ y =σ m V m +σ r (V r -V c )-σ r V c , where σ and V represent the yield strength and volume fraction, respectively, and the subscripts m, r, and c represent the matrix, reinforcement, and clusters, respectively

  11. DERIVING METALLICITIES FROM THE INTEGRATED SPECTRA OF EXTRAGALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS USING THE NEAR-INFRARED CALCIUM TRIPLET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, Caroline; Forbes, Duncan A.; Proctor, Robert N.; Spitler, Lee R.; Strader, Jay; Brodie, Jean P.

    2010-01-01

    The Ca II triplet (CaT) feature in the near-infrared has been employed as a metallicity indicator for individual stars as well as integrated light of Galactic globular clusters (GCs) and galaxies with varying degrees of success, and sometimes puzzling results. Using the DEIMOS multi-object spectrograph on Keck we obtain a sample of 144 integrated light spectra of GCs around the brightest group galaxy NGC 1407 to test whether the CaT index can be used as a metallicity indicator for extragalactic GCs. Different sets of single stellar population models make different predictions for the behavior of the CaT as a function of metallicity. In this work, the metallicities of the GCs around NGC 1407 are obtained from CaT index values using an empirical conversion. The measured CaT/metallicity distributions show unexpected features, the most remarkable being that the brightest red and blue GCs have similar CaT values despite their large difference in mean color. Suggested explanations for this behavior in the NGC 1407 GC system are (1) the CaT may be affected by a population of hot blue stars, (2) the CaT may saturate earlier than predicted by the models, and/or (3) color may not trace metallicity linearly. Until these possibilities are understood, the use of the CaT as a metallicity indicator for the integrated spectra of extragalactic GCs will remain problematic.

  12. Mixed-metal cluster chemistry. 28. Core enlargement of tungsten-iridium clusters with alkynyl, ethyndiyl, and butadiyndiyl reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Gulliver T; Viau, Lydie; Waterman, Susan M; Humphrey, Mark G; Bruce, Michael I; Low, Paul J; Roberts, Rachel L; Willis, Anthony C; Koutsantonis, George A; Skelton, Brian W; White, Allan H

    2005-05-02

    Reaction of [WIr3(mu-CO)3(CO)8(eta-C5Me5)] (1c) with [W(C[triple bond]CPh)(CO)3(eta-C5H5)] afforded the edge-bridged tetrahedral cluster [W2Ir3(mu4-eta2-C2Ph)(mu-CO)(CO)9(eta-C5H5)(eta-C5Me5)] (3) and the edge-bridged trigonal-bipyramidal cluster [W3Ir3(mu4-eta2-C2Ph)(mu-eta2-C=CHPh)(Cl)(CO)8(eta-C5Me5)(eta-C5H5)2] (4) in poor to fair yield. Cluster 3 forms by insertion of [W(C[triple bond]CPh)(CO)3(eta-C5H5)] into Ir-Ir and W-Ir bonds, accompanied by a change in coordination mode from a terminally bonded alkynyl to a mu4-eta2 alkynyl ligand. Cluster 4 contains an alkynyl ligand interacting with two iridium atoms and two tungsten atoms in a mu4-eta2 fashion, as well as a vinylidene ligand bridging a W-W bond. Reaction of [WIr3(CO)11(eta-C5H5)] (1a) or 1c with [(eta-C5H5)(CO)2 Ru(C[triple bond]C)Ru(CO)2(eta-C5H5)] afforded [Ru2WIr3(mu5-eta2-C2)(mu-CO)3(CO)7(eta-C5H5)2(eta-C5R5)] [R = H (5a), Me (5c)] in low yield, a structural study of 5a revealing a WIr3 butterfly core capped and spiked by Ru atoms; the diruthenium ethyndiyl precursor has undergone Ru-C scission, with insertion of the C2 unit into a W-Ir bond of the cluster precursor. Reaction of [W2Ir2(CO)10(eta-C5H5)2] with the diruthenium ethyndiyl reagent gave [RuW2Ir2{mu4-eta2-(C2C[triple bond]C)Ru(CO)2(eta-C5H5)}(mu-CO)2(CO)6(eta-C5H5)3] (6) in low yield, a structural study of 6 revealing a butterfly W2Ir2 unit capped by a Ru(eta-C5H5) group resulting from Ru-C scission; the terminal C2 of a new ruthenium-bound butadiyndiyl ligand has been inserted into the W-Ir bond. Reaction between 1a, [WIr3(CO)11(eta-C5H4Me)] (1b), or 1c and [(eta-C5H5)(CO)3W(C[triple bond]CC[triple bond]C)W(CO)3(eta-C5H5)] afforded [W2Ir3{mu4-eta2-(C2C[triple bond]C)W(CO)3(eta-C5H5)}(mu-CO)2(CO)2(eta-C5H5)(eta-C5R5)] [R = H (7a), Me (7c); R5 = H4Me (7b)] in good yield, a structural study of 7c revealing it to be a metallaethynyl analogue of 3.

  13. Association of Interleukin-1 gene clusters polymorphisms with primary open-angle glaucoma: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhua; Feng, Yifan; Sung, Mi Sun; Lee, Tae Hee; Park, Sang Woo

    2017-11-28

    Previous studies have associated the Interleukin-1 (IL-1) gene clusters polymorphisms with the risk of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). However, the results were not consistent. Here, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the role of IL-1 gene clusters polymorphisms in POAG susceptibility. PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library (up to July 15, 2017) were searched by two independent investigators. All case-control studies investigating the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL-1 gene clusters and POAG risk were included. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for quantifying the strength of association that has been involved in at least two studies. Five studies on IL-1β rs16944 (c. -511C > T) (1053 cases and 986 controls), 4 studies on IL-1α rs1800587 (c. -889C > T) (822 cases and 714 controls), and 4 studies on IL-1β rs1143634 (c. +3953C > T) (798 cases and 730 controls) were included. The results suggest that all three SNPs were not associated with POAG risk. Stratification analyses indicated that the rs1143634 has a suggestive associated with high tension glaucoma (HTG) under dominant (P = 0.03), heterozygote (P = 0.04) and allelic models (P = 0.02), however, the weak association was nullified after Bonferroni adjustments for multiple tests. Based on current meta-analysis, we indicated that there is lack of association between the three SNPs of IL-1 and POAG. However, this conclusion should be interpreted with caution and further well designed studies with large sample-size are required to validate the conclusion as low statistical powers.

  14. Study on Intelligent Control of Metal Filling System by Welding Robots in the Open Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available robot model of three-arm and five-degree freedom plus large scope of traversing welding was established, and decoupling of models of “large scope of traversing”, “triangle movement of two arms” and “spherical movement of one arm” was realized. The model of “triangle movement of two arms ”is able to use geometrical calculation to solve the kinematics inverse problem , avoid the multiplicity, improve the calculation speed, eliminate the blind spots of the motions of welding gun of welding robot, and simplify the kinematic pair of kinematic mechanism for the arc filling strategy during welding travelling of robot. Binocular stereo vision camera was used to detect the edges of welds, and laser array sensor was used to detect the amount of metal filling of welds. In completely open conditions, feedback was fused based on sensor data to realize the welding tracking control by welding robot.

  15. Chemical Abundances of Main-sequence, Turnoff, Subgiant, and Red Giant Stars from APOGEE Spectra. I. Signatures of Diffusion in the Open Cluster M67

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Diogo; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; Allende Prieto, C.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Pinsonneault, Marc; Holzer, Parker; Frinchaboy, Peter; Holtzman, Jon; Johnson, J. A.; Jönsson, Henrik; Majewski, Steven R.; Shetrone, Matthew; Sobeck, Jennifer; Stringfellow, Guy; Teske, Johanna; Zamora, Olga; Zasowski, Gail; Carrera, Ricardo; Stassun, Keivan; Fernandez-Trincado, J. G.; Villanova, Sandro; Minniti, Dante; Santana, Felipe

    2018-04-01

    Detailed chemical abundance distributions for 14 elements are derived for eight high-probability stellar members of the solar metallicity old open cluster M67 with an age of ∼4 Gyr. The eight stars consist of four pairs, with each pair occupying a distinct phase of stellar evolution: two G dwarfs, two turnoff stars, two G subgiants, and two red clump (RC) K giants. The abundance analysis uses near-IR high-resolution spectra (λ1.5–1.7 μm) from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment survey and derives abundances for C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, and Fe. Our derived stellar parameters and metallicity for 2M08510076+1153115 suggest that this star is a solar twin, exhibiting abundance differences relative to the Sun of ≤0.04 dex for all elements. Chemical homogeneity is found within each class of stars (∼0.02 dex), while significant abundance variations (∼0.05–0.20 dex) are found across the different evolutionary phases; the turnoff stars typically have the lowest abundances, while the RCs tend to have the largest. Non-LTE corrections to the LTE-derived abundances are unlikely to explain the differences. A detailed comparison of the derived Fe, Mg, Si, and Ca abundances with recently published surface abundances from stellar models that include chemical diffusion provides a good match between the observed and predicted abundances as a function of stellar mass. Such agreement would indicate the detection of chemical diffusion processes in the stellar members of M67.

  16. The iron-sulfur cluster assembly machineries in plants: current knowledge and open questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Jérémy; Touraine, Brigitte; Briat, Jean-François; Gaymard, Frédéric; Rouhier, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Many metabolic pathways and cellular processes occurring in most sub-cellular compartments depend on the functioning of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) proteins, whose cofactors are assembled through dedicated protein machineries. Recent advances have been made in the knowledge of the functions of individual components through a combination of genetic, biochemical and structural approaches, primarily in prokaryotes and non-plant eukaryotes. Whereas most of the components of these machineries are conserved between kingdoms, their complexity is likely increased in plants owing to the presence of additional assembly proteins and to the existence of expanded families for several assembly proteins. This review focuses on the new actors discovered in the past few years, such as glutaredoxin, BOLA and NEET proteins as well as MIP18, MMS19, TAH18, DRE2 for the cytosolic machinery, which are integrated into a model for the plant Fe-S cluster biogenesis systems. It also discusses a few issues currently subjected to an intense debate such as the role of the mitochondrial frataxin and of glutaredoxins, the functional separation between scaffold, carrier and iron-delivery proteins and the crosstalk existing between different organelles. PMID:23898337

  17. From linking of metal-oxide building blocks in a dynamic library to giant clusters with unique properties and towards adaptive chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Achim; Gouzerh, Pierre

    2012-11-21

    Following Nature's lessons, today chemists can cross the boundary of the small molecule world to construct multifunctional and highly complex molecular nano-objects up to protein size and even cell-like nanosystems showing responsive sensing. Impressive examples emerge from studies of the solutions of some oxoanions of the early transition metals especially under reducing conditions which enable the controlled linking of metal-oxide building blocks. The latter are available from constitutional dynamic libraries, thus providing the option to generate multifunctional unique nanoscale molecular systems with exquisite architectures, which even opens the way towards adaptive and evolutive (Darwinian) chemistry. The present review presents the first comprehensive report of current knowledge (including synthesis aspects not discussed before) regarding the related giant metal-oxide clusters mainly of the type {Mo(57)M'(6)} (M' = Fe(III), V(IV)) (torus structure), {M(72)M'(30)} (M = Mo, M' = V(IV), Cr(III), Fe(III), Mo(V)), {M(72)Mo(60)} (M = Mo, W) (Keplerates), {Mo(154)}, {Mo(176)}, {Mo(248)} ("big wheels"), and {Mo(368)} ("blue lemon") - all having the important transferable pentagonal {(M)M(5)} groups in common. These discoveries expanded the frontiers of inorganic chemistry to the mesoscopic world, while there is probably no collection of discrete inorganic compounds which offers such a versatile chemistry and the option to study new phenomena of interdisciplinary interest. The variety of different properties of the sphere- and wheel-type metal-oxide-based clusters can directly be related to their unique architectures: The spherical Keplerate-type capsules having 20 crown-ether-type pores and tunable internal functionalities allow the investigation of confined matter as well as that of sphere-surface-supramolecular and encapsulation chemistry - including related new aspects of the biologically important hydrophobic effects - but also of nanoscale ion transport and

  18. Interplay of metals and bromine with dioxin-related compounds concentrated in e-waste open burning soil from Agbogbloshie in Accra, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Takashi; Itai, Takaaki; Goto, Akitoshi; Asante, Kwadwo A.; Otsuka, Masanari; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2016-01-01

    Open burning of electronic waste (e-waste) releases various metals and organohalogen compounds in the environment. Here we investigated the interplay of metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Co, and Sr) and bromine (Br) in the formation of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs), as well as non-regulated DRCs such as polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs) and their monobrominated PCDD/Fs in soils sampled from open burning e-waste sites at Agbogbloshie in Accra, Ghana. The predominant DRCs were PBDFs, PCDFs, PCDDs, and DL-PCBs. Statistical analyzes, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and the PCDF/PCDD ratio suggested possible formation paths of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs by catalytic behaviors of copper chlorides (CuCl, CuCl_2, and Cu_2(OH)_3Cl) and thermal breakdown of polyvinyl chloride. Predominant formation of brominated furans may be derived from electron transfer from intermediates of PBDE to copper, Cu(II) → Cu(I). Lead chloride also contributed to generate DRCs and may become highly bioaccessible through the open burning of e-waste. The main zinc species (ZnCl_2 and ZnS) suggested a possible relationship to generate DRCs and specific zinc source such as tire burning. Cu, Pb, Zn, and Br contained in various e-wastes, wires/cables, plastics, and tires strongly influenced generation of many DRCs. - Highlights: • Extremely high DRCs were detected from an open burning soil of e-waste. • Predominant DRCs were PBDFs, PCDFs, PCDDs, and DL-PCBs. • Some metals shows good correlation to DRCs by PCA and cluster analysis. • Speciation of Cu, Pb, Zn in residual soil were successfully measured by XAFS. • Electron transfer via Cu(II) → Cu(I) can be important for DRCs formation. - Metals speciation in residual soil after open burning of e-waste may act as a catalyst for formation of dioxin-related compounds.

  19. Mass-spectrometric study of ion clustering in alkali-metal hydroxide vapor: cluster-ion energy and structural characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudin, L.S.; Butman, M.F.; Krasnov, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    Various positive and negative ions have been recorded in the equilibrium vapors from alkali-metal hydroxides: M/sup +/-/, OH - , O - , MO - , MOH - , and X/sup +/-/ (MOH)/sub n/, where X = M/sup +/-/, OH - , n = 1-6. The equilibrium constants have been measured for X/sup +/-/(MOH)/sub n/ = x/sup +/-/ + nMOH(k), n = 1-3, and the enthalpies of reaction have been determined, from which the enthalpies of formation and dissociation energies of X/sup +/-/ (MOH)/sub n/ have been calculated. The relative stabilities of the ions in the series from Na to Cs are examined

  20. Beryllium abundances along the evolutionary sequence of the open cluster IC 4651 - A new test for hydrodynamical stellar models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiljanic, R.; Pasquini, L.; Charbonnel, C.; Lagarde, N.

    2010-02-01

    Context. Previous analyses of lithium abundances in main sequence and red giant stars have revealed the action of mixing mechanisms other than convection in stellar interiors. Beryllium abundances in stars with Li abundance determinations can offer valuable complementary information on the nature of these mechanisms. Aims: Our aim is to derive Be abundances along the whole evolutionary sequence of an open cluster. We focus on the well-studied open cluster IC 4651. These Be abundances are used with previously determined Li abundances, in the same sample stars, to investigate the mixing mechanisms in a range of stellar masses and evolutionary stages. Methods: Atmospheric parameters were adopted from a previous abundance analysis by the same authors. New Be abundances have been determined from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise UVES spectra using spectrum synthesis and model atmospheres. The careful synthetic modeling of the Be lines region is used to calculate reliable abundances in rapidly rotating stars. The observed behavior of Be and Li is compared to theoretical predictions from stellar models including rotation-induced mixing, internal gravity waves, atomic diffusion, and thermohaline mixing. Results: Beryllium is detected in all the main sequence and turn-off sample stars, both slow- and fast-rotating stars, including the Li-dip stars, but is not detected in the red giants. Confirming previous results, we find that the Li dip is also a Be dip, although the depletion of Be is more modest than for Li in the corresponding effective temperature range. For post-main-sequence stars, the Be dilution starts earlier within the Hertzsprung gap than expected from classical predictions, as does the Li dilution. A clear dispersion in the Be abundances is also observed. Theoretical stellar models including the hydrodynamical transport processes mentioned above are able to reproduce all the observed features well. These results show a good theoretical understanding of the

  1. SMC west halo: a slice of the galaxy that is being tidally stripped?. Star clusters trace age and metallicity gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, B.; Kerber, L.; Barbuy, B.; Bica, E.; Ortolani, S.

    2016-06-01

    Context. The evolution and structure of the Magellanic Clouds is currently under debate. The classical scenario in which both the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC, SMC) are orbiting the Milky Way has been challenged by an alternative in which the LMC and SMC are in their first close passage to our Galaxy. The clouds are close enough to us to allow spatially resolved observation of their stars, and detailed studies of stellar populations in the galaxies are expected to be able to constrain the proposed scenarios. In particular, the west halo (WH) of the SMC was recently characterized with radial trends in age and metallicity that indicate tidal disruption. Aims: We intend to increase the sample of star clusters in the west halo of the SMC with homogeneous age, metallicity, and distance derivations to allow a better determination of age and metallicity gradients in this region. Positions are compared with the orbital plane of the SMC from models. Methods: Comparisons of observed and synthetic V(B-V) colour-magnitude diagrams were used to derive age, metallicity, distance, and reddening for star clusters in the SMC west halo. Observations were carried out using the 4.1 m SOAR telescope. Photometric completeness was determined through artificial star tests, and the members were selected by statistical comparison with a control field. Results: We derived an age of 1.23 ± 0.07 Gyr and [Fe/H] = -0.87 ± 0.07 for the reference cluster NGC 152, compatible with literature parameters. Age and metallicity gradients are confirmed in the WH: 2.6 ± 0.6 Gyr/° and -0.19 ± 0.09 dex/°, respectively. The age-metallicity relation for the WH has a low dispersion in metallicity and is compatible with a burst model of chemical enrichment. All WH clusters seem to follow the same stellar distribution predicted by dynamical models, with the exception of AM-3, which should belong to the counter-bridge. Brück 6 is the youngest cluster in our sample. It is only 130 ± 40 Myr old and

  2. A simplistic analytical unit cell based model for the effective thermal conductivity of high porosity open-cell metal foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, X H; Kuang, J J; Lu, T J; Han, F S; Kim, T

    2013-01-01

    We present a simplistic yet accurate analytical model for the effective thermal conductivity of high porosity open-cell metal foams saturated in a low conducting fluid (air). The model is derived analytically based on a realistic representative unit cell (a tetrakaidecahedron) under the assumption of one-dimensional heat conduction along highly tortuous-conducting ligaments at high porosity ranges (ε ⩾ 0.9). Good agreement with existing experimental data suggests that heat conduction along highly conducting and tortuous ligaments predominantly defines the effective thermal conductivity of open-cell metal foams with negligible conduction in parallel through the fluid phase. (paper)

  3. The K2 M67 Study: A Curiously Young Star in an Eclipsing Binary in an Old Open Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandquist, Eric L.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Quinn, Samuel N.; Pollack, Maxwell L.; Latham, David W.; Brown, Timothy M.; Esselstein, Rebecca; Aigrain, Suzanne; Parviainen, Hannu; Vanderburg, Andrew; Stello, Dennis; Somers, Garrett; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Tayar, Jamie; Orosz, Jerome A.; Bedin, Luigi R.; Libralato, Mattia; Malavolta, Luca; Nardiello, Domenico

    2018-04-01

    We present an analysis of a slightly eccentric (e = 0.05), partially eclipsing, long-period (P = 69.73 days) main-sequence binary system (WOCS 12009, Sanders 1247) in the benchmark old open cluster M67. Using Kepler K2 and ground-based photometry, along with a large set of new and reanalyzed spectra, we derived highly precise masses (1.111 ± 0.015 and 0.748 ± 0.005 M ⊙) and radii (1.071 ± 0.008 ± 0.003 and 0.713 ± 0.019 ± 0.026 R ⊙, with statistical and systematic error estimates) for the stars. The radius of the secondary star is in agreement with theory. The primary, however, is approximately 15% smaller than reasonable isochrones for the cluster predict. Our best explanation is that the primary star was produced from the merger of two stars, as this can also account for the nondetection of photospheric lithium and its higher temperature relative to other cluster main-sequence stars at the same V magnitude. To understand the dynamical characteristics (low measured rotational line broadening of the primary star and low eccentricity of the current binary orbit), we believe that the most probable (but not the only) explanation is the tidal evolution of a close binary within a primordial triple system (possibly after a period of Kozai–Lidov oscillations), leading to merger approximately 1 Gyr ago. This star appears to be a future blue straggler that is being revealed as the cluster ages and the most massive main-sequence stars die out. Based on observations made at Kitt Peak National Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; with the Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph (TRES) on the 1.5 m Tillinghast telescope, located at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory’s Fred L. Whipple Observatory on Mt. Hopkins in Arizona; the HARPS-N spectrograph on the Italian Telescopio Nazionale

  4. Structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of 3D metal trioxide and tetraoxide superhalogen cluster-doped monolayer BN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Jingjing; Li, Dan; Niu, Yuan; Zhao, Hongmin; Liang, Chunjun; He, Zhiqun

    2016-01-01

    The structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of monolayer BN doped with 3D metal trioxide and tetraoxide superhalogen clusters are investigated using first-principle calculations. TMO_3_(_4_)-doped monolayer BN exhibits a low negative formation energy, whereas TM atoms embedded in monolayer BN show a high positive formation energy. TMO_3_(_4_) clusters are embedded more easily in monolayer BN than TM atoms. Compared with TMO_3-doped structures, TMO_4-doped structures have a higher structural stability because of their higher binding energies. Given their low negative formation energies, TMO_4-doped structures are more favored for specific applications than TMO_3-doped structures and TM atom-doped structures. Large magnetic moments per supercell and significant ferromagnetic couplings between a TM atom and neighboring B and N atoms on the BN layer were observed in all TMO_4-doped structures, except for TiO_4-doped structures. - Highlights: • TMO_3_(_4_) superhalogen clusters incorporated into monolayer BN were investigated. • TMO_3_(_4_) clusters are embedded more easily in monolayer BN than TM atoms. • TMO_4-doped structures are more favored for specific applications. • Large magnetic moments were observed in TMO_4-doped structures. • The band gap was sensitively dependent on the doped clusters.

  5. Voltage-dependent cluster expansion for electrified solid-liquid interfaces: Application to the electrochemical deposition of transition metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzner, Stephen E.; Dabo, Ismaila

    2017-11-01

    The detailed atomistic modeling of electrochemically deposited metal monolayers is challenging due to the complex structure of the metal-solution interface and the critical effects of surface electrification during electrode polarization. Accurate models of interfacial electrochemical equilibria are further challenged by the need to include entropic effects to obtain accurate surface chemical potentials. We present an embedded quantum-continuum model of the interfacial environment that addresses each of these challenges and study the underpotential deposition of silver on the gold (100) surface. We leverage these results to parametrize a cluster expansion of the electrified interface and show through grand canonical Monte Carlo calculations the crucial need to account for variations in the interfacial dipole when modeling electrodeposited metals under finite-temperature electrochemical conditions.

  6. Assessment of the accuracy of coupled cluster perturbation theory for open-shell systems. II. Quadruples expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Janus J; Matthews, Devin A; Jørgensen, Poul; Gauss, Jürgen

    2016-05-21

    We extend our assessment of the potential of perturbative coupled cluster (CC) expansions for a test set of open-shell atoms and organic radicals to the description of quadruple excitations. Namely, the second- through sixth-order models of the recently proposed CCSDT(Q-n) quadruples series [J. J. Eriksen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064108 (2014)] are compared to the prominent CCSDT(Q) and ΛCCSDT(Q) models. From a comparison of the models in terms of their recovery of total CC singles, doubles, triples, and quadruples (CCSDTQ) energies, we find that the performance of the CCSDT(Q-n) models is independent of the reference used (unrestricted or restricted (open-shell) Hartree-Fock), in contrast to the CCSDT(Q) and ΛCCSDT(Q) models, for which the accuracy is strongly dependent on the spin of the molecular ground state. By further comparing the ability of the models to recover relative CCSDTQ total atomization energies, the discrepancy between them is found to be even more pronounced, stressing how a balanced description of both closed- and open-shell species-as found in the CCSDT(Q-n) models-is indeed of paramount importance if any perturbative CC model is to be of chemical relevance for high-accuracy applications. In particular, the third-order CCSDT(Q-3) model is found to offer an encouraging alternative to the existing choices of quadruples models used in modern computational thermochemistry, since the model is still only of moderate cost, albeit markedly more costly than, e.g., the CCSDT(Q) and ΛCCSDT(Q) models.

  7. Metals on graphene and carbon nanotube surfaces: From mobile atoms to atomtronics to bulk metals to clusters and catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Sarkar, Santanu C.; Moser, Matthew L.; Tian, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Xixiang; Al-Hadeethi, Yas Fadel; Haddon, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    , and the next generation energy devices. We touch on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene grown on metals, the reactivity of its surface, and its use as a template for asymmetric graphene functionalization chemistry (ultrathin Janus discs). We highlight some

  8. Condensation and dissociation rates for gas phase metal clusters from molecular dynamics trajectory calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Goudeli, Eirini; Hogan, Christopher J.

    2018-04-01

    In gas phase synthesis systems, clusters form and grow via condensation, in which a monomer binds to an existing cluster. While a hard-sphere equation is frequently used to predict the condensation rate coefficient, this equation neglects the influences of potential interactions and cluster internal energy on the condensation process. Here, we present a collision rate theory-molecular dynamics simulation approach to calculate condensation probabilities and condensation rate coefficients. We use this approach to examine atomic condensation onto 6-56-atom Au and Mg clusters. The probability of condensation depends upon the initial relative velocity (v) between atom and cluster and the initial impact parameter (b). In all cases, there is a well-defined region of b-v space where condensation is highly probable, and outside of which the condensation probability drops to zero. For Au clusters with more than 10 atoms, we find that at gas temperatures in the 300-1200 K range, the condensation rate coefficient exceeds the hard-sphere rate coefficient by a factor of 1.5-2.0. Conversely, for Au clusters with 10 or fewer atoms and for 14- and 28-atom Mg clusters, as cluster equilibration temperature increases, the condensation rate coefficient drops to values below the hard-sphere rate coefficient. Calculations also yield the self-dissociation rate coefficient, which is found to vary considerably with gas temperature. Finally, calculations results reveal that grazing (high b) atom-cluster collisions at elevated velocity (>1000 m s-1) can result in the colliding atom rebounding (bounce) from the cluster surface or binding while another atom dissociates (replacement). The presented method can be applied in developing rate equations to predict material formation and growth rates in vapor phase systems.

  9. [Electronic and structural properties of individual nanometer-size supported metallic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifenberger, R.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under contract DOE-FCO2-84ER45162. During the past ten years, our study of electron emission from laser-illuminated field emission tips has taken on a broader scope by addressing problems of direct interest to those concerned with the unique physical and chemical properties of nanometer-size clusters. The work performed has demonstrated that much needed data can be obtained on individual nanometer-size clusters supported on a wide-variety of different substrates. The work was performed in collaboration with R.P. Andres in the School of Chemical Engineering at Purdue University. The Multiple Expansion Cluster Source developed by Andres and his students was essential for producing the nanometer-size clusters studied. The following report features a discussion of these results. This report provides a motivation for studying the properties of nanometer-size clusters and summarizes the results obtained

  10. [Electronic and structural properties of individual nanometer-size supported metallic clusters]. Final performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifenberger, R.

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under contract DOE-FCO2-84ER45162. During the past ten years, our study of electron emission from laser-illuminated field emission tips has taken on a broader scope by addressing problems of direct interest to those concerned with the unique physical and chemical properties of nanometer-size clusters. The work performed has demonstrated that much needed data can be obtained on individual nanometer-size clusters supported on a wide-variety of different substrates. The work was performed in collaboration with R.P. Andres in the School of Chemical Engineering at Purdue University. The Multiple Expansion Cluster Source developed by Andres and his students was essential for producing the nanometer-size clusters studied. The following report features a discussion of these results. This report provides a motivation for studying the properties of nanometer-size clusters and summarizes the results obtained.

  11. Structure investigation of metal ions clustering in dehydrated gel using x-ray anomalous dispersion effect

    CERN Document Server

    Soejima, Y; Sugiyama, M; Annaka, M; Nakamura, A; Hiramatsu, N; Hara, K

    2003-01-01

    The structure of copper ion clusters in dehydrated N-isopropylacrylamide/sodium acrylate (NIPA/SA) gel has been studied by means of small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) method. In order to distinguish the intensity scattered by Cu ions, the X-ray anomalous dispersion effect around the Cu K absorption edge has been coupled with SAXS. It is found that the dispersion effect dependent on the incident X-ray energy is remarkable only at the momentum transfer q = 0.031 A sup - sup 1 , where a SAXS peak is observed. The results indicate that copper ions form clusters in the dehydrated gel, and that the mean size of clusters is the same as that of SA clusters produced by microphase separation. It is therefore naturally presumed that copper ions are adsorbed into the SA molecules. On the basis of the presumption, a mechanism is proposed for microphase-separation and clustering of Cu ions.

  12. C-N Bond Activation and Ring Opening of a Saturated N-Heterocyclic Carbene by Lateral Alkali-Metal-Mediated Metalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernán-Gómez, Alberto; Kennedy, Alan R; Hevia, Eva

    2017-06-01

    Combining alkali-metal-mediated metalation (AMMM) and N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) chemistry, a novel C-N bond activation and ring-opening process is described for these increasingly important NHC molecules, which are generally considered robust ancillary ligands. Here, mechanistic investigations on reactions of saturated NHC SIMes (SIMes=[:C{N(2,4,6-Me 3 C 6 H 2 )CH 2 } 2 ]) with Group 1 alkyl bases suggest this destructive process is triggered by lateral metalation of the carbene. Exploiting co-complexation and trans-metal-trapping strategies with lower polarity organometallic reagents (Mg(CH 2 SiMe 3 ) 2 and Al(TMP)iBu 2 ), key intermediates in this process have been isolated and structurally defined. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Insights into magnetic interactions in a monodisperse Gd{sub 12}Fe{sub 14} metal cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Xiu-Ying; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Pengxin; Du, Ming-Hao; Han, Ying-Zi; Wei, Rong-Jia; Kong, Xiang-Jian; Long, La-Sheng; Zheng, Lan-Sun [Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, State Key Lab. of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surface and Dept. of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen Univ. (China); Wang, Zhenxing; Ouyang, Zhong-Wen [Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Zhuang, Gui-Lin [College of Chemcal Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou (China)

    2017-09-11

    The largest Ln-Fe metal cluster [Gd{sub 12}Fe{sub 14}(μ{sub 3}-OH){sub 12}(μ{sub 4}-OH){sub 6}(μ{sub 4}-O){sub 12}(TEOA){sub 6}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 16}(H{sub 2} O){sub 8}].(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}(CH{sub 3}CN){sub 2}.(H{sub 2}O){sub 20} (1) and the core-shell monodisperse metal cluster of 1 a rate at SiO{sub 2} (1 a=[Gd{sub 12}Fe{sub 14}(μ{sub 3}-OH){sub 12}(μ{sub 4}-OH){sub 6}(μ{sub 4}-O){sub 12}(TEOA){sub 6}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 16} (H{sub 2}O){sub 8}]{sup 2+}) were prepared. Experimental and theoretical studies on the magnetic properties of 1 and 1 a rate at SiO{sub 2} reveal that encapsulation of one cluster into one silica nanosphere not only effectively decreases intermolecular magnetic interactions but also significantly increases the zero-field splitting effect of the outer layer Fe{sup 3+} ions. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Irradiation characteristics of metal-cluster-complex ions containing diverse multi-elements with large mass differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Yukio; Kondou, Kouji; Teranishi, Yoshikazu; Nonaka, Hidehiko; Saito, Naoaki; Fujimoto, Toshiyuki; Kurokawa, Akira; Ichimura, Shingo; Tomita, Mitsuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Tetrairidium dodecacarbonyl, Ir 4 (CO) 12 , is a metal cluster complex which has a molecular weight of 1104.9. Using a metal-cluster-complex ion source, the interaction between Ir 4 (CO) n + ions (n=0-12) and silicon substrates was studied at a beam energy ranging from 2keV to 10keV at normal incidence. By adjusting Wien-filter voltage, the influence of CO ligands was investigated. Experimental results showed that sputtering yield of silicon bombarded with Ir 4 (CO) n + ions at 10keV decreased with the number of CO ligands. In the case of 2keV, deposition tended to be suppressed by removing CO ligands from the impinging cluster ions. The influence of CO ligands was explained by considering changes in surface properties caused by the irradiation of Ir 4 (CO) n + ions. It was also found that the bombardment with Ir 4 (CO) 7 + ions at 2.5keV caused deposition on silicon target

  15. Investigating the usefulness of a cluster-based trend analysis to detect visual field progression in patients with open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Shuichiro; Murata, Hiroshi; Fujino, Yuri; Matsuura, Masato; Miki, Atsuya; Tanito, Masaki; Mizoue, Shiro; Mori, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Yamashita, Takehiro; Kashiwagi, Kenji; Hirasawa, Kazunori; Shoji, Nobuyuki; Asaoka, Ryo

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the usefulness of the Octopus (Haag-Streit) EyeSuite's cluster trend analysis in glaucoma. Ten visual fields (VFs) with the Humphrey Field Analyzer (Carl Zeiss Meditec), spanning 7.7 years on average were obtained from 728 eyes of 475 primary open angle glaucoma patients. Mean total deviation (mTD) trend analysis and EyeSuite's cluster trend analysis were performed on various series of VFs (from 1st to 10th: VF1-10 to 6th to 10th: VF6-10). The results of the cluster-based trend analysis, based on different lengths of VF series, were compared against mTD trend analysis. Cluster-based trend analysis and mTD trend analysis results were significantly associated in all clusters and with all lengths of VF series. Between 21.2% and 45.9% (depending on VF series length and location) of clusters were deemed to progress when the mTD trend analysis suggested no progression. On the other hand, 4.8% of eyes were observed to progress using the mTD trend analysis when cluster trend analysis suggested no progression in any two (or more) clusters. Whole field trend analysis can miss local VF progression. Cluster trend analysis appears as robust as mTD trend analysis and useful to assess both sectorial and whole field progression. Cluster-based trend analyses, in particular the definition of two or more progressing cluster, may help clinicians to detect glaucomatous progression in a timelier manner than using a whole field trend analysis, without significantly compromising specificity. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Metal Substitution in Keggin-Type Tridecameric Aluminum-Oxo-Hydroxy Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Wallace O'Neil; Millini, Roberto; Kiricsi, Imre

    1997-02-12

    The species resulting from a typical preparation for metal-substituted hybrids of the Keggin tridecamer, Al 13 or [AlO 4 Al 12 (OH) 24 (OH 2 ) 12 ] 7+ , were examined by performing 27 Al NMR on the solutions during aging and by studying the precipitated sulfate salts via solid state 27 Al NMR and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). Aqueous mixtures (0.25 mol L -1 ) of AlCl 3 and another metal ion (M), in a 12:1 mole ratio (Al:M), where M = Fe 3+ , Zn 2+ , Ga 3+ , In 3+ , Sn 2+ , La 3+ , and Bi 3+ , were subjected to forced hydrolysis by addition of NaOH (1.0 mol L -1 ) until OH/(Al + M) = 2.25, and the kinetics of Al 13 formation and disappearance with aging at 80 °C was monitored by 27 Al NMR spectroscopy. Al 13 units polymerize on aging with an apparent rate constant (k) of 4.8(8) × 10 -2 h -1 to form a species referred to as AlP 2 . Only the solutions containing Ga 3+ and Sn 2+ exhibited faster Al 13 conversion rates. GaAl 12 forms quickly at 80 °C (k = 0.54 h -1 ) and is more stable than AlP 2 . Sn 2+ apparently promotes AlP 2 formation (k = 0.38 h -1 ). XRD and solid state NMR reveal that only the Ga hybrid can be prepared by this method. No hybrid formation was evidenced using M = Mg 2+ , Fe 3+ , Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , In 3+ , La 3+ , or Ce 3+ at 25 °C or M = Co 2+ or La 3+ under reflux conditions. Isostructural (cubic symmetry) single crystals were obtained for the sulfate salts of Al 13 and GaAl 12 . Single-crystal XRD analysis of these two polyoxocations provides the first rigorous comparison between them and shows they have very similar structures. The main crystallographic data for Al 13 and GaAl 12 are as follows:  Na[AlO 4 Al 12 (OH) 24 (H 2 O) 12 ](SO 4 ) 4 ·10H 2 O, cubic, F4̄3m, a = 17.856(2) Å, Z = 4; Na[GaO 4 Al 12 (OH) 24 (H 2 O) 12 ](SO 4 ) 4 ·10H 2 O, cubic, F4̄3m, a = 17.869(3) Å, Z = 4. Thus, the greater thermal stability of GaAl 12 cannot be rationalized in terms of the overall geometric considerations, as suggested by

  17. A Comparison of Implants Used in Open-Door Laminoplasty: Structural Rib Allografts Versus Metallic Miniplates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaraee, Ehsan; Mummaneni, Praveen; Abdul-Jabbar, Amir; Shearer, David; Roy, Esha; Amin, Beejal; Ames, Christopher; Burch, Shane; Deviren, Vedat; Berven, Sigurd; Hu, Serena; Chou, Dean; Tay, Bobby K

    2017-06-01

    A retrospective case-controlled study. Open-door laminoplasty has been successfully used to address cervical spondylotic myelopathy and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Two common implants include rib allograft struts and metallic miniplates. The goals of this study were to compare outcomes, complications, and costs associated with these 2 implants. A retrospective review was done on 51 patients with allograft struts and 55 patients with miniplates. Primary outcomes were neck visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores and Nurick scores. Secondary outcomes included length of the procedure, estimated blood loss, rates of complications, and the direct costs associated with the surgery and inpatient hospitalization. There were no differences in demographic characteristics, diagnoses, comorbidities, and preoperative outcome scores between the 2 treatment groups. Mean follow-up was 27 months. The postoperative neck VAS scores and Nurick scores improved significantly from baseline to final follow-up for both groups, but there was no difference between the 2 groups. The average length of operation (161 vs. 136 min) and number of foraminotomies (2.7 vs. 1.3) were higher for the allograft group (P=0.007 and 0.0001, respectively). Among the miniplate group, there was no difference in complications but a trend for less neck pain for patients treated without hard collar at final follow-up (1.8 vs. 2.3, P=0.52). The mean direct costs of hospitalization for the miniplate group were 15% higher. Structural rib allograft struts and metallic miniplates result in similar improvements in pain and functional outcome scores with no difference in the rate of complications in short-term follow-up. Potential benefits of using a plate include shorter procedure length and less need for postoperative immobilization. When costs of bracing and operative time are included, the difference in cost between miniplates and allograft struts is negligible.

  18. Quantum molecular dynamics: Numerical methods and physical study of the structure, thermodynamics, stability and fragmentation of sodium metallic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaise, Philippe

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study metallic sodium clusters by numerical simulation. We have developed two ab initio molecular dynamics programs within the formalism of density functional theory. The first is based on the semi-classical extended Thomas-Fermi approach. We use a real-space grid and a Car-Parrinello-like scheme. The computational cost is O(N), and we have built a pseudopotential that speeds up the calculations. By neglecting quantum shell effects, we are able to study a very large set of clusters. We show that sodium cluster energies fit well a liquid drop formula, by adjusting a few parameters. We have investigated breathing modes, surface oscillations and the net charge density. We have shown that the surface energy varies strongly with temperature, and that clusters have a lower melting point than bulk material. We have calculated fission barriers by a constraint method. The second program is based on the quantum Kohn-Sham approach. We use a real-space grid, and combine a generalized Broyden scheme for assuring self-consistency with an iterative Davidson-Lanczos algorithm for solving the Eigen-problem. The cost of the method is much higher. First of all, we have calculated some stable structures for small clusters and their energetics. We obtained very good agreement with previous works. Then, we have investigated highly charged cluster dynamics. We have identified a chaotic fission process. For high fissility systems, we observe a multi-fragmentation dynamics and we find preferential emission of monomers on a characteristic time scale less than a pico-second. This has been simulated for the first time, with the help of our adaptive grid method which follows each fragment as they move apart during the fragmentation. (author)

  19. Clustering of nucleosides in the presence of alkali metals: Biologically relevant quartets of guanosine, deoxyguanosine and uridine observed by ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggerholm, Tenna; Nanita, Sergio C; Koch, Kim J; Cooks, R Graham

    2003-01-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectra of nucleosides, recorded in the presence of alkali metals, display alkali metal ion-bound quartets and other clusters that may have implications for understanding non-covalent interactions in DNA and RNA. The tetramers of guanosine and deoxyguanosine and also their metaclusters (clusters of clusters), cationized by alkali metals, were observed as unusually abundant magic number clusters. The observation of these species in the gas phase parallels previous condensed-phase studies, which show that guanine derivatives can form quartets and metaclusters of quartets in solution in the presence of metal cations. This parallel behavior and also internal evidence suggest that bonding in the guanosine tetramers involves the bases rather than the sugar units. The nucleobases thymine and uracil are known to form magic number pentameric adducts with K+, Cs+ and NH4+ in the gas phase. In sharp contrast, we now show that the nucleosides uridine and deoxythymidine do not form the pentameric clusters characteristic of the corresponding bases. More subtle effects of the sugars are evident in the fact that adenosine and cytidine form numerous higher order clusters with alkali metals, whereas deoxyadenosine and deoxycytidine show no clustering. It is suggested that hydrogen bonding between the bases in the tetramers of dG and rG are the dominant interactions in the clusters, hence changing the ribose group to deoxyribose (and vice versa) generally has little effect. However, the additional hydroxyl group of RNA nucleosides enhances the non-selective formation of higher-order aggregates for adenosine and cytidine and results in the lack of highly stable magic number clusters. Some clusters are the result of aggregation in the course of ionization (ESI) whereas others appear to be intrinsic to the solution being examined. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Open clusters. III. Fundamental parameters of B stars in NGC 6087, NGC 6250, NGC 6383, and NGC 6530 B-type stars with circumstellar envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidelman, Y.; Cidale, L. S.; Zorec, J.; Panei, J. A.

    2018-02-01

    Context. Stellar physical properties of star clusters are poorly known and the cluster parameters are often very uncertain. Methods: Our goals are to perform a spectrophotometric study of the B star population in open clusters to derive accurate stellar parameters, search for the presence of circumstellar envelopes, and discuss the characteristics of these stars. The BCD spectrophotometric system is a powerful method to obtain stellar fundamental parameters from direct measurements of the Balmer discontinuity. To this end, we wrote the interactive code MIDE3700. The BCD parameters can also be used to infer the main properties of open clusters: distance modulus, color excess, and age. Furthermore, we inspected the Balmer discontinuity to provide evidence for the presence of circumstellar disks and identify Be star candidates. We used an additional set of high-resolution spectra in the Hα region to confirm the Be nature of these stars. Results: We provide Teff, log g, Mv, Mbol, and spectral types for a sample of 68 stars in the field of the open clusters NGC 6087, NGC 6250, NGC 6383, and NGC 6530, as well as the cluster distances, ages, and reddening. Then, based on a sample of 230 B stars in the direction of the 11 open clusters studied along this series of three papers, we report 6 new Be stars, 4 blue straggler candidates, and 15 B-type stars (called Bdd) with a double Balmer discontinuity, which indicates the presence of circumstellar envelopes. We discuss the distribution of the fraction of B, Be, and Bdd star cluster members per spectral subtype. The majority of the Be stars are dwarfs and present a maximum at the spectral type B2-B4 in young and intermediate-age open clusters (operating under agreement of CONICET and the Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan, Argentina.Tables 1, 2, 9-16 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A30

  1. The Metal-poor non-Sagittarius (?) Globular Cluster NGC 5053: Orbit and Mg, Al, and Si Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Baitian; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Geisler, Doug; Zamora, Olga; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Masseron, Thomas; Cohen, Roger E.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Dell’Agli, Flavia; Beers, Timothy C.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Hasselquist, Sten; Robin, Annie C.; Shetrone, Matthew; Majewski, Steven R.; Villanova, Sandro; Schiappacasse Ulloa, Jose; Lane, Richard R.; Minnti, Dante; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Almeida, Andres; Moreno, E.

    2018-03-01

    Metal-poor globular clusters (GCs) exhibit intriguing Al–Mg anti-correlations and possible Si–Al correlations, which are important clues to decipher the multiple-population phenomenon. NGC 5053 is one of the most metal-poor GCs in the nearby universe and has been suggested to be associated with the Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf galaxy, due to its similarity in location and radial velocity with one of the Sgr arms. In this work, we simulate the orbit of NGC 5053, and argue against a physical connection between Sgr and NGC 5053. On the other hand, the Mg, Al, and Si spectral lines, which are difficult to detect in the optical spectra of NGC 5053 stars, have been detected in the near-infrared APOGEE spectra. We use three different sets of stellar parameters and codes to derive the Mg, Al, and Si abundances. Regardless of which method is adopted, we see a large Al variation, and a substantial Si spread. Along with NGC 5053, metal-poor GCs exhibit different Mg, Al, and Si variations. Moreover, NGC 5053 has the lowest cluster mass among the GCs that have been identified to exhibit an observable Si spread until now.

  2. Gas-generated thermal oxidation of a coordination cluster for an anion-doped mesoporous metal oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Kenji; Isobe, Shigehito; Sada, Kazuki

    2015-12-18

    Central in material design of metal oxides is the increase of surface area and control of intrinsic electronic and optical properties, because of potential applications for energy storage, photocatalysis and photovoltaics. Here, we disclose a facile method, inspired by geochemical process, which gives rise to mesoporous anion-doped metal oxides. As a model system, we demonstrate that simple calcination of a multinuclear coordination cluster results in synchronic chemical reactions: thermal oxidation of Ti8O10(4-aminobenzoate)12 and generation of gases including amino-group fragments. The gas generation during the thermal oxidation of Ti8O10(4-aminobenzoate)12 creates mesoporosity in TiO2. Concurrently, nitrogen atoms contained in the gases are doped into TiO2, thus leading to the formation of mesoporous N-doped TiO2. The mesoporous N-doped TiO2 can be easily synthesized by calcination of the multinuclear coordination cluster, but shows better photocatalytic activity than the one prepared by a conventional sol-gel method. Owing to an intrinsic designability of coordination compounds, this facile synthetic will be applicable to a wide range of metal oxides and anion dopants.

  3. High-resolution spectroscopic observations of binary stars and yellow stragglers in three open clusters: NGC 2360, NGC 3680, and NGC 5822

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales Silva, J. V.; Peña Suárez, V. J.; Katime Santrich, O. J.; Pereira, C. B.; Drake, N. A.; Roig, F., E-mail: joaovictor@on.br, E-mail: jearim@on.br, E-mail: osantrich@on.br, E-mail: claudio@on.br, E-mail: drake@on.br, E-mail: froig@on.br [Observatório Nacional/MCT, Rua Gen. José Cristino, 77, 20921-400 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-11-01

    Binary stars in open clusters are very useful targets in constraining the nucleosynthesis process. The luminosities of the stars are known because the distances of the clusters are also known, so chemical peculiarities can be linked directly to the evolutionary status of a star. In addition, binary stars offer the opportunity to verify a relationship between them and the straggler population in both globular and open clusters. We carried out a detailed spectroscopic analysis to derive the atmospheric parameters for 16 red giants in binary systems and the chemical composition of 11 of them in the open clusters NGC 2360, NGC 3680, and NGC 5822. We obtained abundances of C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Si, Ti, Ni, Cr, Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd. The atmospheric parameters of the studied stars and their chemical abundances were determined using high-resolution optical spectroscopy. We employ the local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code MOOG. The abundances of the light elements were derived using the spectral synthesis technique. We found that the stars NGC 2360-92 and 96, NGC 3680-34, and NGC 5822-4 and 312 are yellow straggler stars. We show that the spectra of NGC 5822-4 and 312 present evidence of contamination by an A-type star as a secondary star. For the other yellow stragglers, evidence of contamination is given by the broad wings of the Hα. Detection of yellow straggler stars is important because the observed number can be compared with the number predicted by simulations of binary stellar evolution in open clusters. We also found that the other binary stars are not s-process enriched, which may suggest that in these binaries the secondary star is probably a faint main-sequence object. The lack of any s-process enrichment is very useful in setting constraints for the number of white dwarfs in the open cluster, a subject that is related to the birthrate of these kinds of stars in open clusters and also to the age of a

  4. High-resolution Spectroscopic Observations of Binary Stars and Yellow Stragglers in Three Open Clusters : NGC 2360, NGC 3680, and NGC 5822

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales Silva, J. V.; Peña Suárez, V. J.; Katime Santrich, O. J.; Pereira, C. B.; Drake, N. A.; Roig, F.

    2014-11-01

    Binary stars in open clusters are very useful targets in constraining the nucleosynthesis process. The luminosities of the stars are known because the distances of the clusters are also known, so chemical peculiarities can be linked directly to the evolutionary status of a star. In addition, binary stars offer the opportunity to verify a relationship between them and the straggler population in both globular and open clusters. We carried out a detailed spectroscopic analysis to derive the atmospheric parameters for 16 red giants in binary systems and the chemical composition of 11 of them in the open clusters NGC 2360, NGC 3680, and NGC 5822. We obtained abundances of C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Si, Ti, Ni, Cr, Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd. The atmospheric parameters of the studied stars and their chemical abundances were determined using high-resolution optical spectroscopy. We employ the local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code MOOG. The abundances of the light elements were derived using the spectral synthesis technique. We found that the stars NGC 2360-92 and 96, NGC 3680-34, and NGC 5822-4 and 312 are yellow straggler stars. We show that the spectra of NGC 5822-4 and 312 present evidence of contamination by an A-type star as a secondary star. For the other yellow stragglers, evidence of contamination is given by the broad wings of the Hα. Detection of yellow straggler stars is important because the observed number can be compared with the number predicted by simulations of binary stellar evolution in open clusters. We also found that the other binary stars are not s-process enriched, which may suggest that in these binaries the secondary star is probably a faint main-sequence object. The lack of any s-process enrichment is very useful in setting constraints for the number of white dwarfs in the open cluster, a subject that is related to the birthrate of these kinds of stars in open clusters and also to the age of a

  5. Phase transition temperatures of 405-725 K in superfluid ultra-dense hydrogen clusters on metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmlid, Leif, E-mail: holmlid@chem.gu.se [Atmospheric Science, Department of Chemistry, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Kotzias, Bernhard [Airbus DS, Department Mechanical Engineering, D28199 Bremen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Ultra-dense hydrogen H(0) with its typical H-H bond distance of 2.3 pm is superfluid at room temperature as expected for quantum fluids. It also shows a Meissner effect at room temperature, which indicates that a transition point to a non-superfluid state should exist above room temperature. This transition point is given by a disappearance of the superfluid long-chain clusters H{sub 2N}(0). This transition point is now measured for several metal carrier surfaces at 405 - 725 K, using both ultra-dense protium p(0) and deuterium D(0). Clusters of ordinary Rydberg matter H(l) as well as small symmetric clusters H{sub 4}(0) and H{sub 3}(0) (which do not give a superfluid or superconductive phase) all still exist on the surface at high temperature. This shows directly that desorption or diffusion processes do not remove the long superfluid H{sub 2N}(0) clusters. The two ultra-dense forms p(0) and D(0) have different transition temperatures under otherwise identical conditions. The transition point for p(0) is higher in temperature, which is unexpected.

  6. Phase transition temperatures of 405-725 K in superfluid ultra-dense hydrogen clusters on metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmlid, Leif; Kotzias, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Ultra-dense hydrogen H(0) with its typical H-H bond distance of 2.3 pm is superfluid at room temperature as expected for quantum fluids. It also shows a Meissner effect at room temperature, which indicates that a transition point to a non-superfluid state should exist above room temperature. This transition point is given by a disappearance of the superfluid long-chain clusters H_2_N(0). This transition point is now measured for several metal carrier surfaces at 405 - 725 K, using both ultra-dense protium p(0) and deuterium D(0). Clusters of ordinary Rydberg matter H(l) as well as small symmetric clusters H_4(0) and H_3(0) (which do not give a superfluid or superconductive phase) all still exist on the surface at high temperature. This shows directly that desorption or diffusion processes do not remove the long superfluid H_2_N(0) clusters. The two ultra-dense forms p(0) and D(0) have different transition temperatures under otherwise identical conditions. The transition point for p(0) is higher in temperature, which is unexpected.

  7. Quantum size correction to the work function and the centroid of excess charge in positively ionized simple metal clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Payami

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available  In this work, we have shown the important role of the finite-size correction to the work function in predicting the correct position of the centroid of excess charge in positively charged simple metal clusters with different values . For this purpose, firstly we have calculated the self-consistent Kohn-Sham energies of neutral and singly-ionized clusters with sizes in the framework of local spin-density approximation and stabilized jellium model (SJM as well as simple jellium model (JM with rigid jellium. Secondly, we have fitted our results to the asymptotic ionization formulas both with and without the size correction to the work function. The results of fittings show that the formula containing the size correction predict a correct position of the centroid inside the jellium while the other predicts a false position, outside the jellium sphere.

  8. Quantum size correction to the work function and centroid of excess charge in positively ionized simple metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payami, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we have shown the important role of the finite-size correction to the work function in predicting the correct position of the centroid of excess charge in positively charged simple metal clusters with different r s values (2≤ r s ≥ 7). For this purpose, firstly we have calculated the self-consistent Kohn-Sham energies of neutral and singly-ionized clusters with sizes 2≤ N ≥100 in the framework of local spin-density approximation and stabilized jellium model as well as simple jellium model with rigid jellium. Secondly, we have fitted our results to the asymptotic ionization formulas both with and without the size correction to the work function. The results of fittings show that the formula containing the size correction predict a correct position of the centroid inside the jellium while the other predicts a false position, outside the jellium sphere

  9. The interstellar extinction in the open clusters Tr 14, Tr 15, Tr 16/Cr 232 and Cr 228 in NGC 3372. New near-infrared photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapia, M.; Roth, M.; Ruiz, M.T.

    1988-01-01

    Near-infrared JHKL photometry of more than 200 stars, members of the open clusters Tr14, Tr15, Tr16, Cr228 and Cr232 in the Carina Nebula are presented. From comparing these results with the available visual photometry and spectroscopy, it is found that, except in Tr15, the intracluster reddening is characterized by a 'normal' extinction law at λ > 0.5μm but is highly anomalous and variable in the U- and B-bands. This behaviour may be explained by the presence of intracluster interstellar grains 'processed' by shock waves presumably associated with the explosive history of η Carinae. All clusters are found to be at the same distance from the Sun at d = 2.4 ± 0.2 kpc or Vsub(o) - Msub(v) 11.9 ± 0.2. The total amount of reddening, though, differs significantly from cluster to cluster. (author)

  10. Arrays of Size-Selected Metal Nanoparticles Formed by Cluster Ion Beam Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceynowa, F. A.; Chirumamilla, Manohar; Zenin, Volodymyr

    2018-01-01

    Deposition of size-selected copper and silver nanoparticles (NPs) on polymers using cluster beam technique is studied. It is shown that ratio of particle embedment in the film can be controlled by simple thermal annealing. Combining electron beam lithography, cluster beam deposition, and heat...... with required configurations which can be applied for wave-guiding, resonators, in sensor technologies, and surface enhanced Raman scattering....

  11. Simulation of resonance hyper-Rayleigh scattering of molecules and metal clusters using a time-dependent density functional theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhongwei; Autschbach, Jochen; Jensen, Lasse

    2014-09-28

    Resonance hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) of molecules and metal clusters have been simulated based on a time-dependent density functional theory approach. The resonance first-order hyperpolarizability (β) is obtained by implementing damped quadratic response theory using the (2n + 1) rule. To test this implementation, the prototypical dipolar molecule para-nitroaniline (p-NA) and the octupolar molecule crystal violet are used as benchmark systems. Moreover, small silver clusters Ag 8 and Ag 20 are tested with a focus on determining the two-photon resonant enhancement arising from the strong metal transition. Our results show that, on a per atom basis, the small silver clusters possess two-photon enhanced HRS comparable to that of larger nanoparticles. This finding indicates the potential interest of using small metal clusters for designing new nonlinear optical materials.

  12. Aplikasi Pengolahan Citra Digital Meat Detection Dengan Metode Segmentasi K-Mean Clustering Berbasis OpenCV Dan Eclipse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazuardi Arsy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Kualitas suatu daging sapi ditentukan oleh beberapa parameter, diantaranya adalah parameter ukuran, terkstur, ciri warna, bau dari daging dan lain – lain. Parameter terseburt merupakan salah satu faktor penting untuk menentukan kualitas daging. Umunya dalam menetukan kualitas baik buruknya daging dilakukan dengan cara manual yaitu menggunakan indera penglihatan dari segi warna maupun bentuk yang memiliki banyak kelemahan seperti penilaian oleh manusia yang bersifat subyektif dan tak konsisten. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk membuat aplikasi untuk mendeteksi kualitas daging. Aplikasi dibangun dengan menggunakan bahasa pemrograman Java pada Android yang terintegrasi dengan Android SDK dan Eclipse menggunakan library OpenCV sehingga aplikasi ini berbasis mobile. Metode yang dipakai menggunakan segmentasi k-mean clustering selanjutnya dianalisis secara statistik. Pendeteksian kualitas dilakukan dengan menggunakan pencocokan tekstur dan warna daging berdasar data yang sudah ada. Aplikasi yang dibuat dapat digunakan untuk mencari nilai k yang signifikan serta mampu mendeteksi kualitas baik atau buruknya daging dengan melakukan pengujian terhadap beberapa jenis daging serta aplikasi ini dapat digunakan oleh masyarakat luas.

  13. Photometric studies of two W UMa type variables in the field of distant open cluster NGC 6866

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Yogesh Chandra; Joshi, Santosh; Jagirdar, Rukmini

    2016-01-01

    We present photometric analysis of the two W UMa type binaries identified in the field of distant open star cluster NGC 6866. Although these systems, namely ID487 and ID494, were reported by Joshi et al., a detailed study of these stars has not been carried out before. The orbital periods of these stars are found to be 0.415110±0.000001 day and 0.366709±0.000004 day, respectively. Based on the photometric and infrared colors, we find their respective spectral types to be K0 and K3. The photometric light variations of both stars show the O'Connell effect which can be explained by employing a dark spot on the secondary components. The V and I band light curves are analyzed using the Wilson-Devinney (WD) code and relations given by Gazeas which yield radii and masses for the binary components of star ID487 of R 1 = 1.24 ± 0.01 R ⊙ , R 2 = 1.11 ± 0.02 R ⊙ , and M 1 = 1.24 ± 0.02 M ⊙ , M 2 = 0.96 ± 0.05 M ⊙ and for star ID494 of R 1 = 1.22±0.02R ⊙ , R 2 = 0.81±0.01 R ⊙ , and M 1 = 1.20±0.06 M ⊙ , M 2 = 0.47±0.01 M ⊙ . (paper)

  14. Efficacy of Modified Atkins Ketogenic Diet in Chronic Cluster Headache: An Open-Label, Single-Arm, Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherubino Di Lorenzo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionDrug-resistant cluster headache (CH is still an open clinical challenge. Recently, our group observed the clinical efficacy of a ketogenic diet (KD, usually adopted to treat drug-resistant epilepsies, on migraine.AimHere, we aim to detect the effect of KD in a group of drug-resistant chronic CH (CCH patients.Materials and methodsEighteen drug-resistant CCH patients underwent a 12-week KD (Modified Atkins Diet, MAD, and the clinical response was evaluated in terms of response (≥50% attack reduction.ResultsOf the 18 CCH patients, 15 were considered responders to the diet (11 experienced a full resolution of headache, and 4 had a headache reduction of at least 50% in terms of mean monthly number of attacks during the diet. The mean monthly number of attacks for each patient at the baseline was 108.71 (SD = 81.71; at the end of the third month of diet, it was reduced to 31.44 (SD = 84.61.ConclusionWe observed for the first time that a 3-month ketogenesis ameliorates clinical features of CCH.Clinical Trial Registrationwww.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT03244735.

  15. Restrictive versus liberal blood transfusion for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (TRIGGER): a pragmatic, open-label, cluster randomised feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairath, Vipul; Kahan, Brennan C; Gray, Alasdair; Doré, Caroline J; Mora, Ana; James, Martin W; Stanley, Adrian J; Everett, Simon M; Bailey, Adam A; Dallal, Helen; Greenaway, John; Le Jeune, Ivan; Darwent, Melanie; Church, Nicholas; Reckless, Ian; Hodge, Renate; Dyer, Claire; Meredith, Sarah; Llewelyn, Charlotte; Palmer, Kelvin R; Logan, Richard F; Travis, Simon P; Walsh, Timothy S; Murphy, Michael F

    2015-07-11

    Transfusion thresholds for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding are controversial. So far, only three small, underpowered studies and one single-centre trial have been done. Findings from the single-centre trial showed reduced mortality with restrictive red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. We aimed to assess whether a multicentre, cluster randomised trial is a feasible method to substantiate or refute this finding. In this pragmatic, open-label, cluster randomised feasibility trial, done in six university hospitals in the UK, we enrolled all patients aged 18 years or older with new presentations of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding, irrespective of comorbidity, except for exsanguinating haemorrhage. We randomly assigned hospitals (1:1) with a computer-generated randomisation sequence (random permuted block size of 6, without stratification or matching) to either a restrictive (transfusion when haemoglobin concentration fell below 80 g/L) or liberal (transfusion when haemoglobin concentration fell below 100 g/L) RBC transfusion policy. Neither patients nor investigators were masked to treatment allocation. Feasibility outcomes were recruitment rate, protocol adherence, haemoglobin concentration, RBC exposure, selection bias, and information to guide design and economic evaluation of the phase 3 trial. Main exploratory clinical outcomes were further bleeding and mortality at day 28. We did analyses on all enrolled patients for whom an outcome was available. This trial is registered, ISRCTN85757829 and NCT02105532. Between Sept 3, 2012, and March 1, 2013, we enrolled 936 patients across six hospitals (403 patients in three hospitals with a restrictive policy and 533 patients in three hospitals with a liberal policy). Recruitment rate was significantly higher for the liberal than for the restrictive policy (62% vs 55%; p=0·04). Despite some baseline imbalances, Rockall and Blatchford risk scores were identical between policies. Protocol adherence was 96% (SD 10) in

  16. Combining in situ transmission electron microscopy irradiation experiments with cluster dynamics modeling to study nanoscale defect agglomeration in structural metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Donghua; Wirth, Brian D.; Li Meimei; Kirk, Marquis A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a combinatorial approach that integrates state-of-the-art transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in situ irradiation experiments and high-performance computing techniques to study irradiation defect dynamics in metals. Here, we have studied the evolution of visible defect clusters in nanometer-thick molybdenum foils under 1 MeV krypton ion irradiation at 80 °C through both cluster dynamics modeling and in situ TEM experiments. The experimental details are reported elsewhere; we focus here on the details of model construction and comparing the model with the experiments. The model incorporates continuous production of point defects and/or small clusters, and the accompanying interactions, which include clustering, recombination and loss to the surfaces that result from the diffusion of the mobile defects. To account for the strong surface effect in thin TEM foils, the model includes one-dimensional spatial dependence along the foil depth, and explicitly treats the surfaces as black sinks. The rich amount of data (cluster number density and size distribution at a variety of foil thickness, irradiation dose and dose rate) offered by the advanced in situ experiments has allowed close comparisons with computer modeling and permitted significant validation and optimization of the model in terms of both physical model construct (damage production mode, identities of mobile defects) and parameterization (diffusivities of mobile defects). The optimized model exhibits good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the in situ TEM experiments. The combinatorial approach is expected to bring a unique opportunity for the study of radiation damage in structural materials.

  17. Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendell, L I

    2011-02-15

    Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of "pulse" toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a "snap-shot" of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendell, L.I., E-mail: bendell@sfu.ca

    2011-02-15

    Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of 'pulse' toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a 'snap-shot' of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. - Research Highlights: {yields} Archived gizzard samples reveals mining history. {yields} Grit ingestion exposes grouse to cadmium and lead. {yields} Grit selection includes particles enriched in cadmium. {yields} Cadmium enriched particles are of toxicological significance.

  19. Synthesis and chemistry of the open-cage cobaltaheteroborane cluster [{(η(5)-C5Me5)Co}2B2H2Se2]: a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Subrat Kumar; Dorcet, Vincent; Roisnel, Thierry; Halet, Jean-François; Ghosh, Sundargopal

    2015-08-28

    Reaction of [(η(5)-C5Me5)CoCl]2 with a two-fold excess of [LiBH4·thf] followed by heating with an excess of Se powder produces the dicobaltaselenaborane species [{(η(5)-C5Me5)Co}2B2H2Se2], , in good yield. The geometry of resembles a nido pentagonal [Co2B2Se2] bipyramid with a missing equatorial vertex. It can alternatively be seen as an open cage triple-decker cluster. Isolation of permits its reaction with [Fe2(CO)9] to give heterometallic diselenametallaborane [{(η(5)-C5Me5)Co}Fe(CO)3B2H2Se2], . The geometry of is similar to that of with one of the [(η(5)-C5Me5)Co] groups replaced by the isolobal, two-electron fragment [Fe(CO)3]. Both new compounds have been characterized by mass spectrometry, and by (1)H, (11)B and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The structural architectures have been unequivocally established by crystallographic analysis. In addition, density functional theory calculations were performed to investigate the bonding and electronic properties. The large HOMO-LUMO gaps computed for both clusters are consistent with their thermodynamic stability. Natural bond order calculations predict the absence of metal-metal bonding interaction.

  20. Electronic and magnetic properties of 3d-metal trioxides superhalogen cluster-doped monolayer MoS2: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dan; Niu, Yuan; Zhao, Hongmin; Liang, Chunjun; He, Zhiqun

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing first-principle calculations, the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of monolayer MoS 2 doped with 3d transition-metal (TM) atoms and 3d-metal trioxides (TMO 3 ) superhalogen clusters are investigated. 3d-metal TMO 3 superhalogen cluster-doped monolayers MoS 2 almost have negative formation energies except CoO 3 and NiO 3 doped monolayer MoS 2 , which are much lower than those of 3d TM-doped structures. 3d-metal TMO 3 superhalogen clusters are more easily embedded in monolayer MoS 2 than 3d-metal atoms. MnO 3 , FeO 3 , CoO 3 , and NiO 3 incorporated into monolayer MoS 2 are magnetic, and the total magnetic moments are approximately 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 μB per supercell, respectively. MnO 3 and FeO 3 incorporated into monolayer MoS 2 become semiconductors, whereas CoO 3 and NiO 3 incorporated into monolayer MoS 2 become half-metallic. Our studies demonstrate that the half-metallic ferromagnetic nature of 3d-metal TMO 3 superhalogen clusters-doped monolayer MoS 2 has a great potential for MoS 2 -based spintronic device applications. -- Highlights: •TMO 3 superhalogen clusters incorporated into monolayer MoS 2 were investigated. •TMO 3 doped structures have much lower formation energies than TM doped structures. •TMO 3 cluster-doped MoS 2 are thermodynamically favored. •Significant charge transfers between O atoms and Mo atoms in TMO 3 doped structures. •MnO 3 , FeO 3 , CoO 3 , and NiO 3 incorporated into monolayer MoS 2 are magnetic.

  1. Scattering of neutral metal clusters: Long-range interactions and response properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresin, V.V.; Scheidemann, A.

    1993-01-01

    The absolute integral cross sections for low-energy collisions of neutral sodium clusters Na n (n=2--40) with atoms and molecules (Ar, N 2 , O 2 , and halogens) have been measured. The cross sections are found to be exceptionally large (up to thousands of square angstroms), showing the dominant role of long-range intermolecular interactions. Elastic scattering proceeding under the influence of the van der Waals force, and a reaction channel involving electron transfer can successfully describe the measurements. The strength of the van der Waals potential is defined by such cluster response properties as the electric polarizability and the frequency of the giant dipole resonance. The reactive electron-jump channel, in turn, is described by the ''harpooning'' mechanism which is sensitive to the cluster ionization potential. Employing parameters taken from spectroscopic studies of alkali clusters, we obtain good agreement with the observed cross sections. This provides a direct connection between beam scattering experiments and studies of cluster electromagnetic response properties

  2. On the applicability of deformed jellium model to the description of metal clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyalin, Andrey G.; Matveentsev, Anton; Solov'yov, Ilia

    2003-01-01

    -density approximation deformed jellium model we have calculated the binding energies per atom, ionization potentials, deformation parameters and the optimized values of the Wigner-Seitz radii for neutral and singly charged sodium clusters with the number of atoms $N0$. These characteristics are compared...... shape deformations in the formation cluster properties and the quite reasonable level of applicability of the deformed jellium model.......This work is devoted to the elucidation the applicability of jellium model to the description of alkali cluster properties on the basis of comparison the jellium model results with those derived from experiment and within ab initio theoretical framework. On the basis of the Hartree-Fock and local...

  3. Device of connecting the metal sheet lining a concrete enclosure to a pipe opening inside the enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, Guy.

    1975-01-01

    Said invention relates to a sealed device connecting a metal sheet anchored on the internal side of a concrete vessel containing a hot pressurized fluid, with a metallic pipe opening inside said vessel. It is intended for heat insulating structures so-called 'hot skin' used for the pressure vessels of some boiling water reactors. Said invention is intended for different types of said pipe such as: the penetrations for the inlets and outlets of the primary circuit, or anchoring cylindrical sheaths used as supports of components or other elements located inside said pressure vessel [fr

  4. Metal cluster cation reactions: Carbon monoxide association to Cu + n ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuchtner, R. E.; Harms, A. C.; Castleman, A. W., Jr.

    1990-06-01

    Copper cluster cations (Cu+n,n=1-14) were produced in a laser vaporization/flow tube apparatus and equilibrated to room temperature. The association rate constants of carbon monoxide onto these ions were measured; low-pressure, termolecular behavior was observed for the smaller species while for clusters greater than Cu+7, the longer lifetimes due to the increased number of degrees of freedom leads to pressure independence (>0.3 Torr) of the effective bimolecular rates. Unimolecular decay theory (RRKM) is used to explain the overall trend and when intrinsic surface site reactivity is taken into account, excellent agreement with measured reactivity is obtained.

  5. Visible tunable lighting system based on polymer composites embedding ZnO and metallic clusters: from colloids to thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Thai Giang; Dierre, Benjamin; Grasset, Fabien; Saito, Noriko; Saito, Norio; Nguyen, Thi Kim Ngan; Takahashi, Kohsei; Uchikoshi, Tetsuo; Amela-Cortes, Marian; Molard, Yann; Cordier, Stéphane; Ohashi, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The development of phosphor devices free of heavy metal or rare earth elements is an important issue for environmental reasons and energy efficiency. Different mixtures of ZnO nanocrystals with Cs2Mo6I8(OOC2F5)6 cluster compound (CMIF) dispersed into polyvinylpyrrolidone matrix have been prepared by very simple and low cost solution chemistry. The resulting solutions have been used to fabricate highly transparent and luminescent films by dip coating free of heavy metal or rare earth elements. The luminescence properties of solution and dip-coated films were investigated. The luminescence of such a system is strongly dependent on the ratios between ZnO and CMIF amounts, the excitation wavelength and the nature of the system. By varying these two parameters (ratio and wavelength), a large variety of colors, from blue to red as well as white, can be achieved. In addition, differences in the luminescence properties have been observed between solutions and thin films as well as changes of CMIF emission band maximum wavelength. This may suggest some possible interactions between the different luminophore centers, such as energy transfer or ligands exchange on the Mo6 clusters.

  6. Density functional study of structural and catalytic properties of free and supported metal nano cluster; Dichtefunktionalstudie der strukturellen und katalytischen Eigenschaften freier und getraegerter Metallnanocluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, B.

    2007-04-11

    The structural and catalytic properties of metal clusters were determined in the framework of density functional theory. The first part of this work investigates the electronic and geometrical structure of sodium clusters with up to 309 atoms. The ground-state structures of the clusters are determined and the corresponding electronic density of states is compared to experimental photoelectron spectras. The excellent agreement to the experimental results indicates that the correct growth motive of the sodium clusters was found. Small clusters from Na{sup -}{sub 20} to Na{sup -}{sub 42} prefer pentagonal and icosahedral structures with anti-Mackay overlayers, while clusters larger than Na{sup -}{sub 50} prefer icosahedral structures with Mackay overlayers. Clusters between the closed-shell Mackay Clusters often exhibit a twist deformation with respect to the regular Mackay positions. The second part of this work investigates the catalytic properties of free and supported palladium clusters. For both cases the oxidation of small Pd{sub N} clusters (N {<=} 9) was studied. It turned out that MgO supported Pd-clusters dissociate oxygen with a significant lower reaction energy than free clusters or supported systems with particles consisting of several thousands of atoms. The reaction with oxygen transforms the non-crystalline Pd-clusters into crystalline Pd{sub x}O{sub y} nano-oxide clusters that are in epitaxy with the underlying support. Simulations of the CO oxidation on the Pd{sub x}O{sub y} cluster predict a low-temperature reaction mechanism. By calculating the electronic density of states and CO stretch frequencies, different ways of verifying the results experimentally are discussed. (orig.)

  7. A Constraint on the Formation Timescale of the Young Open Cluster NGC 2264: Lithium Abundance of Pre-main Sequence Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Beomdu; Sung, Hwankyung; Kim, Jinyoung S.; Bessell, Michael S.; Hwang, Narae; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2016-11-01

    The timescale of cluster formation is an essential parameter in order to understand the formation process of star clusters. Pre-main sequence (PMS) stars in nearby young open clusters reveal a large spread in brightness. If the spread were considered to be a result of a real spread in age, the corresponding cluster formation timescale would be about 5-20 Myr. Hence it could be interpreted that star formation in an open cluster is prolonged for up to a few tens of Myr. However, difficulties in reddening correction, observational errors, and systematic uncertainties introduced by imperfect evolutionary models for PMS stars can result in an artificial age spread. Alternatively, we can utilize Li abundance as a relative age indicator of PMS star to determine the cluster formation timescale. The optical spectra of 134 PMS stars in NGC 2264 have been obtained with MMT/Hectochelle. The equivalent widths have been measured for 86 PMS stars with a detectable Li line (3500\\lt {T}{eff}[{{K}}]≤slant 6500). Li abundance under the condition of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) was derived using the conventional curve of growth method. After correction for non-LTE effects, we find that the initial Li abundance of NGC 2264 is A({Li})=3.2+/- 0.2. From the distribution of the Li abundances, the underlying age spread of the visible PMS stars is estimated to be about 3-4 Myr and this, together with the presence of embedded populations in NGC 2264, suggests that the cluster formed on a timescale shorter than 5 Myr.

  8. Oxygen abundances in halo giants. I - Giants in the very metal-poor globular clusters M92 and M15 and the metal-poor halo field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneden, Christopher; Kraft, Robert P.; Prosser, Charles F.; Langer, G. E.

    1991-12-01

    Oxygen, iron, vanadium, and scandium abundances are derived for very metal-poor giants in the globular clusters M92 and M15, and giants of comparable metallicity in the local halo field. The forbidden O I line dublet (6300, 6363) and nearby metallic lines in spectra are analyzed using line analysis and spectral synthesis codes. The Fe/H abundance for M92 is estimated at -2.25 +/-0.02 based on nine giants with a range of 500 K in effective temperature. No evidence for star-to-star variations in the Fe/H abundance was found. O-rich and O-poor stars appear intermixed in the H-R diagram. O - N nuclear synthesis and mixing to the surface are proposed as the best explanation for the low-oxygen giants. The nitrogen abundances obtained earlier for nine of the ten halo field giants in this sample are incompatible with the very large nitrogen abundances expected of the O/Fe abundance of about + 1.2 in halo field subdwarfs, as found by Abia and Rebolo (1989), and not more than 0.6 in halo giants, as found in this and other studies.

  9. Low-Cost Open-Source Voltage and Current Monitor for Gas Metal Arc Weld 3D Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Pinar, A.; Wijnen, B.; Anzalone, G. C.; Havens, T. C.; Sanders, P. G.; Pearce, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Arduino open-source microcontrollers are well known in sensor applications for scientific equipment and for controlling RepRap 3D printers. Recently low-cost open-source gas metal arc weld (GMAW) RepRap 3D printers have been developed. The entry-level welders used have minimal controls and therefore lack any real-time measurement of welder voltage or current. The preliminary work on process optimization of GMAW 3D printers requires a low-cost sensor and data logger system to measure welder cu...

  10. Methane Oxidation to Methanol Catalyzed by Cu-Oxo Clusters Stabilized in NU-1000 Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuno, Takaaki; Zheng, Jian; Vjunov, Aleksei; Sanchez-Sanchez, Maricruz; Ortuño, Manuel A; Pahls, Dale R; Fulton, John L; Camaioni, Donald M; Li, Zhanyong; Ray, Debmalya; Mehdi, B Layla; Browning, Nigel D; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T; Cramer, Christopher J; Gagliardi, Laura; Lercher, Johannes A

    2017-08-02

    Copper oxide clusters synthesized via atomic layer deposition on the nodes of the metal-organic framework (MOF) NU-1000 are active for oxidation of methane to methanol under mild reaction conditions. Analysis of chemical reactivity, in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations are used to determine structure/activity relations in the Cu-NU-1000 catalytic system. The Cu-loaded MOF contained Cu-oxo clusters of a few Cu atoms. The Cu was present under ambient conditions as a mixture of ∼15% Cu + and ∼85% Cu 2+ . The oxidation of methane on Cu-NU-1000 was accompanied by the reduction of 9% of the Cu in the catalyst from Cu 2+ to Cu + . The products, methanol, dimethyl ether, and CO 2 , were desorbed with the passage of 10% water/He at 135 °C, giving a carbon selectivity for methane to methanol of 45-60%. Cu oxo clusters stabilized in NU-1000 provide an active, first generation MOF-based, selective methane oxidation catalyst.

  11. Communication: IR spectroscopy of neutral transition metal clusters through thermionic emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapoutre, V. J. F.; Haertelt, M.; Meijer, G.; Fielicke, A.; Bakker, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The resonant multiple photon excitation of neutral niobium clusters using tunable infrared (IR) radiation leads to thermionic emission. By measuring the mass-resolved ionization yield as a function of IR wavenumber species selective IR spectra are obtained for Nb-n (n = 5-20) over the 200-350 cm(-1)

  12. Chemical Bonding of Transition-Metal Co13 Clusters with Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Lanza, Tomás; Ayuela, Andrés; Aguilera-Granja, Faustino

    2015-12-01

    We carried out density functional calculations to study the adsorption of Co13 clusters on graphene. Several free isomers were deposited at different positions with respect to the hexagonal lattice nodes, allowing us to study even the hcp 2d isomer, which was recently obtained as the most stable one. Surprisingly, the Co13 clusters attached to graphene prefer icosahedron-like structures in which the low-lying isomer is much distorted; in such structures, they are linked with more bonds than those reported in previous works. For any isomer, the most stable position binds to graphene by the Co atoms that can lose electrons. We find that the charge transfer between graphene and the clusters is small enough to conclude that the Co-graphene binding is not ionic-like but chemical. Besides, the same order of stability among the different isomers on doped graphene is kept. These findings could also be of interest for magnetic clusters on graphenic nanostructures such as ribbons and nanotubes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Non-Linear Optically Active Metal Clusters in Nanoscaled Systems Including Self-Assembled Organic Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Jett, S. D.; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2000-01-01

    are initially monitored in ultrahigh vacuum by comparison of calculated with measured polarization-dependent extinction spectra. We find that at low surface temperatures (150 K) the cluster growth is very similar to growth directly on insulating substrates. With increasing surface temperature the size...

  14. Cluster-cluster clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, J.; Dekel, A.; Efstathiou, G.; Frenk, C.S.; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT; California Univ., Santa Barbara; Cambridge Univ., England; Sussex Univ., Brighton, England)

    1985-01-01

    The cluster correlation function xi sub c(r) is compared with the particle correlation function, xi(r) in cosmological N-body simulations with a wide range of initial conditions. The experiments include scale-free initial conditions, pancake models with a coherence length in the initial density field, and hybrid models. Three N-body techniques and two cluster-finding algorithms are used. In scale-free models with white noise initial conditions, xi sub c and xi are essentially identical. In scale-free models with more power on large scales, it is found that the amplitude of xi sub c increases with cluster richness; in this case the clusters give a biased estimate of the particle correlations. In the pancake and hybrid models (with n = 0 or 1), xi sub c is steeper than xi, but the cluster correlation length exceeds that of the points by less than a factor of 2, independent of cluster richness. Thus the high amplitude of xi sub c found in studies of rich clusters of galaxies is inconsistent with white noise and pancake models and may indicate a primordial fluctuation spectrum with substantial power on large scales. 30 references

  15. Heavy Metal Concentration and Risk Assessment of Soil and Rice in and around an Open Dumpsite in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjira Klinsawathom

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the heavy metal concentration in the soil and rice in and around Nakhonluang district open dumpsite in Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya province of Thailand and to assess the human health risk of these metals. The soil samples demonstrated heavy metal concentrations in the following order: Fe > Mn >Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb (Cd was not detected, and the average concentrations of each metal in soil from the dumpsite area were higher than those in the surrounding area. The average concentrations of Mn in the soils exceeded the screening level for higher plant protection of the USEPA’s Eco-SSL while the average Zn and Cu concentrations in the soil samples from the dumpsite exceeded the level for good soil and safety to life recommended by LDD. The rice exhibited metal concentrations in the following order: root > straw > grain. A carcinogenic human health risk assessment (RTotal indicated that the values from the soil samples and the rice were at safe levels. The sum of noncarcinogenic hazard values (Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn indicated that exposure to the soils around the dumpsite area may pose adverse health effects (HI < 1 while exposure to the soils in the dumpsite area carries a high risk of causing adverse health effects both in children (HI = 10.5 and adults (HI = 2.18. It is suggested that suitable management measures should be applied to prevent or reduce heavy metal contamination in and around the dumpsite area.

  16. Collision induced fragmentation dynamics of small metallic clusters; Dynamique de fragmentation induite par collision de petits agregats metalliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picard, Y

    1999-04-15

    The goal of this work is the complete analysis of the fragmentation of alkali clusters (Na{sub n}{sup +} (n < 10), NaK{sup +} and K{sub 2}{sup +}) induced by collision with light atomic (He) or molecular (H{sub 2}) targets. The main point is to study how the energy is transmitted to the cluster during the collision and how this energy is shared among the various degrees of freedom of the system and leads to its fragmentation. Two types of interactions govern the collision induced dissociation processes: on one hand, the electronic mechanisms where the target perturbs the electronic cloud and brings the molecule into a dissociative state, and on the other hand, the impulsive mechanisms where the momentum transferred to the atomic cores leads to the rotational-vibrational dissociation of the molecule. The experimental procedure is based on the measurement of the velocity vectors of the outgoing fragments detected in coincidence. This allows to reconstruct the full kinematics of the fragmentation and to separate and characterize for the first time the two types of interactions. The two basic mechanisms of collision induced dissociation are then clearly resolved for the diatomic molecule Na{sub 2}{sup +}. For the heteronuclear molecular ion NaK{sup +}, it is shown that the dissociation process is due to a combination of electronic and impulsive mechanisms in some of the dissociation pathways. The extension to the study of metallic clusters Na{sub n}{sup +} (n < 10) fragmentation shows the role and the relative importance of the electronic and impulsive mechanisms and their evolution with the cluster size. The complete analysis of Na{sub 3}{sup +} multi-fragmentation is also presented. (author)

  17. A CONSTRAINT ON BROWN DWARF FORMATION VIA EJECTION: RADIAL VARIATION OF THE STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR MASS FUNCTION OF THE YOUNG OPEN CLUSTER IC 2391

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudreault, S.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.

    2009-01-01

    We present the stellar and substellar mass function (MF) of the open cluster IC 2391, plus its radial dependence, and use this to put constraints on the formation mechanism of brown dwarfs (BDs). Our multi-band optical and infrared photometric survey with spectroscopic follow-up covers 11 deg 2 , making it the largest survey of this cluster to date. We observe a radial variation in the MF over the range 0.072-0.3 M sun , but no significant variation in the MF below the substellar boundary at the three cluster radius intervals is analyzed. This lack of radial variation for low masses is what we would expect with the ejection scenario for BD formation, although considering that IC 2391 has an age about three times older than its crossing time, we expect that BDs with a velocity greater than the escape velocity have already escaped the cluster. Alternatively, the variation in the MF of the stellar objects could be an indication that they have undergone mass segregation via dynamical evolution. We also observe a significant variation across the cluster in the color of the (background) field star locus in color-magnitude diagrams and conclude that this is due to variable background extinction in the Galactic plane. From our preliminary spectroscopic follow-up, to confirm BD status and cluster membership, we find that all candidates are M dwarfs (in either the field or the cluster), demonstrating the efficiency of our photometric selection method in avoiding contaminants (e.g., red giants). About half of our photometric candidates for which we have spectra are spectroscopically confirmed as cluster members; two are new spectroscopically confirmed BD members of IC 2391.

  18. Similarity transformed equation of motion coupled-cluster theory based on an unrestricted Hartree-Fock reference for applications to high-spin open-shell systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Lee M J; Krupička, Martin; Neese, Frank; Izsák, Róbert

    2017-11-07

    The similarity transformed equation of motion coupled-cluster approach is extended for applications to high-spin open-shell systems, within the unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) formalism. An automatic active space selection scheme has also been implemented such that calculations can be performed in a black-box fashion. It is observed that both the canonical and automatic active space selecting similarity transformed equation of motion (STEOM) approaches perform about as well as the more expensive equation of motion coupled-cluster singles doubles (EOM-CCSD) method for the calculation of the excitation energies of doublet radicals. The automatic active space selecting UHF STEOM approach can therefore be employed as a viable, lower scaling alternative to UHF EOM-CCSD for the calculation of excited states in high-spin open-shell systems.

  19. Similarity transformed equation of motion coupled-cluster theory based on an unrestricted Hartree-Fock reference for applications to high-spin open-shell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Lee M. J.; Krupička, Martin; Neese, Frank; Izsák, Róbert

    2017-11-01

    The similarity transformed equation of motion coupled-cluster approach is extended for applications to high-spin open-shell systems, within the unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) formalism. An automatic active space selection scheme has also been implemented such that calculations can be performed in a black-box fashion. It is observed that both the canonical and automatic active space selecting similarity transformed equation of motion (STEOM) approaches perform about as well as the more expensive equation of motion coupled-cluster singles doubles (EOM-CCSD) method for the calculation of the excitation energies of doublet radicals. The automatic active space selecting UHF STEOM approach can therefore be employed as a viable, lower scaling alternative to UHF EOM-CCSD for the calculation of excited states in high-spin open-shell systems.

  20. Trace metal determinations by total-reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis in the open Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, D.; Gerwinski, W.; Radke, I.

    1993-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), as a major component of its programme ''Global Investigation of Pollution in the Marine Environment'' (GIPME), maintains a long-standing project on ''Open Ocean Baseline Studies of Trace Contaminants''. Initially, the Atlantic Ocean and trace metals were selected. Four deep-water stations in the Cape Basin, Angola Basin, Cape Verde Abyssal Plain and Seine Abyssal Plain were regularly sampled for at least 36 depths. Additional samples were taken between stations. Samples were distributed to participants and a similar number of additional laboratories. As a central part of our own contribution to the project, we determined the trace heavy metals manganese, nickel, copper, zinc and lead and the lighter selenium by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis. For the TXRF, the pre-enrichment of the trace metals and the separation from the salt matrix were performed by complexation with sodium dibenzyldithiocarbamate and reverse-phase chromatography. Generally, very low levels of trace elements were found in filtered and unfiltered water samples from these remote areas of the open Atlantic Ocean. Typical examples of the distributions of trace metal concentrations on depth profiles from the four deep-water stations as well as intercomparisons between the stations are presented. (author)

  1. Cluster harvesting by successive reduction of a metal halide with a nonconventional reduction agent: a benefit for the exploration of metal-rich halide systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströbele, Markus; Mos, Agnieszka; Meyer, Hans-Jürgen

    2013-06-17

    The preparation of thermally labile compounds is a great temptation in chemistry which requires a careful selection of reaction media and reaction conditions. With a new scanning technique denoted here as Cluster Harvesting, a whole series of metal halide compounds is detected by differential thermal analysis (DTA) in fused silica tubes and structurally characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. Experiments of the reduction of tungsten hexahalides with elemental antimony and iron are presented. A cascade of six compounds is identified during the reduction with antimony, and five compounds or phases are monitored following the reduction with iron. The crystal structure of Fe2W2Cl10 is reported, and two other phases in the Fe-W-Cl system are discussed.

  2. Direct Structural Identification of Gas Induced Gate-Opening Coupled with Commensurate Adsorption in a Microporous Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Debasis; Wang, Hao; Plonka, Anna M; Emge, Thomas J; Parise, John B; Li, Jing

    2016-08-08

    Gate-opening is a unique and interesting phenomenon commonly observed in flexible porous frameworks, where the pore characteristics and/or crystal structures change in response to external stimuli such as adding or removing guest molecules. For gate-opening that is induced by gas adsorption, the pore-opening pressure often varies for different adsorbate molecules and, thus, can be applied to selectively separate a gas mixture. The detailed understanding of this phenomenon is of fundamental importance to the design of industrially applicable gas-selective sorbents, which remains under investigated due to the lack of direct structural evidence for such systems. We report a mechanistic study of gas-induced gate-opening process of a microporous metal-organic framework, [Mn(ina)2 ] (ina=isonicotinate) associated with commensurate adsorption, by a combination of several analytical techniques including single crystal X-ray diffraction, in situ powder X-ray diffraction coupled with differential scanning calorimetry (XRD-DSC), and gas adsorption-desorption methods. Our study reveals that the pronounced and reversible gate opening/closing phenomena observed in [Mn(ina)2 ] are coupled with a structural transition that involves rotation of the organic linker molecules as a result of interaction of the framework with adsorbed gas molecules including carbon dioxide and propane. The onset pressure to open the gate correlates with the extent of such interaction. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Validity of the classical monte carlo method to model the magnetic properties of a large transition-metal cluster: Mn19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Nicola; Caneschi, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante; Kritikos, Mikael; Westin, L Gunnar

    2006-03-20

    The susceptibility of the large transition-metal cluster [Mn19O12(MOE)14(MOEH)10].MOEH (MOE = OC2H2O-CH3) has been fitted through classical Monte Carlo simulation, and an estimation of the exchange coupling constants has been done. With these results, it has been possible to perform a full-matrix diagonalization of the cluster core, which was used to provide information on the nature of the low-lying levels.

  4. Cluster plasma and its dispersion relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Downer, M.C.; Kishimoto, Y.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that unlike a gas plasma or an electron plasma in a metal, an ionized cluster material (open-quotes cluster plasmaclose quotes) permits propagation below the plasma cut-off of electromagnetic (EM) waves whose phase velocity is close to but below the speed of light. Its unique properties allow a variety of applications, including direct acceleration of particles with its EM fields and the phase matching of waves of high harmonic generation (HHG)

  5. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of 3d metal trioxide clusters-doped monolayer graphene: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafique, Muhammad [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); M.U.E.T, S.Z.A.B, Campus Khairpur Mir' s, Sindh (Pakistan); Shuai, Yong, E-mail: shuaiyong1978@gmail.com [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Tan, He-Ping; Hassan, Muhammad [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • First-principles calculations are performed for TMO{sub 3} cluster-doped and TM atoms adsorbed at three O atoms-doped graphene. • Significant magnetic coupling behavior is observed between TM atoms and neighboring C and O atoms for both cases. • The direction of charge transfer is always from monolayer graphene to TMO{sub 3} clusters incorporated into graphene. • TiO{sub 3} and VO{sub 3} doped structures display dilute magnetic semiconductor behavior. • Five different orbitals (d{sub xy}, d{sub yz}, d{sub z}{sup 2}, d{sub xz} and d{sub x}{sup 2}{sub -y}{sup 2}) of 3d TM atoms give rise to magnetic moments for both cases. - Abstract: We present first-principles density-functional calculations for the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of monolayer graphene doped with 3d (Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Mn and Ni) metal trioxide TMO{sub 3} halogen clusters. In this paper we used two approaches for 3d metal trioxide clusters (i) TMO{sub 3} halogen cluster was embedded in monolayer graphene substituting four carbon (C) atoms (ii) three C atoms were substituted by three oxygen (O) atoms in one graphene ring and TM atom was adsorbed at the hollow site of O atoms substituted graphene ring. All the impurities were tightly bonded in the graphene ring. In first case of TMO{sub 3} doped graphene layer, the bond length between C−O atom was reduced and bond length between TM-O atom was increased. In case of Cr, Fe, Co and Ni atoms substitution in between the O atoms, leads to Fermi level shifting to conduction band thereby causing the Dirac cone to move into valence band, however a band gap appears at high symmetric K-point. In case of TiO{sub 3} and VO{sub 3} substitution, system exhibits semiconductor properties. Interestingly, TiO{sub 3}-substituted system shows dilute magnetic semiconductor behavior with 2.00 μ{sub B} magnetic moment. On the other hand, the substitution of CoO{sub 3}, CrO{sub 3}, FeO{sub 3} and MnO{sub 3} induced 1.015 μ{sub B}, 2

  6. Metal Enhanced Fluorescence on Super-Hydrophobic Clusters of Gold Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Battista, Edmondo; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Alabastri, Alessandro; Barberio, Marianna; Causa, Filippo; Netti, Paolo Antonio; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Gentile, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We used optical lithography, electroless deposition and deep reactive ion etching techniques to realize arrays of super-hydrophobic gold nanoparticles arranged in a hierarchical structure. At the micro-scale, silicon-micro pillars in the chip permit to manipulate and concentrate biological solutions, at the nano-scale, gold nanoparticles enable metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) effects, whereby fluorescence signal of fluorophores in close proximity to a rough metal surface is amplified by orders of magnitude. Here, we demonstrated the device in the analysis of fluorescein derived gold-binding peptides (GBP-FITC). While super-hydrophobic schemes and MEF effects have been heretofore used in isolation, their integration in a platform may advance the current state of fluorescence-based sensing technology in medical diagnostics and biotechnology. This scheme may be employed in protein microarrays where the increased sensitivity of the device may enable the early detection of cancer biomarkers or other proteins of biomedical interest.

  7. Metal Enhanced Fluorescence on Super-Hydrophobic Clusters of Gold Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Battista, Edmondo

    2016-12-15

    We used optical lithography, electroless deposition and deep reactive ion etching techniques to realize arrays of super-hydrophobic gold nanoparticles arranged in a hierarchical structure. At the micro-scale, silicon-micro pillars in the chip permit to manipulate and concentrate biological solutions, at the nano-scale, gold nanoparticles enable metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) effects, whereby fluorescence signal of fluorophores in close proximity to a rough metal surface is amplified by orders of magnitude. Here, we demonstrated the device in the analysis of fluorescein derived gold-binding peptides (GBP-FITC). While super-hydrophobic schemes and MEF effects have been heretofore used in isolation, their integration in a platform may advance the current state of fluorescence-based sensing technology in medical diagnostics and biotechnology. This scheme may be employed in protein microarrays where the increased sensitivity of the device may enable the early detection of cancer biomarkers or other proteins of biomedical interest.

  8. Molecular dynamics simulations with electronic stopping can reproduce experimental sputtering yields of metals impacted by large cluster ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiting; Zhou, Wei; Feng, Qijie; Zheng, Jian

    2018-03-01

    An unsolved problem in research of sputtering from metals induced by energetic large cluster ions is that molecular dynamics (MD) simulations often produce sputtering yields much higher than experimental results. Different from the previous simulations considering only elastic atomic interactions (nuclear stopping), here we incorporate inelastic electrons-atoms interactions (electronic stopping, ES) into MD simulations using a friction model. In this w