Sample records for open cast mines


    Yarova T.A.


    Full Text Available Floristic structure data of soil algae, lichens, mosses, and vascular plants are given. Rare plant species which are protected at the Ukrainian, European, and International levels were revealed. The species list of trees and bushes was conducted. The soil analysis was carried out by such parameters: pH-value, the maintenance of hygroscopic water, the maintenance of mineral substances. Vegetation biomass on the open cast mines sample areas is defined. Ecological analysis of the biotopes of registered algae species was performed. The ecological analysis of the vascular plants species biotopes was carried out.The estimation of the perspective vegetation pattern was suggested for natural restoration of the open cast mines. The plant species are selected according to the ecological and morphological characteristics for plant rehabilitation and planting of open cast mines.

  2. Power plant waste disposals in open-cast mines

    Herstus, J.; Stastny, J. [AGE s.r.o. - Aplikovana Geotechnika a Ekologie, Thamova (Czechoslovakia)


    High population density in Czech Republic has led, as well as in other countries, to strong NIMBY syndrome influencing the waste disposal location. The largest thermal power plants are situated in neighborhood of extensive open-cast brown coal mines with huge area covered by tipped clayey spoil. Such spoil areas, technically almost useless, are potential space for power giant waste disposal position. There are several limitations, based on specific structural features of tipped clayey spoil, influencing decision to use such area as site for waste disposal. Low shear strength and extremely high compressibility belong to the geotechnical limitations. High permeability of upper ten or more meters of tipped spoil and its changes with applied stress level belongs to transitional features between geotechnical and environmental limitations. The problems of ash and FGD products stabilized interaction with such subgrade represent environmental limitation. The paper reports about the testing procedure developed for thickness and permeability estimation of upper soil layer and gives brief review of laboratory and site investigation results on potential sites from point of view of above mentioned limitations. Also gives an outline how to eliminate the influence of unfavorable conditions.

  3. Teleservice for hydraulic excavators operating in open-cast mines; Teleservice bei Tagebau-Hydraulikbaggern

    Poettker, A. [Terex Germany GmbH und Co. KG, Dortmund (Germany)


    Hydraulic excavators in open-cast mines are cost-intensive capital assets, which must be constantly observed during production in order to ensure availability. Teleservice is one way of reducing the service costs. As open-cast mines are generally developed in areas with a poor infrastructure, the excavators can be reliably reached only via satelite. Several network operators with different data transmission rates are suitable according to the required purpose. Satellite communication is expensive compared to the fixed network. New intelligent network topologies (MANET) are currently undergoing the first field tests. (orig.)

  4. Identification of Social and Environmental Conflicts Resulting from Open-Cast Mining

    Górniak-Zimroz, Justyna; Pactwa, Katarzyna


    Open-cast mining is related to interference in the natural environment. It also affects human health and quality of life. This influence is, among others, dependent on the type of extracted materials, size of deposit, methods of mining and mineral processing, as well as, equally important, sensitivity of the environment within which mining is planned. The negative effects of mining include deformations of land surface or contamination of soils, air and water. What is more, in many cases, mining for minerals leads to clearing of housing and transport infrastructures located within the mining area, a decrease in values of the properties in the immediate vicinity of a deposit, and an increase in stress levels in local residents exposed to noise. The awareness of negative consequences of taking up open-cast mining activity leads to conflicts between a mining entrepreneur and self-government authorities, society or nongovernment organisations. The article attempts to identify potential social and environmental conflicts that may occur in relation to a planned mining activity. The results of the analyses were interpreted with respect to the deposits which were or have been mined. That enabled one to determine which facilities exclude mineral mining and which allow it. The research took the non-energy mineral resources into consideration which are included in the group of solid minerals located in one of the districts of Lower Silesian Province (SW Poland). The spatial analyses used the tools available in the geographical information systems

  5. Humification processes in reclaimed open-cast lignite mine soils

    Leiros, M.C.; Gil-Sotres, F.; Ceccanti, B.; Trasar-Cepeda, M.C.; Gonzales-Sangregorio, M.V. (Facultad de Farmacia de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Departamento de Edafologia y Quimica Agraria)


    To identify the principal humification pathways which occur during the initial stages of pedogenesis, organic matter from mine soils of different ages from the Meirama lignite mine in NW Spain was subjected to a series of physicochemical and chemical fractionations. Although humic molecules of molecular weight lower than 10,000 Da were always predominant, the percentage of C associated with molecules of between 50,000 and 200,000 Da increased with soil age, as did the percentage of chemically stabilized humus and the percentage of C associated with immobile complexes. In general, these results suggest that the principal humification pathway in these soils involves abiotic condensation reactions, as in the case of natural soils of this region. The low complexed metal content of the mine soils in comparison with natural soils indicates the low degree of weathering of inorganic fraction which has occurred in the former.

  6. Isotope biogeochemical assessment of natural biodegradation processes in open cast pit mining landscapes

    Jeschke, Christina; Knöller, Kay; Koschorreck, Matthias; Ussath, Maria; Hoth, Nils


    In Germany, a major share of the energy production is based on the burning of lignite from open cast pit mines. The remediation and re-cultivation of the former mining areas in the Lusatian and Central German lignite mining district is an enormous technical and economical challenge. After mine closures, the surrounding landscapes are threatened by acid mine drainage (AMD), i.e. the acidification and mineralization of rising groundwater with metals and inorganic contaminants. The high content of sulfur (sulfuric acid, sulfate), nitrogen (ammonium) and iron compounds (iron-hydroxides) deteriorates the groundwater quality and decelerates sustainable development of tourism in (former) mining landscapes. Natural biodegradation or attenuation (NA) processes of inorganic contaminants are considered to be a technically low impact and an economically beneficial solution. The investigations of the stable isotope compositions of compounds involved in NA processes helps clarify the dynamics of natural degradation and provides specific informations on retention processes of sulfate and nitrogen-compounds in mine dump water, mine dump sediment, and residual pit lakes. In an active mine dump we investigated zones where the process of bacterial sulfate reduction, as one very important NA process, takes place and how NA can be enhanced by injecting reactive substrates. Stable isotopes signatures of sulfur and nitrogen components were examined and evaluated in concert with hydrogeochemical data. In addition, we delineated the sources of ammonium pollution in mine dump sediments and investigated nitrification by 15N-labeling techniques to calculate the limit of the conversion of harmful ammonium to nitrate in residual mining lakes. Ultimately, we provided an isotope biogeochemical assessment of natural attenuation of sulfate and ammonium at mine dump sites and mining lakes. Also, we estimated the risk potential for water in different compartments of the hydrological system. In

  7. Reclaimed spoil heap from an open-cast mine: analysis of meadow communities

    Novak, J.; Hakl, J.; Steklova, J.; Ceska, J.; Dvorakova, E. [Czech University for Life Science Prague, Prague (Czech Republic)


    An evaluation of the vegetation on the reclaimed spoil heap of material deposited from the overlaying rock of an open-cast brown coal mine. The application of standard geobotanical research methods with statistical data analysis. Under the present management conditions desirable meadow taxa keep their constancy: the reduction of ruderal and weed species is evident, though statistically insignificant. For the variability of species composition over time, and in particular by the location of releves taken, the strong influence of substrate heterogeneity i.e. (in addition to exposure, humidity etc.) is inferred.

  8. Integral management system for production in open-cast coal mines

    Arias, M.A.A.; Garcia-Sineriz M, J.L. [Lignitos de Meirama, S.A., Meirama (Spain)


    In 1991, 9.5 million m{sup 3} of material from a Spanish open-cast brown coal mine were transported by a belt conveyor system to a coal depot or a waste heap. Development of an integral management system to automate the conveyor belt circuits for transport of the lignite and clayish material extracted by three excavators and the rock from two semi-mobile crushers is described. The material is carried to a distribution point and tipped onto three collector circuits for coal and waste. The system saturates the capacity of the conveyor belt circuits for coal and waste without causing overloading or holdup. The control system acts on allocated set-points of the production machines. The system does not require weighers or density sensors in the belts to continuously estimate the density of the material being transported. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Sustainable development of lignite production on open cast mines in Serbia

    DANICIC Darko; MITROVIC Slobodan; PAVLOVIC Vladimir; KOVACEV Sava


    Energy sector represents a key industrial branch for national, environmental and economic success. With its exclusive access to domestic deposits, lignite industry represents a guarantor of reliable raw materials, offering long-term supply security based on verified reserves. Currently operated coalmines in Serbia (Kolubara and Kostolac) have production around 36 million tons of lignite, and over 108 million m3 of overburden. Consequently, sustainability of lignite production requires cost reduction and environmental protection, as well as capacity increase. In order to rationalise, and increase efficiency of Serbian lignite mines, it is necessary to focus the activities on major issues shown within the triangle of energy policy objectives (security of supply, competi-tive prices and environmental protection). Production process optimisation singled out several special programs. Equipment revi-talization and modernization is necessary taking into account that majority of the currently operated machinery has a life up to 25 years. Production process automation would enable high level of technical operation in the field of open cast mines management. Lack of coal quality uniformity is the permanent problem resulting by great amounts of coal reserves to be used uneconomically. Planning and training at all levels and finally cooperative software for business procedures and work order management. The measures suggested are a key precondition for maintaining competitive position of lignite production on international level.

  10. Geoelectrical surveys for monitoring acid mine drainage in groundwater at abandoned open-cast lignite mines

    Stollberg, R.; Hirsch, M.; Weiss, H.


    Surface and borehole geoelectrical survey techniques (DC resistivity measurements, Direct Push based electrical conductivity logging) were used to identify and localize acid mine drainage (AMD) at former lignite mining areas and adjacent groundwater bodies in Central Germany. Geoelectrical surface measurements are a fast and high-resolution survey method for the identification and discrimination of subsurface sections with different electrical properties. The method is based on a current injection by a pair of electrodes and electrical potential measurements by a second pair of electrodes. An electrical resistivity distribution of the subsurface can be measured by the ratio of injected currents and measured potentials. Moreover, electrical conductivity logging (EC-logging) was applied along the profile line of the geoelectrical surface measurement. A direct-push machine was used to push a GeoProbe® Wenner-Probe attached to a rod string into the ridges of mining dumps for recording vertical electrical resistivity profiles. The main objective has been the comparison between the superficial resistivity measurements and the results from in-situ downhole EC-logging for identifying the presence of AMD. Both, surface and subsurface measurements yielded in a precise and corresponding imaging of acidification effects in the underground. The electrical properties of soil/dump material and groundwater were found to be a proper proxy for the assessment of extension and degree of AMD impacts on soil and groundwater systems. A good correlation of the results obtained by these non- to minimal invasive investigation techniques with conventional (i.e. groundwater sampling) approaches could be proven.

  11. New construction of the motorway A44 on a fresh open-cast mining dump; Neubau der A 44 auf einer frischen Tagebaukippe

    Vogt, N.; Heyer, D.; Birle, E.; Vogt, S. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Zentrum Geotechnik; Dahmen, D.; Karcher, C.; Vinzelberg, G. [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany). Gebirgs- und Bodenmechanik


    Due to the extensive mass movement, the open-cast mining Garzweiler migrates continuously from east to west. Beginning in 2006, the area of the original route of the A44 autobahn between the autobahn junction Jackerath and the autobahn junction Holz was integrated in the open-cast mining. The section between these two autobahn junctions was closed to the traffic. The flows of traffic were redirected onto the A61 autobahn. In 2017 the open-cast mining Garzweiler will approach the eastern side of the A61 autobahn. A further movement of this open-cast mining to the west in 2017 will make the section of the A61 autobahn between the autobahn junction Jackerath and the autobahn junction Wanlo unusable. The A44 autobahn will need to be expanded to six lanes. This is associated with the new construction or the reconstruction of the autobahn junctions Jackerath and Holz. Within the autobahn junction Jackerath the new A44 autobahn crosses the route of the autobahn A61 nearly perpendicular and goes ahead to a 7 km long left turn in the current working area of the open-cast mining Garzweiler. From this perspective, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the construction of the A44 autobahn on a fresh open-cast mining dump.

  12. Research on Effects of Blast Casting Vibration and Vibration Absorption of Presplitting Blasting in Open Cast Mine

    Li Ma


    Full Text Available The impact energy produced by blast casting is able to break and cast rocks, yet the strong vibration effects caused at the same time would threaten the safety of mines. Based on the theory of Janbu’s Limit Equilibrium Method (LEM, pseudo-static method has been incorporated to analyze the influence of dynamic loads of blasting on slope stability. The horizontal loads produced by blast vibrations cause an increase in sliding forces, and this leads to a lower slope stability coefficient. When the tensile stresses of the two adjacent blast holes are greater than the tensile strength of rock mass, the radical oriented cracks are formed, which is the precondition for the formation of presplit face. Thus, the formula for calculating the blast hole spacing of presplit blasting can be obtained. Based on the analysis of the principles of vibration tester and vibration pick-up in detecting blast vibrations, a detection scheme of blast vibration is worked out by taking the blast area with precrack rear and non-precrack side of the detection object. The detection and research results of blast vibration show that presplit blasting can reduce the attenuation coefficient of stress wave by half, and the vibration absorption ratio could reach 50.2%; the impact of dynamic loads on the end-wall slope stability coefficient is 1.98%, which proves that presplit blasting plays an important role in shock absorption of blast casting.


    Ivan Tomašić


    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of a complexity of interrelated structural, petrologic and climatic factors that considerably affect the instabilities in the open cast mine of Gradna, near Samobor. The instabilities provoke the slope failures such as slides and slumps of rock material. During the protracted periodical investigations, the relationship among the factors of regional geology, tectonics, structural geology, petrography, engineering geology, rock mechanics and the rock mining technology was observed in the area. The local control of hydrogeologic properties, as well as climatic fluctuations of temperature and precipitation on the slope stability, was also recognized. It turned out that the structural relationships, characteristic of the manifold cataclased dolomite, stimulated the development of local instabilities, particularly during the period of low temperatures affecting the process of ground-water accumulation. When the temperatures are worm, the ground-water circulation is slow, exerting only the small-scale influence on the local instabilities (the paper is published in Croatian.

  14. Human Health Risk Assessment and Safety Threshold of Harmful Trace Elements in the Soil Environment of the Wulantuga Open-Cast Coal Mine

    Jianli Jia


    Full Text Available In this study, soil samples were collected from a large-scale open-cast coal mine area in Inner Mongolia, China. Arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, beryllium (Be and nickel (Ni in soil samples were detected using novel collision/reaction cell technology (CCT with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS; collectively ICP-CCT-MS after closed-vessel microwave digestion. Human health risk from As, Cd, Be and Ni was assessed via three exposure pathways—inhalation, skin contact and soil particle ingestion. The comprehensive carcinogenic risk from As in Wulantuga open-cast coal mine soil is 6.29–87.70-times the acceptable risk, and the highest total hazard quotient of As in soils in this area can reach 4.53-times acceptable risk levels. The carcinogenic risk and hazard quotient of Cd, Be and Ni are acceptable. The main exposure route of As from open-cast coal mine soils is soil particle ingestion, accounting for 76.64% of the total carcinogenic risk. Considering different control values for each exposure pathway, the minimum control value (1.59 mg/kg could be selected as the strict reference safety threshold for As in the soil environment of coal-chemical industry areas. However, acceptable levels of carcinogenic risk are not unanimous; thus, the safety threshold identified here, calculated under a 1.00 × 10−6 acceptable carcinogenic risk level, needs further consideration.

  15. Biomass production as renewable energy resource at reclaimed Serbian lignite open-cast mines

    Jakovljević Milan


    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is the overview of the scope and dynamics of biomass production as a renewable energy source for substitution of coal in the production of electrical energy in the Kolubara coal basin. In order to successfully realize this goal, it was necessary to develop a dynamic model of the process of coal production, overburden dumping and re-cultivation of dumping sites by biomass planting. The results obtained by simulation of the dynamic model of biomass production in Kolubara mine basin until year 2045 show that 6870 hectares of overburden waste dumps will be re-cultivated by biomass plantations. Biomass production modeling point out the significant benefits of biomass production by planting the willow Salix viminalis cultivated for energy purposes. Under these conditions, a 0.6 % participation of biomass at the end of the period of intensive coal production, year 2037, is achieved. With the decrease of coal production to 15 million tons per year, this percentage steeply rises to 1.4 % in 2045. This amount of equivalent tons of coal from biomass can be used for coal substitution in the production of electrical energy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33039

  16. Structural analysis of the Tabaco anticline, Cerrejón open-cast coal mine, Colombia, South America

    Cardozo, Néstor; Montes, Camilo; Marín, Dora; Gutierrez, Iván; Palencia, Alejandro


    The Tabaco anticline is a 15 km long, south plunging, east-vergent anticline in northern Colombia, close to the transpressional collisional margin between the Caribbean and South American plates. In the Cerrejón open-cast coal mine, systematic mapping of coal seams in the middle to upper Paleocene Cerrejón Formation has yielded an exceptional dataset consisting of 10 horizontal slices (sea level to 90 m elevation, regularly spaced at 10 m intervals) through the anticline. Coal seams and fault traces in these slices are used to construct a 3D model of the anticline. This 3D model shows tighter folds within lower coal seams, NW-vergent thrusts and related folds on the gentler western limb, and strike-slip faults on the steeper eastern limb. Fault slip-tendency analysis is used to infer that these two faulting styles resulted from two different stress fields: an earlier one consistent with thrusting and uplift of the Perijá range, and a later one consistent with strike-slip faulting (Oca, Ranchería and Samán faults). Our preferred interpretation is that the anticline developed its eastern vergence during the early stages (late Paleocene-early Eocene) of tilting of the Santa Marta massif. Later NW-vergent thrusting on the western limb (early to middle Eocene) was related to western propagation of the Perijá thrust system. These results contribute to the understanding of the structural evolution of the area. They are also a good example of the complex interplay between detachment folding, thrusting, and strike-slip faulting during the growth of a km-size fold in a transpressive setting.

  17. A Complex Use of the Materials Extracted from an Open-Cast Lignite Mine

    Buryan, Petr; Bučko, Zdeněk; Mika, Petr


    The company Sokolovská uhelná, was the largest producer of city gas in the Czech Republic. After its substitution by natural gas the gasification technology became the basis of the production of electricity in the combine cycle power plant with total output 400 MW. For the possibility of gasification of liquid by- -products forming during the coal gasification a entrained-flow gasifier capable to process also alternative liquid fuels has been in installed. The concentrated waste gas with these sulphur compounds is conducted to the desulphurisation where the highly desired, pure, 96 % H2SO4 is produced. Briquettable brown coal is crushed, milled and dried and then it is passed into briquetting presses where briquettes, used mainly as a fuel in households, are pressed without binder in the punch under the pressure of 175 MPa. Fine brown coal dust (multidust) is commercially used for heat production in pulverized-coal burners. It forms not only during coal drying after separation on electrostatic separators, but it is also acquired by milling of dried coal in a vibratory bar mill. Slag from boilers of classical power plant, cinder form generators and ashes deposited at the dump are dehydrated and they are used as a quality bedding material during construction of communications in the mines of SUAS. Fly ash is used in building industry for partial substitution of cement in concrete. Flue gases after separation of fly ash are desulphurized by wet limestone method, where the main product is gypsum used, among others, in the building industry. Expanded clays from overburdens of coal seams, that are raw material for the production of "Liapor" artificial aggregate, are used heavily. This artificial aggregate is characterized by outstanding thermal and acoustic insulating properties. Przedsiębiorstwo Sokolovska uhelna jest największym producentem gazu miejskiego w Republice Czeskiej. Po jego zastąpieniu przez gaz ziemny, technologia gazyfikacji stała się podstawą do

  18. Evaluating top soil trace element pollution in the vicinity of a cement plant and a former open-cast uranium mine in central Argentina

    Bermudez, Gonzalo M.A.; Pignata, Maria Luisa [Cordoba Univ. Nacional (AR). Inst. Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal (IMBIV); Moreno, Monica; Invernizzi, Rodrigo; Pla, Rita [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CAE), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Tecnicas Analiticas Nucleares


    Heavy metals are especially dangerous because of their persistence and toxicity. Soil behaves as a sink of heavy metals by aerial deposition of particles emitted by different human activities. The aims of this work were to identify the levels and sources of heavy metal and trace elements in agricultural and residential areas in Argentina and to evaluate the enrichment of total and HCl-extracted heavy metals. Materials and methods: Ninety-four topsoil samples were collected in Cordoba, Argentina (0-10 cm). The majority of the samples were subject to agricultural practices. The possible metal pollution sources were a cement plant and an industrial waste incinerator, a former open-cast uranium mine, petrochemical, and mechanical and metallurgical industries among others. The elements As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, and Zn were measured by neutron activation analysis, and Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were partially extracted by 0.5-M HCl and measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Several nonparametric statistics were performed to the dataset in order to accomplish the objectives of the study. Results and discussion: The mean total Ba concentration exceeded soil quality guidelines for residential areas, with the maximum total As and Co concentrations surpassing the agricultural and residential limits stated in national and international legislations. The elements As and Ba were found to be controlled by parent factors, whereas Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were controlled by both anthropogenic and pedogenic factors. A cement plant was the main source of Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, whereas lanthanides, Fe, K, U, and also Zn were associated with a former open-cast operation uranium mine. A correlation analysis showed that soil organic matter and pH had strong associations with 0.5-M HCl-extracted Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Conclusions: Fe-normalized enrichment factors calculated for

  19. Impact of biocrust succession on water retention and repellency on open-cast lignite mining sites under reclamation in Lower Lusatia, NE-Germany

    Gypser, Stella; Fischer, Thomas; Lange, Philipp; Veste, Maik


    Mining activities can strongly affect ecosystem properties by destruction of naturally developed soils and removal of vegetation. The unstructured substrates show high bulk densities, compaction, low water infiltration rates, reduced water holding capacities and higher susceptibility to wind and water erosion. In the initial stage of the ecosystem development, the post-mining sites are open areas without or with a low cover of higher vegetation. It is well-known that biocrusts are able to colonize the soil surface under such extreme conditions without human support and affect soil hydrological processes such as water infiltration, run-off or re-distribution. Investigations were conducted on two former lignite open-cast mining sites, an artificial sand dune on the reclaimed watershed Welzow "Neuer Lugteich" and a reforestation area in Schlabendorf (Brandenburg, north-east Germany). The aim was to relate the hydrological characteristics of the topsoil to successional stages of biological soil crusts on reclaimed soils and their influence on repellency index and water holding capacity compared to pure mining substrate. Our study emphasized the influence of changing successional stages and species composition of biological soil crusts, forming a small-scale crust pattern, on water repellency and retention on sandy soils in temperate climate. Different successional stages of soil crusts were identified from initial scattered green algae crusts, dominated by Zygogonium spec. and Ulothrix spec., and more developed soil crusts containing mosses such as Ceratodon purpureus and Polytrichum piliferum. Lichens of the Genus Cladonia were more pronouncedly contributed to biocrusts at later and mature stages of development. The repellency index on the one hand increased due to the cross-linking of sand particles by the filamentous green algae Zygogonium spec. which resulted in clogging of pores, and on the other hand decreased with the occurrence of moss plants due to absorption

  20. Accuracy of land use change detection using support vector machine and maximum likelihood techniques for open-cast coal mining areas.

    Karan, Shivesh Kishore; Samadder, Sukha Ranjan


    One objective of the present study was to evaluate the performance of support vector machine (SVM)-based image classification technique with the maximum likelihood classification (MLC) technique for a rapidly changing landscape of an open-cast mine. The other objective was to assess the change in land use pattern due to coal mining from 2006 to 2016. Assessing the change in land use pattern accurately is important for the development and monitoring of coalfields in conjunction with sustainable development. For the present study, Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data of 2006 and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI)/Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) data of 2016 of a part of Jharia Coalfield, Dhanbad, India, were used. The SVM classification technique provided greater overall classification accuracy when compared to the MLC technique in classifying heterogeneous landscape with limited training dataset. SVM exceeded MLC in handling a difficult challenge of classifying features having near similar reflectance on the mean signature plot, an improvement of over 11 % was observed in classification of built-up area, and an improvement of 24 % was observed in classification of surface water using SVM; similarly, the SVM technique improved the overall land use classification accuracy by almost 6 and 3 % for Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 images, respectively. Results indicated that land degradation increased significantly from 2006 to 2016 in the study area. This study will help in quantifying the changes and can also serve as a basis for further decision support system studies aiding a variety of purposes such as planning and management of mines and environmental impact assessment.

  1. Assessment of soil characteristics in the vicinity of open cast coal mine and its suitability for vegetative reclamation in Charhi and Kuju of Jharkhand, India.

    Prathap, Amudala; Kujur, Vivek; Chakraborty, Sukalyaon; Bhattacharya, Tanushree


    Coal mining is inevitable for economic growth of a country, but at the same time deteriorates the quality of the environment. Open cast mine, especially affects the top soil most negatively. In the present study, soil samples from three representative areas of mining viz proposed, operational and abandoned sites from Charhi and Kuju of Jharkhand were collected and analysed for physicochemical parameters and metals with an objective to determine their suitability for vegetative reclamation. Soil samples appeared to be slightly acidic (5.97 ± 0.66) with low EC values (101 ± 76 μScm(-1)), total organic carbon (0.71 ± 0.35 %), organic matter (1.34 ± 0.66%) and overall nutrient, especially nitrogen (167 ± 64 kg ha(-1)) contents than required for reclamation by revegetation. However, bulk density was found conducive for reclamation. Total Cr (317 ± 287 to 417 ± 393 mg kg(-1)), Cu (121 ± 72 to 344 ± 143 mg kg(-1)), Ni (171 ± 46 to 373 ± 134 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (114 ± 115 to 182 ± 145 mg kg(-1)) content were found to be higher in soil. Sitewise variation was also significant for Cu and Ni. Pearson's correlation suggested significant (p ≤ 0.05) positive inter elemental correlation between Cr-Fe, Cr-Mn, Cu-Ni, Fe-Mn and Mn-Ni. Positive geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values for all the metals except Fe, overall contamination degree of 31.10 and significant enrichment factor indicated considerable contamination. This baseline data could be utilized for vegetative reclamation planning of the study area in future.

  2. Chair in open-cast and international mining at the Institute for Mining at Clausthal Technological University; Lehrstuhl fuer Tagebau und Internationaler Bergbau am Institut fuer Bergbau der TU Clausthal

    Tudeshki, H.; Hardebusch, T. [Lehrstuhl fuer Tagebau und Internationaler Bergbau am Institut fuer Bergbau, TU Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)


    The range of activities of the Chair in Open-cast and International Mining at the Institute for Mining at Clausthal Technological University currently comprises the field of teaching and further scientific training, research and development as well as transfer of knowledge and technology. In addition to these legally sanctioned activities PR work concerning the necessity for the mining of mineral raw materials and the associated training of mining engineers plays a central role. In accordance with the fundamental idea that a prerequisite for good training in the field of engineering science is a close link between university and industry the contents of the courses are always adapted to the state of the art in the mining industry and the main areas of research based on practical requirements. In accordance with this process current aspects of the safeguarding of raw materials, sustenance and management of knowledge in the mining industry are integrated in these courses. The current research work is interdisciplinary and deals with quality management, deposit protection, recultivation and rehabilitation as well as reduction of emissions. (orig.) [German] Das Aufgabenspektrum des Lehrstuhls fuer Tagebau und Internationalen Bergbau am Institut fuer Bergbau der TU Clausthal umfasst die Gebiete Lehre und wissenschaftliche Weiterbildung, Forschung und Entwicklung sowie Wissens- und Technologietransfer. Ueber diese gesetzlich verankerten Aufgaben hinaus nimmt die PR-Arbeit ueber die Notwendigkeit bergmaennischer Gewinnung mineralischer Rohstoffe und der damit einhergehenden Ausbildung von Bergbauingenieuren eine zentrale Stellung ein. Dem Leitgedanken folgend, dass eine gute Ausbildung im ingenieurwissenschaftlichen Bereich eine enge Verbindung zwischen Hochschule und Industrie voraussetzt, werden die Lehrinhalte stets dem Stand der Technik im Bergbau angepasst und die Forschungsschwerpunkte praxisbezogen abgeleitet. Diesem Prozess folgend wurden aktuell Aspekte der

  3. Leaching Behavior and Potential Environmental Effects of Trace Elements in Coal Gangue of an Open-Cast Coal Mine Area, Inner Mongolia, China

    Liu Yang


    Full Text Available In order to better understand the role of coal gangue in potential environmental and ecological risks, the leaching behavior of trace elements from coal gangue has been investigated in an open-cast coal mine, Inner Mongolia, China. Four comparative column leaching experiments were conducted to investigate the impacts of leaching time, pH values and sample amount on the leaching behavior of trace elements. Enrichment factors (EF, maximum leached amount (Lam, maximum leachability (Lrm, effects range low (ERL and effects range median (ERM were employed to evaluate potential environmental and ecological hazards resulting from the leaching behavior of environment-sensitive trace elements from coal gangue. Leaching time and sample amount display important effects on trace element concentrations, leached amounts and leachability. The pH values exhibit a weak influence on the leaching behavior of the selected trace elements (e.g., As, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd, Sn, Pb and Hg. The coal gangue are enriched in As, Co, Se and Pb and, in particular, show higher environmental pollution levels of As and Se (EF > 2. Lam values suggest that all of the elements investigated do not show potential risk to soils and vegetation, but have a high hazard risk for ground water. Elements including Ni, As, Cr and Zn are inclined to show high or moderate biological toxicity.

  4. Soil Reclamation for Agriculture and Forestry after Open-Cast Lignite Mining in Lusatia, Germany: Challenges and Chances


    Mining activities leave raw and partly artificial soils on dumps and tips. A prior objective of land reclamation in such areas is to restore and cultivate new soils which will fulfil their functions as a habitat for plants and animals and as a regulator in the cycling of matter and water in the landscape as well as a production site for agriculture or forestry. This paper gives an overview on major challenges and principles of soil reclamation for agriculture and forestry, reporting some results of research...

  5. 山西某露天铝土矿投资开发思路浅析%The investment and development conception analyses for a open-cast bauxite mine in Shanxi province



    According to a open-cast bauxite mine investment and development practice in Shanxi Province, the risk analysis is carried out from five aspects of investment and development subject, development model, land requisition, size of mining, the mine ecological environment protection, puts forward corresponding measures and suggestions are proposed, so as to provide reference for similar mining investment.%结合山西某露天铝土矿投资开发实际,从投资开发主体、开发模式、土地征用、开采规模、矿山生态环境保护五个方面进行了风险分析,提出了相应的处理措施和建议,为类似矿业投资提供一定的参考。

  6. Revealing the microbial community structure of clogging materials in dewatering wells differing in physico-chemical parameters in an open-cast mining area.

    Wang, Juanjuan; Sickinger, Maren; Ciobota, Valerian; Herrmann, Martina; Rasch, Helfried; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Küsel, Kirsten


    Iron rich deposits cause clogging the pumps and pipes of dewatering wells in open-cast mines, interfering with their function; however, little is known about either the microbial community structure or their potential role in the formation of these deposits. The microbial diversity and abundance of iron-oxidizing and -reducing bacteria were compared in pipe deposit samples with different levels of encrustation from 16 wells at three lignite mining sites. The groundwater varied in pH values from slightly acidic (4.5) to neutral (7.3), Fe(II) concentrations from 0.48 to 7.55 mM, oxygen content from 1.8 to 5.8 mg L(-1), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from 1.43 to 12.59 mg L(-1). There were high numbers of bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies in deposits, up to 2.5 × 10(10) copies g(-1) wet weight. Pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed that Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum (63.3% of the total reads on average), followed by Actinobacteria (10.2%) and Chloroflexi (6.4%). Gallionella-related sequences dominated the bacterial community of pipe deposits and accounted for 48% of total sequence reads. Pipe deposits with amorphous ferrihydrite and schwertmannite mostly contained Gallionella (up to 1.51 × 10(10) 16S rRNA gene copies g(-1) wet weight), while more crystalline deposits showed a higher bacterial diversity. Surprisingly, the abundance of Gallionella was not correlated with groundwater pH, oxygen, or DOC content. Sideroxydans-related 16S rRNA gene copy numbers were one order of magnitude less than Gallionella, followed by acidophilic Ferrovum-related groups. Iron reducing bacteria were detected at rather low abundance, as was expected given the low iron reduction potential, although they could be stimulated by lactate amendment. The overall high abundance of Gallionella suggests that microbes may make major contributions to pipe deposit formation irrespective of the water geochemistry. Their iron oxidation activity might

  7. Changing environment and urban identity following open-cast mining and thermic power plant in Turkey: case of Soma.

    Karadag, Arife


    This paper is a summary of a project changed into a book named by "Changing Environment, City and Identity in Soma with the Geographical Evaluations" issued on May 2005. In this research, Soma, which is one of the most remarkable districts in Manisa in the West Anatolia from the point of economical figures, is assessed with its physical environment potential, improving economical activities and changing socio-economical structure. Owing to the open coal basins in the northeast and southwest of the district where lignite is produced and the impact of the thermic power plant near the city centre, Soma has changed on a large scale. This change has introduced some environmental problems into the district such as the devastation of the forestry land; the infertility of farming land; and soil, water and air pollution. Even though the change under discussion has led to many problems to deal with, it has also influenced its socio-economical structure to a large extent and revealed new type of inhabitants having different life expectations and aims. In conclusion, in this article, changing environment and city structure after lignite processing and thermic station establishment in Soma are discussed through the effective geographical factors. The new city profile formed by the local dynamics in question is evaluated according to the data obtained by the studies made in the neighbourhood.

  8. Mine soils associated with open-cast coal mining in Spain: a review; Suelos mineros asociados a la mineria de carbon a cielo abierto en Espana: una revision

    Arranz-Gonzalez, J. C.


    The different situations that may be found after the closure of coal mines range from the simple abandonment of pits and spoil tips to areas where reclamation work has led to the creation of artificial soils on a reconstituted surface composed of layers of rock and soil or both types of material. Soils of this type are known as mine soils, amongst which those generated by coal mining have been studied most extensively, both to assess their potential for reclamation and to learn more about their pedogenetic evolution. We present here a review of some of the more important works devoted to this subject. We have found evidence to show that in Spain, just as in other countries, the physical and chemical properties of these anthropogenic soils are changing rapidly and so the mine-soil profiles described can be considered as belonging to very young soils still undergoing incipient but rapid development. We have also found that an analysis of information obtained from the soil parameters of surface samples and its interpretation is of great practical use in restoration processes. Nevertheless, the sampling and description of soil profiles has proved to be of much greater interest, allowing us to reach a clearer understanding of the internal processes and properties that are unique to these types of anthropogenic soil. (Author) 64 refs.

  9. Linkage of spreaders an the LWL infrastructure of the control room Garzweiler II in the open-cast mining Garzweiler; Anbindung der Absetzer an die LWL-Infrastruktur des Leitstandes Garzweiler II im Tagebau Garzweiler

    Dueren, Daniel [RWE Power Aktiengesellschaft, Grevenbroich (DE). Tagebau Garzweiler, Infrastruktur Elektrotechnik - Technische Unterstuetzung (PCG-IE-T)


    In the Rhenish mining area nearly 100 million tons of brown coal were produced annually. The conveyors are connected with each other and with the central process control system. The control of the plant is performed by a control room. In light of the retrofitting of the band control center for the open-cast mining Garzweiler a broadband communication network based on OTN (Open Transport Network) was established. The connection of the spreader to the infrastructure of the control room via OTN nodes was performed in the years 2006 to 2010. Six spreaders as well as the associated belt grinding carriages can be connected to the central control of the band control station.

  10. Problems of environmental geotechniques in the utilisation and flooding of Berzdorf open cast mine, Upper Lusitania; Umweltgeotechnische Problemstellung bei der Nutzung und Flutung des Braunkohletagebaues Berzdorf/Oberlausitz

    Griessl, D.; Tynior, R. [G.U.B. Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH Zwickau (Germany); Lucke, B. [LMBV GmbH, Hoyerswerda (Germany)


    Lignite mining and processing are characteristic industries and landscaping factors in the Lusitanian region. Land reclamation measures have been going on for several decades, with good results. This is a very complex task which makes great demands on all parties concerned. Mining geotechnics has an important part here if a harmonious landscape is to be achieved. The complexity of the task is illustrated by the Berzdorf mining lake south of Goerlitz, directly on the Polish border. (orig.)




    Full Text Available Industrialisation plays vital role in the overall development and progress of any region. Along with the development, on the same time, it has the adverse impact on environment such as air pollution, water pollution and many others.Wardha basin of Chandrapur district (M.S has abounded with ample high quality coal minerals. This region has witnessed a lot of changes in land use/land cover (LULC due to exploration of coal minerals and subsequently the adverse impact on environment. This research explains the use of remote sensing (RS, Global positioning system (GPS, and GIS technology for the detection of LULC changes. In this work LULC changes have been detected using remotely sensed images during the period from 1990 to 2010, using Landsat-TM image of year 1990 and Cartosat-I image of year 2010. The above images were rectified and georeferenced using GPS data collected by point positioning mode observations.Ground truthing for the LULC classification accuracy assessment has been done using GPSinstrument. Image analysis operations have been carried out using Erdas Imagine software. Various effects of coal mining activities on the Land use have been highlighted.

  12. Role of glutathione S transferase polymorphism in COPD with special reference to peoples living in the vicinity of the open cast coal mine of Assam.

    Tapan Dey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: COPD may develop due to variation in the functioning of antioxidants along with smoking and environmental factors in genetically susceptible individuals. Since there are different views about the antioxidants responsible for detoxifying xenobiotic compound in the human body whose functional variation may lead to obstructive disease, this associative study has been taken up between GST gene polymorphism and COPD in populations exposed to coal dusts. METHODS: Genotypes of the 70 COPD patients and 85 non COPD patients were determined by PCR based methods followed by multiplex PCR of GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes taking albumin gene as a control. Suspended particulate analyses were determined through the Respirable Dust sampler along with the FTIR analysis of the dust samples from the glass microfiber filters. RESULTS: Dust sampling analysis reveals higher level of respirable suspended particulate matter, non respirable particulate matter, SO2 and NO2 present in air of the study site. FTIR analysis also suggests a higher concentration of organic silicone and aliphatic C-F compounds present in air of the study site and when spirometry was done, low lung function was observed among most of the subjects. GSTM1 null type was significantly associated with low lung function in smoker groups and the presence of at least one active allele (either GSTM1/GSTT1 seemed to have a protective role in the development of COPD. CONCLUSIONS: GSTM1 (null genotype appeared to be a risk factor for lower lung function in smokers living in the vicinity of coal mines. Apart from polluted environment and genetic susceptibility, mixed coal dust exposure rich in organic silicone and aliphatic C-F compounds also appears to be a factor for the low lung function.

  13. Preparation of open-cell metal foams by investment cast


    Metal foams are a new kind of materials with low densities and novel physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical and acoustic properties. They can be divided into closed and open cell structures. In this paper the open cell structures,called sponges, were treated. A new technique to manufacture sponges by plaster investment casting was described.Experimental results show that it is essential to make a sound plaster mould by casting plaster slurry into the polyurethane foams and infiltrate the open channels of the baked plaster mold by molten metal. The optimal processes include plaster slurry preparation, plaster mold baking, and molten metal infiltration. The sponge sample with porosity of 97% is presented.

  14. Preparation of open-cell metal foams by investment cast

    Lucai WANG


    Full Text Available Metal foams are a new kind of materials with low densities and novel physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical and acoustic properties. They can be divided into closed and open cell structures. In this paper the open cell structures, called sponges, were treated. A new technique to manufacture sponges by plaster investment casting was described. Experimental results show that it is essential to make a sound plaster mould by casting plaster slurry into the polyurethane foams and infiltrate the open channels of the baked plaster mold by molten metal. The optimal processes include plaster slurry preparation, plaster mold baking, and molten metal infiltration. The sponge sample with porosity of 97% is presented.


    魏春启; 白润才


    The artificial neural network model which forecasts Open Mining Slope stability is established by neural network theory and method. The nonlinear reflection relation between stability target of open mining slope and its influence factor is described. The method of forecasting Open Mining Slope stability is brought forward.

  16. Open cut mining and environment protection

    Yonifuzi, T.; Inoue, H. [Japan Coal Energy Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    In addition to general rehabilitation technologies for open-cut mines, it seems possible that carbon dioxide absorption might be increased by developing technology for restoring or reinforcing the microbial colonies in the soil and for the rapid growth of highly productive (ie high carbon-fixing) plants. CSIRO and Idemitsu is carrying out research in this with encouraging results. Idemitsu has shown that the fungus VA mycorrhizae (endo-mycorrhizae) may be effective in afforestation with eucalyptus. CSIRO is studying the symbiotic associations formed between ectomycorrhizae and the surface of plant roots, as opposed to the penetration of the plant root as is the case with endomycorrhizae. Such CO{sub 2} fixing technology could make a contribution towards the mitigation of global warming. 21 plates.

  17. Alternative utilization of underground spaces with abandoned mine openings

    Chung, So Keul; Cho, Won Jai; Han, Kong Chang; Choi, Sung Oong [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)


    Utilization of the openings of the abandoned mines could be planned by the principal parameters such as location and geotechnical impact. The local governments have not only to lead the each stage of the utilization project from the very beginning of conceptual design up to the construction stage, but also to promote the project for the development of public purpose. The possible tentative candidates for the utilization of the abandoned mine openings which are supported by the local governments could be summarized as follows. a. The Gahak mine of Kwangmyung, Kyunggi: The mine caverns which have been served as the storage of the pickled fishes, could be reexcavated by taking into consideration the geotechnical parameters for the public use such as: 1) Training center for the youth, 2) Fermentation and storehouse of marine products, 3) Sightseeing resort, 4) Sports and leisure complex, 5) Underground parking lot, 6) Underground shopping mall and chilled room storage, 7) Library, concert hall and museum. b. Hamtae mine of Taebaek, Kangwon: The Hambaek main haulage way and its shaft should be investigated in detail in order to find out a possible use as the underground challenging park of the coal mining operation. c. Mines of Boryung and Hongsung, Chungnam: Lots of mine caverns have been used as the storehouse for the pickled shrimp. However, they have to be promoted to a large scale industries. d. Imgok mine of Kwangju and Palbong mine of Jeongeup, Chunbuk: Mine caverns which have been used as the storehouse of pickles, need a detailed investigation for alternative promotion. e. Yongho mine of Pusan Dalsung mine of Taegu: Both of the mines are located near metropolitan communities. Reconstruction of the old mine caverns of the Yongho mine is highly recommended for a public use. The caverns of the Dalsung mine could be utilized as the storage facilities. Detailed geotechnical survey and sit investigation could be suggested to design the recommended facilities for both

  18. Long term stability analysis of cast iron shaft linings after Coal Mine closure and flooding

    Hadj-Hassen, F. [Ecole des Mines de Paris - CGES, 77 - Fontainebleau (France); Bienvenu, Y. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, CM, 91 - Evry (France); Noirel, J.F. [Charbonnages de France, DTN, 57 - Freyming Merlebach (France); Metz, M. [charbonnages de France, ESA, 57 - Freyming Merlebach (France)


    This paper presents the results of a study conducted to analyse the long term stability of the cast iron shaft lining after coal mine closure and flooding. The attention is mainly focused on the behaviour during the critical phase of flooding as well as the phase corresponding to the disappearance of the water pressure and the stabilization of the environment. This pluri-disciplinary study was conducted by a team combining specialists in rock mechanics who identified the main risks and the conditions of stability of the lining and specialists in metallurgy who studied the composition of the cast iron and its corrosion behaviour after exposure to mine water. (authors)

  19. Mathematical Optimization Models and Methods for Open-Pit Mining

    Amankwah, Henry


    Open-pit mining is an operation in which blocks from the ground are dug to extract the ore contained in them, and in this process a deeper and deeper pit is formed until the mining operation ends. Mining is often a highly complex industrial operation, with respect to both technological and planning aspects. The latter may involve decisions about which ore to mine and in which order. Furthermore, mining operations are typically capital intensive and long-term, and subject to uncertainties rega...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix - Alternative Organic HAP Emissions Limits for Open Molding, Centrifugal Casting, and SMC...


    ... Limits for Open Molding, Centrifugal Casting, and SMC Manufacturing Operations Where the Standards Are..., Table 5 Alternative Organic HAP Emissions Limits for Open Molding, Centrifugal Casting, and SMC... casting—CR/HS 3,4 A vent system that moves heated air through the mold 27 lb/ton. 8. Centrifugal...

  1. 40 CFR 63.5810 - What are my options for meeting the standards for open molding and centrifugal casting operations...


    ... standards for open molding and centrifugal casting operations at new and existing sources? 63.5810 Section... § 63.5810 What are my options for meeting the standards for open molding and centrifugal casting... (d) of this section to meet the standards for open molding or centrifugal casting operations in...

  2. A Novel Open Service Framework Mining (OSFM for Executing Data Mining tasks

    Asif Ali


    Full Text Available Data mining services on grids is the need of today’s era. Workflow environments are widely used in data mining systems to manage data and execution flows associated to complex applications. Weka, one of the most used open-source data mining systems, includes the Knowledge-Flow environment which provides a drag-and-drop inter-face to compose and execute data mining workflows. It allows users to execute a whole workflow only on a single compute on the basis of simplicity. There are several workflows in today’s scene. Most data mining workflows include several independent branches that could be run in parallel on a set of distributed machines to reduce the overall execution time. In this paper we proposed a novel Open Service Framework Mining (OSFM for executing data mining tasks. Our algorithm contains five phases 1 Authentication 2 Reading Database3 Define the minimum support 4 Subset Find 5 Prune phase. Finally our algorithm shows better performance showing the simulation result.

  3. Development and Application of Blast Casting Technique in Large-Scale Surface Mines: A Case Study of Heidaigou Surface Coal Mine in China

    Li Ma


    Full Text Available Blast casting is a high-efficiency technique applied in surface mines for overburden removal and results in stripping cost savings. According to ballistic theory and center-of-mass frame basic movement principles, key factors influencing blast casting effect were analyzed, which include bench height and mining panel width, inclined angle of blast holes, explosive unit consumption (EUC, delay-time interval, presplitting, and blast hole pattern parameters. An intelligent design software was developed for obtaining better breaking and casting effect, and the error rates predicted with actual result can be controlled with 10%. Blast casting technique was successfully applied in Heidaigou Surface Coal Mine (HSCM with more than 34% of material casted into the inner dump. A ramp ditch was set within the middle inner dump for coal transportation. The procedure of stripping and excavating was implemented separately and alternately in the two sections around the middle ramp ditch. An unconstrained-nonlinear model was deduced for optimizing the shift distance of the middle ramp. The calculation results show that optimum shift distance of HSCM is 480 m, and the middle ditch should be shifted after 6 blast casting mining panels being stripped.

  4. 30 CFR 57.22105 - Smoking and open flames (IV mines).


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking and open flames (IV mines). 57.22105... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22105 Smoking and open flames (IV mines). Smoking or open flames shall not be permitted in a face or raise, or during release...

  5. Mudstone depressurization behaviour in an open pit coal mine, Indonesia

    Marchand, G.; Waterhouse, J. [Golder Associates, West Perth, WA (Australia); Crisostomo, J. [PT Adaro Indonesia, Jakarta (Indonesia)


    Mining activities in the Tutupan mine in Indonesia began in the mid-1990s. The open pit mine's coal seams are interbedded with fine-grained sandstones, mudstones, and carbonaceous mudstones. Slope stability analyses at the pit have integrated hydrogeology with geotechnical engineering analyses to optimize slope designs and reduce the risk of slope failure. This paper discussed the impact of mining and dewatering on mudstone depressurization. Sensors were placed at key points in the mine to obtain data related to the mudstone units. Reductions in pore pressure occurred as a result of groundwater flow away from the observed zones, increases in porosity, and increases in total porosity caused by an expansion of the rock mass as a result of drainage and hydrostatic unloading. Mudstone pore pressure trends with time were interpreted by determining the thickness of the mudstone unit, the presence or absence of known thin sandstone beds, unloading from overhead mining activities, and the position of the mudstone within the sedimentary sequence. The study showed that unloading activities have a significant impact on pore pressure in thick mudstone units, regardless of the depth, thickness, or properties of the unit. Pore pressure within high wall mudstone units typically decreased to values equivalent to the elevation of the unit where it was exposed to dips in a high wall. The dewatering of sandstone units in low walls caused a decline in pore pressure within the thick mudstone units located beneath the sandstones. Differences in primary permeabilities were attributed to greater fracturing in deeper and stronger rock units. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Predictive Index for slope instabilities in open pit mining

    Ortega, J H; Lecaros, R; Medel, F; Padilla, F; García, A


    In this paper we study the stability and deformation of structures, in particular the wall of an open pit mine is studied by using information obtained from a variety of remote sensors and some extra data, with a novelty approach considering the use of mathematical models and data mining techniques. In particular we present two models to help the study the slope stability of pit and the possible occurrence of movements. Primarily we present an static model for slow movements, which will help us identify areas of possible risks areas with time horizons of several months or years, depends on the available information, before the wall start moving, and secondly a dynamic short-term model, which help us to determine risks of collapse zones with several days in advance. We remark that this methodology can be a powerful tool to plain future actions in order to simulate possible scenarios considering the production plans.

  7. 30 CFR 57.22104 - Open flames (I-C mines).


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open flames (I-C mines). 57.22104 Section 57.22104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... mine opening is covered. The cover shall be a substantial material, such as metal or wood, topped...

  8. Cut slope reinforcement technique in open-pit mines

    Yongtao Gao; Jianbo Sun; Shunchuan Wu; Aibing Jin


    The design and practice in supporting the cut slope of an open-pit mine were introduced, in which the high pressure grouting method was used in reinforcing the weak formation in the slopes. Based on a detailed geological survey of the slope, a theoretical analysis was carried out, and the design parameters were proposed, where the Tresca or Mohr-Coulomb yield criteria was employed. A patent technology, named "Technology of high pressure and multiple grouting in different levels within a single hole", was employed in the construction. Anchor bars were also installed as grouting proceeds. This method combines anchoring and grouting comprehensively and was found successful in practice.

  9. Mesostructural Design and Manufacturing of Open-Pore Metal Foams by Investment Casting

    Alexander Martin Matz


    Full Text Available The present paper describes the manufacturing process of open-pore metal foams by investment casting and the mesostructural/morphological evolution resulting from a new technique of modifying the precursor. By this technique, the precursor is coated with a polymer layer whereby a thickening of the struts occurs. Relative densities in the range of 1.85≤ρrel≤25% of open-pore metal foams can be achieved with high accuracy. The samples investigated have pore densities of ρP=7 ppi, 10 ppi, and 13 ppi. The relevant processing parameters needed for a homogenous formation of the polymer layer are determined for two different coating materials and the resulting open-pore foam’s mesostructure is characterized qualitatively and quantitatively. The alloy used for investment casting open-pore metal foamsis AlZn11. The microstructural evolution of these foams is evaluated as a function of the mesostructure. Differences in the microstructure are observed for foams with low and high relative densities and discussed in terms of cooling subsequent to investment casting.

  10. Radon release and dispersion from an open pit uranium mine

    Kisieleski, W.E.


    Radon-222 flux from representative sections of the United Nuclear St. Anthony open-pit mine complex was measured. The collected radon was adsorbed on activated charcoal and the radon activity was measured by gamma spectroscopy. System design, calibration, and the procedure to determine radon flux density (pCi/m/sup 2/.s) are described. A continuous series of radon flux densities were measured over a 5-month period at a control point in the mine. The average flux density at the control point was 1.9 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. A close correlation between radon flux density variations and changes in barometric pressure was observed by a comparison of meteorological data and average daily radon flux density measured at the control point. The release rate from each section of the mine was calculated from the average radon flux density and the area of the section, as determined from enlarged aerial photographs. The average radon flux density for eight locations over the ore-bearing section was 7.3 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average flux density for four locations over undisturbed topsoil was 0.17 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average Ra-226 content of ten samples taken from the ore-bearing region was 102 pCi/g ore. The ratio of radon flux density to radium content (specific flux) was 0.072. The release rate from the entire St. Anthony open pit was determined to be 3.5 x 10/sup 5/ pCi/s. This rate is comparable to the natural release of radon from one square mile of undisturbed topsoil. 16 refs., 31 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Land reclamation in the refuse dump of open coal mines and its following ecology principle

    FAN Jun-fu; WANG Xiu-lan


    Through the research on the model of the land reclamation in the refuse dump of Heidaigou open coal mines, it was concerned that ecology was the theoretical basic for the land reclamation of open coal mines. According to the principle of ecological substituting, the land reclamation can be divided into three stages: water and soil conservation,ecological performance and economic performance. Taking the land reclamation in the refuse dump of Heidaigou open coal mines as the practical example, explained the application of the ecological substituting principle on the land reclamation in the open coal mines.

  12. Using Open Web APIs in Teaching Web Mining

    Chen, Hsinchun; Li, Xin; Chau, M.; Ho, Yi-Jen; Tseng, Chunju


    With the advent of the World Wide Web, many business applications that utilize data mining and text mining techniques to extract useful business information on the Web have evolved from Web searching to Web mining. It is important for students to acquire knowledge and hands-on experience in Web mining during their education in information systems…

  13. Preparation of big size open-cell aluminum foam board using infiltration casting

    Wang Lucai; Chen Yuyong; Wang Fang; Wu Jianguo; You Xiaohong


    This paper presents an infiltration casting technique for manufacturing big size open-cell aluminum foam boards. The principle and key technologies of infiltration casting are also analyzed. Based on the previous practice of the small size aluminum foam production, the die for preparing big size aluminum foam boards is designed and manufactured. The experiments on aluminum boards of 300 mm×300 mm×(20-75) mm, with the pore size ranging from 1.0 to 3.2 mm and average porosity of 60%, have been performed. The experimental results show that a reliable infiltration process depends critically on the pouring temperature of the molten AI-alloy, the preheated temperature of the mould and salt particles and vacuum. Current research explores the possibility of large-scale manufacturing and application of the aluminum foams.

  14. Calculation of slope-cover height under price fluctuation in open-pit mines

    Ma Jinyan; Cai Qingxiang; Liu Fuming; Chen Shuzhao


    Leaving ditches between adjacent mining areas can effectively reduce re-stripping in the latter mining area and simultaneously lead to an increment in internal dumping costs in the former mining area. This paper establishes calculation models for these two marginal costs. The optimizing model for slope cover height can be determined by including marginal cost models in the objective function. The paper has two main contributions:(a) it fully considers redistribution of dumping space in the model;(b) it introduces price fluctuations and cash discounts in the model. We use the typical open-pit mine as an example to test and prove the model. We conclude that a completely covered slope is reasonable in Haerwusu open pit mine;in addition to an increasing price index, the slope cover height can be reduced;and that price changes are one of the most important influencing factors of slope cover height optimization in an open-pit mine.

  15. Control of water erosion and sediment in open cut coal mines in tropical areas

    Ueda, T.; Nugraha, C.; Matsui, K.; Shimada, H.; Ichinose, M.; Gottfried, J. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Department of Earth Resources Engineering


    The purpose is to reduce the environmental impacts from open cut mining in tropical areas, such as Indonesia and Vietnam. Research conducted on methods for the control of water erosion and sediment from open cut coal mines is described. Data were collected on climate and weathering in tropical areas, mechanism of water erosion and sedimentation, characteristics of rocks in coal measures under wet conditions, water management at pits and haul roads and ramps, and construction of waste dumps and water management. The results will be applied to the optimum control and management of erosion and sediments in open cut mining. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Influence of the Haizhou Open Pit Coal Mine on the atmospheric flow over Fuxin,China

    CHEN He; YANG Zhi-feng; WANG Xuan


    The influence of the Haizhou Open Pit Mine on the atmospheric flow in nearby Fuxin City in China was analyzed with the aid of the steady-state Navier-Stokes equations. The finite element method was used to obtain numerical solutions to these equations. The results showed that the Haizhou Open Pit Coal Mine contributes to the turbulent flow in the Fuxin City and its surroundings. However, when compared with the climatic effects, the open pit mine has a relatively small impact on the atmospheric flow over Fuxin.

  17. Stability assessment and feature analysis of slope in Nanfen Open Pit Iron Mine

    Yang Jun; Tao Zhigang; Li Baoliang; Gui Yang; Li Haifeng


    Under the combined influences of special topography and the long term mining in Nanfen Open Pit Iron Mine,many large scale landslide masses appeared in heading side of stope,and tens of millions of iron mine is buried underside,making great economic losses.In order to guide the safety mining and increase the supply quantity,this paper through the use of MSARMA-method and the "MSARMA evaluation and analytical system for slope stability analysis" based on this method,which aimed at the quantitative evaluating of the slope stability before and after the actual mining below the slip mass,and the sensitivity analysis for the main influencing factor,providing scientific proof for the parameter optimization of open mine surface slope,the security and sustainable exploitation.

  18. CO{sub 2} in underground openings and mine rescue training

    Weyer, J. [Freiburg Univ. of Mining and Technology (Germany). Inst. of Mining Engineering and Special Civil Engineering


    Mine rescue training procedures related to dangerous gases in mines were discussed. Methods of detecting carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in abandoned opening and old adits were presented. High concentrations of CO{sub 2} combine with hemoglobin and lead to a lack of oxygen supply to the inner organs. Nitric acid forms in the alveoli and can lead to injuries or death after a period of 4 to 12 hours. Exposure to very high concentrations of CO{sub 2} can cause people to immediately lose consciousness. CO{sub 2} concentrations in the blood can change pH blood values. Members of mine rescue teams should be equipped with breathing equipment and be between 18 and 40 years old. Training rescue operations should be conducted 4 times per year. While larger mines have their own rescue teams, smaller mines must ensure that guest rescue teams are familiar with their mines. Various mine training activities were reviewed. 5 refs.

  19. Analysis of the Potential for Use of Floating Photovoltaic Systems on Mine Pit Lakes: Case Study at the Ssangyong Open-Pit Limestone Mine in Korea

    Jinyoung Song; Yosoon Choi


    Recently, the mining industry has introduced renewable energy technologies to resolve power supply problems at mines operating in polar regions or other remote areas, and to foster substitute industries, able to benefit from abandoned sites of exhausted mines. However, little attention has been paid to the potential placement of floating photovoltaic (PV) systems operated on mine pit lakes because it was assumed that the topographic characteristics of open-pit mines are unsuitable for install...

  20. GPS based checking survey and precise DEM development in Open mine

    XU Ai-gong


    The checking survey in Open mine is one of the most frequent and important work. It plays the role of forming a connecting link between open mine planning and production. Traditional checking method has such disadvantages as long time consumption,heavy workload, complicated calculating process, and lower automation. Used GPS and GIS technologies to systematically study the core issues of checking survey in open mine.A detail GPS data acquisition coding scheme was presented. Based on the scheme an algorithm used for computer semiautomatic cartography was made. Three methods used for eliminating gross errors from raw data which were needed for creating DEM was discussed. Two algorithms were researched and realized which can be used to create open mine fine DEM model with constrained conditions and to dynamically update the model.The precision analysis and evaluation of the created model were carried out.

  1. Risk management of the mining authority of North Rhine-Westphalia for left daily openings of the mining; Risikomanagement der Bergbehoerde NRW fuer verlassene Tagesoeffnungen des Bergbaus

    Neumann, Heinz Roland [Bezirksregierung Arnsberg, Dortmund (Germany). Abt. Bergbau und Energie in NRW


    A perpetual danger proceeds from the unsecured daily openings of the mining industry. Many pits only are filled with bulk materials. Regarding to the use of budgetary means at preventive investigation measures and protection measures, the mining industry authority North-Rhine Westphalia operates a risk management for abandoned daily openings for which no mine companies or mine owner are at hand. For this, daily openings are classified and evaluated according to certain factors. From this, a list of priority results for preventive investigation measures and safety measurements being processed by the mining industry authority in the next years.

  2. Hyperspectral analysis for qualitative and quantitative features related to acid mine drainage at a remediated open-pit mine

    Davies, G.; Calvin, W. M.


    The exposure of pyrite to oxygen and water in mine waste environments is known to generate acidity and the accumulation of secondary iron minerals. Sulfates and secondary iron minerals associated with acid mine drainage (AMD) exhibit diverse spectral properties in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The use of hyperspectral imagery for identification of AMD mineralogy and contamination has been well studied. Fewer studies have examined the impacts of hydrologic variations on mapping AMD or the unique spectral signatures of mine waters. Open-pit mine lakes are an additional environmental hazard which have not been widely studied using imaging spectroscopy. A better understanding of AMD variation related to climate fluctuations and the spectral signatures of contaminated surface waters will aid future assessments of environmental contamination. This study examined the ability of multi-season airborne hyperspectral data to identify the geochemical evolution of substances and contaminant patterns at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site. The mine is located 24 miles southeast of Lake Tahoe and contains remnant tailings piles and several AMD collection ponds. The objectives were to 1) distinguish temporal changes in mineralogy at a the remediated open-pit sulfur mine, 2) identify the absorption features of mine affected waters, and 3) quantitatively link water spectra to known dissolved iron concentrations. Images from NASA's AVIRIS instrument were collected in the spring, summer, and fall seasons for two consecutive years at Leviathan (HyspIRI campaign). Images had a spatial resolution of 15 meters at nadir. Ground-based surveys using the ASD FieldSpecPro spectrometer and laboratory spectral and chemical analysis complemented the remote sensing data. Temporal changes in surface mineralogy were difficult to distinguish. However, seasonal changes in pond water quality were identified. Dissolved ferric iron and chlorophyll

  3. Easy profit maximization method for open-pit mining

    C.Dinis da Gama


    A methodology applicable at any phase of a surface mining project for evaluating its current technical and economic feasibility is presented. It requires the typically available quantitative data on the ore-body, with its three-dimensional block model developed upon accurate interpolations. Thus it allows estimations of exploitable reserves in func-tion of various cut-off grades, such as the average grade of mineable ore, the tonnages of ore and waste rock, stripping ratios and profit estimates for different production levels. If cost evaluations of essential mine operations are available (such as ore mining, waste removal, ore concentration, transportation, indirect project costs and expected concentrate selling prices), the method-ology will provide clear indications on the economic feasibility of mining, including the best available options at any moment. Simple expressions are developed on the basis of a profit mathematical function and an application example is presented with data available from an existing iron ore deposit.

  4. Mission-Critical Mobile Broadband Communications in Open Pit Mines

    Uzeda Garcia, Luis Guilherme; Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Barbosa, Viviane S. B.


    The need for continuous safety improvements and increased operational efficiency is driving the mining industry through a transition towards automated operations. From a communications perspective, this transition introduces a new set of high-bandwidth business- and mission-critical applications...

  5. Ecological consequences of minestone deposition from open coal mines

    Davcheva-Ilcheva, N.G. (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Institute of Applied Mineralogy)


    Describes the largest Bulgarian coal mining field Maritza-Iztok (240 km[sup 2], 700,000 town population). Natural resources and the ecosystem are described. Petrographical composition of the coal deposit is given. Ecological problems that result from mining activity and methods adopted to solve them are presented. The coalfield provides Bulgaria with 74% of its coal, 30% of its electricity and 100% of its briquets. Coal mining waste from the Maritza-Iztok mine amounts to 79.9% of the country's waste. For waste deposition and other purposes, 160 km[sup 2] of land have been expropriated and another 165 km[sup 2] will be expropriated. About 33 km[sup 2] of damaged areas have been recultivated. Dust and noise emissions are considered. Ecological conditions of the region worsen each year by emission from a power station, chemical enterprises and a cement plant. Recommendations are made on how to solve the ecological problems. 2 refs.

  6. Text mining and visualization case studies using open-source tools

    Chisholm, Andrew


    Text Mining and Visualization: Case Studies Using Open-Source Tools provides an introduction to text mining using some of the most popular and powerful open-source tools: KNIME, RapidMiner, Weka, R, and Python. The contributors-all highly experienced with text mining and open-source software-explain how text data are gathered and processed from a wide variety of sources, including books, server access logs, websites, social media sites, and message boards. Each chapter presents a case study that you can follow as part of a step-by-step, reproducible example. You can also easily apply and extend the techniques to other problems. All the examples are available on a supplementary website. The book shows you how to exploit your text data, offering successful application examples and blueprints for you to tackle your text mining tasks and benefit from open and freely available tools. It gets you up to date on the latest and most powerful tools, the data mining process, and specific text mining activities.

  7. The Production Measurement Model of Open Pit Mine Based on Truck Operation Diagram

    Sun Xiao-Yu; Kong Xiao; Zhang Wei-Guo


    Conventional production measurement of truck dispatching system in open pit mine has not been effectively expressed by a mathematical model, which brings a negative effect on the subsequent data mining and a compatibility issue to apply the production measurement with fixed assignment of truck. In this study, based on the proposed concept that truck is not only the carrier of transport material, but also act as the bridges and linkages between the loading sites and the unloading sites, a new ...

  8. Open-cut coal mining in Australia's Hunter Valley: Sustainability and the industry's economic, ecological and social implications

    Drew Cottle


    Full Text Available This article questions the sustainability of open-cut coal mining in the Hunter Valley region of Australia. The issue of sustainability is examined in relation to the economic, ecological and social implications of the Hunter Valley’s open-cut coal mining industry. The article demonstrates that critical social and ecological ramifications have been overshadowed by the open-cut coal mining industry’s importance to the economy of the Hunter region and of New South Wales.

  9. A statistical study of equipment operating time in an open pit lignite mine

    Xerokostas, D.; Polyzos, P.; Galitis, N.; Michiotis, A.; Dalakas, G. (National Technical University, Athens (Greece). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)


    The production planning of an open pit lignite mine, as of any mining operation in general, is influenced by a series of factors. Of great importance among these factors is the operating time of the equipment used in the production process. In this paper the authors use applied statistical methods (specially comparison tests) to study the net operating time of some excavation branches of the Ptolemais lignite mining district in Greece. Thus, it is hoped that the paper will contribute to estimating and predicting equipment performance in a more accurate way. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Geotechnical Appraisal of the Thar Open Cut\\ud Mining Project

    R. N. SINGH; Pathan, A G; Reddish, D D J; ATKINS, Anthony


    This paper is concerned with a slope stability appraisal of the proposed open cut mining\\ud operations in the Thar lignite field in Sindh, Pakistan. The Thar coalfield covers an area of approximately\\ud 9 000 km2 and is estimated to contain 193 billion tonnes of lignite resources. The design of safe high wall\\ud slopes is necessary to ensure mine safety and overall economical viability of the mining operations. In the\\ud Thar lignite field, the presence of three main aquifers induces pore pre...

  11. Drug discovery applications for KNIME: an open source data mining platform.

    Mazanetz, Michael P; Marmon, Robert J; Reisser, Catherine B T; Morao, Inaki


    Technological advances in high-throughput screening methods, combinatorial chemistry and the design of virtual libraries have evolved in the pursuit of challenging drug targets. Over the last two decades a vast amount of data has been generated within these fields and as a consequence data mining methods have been developed to extract key pieces of information from these large data pools. Much of this data is now available in the public domain. This has been helpful in the arena of drug discovery for both academic groups and for small to medium sized enterprises which previously would not have had access to such data resources. Commercial data mining software is sometimes prohibitively expensive and the alternate open source data mining software is gaining momentum in both academia and in industrial applications as the costs of research and development continue to rise. KNIME, the Konstanz Information Miner, has emerged as a leader in open source data mining tools. KNIME provides an integrated solution for the data mining requirements across the drug discovery pipeline through a visual assembly of data workflows drawing from an extensive repository of tools. This review will examine KNIME as an open source data mining tool and its applications in drug discovery.

  12. Fatigue crack growth in austempered ductile and grey cast irons - stress ratio effects in air and mine water

    James, M.N. [Plymouth Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mech. and Marine Eng.; Li Wenfong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)


    A study is presented of the effect of stress ratio on fatigue crack growth in grey (GI) and austempered ductile (ADI) cast irons in laboratory air and, for the ADI, in synthetic mine water. Fatigue crack closure was measured by compliance techniques and factored out of the applied {Delta}K values ({Delta}K=K{sub max}-K{sub min}) to give effective stress intensity values. Crack growth rate modelling was then attempted for the laboratory air data using a two-parameter approach ({Delta}K and K{sub max}). This worked well for the ADI, but not for the GI, probably due to the much larger scatter inherent in the fatigue crack growth rates in the latter alloy. Trends in the observed growth rate and closure data for the two alloys are explained in terms of mechanism changes arising from microstructural/crack tip plastic zone interactions, and K{sub max} effects. (orig.) 9 refs.

  13. Research on surveying technology applied for DTM modelling and volume computation in open pit mines

    Jaroslaw Wajs


    Full Text Available The spatial information systems of mining company can be used for monitoring of mining activity, excavation planning, calculations of the ore volume and decision making. Nowadays, data base has to be updated by sources such as surveying positioning technologies and remote sensed photogrammetry data. The presented paper contains review of the methodology for the digital terrain model, i.e. DTM, modelling and obtaining data from surveying technologies in an open pit mine or quarry. This paper reviews the application of GPS, total station measurements, and ground photogrammetry for the volume accuracy assessment of a selected object. The testing field was situated in Belchatow lignite open pit mine. A suitable object had been selected. The testing layer of coal seam was located at 8’th pit sidewall excavation area. The data were acquired two times within one month period and it was connected with monthly DTM actualization of excavation. This paper presents the technological process and the results of the research of using digital photogrammetry for opencast mining purposes in the scope of numerical volume computation and monitoring the mines by comparison of different sources. The results shows that the presented workflow allow to build DTM manually and remote sensed and the accuracy assessment was presented by the volume computation pathway. Major advantages of the techniques are presented illustrating how a terrestrial photogrammetry techniques provide rapid spatial measurements of breaklines 3D data utilized to volume calculation.

  14. Open-pit mining of lignite in Czechoslovakia

    Hojdar, J.


    The complicated nature of the overburden in Czechoslovakian surface mines poses considerable difficulties to the construction of dumps and the stability of overburden slopes. Operations are further hindered by the extent of the investments required to sufficiently address these problems, and to access the lignite reserves. An example of this arose when it was discovered that the town of Most was situated above a huge deposit of coal. As a result, the entire town had to be demolished, and subsequently rebuilt a few kilometers away, in order to provide access to the 90 Mt of high quality lignite with a low stripping ratio (less than 1 m/sup 3//t). A particularly large expenditure was required to relocate a precious historical monument, a 12,000 t medieval gothic church, to a site 850 m from its original location, without dismantling the building.

  15. Solid-particle erosion behavior of cast alloys used in the mining industry

    Atapek, Ş. Hakan; Fidan, Sinan


    The erosive-wear response of five commercial ferrous-based cast alloys used for crushing was examined in this study. The microstructures of the alloys were modified to elucidate the effect of microstructural features on wear. Erosion tests were conducted using aluminum oxide particles (90-125 μm) at 70 m/s and a normal impact angle (90°). The worn surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and 3D non-contact laser profilometry. It is found that (i) a pearlitic structure exhibiting a greater plastic deformation than both bainitic and martensitic structures shows the greatest resistance to erosive wear at normal impact and (ii) the fracture characteristics of carbide and graphite particles plays an important role in determining the erosion wear behavior of the cast alloy matrices.

  16. Solid-particle erosion behavior of cast alloys used in the mining industry

    Hakan Atapek; Sinan Fidan


    The erosive-wear response of five commercial ferrous-based cast alloys used for crushing was examined in this study. The micro-structures of the alloys were modified to elucidate the effect of microstructural features on wear. Erosion tests were conducted using alumi-num oxide particles (90–125 µm) at 70 m/s and a normal impact angle (90°). The worn surfaces were characterized by scanning electron mi-croscopy and 3D non-contact laser profilometry. It is found that (i) a pearlitic structure exhibiting a greater plastic deformation than both bainitic and martensitic structures shows the greatest resistance to erosive wear at normal impact and (ii) the fracture characteristics of car-bide and graphite particles plays an important role in determining the erosion wear behavior of the cast alloy matrices.

  17. Contributions to the workshop `Residual ponds from open pit brown coal mining`; Beitraege zum Workshop ``Braunkohlebergbaurestseen``



    The contributions to the workshop ``Investigations on flooding in residual ponds from open-pit mining`` deal, inter alia, with the hydrochemical development of flushing waters, the stability of the water quality of residual lakes, especially under the impact of land contamination, the influence of brine receipts by flushed residual lakes, and with the microbiological ecology of residual lakes from mining. Furthermore, geophysical studies for demonstrating paths of flow and for calculating the depth and volume of residual lakes from open-pit mining are discussed. (MSK) [Deutsch] Die Beitraege zu dem Workshop `Untersuchungen zu Flutungen in Tagebaurestseen` befassen sich unter anderem mit der hydrochemischen Entwicklung von Flutungsgewaessern, mit der Qualitaetsstabilitaet von Restseewaessern - insbesonders bei Einwirkung von Altlasten - und mit den Einfluessen von Solezufluessen bei Restseeflutung sowie mit Untersuchungen zur mikrobiologischen Oekologie in Bergbaurestseen. Desweiteren werden geophysikalische Untersuchungen zum Nachweis von Fliesswegen und die Tiefen- und Volumenberechnung eines Tagebaurestlochsees erlaeutert. (MSK)

  18. An imperialist competitive algorithm for solving the production scheduling problem in open pit mine

    Mojtaba Mokhtarian Asl


    Full Text Available Production scheduling (planning of an open-pit mine is the procedure during which the rock blocks are assigned to different production periods in a way that the highest net present value of the project achieved subject to operational constraints. The paper introduces a new and computationally less expensive meta-heuristic technique known as imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA for long-term production planning of open pit mines. The proposed algorithm modifies the original rules of the assimilation process. The ICA performance for different levels of the control factors has been studied and the results are presented. The result showed that ICA could be efficiently applied on mine production planning problem.

  19. Charging for the waste dumping of open-pit metal mines

    Yunbing Hou; Zhaoxiang Zhang; Haifeng Duan; Liming Xue


    Based on the externality theory and the environmental value theory, the hypothesis of charging for waste dumping of open-pit metal mines was put forth. The charging methods were designed according to the characteristics of waste dumping of openpit metal mines, including charging based on the dumping amount of the total waste, multi-charging factors, exceeding standard punishment charging, and so on. The main charging parameter is based on the dumping area rather than the total amount of waste dumping.The charging model of waste dumping of open-pit mines was formulated, and the charging rate was divided into two parts, i.e., the standard charging rate and the differential charging rate. The standard charging rate was derived using the equilibrium dynamic model,whereas the differential one was obtained by establishing the fuzzy synthesized evaluation model.

  20. Prediction of blast boulders in open pit mines via multiple regression and artificial neural networks

    Ghiasi Majid; Askarnejad Nematollah; Dindarloo Saeid R.; Shamsoddini Hamed


    The most important objective of blasting in open pit mines is rock fragmentation. Prediction of produced boulders (oversized crushed rocks) is a key parameter in designing blast patterns. In this study, the amount of boulder produced in blasting operations of Golegohar iron ore open pit mine, Iran was pre-dicted via multiple regression method and artificial neural networks. Results of 33 blasts in the mine were collected for modeling. Input variables were: joints spacing, density and uniaxial compressive strength of the intact rock, burden, spacing, stemming, bench height to burden ratio, and specific charge. The dependent variable was ratio of boulder volume to pattern volume. Both techniques were successful in predicting the ratio. In this study, the multiple regression method was superior with coefficient of determination and root mean squared error values of 0.89 and 0.19, respectively.

  1. Numerical modeling of open pit (OP to underground (UG transition in coal mining

    Nguyen Phu Minh Vuong


    Full Text Available The primary objective of the present paper is an attempt at evaluating the influence of sub-level caving operations on the slope stability of a still-functioning open pit coal mine in Vietnam. Initially, various methods of predicting the impact of underground mining on surface stability are discussed. Those theoretical considerations were later utilized in the process of constructing a Flac-2D-software-based numerical model for calculating the influence of underground operation on the deformation and possible loss of stability of an open pit slope. The numerical analysis proved that the values of open pit slope displacements were affected mainly by underground exploitation depth, direction of operation (i.e., from one slope to the other and the distance from the slope plane. Real geomechanical strata parameters from the Vietnamese coal basin of Cam Pha were used in the modeling process. The paper is, therefore, a critical review of the hitherto proposed methods of predicting the impact of underground operation (UG on open pit mining (OP, illustrated with selected examples of case studies on OP-UG interaction, followed by an original experiment based on numerical modeling method. This is first such study for the genuine conditions of the coal mining in Vietnam. The obtained results, however, should not be generalized due to a highly specific character of the analyzed phenomenon of mining-induced surface deformation. The practical implications of the study may occur extremely useful in the case of an UG-OP transition. Such a transition is often necessary for both technical and economical reasons, as in some coal basins open pit operations at greater depths occur unfeasible, which calls for a proper selection of parameters for a planned underground operation.

  2. 信息动态%Origin of delamination/adhesion in co-casting and the open structure


    PEI and PSf polymer solutions were used for co-casting. Mechanisms for delamination/adhesion were investigated. It was found that the contribution of the coagulation values of membrane solutions is insignificant to the adhesion of two layers. Instead, membrane shrinkage appears to play a significant role because composite membranes were obtained by minimising their shrinkage difference at the thickness direction by the increase of the coagulant temperature. In addition, the PVP in PSf solution also improves the adhesion between PEI and PSf layer. The open structure formation mechanism of PSf membrane was ascribed to a solvent enriched environment caused by the presence of PEI coating layer, which was confirmed by addition of a large amount of solvent into water coagulant. Finally, the concave defects formation on PSf surface was proposed as the impact of the growth of finger-like macrovoids in PEI layer. The results provides a solid theoretical basis for the expanding the application of co-casting technique.

  3. Characteristics of an open-cut coal mine fire pollution event

    Reisen, Fabienne; Gillett, Rob; Choi, Jason; Fisher, Gavin; Torre, Paul


    On 9 February 2014, embers from a nearby grass/shrub fire spotted into an unused part of the Hazelwood open-cut brown coal mine located in the Latrobe Valley of Victoria, Australia and started a fire that spread rapidly and extensively throughout the mine under strong south-westerly winds and burned over a period of 45 days. The close proximity of the town to the coal mine and the low buoyancy of the smoke plume led to the accumulation of dense smoke levels in the township of Morwell (population of 14,000) particularly under south-westerly winds. A maximum daily PM2.5 concentration of 731 μg m-3 and 8-h CO concentration of 33 ppm were measured at Morwell South, the closest residential area located approximately 500 m from the mine. These concentrations were significantly higher than national air quality standards. Air quality monitoring undertaken in the Latrobe Valley showed that smoke from the Hazelwood mine fire affected a wide area, with particle air quality standards also exceeded in Traralgon (population of 25,000) located approximately 13 km from the mine. Pollutant levels were significantly elevated in February, decreased in March once the fire abated and then returned to background levels once the fire was declared safe at the end of March. While the smoke extent was of a similar order of magnitude to other major air pollution events worldwide, a closer look at emissions ratios showed that the open combustion of lignite brown coal in the Hazelwood mine was different to open combustion of biomass, including peat. It suggested that the dominant combustion process was char combustion. While particle and carbon monoxide monitoring started approximately 4 days after the fire commenced when smoke levels were very high, targeted monitoring of air toxics only began on 26 February (17 days after the fire) when smoke levels had subsided. Limited research on emission factors from open-cut coal mine fires make it difficult to assess the likely concentrations of air

  4. Genotoxic effects in wild rodents (Rattus rattus and Mus musculus) in an open coal mining area.

    León, Grethel; Pérez, Lyda Espitia; Linares, Juan Carlos; Hartmann, Andreas; Quintana, Milton


    Coal is a mixture of a variety of compounds containing mutagenic and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Exposure to coal is considered as an important non-cellular and cellular source of reactive oxygen species that can induce DNA damage. In addition, spontaneous combustion can occur in coal mining areas, further releasing compounds with detrimental effects on the environment. In this study the comet assay was used to investigate potential genotoxic effects of coal mining activities in peripheral blood cells of the wild rodents Rattus rattus and Mus musculus. The study was conducted in a coal mining area of the Municipio de Puerto Libertador, South West of the Departamento de Cordoba, Colombia. Animals from two areas in the coal mining zone and a control area located in the Municipio de Lorica were investigated. The results showed evidence that exposure to coal results in elevated primary DNA lesions in blood cells of rodents. Three different parameters for DNA damage were assessed, namely, DNA damage index, migration length and percentage damaged cells. All parameters showed statistically significantly higher values in mice and rats from the coal mining area in comparison to the animals from the control area. The parameter "DNA Damage Index" was found to be most sensitive and to best indicate a genotoxic hazard. Both species investigated were shown to be sensitive indicators of environmental genotoxicity caused by coal mining activities. In summary, our study constitutes the first investigation of potential genotoxic effects of open coal mining carried out in Puerto Libertador. The investigations provide a guide for measures to evaluate genotoxic hazards, thereby contributing to the development of appropriate measures and regulations for more careful operations during coal mining.

  5. NO x emissions from blasting operations in open-cut coal mining

    Attalla, Moetaz I.; Day, Stuart J.; Lange, Tony; Lilley, William; Morgan, Scott

    The Australian coal mining industry, as with other industries is coming under greater constraints with respect to their environmental impacts. Emissions of acid gases such as NO x and SO x to the atmosphere have been regulated for many years because of their adverse health effects. Although NO x from blasting in open-cut coal mining may represent only a very small proportion of mining operations' total NO x emissions, the rapid release and high concentration associated with such activities may pose a health risk. This paper presents the results of a new approach to measure these gas emissions by scanning the resulting plume from an open-cut mine blast with a miniaturised ultraviolet spectrometer. The work presented here was undertaken in the Hunter Valley, New South Wales, Australia during 2006. Overall this technique was found to be simpler, safer and more successful than other approaches that in the past have proved to be ineffective in monitoring these short lived plumes. The average emission flux of NO x from the blasts studied was about 0.9 kt t -1 of explosive. Numerical modelling indicated that NO x concentrations resulting from the blast would be indistinguishable from background levels at distances greater than about 5 km from the source.

  6. Slope orientation assessment for open-pit mines, using GIS-based algorithms

    Grenon, Martin; Laflamme, Amélie-Julie


    Standard stability analysis in geomechanical rock slope engineering for open-pit mines relies on a simplified representation of slope geometry, which does not take full advantage of available topographical data in the early design stages of a mining project; consequently, this may lead to nonoptimal slope design. The primary objective of this paper is to present a methodology that allows for the rigorous determination of interramp and bench face slope orientations on a digital elevation model (DEM) of a designed open pit. Common GIS slope algorithms were tested to assess slope orientations on the DEM of the Meadowbank mining project's Portage pit. Planar regression algorithms based on principal component analysis provided the best results at both the interramp and the bench face levels. The optimal sampling window for interramp was 21×21 cells, while a 9×9-cell window was best at the bench level. Subsequent slope stability analysis relying on those assessed slope orientations would provide a more realistic geometry for potential slope instabilities in the design pit. The presented methodology is flexible, and can be adapted depending on a given mine's block sizes and pit geometry.

  7. Optimization of transport passage with dragline system in thick overburden open pit mine

    Zhang Weishi; Cai Qingxiang; Chen Shuzhao


    According to the characteristics of opencast coal resources and dragline technology system application in China, the structure and shifting step of transport passage are optimized in this paper. Typical coal trans-port passage is analyzed in aspects such as the internal dump occupation, dragline operation efficiency, coal transport distance, upper stripping distance and shifting quantities. The middle passage should be given priority in thick overburden open pit mine because the dragline system is only responsible for part stripping task. According to characteristics of middle passage, the transport passage is divided into par-allel climbing, vertical climbing and horizontal transport. In addition, the transport passage structure optimization model and shifting distance optimization model are established in this paper. The case study in Heidaigou open pit mine shows that, the parallel climbing height is accounted for about 60%of the total height, and reasonable shifting distances of the first mining area and the second mining area are 240 and 320 m. Sensitivity analysis shows that, the total passage height has important influence on the shifting step, so it is with the stripping height and passage construction cost to the passage structure.

  8. Zonal extraction technology and numerical simulation analysis in open pit coal mine

    Chen Yanlong; Cai Qingxiang; Shang Tao; Peng Hongge; Zhou Wei; Chen Shuzhao


    In order to enhance coal recovery ratio of open pit coal mines,a new extraction method called zonal mining system for residual coal around the end-walls is presented.The mining system can improve economic benefits by exploiting haulage and ventilation roadways from the exposed position of coal seams by utilizing the existing transportation systems.Moreover,the main mining parameters have also been discussed.The outcome shows that the load on coal seam roof is about 0.307 MPa and the drop step of the coal seam roof about 20.3 m when the thickness of cover and average volume weight are about 120 m and 0.023 MN/m3 respectively.With the increase of mining height and width,the coal recovery ratio can be improved.However,when recovery ratio is more than 0.85,the average stress on the coal pillar will increase tempestuously,so the recovery ratio should also be controlled to make the coal seam roof safe.Based on the numerical simulation results,it is concluded that the ratio of coal pillar width to height should be more than 1.0 to make sure the coal pillars are steady,and there are only minor displacements on the end-walls.

  9. Optimization model of truck flow at open-pit mines and standards for feasibility test

    Ying Zhang; Yong Zhao; Qiwei Lu; Wenli Xu


    In order to increase production efficiency at open-pit mines, on the basis of linear programming, a practical mathematical model for optimizing truck flow was developed, which improved the traditional fixed manual schedule method. The model has advantages from linear programming and objective programming, makes most handling points working at full capacity and keeps an optimized ratio between trucks and excavators. For ensuring feasibility of the model in practical production, four standards for feasibility test were proposed. The model satisfied all the standards. The application in a large scale open-pit iron mine indicated that the model reduced the number of required trucks by 10% compared with the fixed manual schedule method.

  10. Erosive Wear Behavior of Nickel-Based High Alloy White Cast Iron Under Mining Conditions Using Orthogonal Array

    Yoganandh, J.; Natarajan, S.; Babu, S. P. Kumaresh


    Nihard Grade-4, a nickel-bearing cast iron widely used in slurry pumps and hydrodynamic components, is evaluated for its erosive wear response under mining conditions using a statistical approach. Experiments were conducted by varying the factors namely velocity, slurry concentration, angle of impingement, and pH in three levels, using L9 orthogonal array. Analysis of variance was used to rank the factors influencing erosive wear. The results indicate that velocity is the most influencing factor followed by the angle of impingement, slurry concentration, and pH. Interaction effects of velocity, slurry concentration, angle of impingement, and pH on erosion rate have been discussed. Wear morphology was also studied using SEM characterization technique. At lower angle (30°) of impingement, the erosion of material is by micro fracture and shallow ploughing with the plastic deformation of the ductile austenitic matrix. At the normal angle (90°) of impingement, the material loss from the surface is found because of deep indentation, forming protruded lips which are removed by means of repeated impact of the erodent.

  11. Cluo: Web-Scale Text Mining System For Open Source Intelligence Purposes

    Przemyslaw Maciolek


    Full Text Available The amount of textual information published on the Internet is considered tobe in billions of web pages, blog posts, comments, social media updates andothers. Analyzing such quantities of data requires high level of distribution –both data and computing. This is especially true in case of complex algorithms,often used in text mining tasks.The paper presents a prototype implementation of CLUO – an Open SourceIntelligence (OSINT system, which extracts and analyzes significant quantitiesof openly available information.

  12. Spatio-temporal dynamics of the penetration resistance of recultivated soils formed after open cast mining

    A. V. Zhukov


    Full Text Available On the basis of studying the spatio-temporal dynamics of soil penetration resistance we proved the existence of the technozem ecomorphs as above horizon soil formations. Research was carried out at a research center for study of recultivation processes in Ordzhonikidze city. Measurement of soils penetration was made in field conditions using an Eijkelkamp penetrometer on a regular grid at depths of up to50 cmwith intervals of5 cm. Calculation of average values and degrees of variation was performed by means of descriptive statistical tools. The extent of soil penetration spatial dependence was assessed and the existence of ecomorphs was proved by means of geostatistical analysis. The degree of associativity of spatial distribution of indicators of a soil body in different years of research was established by means of correlation analysis. The level of variation in space and in time of  technozem penetration generated on loess-like loams, grey-green, red-brown clays, and also pedozems was revealed. The degree of spatial dependence of  technozem penetration within soil layers and also the linear sizes of ecomorphs as above horizon soil structures was established. The time dynamics of  penetration of various recultozems were described. As a result of research into the spatio-temporal dynamics of penetration of technozems, data confirming the hypothesis of the existence of ecomorphs as above horizon morphological soil formations were obtained. An ecomorphic approach to the study of the morphological structure of technozems is proposed. The comparative characteristics of ecomorphs from various types of technozem are presented. The results obtained solve the problem of combining the higher and lowest levels in the hierarchical system of soil organisation as a natural body, which should raise the efficiency of the analysis of relations of morphological elements as a basis for detailed reconstruction of recultivation processes, soil formation, and study of their regimes and functions.

  13. Long term monitoring of water basin of an abandoned copper open pit mine

    Nikolov, H.; Borisova, D.


    Nonoperating open pit mines, very often as a matter of fact abandoned, create serious ecological risk for the region of their location especially for the quality of the water since the rainfall fills the bottom of the pit forming water body having different depth. This water as a rule has very high concentration of the metals in it and is highly toxic. One example for such opencast, idle copper mine is Medet located in the central part of Bulgaria who was started for exploitation in 1964 and at that moment being the largest in Europe for production of copper concentrate. In the vicinity of it after autumn and spring rains there are many cases reported for water contamination by heavy metals such as arsenic, copper, cadmium in the rivers running close to this open pit mine. This justifies the need for long term and sustainable monitoring of the area of the water basin of this idle mine in order to estimate its acid drainage and imaging spectroscopy combined with is-situ investigations is proved to provide reliable results about the area of the water table. In the course of this study we have investigated historical data gathered by remote sensing which allowed us to make conclusions about the year behavior of this area. Our expectations are that the results of this research will help in the rehabilitation process of this idle mine and will provide the local authorities engaged in water quality monitoring with a tool to estimate the possible damage caused to the local rivers and springs. With this research we also would like to contribute to the fulfillment of the following EU Directives: Directive 2006/21/°C on the Management of Waste from the Extractive Industries and Directive 2004/35/ °C on Environmental Liability with regard to the Prevention and Remedying of Environmental Damage.

  14. Specific industrial medicine in lignite mining

    Zerlett, G.; Toussaint, R.; Hilfert, R.; Koehne, G.


    Lignite is almost exclusively mined open-cast in West Germany. Mining is carried out at present in deep open-cast mines (with depths up to 400 m) using modern mining conveyer techniques with large-scale equipment (rotary bucket excavators and thickeners) conveyer belt and railway links as well as earth-moving equipment (accessory equipment). Specific occupational diseases are not known in lignite mining. Occupational diseases in the sense of degenerative processes of the lumbar spine and avulsion fractures of spinous processes of the lower cervical spine in drivers of earth-moving equipment as a result of whole-body vibration stress have been observed. In the context of occupational disease and industrial accident prevention, close collaboration and a division of labor between industrial physicians and safety engineers of ergonomics specialists have proved to be very efficient. Industrial medical preventive examinations based on statutory regulations and the lignite mining ordinance have a long tradition and are given a great deal of space. First aid at work is organized in a largely decentralized manner owing to the extensiveness of the mining area. The industrial medical care of the employees takes place on site in the various sections (open-cast mining, workshops, brickett factories, processing units etc.). The entire medical technical diagnostics is carried out centrally in an industrial medical center.

  15. Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents.

    Bendell, L I


    Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of "pulse" toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a "snap-shot" of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity.

  16. Analysis of the Potential for Use of Floating Photovoltaic Systems on Mine Pit Lakes: Case Study at the Ssangyong Open-Pit Limestone Mine in Korea

    Jinyoung Song


    Full Text Available Recently, the mining industry has introduced renewable energy technologies to resolve power supply problems at mines operating in polar regions or other remote areas, and to foster substitute industries, able to benefit from abandoned sites of exhausted mines. However, little attention has been paid to the potential placement of floating photovoltaic (PV systems operated on mine pit lakes because it was assumed that the topographic characteristics of open-pit mines are unsuitable for installing any type of PV systems. This study analyzed the potential of floating PV systems on a mine pit lake in Korea to break this misconception. Using a fish-eye lens camera and digital elevation models, a shading analysis was performed to identify the area suitable for installing a floating PV system. The layout of the floating PV system was designed in consideration of the optimal tilt angle and array spacing of the PV panels. The System Advisor Model (SAM by National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA, was used to conduct energy simulations based on weather data and the system design. The results indicated that the proposed PV system could generate 971.57 MWh/year. The economic analysis (accounting for discount rate and a 20-year operational lifetime showed that the net present value would be $897,000 USD, and a payback period of about 12.3 years. Therefore, we could know that the economic effect of the floating PV system on the mine pit lake is relatively higher than that of PV systems in the other abandoned mines in Korea. The annual reduction of greenhouse gas emissions was analyzed and found to be 471.21 tCO2/year, which is twice the reduction effect achieved by forest restoration of an abandoned mine site. The economic feasibility of a floating PV system on a pit lake of an abandoned mine was thus established, and may be considered an efficient reuse option for abandoned mines.

  17. The Production Measurement Model of Open Pit Mine Based on Truck Operation Diagram

    Sun Xiao-Yu


    Full Text Available Conventional production measurement of truck dispatching system in open pit mine has not been effectively expressed by a mathematical model, which brings a negative effect on the subsequent data mining and a compatibility issue to apply the production measurement with fixed assignment of truck. In this study, based on the proposed concept that truck is not only the carrier of transport material, but also act as the bridges and linkages between the loading sites and the unloading sites, a new truck operation diagram was established, which was further developed to a basic data matrix and a production measurement model. The new model allowed to calculatethe production measurement of the transport, loading, unloading, material and etc, respectively, as well as with any calculation in combination of more than one factor as needed.It solved the compatibility issue between conventional production measurement and the production measurement of fixed assignment of truck with good practical results.

  18. Organic materials database: An open-access online database for data mining

    Geilhufe, R. Matthias; Balatsky, Alexander V.


    We present an organic materials database (OMDB) hosting thousands of Kohn-Sham electronic band structures, which is freely accessible online at The OMDB focus lies on electronic structure, density of states and other properties for purely organic and organometallic compounds that are known to date. The electronic band structures are calculated using density functional theory for the crystal structures contained in the Crystallography Open Database. The OMDB web interface allows users to retrieve materials with specified target properties using non-trivial queries about their electronic structure. We illustrate the use of the OMDB and how it can become an organic part of search and prediction of novel functional materials via data mining techniques. As a specific example, we provide data mining results for metals and semiconductors, which are known to be rare in the class of organic materials. PMID:28182744

  19. Impact of open manganese mines on the health of children dwelling in the surrounding area

    Ykateryna D. Duka


    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic manganese (Mn exposure is a health hazard associated with the mining and processing of Mn ores. Children living in an area with increased environmental exposure to Mn may have symptoms of chronic toxicity that are different from adults who experience occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to compare health outcomes in a pediatric population living near open Mn mines with a group of children from a reference area and then to develop and implement preventive/rehabilitation measures to protect the children in the mining region. Methods: After environmental assessment, a group of 683 children living in a Mn-rich region of Ukraine were screened by clinical evaluation, detection of sIgA (37 children, micronucleus analysis (56 children, and hair Mn content (166 children. Results: Impaired growth and rickets-like skeletal deformities were observed in 33% of the children. This was a significantly higher percentage than in children in the reference region (15%. The children from the Mn-mining region also had increased salivary levels of immunoglobulin A (104.4±14.2 mcg/ml vs. 49.7±6.1 mcg/ml among the controls (p<0.05, increased serum alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor levels (4.93±0.21 g/l compared with 2.91±0.22 g/l for controls; p<0.001 and greater numbers of micronuclei in the mucous cells of the oral cavity (0.070±0.008 vs. 0.012±0.009, p<0.001. Conclusions: These findings indicate the deleterious health consequences of living in a Mn-mining area. Medical rehabilitation programs were conducted and produced positive results, but further validation of their effectiveness is required. The study provided background information to formulate evidence-based decisions about public health in a region of high Mn exposure.

  20. Air quality impact assessment of multiple open pit coal mines in northern Colombia.

    Huertas, José I; Huertas, María E; Izquierdo, Sebastián; González, Enrique D


    The coal mining region in northern Colombia is one of the largest open pit mining regions of the world. In 2009, there were 8 mining companies in operation with an approximate coal production of ∼70 Mtons/year. Since 2007, the Colombian air quality monitoring network has reported readings that exceed the daily and annual air quality standards for total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm (PM₁₀) in nearby villages. This paper describes work carried out in order to establish an appropriate clean air program for this region, based on the Colombian national environmental authority requirement for modeling of TSP and PM(10) dispersion. A TSP and PM₁₀ emission inventory was initially developed, and topographic and meteorological information for the region was collected and analyzed. Using this information, the dispersion of TSP was modeled in ISC3 and AERMOD using meteorological data collected by 3 local stations during 2008 and 2009. The results obtained were compared to actual values measured by the air quality monitoring network. High correlation coefficients (>0.73) were obtained, indicating that the models accurately described the main factors affecting particle dispersion in the region. The model was then used to forecast concentrations of particulate matter for 2010. Based on results from the model, areas within the modeling region were identified as highly, fairly, moderately and marginally polluted according to local regulations. Additionally, the contribution particulate matter to the pollution at each village was estimated. Using these predicted values, the Colombian environmental authority imposed new decontamination measures on the mining companies operating in the region. These measures included the relocation of three villages financed by the mine companies based on forecasted pollution levels.

  1. 矿用浇注型聚氨酯托轮的研究开发%Research on the Supporting Wheel of Casting Polyurethane Elastomer Used in Mine



    The paper mainly studies on the high performance supporting wheels in mine which were made of polyester prepolymer as raw material,and produced by casting technology.Some main factors affect-ing the performance of the product were discussed.%以聚酯型预聚体为原料,采用浇注法工艺制备性能优良的矿用聚氨酯托轮,并讨论了一些影响产品性能的工艺因素。

  2. Stochastic Modeling Approach for the Evaluation of Backbreak due to Blasting Operations in Open Pit Mines

    Sari, Mehmet; Ghasemi, Ebrahim; Ataei, Mohammad


    Backbreak is an undesirable side effect of bench blasting operations in open pit mines. A large number of parameters affect backbreak, including controllable parameters (such as blast design parameters and explosive characteristics) and uncontrollable parameters (such as rock and discontinuities properties). The complexity of the backbreak phenomenon and the uncertainty in terms of the impact of various parameters makes its prediction very difficult. The aim of this paper is to determine the suitability of the stochastic modeling approach for the prediction of backbreak and to assess the influence of controllable parameters on the phenomenon. To achieve this, a database containing actual measured backbreak occurrences and the major effective controllable parameters on backbreak (i.e., burden, spacing, stemming length, powder factor, and geometric stiffness ratio) was created from 175 blasting events in the Sungun copper mine, Iran. From this database, first, a new site-specific empirical equation for predicting backbreak was developed using multiple regression analysis. Then, the backbreak phenomenon was simulated by the Monte Carlo (MC) method. The results reveal that stochastic modeling is a good means of modeling and evaluating the effects of the variability of blasting parameters on backbreak. Thus, the developed model is suitable for practical use in the Sungun copper mine. Finally, a sensitivity analysis showed that stemming length is the most important parameter in controlling backbreak.

  3. Optimization of drilling and blasting operations in an open pit mine-the SOMAIR experience

    AFENI Thomas Busuyi


    Drilling and blasting play vital roles in opencast mining. These operations not only affect the cost of production directly but as well and significantly, the overall operational costs. This research was carried out to find a possible way of optimizing the drilling and blasting operations in an open pit mine of Somair (Societe des Mines de l'Air), in the Niger Republic. In order to opti-mize the drilling operation, the time taken by two drilling machines to accomplish the same task was analyzed statistically. The result indicates that the Down the Hole Hammer Drilling Rig (DMNo406) is more efficient than the Drill Master (DM405). The relative unit consumption of two explosives (Explus and Nitram 9), when used under the same operating conditions, were also con-sidered and the results indicate Explus to be more economical per unit consumption with a range of 0.15 g/t0.183 g/t, when com-pared with Nitram 9 with a unit consumption range of 0.19 g/t-0.24 g/t in the study area.

  4. Developing an open source-based spatial data infrastructure for integrated monitoring of mining areas

    Lahn, Florian; Knoth, Christian; Prinz, Torsten; Pebesma, Edzer


    In all phases of mining campaigns, comprehensive spatial information is an essential requirement in order to ensure economically efficient but also safe mining activities as well as to reduce environmental impacts. Earth observation data acquired from various sources like remote sensing or ground measurements is important e.g. for the exploration of mineral deposits, the monitoring of mining induced impacts on vegetation or the detection of ground subsidence. The GMES4Mining project aims at exploring new remote sensing techniques and developing analysis methods on various types of sensor data to provide comprehensive spatial information during mining campaigns (BENECKE et al. 2013). One important task in this project is the integration of the data gathered (e.g. hyperspectral images, spaceborne radar data and ground measurements) as well as results of the developed analysis methods within a web-accessible data source based on open source software. The main challenges here are to provide various types and formats of data from different sensors and to enable access to analysis and processing techniques without particular software or licensing requirements for users. Furthermore the high volume of the involved data (especially hyperspectral remote sensing images) makes data transfer a major issue in this use case. To engage these problems a spatial data infrastructure (SDI) including a web portal as user frontend is being developed which allows users to access not only the data but also several analysis methods. The Geoserver software is used for publishing the data, which is then accessed and visualized in a JavaScript-based web portal. In order to perform descriptive statistics and some straightforward image processing techniques on the raster data (e.g. band arithmetic or principal component analysis) the statistics software R is implemented on a server and connected via Rserve. The analysis is controlled and executed directly by the user through the web portal and

  5. A hybrid GA-TS algorithm for open vehicle routing optimization of coal mines material

    Yu, S.W.; Ding, C.; Zhu, K.J. [China University of Geoscience, Wuhan (China)


    In the open vehicle routing problem (OVRP), the objective is to minimize the number of vehicles and the total distance (or time) traveled. This study primarily focuses on solving an open vehicle routing problem (OVRP) by applying a novel hybrid genetic algorithm and the Tabu search (GA-TS), which combines the GA's parallel computing and global optimization with TS's Tabu search skill and fast local search. Firstly, the proposed algorithm uses natural number coding according to the customer demands and the captivity of the vehicle for globe optimization. Secondly, individuals of population do TS local search with a certain degree of probability, namely, do the local routing optimization of all customer sites belong to one vehicle. The mechanism not only improves the ability of global optimization, but also ensures the speed of operation. The algorithm was used in Zhengzhou Coal Mine and Power Supply Co., Ltd.'s transport vehicle routing optimization.

  6. Gigantic Copper-Molybdenum Mining Project Contract Signed in Guangdong


    <正>With the reserves of nearly 1,000,000 tons of copper and approximately 250,000 tons of molybdenum and a total investment of RMB 5 billion, Guangdong Fengkai Yuanzhushan copper-molybdenum mining project contract was inked on October 13, 2011. It is reported that this is China’s second largest open-cast copper molybdenum mine next only to Dexing Copper Mine.

  7. Interoperability Using Lightweight Metadata Standards: Service & Data Casting, OpenSearch, OPM Provenance, and Shared SciFlo Workflows

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Hua, H.; Fetzer, E.


    Under several NASA grants, we are generating multi-sensor merged atmospheric datasets to enable the detection of instrument biases and studies of climate trends over decades of data. For example, under a NASA MEASURES grant we are producing a water vapor climatology from the A-Train instruments, stratified by the Cloudsat cloud classification for each geophysical scene. The generation and proper use of such multi-sensor climate data records (CDR's) requires a high level of openness, transparency, and traceability. To make the datasets self-documenting and provide access to full metadata and traceability, we have implemented a set of capabilities and services using known, interoperable protocols. These protocols include OpenSearch, OPeNDAP, Open Provenance Model, service & data casting technologies using Atom feeds, and REST-callable analysis workflows implemented as SciFlo (XML) documents. We advocate that our approach can serve as a blueprint for how to openly "document and serve" complex, multi-sensor CDR's with full traceability. The capabilities and services provided include: - Discovery of the collections by keyword search, exposed using OpenSearch protocol; - Space/time query across the CDR's granules and all of the input datasets via OpenSearch; - User-level configuration of the production workflows so that scientists can select additional physical variables from the A-Train to add to the next iteration of the merged datasets; - Efficient data merging using on-the-fly OPeNDAP variable slicing & spatial subsetting of data out of input netCDF and HDF files (without moving the entire files); - Self-documenting CDR's published in a highly usable netCDF4 format with groups used to organize the variables, CF-style attributes for each variable, numeric array compression, & links to OPM provenance; - Recording of processing provenance and data lineage into a query-able provenance trail in Open Provenance Model (OPM) format, auto-captured by the workflow engine

  8. Implementing a parametric maximum flow algorithm for optimal open pit mine design under uncertain supply and demand

    M W A Asad; R Dimitrakopoulos


    Conventional open pit mine optimization models for designing mining phases and ultimate pit limit do not consider expected variations and uncertainty in metal content available in a mineral deposit (supply) and commodity prices (market demand). Unlike the conventional approach, a stochastic framework relies on multiple realizations of the input data so as to account for uncertainty in metal content and financial parameters, reflecting potential supply and demand. This paper presents a new met...

  9. The critical analysis of austenitic manganese steel T130Mn135 used for castings in the mining industry

    Josan, A.; Pinca Bretotean, C.; Putan, V.


    This paper presents the critical analysis of making technology of austenitic manganese steel T130Mn135, used for castings of the type Mills hammer at a Romanian foundry. Are analyzed 11 charges of steel for castings and is determined the diagram of the heat treatment. After the applying of the heat treatment results a single-phase structure, consisting of homogeneous austenite. For all the 11 charges is presented the variation of chemical composition.

  10. An open data mining framework for the analysis of medical images: application on obstructive nephropathy microscopy images.

    Doukas, Charalampos; Goudas, Theodosis; Fischer, Simon; Mierswa, Ingo; Chatziioannou, Aristotle; Maglogiannis, Ilias


    This paper presents an open image-mining framework that provides access to tools and methods for the characterization of medical images. Several image processing and feature extraction operators have been implemented and exposed through Web Services. Rapid-Miner, an open source data mining system has been utilized for applying classification operators and creating the essential processing workflows. The proposed framework has been applied for the detection of salient objects in Obstructive Nephropathy microscopy images. Initial classification results are quite promising demonstrating the feasibility of automated characterization of kidney biopsy images.

  11. Research on ground water pollution by leacheate of waste dump of open pit coal mine

    LIU Zhi-bin; YAN Hong-kun; WANG Zhao-jun


    On the basis of investigation and research on the pollution source and pollution pathway of Yujiagou area, by the ground water quality analysis and the leaching and soaking experiments of the gangue, reliable data were obtained. The experiment results prove that these inorganic salt elements are easily dissolved by the water. The main pollu-tion factors in the ground water are consisted with the main pollution factor in the leading water of the gangue. By synthetically analyzing, a conclusion is shown that the salts in the leacheate of the waste dump of open pit coal mine are the primary pollution source for groundwater of Yujiagou area. An assessment is made about the degree of pollution of the ground water in the study area.

  12. Assessment and modelling of heavy metal contamination from Madneuli open-pit mine, Georgia

    Tchelidze, T.; Melikadze, G.; Leveinen, J.; Kaija, J.; Kumpalainen, S.


    Acid mine drainage from banked waste rocks (150 million m^3) and sulfide ore tailings of the Madneuli Cu-Au open-pit mine have created major environmental pollution problem in Bolnisi district, Georgia. Intensive leaching of exposed rocks and direct discharge of mine waters to nearby watercourses have lead to strong heavy metal pollution of groundwater and Rivers Kazretula, Poladauri and Mashavera. Increased concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Mn, Cr, Cd and Hg exceeding maximum permissible values by 3-2000 times, are registered almost everywhere. Polluted surface waters are used intensively for irrigation. Besides, contaminated groundwater is pumped for irrigation and drinking water supply in alluvial deposits along the rivers. Because the spread of contamination is a slow process, the adverse health effects may not yet have emerged in the investigation area. The transport modelling was used in the framework of risk assessment to estimate the direction, rate and extent of chemical migration in the contaminated site in order to support environmental management and decisionmaking involving identification of high-risk areas, protection from pollutants, and planning of remediation work. Geochemical and contamination transport modelling conducted in this study suggest that the present contamination levels will eventually reach the total investigation area causing serious health risks to the local population in long terms. Mineral lifetime estimates suggest that the contamination might continue for centuries with current pollution loads. Furthermore, geochemical modelling showed that there is no reason to expect the natural attenuation of the contamination. The potential impacts of preventive actions were studied by preparing a model scenario where the present heavy metal contamination level was lowered to 0.1 mg/l in two streams entering the model area. The model results suggest that within 5 years, already significant reduction of concentrations can be reached. The

  13. Stability analysis of the open-pit mine slope and the study on the incensement of the slope angle

    LIU Bao-xu(刘宝许); QIAO Lan(乔兰); LAI Xing-ping(来兴平)


    Based on the exploration of the engineering geology and the rock mechanics testing, limit equilibrium analysis method was adopted to calculate the stability of the Huogeqi Copper Mine slope, the results show that the original slope angle is too conservative and the slope have the potential of more preferable slope angle. In order to discuss the possibility of slope angle enhancement, sensitivity analysis of parameters related to limit state slope was made. Quantitatively determined angle value of the adding and the optimal slope angle was obtained. The study having performed showed that it is not only useful for the safety control of open-pit mine slope but also for the open-pit mine design for the similar geological condition.

  14. A comparison of the energy consumption and carbon emissions for different modes of transportation in open-cut coal mines

    Liu Fuming; Cai Qingxiang; Chen Shuzhao; Zhou Wei


    Transportation accounts for 80%of open-cut coal mine carbon emissions. With regard to the energy con-sumption and carbon emissions of transportation within an open-cut mine, this paper systematically compared the work and energy consumption of a truck and belt conveyor on a theoretical basis, and con-structed a model to calculate the energy consumption of open-cut mine transportation. Life cycle carbon emission factors and power consumption calculation model were established through a Process Analysis–Life Cycle Analysis (PA–LCA). The following results were obtained:(1) the energy consumption of truck transportation was four to twelve times higher than that of the belt conveyor;(2) the CO2 emissions from truck transportation were three to ten times higher than those of the belt conveyor;(3) with the increase in the slope angle for transportation, the ratio of truck to belt conveyor for both energy consumption and carbon emissions gradually decreased;(4) based on 2013 prices in China, the energy cost of transporta-tion using a belt conveyor in open-cut coal mines could save 0.6–2.4 Yuan/(t km) compared to truck transportation.

  15. A knowledge-informed chemotype approach to mining the ToxCast/Tox21 chemical-data landscape (WC9)

    ToxCast and Tox21 chemical libraries currently exceed 2000 and 8000 unique chemicals, respectively, and span a broad diversity of chemical use-types, functionality, and toxicity mechanism and endpoint space. These libraries function as mechanism probes across hundreds of high-th...

  16. Mining

    Khairullah Khan


    Full Text Available Opinion mining is an interesting area of research because of its applications in various fields. Collecting opinions of people about products and about social and political events and problems through the Web is becoming increasingly popular every day. The opinions of users are helpful for the public and for stakeholders when making certain decisions. Opinion mining is a way to retrieve information through search engines, Web blogs and social networks. Because of the huge number of reviews in the form of unstructured text, it is impossible to summarize the information manually. Accordingly, efficient computational methods are needed for mining and summarizing the reviews from corpuses and Web documents. This study presents a systematic literature survey regarding the computational techniques, models and algorithms for mining opinion components from unstructured reviews.

  17. Typical whole body vibration exposure magnitudes encountered in the open pit mining industry.

    Howard, Bryan; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Don


    According to recent research, a causal link has been established between occupational exposure to whole body vibration and an increased occurrence of low back pain. To aid in the further development of an in-house health and safety program for a large open pit mining facility interested in reducing back pain among its operators, whole body vibration magnitudes were characterized for a range of jobs. Specifically, thirty-five individual jobs from five different areas across the facility were evaluated for tri-axial acceleration levels during normal operating conditions. Tri-axial acceleration magnitudes were categorized into thirteen job groups. Job groups were ranked according to exposure and compared to the ISO 2631-1 standard for health risk assessment. Three of the thirteen job groups produced tri-axial acceleration magnitudes below the ISO 2631-1 low/moderate health caution limit for a twelve hour exposure. Six of the thirteen job groups produced exposures within the moderate health risk range. Four job groups were found to subject operators to WBV acceleration magnitudes above the moderate/high health caution limit.

  18. The antibody mining toolbox: an open source tool for the rapid analysis of antibody repertoires.

    D'Angelo, Sara; Glanville, Jacob; Ferrara, Fortunato; Naranjo, Leslie; Gleasner, Cheryl D; Shen, Xiaohong; Bradbury, Andrew R M; Kiss, Csaba


    In vitro selection has been an essential tool in the development of recombinant antibodies against various antigen targets. Deep sequencing has recently been gaining ground as an alternative and valuable method to analyze such antibody selections. The analysis provides a novel and extremely detailed view of selected antibody populations, and allows the identification of specific antibodies using only sequencing data, potentially eliminating the need for expensive and laborious low-throughput screening methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. The high cost and the need for bioinformatics experts and powerful computer clusters, however, have limited the general use of deep sequencing in antibody selections. Here, we describe the AbMining ToolBox, an open source software package for the straightforward analysis of antibody libraries sequenced by the three main next generation sequencing platforms (454, Ion Torrent, MiSeq). The ToolBox is able to identify heavy chain CDR3s as effectively as more computationally intense software, and can be easily adapted to analyze other portions of antibody variable genes, as well as the selection outputs of libraries based on different scaffolds. The software runs on all common operating systems (Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Linux), on standard personal computers, and sequence analysis of 1-2 million reads can be accomplished in 10-15 min, a fraction of the time of competing software. Use of the ToolBox will allow the average researcher to incorporate deep sequence analysis into routine selections from antibody display libraries.

  19. Implications of mining practices in an open-pit gold mine for monitoring of a comprehensive test-ban treaty

    Jarpe, S.P.; Moran, B.; Goldstein, P.; Glenn, L.A.


    This report summarizes the results of an experiment at the Gold Quarry pit, operated by the Newmont Gold Company at Carlin, NV The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data, together with ``ground truth``, from conventional surface blasting activity and to use these data to help determine the effectiveness with which conventional mining blasts can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions.

  20. Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity using abandoned works (deep mines or open pits) and the impact on groundwater flow

    Pujades, Estanislao; Willems, Thibault; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain


    Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants using open-pit or deep mines can be used in flat regions to store the excess of electricity produced during low-demand energy periods. It is essential to consider the interaction between UPSH plants and the surrounding geological media. There has been little work on the assessment of associated groundwater flow impacts. The impacts on groundwater flow are determined numerically using a simplified numerical model which is assumed to be representative of open-pit and deep mines. The main impact consists of oscillation of the piezometric head, and its magnitude depends on the characteristics of the aquifer/geological medium, the mine and the pumping and injection intervals. If an average piezometric head is considered, it drops at early times after the start of the UPSH plant activity and then recovers progressively. The most favorable hydrogeological conditions to minimize impacts are evaluated by comparing several scenarios. The impact magnitude will be lower in geological media with low hydraulic diffusivity; however, the parameter that plays the more important role is the volume of water stored in the mine. Its variation modifies considerably the groundwater flow impacts. Finally, the problem is studied analytically and some solutions are proposed to approximate the impacts, allowing a quick screening of favorable locations for future UPSH plants.


    Miroslav Ignjatović


    Full Text Available By examination and determination of optimal solution of technological processes of exploitation and oil shale processing from Aleksinac site and with adopted technical solution and exploitation of oil shale, derived a technical solution that optimize contour of the newly defined open pit mine. In the world, this problem is solved by using a computer program that has become the established standard for quick and efficient solution for this problem. One of the computer’s program, which can be used for determination of the optimal contours of open pit mines is Minex 5.2.3. program, produced in Australia in the Surpac Minex Group Pty Ltd Company, which is applied at the Mining and Metallurgy Institute Bor (no. of licenses are SSI - 24765 and SSI - 24766. In this study, authors performed 11 optimization of deposit geo - models in Minex 5.2.3. based on the tests results, performed in a laboratory for soil mechanics of Mining and Metallurgy Institute, Bor, on samples from the site of Aleksinac deposits.

  2. Soil criteria to protect terrestrial wildlife and open-range livestock from metal toxicity at mining sites

    Ford, Karl L; Beyer, W. Nelson


    Thousands of hard rock mines exist in the western USA and in other parts of the world as a result of historic and current gold, silver, lead, and mercury mining. Many of these sites in the USA are on public lands. Typical mine waste associated with these sites are tailings and waste rock dumps that may be used by wildlife and open-range livestock. This report provides wildlife screening criteria levels for metals in soil and mine waste to evaluate risk and to determine the need for site-specific risk assessment, remediation, or a change in management practices. The screening levels are calculated from toxicity reference values based on maximum tolerable levels of metals in feed, on soil and plant ingestion rates, and on soil to plant uptake factors for a variety of receptors. The metals chosen for this report are common toxic metals found at mining sites: arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc. The resulting soil screening values are well above those developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The difference in values was mainly a result of using toxicity reference values that were more specific to the receptors addressed rather than the most sensitive receptor.

  3. Soil criteria to protect terrestrial wildlife and open-range livestock from metal toxicity at mining sites.

    Ford, Karl L; Beyer, W Nelson


    Thousands of hard rock mines exist in the western USA and in other parts of the world as a result of historic and current gold, silver, lead, and mercury mining. Many of these sites in the USA are on public lands. Typical mine waste associated with these sites are tailings and waste rock dumps that may be used by wildlife and open-range livestock. This report provides wildlife screening criteria levels for metals in soil and mine waste to evaluate risk and to determine the need for site-specific risk assessment, remediation, or a change in management practices. The screening levels are calculated from toxicity reference values based on maximum tolerable levels of metals in feed, on soil and plant ingestion rates, and on soil to plant uptake factors for a variety of receptors. The metals chosen for this report are common toxic metals found at mining sites: arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc. The resulting soil screening values are well above those developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The difference in values was mainly a result of using toxicity reference values that were more specific to the receptors addressed rather than the most sensitive receptor.

  4. Study on the Fluid Flow in a Semi-Open-Stream-Poured Beam Blank Continuous Casting Mold with Submerged Refractory Funnels by Multiphase Modeling

    Leilei Zhang


    Full Text Available The flow transport of a 420 × 320 × 90 mm beam blank continuous casting mold that used open-stream pouring combined with submerged refractory funnels was studied. By considering the dynamic similarity, geometric similarity, and air entrapment quantity similarity, a full-size water model was established. Meanwhile, the 3D mathematical models that included three phases were applied. Through the combination of the water model and the mathematical model, the distribution and morphology of the phases in the mold were investigated. The results indicate that bubbles existed in the molten steel due to entrapment and the flow pattern was different from that of the full protection-poured mold. Furthermore, the effects of funnel immersion depth and funnel diameter on the bubbles’ impact depth, funnel’s inside wall shear stress, and overall area of the air/steel interface were discussed. The results provide useful information for the industrial continuous casting process.

  5. Comparison between open phase fault of arc suppression coil and single phase to earth fault in coal mine distribution network

    LI Xiao-bo; WANG Chong-lin


    When, in a coal mine distribution network whose neutral point is grounded by an arc suppression coil (ASC), a fault occurs in the ASC, compensation cannot be properly realized. Furthermore, it can damage the safe and reliable run of the network.We first introduce a three-phase five-column arc suppression coil (TPFCASC) and discuss its autotracking compensation theory.Then we compare the single phase to ground fault of the coal mine distribution network with an open phase fault at the TPFCASC using the Thévenin theory, the symmetrical-component method and the complex sequence network respectively. The results show that, in both types of faults, zero-sequence voltage of the network will appear and the maximum magnitude of this zero-sequence voltage is different in both faults. Based on this situation, a protection for the open phase fault at the TPFCASC should be estab-lished.

  6. Open pit mine Drmno coal characteristics analysis for long-term thermo power plant supply regarding desulphurization device

    Pavlovic, V.; Jakovljevic, I.; Stepanovic, S.


    The Drmno deposit is located in the eastern part of the Kostolac coal basin of Serbia. This paper discussed the characteristics of the open pit Drmno coal mine for long-term thermo power plant supply regarding desulphurization device. The paper provided background information on the Drmno deposit, including geologic exploration; rock type; coal layers; and a systematization of characteristics of coal. Several charts and figures were presented, including the boundary of the Drmno open pit mine on the terrain and the roof of the coal seam; a map of combustible sulphur content in the third coal seam; and exploitative quality of coal exploitation periods. It was concluded that decreasing of the emissions of sulphur oxides from the thermal power plant will be one of the highest priority tasks of EPS. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  7. Application of the organic and environment evolving principle on the land reclamation in the open coal mines

    FAN Jun-fu


    According to the evolving principle of the organic and environment, firstly, for the purpose of growing and keeping the ground, some legume species were chosen as pioneer plants to improve the construction of soil and increased soil fertility in the light of the land term and soil condition. Along with soil fertility increased, it is necessary to cultivate some shrubs and arbors which have extra resistance. Gradually it becomes the stereoscopic landscape of planting arbor-shrub-herb plants. So that the evolving of the organic and environment can be enhanced. Taking the land reclamation in the refuse dump of Heidaigou open coal mines as the practical example, explained the application of the organic and environment evolving principle on the land reclamation in the open coal mines.

  8. Development of NZP ceramic based {open_quotes}cast-in-place{close_quotes} diesel engine port liners

    Nagaswaran, R.; Limaye, S.Y.


    BSX (Ba{sub 1+x}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6-2x}Si{sub 2x}O{sub 24}) and CSX (Ca{sub l-x}Sr{sub x}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24}) type NZP ceramics were fabricated and characterized for: (i) thermal properties viz., thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, thermal stability and thermal shock resistance; (ii) mechanical properties viz., flexure strength and elastic modulus; and (iii) microstructures. Results of these tests and analysis indicated that the BS-25 (x=0.25 in BSX) and CS-50 (x=0.50 in CSX) ceramics had the most desirable properties for casting metal with ceramic in place. Finite element analysis (FEA) of metal casting (with ceramic in place) was conducted to analyze thermomechanical stresses generated and determine material property requirements. Actual metal casting trials were also conducted to verify the results of finite element analysis. In initial trials, the ceramic cracked because of the large thermal expansion mismatch (hoop) stresses (predicted by FEA also). A process for introduction of a compliant layer between the metal and ceramic to alleviate such destructive stresses was developed. The compliant layer was successful in preventing cracking of either the ceramic or the metal. In addition to these achievements, pressure slip casting and gel-casting processes for fabrication of NZP components; and acoustic emission and ultrasonics-based NDE techniques for detection of microcracks and internal flaws, respectively, were successfully developed.

  9. The continuous excavating technique system parameters optimization and economic assessment simulation model in open-pit mine

    ZHAO Bao-fu


    Based on the fundamental simulation theories and methods, this paper studies such questions as truck dispatching, discrete processing of belt system continuous haulage, belt system interlock, and economic assessment methods. On the basis of above studies, the paper establishes a simulation model for open-p i t mine semi-continuous production technique system. The paper applies GPSS lang u age to construct a simulation program, and the program has been successfully app lied in a certain coalmine.

  10. Effect of Boron and Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties of White Cast Iron for Mining Application%Effect of Boron and Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties of White Cast Iron for Mining Application

    Havva Kazdal Zeytin; Hakan Yildirim; Banu Berme; Selim Duduoglu; Gtirkan Kazdal; Adem Deniz


    Heat treatment methods were applied to white cast iron for improving the impact and wear resistance. Additionally, chemical composition optimization was made. Furthermore, the effect of boron addition on such applica- tions was investigated. Samples were investigated by using optical and electron microscope methods. Hardness, wear and impact tests were conducted. The results showed that the secondary carbides in the standard alloy were iron-enriched, needle-like carbides M3C when the boron-added alloy contained Fe23 (C, B)6 type, globular secondary carbides. It was concluded that heat treatment B provided higher wear and hardness properties, compared to the stand- ard heat treatment. Optimum mechanical properties were obtained by lower destabilisation temperatures and increasing temperature reduced the wear resistance and hardness.

  11. A Data Mining Approach to Reveal Representative Collaboration Indicators in Open Collaboration Frameworks

    Anaya, Antonio R.; Boticario, Jesus G.


    Data mining methods are successful in educational environments to discover new knowledge or learner skills or features. Unfortunately, they have not been used in depth with collaboration. We have developed a scalable data mining method, whose objective is to infer information on the collaboration during the collaboration process in a…

  12. Stability analysis of the sliding process of the west slope in Buzhaoba Open-Pit Mine

    Ning Fang; Ji Changsheng⇑; Garmondyu E. Crusoe Jr


    To study the stability of the west slope in Buzhaoba Open-Pit Mine and determine the aging stability coefficient during slide mass development, the deformation band of the west slope and the slide mass structure of the 34,600 profile are obtained on the basis of hydrology, geology, and monitoring data. The residual thrust method is utilized to calculate the stability coefficients, which are 1.225 and 1.00 under sound and transfixion conditions, respectively. According to the rock damage and fragmentation and the principle of mechanical parameter degradation, the mechanical models of the slide mass devel-opment of the hard and soft rock slopes are established. An integrated model for calculating the slope stability coefficient is built considering water, vibration, and other external factors that pertain to the structural plane damage mechanism and the generating mechanism of the sliding mass. The change curve of the stability coefficient in the slide mass development is obtained from the relevant analyses, and afterwards, the stability control measures are proposed. The analysis results indicate that in the cracking stage of the hard rock, the slope stability coefficient decreases linearly with the increase in the length Lb of the hard rock crack zone. The linear slope is positively correlated to rock cohesion c. In the transfixion stage of the soft rock, the decrease speed of the stability coefficient is positively correlated to the residual strength of the soft rock. When the slope is stable, the stability coefficient is in a quadratic-linear relationship with the decreased height Dh of the side slope and in a linear relationship with anchoring force P.

  13. Dispersion and bioaccumulation of elements from an open-pit olivine mine in Southwest Greenland assessed using lichens, seaweeds, mussels and fish.

    Søndergaard, Jens


    This study investigated dispersion and bioaccumulation of mining-related elements from an open-pit olivine mine at Seqi in Southwest Greenland (64° N) using lichens (Flavocetraria nivalis), seaweeds (Fucus vesiculosus), mussels (Mytilus edulis) and fish (Myoxocephalus scorpius). The mine operated between 2005 and 2009, and samples were taken every year within a monitoring area 0-17 km from the mine during the period 2004-2011. A total of 46 elements were analysed in the samples. After mining began, highly elevated metal concentrations, especially nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) and cobalt (Co), were observed in lichens relative to pre-mining levels (up to a factor of 130) caused by dust dispersion from the mining activity. Elevated metal concentrations could be measured in lichens in distances up to ~5 km from the mine/ore treatment facility. Moderately elevated concentrations of Ni and Cr (up to a factor of 7) were also observed in seaweeds and mussels but only in close vicinity (<1 km) to the mine. Analyses of fish showed no significant changes in element composition. After mine closure, the elevated metal concentrations in lichens, seaweeds and mussels decreased markedly, and in 2011, significantly elevated metal concentrations could only be measured in lichens and only within a distance of 1 km from the mine.

  14. 露天煤矿开采现状及生态环境影响分析%Impact analysis on mining status and ecological environment in open-pit coal mine

    宋子岭; 范军富; 王来贵; 魏春启; 王建国; 纪玉石


    The article analyzes the mining scale, regional distribution characteristics and the effect of open-pit mining on the mining area ecological environment, presents the integration technology of open-pit mining and ecological environment, and builds green mining theory system. The mine introduces "green factor" to establish the objective function of open-pit mining, in order to achieve ecological environment protection.%分析我国露天煤矿开采规模、地区分布特点,煤炭露天开采对矿区生态环境影响,提出了露天开采与生态环境一体化技术。建立露天矿绿色开采理论体系,引入“绿色因子”建立露天开采目标函数,以达到强制实现生态环境保护的目标。

  15. Groundwater age, mixing and flow rates in the vicinity of large open pit mines, Pilbara region, northwestern Australia

    Cook, Peter; Dogramaci, Shawan; McCallum, James; Hedley, Joanne


    Determining groundwater ages from environmental tracer concentrations measured on samples obtained from open bores or long-screened intervals is fraught with difficulty because the sampled water represents a variety of ages. A multi-tracer technique (Cl, 14C, 3H, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113 and SF6) was used to decipher the groundwater ages sampled from long-screened production bores in a regional aquifer around an open pit mine in the Pilbara region of northwest Australia. The changes in tracer concentrations due to continuous dewatering over 7 years (2008-2014) were examined, and the tracer methods were compared. Tracer concentrations suggest that groundwater samples are a mixture of young and old water; the former is inferred to represent localised recharge from an adjacent creek, and the latter to be diffuse recharge. An increase in 14C activity with time in wells closest to the creek suggests that dewatering of the open pit to achieve dry mining conditions has resulted in change in flow direction, so that localised recharge from the creek now forms a larger proportion of the pumped groundwater. The recharge rate prior to development, calculated from a steady-state Cl mass balance, is 6 mm/y, and is consistent with calculations based on the 14C activity. Changes in CFC-12 concentrations with time may be related to the change in water-table position relative to the depth of the well screen.

  16. A decision support system using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) for the optimal environmental reclamation of an open-pit mine

    Bascetin, A.


    The selection of an optimal reclamation method is one of the most important factors in open-pit design and production planning. It also affects economic considerations in open-pit design as a function of plan location and depth. Furthermore, the selection is a complex multi-person, multi-criteria decision problem. The group decision-making process can be improved by applying a systematic and logical approach to assess the priorities based on the inputs of several specialists from different functional areas within the mine company. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) can be very useful in involving several decision makers with different conflicting objectives to arrive at a consensus decision. In this paper, the selection of an optimal reclamation method using an AHP-based model was evaluated for coal production in an open-pit coal mine located at Seyitomer region in Turkey. The use of the proposed model indicates that it can be applied to improve the group decision making in selecting a reclamation method that satisfies optimal specifications. Also, it is found that the decision process is systematic and using the proposed model can reduce the time taken to select a optimal method.

  17. Application of reliability-centered maintenance for productivity improvement of open pit mining equipment:Case study of Sungun Copper Mine

    Amin Moniri Morad; Mohammad Pourgol-Mohammad; Javad Sattarvand


    Equipment plays an important role in open pit mining industry and its cost competence at efficient operation and maintenance techniques centered on reliability can lead to significant cost reduction. The application of optimal maintenance process was investigated for minimizing the equipment breakdowns and downtimes in Sungun Copper Mine. It results in the improved efficiency and productivity of the equipment and lowered expenses as well as the increased profit margin. The field operating data of 10 trucks are used to estimate the failure and maintenance profile for each component, and modeling and simulation are accomplished by using reliability block diagram method. Trend analysis was then conducted to select proper probabilistic model for maintenance profile. Then reliability of the system was evaluated and importance of each component was computed by weighted importance measure method. This analysis led to identify the items with critical impact on availability of overall equipment in order to prioritize improvement decisions. Later, the availability of trucks was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation and it is revealed that the uptime of the trucks is around 11000 h at 12000 operation hours. Finally, uncertainty analysis was performed to account for the uncertainty sources in data and models.

  18. An application of discrete mathematics in the design of an open pit mine

    Caccetta, L.; Giannini, L.M.


    The determination of the 'optimum pit limit' of a mine is considered to be a fundamental problem in mine planning as it provides information which is essential in the evaluation of the economic potential of a mineral deposit, and in the formulation of long-, intermediate-, and short-range mine plans. A number of mathematical techniques have been proposed to solve this problem, some of the more elaborate ones posing considerable computational problems. In this paper we discuss the development and implementation of a graph-theoretic technique originally proposed by Lerchs and Grossman. Our implementation strategy involves the use of a dynamic programming technique to 'bound' the optimum. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  19. 大红山铁矿坑露联合同步开采优化%Optimization of the Open-pit and Underground Joint Synchronous Mining of Dahongshan Iron Mine

    范有才; 徐万寿


    The production and technical problems such as the mineral below construction caused by slow open-pit mining,the contradiction between the open-pit and underground is obvious,the mining is not suitable for mineral processing,the deterioration of economic benefits are existed in the process of the open-pit and underground joint synchronous mining.According to the above problems,based on the early ground pressure monitoring data analysis results and the research theory of the relationship between open-pit and underground,combing with the actual situation of the Dahongshan iron mine,the following 4 technique optimization methods are proposed:the mine reserved safety pillars are conducted readjustment to reduce the mineral below construction caused by open-pit to relieve the contradiction between open-pit and underground based on studying the surrounding rock movement angle in the process of underground mining;the lava deposit model is established by adopting 3DMine software,the open-pit mining boundary is optimized based on the mining economical value to meet the requirements of mining economics and open-pit and underground joint synchronous mining speed;the underground mining sequence is optimized to realize the smooth and safety transition of open-pit and underground mining;the mining scheme of the ores outside the mining boundary is planed reasonably in advance to ensure the rational comprehensive u-tilization of resources.The above reasonable schemes can solve the above problems,which provide ample time for open-pit mining and create conditions of the underground safety production.Besides that,they are meet the requirement of safety and economics.%针对大红山坑露联合同步开采过程中存在的露采迟缓压矿、坑露矛盾突显、采不保选加剧与经济效益恶化等生产、技术难题,以前期地压监测数据分析及坑露关系研究理论为基础,结合实际、统筹兼顾,提出了4条技术优化思路:通过对井下开采

  20. Suppression of power-coal dust at an open stockpile of the Neryugrinsk surface mine using artificial snow

    Uskov, V.I.; Safonov, M.V.; Kupin, A.N.; Kruglova, E.S.


    Discusses complex dust suppression scheme at the open coal stockpile of the Neryungrinsk surface mine (winter temperature -50 C and lower) based on application of artificial snow and removal of dusty air for subsequent purification. The system consists of eight ejectors mounted at the top of the discharge structure with diffusers inclined at 60-80 degrees. Water consumption through type GEhF-200 hydroejector and type FKEh sprinkler is equal to 30-50 l/min at 10-20 MPa. Description of the equipment and mode of operation is given. States that up to 60% efficiency in dust suppression can be achieved. 5 refs.

  1. Application of waste mushroom on land reclamation in the refuse dump of Haizhou Open-pit Mines

    FAN Jun-fu; WANG Xiu-lan


    In order to rapidly increase the degree of maturation of the soil in land reclama-tion of the refuse dump of the Haizhou open-pit mines,the application of waste mushroom in the process of soil improvement in the dump was studied.Through the research on plant growth,root development and microbial changes in soil and change of physical and chemical characteristics of the plot,the result shows that waste mushroom can increase the degree of maturation of the soil and improve soil fertility.

  2. The accident analysis of mobile mine machinery in Indian opencast coal mines.

    Kumar, R; Ghosh, A K


    This paper presents the analysis of large mining machinery related accidents in Indian opencast coal mines. The trends of coal production, share of mining methods in production, machinery deployment in open cast mines, size and population of machinery, accidents due to machinery, types and causes of accidents have been analysed from the year 1995 to 2008. The scrutiny of accidents during this period reveals that most of the responsible factors are machine reversal, haul road design, human fault, operator's fault, machine fault, visibility and dump design. Considering the types of machines, namely, dumpers, excavators, dozers and loaders together the maximum number of fatal accidents has been caused by operator's faults and human faults jointly during the period from 1995 to 2008. The novel finding of this analysis is that large machines with state-of-the-art safety system did not reduce the fatal accidents in Indian opencast coal mines.

  3. Characteristics of the Thorez open pit brown coal mine in Hungary

    Benedek, M.


    The Hungarian (VNR) brown coal deposits have a large number of thin and varying quality seams. The problem of selecting optimal equipment and technology for mining is determined by finding the parameters of a rotary complex and then the parameters of the technology.

  4. Applications of state estimation in multi-sensor information fusion for the monitoring of open pit mine slope deformation

    FU Hua; LIU Yin-ping; XIAO Jian


    The traditional open pit mine slope deformation monitoring system can not use the monitoring information coming from many monitoring points at the same time,can only using the monitoring data coming from a key monitoring point, and that is to say it can only handle one-dimensional time series. Given this shortage in the monitoring,the multi-sensor information fusion in the state estimation techniques would be introduced to the slope deformation monitoring system, and by the dynamic characteristics of deformation slope, the open pit slope would be regarded as a dynamic goal, the condition monitoring of which would be regarded as a dynamic target tracking. Distributed Information fusion technology with feedback was used to process the monitoring data and on this basis Klman filtering algorithms was introduced, and the simulation examples was used to prove its effectivenes.

  5. Development and application of acceptance surveying system for open-pit mine in residual mining stage%残采期露天矿测量验收系统的开发与应用∗



    Aiming at the problem of office work for acceptance surveying of excavated vol-ume in the open-pit mine in residual mining stage,the paper analyzes the current various calcula-tion methods of acceptance surveying and gets the constrained TIN method is much more suitable for measuring the open-pit mine in residual mining stage.On this basis,the paper designs and de-velops the acceptance surveying system for open-pit mine in residual mining stage,and takes the constrained TIN modeling and updating as the research core.It adopts the AutoCAD ActiveX technology and VBA language to achieve the function development of the test software of accept-ance surveying system for open-pit mine in residual mining stage and applies it in production prac-tice of the Haizhou open-pit mine in residual mining stage,which has saved the production cost of acceptance surveying work in residual mining stage and improved the efficiency and accuracy of the acceptance work.%针对残采期露天矿采剥工程量测量验收内业处理的问题,对目前测量验收计算方法进行比较分析,得出约束不规则三角网法更适合于残采期露天矿测量验收作业。以此为基础,对残采期露天矿的测量验收系统进行设计和开发,并以约束不规则三角网的建模和更新作为研究的核心,利用AutoCAD ActiveX技术和AutoCAD VBA语言的结合以模块化的形式进行系统功能的研究开发,实现一个残采期露天矿测量验收系统实验软件的功能开发,并将其应用到阜新海州露天矿残采期的生产实践当中,节约了该矿残采期测量验收工作的生产成本,并提高了验收效率和精度。

  6. Availability-based simulation and optimization modeling framework for open-pit mine truck allocation under dynamic constraints

    Mena Rodrigo; Zio Enrico; Kristjanpoller Fredy; Arata Adolfo


    We present a novel system productivity simulation and optimization modeling framework in which equipment availability is a variable in the expected productivity function of the system.The framework is used for allocating trucks by route according to their operating performances in a truck-shovel system of an open-pit mine,so as to maximize the overall productivity of the fleet.We implement the framework in an originally designed and specifically developed simulator-optimizer software tool.We make an application on a real open-pit mine case study taking into account the stochasticity of the equipment behavior and environment.The total system production values obtained with and without considering the equipment reliability,availability and maintainability (RAM) characteristics are compared.We show that by taking into account the truck and shovel RAM aspects,we can maximize the total production of the system and obtain specific information on the production availability and productivity of its components.

  7. Novel approach for extinguishing large-scale coal fires using gas-liquid foams in open pit mines.

    Lu, Xinxiao; Wang, Deming; Qin, Botao; Tian, Fuchao; Shi, Guangyi; Dong, Shuaijun


    Coal fires are a serious threat to the workers' security and safe production in open pit mines. The coal fire source is hidden and innumerable, and the large-area cavity is prevalent in the coal seam after the coal burned, causing the conventional extinguishment technology difficult to work. Foams are considered as an efficient means of fire extinguishment in these large-scale workplaces. A noble foam preparation method is introduced, and an original design of cavitation jet device is proposed to add foaming agent stably. The jet cavitation occurs when the water flow rate and pressure ratio reach specified values. Through self-building foaming system, the high performance foams are produced and then infused into the blast drilling holes at a large flow. Without complicated operation, this system is found to be very suitable for extinguishing large-scale coal fires. Field application shows that foam generation adopting the proposed key technology makes a good fire extinguishment effect. The temperature reduction using foams is 6-7 times higher than water, and CO concentration is reduced from 9.43 to 0.092‰ in the drilling hole. The coal fires are controlled successfully in open pit mines, ensuring the normal production as well as the security of personnel and equipment.

  8. Development of an on-line coal quality management system in a lignite open pit mine in Serbia

    Zimmer, B. [Montan Bildungs-und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH, Theiben, (Germany)


    This paper presented a study regarding the development of a coal quality management system (CQMS) for two open pit mines located in Serbia called Tamnava West and Veliki Crljeni. The study was based on on-line measurements, and was commissioned by the public energy corporation Elektroprivreda Srbjie. The purpose of the study was to develop a CQMS that met the quality requirements of the power plants by implementing a rigorous exploration, production planning, and production monitoring system in order to control the production according to certain quality parameters. The paper provided general information and described the initial situation. It also presented an analysis of the necessity to introduce a production monitoring and control system. The setup and layout of a production monitoring and control system based on on-line measurements were outlined, with particular reference to the determination of input parameters for every excavator for the tracking of masses; the simulation of mass tracking and summation of the masses at the transfer points towards the major conveyor; and the monitoring of the output and control of the mass flow according to determined limit values. Recommendations for implementation were also discussed. It was concluded that the newly developed CQMS at Tamnava West open pit mine could be classified as uncomplicated with regard to the quality parameters to be controlled, since currently only calorific value was being controlled. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Heat stress in an open-pit iron ore mine and its relationship with physiological strain

    Mohammad Javad Jafari


    (P value<0.001. The Pearson’s correlation coefficients were obtained 0.658 and 0.566 respectively, between WBGT index and values of PSI and PSIHR. Conclusion: WBGT index showed a higher correlation with physiological strain Index; and level of heat stress in all work units of mine was higher than recommended thresholds. Thus, countermeasures should be adopted to control heat stress for the workers in this field.

  10. Centrifugal slip casting for preparing open-cell Al2O3 foam%离心成形法制备开孔氧化铝泡沫

    于景媛; 李然; 李强; 李晓东; 孙旭东


    Centrifugal slip casting in prefabricated template was used to prepare open-cell Al2O3 foams. Aqueous α- Al2O3 slurries with up to 50% solid contents (volume fraction) were prepared. The sedimentation of slurries during centrifugation was discussed with respect to the hydronamic conditions at large particle concentrations. The effect of solid contents on mass segregation was observed. Segregation phenomena were hindered for slurries with high solid loadings exceeding 50% ( volume fraction). The dried and sintered behaviors of samples were analyzed. The cell struts in green bodies had good particles packing and showed high green density ( 63.4% theory density ). After sintered at 1500 ℃, the cell struts of final products had high sintered density ( 98. 8% theory density) and homogeneous microstructure. The porosity of final products is 75.6%

  11. Soil liquefaction issues at mining dumps at the Lausitz; Bodenverfluessigungsprobleme bei Bergbaukippen in der Lausitz

    Kudla, Wolfram [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau und Spezialtiefbau; Weissbach, Joerg; Szczyrba, Sebastian [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)


    For more than 100 years in the Lausitz brown coal is dismantled in open-cast mining. During this time, land with an ara of several 100 km{sup 2} was left as a dump or open-cast mining lakes. These areas are redeveloped by the Lausitz and Central-German Mining Administration Company (Senftenberg, Federal Republic of Germany). The authors of the contribution under consideration report on soil liquefaction issues in mining dumps in the Lausitz. This contribution focuses on a renovation to prevent the sudden transitions from a solid to a liquefied state since 1990 as well as on soil liquefaction on interior dumps at Lausitz. Furthermore, the reasons of the increase in soil pore water pressure and the boundary conditions for liquefaction are described.

  12. 福建省某矿山露天采场矿坑废水的处理%Fujian Mine in Open Pit Mine Wastewater Treatment



    We know a certain mine in Fujian province in open pit mine is applied in wastewater aeration oxidation, including precipitation,pH adjustment,catalytic oxidation,flocculation precipitation,contact oxidation and the process of mechanical enrichment in filter wastewater treatment.The process contains Cd 0.455 mg/L,Mn 233.4 mg/L,1.725 mg/L Cu and zinc pH 2.5 455.7 mg/L,the excessive wastewater.Practice is to get out of the water containing Cd 0.018 mg/L,Mn 0.018 mg/L,0.024 mg/L Cu,zinc pH 6.81 0.005 mg/L,and it conforms the level of water discharge standards.%福建省某矿山露天采场矿坑废水采用曝气氧化、初沉淀、pH 调整、催化氧化、絮凝沉淀、接触氧化、机械浓缩过滤的废水处理工艺,分别处理含 Cd 0.455,Mn 233.4,Cu 1.725,Zn 455.7 mg/L, pH 2.5的超标废水,实践得到出水分别含 Cd 0.018,Mn 0.018,Cu 0.024,Zn 0.005 mg/L,pH 6.81,符合一级水排放标准。

  13. Two-step web-mining approach to study geology/geophysics-related open-source software projects

    Behrends, Knut; Conze, Ronald


    Geology/geophysics is a highly interdisciplinary science, overlapping with, for instance, physics, biology and chemistry. In today's software-intensive work environments, geoscientists often encounter new open-source software from scientific fields that are only remotely related to the own field of expertise. We show how web-mining techniques can help to carry out systematic discovery and evaluation of such software. In a first step, we downloaded ~500 abstracts (each consisting of ~1 kb UTF-8 text) from This web site hosts the abstracts of all publications presented at AGU Fall Meeting 2012, the world's largest annual geology/geophysics conference. All abstracts belonged to the category "Earth and Space Science Informatics", an interdisciplinary label cross-cutting many disciplines such as "deep biosphere", "atmospheric research", and "mineral physics". Each publication was represented by a highly structured record with ~20 short data attributes, the largest authorship-record being the unstructured "abstract" field. We processed texts of the abstracts with the statistics software "R" to calculate a corpus and a term-document matrix. Using R package "tm", we applied text-mining techniques to filter data and develop hypotheses about software-development activities happening in various geology/geophysics fields. Analyzing the term-document matrix with basic techniques (e.g., word frequencies, co-occurences, weighting) as well as more complex methods (clustering, classification) several key pieces of information were extracted. For example, text-mining can be used to identify scientists who are also developers of open-source scientific software, and the names of their programming projects and codes can also be identified. In a second step, based on the intermediate results found by processing the conference-abstracts, any new hypotheses can be tested in another webmining subproject: by merging the dataset with open data from github

  14. Integrating geological uncertainty in long-term open pit mine production planning by ant colony optimization

    Gilani, Seyed-Omid; Sattarvand, Javad


    Meeting production targets in terms of ore quantity and quality is critical for a successful mining operation. In-situ grade uncertainty causes both deviations from production targets and general financial deficits. A new stochastic optimization algorithm based on ant colony optimization (ACO) approach is developed herein to integrate geological uncertainty described through a series of the simulated ore bodies. Two different strategies were developed based on a single predefined probability value (Prob) and multiple probability values (Pro bnt), respectively in order to improve the initial solutions that created by deterministic ACO procedure. Application at the Sungun copper mine in the northwest of Iran demonstrate the abilities of the stochastic approach to create a single schedule and control the risk of deviating from production targets over time and also increase the project value. A comparison between two strategies and traditional approach illustrates that the multiple probability strategy is able to produce better schedules, however, the single predefined probability is more practical in projects requiring of high flexibility degree.

  15. Pasture species selection for revegetation of open-cut coal mine areas in central Queensland, Australia

    Naidu, B.P.; Harwood, M.R.; Hacker, J.B.; Thumma, B.R.; Mott, J.J. [CSIRO, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Division of Tropical Crops and Pastures


    This paper outlines a successful approach that was followed to evaluate grass and legume accessions for revegetation of low fertility and saline coal mine spoils. At the first stage, using seed collection records (passport data) of the Australian Tropical Forages Genetic Resource Centre, a range of grasses and legumes adapted to low rainfall, clay soils and saline areas were selected. At the second stage, legume seed was germinated in NaCl solutions of 0 to 0.2 M and salinity tolerance was assessed based on germination percentage and seedling vigour. At the third stage, germination of legumes was assessed in pots filled with mine top-soil and spoils to be revegetated. Grasses were not included in stages 2 and 3 as adequate passport data was available to select a range of accession for the 4th stage. The fourth stage of evaluation comprised field trails of 10 grass and 10 legume accessions, on two top-soils and two spoils. A stoloniferous from of Urochloa mosamblicensis was the most promising grass providing up to 20% of ground cover 12 months after establishment. Legumes surviving at the end of the first season were Desmanthus subulatus, D. virgatus and Neptunia dimorphantha on top-soil and Clitoria ternatea, Leucaena leucocephala, and Rhynchosia sublobata on the spoil. Depending on long term survival, grass and legume accessions will be released as cultivars for minesite revegetation purposes. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Modelling Safety Factors of Slope Stability for Open-Pit Mining of Nigerian Tar-Sand Deposits

    D. A. Alao


    Full Text Available Slope failure might lead to loss of lives and valuable equipment which would increase overall operational cost of running a mine. The need to have stable slopes in open-pit mining of Nigerian tar sand deposits of Dahomey Basin, Southwestern Nigeria is emphasized in this study. At Loda village, Southwestern Nigeria, samples of the laterite soil and alluvial sand which overlie the tar sand occurrence were subjected to geotechnical tests. Computer simulation of bench face angles was carried out using SLOPE/W Software to determine the bench face angle(s with the least susceptibility to failure. Unit weight (ö, cohesion (c and angle of internal friction (0 values for the laterite soil were 25 kN/m, 45 kPa and 41 respectively for laterite. The corresponding values for the laterite, soil were 18 kN/m3, 0kPa and 34°. These values were used to run the software programme to simulate different bench face angles that could be cut into the two lithologic units. Factors of safety values between 3.58 and 1.73 were obtained for bench face angles between 10° and 30° which are least susceptible to failure even when inundation is considered. This research results have enabled us to recommend the use of bench slope angles ranging from 10° and 30° coupled with adequate drainage conditions which should guaranty optimum output.

  17. Development and characterization of formulation of dust-suppressant used for stope road in open-pit mines

    Cui-Feng DU; Li LI


    The components of dust-suppressant were determined based on the analysis on characteristics and mechanisms of road dust raising in open-pit mines.The components were initially selected from moisture agent,coagulation agent and surfactant.The optimal formulation was determined based on orthogonal test and using the water loss rate as the evaluation index.The performances of moisture releasing and adsorption,wind resistance of optimal formulation in the natural environment were tested.The results show that the formula obtained in experiments provide a good performance of moisture absorption and water retention,and it also had a good dust preventing and controlling performance due to its high surface strength and consolidation under dry conditions.It has good application prospects considering the wide variety of sources for materials and the simple preparation process.

  18. PROSPECTS OF RUBBER CRUMB APPLICATION AS A PART OF DEEP OPEN-CAST MINES ROAD COVERINGS Перспективы применения резиновой крошки в составе дорожных покрытий глубоких карьеров

    Khristoforova A. A.


    Full Text Available The problem of worn out tires recycling at the mining enterprises is considered. The most important results of influence research of mechanical activation to properties of a rubber crumb and to modified bitumunous concrete properties are discussed

  19. Testing and modeling the influence of reclamation and control methods for reducing nonpoint mercury emissions associated with industrial open pit gold mines.

    Miller, Matthieu B; Gustin, Mae S


    Industrial gold mining is a significant source of mercury (Hg) emission to the atmosphere. To investigate ways to reduce these emissions, reclamation and dust and mercury control methods used at open pit gold mining operations in Nevada were studied in a laboratory setting. Using this information along with field data, and building off previous work, total annual Hg emissions were estimated for two active gold mines in northern Nevada. Results showed that capping mining waste materials with a low-Hg substrate can reduce Hg emissions from 50 to nearly 100%. The spraying of typical dust control solutions often results in higher Hg emissions, especially as materials dry after application. The concentrated application of a dithiocarbamate Hg control reagent appears to reduce Hg emissions, but further testing mimicking the actual distribution of this chemical within an active leach solution is needed to make a more definitive assessment.

  20. Ground-based multispectral measurements for airborne data verification in non-operating open pit mine "Kremikovtsi"

    Borisova, Denitsa; Nikolov, Hristo; Petkov, Doyno


    The impact of mining industry and metal production on the environment is presented all over the world. In our research we set focus on the impact of already non-operating ferrous "Kremikovtsi"open pit mine and related waste dumps and tailings which we consider to be the major factor responsible for pollution of one densely populated region in Bulgaria. The approach adopted is based on correct estimation of the distribution of the iron oxides inside open pit mines and the neighboring regions those considered in this case to be the key issue for the ecological state assessment of soils, vegetation and water. For this study the foremost source of data are those of airborne origin and those combined with ground-based in-situ and laboratory acquired data were used for verification of the environmental variables and thus in process of assessment of the present environmental status influenced by previous mining activities. The percentage of iron content was selected as main indicator for presence of metal pollution since it could be reliably identified by multispectral data used in this study and also because the iron compounds are widely spread in the most of the minerals, rocks and soils. In our research the number of samples from every source (air, field, lab) was taken in the way to be statistically sound and confident. In order to establish relationship between the degree of pollution of the soil and mulspectral data 40 soil samples were collected during a field campaign in the study area together with GPS measurements for two types of laboratory measurements: the first one, chemical and mineralogical analysis and the second one, non-destructive spectroscopy. In this work for environmental variables verification over large areas mulspectral satellite data from Landsat instruments TM/ETM+ and from ALI/OLI (Operational Land Imager) were used. Ground-based (laboratory and in-situ) spectrometric measurements were performed using the designed and constructed in Remote

  1. Language to Completion: Success in an Educational Data Mining Massive Open Online Class

    Crossley, Scott; McNamara, Danielle S.; Baker, Ryan; Wang, Yuan; Paquette, Luc; Barnes, Tiffany; Bergner, Yoav


    Completion rates for massive open online classes (MOOCs) are notoriously low, but learner intent is an important factor. By studying students who drop out despite their intent to complete the MOOC, it may be possible to develop interventions to improve retention and learning outcomes. Previous research into predicting MOOC completion has focused…

  2. Research on dump construction and development of vertical mining to horizontal mining in inclined coal seam open-pit mine%倾斜煤层露天矿纵采转横采排土场建设发展研究

    付恩三; 白润才; 刘光伟


    Under the conditions of vertical mining to horizontal mining in inclined coal seam open-pit mine, with the change of mining program, it leads to the changes of inner and outer dump program, stripping transportation distance, lifting height, the area of land and material goods flow. To solve this problem, the mine builds the economic model of dump construction development. From the inner and outer row of open-pit mine planning stream, outer dump transportation, land acquisition, inner dump dynamic development and the inner and outer rows peeling lifting height and other factors, the mine optimizes the inside and outside dump construction development program in the lifecycle. The article combines the process of vertical mining to horizontal mining to carry out research in Zhundong Open-pit Mine first mining area .%针对倾斜煤层露天矿纵采转横采条件下,随着开采程序的改变,导致内、外排土程序、剥离运距、提升高度、年征地面积及货料流发生变化。针对这一问题,建立排土场建设发展的经济模型,从露天矿山内外排货料流规划,外排土场运输、征地,内排土场动态发展形态及内外排剥离物提升高度等因素出发,优化露天矿生命周期内内外排土场建设发展程序。结合新疆准东露天煤矿首采区由纵采转横采的过程中,进行实例研究。

  3. Multi-temporal and multi-platforms remote sensing data for the analysis of open-pit mining earth surface dynamics

    Feng, Zengwen; Chen, Jianping; Li, Ke; Tarolli, Paolo


    Open-pit mining activities can affect the earth surface processes inducing soil erosion, landslides, and subsidence. The recognition and the analysis of mining induced Earth surface changes and the related processes represent, therefore, a challenge for a sustainable environmental planning for those regions affected by an intense mining activity. The purpose of this study is to monitor the effects of open-pit mining and the associated landform processes using multi-temporal and multi-platforms remote sensing data. The study area consists in an open-pit mine located in Miyun county, northern Beijing. For the study area different datasets are available for different years: a GeoEye image (2011, res. 1m/pix), two pairs of Cartosat - 1 stereo pairs (2009, 2012, res. 2.5m/pix) from which we extracted two DSMs (res. 5m/pix), an UAV aerial photograph (2014, res. 0.07m) and the derived DSM (2014, res. 0.1m). We also obtained a DTM (2014, res. 1m) from terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) and a DSM (2014, res. 0.5m) using the Structure from Motion (SfM) technique by a camera. These data served as the basis to recognize, through the application of morphometric indicators, the areas subject to erosion and landsliding. A volumetric estimate of soil loss from 2009 to 2014 has been also quantified using the multiple DSMs provided by the multi-platform. The recognition and the analysis of earth surface dynamics using low-cost multi-temporal and multi-platforms remote sensing such as SfM and UAVs represents a useful tool to mitigate the environmental consequences open-pit mining, and to mitigate the related natural disaster and risk.

  4. Computer aided design and analysis of Sapan Dalam open pit mine

    Baafi, E.Y.; Milawarma, E.; Cusack, C. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Mining Engineering


    The Sapan Dalam coal deposit of Indonesia consists of ten steeply dipping seams with thicknesses varying between 0.1 and 3.5 m and split by shale clay, silt and sandstone. The area contains four faults dipping about 75{degree} with four to 85 m vertical displacements. The complex nature of the deposit coupled with limited 27 exploration drillholes at an average spacing of 200 m made it difficult to create a realistic geological model. A three-dimensional gridded seam model gave a fair representation of the deposit. Attempts to create an optimum pit using the WHITTLE 3D pit optimiser proved unsuccessful since the pit optimiser is restricted to standard regular or fixed blocks. The gridded seam model was converted to a fixed block model prior to the optimum pit design. Smoothing and pit base controlling were also introduced to obtain a smoother pit. A mining scenario produced 3.6 million tonnes of coal, 28.4 million bcm of waste and 18.1 million US dollars revenue. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Text mining in students' course evaluations: Relationships between open-ended comments and quantitative scores

    Sliusarenko, Tamara; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær


    Extensive research has been done on student evaluations of teachers and courses based on quantitative data from evaluation questionnaires, but little research has examined students' written responses to open-ended questions and their relationships with quantitative scores. This paper analyzes...... such kind of relationship of a well established course at the Technical University of Denmark using statistical methods. Keyphrase extraction tool was used to find the main topics of students' comments, based on which the qualitative feedback was transformed into quantitative data for further statistical...... analysis. Application of factor analysis helped to reveal the important issues and the structure of the data hidden in the students' written comments, while regression analysis showed that some of the revealed factors have a significant impact on how students rate a course....

  6. Cast iron - a predictable material

    Jorg C. Sturm


    Full Text Available High strength compacted graphite iron (CGI or alloyed cast iron components are substituting previously used non-ferrous castings in automotive power train applications. The mechanical engineering industry has recognized the value in substituting forged or welded structures with stiff and light-weight cast iron castings. New products such as wind turbines have opened new markets for an entire suite of highly reliable ductile iron cast components. During the last 20 years, casting process simulation has developed from predicting hot spots and solidification to an integral assessment tool for foundries for the entire manufacturing route of castings. The support of the feeding related layout of the casting is still one of the most important duties for casting process simulation. Depending on the alloy poured, different feeding behaviors and self-feeding capabilities need to be considered to provide a defect free casting. Therefore, it is not enough to base the prediction of shrinkage defects solely on hot spots derived from temperature fields. To be able to quantitatively predict these defects, solidification simulation had to be combined with density and mass transport calculations, in order to evaluate the impact of the solidification morphology on the feeding behavior as well as to consider alloy dependent feeding ranges. For cast iron foundries, the use of casting process simulation has become an important instrument to predict the robustness and reliability of their processes, especially since the influence of alloying elements, melting practice and metallurgy need to be considered to quantify the special shrinkage and solidification behavior of cast iron. This allows the prediction of local structures, phases and ultimately the local mechanical properties of cast irons, to asses casting quality in the foundry but also to make use of this quantitative information during design of the casting. Casting quality issues related to thermally driven

  7. Mines, Non-Coal (Active), Non_metalic_mines_open, Published in 2007, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Buffalo County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Mines, Non-Coal (Active) dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described as...

  8. Using radon-222 for tracing groundwater discharge into an open-pit lignite mining lake--a case study.

    Schmidt, Axel; Schubert, Michael


    Groundwater discharge into an open pit lignite mining lake was investigated using radon-222 as a naturally occurring environmental tracer. The chosen study site was a meromictic lake, i.e., a water body that is divided horizontally into two separate layers--the upper mixolimnion (with seasonal mixing) and the lower monimolimnion (without seasonal mixing). For the estimation of groundwater discharge rates into the lake, a simple box model including all radon sinks and sources related to each layer was applied. Two field investigations were performed. During the October campaign, the total groundwater discharge into the lake was found to be 18.9 and 0.7 m(3) d(-1) for the mixolimnion and monimolimnion, respectively. During the December campaign, the groundwater discharge into the mixolimnion was 15.0 m(3) d(-1), whereas no discharge at all was observed into the monimolimnion. Based on the given water volumes, the residence time of lake water was 5.3 years for the monimolimnion and varies between 0.9 and 1.1 years for the mixolimnion. The investigation confirmed radon to be a useful environmental tracer for groundwater and surface water interactions in meromictic lake environments.

  9. Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower using abandoned open pit mines: influence of groundwater seepage on the system efficiency

    Pujades, Estanislao; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain


    Pumped Storage Hydropower (PSH) plants can be used to manage the production of electrical energy according to the demand. These plants allow storing and generating electricity during low and high demand energy periods, respectively. Nevertheless, PSH plants require a determined topography because two reservoirs located at different heights are needed. At sites where PSH plants cannot be constructed due to topography requirements (flat regions), Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower (UPSH) plants can be used to adjust the electricity production. These plants consist in two reservoirs, the upper one is located at the surface (or at shallow depth) while the lower one is underground (or deeper). Abandoned open pit mines can be used as lower reservoirs but these are rarely isolated. As a consequence, UPSH plants will interact with surrounding aquifers exchanging groundwater. Groundwater seepage will modify hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir affecting global efficiency of the UPSH plant. The influence on the plant efficiency caused by the interaction between UPSH plants and aquifers will depend on the aquifer parameters, underground reservoir properties and pumping and injection characteristics. The alteration of the efficiency produced by the groundwater exchanges, which has not been previously considered, is now studied numerically. A set of numerical simulations are performed to establish in terms of efficiency the effects of groundwater exchanges and the optimum conditions to locate an UPSH plant.

  10. Iron ore pollution in Mandovi and Zuari estuarine sediments and its fate after mining ban

    Kessarkar, P.M.; Suja, S.; Sudheesh, V.; Srivastava, S.; Rao, V.P.

    of iron ore for the past 6 decades. Open cast iron ore mining takes place in the catchment area of these two rivers with 1:3 of ore: overburden ratios with reject tailings stored as large dumps. High rainfall (3000 mm) during monsoon season (June... to August) transports these tailings into the river systems. With the increase in mining activity, high concentrations of Fe and Mn have been observed in sediments close to the mining area (Girap and Nayak 1997). During transportation of ore materials...

  11. Complementary Use of Information from Space-Based Dinsar and Field Measuring Systems for Operational Monitoring Purposes in Open Pit Iron Mines of Carajas Mining Complex (brazilian Amazon Region)

    Paradella, W. R.; Mura, J. C.; Gama, F. F.; Santos, A. R.; Silva, G. G.; Galo, M.; Camargo, P. O.; Silva, A. Q.


    Now spanning five simultaneous open-pit operations with exploration carried out through open pit benching, Carajas complex encompasses the world's largest iron reserves. Open pit mining operations in the area can lead to slope instabilities with risks to personnel, equipment and production due to intense excavations in rock products of low geomechanical quality, blasting practices and heavy precipitation. Thus, an effective prediction and management of surface deformations should be a key concern for the mining operations. The ground displacement monitoring techniques in Carajas include surface measurement techniques at discrete points (total station/reflective prisms) and over area using SSR (Slope Stability Radar, a ground based radar). On the other hand, DInSAR techniques are receiving relevance in the mining industry for reasons such a synoptic and continuous coverage without the need for ground instrumentation and a point-to-point good accuracy of measuring displacements (millimeter to centimeter scale) over a dense grid. Using a stack of 33 StripMap TerraSAR-X images acquired over Carajas covering the time span from March 2012 to April 2013, a monitoring approach is discussed based on the complementary use of information provided by DInSAR (DInSAR Time-Series and Persistent Scatterer Interferometry) and surface measuring techniques (total station/prisms, ground-based radar).

  12. Causal Inferences from Mining ToxCast Data and the Biomedical Literature for Molecular Pathways and Cellular Processes in Cleft Palate (SOT)

    Sixty-five chemicals in the ToxCast high-throughput screening (HTS) dataset have been linked to cleft palate based on data from ToxRefDB (rat or rabbit prenatal developmental toxicity studies) or from literature reports. These compounds are structurally diverse and thus likely to...

  13. Caste System

    Hoff, Karla


    In standard economics, individuals are rational actors and economic forces undermine institutions that impose large inefficiencies. The persistence of the caste system is evidence of the need for psychologically more realistic models of decision-making in economics. The caste system divides South Asian society into hereditary groups whose lowest ranks are represented as innately polluted. ...

  14. A Study of Soil and Water Conservation in Open Pit Quarry Mining%露天石矿开采工程水土保持研究

    王可可; 白晓敏


    结合露天石矿开采建设的实例,对露天石矿开采项目建设会产生的水土流失进行预测及危害分析,并确定了总体防治目标及防治措施布设,分析了水土流失监测重点及水土保持措施功能,总结了露天石矿开采建设项目水土保持工作中的重点。%In combination with one example of open pit quarry mining, a prediction and analysis are made on the soil ero-sion as well as its harm produced in the construction of the open pit quarry mining project. The general objective for its control and the prevention measures are determined. The focus of the monitoring of the soil erosion and the functions of the soil and water conservation measures are analyzed. Finally, the focus of the soil and water conservation in the construction of open pit quarry mining projects is summarized.

  15. Influence law of multipoint vibration load on slope stability in Xiaolongtan open pit mine in Yunnan, China

    韩流; 舒继森; N.R. HANIF; 席文佳; 李鑫; 靖洪文; 马力


    The purpose of this work was to explore the influence law of vibration load on rock mass structure and slope stability. Based on the type and transmission way of vibration stress wave, the main stress in the horizontal and vertical directions was analyzed and the superposition effect of the stress wave was revealed. After the mechanical analysis of the sliding mass, the calculation formulas of the anti-sliding force and the sliding force were derived and the damage mechanism of blasting vibration to the structural plane was defined. In addition, according to the structure and lithologic parameter of the slope as well as the vibration monitoring data, the west slope stability of Xiaolongtan open pit mine was analyzed. The results show that the time-dependent stability factor is proportional to the vibration speed and the peak values appear at the same time. Vibration load promotes the breakage of the structural plane leading to the drop of the west slope stability factor by 0.23%. Under the multipoint simultaneous blasting, the fluctuating laws of the stability factors are consistent. The more the start-up points are, the higher the weakening degree to the slope stability is. Under the multipoint allochronic blasting, the stability factor depends on the synthetic waveform structure of all vibration waves. The greater the blasting time difference is, the lower the weakening degree to the slope stability is. Selecting the reasonable quantity of start-up points and time difference could fully reduce the adverse influence of vibration load to slope stability.

  16. Detection and Monitoring of Surface Motions in Active Open Pit Iron Mine in the Amazon Region, Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry with TerraSAR-X Satellite Data

    Marcos E. Hartwig


    Full Text Available Persistent Scatterer interferometry (PSI represents a powerful tool for the detection and monitoring of tiny surface deformations in vast areas, allowing a better understanding of its triggering mechanisms, planning of mitigation measures, as well as to find better solutions for social and environmental issues. However, there is no record hitherto of its use in active open pit mine in tropical rainforest environment. In this paper we evaluate the use of the PSI technique for the detection and monitoring of mine slope deformations in the N4W iron mine and its surroundings, Pará State, Northern Brazil. The PSI processing was performed with 18 ascending SAR scenes of the TerraSAR-X satellite acquired in the dry season of 2012. The results showed a significant number of widely distributed persistent scatterers. It was observed that most of the study area was stable during the time span. Nevertheless, high deformation rates (312 mm/year were mapped over the mine waste piles, but do not offer any hazard, since they are expected displacements of meters in magnitude for these manmade land structures. Additionally, it was mapped tiny deformation rates in both the east and west flanks of pits 1 and 2. The main underlying reasons can be assigned to the accommodation phenomena of very poor rock masses, to the local geometric variations of the slope cuts, to the geological contact between ironstones and the country rocks, to the exploitation activities, as well as to the major geological structures. This study showed the applicability of the PSI technique using TerraSAR-X scenes in active open pit mines in tropical moist environment. However, the PSI technique is not capable in providing real-time warnings, and faces limitations due to SAR viewing geometry. In this sense, we strongly recommend the use of radar scenes acquired in both ascending and descending orbits, which would also provide a more complete understanding of the deformation patterns.

  17. Metal mining stage to open up the chute wear pulse spacing and mining area layout optimization%金属矿山阶段开拓穿脉间距及采区溜井布置优化研究



    地下开采阶段开拓设计在矿山生产中占有非常重要的地位,尤其是阶段开拓中穿脉间距与采区溜井的布置,对矿山企业的工程投资和运营成本影响很大.本文根据采场穿脉运输工程、采区溜井工程投资与采场运矿成本之和最小的原理和采场运输功最小的原理,分别建立了阶段开拓运输穿脉间距、采场溜井间距数学模型,并应用于杏山铁矿-330m阶段开拓设计中,计算出穿脉间距100m,溜井间距67.5m,为今后类似矿山合理确定穿脉、溜井间距参数提供参考.%Underground mining phase pioneering design in mine production occupies a very important position,especially the layout of the stage to open up to wear pulse spacing and mining areas in the chute,a great influence on project investment and operating costs of mining enterprises. In this paper, according to stope wearing veins transport engineering, mining district the minimum chute engineering investment and mining field DSO cost of and the minimum principle and mining field transport function principle the establishment of a stage to develop transport wear pulse spacing, stope slipped well spacing mathematical model the Xingshan iron ore-330m stage pioneering design and used to calculate the wear pulse spacing 100m,chute pitch 67. 5m wear veins,chute spacing parameters to provide a reference for future similar mines reasonably determine.

  18. 利用数据挖掘技术研究陶瓷流延粉末粒径分布%Study on Ceramic Particles Size Distribution in Tape-casting by Data Mining

    彭周; 肖建中; 梅思杨; 李文华; 覃剑


    Scanning electron microscope was used in the diameter measurement of ceramic particles in tape casting. After analyzed a large amount of data by K-means algorithm in the data mining methods. The results showed that, the particles of different layers exhibited an anisotropic structure in the green body. It was quite consistent with theoretical results. This implied that data mining technology had the huge potential in the studies of particles size distribution.%采用扫描电镜对陶瓷流延坯体不同分层的颗粒粒径进行测量。利用数据挖掘技术中的聚类算法对收集的大量粒径数据进行分析,发现挖掘出的规则为坯体上下两层的颗粒粒径分布呈明显差异,这与理论推导结果得出的规律一致,表明数据挖掘技术在研究粉末粒径分布规律上有很强的实用性。

  19. Study of Mine Geologic Environmental Control and Ecologic Restoration Plans During Transfer from Open Pit to Underground Mine%露天转地下矿山地质环境治理与生态恢复规划研究

    南世卿; 李东生


    Taking for example mining of Shirengou Iron Mine during transfer from open pit to underground mine, the mine's geologic status was discussed. According to the characteristics of the mining during transfer from open pit to underground mine, the mine geologic environmental and ecologic restoration plans were raised. It effectively protected mine environment and restored ecology of mining area. It achieved better effects in ensuring underground safe mining and had a demonstration effect for similar mines.%以石人沟铁矿露天转地下开采为例,论述了其矿山地质现状,根据露天转地下开采的特点,提出了矿山地质环境与生态恢复的规划,既做到矿山环境有效保护、矿区生态得到恢复,又达到保障地下开采安全的良好效果,为类似矿山起到示范作用.

  20. Facile one-step forming of NiO and yttrium-stabilized zirconia composite anodes with straight open pores for planar solid oxide fuel cell using phase-inversion tape casting method

    Huang, Hua; Lin, Jie; Wang, Yunlong; Wang, Shaorong; Xia, Changrong; Chen, Chusheng


    The anode of NiO and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) with straight open pores is prepared by phase-inversion tape casting method. In the as-prepared green tape, its top and middle layers are derived from a slurry of NiO and YSZ, while the bottom layer from a slurry of graphite. The graphite layer is eliminated by calcination at elevated temperatures, leaving the finger-like porous layer exposed to the gas phase. A cell supported on the as-prepared anode substrate exhibits satisfactory electrochemical performances with a maximum power density of 780 mW cm-2 at 800 °C. The cell dose not show a convex-up curvature in I-V plots at high current density as often observed for most anode-supported cells, indicating the absence of concentration polarization which is in turn attributed to the open pore structure of the phase-inversion derived anode. The phase inversion tape casting technique explored in the present study involves almost the same equipments as and similar procedures to the conventional tape casting, and after further optimization it may become a simple and effective technique for mass production of anodes for SOFCs.

  1. Coal Mining vis-â-vis Agriculture in India: A Question of Sustainability

    Sribas Goswami


    Full Text Available Coal mining adversely affects the eco-system as a whole. It is important to conduct suitable assessment studies to learn the potential adverse impact of mining on agriculture. In the subsequent discussions an attempt has been made to clarify the coal mining activities and its residual impact on environment and agricultural activities.The leaseholds for the underground mines are procured from the land lords who grant mining authority the right for underground coal mining. The land for houses, dwellings and the associated activities are purchased piecemeal from different sources while large portion of the surface right remained under the control of farmers and landlords. Underground mining in these areas is conducted with full responsibility of the surface protection by the operators who normally maintain pillars as the natural support to the surface features. Increasing demand for open caste mining process requires huge land. These lands sometime are acquired at the cost of cultivable land. Coal mining has direct impact over agriculture in the study region and residual impacts of mining bring far reaching consequences. The present study is explanatory in nature based on empirical facts collected from various formal sources from Coal India office. The task is to bring out the issues related to coal mining activities and their impact on vegetation and agriculture in adjoining areas in Raniganj and Jharia coalfields in India through this study.

  2. Update and revisions for Open-File Report 98-624, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) leachate chemistry data for solid mine-waste composite samples from the Silverton and Leadville districts in Colorado

    Hageman, Philip L.; Desborough, George A.; Lamothe, Paul J.; Theodorakos, Peter M.


    This report supersedes, revises, and updates information and data previously released in Open-File Report 98-624 (Montour and others, 1998). Data for this report were derived from leaching of mine-waste composite samples using a modification of E.P. A. Method 1312, Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP). In 1997, members of the U.S. Geological Survey Mine Waste Characterization Project collected four mine-waste composite samples from mining districts near Silverton, Colorado (MAY and YUK), and near Leadville, Colorado (VEN and SUN). This report presents analytical results from these sites.

  3. Hydrochemical and geochemical processes in superficial dump sediments in Zwenkau open brown coal mine; Hydro- und geochemische Prozesse in oberflaechennahen Kippensedimenten des Braunkohlentagebaus Zwenkau

    Wiegand, U.


    The present study was performed as part of a project titled ''Ground and air-based spectrometric studies for the differentiation of reactively altered brown coal open mining areas in Central Germany'' (Project 02 WB 9667/5) which was funded by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research. It was carried out as a cooperation between GeoForschungszentrum Potsdam (GFZ, Potsdam GeoResearch Centre), Deutsches Zentrum for Lust- und Raumfahrt (DLR, German Aerospace Centre), Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF, Society for Applied Remote Sensing) and Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle GmbH (UFZ, Leipzig/Halle Environmental Research Centre). The idea of the project was to calibrate aerial data obtained by means of spectrometric remote sensing methods using conventional petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical analysis. This would provide the mining industry with a powerful method with low time and staff requirement for reliably classifying the vast dump areas produced by open pit mining, accurately assigning findings to location data and thus identifying suitable uses for different sites. The focus of the present study was on characterising hydrochemical and geochemical alterations in dump sediments of the Zwenkau brown coal open mining area south of Leipzig in Central Germany. The collection of these data plays a decisive role in plans for cultivating and assessing the potential hazard to the open mining landscape. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit wurde im Rahmen des BMBF-gefoerderten Projektes 'Luft- und bodengestuetzte spektrometrische Untersuchungen zur Differenzierung reaktiv veraenderter Braunkohlentagebaugebiete in Mitteldeutschland' (Vorhaben 02 WB 9667/5) als Kooperation zwischen dem GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), dem Deutschen Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), der Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF) und dem Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle GmbH (UFZ) angefertigt. Idee des Projektes war

  4. Kimberlite emplacement models — The implications for mining projects

    Jakubec, Jaroslav


    The significance of the emplacement model for kimberlite pipes, or sheets, is commonly recognized in resource geology. However, its importance is not always appreciated in the mine design process. The fact is that knowledge of the orebody geometry, character of the contact zones, internal structures, rock mass competency and distribution of inclusions could directly influence the selection of the underground mining method, pit wall stability, dilution, treatability, and the dewatering strategy. The problems are exacerbated in smaller pipes and narrower sheets, and in more irregular shapes; they are more apparent in underground mining as opposed to open cast. Various kimberlite emplacement processes have a major impact on the nature of the kimberlite orebody and host rocks that will influence the mine design and mining strategy. Failure to understand these processes can adversely affect the economic outcome for developing a mine. It is therefore important to investigate those processes in order to better characterize the mining constraints and risks, and more accurately predict the mine's economic viability.

  5. A GA-SVM based model for throwing rate prediction in the open-pit cast blasting%基于GA-SVM的露天矿抛掷爆破抛掷率预测

    刘希亮; 赵学胜; 陆锋; 孙文彬


    This paper probed into the whole height bench cast blasting process and described the influence factors from 3 major perspectives:natural geological,blasting scheming and factitious ones,and selected the throwing rate which was generally accepted in the cast blasting field to assess the blasting performance.Then a novel GA-SVM model was constructed to analyze the real collected explosion data from open pit mining,and verified in a certain open-pit.Also the MIV method was employed to analyze the influence factor at each input factor.The study indicate that:① the presented GA-SVM model performs more robust and accurate than other artificial intelligence models such as BP,RBF,GRNN and GA-BP,which has a more stable prediction accuracy of 83.75%.Moreover,due to the ubiquitous paradigm of the presented approach,it provides a single,unified approach to evaluating other blasting performance factors such as the longest thrown distance and loose coefficient etc;② for this certain open pit which maintains a steady lithological character and design parameters,the bench height,explosive specific charge possess a positive correlation coefficient with the throwing rate,while line of least resistance,the slope angle and the profile width perform the opposite.%分析了高台阶抛掷爆破的机理过程,并从自然地质、爆破设计和人为操作3个角度出发,结合某矿区的实际开采情况,提取其中10个参数作为影响该矿区抛掷爆破效果的主要因素,以爆破领域中广泛接受的抛掷率作为抛掷爆破效果的评价因子,采用此矿区爆破生产中的实际数据建立了基于遗传算法优化的支持向量机模型GA-SVM。基于建立的GA-SVM模型,采用平均影响值(Mean Impact Value,MIV)作为评价标准,对各因素的影响程度进行了评定。结果表明:①GA-SVM模型能够比较快速、准确地根据此矿区的爆破设计参数预测出抛掷爆破的抛掷率,平均预测精度稳定在83.75%,

  6. Design of 3 DMine Software in Open Pit Mining%基于3 DMine的露天采矿设计



    Mining design is a key link of mine construction and operation. In order to maximize economic benefits,re-source condition,mining technical condition,mineral products price,ore mining and processing costs etc. should be considered in mining design. At present,the combination of 3D deposit model and mining design makes the mining design more simplified, and good dynamic effect is obtained. Taken a Liberian iron mine as an example,terrain model,solid model and block model of ore bodies are built by using 3DMine software. On this basis,mining designs including the open pit boundary optimization,de-velopment and haulage system and the stripping schedule are made,which directly reflect the mining plan and the data chan-ges. Effect of different prices and steps on boundary optimization is discussed to analyze the variation under different stripping rate. In practical production,open-pit boundary can be adjusted according to the different situation to realize the best economic benefits.%采矿设计是矿山建设和运营的一个关键环节。采矿设计需要综合考虑矿山资源状况、开采技术条件、矿产品销售价格、矿石开采及处理成本等多种因素,以实现经济效益最大化。目前三维矿床模型和采矿三维设计方法的完美结合使采矿设计更为简化,并可获得良好的动态效果。以利比里亚某铁矿为例,利用3Dmine三维矿业软件,建立了地表地形、矿体实体和块体模型。在此基础上进行了露天开采境界优化、开拓运输系统布置、采剥进度计划编制等采矿设计。结果直观反映了采矿设计方案及数据变化关系。同时讨论了不同矿石价格及不同台阶对露天境界的影响,分析了不同条件下剥采比的变化情况。在实际生产中,可根据不同情况适时调整露天开采境界,以实现最优的矿山经济效益。

  7. Solidification and casting

    Cantor, Brian


    INDUSTRIAL PERSPECTIVEDirect chillcasting of aluminium alloysContinuous casting of aluminium alloysContinuous casting of steelsCastings in the automotive industryCast aluminium-silicon piston alloysMODELLING AND SIMULATIONModelling direct chill castingMold filling simulation of die castingThe ten casting rulesGrain selection in single crystal superalloy castingsDefects in aluminium shape castingPattern formation during solidificationPeritectic solidificationSTRUCTURE AND DEFECTSHetergeneous nucleation in aluminium alloysCo

  8. Monitoring of surface deformation in open pit mine using DInSAR time-series: a case study in the N5W iron mine (Carajás, Brazil) using TerraSAR-X data

    Mura, José C.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Gama, Fabio F.; Santos, Athos R.; Galo, Mauricio; Camargo, Paulo O.; Silva, Arnaldo Q.; Silva, Guilherme G.


    We present an investigation of surface deformation using Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) time-series carried out in an active open pit iron mine, the N5W, located in the Carajás Mineral Province (Brazilian Amazon region), using 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) scenes. This mine has presented a historical of instability and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mine (pit walls) have been done based on ground based radar. Two complementary approaches were used: the standard DInSAR configuration, as an early warning of the slope instability conditions, and the DInSAR timeseries analysis. In order to decrease the topographic phase error a high resolution DEM was generated based on a stereo GeoEye-1 pair. Despite the fact that a DinSAR contains atmospheric and topographic phase artifacts and noise, it was possible to detect deformation in some interferometric pairs, covering pit benches, road ramps and waste piles. The timeseries analysis was performed using the 31 interferometric pairs, which were selected based on the highest mean coherence of a stack of 107 interferograms, presenting less phase unwrapping errors. The time-series deformation was retrieved by the Least-Squares (LS) solution using an extension of the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), with a set of additional weighted constrain on the acceleration deformation. The atmospheric phase artifacts were filtered in the space-time domain and the DEM height errors were estimated based on the normal baseline diversity. The DInSAR time-series investigation showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in the N5W mine located in a tropical rainforest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for alarm, planning and risk assessment.


    Mirosława Maria Gilewska


    Full Text Available Operated by lignite mine “Adams” coal deposits are located in the upland area of ​​the Turkish, belonging to the South Plains macro-region of Wielkopolska. A feature of this region are not only low rainfall, but also the lack of water reservoirs and large rivers. Mining activity has caused major changes in the hydrological network, not just for liquidation, postpone or reconstruction of riverbeds, but also the creation of new objects that collect water. These include settling the waters “dirty”, as well as reservoirs formed in excavation voids as part of a water reclamation. After the end of coal mining operation of these facilities is dependent on hydrology and hydraulic engineering conditions. This problem will be shown on the example of dirty water clarifier and final excavation undergoing water reclamation opencast mining areas Władysławów. Outcrop ended its activities in 2013. The final excavation is no outflow basin with a capacity of 42 million m3, located within the river basin Topiec constituting the left-hand tributary of the Warta.


    A new measurements methodology has been developed which allows the rapid and efficient measurement of methane (CH4) emissions from surface coal mines. An initial field trial of this methodology has been completed, and results from the field trial revealed that emissions from one ...

  11. Study of Blasting Vibration Effect on HML Open-pit Mine Slope%爆破震动对HML露天矿边坡影响的研究

    张建华; 黄刚


    Frequent blasting vibration could exert its influence on the stability of exiting slope of open-pit mine. Based on the study of HML open-pit mine monitors the effect of blasting vibration on the slope and obtains the formula of decay law of blasting seismic waves in rock mass with regression analysis principle. According to the formula,it can help to design the blasting parameter and predict the vibration for future. Based on the former data, the mine blasting could be simulated by the LS-DYNA explicit dynamic analysis software to analysis the effect of blasting vibration on slope. The mechanism of hazards and laws of seismic waves in the propagation of the rock mass can be concluded by analyzing the vibration speed and effective stress of dot and element from slope model in HML mining which ensures the smooth running of mine production and provides the basis to maintain the stability of the slope.%频繁的爆破震动会对露天矿已有边坡稳定性造成影响.以HML露天矿为背景,监测爆破震动对边坡的扰动,用回归分析原理得出爆破地震波在岩体中传播衰减规律公式.为今后的爆破设计和震动的预测提供依据.在原有的数据基础上,利用LS—DYNA显式动力分析软件模拟矿山爆破,分析爆破地震波对边坡的影响.在边坡模型上选取点和单元体,通过分析比较其震动速度和有效应力的衰减规律,可以总结出地震波在HML矿山岩体中的传播规律和危害机理.为确保矿山生产顺利进行,维护矿山边坡的稳定性提供依据.

  12. Simulating a high pressure die casting

    Goldak, J.; Zhou, J.; Downey, D.; Aldea, V.; Li, G.; Mocanita, M. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)


    High pressure die casting is simulated for parts with complex geometry such as a large automotive transmission case. The closed die is filled in approximately 40 ms, the casting cools in the closed die for approximately 40s, to open the die, eject the casting and spray the die cavity surface requires another 40s. This 3D cyclic process is simulated using the following coupled composite solvers: the energy equation in the die and in the casting with solidification; filling of the casting by a droplet or a Navier-Stokes solver, and thermal stress analysis of the casting machine, casting and die during the cycle. This thermal analysis can be done for both starting and stopping transients and for the cyclic steady state. The software enables this analysis to be done almost automatically by designers. (author)

  13. 露天转地下开采隔层厚度安全分析%Safety Analysis of Interlayer Thickness from Open Pit to Underground Mining

    陆广; 罗周全; 刘晓明; 杨彪


    Aiming at the problem of determining the interlayer thickness from open pit to underground mining, we perform the numerical simulation using the software Phase2D and taking a copper mine in Hubei province as the case study, the safety threshold of the thickness is 67.85 m according to the Lupeinie theory.When the interlayer thickness is 70 m, the maximum rock movement of the bottom of the open pit may reach 10 cm, well verified the theoretical estimation.In addition, the plastic deformation area is determined, which provides a reliable technique support for the design of underground mining.Combined with Cavity Monitoring System (CMS) and large-scale numerical software Surpac, the 3-D visual configration of open pit and goal is obtained.This 3-D model is then transformed into 2-D profile.By doing so, the thickness of interlayer can be accurately determined.According to our study, the thickness of interlayer in this mine has reached the safety critical value, showing that pit should be immediately closed.%针对露天转地下开采隔层厚度的确定问题,以湖北省某铜矿为例,优选鲁佩涅依特理论估算法得出隔层厚度的安全阈值为67.85 m.运用有限元数值分析软件Phase2D进行模拟,得出隔层厚度70 m时地下采场回采引起露天坑底的最大岩移达到10 cm,从而验证了理论估算值的合理性;确定了围岩的塑性变形区域,为地下采场的安全回采设计及支护提供了可靠的技术支撑.综合利用三维空区监测系统(CMS)和大型矿业软件Surpac,获取了露天坑和采空区可视化三维形态;对探测模型在敏感点进行剖切,将三维模型转化成二维剖面,实现隔层厚度的精确测量.研究表明,该矿山隔层厚度已至安全临界值,露天回采应该立即闭坑.

  14. Effect of Some Parameters on the Cast Component Properties in Hot Chamber Die Casting

    Singh, Rupinder; Singh, Harvir


    Hot chamber die casting process is designed to achieve high dimensional accuracy for small products by forcing molten metal under high pressure into reusable moulds, called dies. The present research work is aimed at study of some parameters (as a case study of spring adjuster) on cast component properties in hot chamber die casting process. Three controllable factors of the hot chamber die casting process (namely: pressure at second phase, metal pouring temperature and die opening time) were studied at three levels each by Taguchi's parametric approach and single-response optimization was conducted to identify the main factors controlling surface hardness, dimensional accuracy and weight of the casting. Castings were produced using aluminium alloy, at recommended parameters through hot chamber die casting process. Analysis shows that in hot chamber die casting process the percentage contribution of second phase pressure, die opening time, metal pouring temperature for surface hardness is 82.48, 9.24 and 6.78 % respectively. While in the case of weight of cast component the contribution of second phase pressure is 94.03 %, followed by metal pouring temperature and die opening time (4.58 and 0.35 % respectively). Further for dimensional accuracy contribution of die opening time is 76.97 %, metal pouring temperature is 20.05 % and second phase pressure is 1.56 %. Confirmation experiments were conducted at an optimal condition showed that the surface hardness, dimensional accuracy and weight of the castings were improved significantly.

  15. Optimization Methods for Ore Blending in Open-pit Mine%露天矿配矿优化方法研究

    吴丽春; 王李管; 彭平安; 王喆; 陈忠强


    针对露天矿山规划与矿石质量管理的配矿需求,在爆堆品位分布预测的基础上,利用0-1整数规划模型,研究了露天矿配矿的优化方法,进而将其嵌入到DIMINE软件中,并以某水泥灰岩矿配矿设计为例,验证该技术的性能.结果表明,该露天矿配矿优化方法应用简单、配矿效率高、效果好,可有效提高企业的经济效益,对于指导矿山企业的有效生产与决策具有重要的意义.%In view of the requirements of ore blending for ore quality management and open-pit mine plan,an optimization technique of ore blending for open-pit mine using a 0-1 integer programming model was proposed based on the grade distribution prediction for muck-pile. This method was theri integrated into DIMINE. Taking the ore blending design for a cement limestone ore as an example,the performance of this optimization technique was verified. The results show this optimization technique for ore blending,being characterized by easier application and high efficiency in ore blending,can greatly improve enterprises' economic benefit. It is of important significance for guiding the operation and planning on mine.

  16. 井采扰动露天矿边坡变形机制与滑坡防治技术%Slope Deformation Mechanism and Landslide Control Techniques of Open-pit Under the Disturbance of Underground Mining



    In order to solve the open-pit slope stability problems under the disturbance of underground mining,combining theoretical research and on-site,the slope deformation mechanism under the conditions of combining open-pit with underground mining is discussed.Combined the actual production of North part of Anjialing Open-pit and No.2 coal mine,under the premise of monitoring,it is controlled by optimizing the time-space relationship of open-pit and underground,which ensures the safe and efficient production in Anjialing Coal Mine under the open and underground mining conditions.%为解决井采扰动下露天矿边坡稳定性问题,采用理论研究与现场相结合的方法,对露井联采条件下边坡变形机制进行了探讨;结合安家岭露天矿北帮与2#井工矿生产实际,在监测监控的前提下,通过优化露井时空关系等方式对其进行治理,保证了安家岭矿在露井联采条件下安全高效生产。

  17. Impact assessment of chromite mining on groundwater through simulation modeling study in Sukinda chromite mining area, Orissa, India.

    Dhakate, Ratnakar; Singh, V S; Hodlur, G K


    The pre-Cambrian chromites ore deposits in Sukinda valley, Jajpur District, Orissa, India, are well known for chromite ore deposits. The exploitation of the ore is carried out through open cast mining method since the last few decades. In the process, the overburden and ore dumps are stored on ground surface, where leaching of chromite and other toxic element takes place particularly during monsoon seasons. This leachate may cause threat to groundwater in the vicinity. An integrated approach has been adopted to evaluate possibility of pollution due to mine seepage and leachate migration on groundwater regime. The approach involves geophysical, hydrogeological, hydro-chemical and aquifer modeling studies. The investigation has the significance as many habitats surround the mining area facing groundwater problems.

  18. Automatic prediction of time to failure of open pit mine slopes based on radar monitoring and inverse velocity method

    Osasan K.S.; Stacey T.R


    Radar slope monitoring is now widely used across the world, for example, the slope stability radar (SSR) and the movement and surveying radar (MSR) are currently in use in many mines around the world. However, to fully realize the effectiveness of this radar in notifying mine personnel of an impending slope failure, a method that can confidently predict the time of failure is necessary. The model developed in this study is based on the inverse velocity method pioneered by Fukuzono in 1985. The model named the slope failure prediction model (SFPM) was validated with the displacement data from two slope failures monitored with the MSR. The model was found to be very effective in predicting the time to failure while providing adequate evacuation time once the progressive displacement stage is reached.

  19. Application of Integration Technology in Handling Complex Mined-out Area in Luomu Open-pit Mine%洛钼露天矿复杂采空区治理一体化技术应用

    王春毅; 彭府华


    The integration of detection,stability monitoring and handling technology of mined-out area in Luomu open-pit mine are introduced. The high-density electrical and seismic imaging method are used to preliminarily detect the position of gobs,and then the drilling exploration and three-dimensional laser detection methods are adopted to detect the accurate charac-teristics of gobs. Microseismic technology is used for all-day,three-dimensional and real-time monitoring on the gob stability. It makes a very good application effect on the stability quantitative analysis,the influence of blasting vibration to the gobs and the stability monitoring in the processing of handling gobs. The gravel filling and controlled blasting technology is adopted to treat different gobs. According to characteristics of mined-out areas and the difficulty in gob handing,gobs are treated once or several times to finish the handling. With the use of this integrated technology,a large number of gobs in Luomu open-pit mine have been successfully treated. It ensures the safety production,and has vital significance for the sustainable development of mine. Moreover,it has important reference value to the similar mine at home and abroad.%介绍了洛钼露天矿采空区探测、采空区稳定性监测和采空区处理一体化技术。洛钼露天矿采用高密度电法和地震映象法对采空区位置进行初探,再利用钻孔探测和三维激光探测方法对采空区赋存形态进行精确探测。利用微震监测技术对采空区稳定性进行全天候、实时和立体监测,在对矿山采区岩体稳定性微震量化评估、爆破震动对采空区稳定性影响和采空区治理前后稳定性监测等方面取得了很好的应用效果。采用碎石充填和控制爆破技术对不同采空区进行处理,并根据采空区的赋存特点和处理的难易程度,对采空区进行分类一次处理或分次处理。洛钼露天矿采用该一体化技术已经成

  20. Process development of thin strip steel casting

    Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.


    An important new frontier is being opened in steel processing with the emergence of thin strip casting. Casting steel directly to thin strip has enormous benefits in energy savings by potentially eliminating the need for hot reduction in a hot strip mill. This has been the driving force for numerous current research efforts into the direct strip casting of steel. The US Department of Energy initiated a program to evaluate the development of thin strip casting in the steel industry. In earlier phases of this program, planar flow casting on an experimental caster was studied by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric corporation and Armco Inc. A subsequent research program was designed as a fundamental and developmental study of both planar and melt overflow casting processes. This study was arranged as several separate and distinct tasks which were often completed by different teams of researchers. An early task was to design and build a water model to study fluid flow through different designs of planar flow casting nozzles. Another important task was mathematically modeling of melt overflow casting process. A mathematical solidification model for the formation of the strip in the melt overflow process was written. A study of the material and conditioning of casting substrates was made on the small wheel caster using the melt overflow casting process. This report discusses work on the development of thin steel casting.

  1. Nodular cast iron and casting monitoring

    S. Pietrowski


    Full Text Available In this paper quality monitoring of nodular cast iron and casting made of it is presented. A control system of initial liquid cast iron to spheroidization, after spheroidization and inoculation with using of TDA method was shown. An application of an ultrasonic method to assessment of the graphite form and the metal matrix microstructure of castings was investigated.

  2. Nodular cast iron and casting monitoring


    In this paper quality monitoring of nodular cast iron and casting made of it is presented. A control system of initial liquid cast iron to spheroidization, after spheroidization and inoculation with using of TDA method was shown. An application of an ultrasonic method to assessment of the graphite form and the metal matrix microstructure of castings was investigated.

  3. Design of Mine-used Ultrasonic Open-channel Flowmeter%矿用超声波明渠流量计的设计

    徐乐年; 刘伟光; 王全


    针对矿井水中含有的煤粉、泥沙等杂质淤积在明渠流量计探头表面而使其无法正常工作的问题,设计了一种基于M-Bus的矿用超声波明渠流量计.该流量计由量水堰槽、智能超声波流量传感器组成,选定量水堰槽可确定实时流量与实测水头高度的关系式,通过智能超声波流量传感器测出水头高度即可计算出明渠的实时流量.实际应用表明,该流量计具有测量准确、可靠性高、操作简单等优点.%In view of problem that open-channel flowmeter can't work normally because mine water contains impurities of coal powder and sediment which deposit on surface of probe of open-channel flowmeter, a mine-used ultrasonic open-channel flowmeter based on M-Bus was designed.The flowmeter is composed of water-level weir slot and intelligent ultrasonic flow sensor, which can get formula between real-time flow and measured height of water head by water-level weir slot and calculate real-time flow by intelligent ultrasonic flow sensor to measure height of water head.The actual application showed that the flowmeter has advantages of accurate measurement, high reliability and simple operation.

  4. Groundwater flow model of the Estonian oil shale mining area towards to innovative system

    Lind, H. [Tallinn Univ. of Technology (Estonia). Dept. of Mining


    Changes in the Estonian groundwater regime are anticipated as oil shale deposits are mined. This paper described a dynamic groundwater flow model used to develop a 3-D groundwater elevation map of the Estonian oil shale mining area. The model was used to provide preliminary estimations of water inflow into the working underground mine areas. The model included 9 closed underground mines, 5 active mine sites, and 2 small open-cast sites. The closed mine sites were filled with water flowing in from the working mine sites. New mines and dewatering programs are planned for the future. A database from observation wells installed within the Keila-Kukruse aquifer was used to extract outputs and determine time steps. The model included 35 pumping stations from the active mine sites. The hydraulic properties for each model layer were defined in 4 model zones. Results of the model showed higher water in-flows from the closed underground sites than earlier predictions had anticipated. 9 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  5. 大型复杂露天矿山境界优化方法%Boundary Optimization of Large and Complex Open-pit Mine

    王李管; 彭平安; 裴安磊


    In view of the problems existed in delineating the open-pit boundary by traditional manual work such as low accuracy and heavy workload,a new method is presented on the basis of Economic Block Value Model (EBVM) with applying Lerchs-Grossmann algorithm to solve boundary optimization problems in large and complex open-pit mine,in order to improve the design efficiency and economic benefits.Not only a means of structuring EBVM is elaborated,but also a mathematical model of linear programming is constructed to solving optimization problems.Moreover,steps of Lerchs-Grossmann algorithm are described from the point of view of the set theory.The method has been realized in DIMINE software,and applied to the actual boundary optimization and design of open-pit mines.Results show that the method is able to overcome the shortcomings of traditional manual methods and solve the optimal exploitation scenarios quickly and accurately under different parameters.It provides basis and assurance for mining company with the optimal use of resources.%为提高露天矿山的设计效率和经济效益,针对传统手工方法圈定露天境界时存在的准确度低、工作量大等缺点,提出在价值块段模型(Economic Block Value Model,EBVM)基础上运用Lerchs-Grossmann算法求解大型复杂露天矿山境界优化问题的方法.详细阐述了EBVM的构建途径,构造了求解境界优化问题的线性规划数学模型,并从图论学的角度介绍了Lerchs-Grossmann算法的求解步骤.该方法已在DIMINE数字采矿三维平台中得到实现,并应用于实际露天矿山的境界优化和设计中.结果表明,该方法能够快速准确地求解出不同参数条件下的最优开采方案,克服了传统手工方法的弊端,为矿山的设计生产和资源的优化利用提供了依据和保证.


    P. Ranade


    Full Text Available Mining activities and the waste products produced can have significant impact on the surrounding environment - ranging from localized surface and ground water contamination to the damaging effects of airborne pollutants on the regional ecosystem. The long term monitoring of environmental impacts requires a cost effective method to characterize land cover and land cover changes over time. As per the guidelines of Ministry of Environment and Forest, Govt. of India, it is mandatory to study and analyze the impacts of mining on its surroundings. The use of remote sensing technology to generate reliable land cover maps is a valuable asset to completing environmental assessments over mining affected areas. In this paper, a case study has been discussed to study the land use – land cover status around 10 Km radius of open cast limestone mine area and the subsequent impacts on environmental as well as social surroundings.

  7. Physical and water properties of soils in the neighbourhood of “Władysławów” open cast mine

    Piotr Gajewski


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the properties of some soils around the area of “Władysławów” lignite pit, as well as the assessment of their degradation range caused by the pit’s activity. The basic characteristic which influences both physical and water properties of the area is the amount of organic matter. The major part of water retained in the soil was accumulated by strengths more intense than suctorial abilities of most arable plants’ roots. Despite unfavourable hydrogeological conditions, the negative effect (i.e. dehydration of the “Władysławów” lignite pit has not appeared yet.

  8. [Comparison of soil fertility among open-pit mine reclaimed lands in Antaibao regenerated with different vegetation types].

    Wang, Xiang; Li, Jin-chuan; Yue, Jian-ying; Zhou, Xiao-mei; Guo, Chun-yan; Lu, Ning; Wang, Yu-hong; Yang, Sheng-quan


    Re-vegetation is mainly applied into regeneration in opencast mine to improve the soil quality. It is very important to choose feasible vegetation types for soil restoration. In this study, three typical forest restoration types were studied at Antaibao mine, namely, Medicago sativa, mixed forests Pinus taebelaefolius-Robinia pseudoacacia-Caragana korshinskii and Elaeagnus angustifolia-Robinia pseudoacacia-Caragana korshinskii-Hipophae rhamnoides, to determine the nutrient contents and enzyme activities in different soil layers. The results showed that re-vegetation markedly increased soil nutrient contents and the enzyme activities during the restoration process. The nutrient content of soil in the P. taebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii mixed forest field was significantly higher than those in other plots. It was found that the soil of the P. taebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii mixed forest had the highest integrated fertility index values. In conclusion, the restoration effects of the P. zaebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. Korshinskii mixed forest was better than that of E. angustifolia-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii-H. rhamnoides, while M. sativa grassland had the least effect.

  9. Modelling of environmental impacts of 140 years of open pit lignite mining and chemical industry on groundwater contaminants in the Bitterfeld area, Germany

    Gossel, W.; Stollberg, R.; Wycisk, P. [Martin Luther Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. of Geosciences, Dept. of Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology


    In this study, a groundwater flow and transport model was used to estimate the contamination of watersheds located in the Bitterfeld area in Germany. The contamination was caused by previous open pit lignite mining activities in the region as well as by contaminants from a chemical plant. A high resolution geological model of the area was used to parametrize the model. The region is geologically complex, with Pleistocene channels and gullies from the Saalenian age. The mining activities also disturbed or destroyed many geological structures in the region. A geological description was provided, as well as details of hydraulic conductivity, lithology, and hydrostratigraphy. The model was based on borehole data and maps covering a total area of 60 km{sup 2}. The time-dependent groundwater recharge and boundary conditions were set. Dispersivity and diffusivity parameters were also considered. The model accurately characterized the successive spreading of groundwater contamination over the last 100 years in the area. The study showed that the contamination will spread to nature reserve zones in the region over the next few decades. 3 refs. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  10. Method for casting thin metal objects

    Pehrson, Brandon P; Moore, Alan F


    Provided herein are various embodiments of systems for casting thin metal plates and sheets. Typical embodiments include layers of mold cavities that are oriented vertically for casting the metal plates. In some embodiments, the mold cavities include a beveled edge such that the plates that are cast have a beveled edge. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled with a molten metal through an open horizontal edge of the cavity. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled through one or more vertical feed orifices. Further disclosed are methods for forming a thin cast metal plate or sheet where the thickness of the cast part is in a range from 0.005 inches to 0.2 inches, and the surface area of the cast part is in a range from 16 square inches to 144 square inches.

  11. Simulator for bucket wheel excavators in brown coal open mining of RWE Power AG; Simulator fuer Schaufelradbagger in Braunkohlentagebauen der RWE Power AG

    Mittmann, Robert; Niess, Thomas [RWE Power AG, Frechen-Habbelrath (Germany). Technikzentrum Tagebaue / Abt. PCZ-E Betriebsfuehrungssysteme; Rosenberg, Heinrich [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany). Tagebauplanung und -genehmigung


    In the three large open pits Hambach, Garzweiler and Inden RWE Power AG (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) uses bucket wheel excavators, conveyor systems and spreaders that provide a continuous mass flow of the production side to the damping site of the opencast mine or the coal bunker respectively. On the world market there hardly exist paragons of solutions for the construction and commissioning of technical innovations of this conveyor technology. Consequently, the eligible technical and technological solutions have to be newly created. Therefore RWE Power AG developed an innovative simulator for bucket wheel excavators. The implementation takes place in a phased approach in which each stage has its own benefits for the company.

  12. Soil water deficit and vegetation restoration in the refuse dumps of the Heidaigou open-pit coal mine, Inner Mongolia, China

    Lei Huang; Peng Zhang; YiGang Hu; Yang Zhao


    The sustainability of ecosystem restoration of refuse dumps in open-pit coal mines depends on plant species selection, their configuration, and the optimal usage of water resources. This study is based on field experiments in the northern refuse dump of the Heidaigou open-pit coal mine in Inner Mongolia of China established in 1995. Eight plant configurations, including trees, shrubs, grasses, and their combinations, as well as the adjacent community of natural vegetation, were selected. The succession of the revegetated plants, soil water storage, the spatiotemporal distribution of plant water deficits degree and its compensation degree were also studied. Results indicated that the vegetation cover (shrubs and herbaceous cover), richness, abundance, soil nutrients (soil organic matter, N and P), and biological soil crust coverage on the soil surface are significantly influenced by the vegetation configurations. The average soil water storage values in the shrub + grass and grass communities throughout the growing season are 208.69 mm and 206.55 mm, which are the closest to that of in the natural vegetation community (215.87 mm). Plant water deficits degree in the grass and shrub + grass communities were the lowest, but the degrees of water deficit compensation in these configuration were larger than those of the other vegetation configurations. Differences in plant water deficit degree and water compensation among the different config-urations were significant (P <0.05). Plant water deficit degrees were predominantly minimal on the surface, increased with increasing soil depth, and remained stable at 80 cm soil depth. The soil moisture compensation in the natural vegetation, shrub + grass, and grass communities changed at 10%, while that in other vegetation communities changed between 20% and 40%. Overall, we conclude that the shrub + grass and grass configuration modes are the optimal vegetation restoration models in terms of ecohydrology for future ecological

  13. Casting materials

    Chaudhry, Anil R. (Xenia, OH); Dzugan, Robert (Cincinnati, OH); Harrington, Richard M. (Cincinnati, OH); Neece, Faurice D. (Lyndurst, OH); Singh, Nipendra P. (Pepper Pike, OH)


    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  14. Description of basic mining legal principles.

    Schmidt, Reinhard


    works and for the rehabilitation of the land; in the case of underground mining and mine boreholes an operating history must also be submitted. For those projects that have a significant effect on the environment, an obligatory overall operations plan with mining law project approval procedure and integrated Environmental Risk Assessment (UVP) are necessary. The point at which this is required is stipulated in the UVP-mining decree, for example if the mining area of an open-cast pit is more than 25 ha. Alongside the UVP, the procedure is also equipped with public participation and through its "concentrating effect" replaces further licensing procedures according to other laws. The Mining Authority combines supervision and licensing, which are usually inseparable due to the operations plan procedure, as well as aspects of occupational safety and of the protection of the environment. In view of this administrative concentration these should not be fragmented. The "all-in-one" service meets the requirements of a modern public-oriented administration, has only a few points of contact, and can therefore work efficiently.

  15. Spatiotemporal variability and meteorological control of particulate matter pollution in a large open-pit coal mining region in Colombia

    Morales Rincon, L. A.; Jimenez-Pizarro, R.; Porras-Diaz, H.


    Luis Morales-Rincon (1), Hernan Porras-Diaz (1), Rodrigo Jiménez (2,*) (1) Geomatic Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Santander 680002, Colombia; (2) Air Quality Research Group, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, DC 111321, Colombia *Corresponding author: phone +57-1-316-5000 ext. 14099, fax +57-1-316-5334, e-mail The semi-desertic area of Central Cesar, Colombia, produced approximately 44 million tons of coal in 2011. This mining activity has been intensively developed since 2005. There are currently 7 large-scale mining projects in that area. The coal industry has strongly impacted not only the ecosystems, but also the neighboring communities around the coal mines. The main goal of the research work was to characterize spatial and temporal variations of particulate matter (total suspended particulates - TSP - and particulate matter below 10 μm - PM10) as measured at various air quality monitoring stations in Cesar's coal industry region as well as to study the relationship between these variability and meteorological factors. The analysis of the meteorological time series of revealed a complex atmospheric circulation in the region. No clear repetitive diurnal circulation patterns were observed, i.e. statistical mean patterns do not physically represent the actual atmospheric circulation. We attribute this complexity to the interdependence between local and synoptic phenomena over a low altitude, relatively flat area. On the other hand, a comparison of air quality in the mining area with a perimeter station indicates that coal industry in central Cesar has a mayor effect on the levels of particulate matter in the region. Particulate matter concentration is highly variable throughout the year. The strong correlation between TSP and PM10 indicates that secondary aerosols are of minor importance. Furthermore, particle

  16. Geostatistical modeling of facies, bitumen grade and particle size distribution for the Joslyn oil sand open pit mine project

    Babak, Olena; Insalaco, Enzo; Mittler, Andreas [Total EandP Canada Ltd. (Canada)


    The Joslyn North Mine Project is currently in the pre-development stage; the aim of this study is to use different available data to draw a geological model of facies, bitumen grade, full particle size distribution (PSD) and ore/waste discrimination. The study was conducted with the database of around 800 wells, stochastic, indicator and Gaussian simulations were performed along with a sensitivity study. Results demonstrated the importance of some parameters for evaluating grade cases including variogram uncertainty, sampling limitations and errors in geostatistical workflow. In addition, modeling the full PSD dataset was shown to be useful. This study demonstrated how to use available database through an overall workflow to develop case scenarios for bitumen in place in ore and characterize the ore material.

  17. The Dynamic prediction of environment damage induced by the excavation from open-pit into underground mine%露天转地下开采诱发环境破坏的动态预测



    In the process of mineral resources development , the mining of deep resource in the open-pit mine re-stricted by the stripping ratio factors should turn to underground mining .Open-pit mining is located in the under-ground mining influence domain .This causes part of the two mining influence domain overlapping , of the two types mining effect, thus, it constitutes a compound superposition effect , and makes the overlying rock mass deformation mechanism more complicated and the deformation spread widely .This paper takes a mining engineering practice in Beijing as the background , to study the Dynamic evolution law , the sliding mechanism and the definition of damage zone of the surface deformation in the process of the excavation from open-pit into underground mine under complex conditions of environmental engineering geology .It also summarizes the evolution characteristics of dynamic damage range and movement parameters in the mining process , thus provides a decision-making basis for the mine safety production and safety control .%在矿产资源开发过程中,露天开采转为地下开采后,露天边坡受地下采动影响,由于两种采动影响部分重叠,造成两种采动效应相互作用,构成复合叠加效应,使得上覆岩体变形机制更加复杂、变形波及范围广。以北京某矿的开采工程实际为背景,研究了复杂的环境工程地质条件下露天转地下开采过程中地表变形的动态演变规律、滑移机制和破坏区的界定等内容,并得出了其开采过程中的动态破坏范围及其移动参数的演变特点,从而为矿山安全生产和安全防控提供了决策依据。

  18. International data-sharing for radiotherapy research: an open-source based infrastructure for multicentric clinical data mining.

    Roelofs, Erik; Dekker, André; Meldolesi, Elisa; van Stiphout, Ruud G P M; Valentini, Vincenzo; Lambin, Philippe


    Extensive, multifactorial data sharing is a crucial prerequisite for current and future (radiotherapy) research. However, the cost, time and effort to achieve this are often a roadblock. We present an open-source based data-sharing infrastructure between two radiotherapy departments, allowing seamless exchange of de-identified, automatically translated clinical and biomedical treatment data.

  19. Mining lore : Bankhead, mining for coal

    Nichiporuk, A.


    Bankhead, Alberta was one of the first communities to be established because of mining. It was founded in 1903 by the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) on Cascade Mountain in the Bow River Valley of Banff National Park. In 1904, Mine No. 80 was opened by the Pacific Coal Company to fuel CPR's steam engines. In order to avoid flooding the mine, the decision was made to mine up the steep seams instead of down. The mine entered full production in 1905. This article described the working conditions and pay scale for the mine workers, noting that there was not much in terms of safety equipment. There were many accidents and 15 men lost their lives at the mine. During the mine's 20-year operation, miners went on strike 6 times. The last strike marked the closure of the mine in June 1922 and the end of industry in national parks. CPR was ordered to clear out and move the mining equipment as well as the houses, buildings and essentially the entire town. During its peak production, Mine No. 80 produced about a half million tons of coal. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  20. The UK Casting Industry

    Jincheng Liu


    The casting production in the UK in 2004 is presented and analysed. The UK casting industry has played an important role in world casting and manufacturing production. However recent years the rapid development of some developing countries has been shifting the casting production from the western industrialized countries including the UK. The UK casting industry and associated research and technology organizations, universities have been working together very hard to face the serious competition to make the UK casting industry have a sustainable future. The UK casting industry remains strong and plays an important role in world casting and manufacturing production.

  1. 海州矿国家矿山公园主题广场景观设计浅析%Analysis on the Theme Square's Landscape Design of Haizhou Open-Pit Mine National Mining Park

    马强; 段渊古; 王敏


    Haizhou open-pit mine national mining park is a representative example of post-industrial landscape design in Liaoning province.Taking the theme square of this park as an example,the method of post-industrial square design on the basis of industrial elements remodeling and spatial expansion was discussed,and six spots of the central axis in the square were evaluated and analyzed,then the advantages and disadvantages in landscape design were summarized.Through research on the landscape design of the post-industrial square,related references for industrial heritage utilization of resource dependent cities in Northeast China were provided and the importance of industrial heritage landscape in urban industrial tourism development was revealed.%海州矿国家矿山公园是辽宁地区后工业景观设计的典型,以该公园的主题广场为例,从工业元素重塑和空间拓展方面对广场的设计手法进行了探讨,并对广场中轴线上的6个景点进行了分析与评价,总结出景观设计中存在的优缺点.以期通过对后工业广场景观设计的研究,为东北地区资源型城市的工业遗址资源开发提供一定参考,并揭示出工业遗址景观对于城市发展工业旅游的重要性.

  2. Open Peer Review in Scientific Publishing: A Web Mining Study of PeerJ Authors and Reviewers

    Peiling Wang


    Full Text Available Purpose: To understand how authors and reviewers are accepting and embracing Open Peer Review (OPR, one of the newest innovations in the Open Science movement. Design/methodology/approach: This research collected and analyzed data from the Open Access journal PeerJ over its first three years (2013-2016. Web data were scraped, cleaned, and structured using several Web tools and programs. The structured data were imported into a relational database. Data analyses were conducted using analytical tools as well as programs developed by the researchers. Findings: PeerJ, which supports optional OPR, has a broad international representation of authors and referees. Approximately 73.89% of articles provide full review histories. Of the articles with published review histories, 17.61% had identities of all reviewers and 52.57% had at least one signed reviewer. In total, 43.23% of all reviews were signed. The observed proportions of signed reviews have been relatively stable over the period since the Journal's inception. Research limitations: This research is constrained by the availability of the peer review history data. Some peer reviews were not available when the authors opted out of publishing their review histories. The anonymity of reviewers made it impossible to give an accurate count of reviewers who contributed to the review process. Practical implications: These findings shed light on the current characteristics of OPR. Given the policy that authors are encouraged to make their articles' review history public and referees are encouraged to sign their review reports, the three years of PeerJ review data demonstrate that there is still some reluctance by authors to make their reviews public and by reviewers to identify themselves. Originality/value: This is the first study to closely examine PeerJ as an example of an OPR model journal. As Open Science moves further towards open research, OPR is a final and critical component. Research in this

  3. CA Investment Casting Process of Complex Castings


    CA (Computer aided) investment casting technique used in superalloy castings of aerospace engine parts was presented. CA investment casting integrated computer application, RP (Rapid Prototyping) process, solidification simulation and investment casting process. It broke the bottle neck of making metal die. Solid model of complex parts were produced by UGII or other software, then translated into STL(Stereolithography) file, after RP process of SLS(Selective Laser Sintering), wax pattern used in investment ...

  4. Handling equipment Selection in open pit mines by using an integrated model based on group decision making

    Abdolreza Yazdani-Chamzini


    Full Text Available Process of handling equipment selection is one of the most important and basic parts in the project planning, particularly mining projects due to holding a high charge of the total project's cost. Different criteria impact on the handling equipment selection, while these criteria often are in conflicting with each other. Therefore, the process of handling equipment selection is a complex and multi criteria decision making problem. There are a variety of methods for selecting the most appropriate equipment among a set of alternatives. Likewise, according to the sophisticated structure of the problem, imprecise data, less of information, and inherent uncertainty, the usage of the fuzzy sets can be useful. In this study a new integrated model based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP and fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (FTOPSIS is proposed, which uses group decision making to reduce individual errors. In order to calculate the weights of the evaluation criteria, FAHP is utilized in the process of handling equipment selection, and then these weights are inserted to the FTOPSIS computations to select the most appropriate handling system among a pool of alternatives. The results of this study demonstrate the potential application and effectiveness of the proposed model, which can be applied to different types of sophisticated problems in real problems.

  5. Prevention and control of coalfield fire technology: A case study in the Antaibao Open Pit Mine goaf burning area, China

    Cao Kai; Zhong Xiaoxing; Wang Deming; Shi Guoqing; Wang Yanming; Shao Zhenlu


    It is very difficult to clearly detect the location of a burning area in a coal mine since it is hidden underground.So we conducted research on the distribution of the burning area before controlling it.Firstly,the original drilling technique was used to analyze and determine the loose and scope of caving of burning area through field test,and then obtained the gases and the temperature data in this area were according to the borehole data.By analyzing these data,we found out that the location of burning area concentrated in the loose and caving area; and finally,the location and development of the burning area within the tested area were accurately determined.Based on this theory,we used the ground penetrating radar (GPR) to find out the loose and caving scale in the burning area during the control process of the burning area,and then located the fire-extinguishing boreholes within target which we used to control burning fire in the section.A mobile comprehensive fire prevention and extinguishing system based on the three-phase foam fire prevention and control technique was then adopted and conducted in the burning area which took only 9 months to extinguish the 227,000 m2 of burning area of 9# coal.This control technology and experience will provide a very important reference to the control of other coalfield fire and hillock fire in the future.


    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Hull, Christopher


    The U.S. is the largest producer of mining products in the world. In 2011, U.S. mining operations contributed a total of $232 billion to the nation’s GDP plus $138 billion in labor income. Of this the coal mining industry contributed a total of $97.5 billion to GDP plus $53 billion in labor income. Despite these contributions, the industry has not been well supported with research and development funds as compared to mining industries in other countries. To overcome this problem, the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST) was established to develop technologies that can be used by the U.S. mining industry to create new products, reduce production costs, and meet environmental regulations.

  7. Ancient and medieval mining engineering in the southwest of the iberian peninsula; Ingenieria minera antigua y medieval en el suroeste iberico

    Perez Macias, J. A.; Delgado Dominguez, A.


    This work provides a summary of our knowledge about the old mining works in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Thus in the light of recent investigations, always bearing in mind the descriptions of these ancient mining works made by engineers and geologists in the XIX and the XX centuries, we have been able to systematize the prehistoric and proto historic mining works and provide evidence for the existence of underground mining during these remote times, when it was believed that only open-cast extraction took place. In the same way we have looked into all the types of mining works documented from the Roman period to the present day and been able to distinguish a continued use of these during the Middle Ages at a time when, until recently, they were considered hardly to exist. (Author) 41 refs.

  8. Cast irons


    Cast iron offers the design engineer a low-cost, high-strength material that can be easily melted and poured into a wide variety of useful, and sometimes complex, shapes. This latest handbook from ASM covers the entire spectrum of one of the most widely used and versatile of all engineered materials. The reader will find the basic, but vital, information on metallurgy, solidification characteristics, and properties. Extensive reviews are presented on the low-alloy gray, ductile, compacted graphite, and malleable irons. New and expanded material has been added covering high-alloy white irons used for abrasion resistance and high-alloy graphitic irons for heat and corrosion resistance. Also discussed are melting furnaces and foundry practices such as melting, inoculation, alloying, pouring, gating and rising, and molding. Heat treating practices including stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, hardening and tempering, autempering (of ductile irons), and surface-hardening treatments are covered, too. ASM Spec...

  9. The ancient Chinese casting techniques


    In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast ir...

  10. Analysis of investment-benefit of the open pit underground proj ect in the Tuanj iegou mining field%团结沟采矿场露天转地下项目投资效益分析



    Tuanjiegou mine pit mining about 40 years and is now in the open-air remaining coal mining period,the existing deep ore body of underground mining is imperative under the situation.The article from the open turn underground project implementation,project investment and use of geological reserves,project benefit are briefly analyzed,in the current market price of gold low operation,after the implementation of the project is still unable to obtain better economic benefits.This paper can provide reference for similar mines.%团结沟采矿场露天开采约40年,现处于露天残采尾期,对现有深部矿体进行地下开采已势在必行.文章从露天转地下项目实施情况、工程投资、可利用地质储量情况、项目效益预测等方面进行了简析,在目前市场金价低位运行情况下,该项目实施后尚不能取得较好的经济效益.本文可为类似矿山提供参考.

  11. Application of artificial neural network coupled with genetic algorithm and simulated annealing to solve groundwater inflow problem to an advancing open pit mine

    Bahrami, Saeed; Doulati Ardejani, Faramarz; Baafi, Ernest


    In this study, hybrid models are designed to predict groundwater inflow to an advancing open pit mine and the hydraulic head (HH) in observation wells at different distances from the centre of the pit during its advance. Hybrid methods coupling artificial neural network (ANN) with genetic algorithm (GA) methods (ANN-GA), and simulated annealing (SA) methods (ANN-SA), were utilised. Ratios of depth of pit penetration in aquifer to aquifer thickness, pit bottom radius to its top radius, inverse of pit advance time and the HH in the observation wells to the distance of observation wells from the centre of the pit were used as inputs to the networks. To achieve the objective two hybrid models consisting of ANN-GA and ANN-SA with 4-5-3-1 arrangement were designed. In addition, by switching the last argument of the input layer with the argument of the output layer of two earlier models, two new models were developed to predict the HH in the observation wells for the period of the mining process. The accuracy and reliability of models are verified by field data, results of a numerical finite element model using SEEP/W, outputs of simple ANNs and some well-known analytical solutions. Predicted results obtained by the hybrid methods are closer to the field data compared to the outputs of analytical and simple ANN models. Results show that despite the use of fewer and simpler parameters by the hybrid models, the ANN-GA and to some extent the ANN-SA have the ability to compete with the numerical models.

  12. Study on Compressive Behavior of Open-cell Aluminum Foam by Gypsum Mould Infiltrating Casting%石膏型渗流法制备的开孔泡沫铝的压缩行为研究

    吴进; 程和法; 黄笑梅; 张燕瑰; 胡志君


    本文采用可溶石膏型预制块,通过加压渗流的方法制备了泡沫纯铝、泡沫ZL101合金和泡沫ZL102合金,并通过准静态压缩实验研究了3种不同基体材料的泡沫铝的压缩行为及吸能性能.结果表明:通过石膏型渗流法制备的开孔泡沫铝合金的孔隙率可以达到85%~93.5%;泡沫铝基体材料的力学性能对泡沫铝压缩力学性能有重要影响;泡沫ZL101合金能够吸收最多的能量,且在较大的应力、应变范围内对材料起到缓冲保护作用.%The polymeric reticular sponge was choosen as the mother plate to make the soluble gypsum mould,and after that, through infiltrating casting to fabricate three kinds of open-cell aluminum foam, which are pure aluminum foam, ZL101 aluminum alloy foam and ZL102 aluminum alloy foam. The compressive behaviors and energy-absorption capacities of those different kinds of foams were investigated by the quasi-static compression test. The experimental results indicate that the porosity of the aluminum foams made by the gypsum mould infiltrating casting are 85%~93. 5%;The matrix properties have notable effects on the mechanical behaviors of foams;The ZL101 aluminum alloy foam can absorb the most energy and also can protect the materials in the larger ranges of stress and strain.

  13. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka


    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  14. Conversion of the compensation measures for the utilization of a FFH area of the brown coal open mining Cottbus North; Umsetzung der Kompensationsmassnahmen fuer die Inanspruchnahme eines FFH-Gebietes durch den Braunkohletagebau Cottbus-Nord

    Gerstgraser, Christoph [gerstgraser - Ingenieurbuero fuer Renaturierung, Cottbus (Germany); Arnold, Ingolf; Dingethal, Heidemarie [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Cottbus (Germany)


    Since the year 1981, the open mining Cottbus-North (Brandenburg, Federal Republic of Germany) produces brown coal. Presently, 5 million tons of brown coal are produced. This brown coal is used in the power generation at the coal-fired power station Jaenschwalde. Within this area of mining there is the pond's group Lakoma. This pond's group consisted of 22 ponds with a total area of 69 ha. These ponds served for breeding of fishes and accommodated protected animal species. In December 2003, the pond's group Lakoma was suggested as a FFH area by the country Brandenburg. With the planning approval procedure for waters, a FFH area was completely eliminated in the approach of an open mining. A licensing procedure came to the result that a removal of these ponds was permissible with consideration of the public interest, if a reconciliation for the plants and animals is carried out. These compensation measures were realized within short time. Thus the open mining Cottbus-North could be continued according to plan.

  15. Improving the effectiveness of wells for lignite mine dewatering

    Rude, T.R.; Banning, A. [Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Hydrogeology; Klauder, W.; Roger, S. [Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management; Vinzelberg, G. [RWE Power AG, Bergheim (Germany). Dept. of Water Resources Management


    Mine dewatering is an important factor in determining the economic feasibility of lignite open cast mining projects. Ochre formation is accelerated in open pit dewatering, as the wells have long filter lengths that allow for high oxygen flux into well screens, gravel packs, and the surrounding aquifer. Ochre formation can reduce the productivity of wells by an estimated 20 percent. This experimental study investigated the formation of ochre in different environments using well screens from the Rhenish lignite mining district in Germany. The influence of oxygen, iron (Fe{sup 2+}), pH, flow velocity, water composition, and microorganisms were considered. Samples from the mine were passed through an apparatus that supplied Fe{sup 2+} and filtered the formed Fe{sup 3+} oxide colloids. The oxygen- and iron-free water was then conditioned and treated with ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Results of the study showed that Fe{sup 3+} hydroxides quickly formed in the screen due to high Fe{sup 2+} concentrations. Results indicated that pH must be kept high in the deoxygenation unit in order to facilitate rapid oxygen consumption. The experimental study will be used to investigate abiotic conditions created by variations in flow velocity, Fe{sup 2+} concentrations, sulfate content and alkalinity. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Impact of mining on tree diversity of the silica mining forest area at Shankargarh, Allahabad, India

    Kumud Dubey; K.P.Dubey


    The Shankargarh forest area is rich in silica,a major mineral used in glass industry.Extensive open cast silica mining has severely damaged the forest as well as productivity of the region.An understanding of the impact of mining on the environment partienlarly on vegetation characteristics is a prerequisite for further management of these mining sites,especially in the selection of species for reclamation works.The present paper deals with the study of the tree composition of silica mining area of Shgankargarh forest,at both disturbed and undisturbed sites.Tree vegetation study was conducted at undisturbed and disturbed sites of Shankargarh forests using standard quadrate method.Density,abundance and frequency values of tree species were calculated.Species were categorized into different classes according to their frequency.The importance value index (IVI) for each species was determined.Species diversity,Concentration of dominance,Species richness and Evenness index were calculated for the undisturbed and disturbed sites.The distribution pattern of the species was studied by using Whifford's index.Similarity index between tree composition of disturbed and undisturbed sites was determined by using Jaccard's and Sorenson's index of similarity.Tree species showed a drastic reduction in their numbers in disturbed sites compared to that of the undisturbed sites.The phytosociological indices also illustrated the impact of mining on the tree composition of the area.The present study led to the conclusion that resultant tree vegetation analysis can be used as important tool for predicting the suitability of particular species for revegetating the mined areas.

  17. Reforestation of bauxite mine spoils with Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    N. Krishnakumar


    Full Text Available Open cast mining for bauxite at Yercaud hills (India resulted indegradation of forest ecosystem and production of large quantities of waste rocks (called mine spoils. To ameliorate mine spoils, topsoil is used to spread over before the planting of tree species, conventional method as the topsoil has a good structure, water holding capacity and beneficial microbes like Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM fungi essential for plant growth.However, the use of top soil is expensive and in this study bauxite mine spoils were reforestated with AM fungi instead of it. The beneficial microbes AM fungi (Glomus aggregatum Schenck & Smith, G. fasciculatum(Thatcher Gerd. & Trappe emend. Walker & Koske, G. geosporum(Nicol. & Gerd. Walker were isolated, cultured and inoculated into the seedlings of Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. and grown in bauxite mine spoils as potting medium under nursery conditions. Then, the biomass improved seedlings of E. tereticornis with inoculation of AM fungi were directly transplanted at bauxite mine spoils. After transplantation of the seedlings at bauxite mine spoils, the growth and survival rate were monitored for two years. The AM fungi inoculated seedlings of E. tereticornis showed 95% survival over the control seedlings and their growth was also significantlyhigher. Tissue nutrients (N, P, K were also found higher inAM fungi inoculated E. tereticornis than un inoculated control seedlings.

  18. Seasonal dynamics of the photosynthetic pigments content in Populus tremula L. leaves at the adaptation on an open-pit coal mine revegetating dump

    Yu. V. Zagurskaya


    Full Text Available Seasonal dynamics of the basic photosynthetic pigments (a and b chlorophylls, carotenoids content in the samples of aspen Populus tremula during natural regeneration on a revegetating pit dump of a worked-out coal pit has been studied. The studies were conducted every ten days during the vegetation period in 2015 (June–September on the territory of «Yuzhniy» dump of «Kedrovskiy» open-pit coal mine (Kemerovo region. The pigment content was identified by the means of spectrophotometric detection. The content of photosynthetic pigments in aspen leaves was calculated on oven-dry weight of the leaves, as moisture aspen leaves can greatly vary, and the determination of accuracy of dry matter content higher than the for specific gravity of the sheet. No changes in visible absorption spectrum of acetone extracts indicating pheophytin formation in chlorophylls have been identified. For all variants the larger amount of b chlorophyll was contained in control samples. The largest differences in a/b chlorophylls and chlorophylls/carotenoids ratio were observed in the end of vegetation period. The ratio between a and b chlorophylls of aspen leaves in both cases by the end of the season was considerably lower. The adaptation of aspen photosynthetic system to the revegetating dump conditions was performed due to decrease in the total pigment content and the percent of b chlorophyll in their composition.

  19. 某矿山露天地下联合开采相互影响数值模拟分析%Numerical Simulation Analysis of the Interaction of a Mine in the Process of Open-pit Underground Combined Mining



    主要针对某露天矿进行露天地下联合开采而可能带来的矿房矿柱的稳定性问题进行模拟分析.项目开展过程中对该矿山进行了现场地应力测试和岩体力学测试分析,并对可能发生的工况建立9种计算模型,建立有限元2D及3D计算模型进行数值模拟,为该矿山后续设计提供基础依据,也为其他类似矿山提供借鉴意义.%Mainly aimed at simulation and analysis of the stability of the rooms and pillars of an Open-pit mine in the process of open-pit underground combined mining. Data of in-situ measurement of ground stress and rock mechanics was analyzed in the process of project of the mine. And 2D and 3D finite element model were set up for possible conditions in the nine calculation models. The calculation results of the finite element would provide the basis foundation to the subsequent design of the mine and greater reference significance to other similar mines.

  20. Current meter, phytoplankton, and wind data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the North Pacific Ocean as part of the Deep Ocean Mining and Environmental Study (DOMES) project, 29 August 1975 - 24 February 1977 (NODC Accession 7700458)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter, phytoplankton, and wind data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from August 29, 1975 to...

  1. Characteristics of cast and welded aluminium nodes

    Oedegaard, J.; Polanco, M.; Syvertsen, F.; Sund, H. [SINTEF, Trondheim (Norway). Materials Technology


    It has been demonstrated that sand cast aluminium nodes can be produced with properties that gives competitive energy absorption capacity compared with welded aluminium nodes. Sand cast nodes could be mass-produced to a low cost and with properties that should be competitive to the properties of fusion welded nodes. This may open for simpler and more cost-effective joint alternatives when production of aluminium space-frames and subassemblies are in focus. Cast nodes joined to extruded members by adhesive bonding could be one example. (orig.)

  2. On open-pit boundary optimization of iron mine based on 3 Dmine%3 DMi ne境界优化功能在露天铁矿中的应用

    王瑜; 戴兴宇; 郭健


    矿用商业化软件将三维矿体模型和三维采矿设计相结合,使采矿设计更为简捷,获得了较好的动态效果。以鞍钢矿业集团下属关宝山铁矿为例,利用3DMine三维矿业软件,建立地表模型、地质数据库、矿体模型、块体模型,在2种条件下,进行露天境界优化,对比2种条件下优化结果的不同。%Mining trade software combines 3D deposit model with 3D mining design,and makes the mining design more simplified and good dynamic effect.Taken Guanbaoshan Iron Mine of Ansteel Mining Group as an example,this paper builds the terrain model,solid model,geological database,block model of ore bodies,on different condition,and completes the open-pit boundary optimization and contracts different optimization outcomes.

  3. Application of Close Range Photogrammetry Technology of Slope Deformation Monitoring in Open Pit Mine%近景摄影技术在露天矿山边坡变形监测中的应用

    谢冬冬; 杨德宏


    In the open pit mine, the slope stability is a serious threat to the safety of mine production, so it is very important to strengthen the deformation monitoring and stability analysis of high and steep slope. This paper taking the northern slope of an open pit mine in Yunnan as an example, applied close range photogrammetry technology to the open pit mine slope deformation monitoring, compared and analyzed photogrammetry solution calculated data with the total station monitoring data, and obtained that it is feasible to apply the method of close range photogrammetry application to open pit slope deformation monitoring. Then it analyzed the factors that affect the measurement accuracy, and put forward the corresponding measures to improve the accuracy.%在露天矿山,边坡稳定性严重威胁着矿山的安全生产,加强对高陡边坡的变形监测和稳定性分析就显得非常重要。文章以云南某露天矿北部边坡为例,将近景摄影测量技术应用到露天矿山边坡变形监测中,将摄影测量解算出的数据与全站仪监测数据进行了对比分析,得出近景摄影测量方法应用于露天矿边坡变形监测是可行的,然后对影响量测精度的因素做出分析,并提出提高精度的相应措施。

  4. Optimization of the State of Open-pit Mine by Using 3DMine Software%利用3DMine软件进行露天矿境界优化

    钟德云; 胡柳青


    在某露天矿已建立的三维地质模型的基础上,以不同于传统境界优化的方法,利用当前国内优秀的矿业软件3DMine进行露天境界优化设计,实现了真正意义上的最终境界.阐述了利用矿业软件经行境界优化的完整过程以及在最终境界的基础上进行露天采场设计,分析了建模结果.%Based on three-dimensional geological model which has been established in an open-pit mine to the realm different from the traditional optimization methods,the use of current domestic outstanding open-pit mining software 3Dmine realm of optimization,a true sense of the final state had been achieved. Explained by using mining software to optimize the complete process line state and in the final state on the basis of the formation of the open-pit design, the modeling results were analyzed.

  5. Graphite Formation in Cast Iron

    Stefanescu, D. M.


    In the first phase of the project it was proven that by changing the ratio between the thermal gradient and the growth rate for commercial cast iron samples solidifying in a Bridgman type furnace, it is possible to produce all types of graphite structures, from flake to spheroidal, and all types of matrices, from ferritic to white at a certain given level of cerium. KC-135 flight experiments have shown that in a low-gravity environment, no flotation occurs even in spheroidal graphite cast irons with carbon equivalent as high as 5%, while extensive graphite flotation occurred in both flake and spheroidal graphite cast irons, in high carbon samples solidified in a high gravity environment. This opens the way for production of iron-carbon composite materials, with high carbon content (e.g., 10%) in a low gravity environment. By using KC-135 flights, the influence of some basic elements on the solidification of cast iron will be studied. The mechanism of flake to spheroidal graphite transition will be studied, by using quenching experiments at both low and one gravity for different G/R ratios.

  6. LLNL casting technology

    Shapiro, A. B.; Comfort, W. J., III


    Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US competiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

  7. The concurrent validity of learning potential and psychomotor ability measures for the selection of haul truck operators in an open-pit mine

    Marikie Pelser


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the concurrent validity of learning potential and psychomotor ability measures for the prediction of haul truck operator performance in an open-pit mine. Additional goals were to determine the nature of the relationship between learning potential and psychomotor abilities and to assess the relative contributions of these variables as predictors. The predictors were the TRAM 1 Learning Potential test and Vienna Test System subtests that were administered to 128 experienced haul truck operators. The job performance criteria used were spotting in time, corrected tons hauled and supervisor ranking. The concurrent validity of the learning potential and psychomotor ability measures was partially supported. An exploratory factor analysis provided relatively convincing evidence for a general cognitive ability factor (g underlying performance on the learning potential and several psychomotor measures. The existence of a general psychomotor factor was not substantiated in the current study. Suggestions were made for improving design and criterion shortcomings. Opsomming Die doel van die ondersoek was om die saamvallende geldigheid van leerpotensiaal en psigomotoriese metings vir die voorspelling van die werkprestasie van sleepvragwabestuurders in ’n oopgroefmyn te beoordeel. Addisionele doelwitte was om die aard van die verwantskap tussen leerpotensiaal en psigomotoriese vermoëns te gepaal en om die relatiewe bydraes van hierdie veranderlikes as voorspellers te bepaal. Die voorspellers was die TRAM 1 Leerpotensiaaltoets en die Vienna Test System subtoetse wat toegepas is op 128 ervare sleepvragwabestuurders. Die werkprestasiekriteria was inteikentyd, gekorrigeerde tonmaat gesleep en toesighouerbeoordeling. Die saamvallende geldigheid van die leerpotensiaal en psigomotoriese metings is gedeeltelik ondersteun. ’n Ondersoekende faktorontleding het die bestaan van ’n algemene kognitiewe vermoëfaktor (g, wat

  8. 基于Surpac的铜陵新桥矿床露天开采境界优化%Surpac-based open-pit mining limit optimization for the Xinqiao ore deposit, Tongling

    崔灿; 袁峰; 李晓晖; 张明明; 贾蔡; 周涛发


      矿床的境界优化就是要设计一个最为接近理想状态的模型,使矿山企业利润最大化,在满足经济和边坡角几何约束的条件下,设计一个最终开采境界。基于三维地质矿业软件,可以将三维可视化技术与矿床的后期开采、生产进度编排进行紧密的结合,完成矿体形态与工程实体的衔接,其不同于传统境界优化的方法,可以在三维空间内进行境界优化的应用和研究。本研究选取SURPAC三维地质矿业软件系统,结合铜陵新桥矿床的实际需求,基于三维数字矿山模型,使用L-G算法规范的数学逻辑结构对露天采场进行境界优化。其结果可以为扩大经济效益提供详实的数据基础,并为新桥矿床开展更为合理的开采生产安排提出合理化建议。%  Deposit limit optimization is design of a closest-to ideal model to maximize mine profit. It is to design an ulti-mate mining limit after economic and slope geometric constraints are met. Three-D mining software can closely com-bine 3-D visualization technology with late mining, production progress arrangement of a deposit, achieving the align-ment of ore body form with the mining engineering entity. Different than traditional limit optimization, it can be opti-mized in 3-D space. This paper used Surpac 3-D mining software, considered the actual need of the mine, is based on 3-D digital mine model to perform open-pit limit optimization using L-G algorithm standard math logic structure, giv-ing suggestions for more reasonable mining of the Xinqao deposit.

  9. NV - Assessment of wildlife hazards associated with mine pit lakes

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Several open pit mines in Nevada lower groundwater to mine ore below the water table. After mining, the pits partially fill with groundwater to form pit lakes. Water...

  10. First Mexican coal mine recovery after mine fire, Esmeralda Mine

    Santillan, M.A. [Minerales Monclova, SA de CV, Palau Coahuila (Mexico)


    The fire started on 8 May 1998 in the development section from methane released into the mine through a roof-bolt hole. The flames spread quickly as the coal was ignited. After eight hours the Safety Department decided to seal the vertical ventilation shafts and the slopes. The quality of coal in the Esmeralda Mine is very high quality, and Minerales Monclova (MIMOSA) decided to recover the facilities. However, the Esmeralda Mine coals have a very high gas content of 12 m{sup 3}/t. During the next 2.5 months, MIMOSA staff and specialists observed and analysed the gas behaviour supported by a chromatograph. With the results of the observations and analyses, MIMOSA in consultation with the specialists developed a recovery plan based on flooding the area in which fire might have propagated and in which rekindling was highly probable. At the same time MIMOSA trained rescue teams. By 20 August 1998, the mine command centre had re-opened the slopes seal. Using a 'Step-by-Step' system, the rescue team began the recovery process by employing cross-cuts and using an auxiliary fan to establish the ventilation circuit. The MIMOSA team advanced into the mine as far as allowed by the water level and was able to recover the main fan. The official mine recovery date was 30 November 1998. Esmeralda Mine was back in operation in December 1998. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  11. Ecological Footprint and Ecological Costs in Open-Pit Metal Mining%金属矿床露天开采的生态足迹和生态成本

    王青; 胥孝川; 顾晓薇; 刘剑平; 王晓旭


    footprint method,direct and indirect ecological footprint models have been developed to reflect the ecological pressure of open-pit metal mining.The former measures the direct damages of open-pit mining to the ecosystem,and the latter the indirect impact of CO2 emission from energy consumption on the ecosystem.Based on the ecological footprints and the major eco-service functions of the ecosystem,the ecological costs of open-pit mining are estimated,including lost value of direct eco-services,lost value of indirect eco-services,reclamation costs,and the eco-cost of energy consumption.The present values of ecological costs and profits were estimated based on the ultimate pit and mining schedule designed for a real open-pit mine.Results show that the total present value of ecological costs is 78% of the present value of profits,and the sum of the lost value of indirect eco-services and eco-cost of energy consumption,for which the mine operator is not responsible,is 33% of the present value of profits.It can be seen that,if mine operators were forced by the government to be responsible for all the ecological costs,the returns on investment in open-pit mines would be sharply lowered and many deposits with relatively unfavorable reserve conditions would not be exploited resulting in better resources protection.

  12. 30 CFR 49.4 - Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions.


    ... parts of the mine in which miners work or travel; (4) Roadways or other openings are not supported or... to the Administrator for Coal Mine Safety and Health or the Administrator for Metal and Nonmetal Mine... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for...

  13. Glovebox Advanced Casting System Casting Optimization

    Fielding, Randall Sidney [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Casting optimization in the GACS included three broad areas; casting of U-10Zr pins, incorporation of an integral FCCI barrier, and development of a permanent crucible coating. U-10Zr casting was improved over last year’s results by modifying the crucible design to minimize contact with the colder mold. Through these modifications casting of a three pin batch was successful. Incorporation of an integral FCCI barrier also was optimized through furnace chamber pressure changes during the casting cycle to reduce gas pressures in the mold cavities which led to three full length pins being cast which incorporated FCCI barriers of three different thicknesses. Permanent crucible coatings were tested against a base case; 1500°C for 10 minutes in a U-20Pu-10Zr molten alloy. None of the candidate coating materials showed evidence of failure upon initial visual examination. In all areas of work a large amount of characterization will be needed to fully determine the effects of the optimization activities. The characterization activities and future work will occur next year.

  14. Optimization Design of Transition From Open Pit to Underground for JingChang Graphite Mine Based on Surpac Soft-ware%基于Surpac的金昌石墨矿露天转地下优化设计

    肖飞; 何治良; 黄其冲; 翟振


    以金昌石墨矿为研究对象,建立矿体的地表模型、矿体模型和块体模型,并对矿体进行储量估算和品位报告。详细总结了该矿山露天转地下开拓方案和开采方案,论证了Surpac软件的技术优势和应用前景。%Taking JingChang Graphite Mine as research object,ground surface model of ore body,ore body model and block model of were established,reserve and grade of the ore body were also estimated. Based on the practical application of the exploi-tation design of transition from open pit to underground mine in detail,the technical superiority and the application prospect of the software are demonstrated.

  15. Study on the Transport Process of Large Slope Skip in Phosphorus Open Pit Mine%露天磷矿山大型斜坡箕斗运输工艺研究

    李小双; 李耀基; 王孟来; 朱建新


    Taking the N0. 2 mining area of Kunyang phosphate mine of Yunnan Phosphate Chemical Group Co. ,Ltd ( YPC) as engineering background,the transport process of large slope skip in the open pit phosphorus mine was studied by va-rious research methods such as theoretical analysis,field measurement and feasibility demonstration of technical and economic scheme,according to the field research of the specific geological and mining conditions. The results showed that:①Comparing with the traditional single bucket truck transport process,the large slope skip the transport process has the following advanta-ges,including lower cost,less air pollution and noise pollution and lower maintenance cost. And it has a large advantage in deep concave mining stage that the stope mining vertical depth is greater than or equal to 85 m.②The large slope skip the transport process also has the following inferiors,such as larger initial investment,relatively fixed system and more complicated procedure etc. . And it has a large application limitation in shallow mining stage that the stope mining vertical depth is less than 85 m. The relevant research results can provide theoretical and technical guidance and advice for the open pit transportation technology of this mining area or mining area with similar conditions.%以云南磷化集团有限公司昆阳磷矿二矿区为工程背景,在进行实地调研其具体地质采矿条件的基础上,通过理论分析、现场实测以及技术经济方案可行性论证等多种研究手段,探讨了露天磷矿山的大型斜坡箕斗运输工艺。结果表明:①与传统的单斗卡车运输工艺相比,大型斜坡箕斗运输工艺具有运输成本低廉、空气与噪音污染小、能耗低的优点,在采场垂直开采深度≥85 m的深凹开采阶段具有较大优势。②大型斜坡箕斗运输工艺初期投资较大,系统相对固定,工艺环节较多,在采场垂直开采深度<85 m的浅部开采阶段

  16. High integrity automotive castings

    Weiss, D. [Eck Industries Inc., St. Manitowoc, WI (United States)


    This paper described the High Integrity Magnesium Automotive Casting (HI-MAC) program, which was developed to ensure the widespread adoption of magnesium in structural castings. The program will encourage the use of low pressure permanent molds, squeeze casting, and electromagnetic pumping of magnesium into dies. The HI-MAC program is currently investigating new heat treatment methods, and is in the process of creating improved fluid flow and solidification modelling to produce high volume automotive components. In order to address key technology barriers, the program has been divided into 8 tasks: (1) squeeze casting process development; (2) low pressure casting technology; (3) thermal treatment; (4) microstructure control; (5) computer modelling and properties; (6) controlled molten metal transfer and filling; (7) emerging casting technologies; and (8) technology transfer throughout the automotive value chain. Technical challenges were outlined for each of the tasks. 1 ref., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  17. Land reclamation in the lignite open pit mining industry of Central and Eastern Europe - a comparative discourse; Rekultivierung im Braunkohlenbergbau Mittel- und Osteuropas - eine vergleichende Betrachtung

    Drebenstedt, C. [TU Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany)


    This comparative discourse on land reclamation in the Central and East European lignite mining regions is based on a complex analysis of the prevailing natural, geological, technological and social conditions. Considering the above conditions, the reclaimed land in the mined-out lignite mines of Central and Eastern Europe will predominantly be used as forests, although farming is also possible under particularly suitable conditions. Some of the land is given over to recreational purposes and integrated into the relevant landscape. Large lakes in residual holes of former lignite mines have only been created in Germany so far, where the special requirements of nature preservation have also been given attention. As regards the planning and financing regulations and the regulations coordinating the use of the post-mining land, there are differences between the individual countries which must be attributed to the rather diverse legal conditions. In general, the tasks associated with recultivation are defined similarly, are based on scientific investigations and are implemented at a very high level. The exchange of experience should be continued also in the future. (orig.)

  18. Asymmetric threat data mining and knowledge discovery

    Gilmore, John F.; Pagels, Michael A.; Palk, Justin


    Asymmetric threats differ from the conventional force-on- force military encounters that the Defense Department has historically been trained to engage. Terrorism by its nature is now an operational activity that is neither easily detected or countered as its very existence depends on small covert attacks exploiting the element of surprise. But terrorism does have defined forms, motivations, tactics and organizational structure. Exploiting a terrorism taxonomy provides the opportunity to discover and assess knowledge of terrorist operations. This paper describes the Asymmetric Threat Terrorist Assessment, Countering, and Knowledge (ATTACK) system. ATTACK has been developed to (a) data mine open source intelligence (OSINT) information from web-based newspaper sources, video news web casts, and actual terrorist web sites, (b) evaluate this information against a terrorism taxonomy, (c) exploit country/region specific social, economic, political, and religious knowledge, and (d) discover and predict potential terrorist activities and association links. Details of the asymmetric threat structure and the ATTACK system architecture are presented with results of an actual terrorist data mining and knowledge discovery test case shown.

  19. Evolution of halictine castes

    Knerer, Gerd


    Social halictine bees have female castes that range from species with no size differences to those with a discrete bimodality. Female caste differences are inversely correlated with the number of males produced in the first brood. It is proposed that the sexual dimorphism of solitary forms is being usurped by the female caste system of species in the process of turning social. Thus, caste differences and summer male suppression are greatest in the social species originating from solitary precursors with distinct sexual dimorphism, and are least in species evolving from solitary ancestors with a continuous sexual polymorphism.

  20. Method and mold for casting thin metal objects

    Pehrson, Brandon P; Moore, Alan F


    Provided herein are various embodiments of systems for casting thin metal plates and sheets. Typical embodiments include layers of mold cavities that are oriented vertically for casting the metal plates. In some embodiments, the mold cavities include a beveled edge such that the plates that are cast have a beveled edge. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled with a molten metal through an open horizontal edge of the cavity. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled through one or more vertical feed orifices. Further disclosed are methods for forming a thin cast metal plate or sheet where the thickness of the cast part is in a range from 0.005 inches to 0.2 inches, and the surface area of the cast part is in a range from 16 square inches to 144 square inches.

  1. Microdefects in cast multicrystalline silicon

    Wolf, E.; Klinger, D.; Bergmann, S. [Inst. of Crystal Growth Berlin (Germany)


    The microdefect etching behavior of cast multicrystalline BAYSIX and SILSO samples is mainly the same as that of EFG silicon, in spite of the very different growth parameters applied to these two techniques and the different carbon contents of the investigated materials. Intentional decorating of mc silicon with copper, iron and gold did not influence the results of etching and with help of infrared transmission microscopy no metal precipitates at the assumed microdefects could be established. There are many open questions concerning the origin of the assumed, not yet doubtless proved microdefects.

  2. Caste in Itself, Caste and Class, or Caste in Class

    Ramkrishna Mukherjee


    After the British conquered Bengal and eventually the whole of India,they set out to administer the colony. In this context they encountered two phenomena with which they were not familiar: (1) the relation of people to land for production (and not for revenue receiving, household living, etc.), and (2) the caste system of India, viz. the jati strati?cation of society.

  3. 自动优化露天矿短期进度计划的渐进细化法%Progressive Thinning Algorithm for Automatic Optimization of Short-Term Scheduling of Open-Pit Mine

    孙效玉; 张维国; 孙梦红


    The current status of open-pit mine technology was analyzed,and the best approach for open-pit mine production schedule that combines computer aided design and mathematical programming was proposed.In order to resolve the existing problem of open pit mine production scheduled using integer programming and 0-1 integer programming in order of time period,a progressive thinning algorithm for optimizing the open-pit mine production schedule was proposed.Also,the progress of progressive thinning algorithm was discussed and the corresponding 0-1 integer programming model was established.The model was solved by calling LindoAPI mathematical software under the Visual C+ + programming environment.This 0-1 integer programming method has higher computing speed and meets the requirement for detailed industrial design.%分析了露天矿生产计划技术现状,提出计算机辅助设计法与数学规划法有机结合是制定露天生产进度计划的最佳手段.针对整数规划和具有前后时段顺序的0-1整数规划在露天矿生产进度计划应用中存在的问题,提出了渐进细化的生产进度计划优化方法,论述了渐进细化过程,建立了相应的0-1整数规划模型.在VC++环境下通过调用LindoAPI实现模型求解,该细化0-1整数规划方法,较前后时段0-1整数规划方法提高了计算速度,满足设计细化需要.

  4. 78 FR 4165 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Arturo Mine Project...


    ...: Barrick-Dee Mining Venture Inc., proposes to develop the Arturo Mine Project by expansion of the existing open-pit Dee Gold Mine which is currently in closure and reclamation. The Dee Gold Mine is 45...

  5. Longwall mining



    As part of EIA`s program to provide information on coal, this report, Longwall-Mining, describes longwall mining and compares it with other underground mining methods. Using data from EIA and private sector surveys, the report describes major changes in the geologic, technological, and operating characteristics of longwall mining over the past decade. Most important, the report shows how these changes led to dramatic improvements in longwall mining productivity. For readers interested in the history of longwall mining and greater detail on recent developments affecting longwall mining, the report includes a bibliography.

  6. Comparing the co-evolution of production and test code in open source and industrial developer test processes through repository mining

    Van Rompaey, B.; Zaidman, A.E.; Van Deursen, A.; Demeyer, S.


    This paper represents an extension to our previous work: Mining software repositories to study coevolution of production & test code. Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Testing, Verification, and Validation (ICST), IEEE Computer Society, 2008; doi:10.1109/ICST.2008.47 Engineeri

  7. A cast orientation index.

    Ivanhoe, J R; Mahanna, G K


    This article describes a technique that allows multiple master casts to be precisely oriented to the same path of insertion and withdrawal. This technique is useful in situations where multiple fixed prosthodontic preparations require surveyed restorations and a single master cast is not available.

  8. Higher Education's Caste System

    Iannone, Ron


    In this article, the author discusses the history of the present caste system in higher education. He shows how the public's perception of this caste system is based on image and not usually on the quality of teaching and curriculum in colleges and universities. Finally, he discusses a model for accessibility to higher education and how higher…

  9. Caste and power

    Roy, Dayabati


    This paper explores the institution of caste and its operation in a micro-level village setting of West Bengal, an Indian state, where state politics at grass roots level is vibrant with functioning local self-government and entrenched political parties. This ethnographic study reveals that caste...

  10. Multi-layers castings

    J. Szajnar


    Full Text Available In paper is presented the possibility of making of multi-layers cast steel castings in result of connection of casting and welding coating technologies. First layer was composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy, which was put directly in founding process of cast carbon steel 200–450 with use of preparation of mould cavity method. Second layer were padding welds, which were put with use of TIG – Tungsten Inert Gas surfacing by welding technology with filler on Ni matrix, Ni and Co matrix with wolfram carbides WC and on the basis on Fe-Cr-C alloy, which has the same chemical composition with alloy, which was used for making of composite surface layer. Usability for industrial applications of surface layers of castings were estimated by criterion of hardness and abrasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral.

  11. 露天矿土-岩复合逆倾边坡空间形态优化%Space Shape Optimization of the Soil-rock Composite Reverse Dip Slope in Open-pit Mine

    曹兰柱; 李广贺; 王东


    In view of the shape design of the boundary slope of the soil-rock composite reverse dip slope in the open-pit mine,the landslide model and stability of soil rock composite reverse dip slope in Dalianhe Open-pit Coal Mine is studied by a-dopting the method of rigid body limit equilibrium and three-dimensional numerical simulation. The study is based on the engi-neering practice of the compound reverse dip slope of the north slope of outer dump and the top slope of the stope in Dalianhe open-pit coal mine,by which the safety of the mining of coal resources of the north to boundary slope is guaranteed. The study results show that for the compound reverse dip slope of the north slope of outer dump and the top slope of the stope in Dalianhe open-pit coal mine,the landslide model is circular sliding;in order to meet the safety requirements, the mining slope angle should be up to 33°;the failure form of rock mass is the composition of tension and shear. At the foot of slope,local rock mass destruction should be done due to the stress concentration caused by the rock mass weight and it is the inducing factor of the whole slope failure.%针对露天矿土-岩复合逆倾边坡到界边坡形态设计问题,结合达连河露天煤矿外排土场北帮—采场顶帮复合逆倾边坡的工程实际,基于刚体极限平衡与三维数值模拟的手段,研究了露天矿土-岩复合逆倾边坡的滑坡模式及稳定性规律,设计了最终边坡形态,确保北帮到界过程中煤炭资源回采的安全。研究结果表明:达连河露天煤外排土场北帮—采场顶帮复合逆倾边坡的滑坡模式为圆弧滑动;使外排土场北帮—采场顶帮复合逆倾边坡满足安全要求的采场边坡角为33°;露天矿土-岩复合逆倾边坡岩体的破坏形式为拉张-剪切复合型,岩体自重作用下的坡脚处应力集中造成的局部岩体破坏是整体边坡失稳的诱发因素。

  12. Mineral Classification of Land Surface Using Multispectral LWIR and Hyperspectral SWIR Remote-Sensing Data. A Case Study over the Sokolov Lignite Open-Pit Mines, the Czech Republic

    Gila Notesco


    Full Text Available Remote-sensing techniques offer an efficient alternative for mapping mining environments and assessing the impacts of mining activities. Airborne multispectral data in the thermal region and hyperspectral data in the optical region, acquired with the Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS sensor over the Sokolov lignite open-pit mines in the Czech Republic, were analyzed. The emissivity spectrum was calculated for each vegetation-free land pixel in the longwave infrared (LWIR-region image using the surface-emitted radiation, and the reflectance spectrum was derived from the visible, near-infrared and shortwave-infrared (VNIR–SWIR-region image using the solar radiation reflected from the surface, after applying atmospheric correction. The combination of calculated emissivity, with the ability to detect quartz, and SWIR reflectance spectra, detecting phyllosilicates and kaolinite in particular, enabled estimating the content of the dominant minerals in the exposed surface. The difference between the emissivity values at λ = 9.68 µm and 8.77 µm was found to be a useful index for estimating the relative amount of quartz in each land pixel in the LWIR image. The absorption depth at around 2.2 µm in the reflectance spectra was used to estimate the relative amount of kaolinite in each land pixel in the SWIR image. The resulting maps of the spatial distribution of quartz and kaolinite were found to be in accordance with the geological nature and origin of the exposed surfaces and demonstrated the benefit of using data from both thermal and optical spectral regions to map the abundance of the major minerals around the mines.

  13. Monitoring of surface movement in a large area of the open pit iron mines (Carajás, Brazil) based on A-DInSAR techniques using TerraSAR-X data

    Mura, José C.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Gama, Fabio F.; Silva, Guilherme G.


    PSI (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry) analysis of large area is always a challenging task regarding the removal of the atmospheric phase component. This work presents an investigation of ground deformation measurements based on a combination of DInSAR Time-Series (DTS) and PSI techniques, applied in a large area of open pit iron mines located in Carajás (Brazilian Amazon Region), aiming at detect high rates of linear and nonlinear ground deformation. These mines have presented a historical of instability and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mines (pit walls) have been carried out based on ground based radar and total station (prisms). By using a priori information regarding the topographic phase error and phase displacement model derived from DTS, temporal phase unwrapping in the PSI processing and the removal of the atmospheric phases can be performed more efficiently. A set of 33 TerraSAR-X-1 images, acquired during the period from March 2012 to April 2013, was used to perform this investigation. The DTS analysis was carried out on a stack of multi-look unwrapped interferogram using an extension of SVD to obtain the Least-Square solution. The height errors and deformation rates provided by the DTS approach were subtracted from the stack of interferogram to perform the PSI analysis. This procedure improved the capability of the PSI analysis to detect high rates of deformation as well as increased the numbers of point density of the final results. The proposed methodology showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in a large mining area, which is located in a rain forest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for planning and risks control.

  14. 露天煤矿卡车路段行程时间的实时动态预测新方法%A new method of real-time dynamic forecast of truck link travel time in open mines

    薛雪; 孙伟; 梁睿


    针对露天煤矿卡车优化调度中重要的行程时间预测问题,考虑影响卡车行程时间的各种因素,建立卡车行程时间预测模型,利用最小二乘支持向量回归算法(LS-SVR)和选择性集成学习思想,提出一种基于最小二乘支持向量回归的选择性集成学习算法实现卡车行程时间的动态预测。并在实际采集的露天煤矿数据上进行实验,得到较高的预测精度,说明了算法的有效性。%Aiming at travel time prediction problem in optimal dispatching of truck in open coal mines, a truck travel time prediction model which considered various truck travel time influencing factors was built. Using least squares sup- port vector regression(LS-SVR) algorithm and selectivity ensemble learning concept, this paper proposed a truck trav- el time dynamic prediction method realized by selectivity ensemble learning algorithm based on least squares support vector regression. Experiments were done using the practical data acquired from open coal mines. Higher prediction ac- curacy was obtained, and the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm was proved.

  15. Open-pit Mine Bench Blasting Design and the Application based on Three-dimensional Model%基于三维模型的露天矿台阶爆破设计及其应用

    段玉贤; 李发本


    Based on three-dimensional orebody modeling technology,the blast-hole distributing and blasting network design of open-pit mine bench blasting was studied.Which had been successfully used in blasting project design at 1414 northern bench of Sandaozhuang Open-pit Mine of Luoyang Luanchuan Molybdenum Industry Group Co,Ltd.The result indicated that the blasting design system blasting plan is scientific and effective,and the blasting design working efficiency has been improved greatly.%基于三维矿体建模技术,针对露天矿台阶爆破的布孔和爆破网络设计展开研究,并在洛钼集团三道庄露天矿1414台阶北部的爆破工程设计中成功应用。实践表明,该爆破设计系统爆破方案科学有效,大大提高了爆破设计工作效率。

  16. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    Tan Derui


    Full Text Available In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast iron, ductile cast iron, brass, cupronickel alloy (Packtong, etc. According to their surface decorative techniques they can be devided into gem inlay, gilding, gold and silver inlay, copper inlay, engraved decoration, surface tin-enrichment, mother-of-pearl inlay, burnished works with gold or silver inlay, surface coloring and cloisonné enamel, etc.

  17. Caste in Itself, Caste and Class, or Caste in Class

    Ramkrishna Mukherjee


    Full Text Available After the British conquered Bengal and eventually the whole of India,they set out to administer the colony. In this context they encountered two phenomena with which they were not familiar: (1 the relation of people to land for production (and not for revenue receiving, household living, etc., and (2 the caste system of India, viz. the jati strati?cation of society.

  18. Survey of nine surface mines in North America. [Nine different mines in USA and Canada

    Hayes, L.G.; Brackett, R.D.; Floyd, F.D.


    This report presents the information gathered by three mining engineers in a 1980 survey of nine surface mines in the United States and Canada. The mines visited included seven coal mines, one copper mine, and one tar sands mine selected as representative of present state of the art in open pit, strip, and terrace pit mining. The purpose of the survey was to investigate mining methods, equipment requirements, operating costs, reclamation procedures and costs, and other aspects of current surface mining practices in order to acquire basic data for a study comparing conventional and terrace pit mining methods, particularly in deeper overburdens. The survey was conducted as part of a project under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023 titled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  19. 平朔东露天矿作业环境与安全管理%Working environment and safety management in East Pingshuo Open-pit Mine

    马海渊; 刘果


    Safety management cannot be separated from the working environment, which directly affects the effectiveness of safety management. This article analyzes the safety problems of working environment and presents the measures of improving the working environment to improve the construction level of safe type mines and ensure the sustained and healthy development of the mines.%安全管理离不开作业环境,作业环境直接影响着安全管理的成效,通过对东露天矿作业环境安全隐患进行分析,提出改善作业环境的措施,从而提高本质安全型矿山的建设水平,保障矿山持续健康发展。

  20. Radon Emission from Coal Mines of Kuzbass Region

    Portola, V. A.; Torosyan, E. S.; Antufeyev, V. K.


    The article represents the results of a research in radionuclides concentration in coal and rocks of Kuzbass mines as well as radon concentration in operative mines and mined-out spaces. It is proved that radon concentration in mines is considerably higher than in the atmosphere and it rises drastically in the mined-out spaces. It is found out that radon is carried out from mines by ventilation flows and from open pits, generating anomalous concentrations over self-ignition areas.

  1. Clean Metal Casting

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian


    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  2. Inorganic carbon and fossil organic carbon are source of bias for quantification of sequestered carbon in mine spoil

    Vindušková, Olga; Frouz, Jan


    Carbon sequestration in mine soils has been studied as a possibility to mitigate the rising atmospheric CO2 levels and to improve mine soil quality (Vindu\\vsková and Frouz, 2013). Moreover, these soils offer an unique opportunity to study soil carbon dynamics using the chronosequence approach (using a set of sites of different age on similar parent material). However, quantification of sequestered carbon in mine soils is often complicated by fossil organic carbon (e.g., from coal or kerogen) or inorganic carbon present in the spoil. We present a methodology for quantification of both of these common constituents of mine soils. Our recommendations are based on experiments done on post-mining soils in Sokolov basin, Czech Republic. Here, fossil organic carbon is present mainly as kerogen Type I and II and represents 2-6 wt.% C in these soils. Inorganic carbon in these soils is present mainly as siderite (FeCO3), calcite (CaCO3), and dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2). All of these carbonates are often found in the overburden of coal seams thus being a common constituent of post-mining soils in the world. Vindu\\vsková O, Frouz J, 2013. Soil carbon accumulation after open-cast coal and oil shale mining in Northern Hemisphere: a quantitative review. ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH SCIENCES, 69: 1685-1698. Vindu\\vsková O, Dvořáček V, Prohasková A, Frouz J. 2014. Distinguishing recent and fossil organic matter - A critical step in evaluation of post-mining soil development - using near infrared spectroscopy. ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING. 73: 643-648. Vindu\\vsková O, Sebag D, Cailleau G, Brus J, Frouz J. 2015. Methodological comparison for quantitative analysis of fossil and recently derived carbon in mine soils with high content of aliphatic kerogen. ORGANIC GEOCHEMISTRY, 89-90:14-22.

  3. Symptomatic stent cast.

    Keohane, John


    Biliary stent occlusion is a major complication of endoscopic stent insertion and results in repeat procedures. Various theories as to the etiology have been proposed, the most frequently studied is the attachment of gram negative bacteria within the stent. Several studies have shown prolongation of stent patency with antibiotic prophylaxis. We report the case of stent occlusion from a cast of a previously inserted straight biliary stent; a "stent cast" in an 86-year-old woman with obstructive jaundice. This was retrieved with the lithotrypter and she made an uneventful recovery. This is the first reported case of a biliary stent cast.

  4. Symptomatic stent cast.

    Keohane, John; Moore, Michael; O'Mahony, Seamus; Crosbie, Orla


    Biliary stent occlusion is a major complication of endoscopic stent insertion and results in repeat procedures. Various theories as to the etiology have been proposed, the most frequently studied is the attachment of gram negative bacteria within the stent. Several studies have shown prolongation of stent patency with antibiotic prophylaxis. We report the case of stent occlusion from a cast of a previously inserted straight biliary stent; a "stent cast" in an 86-year-old woman with obstructive jaundice. This was retrieved with the lithotrypter and she made an uneventful recovery. This is the first reported case of a biliary stent cast.


    Shuck, A.B.


    A device is described that is specifically designed to cast uraniumn fuel rods in a vacuunn, in order to obtain flawless, nonoxidized castings which subsequently require a maximum of machining or wastage of the expensive processed material. A chamber surrounded with heating elements is connected to the molds, and the entire apparatus is housed in an airtight container. A charge of uranium is placed in the chamber, heated, then is allowed to flow into the molds While being rotated. Water circulating through passages in the molds chills the casting to form a fine grained fuel rod in nearly finished form.

  6. Bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings

    S. Pietrowski


    Full Text Available In these paper the possibility of upper and lower bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings are presented. Conditions, when in cast iron with carbides castings during continuous free air cooling austenite transformation to upper bainite or its mixture with lower bainte proceeds, have been given. A mechanism of this transformation has been given, Si, Ni, Mn and Mo distribution in the eutectic cell has been tested and hardness of tested castings has been determined.

  7. The Ankle Injury Management (AIM) trial: a pragmatic, multicentre, equivalence randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation comparing close contact casting with open surgical reduction and internal fixation in the treatment of unstable ankle fractures in patients aged over 60 years.

    Keene, David J; Mistry, Dipesh; Nam, Julian; Tutton, Elizabeth; Handley, Robert; Morgan, Lesley; Roberts, Emma; Gray, Bridget; Briggs, Andrew; Lall, Ranjit; Chesser, Tim Js; Pallister, Ian; Lamb, Sarah E; Willett, Keith


    BACKGROUND Close contact casting (CCC) may offer an alternative to open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) surgery for unstable ankle fractures in older adults. OBJECTIVES We aimed to (1) determine if CCC for unstable ankle fractures in adults aged over 60 years resulted in equivalent clinical outcome compared with ORIF, (2) estimate cost-effectiveness to the NHS and society and (3) explore participant experiences. DESIGN A pragmatic, multicentre, equivalence randomised controlled trial incorporating health economic evaluation and qualitative study. SETTING Trauma and orthopaedic departments of 24 NHS hospitals. PARTICIPANTS Adults aged over 60 years with unstable ankle fracture. Those with serious limb or concomitant disease or substantial cognitive impairment were excluded. INTERVENTIONS CCC was conducted under anaesthetic in theatre by surgeons who attended training. ORIF was as per local practice. Participants were randomised in 1 : 1 allocation via remote telephone randomisation. Sequence generation was by random block size, with stratification by centre and fracture pattern. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Follow-up was conducted at 6 weeks and, by blinded outcome assessors, at 6 months after randomisation. The primary outcome was the Olerud-Molander Ankle Score (OMAS), a patient-reported assessment of ankle function, at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were quality of life (as measured by the European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions, Short Form questionnaire-12 items), pain, ankle range of motion and mobility (as measured by the timed up and go test), patient satisfaction and radiological measures. In accordance with equivalence trial US Food and Drug Administration guidance, primary analysis was per protocol. RESULTS We recruited 620 participants, 95 from the pilot and 525 from the multicentre phase, between June 2010 and November 2013. The majority of participants, 579 out of 620 (93%), received the allocated treatment; 52 out of 275 (19%) who received CCC later

  8. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron

    Zhou Jiyang; Liu Jincheng


    White Cast Iron (Ⅰ) White cast iron or ‘white iron' refers to the type of cast iron in which all of the carbon exists as carbide;there is no graphite in the as-cast structure and the fractured surface shows a white colour.White cast iron can be divided in three classes:· Normal white cast iron — this iron contains only C,Si,Mn,P and S,with no other alloying elements.· Low-alloy white cast iron — the total mass fraction of alloying elements is less than 5%.

  9. Dynamic and Comprehensive Optimization of Ultimate Pit Limit for Complex Multi-metal Open-pit Mine%复杂多金属露天矿山最终境界动态综合优化

    杨彪; 罗周全; 陆广; 刘晓明; 鹿浩


    为了将矿岩时间属性准确加入到复杂多金属露采矿山境界优化过程中,提出了基于矿床块体模型的动态综合优化方法.采用当量品位的方式将多金属元素转化为综合当量品位并对矿床块模型进行经济参数赋值,运用L-G图论法通过矿石售价折扣的方式获得一系列静态方案,研究分析了复杂矿山的开采工艺并对各方案编排进度计划,统计计算各方案年现金流,经贴现获得净现值(NPV),综合分析各方案NPV及资源回收情况确定最优方案,实现复杂多金属露天矿山最终境界的动态综合优化圈定.基于生产进度计划的境界动态优化方法与矿山实际生产紧密结合,其优化结果可为矿山设计及未来生产提供更好的基础支撑,为露采矿山最优境界寻找开辟了一条新的途径.%In order to accurately endow the time attribute of ore and rock into the limit optimization process of complex multi-metal open pit mining limit, a dynamic limit optimization method was proposed based on the deposit block model.Multi-metal element was transformed into synthetic grade equivalent and economic parameters were given into the deposit block model. A series of static scenarios were obtained with discount of ore price by L - G graph theory method. Mining technology was studied for complex mine and progress schedule was prepared for each scenario. After calculating annual cash flow for each program, NPV was obtained by discounting. Optimal scenario was defined by analyzing the NPV and resource recover rate of each scenario. The dynamic limit optimization method based on production schedule is closely combined with practice of ore production, the optimization result provides a better and strong basis for mining design and production, which is a new way for the optimization of open-pit limit.

  10. 露天矿泥岩路基双重改性研究%Double modification for mudstone roadbed of open pit mines

    杨建林; 王来贵; 李喜林; 张鹏


    为了对露天矿临时性公路泥岩路基进行改良,提高泥岩路基的力学强度和耐崩解性,提出了双重改性方法。采用XRD、激光共聚焦显微镜、SEM、红外光谱仪、静态水接触角试验、力学性能测试等手段对改性前后泥岩的成分、微观结构、憎水性、膨胀率和抗剪强度等特征进行表征,分析了不同改性方法对泥岩改性的微观机理。结果表明:改性前泥岩浸水10 min崩解成碎屑,有机改性和双重改性后泥岩浸水2 d表面无明显变化,无机改性后泥岩浸水2 d周围有崩解碎屑产生;有机改性和双重改性后泥岩的润湿角由2.6°分别增加为116.3°和119.4°,而无机改性后润湿角仅为4.5°;经过有机改性、无机改性和双重改性,膨胀率由改性前的16.7%分别减小为11.2%,4.2%和2.4%;改性前泥岩的抗剪强度随含水率的增加而减小,改性后抗剪强度随含水率的增加先升高后降低,双重改性对抗剪强度的提高最明显,含水率为25%时泥岩改性效果最好。有机改性时岩粒表面形成一层非极性憎水膜,但泥岩的抗剪强度提高幅度较小;无机改性时泥岩内部孔隙被三维网状凝胶结构填充,力学强度明显提高,但耐崩解性提高幅度较小;双重改性综合了有机改性和无机改性的优点,力学强度和耐崩解性显著提高。%Mudstone can soften and break down in contact with water. This behaviour is frequently encountered in mudstone roadbed engineering of open pit mines. It is highly important to improve the mechanical properties of mudstone. By using the X-ray diffractometer, three-dimensional laser topography measurement instrument, scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, static water contact angle tests and mechanical experiments, the mudstone was characterized to investigate its change rules of composition, topography, contact angle, swelling ratio and

  11. Discussion on the management method of life cycle in the open mining building stone ore based on large-scale customized mining%大规模定制化采矿的全寿命周期管理方法探讨

    廖福源; 王国锋; 邵建峰; 姚绍武


    建筑用石料矿山因采用露天开采方式,对环境的影响直观、明显,而受社会关注,近年来浙江省审时度势及时调整了矿产开发的思路,由环保与开发并重转变为环保优先条件下的开发.本文通过对基于大规模定制化采矿思路的露天开采建筑用石料矿全寿命周期管理方法的探讨,实现露天开采建筑用石料矿山开发企业、用户和社会公众多赢的局面,促进矿山企业转型升级,达到资源可持续利用促进经济社会可持续发展的目标.%Building stone ore, which adopt the way of surfacing mining, has caused extensive social concerns due to its obvious environmental impacts. In recent years, Zhejiang province has turned the ideas of mineral development from environment protection and development has same significance into give more priority to environmental protection rather than development according to the changing situation. To achieve the situation of multilateral win in enterprises, users and public, promote the transformation and upgrading of mining enterprises, and reach the goal of sustainable utilization of resources and sustainable development of social economic, we discussed the management method of life cycle in the open mining building stone ore based on the large-scale customized mining ideas.

  12. EST2uni: an open, parallel tool for automated EST analysis and database creation, with a data mining web interface and microarray expression data integration

    Nuez Fernando


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed sequence tag (EST collections are composed of a high number of single-pass, redundant, partial sequences, which need to be processed, clustered, and annotated to remove low-quality and vector regions, eliminate redundancy and sequencing errors, and provide biologically relevant information. In order to provide a suitable way of performing the different steps in the analysis of the ESTs, flexible computation pipelines adapted to the local needs of specific EST projects have to be developed. Furthermore, EST collections must be stored in highly structured relational databases available to researchers through user-friendly interfaces which allow efficient and complex data mining, thus offering maximum capabilities for their full exploitation. Results We have created EST2uni, an integrated, highly-configurable EST analysis pipeline and data mining software package that automates the pre-processing, clustering, annotation, database creation, and data mining of EST collections. The pipeline uses standard EST analysis tools and the software has a modular design to facilitate the addition of new analytical methods and their configuration. Currently implemented analyses include functional and structural annotation, SNP and microsatellite discovery, integration of previously known genetic marker data and gene expression results, and assistance in cDNA microarray design. It can be run in parallel in a PC cluster in order to reduce the time necessary for the analysis. It also creates a web site linked to the database, showing collection statistics, with complex query capabilities and tools for data mining and retrieval. Conclusion The software package presented here provides an efficient and complete bioinformatics tool for the management of EST collections which is very easy to adapt to the local needs of different EST projects. The code is freely available under the GPL license and can be obtained at http

  13. Text Mining.

    Trybula, Walter J.


    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  14. The External Effects Model of Diesel Consumption of Transport Trucks in Open-pit Mine%露天矿运输卡车柴油消耗的外部影响模型

    温廷新; 戚磊; 邵良杉


    To establish a nonlinear model between the diesel consumption of transport trucks in open-pit mine and its main external influence factors,the support vector regression ( SVR) method is adopted,and the statistical data of actual pro-duction and dispatcher in a domestic open-pit coal mine are taken as original samples. With selection of output,volume,dis-tance,height,loading time,fuel up amount,rock volume as seven main external indexes,and by using the factor analysis meth-od to extract common factors as the input of the model,the training process of diesel consumption model is analyzed to make the simulation training through programming the corresponding program in MATLAB and finally get the diesel consumption model based on SVR. The training and testing results show that:the model can meet the precision requirement,and work well on the diesel consumption calculation and prediction of transportation truck in open-pit mine;This model can provide decision support for reasonable production schedule and guide to reduce the diesel consumption.%为建立露天矿运输卡车柴油消耗与其主要外部影响因素之间的非线性模型,采用回归型支持向量机( SVR)方法,并以国内某露天煤矿实际生产调度统计的数据作为原始样本,选取产量、运量、运距、高差、装车时间、加油量、岩量等7个主要外部影响指标,使用因子分析方法提取公共因子作为模型的输入,分析柴油消耗模型的训练过程,通过在MATLAB上编写相应程序并进行仿真训练,最终得出基于SVR的柴油消耗模型。训练和测试结果表明:该模型满足精度要求,能够很好地对露天矿运输卡车的柴油消耗进行计算和预测,可以为进行合理的生产调度提供决策支持,同时也为降低柴油消耗提供指导作用。

  15. Analysis on the Platform Subsidence about Western Dump in Open-underground Combine Mining%露井联采区西排土场平台沉陷状况分析

    韩静; 白中科; 李晋川


    以平朔安家岭煤矿露井联采区为例,针对露井联采区西排土场顶部平台沉陷进行实地调查,利用CorelDraw制图软件测算样地内裂缝面积,从裂缝总面积,裂缝占样地面积比两方面进行比较,并从矿区地质构造、排土场构造、采掘工艺三方面对形成沉陷的原因进行分析,发现沉陷和裂缝情况很严重,排土场地质构造比较简单易形成裂缝;其非均匀沉降及综采放顶采煤方法扰动剧烈,导致地表沉陷.最后根据实际情况提出了防治措施和补偿机制,为今后的复垦工作提供理论依据.%The article take open-underground combine mining of Anjialingcoal mine as the example, investigated on the top platform area's subsidence and compared the aggregately cranny area to percent of aggregately area. The CorelDraw drawing software was used to calculate plot of cranny area. Analysis statistically formed subsidence and damaged character from the geological structure, the structure of dump and digging technique. The results showed that subsidence and cranny were very serious, geological structure of dump was easy to cranny and surfaced subsidence because of its non-uniform settlement and fierce artificial disturbancing of mining method. Finally, according to the actual situation, the prevention measure and compensation mechanism were presented, thus provides theoretical basis for the future re- ■ claimed work.

  16. Analysis of key technologies and development of integrated digital processing system for cast blasting design

    丁小华; 李克民; 肖双双; 狐为民


    Casting blast can greatly reduce the stripping cost and improve the production capacity of opencast coal mines. Key technologies including high bench blasting, inclined hole, millisecond blasting, pre-splitting blasting and casting blast parameters determination which have influence on the effect of casting blast have been researched with the combination of the ballistic theory and experience in mines. The integrated digital processing system of casting blast was developed in order to simplify the design process of casting blast, improve working efficiency and veracity of design result and comprehensively adopt the software programming method and the theory of casting blast. This system has achieved five functions, namely, the 3D visualization graphics management, the intelligent management of geological information, the intelligent design of casting blast, the analysis and prediction of the blasting effect and the automatic output of the design results. Long-term application in opencast coal mines has shown that research results can not only reduce the specific explosive consumption and improve the blasting effect, but also have high value of popularization and application.

  17. 电动卡车运输双电源技术在露天煤矿中的可行性分析%Feasibility Analysis of Electric Truck with Dual Power Supply in Open-pit Mine



    分析中煤集团某露天矿燃油消耗及电动卡车的使用特点,阐明其双电源电动卡车在露天开采中的可行性,为煤炭行业“节能降耗,降本增效”提供新思路。%The paper analyzed fuel consumption and electric truck features in an open-pit mine in China Coal Group and presented the feasibility of the electric truck with dual power supply, which could contribute to Energy Saving and Consumption Reduction, Cost Cutting and Benefit Increasing in coal enterprises.

  18. Experimental study of impact of underground mining on stability of open pit slope%井工开采对露天矿边坡稳定性影响的试验研究



    The open pit slope stability is one of the main problems for the safe production of coal mine project. It has become the main factor of production in coal mine. Taking working face 29211 of Anjialing open pit for example, the impact of underground mining on deformation and rupture process of open pit slope is analyzed by similar material model test. Similar model tests results show that the“arch”structure formed by overburden deformation leads to a great horizontal displacement toward the free surface of slope;and it also results in varying degrees of tensile failure. When working face 29211 advancing to reasonable stopping line 2, local cracks appear in the slope rock mass. The clacks gradually run through and extend to the bottom of the slope when advancing to design stopping line. So, reasonable stopping line 2 is suitable for the location of the stop mining. The above of working face 29211 is the biggest settlement; and the maximum amount of subsidence is about 8 m. The slope which includes through cracks has an extruded trend. The results provide theoretical guidances for safety of open pit exploitation.%露天边坡的稳定性是关乎矿山安全生产的重要因素之一。以安家岭露天煤矿29211工作面开采为例,采用相似材料模型试验研究方法,研究井工开采对露天矿边坡变形破裂过程的影响。试验结果表明:29211采面的推进使得上覆岩层发生垮落和下沉变形,形成“拱式”结构,对边坡产生较大的水平推力作用,导致边坡向临空面方向发生较大的水平位移,同时也造成了边坡不同程度的拉裂和沉降变形;当29211工作面推进至合理停采线2时,边坡岩体内出现局部裂缝,推进至设计停采线时,边坡岩体内裂缝已逐渐形成并贯通至坡底,因此,29211工作面推进至合理停采线2时为适宜停采位置;29211工作面开采完毕后工作面中部正上方沉降量最大,边坡

  19. Possibility of reconstruction of dental plaster cast from 3D digital study models

    Kasparova, Magdalena; Grafova, Lucie; Dvorak, Petr; Dostalova,Tatjana; Prochazka, Ales; Eliasova, Hana; Prusa, Josef; Kakawand, Soroush


    Objectives To compare traditional plaster casts, digital models and 3D printed copies of dental plaster casts based on various criteria. To determine whether 3D printed copies obtained using open source system RepRap can replace traditional plaster casts in dental practice. To compare and contrast the qualities of two possible 3D printing options – open source system RepRap and commercially available 3D printing. Design and settings A method comparison study on 10 dental plaster casts from th...

  20. Groundwater flowing the forefield of the CSA mine (North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin in the Czech Republic)

    Zizka, L.; Halir, J. [Brown Coal Research Inst., Most (Czech Republic)


    The North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin is home to one of the largest active open cast mines in the Czech Republic. Groundwater flow in the quaternary sediments is causing stability problems in the upper overburden at the mine. A 3-D geological model was used to simulate groundwater flow in the area. The lithological characteristics and hydrogeological conditions of the mine were also considered in order to identify areas that may pose risks during the extraction of mineral resources. The simulation focused on the characterization of the quaternary and crystalline aquifer collectors located in the region of the mine. The study showed that groundwater flow is influenced by the configuration of the quaternary floor, as well as by the deposition and character of the basin sediments and crystalline rocks. The donation area corresponds with the mountain slopes. Groundwater flow is influenced by disruptions in the crystalline roof with quaternary sediments. The quaternary aquifer will be dewatered in order to ensure the future safety of the mine. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Studying mathematical model of mine and quarry pneumatic lifting equipment in "skip - guidance devices" systems

    Kitaeva, Mariya Valerievna; Nikolaev, Yu. A.; Taranov, A. V.; Mehtiev, A. D.


    There are two basic ways of mining: open pit and underground in the mining industry: open pit and underground. Underground mining less profitable, however, it is more environmentally friendly. In addition, this method is essentially inevitable due to the fact that the major mineral reserves are at greater depths and in the future will need to solve the problems of development of mineral deposits deep mines. The development of the mining sector and the deepening of mining operations require a ...

  2. Research on Transport System Risk Factors of Open-pit Mine Based on W-R-SHEL%基于W-R-SHEL的露天矿山运输系统风险因素研究

    姜立春; 任晓会


    Personnel, machinery, environment, management and other aspects are related with Open-pit mine transport system accident. According to the fact that Open-pit mine transport system is complex and has high accident rate, human factors are chosen as the focus of risk factors analysis, a new risk factors I-dentification model is proposed based on the combination of WBS and R-SHEL model. With this model, risk factors of a large domestic aluminum mine' 8 transport system were identified, five first-level indexes, thirteen second-level indexes, forty third-level indexes were determined, risk factors'comprehensive evaluation was achieved by using three -scale IAHP and fuzzy mathematics, the comprehensive evaluation results are consistent with the practical situation.%露天矿山运输系统事故原因涉及人、机、环、管等多个环节.基于运输系统复杂、高事故率这一实际情况,以人为因素作为风险因素的分析中心,在总结传统人为风险因素辨识模型存在不足的基础上,提出基于工作分解结构(WBS)与R-SHEL相结合的风险因素辨识模型.将模型具体应用在国内某大型铝土矿山运输系统风险因素研究中,确定5个一级因素指标、13个二级因素指标及40个三级因素指标,采用三级标度IAHP与模糊(fuzzy)相结合的方法实现指标体系中风险因素的综合评判,得出综合评判结果与现场实际情况基本相符.

  3. Production Scheduling Optimization of Open Pit Coal Mines Considering the Ecological Costs%考虑生态成本的露天煤矿生产计划优化

    王青; 胥孝川; 顾晓薇; 刘剑平


    在给定的露天矿境界中做生产计划,就是确定每年采场的推进位置、采剥量。不同的生产计划,每年的采剥量和采场推进位置也就不同,造成每年采场、排土场的破坏面积以及每年的污染物排放量不同,从而引发不同程度的生态破坏。鉴于此,首先基于一个已知最优境界,使用锥体排除法产生一系列地质最优开采体并进行动态排序;然后采用动态规划法对某大型露天煤矿设计多个生产方案,同时根据矿山环境破坏的时空顺序,建立矿山生态足迹和生态成本计算模型,评估生产方案与环境压力之间的相互影响关系。研究表明,不同的生产设计方案对矿山生态冲击不同,且生态成本占矿山总净现值比例较大,同时生态成本对优化方案的选择产生影响。%For a given boundary of the open pit,production scheduling is made to determine the advancing position and the striping and mining of the pit each year. Different production scheduling has different advancing positions and capacity of mining and stripping,resulting in different damage areas of stope and waste dump and the emissions of pollutants each year. All these cause some degree of ecological damage. In view of these,according to the optimum boundary obtained,a series of pits with optimum geological feature have been produced and realized dynamic sequencing by the cone exclusive method. Then a dynamic programming was used to design multiple production schemes for a large open pit coal mine. According to the space-time sequence of mine environment damage,mine ecological footprint and cost models were constructed to assess the relation-ship between the production program and the environment. The results show that different production scheduling has different ecological impacts and the ecological costs take a larger proportion of the total net value. At the same time, ecological costs have an impact on the

  4. Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian


    The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

  5. GIS-based 3D limit equilibrium analysis for design optimization of a 600 m high slope in an open pit mine

    Meifeng Cai; Mowen Xie; Chunlei Li


    Combining the GIS (geographic information systems) grid-based data with four proposed column-based 3D slope stability analysis models,a comprehensive solution of a high-steep open-pit slope has been obtained.For six searching ranges,19 critical slip surfaces of different sizes have been studied,in which the minimum 3D safety factor is 1.33.Comparison of 3D safety factors of designed and proposed slope plans shows for all the critical slip surfaces for the proposed plan,the smallest 3D safety factor is 1.33 under the most unfavorable condition.This means that the proposed plan of the high slopes,about 600 m,of an open pit (2-5°steeper than designed plan) is feasible.

  6. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron

    Zhou Jiyang; Ph.D Liu Jincheng


    @@ Note: This book consists of five sections: Chapter 1 Introduction, Chapter 2 Grey Iron, Chapter 3 Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron, Chapter 4 Vermicular Cast Iron, and Chapter 5 White Cast Iron. CHINA FOUNDRY publishes this book in several parts serially, starting from the first issue of 2009.

  7. Evaluation of an improved centrifugal casting machine.

    Donovan, T E; White, L E


    A Type III gold alloy, a silver-palladium alloy, and a base metal alloy were cast in two different centrifugal casting machines. With the number of complete cast mesh squares as an indicator of castability, the Airspin casting machine produced superior castings with all three alloys. The base metal alloy produced the greatest number of complete squares with both casting machines.

  8. Optimization model of GNSS/pseudolites structure design for open-pit mine positioning%露天矿定位的GNSS/伪卫星结构优化模型

    单正英; 韩厚增; 姜昆


      提出新的露天矿GNSS/伪卫星组合定位系统的结构优化模型。通过引入空间位置精度因子(Pdop)与可靠性作为优化指标,建立多目标优化模型用于选择伪卫星的最优位置。在考虑实际环境的情况下,建立以方位角(a)、高度角(e)和历元(t)为自变量,Pdop为因变量的四维模型,并用于最优伪卫星布设带的选择。通过分析Pdop随时间的变化特征,最终确定最优的伪卫星布设位置。利用中国矿业大学校园内实测的天宝R8 GPS 数据测试模型的有效性,评价系统结构指标的变化规律,并将该模型用于抚顺矿业集团的西露天矿GNSS/伪卫星系统布设试验。通过模型优化可在降低成本的同时提高集成系统的整体性能,分析表明Pdop与可靠性都得到了有效提高。%A new pseudolites (PLs) structure optimization model of global navigation satellite system (GNSS)/PLs integration positioning system used in deep open-pit mine was presented. Position dilution of precision (Pdop) and reliability were selected as the optimization indicators to build a multi-objective optimization model to decide the optimum PLs location. A scheme was designed by establishing a four-dimensional model taking azimuth (a), elevation angle (e) and epoch (t) of satellites as the input independent variables and Pdop as the dependent variable to calculate the optimum PLs location zone considering the real circumstances. And then the ultimate PLs location can be fixed by testing the curves of Pdop along time. A field collected Trimble R8 GPS data set in China University of Mining and Technology (CUMT) campus was used for the model test to show the effectiveness, and the proposed PLs optimum design scheme was used at the west open-pit mine of Fushun mining group Co., Ltd., in China, better Pdop and reliability have been achieved for the integration system. Both experiments show that the proposed scheme is excellent in designing

  9. 降雨对某露天矿风化砂质边坡稳定性影响规律研究%Effect of Rainfall on the Stability of an Open-pit Mine's Weathered Sandy Slope

    李雪梅; 陈玉明; 袁利伟; 毛肖杰


    Slope stability is of great significance to the mine safety production. Upon choosing reasonable parameters and boundary conditions, a slope stability numerical model is established to simulate the slope rainfall infiltrations, the distribution of slip plane and slip line of an open-pit tungsten mine under different the conditions of different rainfalls and durations by applying slope stability analysis software Geo-studio. The safety factor of slope under different working conditions and influencing rule of rainfall infiltration on slope stability are obtained, which provides theoretical basis for the slope stability analysis. The safety factor results worked out from different slope stability analysis methods are compared, which showed the identical tendency.%边坡稳定性对矿山安全生产具有重要意义。文章结合云南某露天钨矿工程概况,应用边坡分析软件GEO-Studio,选择合理的参数及边界条件,建立边坡稳定性分析数值模型,模拟在不同降雨量、不同降雨持续时间条件下边坡的降雨入渗情况以及边坡滑移面、滑移线分布情况,得到在不同工况条件下边坡的安全系数及降雨渗流对边坡稳定性影响的规律,了解边坡失稳破坏的过程,为边坡稳定性分析提供理论依据。同时对比分析采用不同的边坡稳定性分析方法计算安全系数的结果,得出结果基本一致。

  10. Fisher Matrix Preloaded -- Fisher4Cast

    Bassett, Bruce A; Hlozek, Renée; Kotze, Jacques


    The Fisher Matrix is the backbone of modern cosmological forecasting. We describe the Fisher4Cast software: a general-purpose, easy-to-use, Fisher Matrix framework. It is open source, rigorously designed and tested and includes a Graphical User Interface (GUI) with automated LATEX file creation capability and point-and-click Fisher ellipse generation. Fisher4Cast was designed for ease of extension and, although written in Matlab, is easily portable to open-source alternatives such as Octave and Scilab. Here we use Fisher4Cast to present new 3-D and 4-D visualisations of the forecasting landscape and to investigate the effects of growth and curvature on future cosmological surveys. Early releases have been available at since May 2008 with 750 downloads in the first year. Version 2.0 is made public with this paper and includes a Quick Start guide and the code used to produce the figures in this paper, in the hope that it will be useful to the cosmology and wider scientific communitie...

  11. The casting of western sculpture during the XIXth century: sand casting versus lost wax casting

    Beentjes, T.P.C.


    This paper will discuss research into bronze casting techniques as practiced during the XIXth and early XXth century. Both natural sand casting (fonte au sable naturel) and lost wax casting (fonte à la cire perdue) were employed during this period and sometimes rivalled for commissions. Before the X

  12. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron

    Zhou Jiyang; Liu Jincheng


    @@ Chapter 3 Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron(I) Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron, SG iron in short, refers to the cast iron in which graphite precipitates as spheroidal shape during solidification of liquid iron. The graphite in common commercial cast iron can only be changed from flake to spheroidal shape by spheroidising treatment. Since spheroidal graphite reduces the cutting effect of stress concentration, the metal matrix strength of SG iron can be applied around 70%-90%, thus the mechanical property of SG iron is significantly superior to other cast irons;even the tensile strength of SG iron is higher than that carbon steel.

  13. 基于PGA-ANFIS的露天矿山生产成本优化控制研究%Optimization Control Research for Production Cost of Open Pit Mine Based on Parallel Genetic Algorithms and Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System

    游友珍; 戴剑勇


    According to the influencing factors of open-pit mine production process and production cost,the mine production cost model is set up with adaptive fuzzy inference sys-tem,then,the parameters of the model are optimized by parallel genetic algorithm,which realize the minimization of production cost of open-pit mine. With the cement raw material mine as an example,it successfully realized the optimization of production cost and techni-cal economic parameters of open-pit mine,which not only effectively reduced the produc-tion cost of mine,but also provided important reference for production cost control of manu-facturing enterprises.%根据露天矿山生产工艺流程及生产成本影响因素,运用自适应模糊推理系统建立矿山生产成本系统模型,应用并行遗传算法优化模型参数,实现露天矿山生产成本最小化。并以水泥原料矿山为例,成功实现了露天矿山生产成本与技术经济参数的优化问题,这不仅有效地降低了矿山生产成本,而且为制造企业生产成本控制提供了重要参考价值。

  14. Visualization of Heave Compensation System for Heavy Lifting Mine Pipeline Based on OpenGL%基于OpenGL的海洋采矿升沉补偿可视化系统

    张榕; 刘少军; 廖春蓝



  15. Development of 2D casting process CAD system based on PDF/image files

    Tang Hongtao; Zhou Jianxin; Wang Lin; Liao Dunming; Tao Qing


    A casting process CAD is put forward to design and draw casting process. The 2D casting process CAD, most of the current systems are developed based on one certain version of the AutoCAD system. However the application of these 2D casting process CAD systems in foundry enterprises are restricted because they have several deficiencies, such as being overly dependent on the AutoCAD system, and some part files based on PDF format can not be opened directly. To overcome these deficiencies, for the first time an innovative 2D casting process CAD system based on PDF and image format file has been proposed, which breaks through the traditional research and application notion of the 2D casting process CAD system based on AutoCAD. Several key technologies of this system such as coordinate transformation, CAD interactive drawing, file storage, PDF and image format files display, and image recognition technologies were described in detail. A practical 2D CAD casting process system named HZCAD2D(PDF) was developed, which is capable of designing and drawing the casting process on the part drawing based on the PDF format directly, without spending time on drawing the part produced by AutoCAD system. Final y, taking two actual castings as examples, the casting processes were drawn using this system, demonstrating that this system can significantly shorten the cycle of casting process designing.

  16. Melting and casting of FeAl-based cast alloy

    Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilkening, D. [Columbia Falls Aluminum Co., Columbia Falls, MT (United States); Liebetrau, J.; Mackey, B. [AFFCO, L.L.C., Anaconda, MT (United States)


    The FeAl-based intermetallic alloys are of great interest because of their low density, low raw material cost, and excellent resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and molten salts. The applications based on these unique properties of FeAl require methods to melt and cast these alloys into complex-shaped castings and centrifugal cast tubes. This paper addresses the melting-related issues and the effect of chemistry on the microstructure and hardness of castings. It is concluded that the use of the Exo-Melt{trademark} process for melting and the proper selection of the aluminum melt stock can result in porosity-free castings. The FeAl alloys can be melted and cast from the virgin and revert stock. A large variation in carbon content of the alloys is possible before the precipitation of graphite flakes occurs. Titanium is a very potent addition to refine the grain size of castings. A range of complex sand castings and two different sizes of centrifugal cast tubes of the alloy have already been cast.

  17. Melting and casting of FeAl-based cast alloy

    Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.; Wilkening, D. [Columbia Falls Aluminum Co., 2000 Aluminum Dr., Columbia Falls, MT 59912 (United States); Liebetrau, J.; Mackey, B. [AFFCO, L.L.C., P.O. Box 1071, Anaconda, MT 59711 (United States)


    The FeAl-based intermetallic alloys are of great interest because of their low density, low raw material cost, and excellent resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and molten salts. The applications based on these unique properties of FeAl require methods to melt and cast these alloys into complex-shaped castings and centrifugal cast tubes. This paper addresses the melting-related issues and the effect of chemistry on the microstructure and hardness of castings. It is concluded that the use of the Exo-Melt{sup TM} process for melting and the proper selection of the aluminum melt stock can result in porosity-free castings. The FeAl alloys can be melted and cast from the virgin and revert stock. A large variation in carbon content of the alloys is possible before the precipitation of graphite flakes occurs. Titanium is a very potent addition to refine the grain size of castings. A range of complex sand castings and two different sizes of centrifugal cast tubes of the alloy have already been cast. (orig.) 18 refs.

  18. Research of Rotary Drill Navigation System in Open-pit Mine based on GNSS%基于GNSS的露天矿牙轮钻机钻孔导航定位模型与系统研究

    吴浩; 李奎; 陶婧; 张建华; 叶海旺; 艾晓宗; 黎华; 鲍光明


    In order to improve the drilling accuracy and simplify the construction process,a rotary drill navigation system based on GNSS technology was proposed which closely related to the efficient production in open-pit mine. On the basis of establishing the architecture of system,a location model contains planar positioning and depth positioning was put forward. In addition,the function of system was detailed discussed which included graphical display,informa-tion management,navigation and quality evaluation. Development of such a system had a significant impact on drilling process by assisting driver navigation in real-time,which has helped in productivity improvement and decreased extra work. Besides,it has provided a construction management for blasting designer which was meaningful to the digitali-zation monitoring in open-pit mine.%从提高露天矿穿孔工艺质量角度出发,采用GNSS卫星导航定位方法,设计并开发出用于支持牙轮钻机钻孔作业的导航定位系统。介绍了系统的组成结构,重点阐述了支持钻头实时导航的平面定位模型和孔深定位模型,并讨论其具备的图形显示、信息管理、导航定位和质量评估四个核心功能。该系统可以为司机实时提供牙轮机钻头的三维空间位置,指导其钻孔作业全过程,不仅保证了爆破孔网参数的准确性和爆破效果,而且减轻人员工作强度,提高露天矿穿孔工作效率,提升数字矿山的信息化建设水平。

  19. [Casting faults and structural studies on bonded alloys comparing centrifugal castings and vacuum pressure castings].

    Fuchs, P; Küfmann, W


    The casting processes in use today such as centrifugal casting and vacuum pressure casting were compared with one another. An effort was made to answer the question whether the occurrence of shrink cavities and the mean diameter of the grain of the alloy is dependent on the method of casting. 80 crowns were made by both processes from the baked alloys Degudent Universal, Degudent N and the trial alloy 4437 of the firm Degusa. Slice sections were examined for macro and micro-porosity and the structural appearance was evaluated by linear analysis. Statistical analysis showed that casting faults and casting structure is independent of the method used and their causes must be found in the conditions of casting and the composition of the alloy.

  20. Light metal compound casting



    'Compound casting'simplifies joining processes by directly casting a metallic melt onto a solid metal substrate. A continuously metallurgic transition is very important for industrial applications, such as joint structures of spaceframe constructions in transport industry. In this project, 'compound casting' of light metals is investigated, aiming at weight-saving. The substrate used is a wrought aluminium alloy of type AA5xxx, containing magnesium as main alloying element. The melts are aluminium alloys, containing various alloying elements (Cu, Si, Zn), and magnesium. By replacing the natural oxygen layer with a zinc layer, the inherent wetting difficulties were avoided, and compounds with flawless interfaces were successfully produced (no contraction defects, cracks or oxides). Electron microscopy and EDX investigations as well as optical micrographs of the interfacial areas revealed their continu-ously metallic constitution. Diffusion of alloying elements leads to heat-treatable microstructures in the vicinity of the joining interfaces in Al-Al couples. This permits significant variability of mechanical properties. Without significantly cutting down on wettability, the formation of low-melting intermetallic phases (Al3Mg2 and AI12Mg17 IMPs) at the interface of Al-Mg couples was avoided by applying a protec-tive coating to the substrate.

  1. Bimetallic layered castings alloy steel – carbon cast steel

    T. Wróbel


    Full Text Available In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast processso-called method of mould cavity preparation. Prepared castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer. The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. ferritic-pearlitic carbon cast steel, whereas working part (layer is plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X10CrNi 18-8. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working part is 8:1. The quality of the bimetallic layered castings was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic NDT (non-destructive testing, structure and macro- and microhardness researches.

  2. Casting larger polycrystalline silicon ingots

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Tomlinson, T.; Cliber, J.; Shea, S.; Narayanan, M.


    Solarex has developed and patented a directional solidification casting process specifically designed for photovoltaics. In this process, silicon feedstock is melted in a ceramic crucible and solidified into a large grained semicrystalline silicon ingot. In-house manufacture of low cost, high purity ceramics is a key to the low cost fabrication of Solarex polycrystalline wafers. The casting process is performed in Solarex designed casting stations. The casting operation is computer controlled. There are no moving parts (except for the loading and unloading) so the growth process proceeds with virtually no operator intervention Today Solarex casting stations are used to produce ingots from which 4 bricks, each 11.4 cm by 11.4 cm in cross section, are cut. The stations themselves are physically capable of holding larger ingots, that would yield either: 4 bricks, 15 cm by 15 an; or 9 bricks, 11.4 cm by 11.4 an in cross-section. One of the tasks in the Solarex Cast Polycrystalline Silicon PVMaT Program is to design and modify one of the castings stations to cast these larger ingots. If successful, this effort will increase the production capacity of Solarex`s casting stations by 73% and reduce the labor content for casting by an equivalent percentage.


    Sadiq Hussain


    Full Text Available Educational Data Mining is a growing trend in ca se of higher education. The quality of the Educational Institute may be enhanced through discovering hidden knowledge from the student databases/ data warehouses. Present paper is designed to carry out a comparative study with the TDC (Three Year Degr ee C ourse students of different colleges affiliated to Dibrugarh University. The study is conducted with major subject wise, gender wise and category/caste wise. The experimental results may be visualized with Scatterplot3D, Bubble Plot, Fit Y by X, Run Chart, Control Chart etc. of the SAS JMP Software

  4. Development of soils after reforestation in the course of reclamation of disturbed post-mining sites; Bodenentwicklung nach forstlicher Rekultivierung im Zuge der nachbergbaulichen Inwertsetzung gestoerter Landschaften

    Huettl, R.; Bens, O.; Gerwin, W. [Brandenburgische Technische Universitaet Cottbus (DE). Forschungszentrum Bergbaulandschaften (FZB); Schneider, B.U.


    In Lusatia (eastern Germany), large-scale open-cast lignite mining operations generate spoil dumps widely consisting of acidified, phytotoxic substrates. Comprehensive amelioration and rehabilitation measures were developed and applied to these substrates since the 1950s. The restoration of surface mining landscapes requires the (re)creation of ecosystems. However, it is still not clear wether these approaches are sustainable. This contribution reports on collaborative research into the ecological potential of forest ecosystem development on typical minesites in the Lusatian lignite district. At first sight, pine stands on minesites along a chronosequence comprising about 40 years did not show differences compared to stands on non-mined sites of the general region. Furthermore, with some modification, conceptual models for flora and fauna succession in forest stands on non-mined sites seem to be applicable, at least for the early stages of forest ecosystem development on these disturbed areas. In contrast, mine soils are very different compared to non-mined soils of the general region. Chemically, mine soil development is dominated by processes originating from pyrite oxidation. Geogenic, i.e. lignitic, soil carbon was shown to substitute for some functions of recently formed pedogenic soil organic matter. Rooting was significantly hampered but not completely impeded in strongly acidified soil compartments. Roots and mycorrhizae are apparently able to make use of the characteristic heterogeneity of young mine soils. Considering these recent results and the knowledge accumulated during more than 30 years of research on minesite rehabilitation internationally, it can be stated that minesite restoration might be used as an ideal case study for terrestrial ecosystem development starting at 'point zero' on 'terra nova'. (orig.)

  5. Fabrication of plain carbon steel/high chromium white cast iron bimetal by a liquid-solid composite casting process

    V Javaheri; H Rastegari; M Naseri


    High-chromium white cast iron (HCWCI) is one of the most widely used engineering materials in the mining and cement indus-tries. However, in some components, such as the pulverizer plates of ash mills, the poor machinability of HCWCI creates difficulties. The bimetal casting technique is a suitable method for improving the machinability of HCWCI by joining an easily machined layer of plain car-bon steel (PCS) to its hard part. In this study, the possibility of PCS/HCWCI bimetal casting was investigated using sand casting. The inves-tigation was conducted by optical and electron microscopy and non-destructive, impact toughness, and tensile tests. The hardness and chemical composition profiles on both sides of the interface were plotted in this study. The results indicated that a conventional and low-cost casting technique could be a reliable method for producing PCS/HCWCI bimetal. The interfacial microstructure comprised two distinct lay-ers:a very fine, partially spheroidized pearlite layer and a coarse full pearlite layer. Moreover, characterization of the microstructure revealed that the interface was free of defects.

  6. A numerical solution to integrated water flows: Application to the flooding of an open pit mine at the Barcés river catchment - La Coruña, Spain

    Hernández, J.-Horacio; Padilla, Francisco; Juncosa, Ricardo; Vellando, Pablo R.; Fernández, Álvaro


    SummaryThis research and practical application is concerned with the development of a physically-based numerical model that incorporates new approaches for a finite element solution to the steady/transient problems of the joint surface/groundwater flows of a particular region with the help of a Geographic Information Systems to store, represent, manage and take decisions on all the simulated conditions. The proposed surface-subsurface model considers surface and groundwater interactions to be depth-averaged through a novel interpretation of a linear river flood routing method. Infiltration rates and overland flows generation processes are assessed by a sub-model which accounts for this kind of surface-groundwater interactions. Surface-groundwater interactions consider also novel evaporation and evapotranspiration processes as a diffuse discharge from surface water, non-saturated subsoil and groundwater table. The practical application regards the present flooding of the Meirama open pit, a quite deep coal mining excavation, with freshwater coming from the upper Meirama sub-basin, in the context of the water resources fate and use at the Barcés river catchment (˜87.9 km2), Coruña, Spain. The developed model MELEF was applied to the complex geology of a pull-apart type sedimentary tertiary valley and the whole of the water resources of the Barcés River drainage basin, down to its outlet at the Cecebre Reservoir. Firstly, the model was adapted and calibrated during a simulation period of three and a half years (2006/2009) with the aid of the historically registered hydrological parameters and data. Secondly, the results predict the most likely forthcoming evolution of the present flooding of the Meirama open pit to reach therein a total depth level of almost 200 m, as regards the projected evolution of the water resources, climatology and usages.

  7. Social big data mining

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi


    Social Media. Big Data and Social Data. Hypotheses in the Era of Big Data. Social Big Data Applications. Basic Concepts in Data Mining. Association Rule Mining. Clustering. Classification. Prediction. Web Structure Mining. Web Content Mining. Web Access Log Mining, Information Extraction and Deep Web Mining. Media Mining. Scalability and Outlier Detection.

  8. The Cogemagazine reviews. The rehabilitation of mining sites in France; Les cahiers de Cogemagazine. Le reamenagement des sites miniers en France

    Loriot, O.; Bof, M.; Villeneuve, A


    The French uranium mines are progressively closing down. After a mining division has closed down, the main objectives of the Cogema group are: ensuring the long-term safety and healthiness of the site, reducing the residual impacts, preventing any abusive intrusion, reducing the surface of land submitted to right-of-way, encouraging the reconversion of the site, and succeeding in the integration of the site in the landscape in agreement with the local authorities. This brochure presents the strategy followed by Cogema for the rehabilitation of his sites: the French mining concessions and the uranium extraction and processing techniques, the storage of tailings and processing residues, the environment protection and the respect of regulation (environmental surveillance, working groups, administrative procedures and regulatory texts, impact studies...), the backfilling and safety of underground mines, the cost studies for the rehabilitation of open cast mines, the dismantling of factories, the confinement of residues and the revegetation, the continuous monitoring of the rehabilitated sites (water, atmosphere, food..). (J.S.)

  9. Assessment of the capability of remote sensing and GIS techniques for monitoring reclamation success in coal mine degraded lands.

    Karan, Shivesh Kishore; Samadder, Sukha Ranjan; Maiti, Subodh Kumar


    The objective of the present study is to monitor reclamation activity in mining areas. Monitoring of these reclaimed sites in the vicinity of mining areas and on closed Over Burden (OB) dumps is critical for improving the overall environmental condition, especially in developing countries where area around the mines are densely populated. The present study evaluated the reclamation success in the Block II area of Jharia coal field, India, using Landsat satellite images for the years 2000 and 2015. Four image processing methods (support vector machine, ratio vegetation index, enhanced vegetation index, and normalized difference vegetation index) were used to quantify the change in vegetation cover between the years 2000 and 2015. The study also evaluated the relationship between vegetation health and moisture content of the study area using remote sensing techniques. Statistical linear regression analysis revealed that Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) coupled with Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) is the best method for vegetation monitoring in the study area when compared to other indices. A strong linear relationship (r(2) > 0.86) was found between NDVI and NDMI. An increase of 21% from 213.88 ha in 2000 to 258.9 ha in 2015 was observed in the vegetation cover of the reclaimed sites for an open cast mine, indicating satisfactory reclamation activity. NDVI results indicated that vegetation health also improved over the years.

  10. Mercury and trace element contents of Donbas coals and associated mine water in the vicinity of Donetsk, Ukraine

    Kolker, Allan [U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Panov, Boris S.; Panov, Yuri B.; Korchemagin, Viktor A.; Shendrik, Tatiana [Department of Mineral Deposits and Ecological Geology, Donetsk National Technical University, Donetsk, 83000 (Ukraine); Landa, Edward R.; Conko, Kathryn M. [U.S. Geological Survey, 430 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); McCord, Jamey D. [U.S. Geological Survey, 973 Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States)


    Mercury-rich coals in the Donets Basin (Donbas region) of Ukraine were sampled in active underground mines to assess the levels of potentially harmful elements and the potential for dispersion of metals through use of this coal. For 29 samples representing c{sub 11} to m{sub 3} Carboniferous coals, mercury contents range from 0.02 to 3.5 ppm (whole-coal dry basis). Mercury is well correlated with pyritic sulfur (0.01 to 3.2 wt.%), with an r{sup 2} of 0.614 (one outlier excluded). Sulfides in these samples show enrichment of minor constituents in late-stage pyrite formed as a result of interaction of coal with hydrothermal fluids. Mine water sampled at depth and at surface collection points does not show enrichment of trace metals at harmful levels, indicating pyrite stability at subsurface conditions. Four samples of coal exposed in the defunct open-cast Nikitovka mercury mines in Gorlovka have extreme mercury contents of 12.8 to 25.5 ppm. This coal was formerly produced as a byproduct of extracting sandstone-hosted cinnabar ore. Access to these workings is unrestricted and small amounts of extreme mercury-rich coal are collected for domestic use, posing a limited human health hazard. More widespread hazards are posed by the abandoned Nikitovka mercury processing plant, the extensive mercury mine tailings, and mercury enrichment of soils extending into residential areas of Gorlovka. (author)

  11. Mercury and trace element contents of Donbas coals and associated mine water in the vicinity of Donetsk, Ukraine

    Kolker, A.; Panov, B.S.; Panov, Y.B.; Landa, E.R.; Conko, K.M.; Korchemagin, V.A.; Shendrik, T.; McCord, J.D.


    Mercury-rich coals in the Donets Basin (Donbas region) of Ukraine were sampled in active underground mines to assess the levels of potentially harmful elements and the potential for dispersion of metals through use of this coal. For 29 samples representing c11 to m3 Carboniferous coals, mercury contents range from 0.02 to 3.5 ppm (whole-coal dry basis). Mercury is well correlated with pyritic sulfur (0.01 to 3.2 wt.%), with an r2 of 0.614 (one outlier excluded). Sulfides in these samples show enrichment of minor constituents in late-stage pyrite formed as a result of interaction of coal with hydrothermal fluids. Mine water sampled at depth and at surface collection points does not show enrichment of trace metals at harmful levels, indicating pyrite stability at subsurface conditions. Four samples of coal exposed in the defunct open-cast Nikitovka mercury mines in Gorlovka have extreme mercury contents of 12.8 to 25.5 ppm. This coal was formerly produced as a byproduct of extracting sandstone-hosted cinnabar ore. Access to these workings is unrestricted and small amounts of extreme mercury-rich coal are collected for domestic use, posing a limited human health hazard. More widespread hazards are posed by the abandoned Nikitovka mercury processing plant, the extensive mercury mine tailings, and mercury enrichment of soils extending into residential areas of Gorlovka.

  12. Feasibility research on composite artificial boundary crown pillars in the transfer from open-pit to underground mining%露天转地下开采复合型人工境界顶柱可行性研究

    毛肖杰; 陈玉明; 吴爱梅


    针对传统露天转地下开采过程中留设的天然境界矿柱回采率低、损失大的缺点,在参考国内外相关文献的基础上,通过相关的技术经济比较和 FLAC3D 数值模拟分析,讨论了一种主要以钢筋混凝土为结构的人工境界顶柱代替天然境界矿柱作为境界顶柱的经济性和安全性。可行性研究结论可为类似工程设计时参考。%Natural boundary crown pillars set in the conventional transfer from open-pit to underground mining lead to low extraction rate and high ore loss.To solve the problem,the paper refers to related literature home and a-broad,compares technical indicators,conducts numerical simulation by FLA3D,and discusses the economy and safety of using artificial boundary crown pillars structured mainly by steel and concrete instead of natural crown pillars as boundary crown pillars.The feasibility research conclusion can be referred to in the design of similar projects.

  13. Slope stability analysis and optimum design in Dading open-pit iron mine%大顶铁矿露天采场边坡稳定性分析与优化设计

    蔡美峰; 朱青山; 乔兰; 李长洪; 王金安; 谭文辉


    The slope of Dading open-pit iron mine in south China has the characteristic of low rock strength and bad stability. Its basic information on engineering-geological conditions, hydro-geological conditions and rock mass structures together with physical and mechanical properties of rock mass was derived from systematical field and laboratory investigations, experiments and tests. Stability analysis and optimum design were done for the slope by using a combined method of numerical modeling and limit equilibrium analysis. The slope angle increases more than 3° compared with the original design.%针对大顶铁矿露天采场边坡岩体强度低、稳定性差的特点,在系统的现场工程地质、水文地质、岩体结构与岩性分布调查和岩石物理力学性质试验基础上,采用符合现代岩石力学原理的数值模拟和极限平衡相结合的方法,进行边坡稳定性和设计优化研究,并推荐了该矿的边坡设计方案.总体边坡角比原设计平均提高3°以上.

  14. dispel4py : An Open Source Python Framework for Encoding, Mapping and Reusing Seismic Continuous Data Streams: Intensive Analysis and Data Mining.

    Filgueira, R.; Krause, A.; Atkinson, M.; Spinuso, A.; Klampanos, I.; Magnoni, F.; Casarotti, E.; Vilotte, J. P.


    Scientific workflows are needed by many scientific communities, such as seismology, as they enable easy composition and execution of applications, enabling scientists to focus on their research without being distracted by arranging computation and data management. However, there are challenges to be addressed. In many systems users have to adapt their codes and data movement as they change from one HPC-architecture to another. They still need to be aware of the computing architectures available for achieving the best application performance. We present dispel4py, an open-source framework presented as a Python library for encoding and automating data-intensive scientific methods as a graph of operations coupled together by data-streams. It enables scientists to develop and experiment with their own data-intensive applications using their familiar work environment. These are then automatically mapped to a variety of HPC-architectures, i.e., MPI, multiprocessing, Storm and Spark frameworks, increasing the chances to reuse their applications in different computing resources. dispel4py comes with data provenance, as shown in the screenshot, and with an information registry that can be accessed transparently from within workflows. dispel4py has been enhanced with a new run-time adaptive compression strategy to reduce the data stream volume and a diagnostic tool which monitors workflow performance and computes the most efficient parallelisation to use. dispel4py has been used by seismologists in the project VERCE for seismic ambient noise cross-correlation applications and for orchestrated HPC wave simulation and data misfit analysis workflows; two data-intensive problems that are common in today's research practice. Both have been tested in several local computing resources and later submitted to a variety of European PRACE HPC-architectures (e.g. SuperMUC & CINECA) for longer runs without change. Results show that dispel4py is an easy tool for developing, sharing and

  15. Protocols for the remediation of lands impacted by former coal mining operations, Sydney coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Forgeron, S. [Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, Sydney, NS (Canada)


    Abandoned underground coal mines can pose health and safety risks to persons working in close proximity to the former mining operations. This paper described protocols used to address potential coal mining hazards at the Sydney coal field in Nova Scotia (NS). The protocols document was developed by a mine workings group consisting of government agencies, consultants, and the owners of the mine site. Hazards at the mine included unstable ground caused by the collapse of abandoned coal mine workings; unsecured abandoned mine openings; potential accidental discharges of untreated mine waters; and the potential release of hazardous mine gases. A 5 remediation protocol process was established to include (1) information gathering, (2) an initial mine site investigation, (3) a mine workings report, (4) a detailed mine site investigation, and (5) a mine openings remediation. The protocols can be used to identify the potential hazards posed during investigations and remediation activities. 26 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Fracture Mechanisms in Steel Castings

    Z. Stradomski


    Full Text Available The investigations were inspired with the problem of cracking of steel castings during the production process. A single mechanism of decohesion - the intergranular one - occurs in the case of hot cracking, while a variety of structural factors is decisive for hot cracking initiation, depending on chemical composition of the cast steel. The low-carbon and low-alloyed steel castings crack due to the presence of the type II sulphides, the cause of cracking of the high-carbon tool cast steels is the net of secondary cementite and/or ledeburite precipitated along the boundaries of solidified grains. Also the brittle phosphor and carbide eutectics precipitated in the final stage solidification are responsible for cracking of castings made of Hadfield steel. The examination of mechanical properties at 1050°C revealed low or very low strength of high-carbon cast steels.

  17. Measurements for monitoring ground motion resulting from mining operations in the Rhenish brown coal district; Messungen zur Ueberwachung von bergbaubedingten Bodenbewegungen im rheinischen Braunkohlenbergbau

    Duddek, H.; Schaefer, W. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)


    Coal mining in the Rhenish brown coal district resulted in loose rock slopes with a total height of more than 350 m. Mining operations caused ground motion in open-cast mines, in the slopes and in the region ahead of the face. Internal dumping caused motions of the floors, the overburden tip and te slopes of the open-cast mines. The deformations were measured by different methods, and the evaluations are presented here. As examples, permanent monitoring of a slope using the GEOROBOT measuring system and continuous subsidence measurements in an overburdan dump by means of hydrostatic measuring systems are presented. GEOROBOT ensures quasi-continuous measurements of slope motion with an error of 5-7 mm. Hydrostatic measuring systems on the basis of pressure sensors were developed for measurements of single overburden dump strata and the overburden dump basis during dumping. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den rheinischen Braunkohlentagebauen entstehen Lockergesteinsboeschungen mit Gesamthoehen von mehr als 350 m. Die Gewinnungstaetigkeiten verursachen Entlastungsbewegungen im Tagebau, in den Boeschungen und im Tagebauvorfeld. Die Innenverkippung fuehrt erneut zu Bodenbewegungen im Liegenden, im Kippenkoerper und im Bereich der Tagebauraender. Die auftretenden Deformationen werden mit verschiedenen Messverfahren erfasst, ausgewertet und dargestellt. Beispielhaft werden die permanente Ueberwachung einer Boeschung mittels des automatischen Messsystems GEOROBOT und kontinuierliche Setzungsmessungen in einer Tagebaukippe mit hydrostatischen Messsystemen vorgestellt. Mit GEOROBOT werden quasi kontinuierlich Boeschungsbewegungsmessungen mit einer Genauigkeit von {+-}5 bis 7 mm durchgefuehrt. Auf der Basis von Drucksensoren wurden hydrostatische Messsysteme konzipiert, mit denen Setzungen einzelner Kippscheiben und der Kippenbasis waehrend des Kippenaufbaues ermittelt werden. (orig.)

  18. Soil genesis of mine spoil, Navajo Mine, New Mexico

    Buchanan, B.A. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Stutz, H.C. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Estrada, O.J. [BHP - Utah International Inc., Fruitland, NM (United States)


    Documenting mine spoil genesis has been limited in the Western States. Few areas have {open_quotes}before{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}after{close_quotes} type data and for some mines older reclamation areas are limited. Soil samples were collected from 8-11 year old reclaimed spoil as part of a rooting depth study completed in June 1987 at the Navajo Mine. Samples were collected in 25 cm increments to depths of at least 200 cm and most often to 350 cm at a total of fifteen different reclamation plots. The spoil was composed of various amounts of shale and sandstone. The sites represented different topographic positions (swale/backslope), reclamation ages (8 to 11 years), slopes (0-15%), and topdressing treatments (with and without).

  19. Patrones de sucesión vegetal sobre los depósitos de material residual en minas de gravas - Santa Fe de Bogotá Plant succession patterns on residual open-pit gravel mines deposits Bogota

    Mora Goyes Ricardo A.


    , textura, pH, cBased on both: the study of composition and structure of plant communities and the analysis of the physico-chemical characteristics of mining wastes, the initial patterns of primary succession were determined. These patterns were present in three deposits of waste material abandoned during 18, 36 and 120 months respectively. Sue materials were originated in open-pit gravel mines located to the south of Bogota (Colombia. This study pretends to contribute to the knowledge of the meehanlsms of natural restauration of tropical ecosystems subjected to man-borne degradation.

  20. Reduction of spatial distribution of risk factors for transportation of contaminants released by coal mining activities.

    Karan, Shivesh Kishore; Samadder, Sukha Ranjan


    It is reported that water-energy nexus composes two of the biggest development and human health challenges. In the present study we presented a Risk Potential Index (RPI) model which encapsulates Source, Vector (Transport), and Target risks for forecasting surface water contamination. The main aim of the model is to identify critical surface water risk zones for an open cast mining environment, taking Jharia Coalfield, India as the study area. The model also helps in feasible sampling design. Based on spatial analysis various risk zones were successfully delineated. Monthly RPI distribution revealed that the risk of surface water contamination was highest during the monsoon months. Surface water samples were analysed to validate the model. A GIS based alternative management option was proposed to reduce surface water contamination risk and observed 96% and 86% decrease in the spatial distribution of very high risk areas for the months June and July respectively.

  1. Introduction to Agent Mining Interaction and Integration

    Cao, Longbing

    In recent years, more and more researchers have been involved in research on both agent technology and data mining. A clear disciplinary effort has been activated toward removing the boundary between them, that is the interaction and integration between agent technology and data mining. We refer this to agent mining as a new area. The marriage of agents and data mining is driven by challenges faced by both communities, and the need of developing more advanced intelligence, information processing and systems. This chapter presents an overall picture of agent mining from the perspective of positioning it as an emerging area. We summarize the main driving forces, complementary essence, disciplinary framework, applications, case studies, and trends and directions, as well as brief observation on agent-driven data mining, data mining-driven agents, and mutual issues in agent mining. Arguably, we draw the following conclusions: (1) agent mining emerges as a new area in the scientific family, (2) both agent technology and data mining can greatly benefit from agent mining, (3) it is very promising to result in additional advancement in intelligent information processing and systems. However, as a new open area, there are many issues waiting for research and development from theoretical, technological and practical perspectives.

  2. 径向射流水力压裂技术在高瓦斯矿井立井揭煤中的应用%Application of Radial Jet Hydraulic Pressurized Fracturing Technology to Seam Opening of High Gassy Mine Shaft

    李翔; 刘林松


    Nansu Mine Income Ventilation Shaft of Zhaozhuang Mine had a designed depth of 784.5 m. When the mine shaft construction was at a depth of 724.17 m ,the mine shaft sinking was stopped. The radial jet hydraulic pressurized fracturing technology was applied to the seam opening operation of an underneath No.3 seam (high gassy seam ). After the hydraulic pressurized fracturing ,the gas pre-drainage was only conducted with 35 days and the seam had the seam opening conditions. The practices showed that the fracturing technology could play a well role to the seam permeability improved ,stress released and seam pressure bump elimination. In comparison with the conventional seam opening meth‐od ,the fracturing technology could safely and rapidly make the seam with the seam opening condi‐tions.%赵庄矿南苏进风立井设计深度784.5 m。井筒施工至724.17 m深处时,停止掘进,应用径向射流水力压裂技术,对下部的3号煤层(高瓦斯煤层)进行揭煤作业。水力压裂后,仅预抽35 d ,便使煤层具备揭煤条件。实践表明,该项技术对煤层增透、应力释放、消突可起到很好的作用,与传统揭煤方法相比,能安全快速地使煤层具备揭煤条件。

  3. Development of Refractories for Continuous Casting

    TIAN Shouxin; JIN Congjin; YAO Jinfu; LI Zeya


    The paper introduces refractories for continuous casting, especially, refractories for continuous casting for clean steel in baosteel. Developing direction of refractories for continuous casting has been pointed out to satisfy the new metallurgical operating practice.

  4. Coal Mines, Active - Longwall Mining Panels

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Coal mining has occurred in Pennsylvania for over a century. A method of coal mining known as Longwall Mining has become more prevalent in recent decades. Longwall...

  5. 基于卡车运输效率的露天矿山生产效率的主要影响因素分析%The Main In Fluencing Factor Analysis of Open - pit Mine Production Efficiency Based on Truck Transportation Effieiency

    陈毓; 杨志勇; 佟德君; 张东旭


    For the present large and modern open - pii with large - scale equipments and high degree of modernization, the efficiency of most mines" equipment has not been fully developed, which affects the economic benefits of mining. Factors affecting the efficiency of the device are management and equipment operation and maintenance. Through small - scale manual calibration of local production of one work shift in domestic open - pit mine site, the factors of restricting open pit truck transportation and production efficiency are ana- lyzed, which provides data support to enhance mine productivity efficiency.%对于目前大型的现代化露天矿,设备的大型化、现代化程度高,大部分矿山的设备的效率未能充分发挥,在相当程度上影响了矿山的经济效益。影响设备效率的因素主要堤管理和设备的运营维护等问题,通过在国内某露天矿现场对某一班次局部生产进行小范围人工标定,以分析制约露天矿卡车运输生产效率的因素,为有效的提升矿山生产效率提供数据支持。

  6. Investigating MOOCs through Blog Mining

    Chen, Yong


    MOOCs (massive open online course) is a disruptive innovation and a current buzzword in higher education. However, the discussion of MOOCs is disparate, fragmented, and distributed among different outlets. Systematic, extensively published research on MOOCs is unavailable. This paper adopts a novel method called blog mining to analyze MOOCs. The…

  7. Segregation in cast products

    A Ghosh


    Microsegregation gets eliminated significantly if subsequent hot working and/or annealing are done on cast products. Macrosegregation however persists, causing problems in quality, and hence, has to be attended to. Microsegregation is a consequence of rejection of solutes by the solid into the interdendritic liquid. Scheil’s equation is mostly employed. However, other equations have been proposed, which take into account diffusion in solid phase and/or incomplete mixing in liquid. Macrosegregation results from movements of microsegregated regions over macroscopic distances due to motion of liquid and free crystals. Motion of impure interdendritic liquid causes regions of positive macrosegregation, whereas purer solid crystals yield negative macrosegregation. Flow of interdendritic liquid is primarily natural convection due to thermal and solutal buoyancy, and partly forced convection due to suction by shrinkage cavity formation etc. The present paper briefly deals with fundamentals of the above and contains some recent studies as well. Experimental investigations in molten alloys do not allow visualization of the complex flow pattern as well as other phenomena, such as dendrite-tip detachment. Experiments with room temperature analogues, and mathematical modelling have supplemented these efforts. However, the complexity of the phenomena demands simplifying assumptions. The agreement with experimental data is mostly qualitative. The paper also briefly discusses centreline macrosegregation during continuous casting of steel, methods to avoid it, and the, importance of early columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) as well as the fundamentals of CET.

  8. Biomaterials by freeze casting.

    Wegst, Ulrike G K; Schecter, Matthew; Donius, Amalie E; Hunger, Philipp M


    The functional requirements for synthetic tissue substitutes appear deceptively simple: they should provide a porous matrix with interconnecting porosity and surface properties that promote rapid tissue ingrowth; at the same time, they should possess sufficient stiffness, strength and toughness to prevent crushing under physiological loads until full integration and healing are reached. Despite extensive efforts and first encouraging results, current biomaterials for tissue regeneration tend to suffer common limitations: insufficient tissue-material interaction and an inherent lack of strength and toughness associated with porosity. The challenge persists to synthesize materials that mimic both structure and mechanical performance of the natural tissue and permit strong tissue-implant interfaces to be formed. In the case of bone substitute materials, for example, the goal is to engineer high-performance composites with effective properties that, similar to natural mineralized tissue, exceed by orders of magnitude the properties of its constituents. It is still difficult with current technology to emulate in synthetic biomaterials multi-level hierarchical composite structures that are thought to be the origin of the observed mechanical property amplification in biological materials. Freeze casting permits to manufacture such complex, hybrid materials through excellent control of structural and mechanical properties. As a processing technique for the manufacture of biomaterials, freeze casting therefore has great promise.

  9. Education and Caste in India

    Chauhan, Chandra Pal Singh


    This paper analyses the policy of reservation for lower castes in India. This policy is similar to that of affirmative action in the United States. The paper provides a brief overview of the caste system and discusses the types of groups that are eligible for reservation, based on data from government reports. The stance of this paper is that…

  10. Theory of batchwise centrifugal casting

    Biesheuvel, P. Maarten; Nijmeijer, Arian; Verweij, Henk


    In batchwise centrifugal casting a cylindrical mold is filled with suspension and rotated rapidly around its axis. This results in the movement of the particulate phase toward the cylinder wall and the formation of a tubular cast. Theory is presented for particle transport in the suspension phase an

  11. Lost Foam Casting in China

    YE Sheng-ping; WU Zhi-chao


    @@ 1. Lost Foam Casting Committee of Foundry Institution of Chinese Mechanical Engineering Society (FICMES) From the beginning of the 1990s, China entered a research and expansion climax in lost foam casting technology realm after the United States, Germany, and Japan etc.

  12. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron

    Zhou Jiyang; Liu Jincheng


    @@ This book consists of five sections:Chapter 1 Introduction,Chapter 2 Grey Iron,Chapter 3 Ductile Iron,Chapter 4Vermicular Cast Iron,and Chapter 5 White Cast Iron. CHINA FOUNDRY publishs this book in several parts serially,starting from the first issue of 2009.

  13. Process mining

    van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Rubin, V.; Verbeek, H.M.W.


    Process mining includes the automated discovery of processes from event logs. Based on observed events (e.g., activities being executed or messages being exchanged) a process model is constructed. One of the essential problems in process mining is that one cannot assume to have seen all possible...... behavior. At best, one has seen a representative subset. Therefore, classical synthesis techniques are not suitable as they aim at finding a model that is able to exactly reproduce the log. Existing process mining techniques try to avoid such “overfitting” by generalizing the model to allow for more...... behavior. This generalization is often driven by the representation language and very crude assumptions about completeness. As a result, parts of the model are “overfitting” (allow only for what has actually been observed) while other parts may be “underfitting” (allowfor much more behavior without strong...

  14. Asteroid mining

    Gertsch, Richard E.


    The earliest studies of asteroid mining proposed retrieving a main belt asteroid. Because of the very long travel times to the main asteroid belt, attention has shifted to the asteroids whose orbits bring them fairly close to the Earth. In these schemes, the asteroids would be bagged and then processed during the return trip, with the asteroid itself providing the reaction mass to propel the mission homeward. A mission to one of these near-Earth asteroids would be shorter, involve less weight, and require a somewhat lower change in velocity. Since these asteroids apparently contain a wide range of potentially useful materials, our study group considered only them. The topics covered include asteroid materials and properties, asteroid mission selection, manned versus automated missions, mining in zero gravity, and a conceptual mining method.

  15. Data mining

    Gorunescu, Florin


    The knowledge discovery process is as old as Homo sapiens. Until some time ago, this process was solely based on the 'natural personal' computer provided by Mother Nature. Fortunately, in recent decades the problem has begun to be solved based on the development of the Data mining technology, aided by the huge computational power of the 'artificial' computers. Digging intelligently in different large databases, data mining aims to extract implicit, previously unknown and potentially useful information from data, since 'knowledge is power'. The goal of this book is to provide, in a friendly way

  16. Mining Review



    In 2012, the estimated value of mineral production increased in the United States for the third consecutive year. Production and prices increased for most industrial mineral commodities mined in the United States. While production for most metals remained relatively unchanged, with the notable exception of gold, the prices for most metals declined. Minerals remained fundamental to the U.S. economy, contributing to the real gross domestic product (GDP) at several levels, including mining, processing and manufacturing finished products. Minerals’ contribution to the GDP increased for the second consecutive year.

  17. 170. anniversary of mining schools in Kielce and Dabrowa Gornicza

    Ciuk, E.


    Discusses history of the education system for mining engineers in Poland. The first school for mining engineers was founded in 1816 by Stanislaw Staszic in Kielce in the Kingdom of Poland. The Mining Academy in Kielce trained specialists for state coal mines and ore mines. The Academy existed for 10 years during which it issued 40 engineer certificates. The Academy was closed for political reasons. Traditions of the Mining Academy in Kielce were continued by the im. Stanislaw Staszic State School for Mining and Metallurgy in Dabrowa Gornicza in Upper Silesia. It was the only school for mining engineers in Poland until 1919 when the Mining Academy was opened in Cracow. History of the State School in Dabrowa Gornicza from 1889 to 1985 is discussed and its curriculum analyzed.


    J.Dong; G.M.Lu; 等


    A new method (liquidus casting)was used for 356 Al alloy semi-solid slurry mak-ing.The structures of 356 Al alloy cast by a fe mould and semi-continuous casting machine at different temperatures were inves tigated.How the globular grains form was qlso discussed.The results show that either being cast by single Fe mould or semi-continuous machine,the microstructures are not conventional dendrites but fine and net-globular grains.The average grain size is smaller than 30μm and suitable enough for thixoforming,meanwhile it can improve the mechanical properties of fol-lowing products.Under the suitable casting velocity and cooling intensity,most of global grains prolong their global browth and collide with each other before dendritic growth because of the large amount of the nucleation sites.

  19. Comparison of marginal accuracy of castings fabricated by conventional casting technique and accelerated casting technique: An in vitro study

    S Srikanth Reddy


    Full Text Available Background: Conventional casting technique is time consuming when compared to accelerated casting technique. In this study, marginal accuracy of castings fabricated using accelerated and conventional casting technique was compared. Materials and Methods: 20 wax patterns were fabricated and the marginal discrepancy between the die and patterns were measured using Optical stereomicroscope. Ten wax patterns were used for Conventional casting and the rest for Accelerated casting. A Nickel-Chromium alloy was used for the casting. The castings were measured for marginal discrepancies and compared. Results: Castings fabricated using Conventional casting technique showed less vertical marginal discrepancy than the castings fabricated by Accelerated casting technique. The values were statistically highly significant. Conclusion: Conventional casting technique produced better marginal accuracy when compared to Accelerated casting. The vertical marginal discrepancy produced by the Accelerated casting technique was well within the maximum clinical tolerance limits. Clinical Implication: Accelerated casting technique can be used to save lab time to fabricate clinical crowns with acceptable vertical marginal discrepancy.

  20. Mining Method

    Kim, Young Shik; Lee, Kyung Woon; Kim, Oak Hwan; Kim, Dae Kyung [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The reducing coal market has been enforcing the coal industry to make exceptional rationalization and restructuring efforts since the end of the eighties. To the competition from crude oil and natural gas has been added the growing pressure from rising wages and rising production cost as the workings get deeper. To improve the competitive position of the coal mines against oil and gas through cost reduction, studies to improve mining system have been carried out. To find fields requiring improvements most, the technologies using in Tae Bak Colliery which was selected one of long running mines were investigated and analyzed. The mining method appeared the field needing improvements most to reduce the production cost. The present method, so-called inseam roadway caving method presently is using to extract the steep and thick seam. However, this method has several drawbacks. To solve the problems, two mining methods are suggested for a long term and short term method respectively. Inseam roadway caving method with long-hole blasting method is a variety of the present inseam roadway caving method modified by replacing timber sets with steel arch sets and the shovel loaders with chain conveyors. And long hole blasting is introduced to promote caving. And pillar caving method with chock supports method uses chock supports setting in the cross-cut from the hanging wall to the footwall. Two single chain conveyors are needed. One is installed in front of chock supports to clear coal from the cutting face. The other is installed behind the supports to transport caved coal from behind. This method is superior to the previous one in terms of safety from water-inrushes, production rate and productivity. The only drawback is that it needs more investment. (author). 14 tabs., 34 figs.

  1. Current meter and marine toxic substances data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the North Pacific Ocean as part of the Deep Ocean Mining and Environmental Study (DOMES) project, 29 August 1975 - 01 December 1977 (NODC Accession 7800741)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and marine toxic substances data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the North Pacific Ocean from August 29, 1975...

  2. Electrochemical characterization of cast titanium alloys.

    Cai, Zhuo; Shafer, Ty; Watanabe, Ikuya; Nunn, Martha E; Okabe, Toru


    A reaction layer forms on cast titanium alloy surfaces due to the reaction of the molten metal with the investment. This surface layer may affect the corrosion of the alloy in the oral environment. The objective of this study was to characterize the in vitro corrosion behavior of cast titanium alloys. ASTM Grade 2 CP titanium, Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-7Nb and Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys were cast into a MgO-based investment. Experiments were performed on castings (N=4) with three surface conditions: (A) as-cast surface after sandblasting, (B) polished surface after removal of the reaction layer, and (C) sandblasted surface after removal of the reaction layer. Open-circuit potential (OCP) measurement, linear polarization, and potentiodynamic cathodic polarization were performed in aerated (air+10% CO(2)) modified Tani-Zucchi synthetic saliva at 37 degrees C. Potentiodynamic anodic polarization was subsequently conducted in the same medium deaerated with N(2)+10% CO(2) gas 2 h before and during the experiment. Polarization resistance (R(P)) and corrosion rate (I(CORR)) were calculated. Numerical results were subjected to nonparametric statistical analysis at alpha=0.05. The OCP stabilized for all the specimens after 6 x 10(4)s. Apparent differences in anodic polarization were observed among the different surfaces for all the metals. A passivation region followed by breakdown and repassivation were seen on specimens with surfaces A and C. An extensive passive region was observed on all the metals with surface B. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed no significant differences in OCP, R(p), I(CORR) or break down potential for each of the three surfaces among all the metals. The Mann-Whitney test showed significantly lower R(P) and higher I(CORR) values for surface C compared to the other surfaces. Results indicate that the surface condition has more effect on corrosion of these alloys than the surface reaction layer. Within the oxidation potential range of the oral cavity, all the metal

  3. Planning the Mine and Mining the Plan

    Boucher, D. S.; Chen, N.


    Overview of best practices used in the terrestrial mining industry when developing a mine site towards production. The intent is to guide planners towards an effective and well constructed roadmap for the development of ISRU mining activities. A strawman scenario is presented as an illustration for lunar mining of water ice.

  4. Coal Discovery Trail officially opens

    Gallinger, C. [Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Sparwood, BC (Canada)


    The opening of the 30-kilometre Coal Discovery Trail in August is described. The trail, through a pine, spruce, and larch forest, extends from Sparwood to Fernie and passes through Hosmer, a historic mining site. The trail, part of the Elk Valley Coal Discovery Centre, will be used for hiking, bicycling, horseback riding, and cross-country skiing. The Coal Discovery Centre will provide an interpretive centre that concentrates on history of coal mining and miners, preservation of mining artifacts and sites, and existing technology. 3 figs.

  5. Solidification process and infrared image characteristics of permanent mold castings

    Viets, Roman; Breuer, Markus; Haferkamp, Heinz; Kruessel, Thomas; Niemeyer, Matthias


    Interdependence between the development of temperature gradients at the solid-liquid interface during solidification of metals and the formation of local defects demands for thermal investigation. In foundry practice thermocouples are used to control the die's overall cooling-rate, but fluctuations in product quality still occur. Capturing FIR- thermograms after opening the die visualizes the state, when most thermal throughput has already flattened the temperature gradients in the mold. Rapid dissipation of heat from liquid metal to the mold during solidification forces further approach of the process investigation by slowing down the heat flux or the use of transparent mold material. Aluminum gravity casting experiments under technical vacuum conditions lead to decelerated solidification by suppression of convection and image sequences containing explicit characteristics that could be assigned to local shrinkage of the casting. Hence relevant clusters are extracted and thermal profiles are drawn from image series, pointing out correlations between feeding performance from the sink heads and the appearance of local defects. Tracing thermal processes in vacuum casting can scarcely be transferred to image data in foundry practice, since only little analogies exist between atmospheric and vacuum casting. The diagnosis of the casting process requires detection of the still closed mold using a transparent silica- aerogel sheet as part of the die. Hereby thermograms of the initial heat input are recorded by adapting a NIR-camera in addition to the FIR-unit. Thus the entire thermal compensation at the joint face for each casting is visualized. This experimental set-up is used for image sequence analysis related to the intermediate casting phases of mold filling, body formation and solidification shrinkage.


    E. I. Marukovich


    Full Text Available The three-dimensional numerical model for calculation of thermal fields during solidification of continuously casted bronze casting is developed. Coefficients of heat transfer on borders of calculation areas on the basis of the solution of inverse heat transfer conduction problem are determined. The analysis of thermal fields, depending on loop variables of drawing and the sizes of not cooled zone of crystallizer is curried out.


    Rikard Marušić


    Full Text Available In the paper the results of many years of archival and field investigations in the history of bauxite mining of the three authors are presented. It was established that in Istria in the valley of the river Mirna beneath the Castle of Sovinjak bauxite was exploited already 400 years ago, and that 1808 about this ore the first scientific account was published. Accordingly, the statements in the professional literature that the first bauxite mine opened 1873 in the French Provence and that the bauxite ore for the first time was scientifically described 1821 have to be revised. About this necessary revision here the essential proofs are produced.

  8. Modelling of flow phenomena during DC casting

    Zuidema, J.


    Modelling of Flow Phenomena during DC Casting Jan Zuidema The production of aluminium ingots, by semi-continuous casting, is a complex process. DC Casting stands for direct chill casting. During this process liquid aluminium transforms to solid aluminium while cooling down. This is not an instanta

  9. An ecosystem approach to evaluate restoration measures in the lignite mining district of Lusatia/Germany

    Schaaf, Wolfgang


    Lignite mining in Lusatia has a history of over 100 years. Open-cast mining directly affected an area of 1000 km2. Since 20 years we established an ecosystem oriented approach to evaluate the development and site characteristics of post-mining areas mainly restored for agricultural and silvicultural land use. Water and element budgets of afforested sites were studied under different geochemical settings in a chronosequence approach (Schaaf 2001), as well as the effect of soil amendments like sewage sludge or compost in restoration (Schaaf & Hüttl 2006). Since 10 years we also study the development of natural site regeneration in the constructed catchment Chicken Creek at the watershed scale (Schaaf et al. 2011, 2013). One of the striking characteristics of post-mining sites is a very large small-scale soil heterogeneity that has to be taken into account with respect to soil forming processes and element cycling. Results from these studies in combination with smaller-scale process studies enable to evaluate the long-term effect of restoration measures and adapted land use options. In addition, it is crucial to compare these results with data from undisturbed, i.e. non-mined sites. Schaaf, W., 2001: What can element budgets of false-time series tell us about ecosystem development on post-lignite mining sites? Ecological Engineering 17, 241-252. Schaaf, W. and Hüttl, R. F., 2006: Direct and indirect effects of soil pollution by lignite mining. Water, Air and Soil Pollution - Focus 6, 253-264. Schaaf, W., Bens, O., Fischer, A., Gerke, H.H., Gerwin, W., Grünewald, U., Holländer, H.M., Kögel-Knabner, I., Mutz, M., Schloter, M., Schulin, R., Veste, M., Winter, S. & Hüttl, R.F., 2011: Patterns and processes of initial terrestrial-ecosystem development. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 174, 229-239. Schaaf, W., Elmer, M., Fischer, A., Gerwin, W., Nenov, R., Pretsch, H. and Zaplate, M.K., 2013: Feedbacks between vegetation, surface structures and hydrology

  10. Study on Environment Characteristics for Mining Management at East Pit 3 West Banko Coal Mine

    Neny Rochyani; Eddy Ibrahim; M. Faizal; Ngudiantoro Ngudiantoro


    The management on mining environment is closely related to the environmental characteristics and the condition of mining itself.  In East PIT 3 West Banko Coal Mine Tanjung Enim mine drainage system has been developed which refers to the open pit method employed by the company. The observation and analysis showed that the sludge settling ponds have been constructed as well as adequate catchment area. To discharge water into the channel at 0.3016 m 3 / sec can still be accommodated due to the ...

  11. Casting Using A Polystyrene Pattern

    Vasquez, Peter; Guenther, Bengamin; Vranas, Thomas; Veneris, Peter; Joyner, Michael


    New technique for making metal aircraft models saves significant amount of time and effort in comparison with conventional lost-wax method. Produces inexpensive, effective wind-tunnel models. Metal wind-tunnel model cast by use of polystyrene pattern.

  12. The CAST Time Projection Chamber

    Autiero, D; Cébrian, S; Carmona, J M; Chesi, Enrico Guido; Davenport, M; Delattre, M; Di Lella, L; Formenti, F; Gomez, H; Hasinoff, M; Irastorza, I G; Lakic, B; Luzón, G; Morales, J; Musa, L; Ortiz, A; Placci, A; Rodríguez, A; Ruz, J; Villar, J A; Zioutas, K


    One of the three X-ray detectors of the CAST experiment searching for solar axions is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with a multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) as a readout structure. Its design has been optimized to provide high sensitivity to the detection of the low intensity X-ray signal expected in the CAST experiment. A low hardware threshold of 0.8 keV is safely set during normal data taking periods, and the overall efficiency for the detection of photons coming from conversion of solar axions is 62 %. Shielding has been installed around the detector, lowering the background level to 4.10 x 10^-5 counts/cm^2/s/keV between 1 and 10 keV. During phase I of the CAST experiment the TPC has provided robust and stable operation, thus contributing with a competitive result to the overall CAST limit on axion-photon coupling and mass.

  13. Some Theoretical Considerations on Caste

    Madhusudan Subedi


    Full Text Available Caste as a system of social stratification was an encompassing system in the past. There was reciprocal system of exchange goods and services. With time, occupation and mode of generation of livelihood of various caste groups changed, and the traditional form of jajmani system fizzled out. This paper provides an account of changing perspectives of caste relations in social science writing and political discourse. The discourse of caste has been shifted from ritual hierarchy and social discrimination to an instrument to mobilize people for economic and political gain. DOI: Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 7, 2013; 51-86

  14. Inoculation of chromium white cast iron

    D. Kopyciński


    Full Text Available It has been proved that an addition of boron carbide introduced as an inoculant to the chromium white cast iron changes the structureof castings. Castings after inoculation revealed a different structure with numerous grains. Primary precipitates of chromium carbide also appeared, reducing the mechanical properties of as-cast parts. Properly established heat treatment regime makes chromium iron castings regain their, originally high, mechanical properties.

  15. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron

    Zhou Jiyang; Liu Jincheng


    @@ Vermicular graphite cast iron(VG iron for short in the following sections)is a type of cast iron in which the graphite is intermediate in shape between flake and spheroidal.Compared with the normal flake graphite in grey iron, the graphite in VG iron is shorter and thicker and shows a curved, more rounded shape.Because its outer contour is exactly like a worm, hence it is called vermicular graphite.

  16. Agile Manufacturing Development of Castings


    responsible for con- verting the available 2D CATIA casting design into a 3D Pro/Engineering geometric model of the casting, for use by Clinkenbeard...changes to the draw- ings. MWM. As the part designer, MWM reviewed and evalu- ated proposed changes to the design. MWM also updated the CATIA ...creation of solid models of the cores and molds, using IGES translations of the CATIA files secured from MWM through GE Transportation Sys- tems. Due

  17. Heat Transfer between Casting and Dieduring High Pressure Die Casting Process of AM50 Alloy-Modeling and Experimental Results


    A method based on die casting experiments and mathematic modeling is presented for the determination of the heat flow density (HFD) and interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) during the high pressure die casting (HPDC) process. Experiments were carried out using step shape casting and a commercial magnesium alloy, AM50. Temperature profiles were measured and recorded using thermocouples embedded inside the die.Based on these temperature readings, the HFD and IHTC were successfully determined and the calculation results show that the HFD and IHTC at the metal-die interface increases sharply right after the fast phase injection process until approaching their maximum values, after which their values decrease to a much lower level until the dies are opened. Different patterns of heat transler behavior were found between the die and the castingat different thicknesses. The thinner the casting was, the more quickly the HFD and IHTC reached their steady states. Also, the values for both the HFD and IHTC values were different between die and casting at different thicknesses.

  18. Development of opencast mines

    Szebenyi, F.


    The role and works of the Central Institute for Mining Development and its legal predecessors, the Mining Research Institute and Mines Design Institute, in relation with opencast lignite mining in Hungary, are summarized. Investigations aimed at the determination of the heating technical properties of lignites are reviewed. Different lignite mines, their geological features, production possibilities and development conditions are outlined.

  19. Effect of Feeder Configuration on the Microstructure of Ductile Cast Iron

    Vedel-Smith, Nikolaj Kjelgaard; Tiedje, Niels Skat


    iron castings. The goal is to enable metallurgists and foundry engineers to more directly target mushy zone development to prolong the possibility to feed through this section. Keeping smaller section open for an extended period will make it possible to use fewer or smaller feeders, with reduced energy......Feeding and microstructure of a test casting rigged with different feeder combinations was studied. Castings were examined and classified by soundness and microstructure. Subsequently the casting macro- and microstructure was analyzed to study how differences in solidification and segregation...... influence the soundness of different sections of the castings. Moreover, the microstructural changes due to variations in thermal gradients are classified, and the variations in the mushy zone described. The paper discusses how solidification and segregation influence porosity and microstructure of ductile...

  20. Moldless casting by laser

    McLean, Marc A.; Shannon, G. J.; Steen, William M.


    The principle of laser cladding involves the use of high power carbon-dioxide lasers and powder deposition technology to provide wear and corrosion resistant surface coatings to engineering components. By injecting metal powder into a laser generated melt pool on a moving substrate a solidified metal track can be produced. Deposition of successive tracks produces a multi-layer build. Laser direct casting (LDC) utilizes a coaxial nozzle enabling consistent omnidirectional deposition to produce 3D components from a selection of metal powders. The influence of the principal process parameters over the process features namely, powder catchment efficiency, beam shape and build rates are presented with several successfully generated 3D components. Nickel, stainless steel and satellite powders were deposited at laser powders of 0.4 to 1.4 kW and speeds of 500 to 1000 mm/min achieving build rates of 3 to 9 mm3/s. Fully dense metallurgical structures have been produced with no cracking or porosity and powder catchment efficiencies up to 85% have been achieved.

  1. Light metal compound casting

    Konrad; J.; M.; PAPIS; Joerg; F.; LOEFFLER; Peter; J.; UGGOWITZER


    ‘Compound casting’simplifies joining processes by directly casting a metallic melt onto a solid metal substrate. A continuously metallurgic transition is very important for industrial applications, such as joint structures of spaceframe constructions in transport industry. In this project, ‘compound casting’ of light metals is investigated, aiming at weight-saving. The substrate used is a wrought aluminium alloy of type AA5xxx, containing magnesium as main alloying element. The melts are aluminium alloys, containing various alloying elements (Cu, Si, Zn), and magnesium. By replacing the natural oxygen layer with a zinc layer, the inherent wetting difficulties were avoided, and compounds with flawless interfaces were successfully produced (no contraction defects, cracks or oxides). Electron microscopy and EDX investigations as well as optical micrographs of the interfacial areas revealed their continu- ously metallic constitution. Diffusion of alloying elements leads to heat-treatable microstructures in the vicinity of the joining interfaces in Al-Al couples. This permits significant variability of mechanical properties. Without significantly cutting down on wettability, the formation of low-melting intermetallic phases (Al3Mg2 and Al12Mg17 IMPs) at the interface of Al-Mg couples was avoided by applying a protective coating to the substrate.


    J. Dong; G.M. Lu; J.Z. Cui; Z.H. Zhao


    A new method (liquidus casting) was used for 356 Al alloy semi-solid slurry mak-ing. The structures of 356 Al alloy cast by a Fe mould and semi-continuous castingmachine at different temperatures were investigated. How the globular grains formwas also discussed. The results show that either being cast by single Fe mould orsemi-continuous machine, the microstructures are not conventional dendrites but fineand net-globular grains. The average grain size is smaller than 30μm and suitableenough for thixoforming, meanwhile it can improve the mechanical properties of fol-lowing products. Under the suitable casting velocity and cooling intensity, most ofglobal grains prolong their global growth and collide with each other before dendriticgrowth because of the large amount of the nucleation sites.

  3. Rational Use of Land Resource During the Implementation of Transportless System of Coal Strata Surface Mining

    Gvozdkova, T.; Tyulenev, M.; Zhironkin, S.; Trifonov, V. A.; Osipov, Yu M.


    Surface mining and open pits engineering affect the environment in a very negative way. Among other pollutions that open pits make during mineral deposits exploiting, particular problem is the landscape changing. Along with converting the land into pits, surface mining is connected with pilling dumps that occupy large ground. The article describes an analysis of transportless methods of several coal seams strata surface mining, applied for open pits of South Kuzbass coal enterprises (Western Siberia, Russia). To improve land-use management of open pit mining enterprises, the characteristics of transportless technological schemes for several coal seams strata surface mining are highlighted and observed. These characteristics help to systematize transportless open mining technologies using common criteria that characterize structure of the bottom part of a strata and internal dumping schemes. The schemes of transportless systems of coal strata surface mining implemented in South Kuzbass are given.

  4. Proceedings of the twenty-third annual British Columbia mine reclamation symposium: mine decommissioning



    The symposium covered a spectrum of reclamation issues relevant to mining in British Columbia. The proceedings contain the twenty-one technical papers presented and a report by the awards subcommittee concerning citations awarded. Papers are included on native species in reclamation, bat conservation, biological removal of selenium, wetland cells for removing heavy metals leachates, end land use plan for a copper mine, environmental projects at Fording Coal, reclamation at a nickel plate tailings facility, forestry for end use, contaminated site legislation, compliance, environmental management considerations, acid rock drainage prediction, granular cover system for tailings management, long-term management of tailings and tailings dams at decommissioned mining properties, mine subsidence risk management, reclaiming subsidence in abandoned mining areas, and reclamation of mine openings. Two papers are abstracted separately.

  5. The effect of equipment efficiency on occurrence of non-conforming products in die casting

    S. Borkowski


    Full Text Available This study focuses on determination of the relationships between equipment efficiency in casting machines and the level of quality. The determination was made based on coefficients of Total Productive Maintenance and r correlation coefficient. The degree at which break-downs and downtime affect the occurrence of non-conforming products was also evaluated. The goal of further investigations is to deter-mine the structure of downtime and finding which downtime types have greatest impact on the quality of die-casting products.

  6. Exploration and Mining Roadmap



    This Exploration and Mining Technology Roadmap represents the third roadmap for the Mining Industry of the Future. It is based upon the results of the Exploration and Mining Roadmap Workshop held May 10 ñ 11, 2001.

  7. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  8. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy-SMARRT): Light Metals Permanent Mold Casting

    Fasoyinu, Yemi [CanmetMATERIALS


    Current vehicles use mostly ferrous components for structural applications. It is possible to reduce the weight of the vehicle by substituting these parts with those made from light metals such as aluminum and magnesium. Many alloys and manufacturing processes can be used to produce these light metal components and casting is known to be most economical. One of the high integrity casting processes is permanent mold casting which is the focus of this research report. Many aluminum alloy castings used in automotive applications are produced by the sand casting process. Also, aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloys are the most widely used alloy systems for automotive applications. It is possible that by using high strength aluminum alloys based on an aluminum-copper (Al-Cu) system and permanent mold casting, the performance of these components can be enhanced significantly. This will also help to further reduce the weight. However, many technological obstacles need to be overcome before using these alloys in automotive applications in an economical way. There is very limited information in the open literature on gravity and low-pressure permanent mold casting of high strength aluminum alloys. This report summarizes the results and issues encountered during the casting trials of high strength aluminum alloy 206.0 (Al-Cu alloy) and moderate strength alloy 535.0 (Al-Mg alloy). Five engineering components were cast by gravity tilt-pour or low pressure permanent mold casting processes at CanmetMATERIALS (CMAT) and two production foundries. The results of the casting trials show that high integrity engineering components can be produced successfully from both alloys if specific processing parameters are used. It was shown that a combination of melt processing and mold temperature is necessary for the elimination of hot tears in both alloys.

  9. Frequent Pattern Mining Algorithms for Data Clustering

    Zimek, Arthur; Assent, Ira; Vreeken, Jilles


    that frequent pattern mining was at the cradle of subspace clustering—yet, it quickly developed into an independent research field. In this chapter, we discuss how frequent pattern mining algorithms have been extended and generalized towards the discovery of local clusters in high-dimensional data......Discovering clusters in subspaces, or subspace clustering and related clustering paradigms, is a research field where we find many frequent pattern mining related influences. In fact, as the first algorithms for subspace clustering were based on frequent pattern mining algorithms, it is fair to say....... In particular, we discuss several example algorithms for subspace clustering or projected clustering as well as point out recent research questions and open topics in this area relevant to researchers in either clustering or pattern mining...

  10. [WEB-based medical data mining integration].

    Yao, Gang; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Huoming


    An integration of medical data management system based on WEB and data mining tool is reportedly in this paper. In the application process of this system, web-based medical data mining user sends requests to the server by using client browser with http protocol, the commands are then received by the server and the server calls the data mining tools remote object for data processing, and the results are sent back to the customer browser through the http protocol and presented to the user. In order to prove the feasibility of the proposed solution, the test is done under the NET platform by using SAS and SPSS, and the detail steps are given. By the practical test, it was proved that the web-based data mining tool integration solutions proposed in this paper would have its broad prospects for development, which would open up a new route to the development of medical data mining.

  11. Untouchable castes of Uttar Pradesh

    Kharinin Artem Igorevich


    Full Text Available The Untouchable Castes of Uttar Pradesh are examined in this article. This region is one of the most populated in India. Also it is one of the most social mixed-composed in whole State. That’s why main conclusions which were made on this material can be extrapolated to all social space of country. The authors choose four ethno-caste groups, which represent the majority in untouchables and the three smallest in jaties. Their positions in regional hierarchy and economic specialization are analyzed in detail. There are a lot of information about their number, social structure, literacy rating, endogamy, day-to-day practices, customs and other features. Special accents were pointed on mind orientation of their elites toward integration in modern society or, conversely, toward the conservation of traditional forms of existence. The issues of origin and social evolution of untouchable castes of Uttar Pradesh are examined. There is assessment of castes’ sanskritization or other forms of social selfdevelopment. The quality of “scheduled” castes social environment is analyzed. As a marks of its positiveness the data about discrimination untouchables from other social groups and degree of political representativeness of “scheduled” castes, accessibility of education and labour were chosen. The conclusions were made about development degree of some castes. The factors that play role in positive changes in contemporary conditions were determined. The authors put forward their own hypothesis of future development of untouchable castes in Uttar Pradesh. Empiric base of this article was established on sources that have Indian origin and historical and social research of outstanding western indologies.

  12. Development of vacuum die-casting process

    Masashi Uchida


    The vacuum die-casting process, started 25 years ago in Japan, has been widely applied. This technology contributes very much to improvement of castings quality. The main factor causing the defects of die castings is the trapped air in the mold cavity, while the key technology of vacuum die-casting process is to avoid the trapped air effectively by evacuating the cavity before casting. At the same time, due to the shot speed and the casting pressure reduced in half, the service life of the die is prolonged and the productivity is enhanced, as well. Vacuum die-casting process is of great significance in improving the die castings quality and making up the shortcomings of super-high-speed shot casting.

  13. Simulation Based Investigation of Different Fleet Management Paradigms in Open Pit Mines-A Case Study of Sungun Copper Mine / Symulacje I Badania Różnych Paradygmatów Wykorzystania Floty Pojazdów I Urządzeń W Kopalniach Odkrywkowych. Studium Przypadku: Kopalnia Miedzi W Sungun

    Hashemi, Ali Saadatmand; Sattarvand, Javad


    Using simulation modeling, different management systems of the open pit mining equipment including non-dispatching, dispatching and blending solutions have been studied for the Sungun copper mine. Developed model has the capability of considering detailed features of both loading and hauling equipment. Productivity assessment scenarios have been established on the constructed model and the outputs revealed the noteworthy impact of the match factor of the trucks to the loaders on the production rate by over 40%. A dispatching simulation model with the objective function of minimizing truck waiting times have been developed and 7.8% improvement obtained by applying a flexible assignment of the trucks for the loaders compared to the fixed assignment system. Finally ore grade blending control unit has been introduced into the model. Getting the advantages of the newly added module it became possible to monitor the portion of material excavated from different operating benches and control truck dispatching rules for keeping the overall ore grade exactly at desired value. Przy użyciu modeli symulacyjnych zbadano różnorodne systemy zarządzania flotą pojazdów i urządzeń w kopalni odkrywkowej (wydawanie dyspozycji przewozu, wstrzymywanie przewozu oraz rozwiązania kwestii mieszania o rud o różnej zawartości pierwiastka użytecznego) na przykładzie kopalni miedzi Sungun. Opracowany model uwzględnia szczegółowe cechy sprzętu przeładunkowego oraz transportowego. Na podstawie modelu opracowano następnie scenariusze oceny wydajności, a wyniki jednoznacznie wykazały wielką wagę odpowiedniego skojarzenia ilości pojazdów i ładowarek. Opracowano model symulacyjny kierowania urządzeń do pracy, jako funkcję celu przyjmujący minimalizacje czasu przestoju ciężarówek. Uzyskano wynik lepszy o 7.8% poprzez elastyczne przydzielania pojazdów do ładowarek w porównaniu do systemu trwałego ich do siebie przypisania. W ostatnim etapie dodano do modelu system

  14. Mining review

    McCartan, L.; Morse, D.E.; Plunkert, P.A.; Sibley, S.F.


    The average annual growth rate of real gross domestic product (GDP) from the third quarter of 2001 through the second quarter of 2003 in the United States was about 2.6 percent. GDP growth rates in the third and fourth quarters of 2003 were about 8 percent and 4 percent, respectively. The upward trends in many sectors of the U.S. economy in 2003, however, were shared by few of the mineral materials industries. Annual output declined in most nonfuel mining and mineral processing industries, although there was an upward turn toward yearend as prices began to increase.

  15. Thick Coal Seam Repetition Mining under Open Waters with Thin Basement in Shallow%浅埋深薄基岩地表水体下厚煤层重复开采研究



    The possibility of working face water flowing fractured zone with thin basement in shallow could connected aquifer and sur-face water was large, then the working face would faced water inrush risk, on the basis geological and mining situation of one coal mine in Erdos district, the broken height of overburden that caused by mining was predicted, and then the water proof coal pillar was layout for surface water, the thick coal seam repetition mining scheme under the surface water was put forward, then mining working face safety realized, it references for coal resource mining with similar situation of Erdos district.%浅埋深薄基岩工作面导水裂缝带存在导通含水层及地表水的可能性,最终造成工作面突水的威胁。基于鄂尔多斯某矿实际地质采矿条件进行分析,对煤层开采的覆岩破坏高度进行预计,针对地表水体留设了防水煤岩柱,最终得出了地表水体下厚煤层重复开采的方案,并实现了工作面的安全开采,为鄂尔多斯地区解决类似条件下煤炭资源的回采提供了参考。

  16. Casting Method Design of Heavy Ductile Iron Castings%大型球铁件的铸造工艺设计



    The main casting method design principles of heavy ductile iron castings were introduced: putting the faces to be machined downwards; adopting single parting line as possible; adopting bottom gating system; pouring simultaneously from two ends for castings with large length, and using stop plug type pouring basin for the heavy and important castings; setting open risers on the top of castings; full utilizing graphitization expansion to compensate contraction. Some practical examples were showed to explain the principles and characteristics of various casting methods suitable to heavy ductile iron castings, as well as their gating system design, riser design and chill usage.%介绍大型球铁件铸造工艺设计的主要原则为:加工面向下;尽量采用一个分型面;采用底注;长度大的铸件采用两端同时浇注,重大件采用拔塞浇包浇注;铸件顶部设置明冒口;充分利用石墨化膨胀补缩.用具体实例说明适合于大型球铁铸件的各种铸造工艺原理和特点,以及浇注系统设计、冒口设计和冷铁使用的要点.

  17. Data mining and business analytics with R

    Ledolter, Johannes


    Collecting, analyzing, and extracting valuable information from a large amount of data requires easily accessible, robust, computational and analytical tools. Data Mining and Business Analytics with R utilizes the open source software R for the analysis, exploration, and simplification of large high-dimensional data sets. As a result, readers are provided with the needed guidance to model and interpret complicated data and become adept at building powerful models for prediction and classification. Highlighting both underlying concepts and practical computational skills, Data Mining

  18. As-Cast Acicular Ductile Aluminum Cast Iron

    S M Mostafavi Kashani; S M A Boutorabi


    The effects of nickel (2.2%)and molybdenum (0.6%)additions on the kinetics, microstructure, and me-chanical properties of ductile aluminum cast iron were studied under the as-cast and tempered conditions. Test bars machined from cast to size samples were used for mechanical and metallurgical studies. The results showed that adding nickel and molybdenum to the base iron produced an upper bainitic structure, resulting in an increase in strength and hardness. The same trend was shown when the test bars were tempered at 300 ℃ in the range of 300℃ to 400 ℃. The elongation increased with increasing the temperature from 300 ℃ to 400 ℃. The carbon content of the retained austenite also increased with increasing the temperature. The results also showed that the kinetics, mi-crostructure, and mechanical properties of this iron were similar to those of Ni-Mo alloyed silicon ductile iron.

  19. Coal Mines, Abandoned - Digitized Mined Areas

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Coal mining has occurred in Pennsylvania for over a century. The maps to these coal mines are stored at many various public and private locations (if they still...

  20. Changing Relations between High Castes and Tamang in Melamchi Valley

    Binod Pokharel


    Full Text Available This paper is about the processes of transformation of social relations between high caste groups and Tamang in Melamchi Valley for the period of 1980-2010. Development interventions made by government of Nepal and (I NGOs, a decade long undergoing Melamchi Water Supply Project and labor migration are major factors for ongoing changes in the study area. Spread of literacy classes and primary education, availability of credit institutions, introduction of modern farming, road networks, seasonal out migration from the area, etc. primarily define new relations among the groups. Borrowing and lending money were one of the basis of high caste and Tamang relation in past. The latter was regarded as borrower loan from first one. Before 1980s, money and agriculture commodities were controlled by few rich and high castes people. Cash income from various sources made enable the Tamang to stand on an equal footing with high caste people. Open political economy and liberal policy for issuing pass port in 1990s and after that encourage the people to diversify the destination of seasonal migration from India to Gulf countries and East Asia. Various processes of socio-economic and political changes led to local peoples to seek their position and identity in the changing context. Discourse of Tamang, high castes and Dalit entered into the Valley along with the development resources of (INGO and political movements of the country. This made possible to Tamang and other disadvantage groups to define and redefine their ethnic identity. Keywords: High castes; Tamang; credit facilities; subsistence farming; identity construction; money lending; wage labor DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v4i0.4513 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.4 2010 pp.65-84

  1. Research progress on squeeze casting in China

    Li Yuanyuan; Zhang Weiwen; Zhao Haidong; You Dongdong; Zhang Datong; Shao Ming; Zhang Wen


    Squeeze casting is a technology with short route, high efficiency and precise forming, possessing features of casting and plastic processing. It is widely used to produce high performance metallic structural parts. As energy conservation and environmental protection concerns have risen, lightweight and high performance metal parts are urgently needed, which accelerated the development of squeeze casting technology over the past two decades in China. In this paper, research progress on squeeze casting aloys, typical parts manufacturing and development of squeeze casting equipment in China are introduced. The future trend and development priorities of squeeze casting are discussed.

  2. Coal Mining Machinery Development As An Ecological Factor Of Progressive Technologies Implementation

    Efremenkov, A. B.; Khoreshok, A. A.; Zhironkin, S. A.; Myaskov, A. V.


    At present, a significant amount of energy spent for the work of mining machines and coal mining equipment on coal mines and open pits goes to the coal grinding in the process of its extraction in mining faces. Meanwhile, the increase of small fractions in mined coal does not only reduce the profitability of its production, but also causes a further negative impact on the environment and degrades labor conditions for miners. The countermeasure to the specified processes is possible with the help of coal mining equipment development. However, against the background of the technological decrease of coal mine equipment applied in Russia the negative impact on the environment is getting reinforced.

  3. Wikipedia Mining

    Nakayama, Kotaro; Ito, Masahiro; Erdmann, Maike; Shirakawa, Masumi; Michishita, Tomoyuki; Hara, Takahiro; Nishio, Shojiro

    Wikipedia, a collaborative Wiki-based encyclopedia, has become a huge phenomenon among Internet users. It covers a huge number of concepts of various fields such as arts, geography, history, science, sports and games. As a corpus for knowledge extraction, Wikipedia's impressive characteristics are not limited to the scale, but also include the dense link structure, URL based word sense disambiguation, and brief anchor texts. Because of these characteristics, Wikipedia has become a promising corpus and a new frontier for research. In the past few years, a considerable number of researches have been conducted in various areas such as semantic relatedness measurement, bilingual dictionary construction, and ontology construction. Extracting machine understandable knowledge from Wikipedia to enhance the intelligence on computational systems is the main goal of "Wikipedia Mining," a project on CREP (Challenge for Realizing Early Profits) in JSAI. In this paper, we take a comprehensive, panoramic view of Wikipedia Mining research and the current status of our challenge. After that, we will discuss about the future vision of this challenge.

  4. Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations

    Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley


    Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

  5. CAST Physics Proposal to SPSC

    CAST, Collaboration


    The CAST experiment has the potential to search for solar axions (dark matter particle candidates) or other particles with similar coupling. E.g., paraphtons (Hidden Sector), chameleons (dark energy), while considering the possibility whether CAST could be transformed to an antenna for relic axions with rest mass up to 0.1 to 1meV. While axion searches suggest detectors with lower background, paraphoton and chameleon searches require detectors with sub-keV threshold energy and the use of transparent windows in front of the Micromegas detectors, which cover 3 out of the 4 CAST magnet exits. Ongoing theoretical estimates and experimental investigations will define the priorities of the suggested 4 physics items of this proposal for the period 2012-2014.

  6. 基于复利法的露天矿山生产设备优化配置%Optimized Configuration of Mechanical Equipment in Open-Pit Mines Based on the Compound Interest Method

    吴长振; 戴剑勇; 杨仕教


    Considering the time value of funds, based on the depreciation method of compound interest and the relationship between mine production scale and equipment capacity and actual conditions of mines, the paper solves the optimized configuration problem about the type of main mechanical equipment and the quantity by applying integrated planning and Matlab software at the preliminary scheduling phase. This optimized configuration scheme brings better benefits for mining enterprises and provides a new idea about optimized configuration of equipment in capital construction phase of mine.%考虑到资金使用的时间价值,依据复利法的折旧方式以及矿山生产规模与设备生产能力的关系,结合矿山的实际情况,运用整数规划及Matlab软件解决露天矿山在生产规划阶段主体机械的设备型号、数量选择的优化配置问题,进而使矿山取得较好的经营效益,为基建期的矿山企业优化机械设备提供了一种新思路.

  7. A Study on Distribution Patterns of Soil Microorganisms in Refuse Dumps on Heidaigou Open Cut Coal Mine%黑岱沟煤矿排土场土壤微生物分布特征研究

    常英; 包俊江


    By use of dilution plate counting method,a study has been made on the quantities, distribution patterns and compositions of soil microorganisms in different restored vegetation of refuse dumps on Heidaigou Open Cut Coal Mine. Results show that; (1) the total quantity of soil microorganisms in the resumed field is lower than that in the original undisturbed soil, and the maximum quantity reaches only 52.9% of that in the o-riginal soil; (2) within the depth of 0 ~30 cm,the total quantity of microorganisms in original soil decreases by order of 10 - 20 cm > 0 - 10 cm > 20 ~ 30 cm, while, with the increase of vertical depth of the resumed field, the total quantity decreases accordingly; (3) among different soil microorganism groups, the numbers of microorganisms all display the order that the number of bacteria > the number of actinomycetes > the number of fungi; (4) in resumed fields with different vegetation, the change pattern of the number of bacteria in the soil is generally similar to that of the total number of microorganisms, namely:that in original soil > in sea -buckthorn + armeniaca ansu + elaeagnus resumed field > in fruit tree resumed field > in torch tree resumed field > in sea - buckthorn resumed field, while the change pattern of the number of actinomycetes and fungi in different depth of different vegetation doesnt show the same trend; (5) the distribution of soil microorganism quantity in different vertical depth is associated with types of plant community.%利用稀释平板法对黑岱沟煤矿排土场不同恢复植被下的土壤微生物群落的数量、组成和分布进行了研究.结果表明:(Ⅰ)各恢复地土壤中微生物总数均低于未破坏土壤(原土),最高仅为原土的52.9%.(2)在0~30 cm范围内,原土微生物总数变化为:10~20 cm>0~10 cm >20 ~30cm,而各恢复地中微生物总数在0~30 cm范围内,随土壤垂直深度的加深而降低.(3)各样地土壤微生物数均


    K. E. Baranovskij


    Full Text Available Casting of wear-resistant chrome cast irons in combined molds and iron chills is studied. Application of these ways of casting results in blending of carbides and increasing of hardness of castings.

  9. Casting behavior of titanium alloys in a centrifugal casting machine.

    Watanabe, K; Miyakawa, O; Takada, Y; Okuno, O; Okabe, T


    Since dental casting requires replication of complex shapes with great accuracy, this study examined how well some commercial titanium alloys and experimental titanium-copper alloys filled a mold cavity. The metals examined were three types of commercial dental titanium [commercially pure titanium (hereinafter noted as CP-Ti), Ti-6Al-4V (T64) and Ti-6Al-7Nb (T67)], and experimental titanium-copper alloys [3%, 5% and 10% Cu (mass %)]. The volume percentage filling the cavity was evaluated in castings prepared in a very thin perforated sheet pattern and cast in a centrifugal casting machine. The flow behavior of the molten metal was also examined using a so-called "tracer element technique." The amounts of CP-Ti and all the Ti-Cu alloys filling the cavity were similar; less T64 and T67 filled the cavity. However, the Ti-Cu alloys failed to reach the end of the cavities due to a lower fluidity compared to the other metals. A mold prepared with specially designed perforated sheets was effective at differentiating the flow behavior of the metals tested. The present technique also revealed that the more viscous Ti-Cu alloys with a wide freezing range failed to sequentially flow to the end of the cavity.


    A. N. Krutilin


    Full Text Available The results of investigations of physical-mechanical characteristics of cast iron slugs, received by semicontinuos way of casting, at temperatures from 850 up to 1100^ С are given. 

  11. National Underground Mines Inventory


    08 019 726 LONG PARK 15 0502379 08 095 2904 GEO a1 MINE 0502383 08 085 2904 BESSIE 0 MINE 0502387 08 667 2904 PAYSTREAK 0502397 08 113 2904 BUENO MILL...35 061QUESTA MINE 2901267 35 055 43560 ’ RUDY NO, I S 2 2901364 35 031 MT, TAYLOR 2901375 35 061 0 MARQUEZ SHAFT 2901597 35 031 6534 MARIANO LAKE MINE

  12. Data mining and education.

    Koedinger, Kenneth R; D'Mello, Sidney; McLaughlin, Elizabeth A; Pardos, Zachary A; Rosé, Carolyn P


    An emerging field of educational data mining (EDM) is building on and contributing to a wide variety of disciplines through analysis of data coming from various educational technologies. EDM researchers are addressing questions of cognition, metacognition, motivation, affect, language, social discourse, etc. using data from intelligent tutoring systems, massive open online courses, educational games and simulations, and discussion forums. The data include detailed action and timing logs of student interactions in user interfaces such as graded responses to questions or essays, steps in rich problem solving environments, games or simulations, discussion forum posts, or chat dialogs. They might also include external sensors such as eye tracking, facial expression, body movement, etc. We review how EDM has addressed the research questions that surround the psychology of learning with an emphasis on assessment, transfer of learning and model discovery, the role of affect, motivation and metacognition on learning, and analysis of language data and collaborative learning. For example, we discuss (1) how different statistical assessment methods were used in a data mining competition to improve prediction of student responses to intelligent tutor tasks, (2) how better cognitive models can be discovered from data and used to improve instruction, (3) how data-driven models of student affect can be used to focus discussion in a dialog-based tutoring system, and (4) how machine learning techniques applied to discussion data can be used to produce automated agents that support student learning as they collaborate in a chat room or a discussion board.

  13. Standard digital reference images for inspection of aluminum castings

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 These digital reference images illustrate the types and degrees of discontinuities that may be found in aluminum-alloy castings. The castings illustrated are in thicknesses of 1/ 4 in. [6.35 mm] and 3/4 in. [19.1mm]. 1.2 All areas of this standard may be open to agreement between the cognizant engineering organization and the supplier, or specific direction from the cognizant engineering organization. These items should be addressed in the purchase order or the contract. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. 1.4 These digital reference images are not intended to illustrate the types and degrees of discontinuities found in aluminum-alloy castings when performing film radiography. If performing film radiography of aluminum-alloy castings, refer to Reference Radiographs E 155. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and he...


    E. I. Marukovich


    Full Text Available The analysis of castings formation is presented and the package of measures dircted on increase of stability of casting process is developed. Parametres of casting of hollow cylindrical billets by the method of directional solidification out of white high-chromium cast iron are defined.

  15. Developing technological process of obtaining giality casts

    A. Issagulov


    Full Text Available The article considers the process of manufacturing castings using sand-resin forms and alloying furnace. Were the optimal technological parameters of manufacturing shell molds for the manufacture of castings of heating equipment. Using the same upon receipt of castings by casting in shell molds furnace alloying and deoxidation of the metal will provide consumers with quality products and have a positive impact on the economy in general engineering.

  16. The environmental impact of mining and its countermeasures

    Li Jin; Zhang Tong Tong; Yang Wen; Zhang Yu


    Exploration of mineral resources had been part of the major means to promote economic development in China, but the devastating effect of mining on the environment is inevitable. Based on the analysis of factors of the environmental disasters caused by the mining methods, this paper systematically analyzes the influences of open pit mining on land resource, ecological system, geological and ecological environment, especially analyzes the effects on the environment and ecological system. Meanw...

  17. Discussion on the Geological Environment Management Mode of the Abandoned Open-pit Mine in Beijing%北京露天废弃矿山地质环境治理模式探讨

    李岩; 赵中锋


    北京地区许多废弃的无主老矿山未实施矿山环境治理和土地资源恢复工程,矿区内地质环境和生态条件恶劣。本文对废弃矿山及其治理工程特点进行了分析,运用灰色关联度分析法,阐述了矿山废弃地土地资源破坏效应的四个因素——地表景观效应、土体污染效应、次生灾害效应、生态环境之间的联系。以房山区石窝大理石矿山废弃地治理工程为例,提出了矿山废弃地治理以矿山环境、灾害治理为主,以园林景观绿化为辅相结合的二维治理模式,在地形整治、挡土墙、绿化等措施的基础上进行园林景观的设计,结合周边居民生活需求,利用矿区内的正负地形渣堆和采石坑,进行景观的再生和组合,将采石坑设计成下沉式休闲公园和健身广场,希望通过园林景观绿化工程的实施,改善矿区及周边地表景观和生态环境。%For many abandoned unowned old mine in Beijing, the environment management and land resources restoration project have not been implemented yet, and geological environment and the ecological conditions are bad in the mine. In this paper, the abandoned mine and engineering characteristics of treatment are analyzed, and using grey correlation analysis method this paper expounds the destruction of land resources of abandoned lands of mines effect of four factors - the landscape effect, effect of soil pollution and secondary disaster effect, the relationship between the ecological environment. In fangshan district marble stone nest engineerings of abandoned lands of mines, for example, puts forward the management on mine environment, disaster management of abandoned lands of mines is given priority to, with the combination of landscape greening as the auxiliary two-dimensional governance model, the terrain regulation, retaining wall, such as green measures on the basis of landscape design, combined with the surrounding residents

  18. Study on diagonal hammer of three kind metals composite casting with block protecting handle

    Liu Hui


    Full Text Available Hammer crusher is widely used in cement, ceramic, mining and electricityother industries, hammer head is one of important parts in crusher, its abrasion performance directly affects the service life of hammer crusher and economic cost. According to bimetalcomposite hammer head is often appear “Hammer handle wear and tear”,“Composite difficult” and the set of casting alloy block hammer head set piece of “come off” phenomenon, which design a set piece type bimetal composite casting straight diagonal hammer, make full use of high chromium cast iron wear resistance and the toughness of low alloy steel. Design a protect block structure reasonably that solve the hammer when the actual production of composite interface is difficult to control and “the problem of hammer head wear” for use. Solve the problem of hammer head wear actively, achieve “energy saving, emission reduction and environmental protection”.

  19. When Your Child Needs a Cast

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old When Your Child Needs a Cast KidsHealth > For Parents > When Your Child Needs a Cast Print A A A What's in ... A cast wraps around the broken area and needs to be removed by a doctor when the ...

  20. Prediction of Microporosity in Shrouded Impeller Castings

    Viswanathan, S. Nelson, C.D.


    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Morris Bean and Company was to link computer models of heat and fluid flow with previously developed quality criteria for the prediction of microporosity in a Al-4.5% Cu alloy shrouded impeller casting. The results may be used to analyze the casting process design for the commercial production of 206 o alloy shrouded impeller castings. Test impeller castings were poured in the laboratory for the purpose of obtaining thermal data and porosity distributions. Also, a simulation of the test impeller casting was conducted and the results validated with porosity measurements on the test castings. A comparison of the predicted and measured microporosity distributions indicated an excellent correlation between experiments and prediction. The results of the experimental and modeling studies undertaken in this project indicate that the quality criteria developed for the prediction of microporosity in Al-4.5% Cu alloy castings can accurately predict regions of elevated microporosity even in complex castings such as the shrouded impeller casting. Accordingly, it should be possible to use quality criteria for porosity prediction in conjunction with computer models of heat and fluid flow to optimize the casting process for the production of shrouded impeller castings. Since high levels of microporosity may be expected to result in poor fatigue properties, casting designs that are optimized for low levels of microporosity should exhibit superior fatigue life.

  1. Pressure distribution in centrifugal dental casting.

    Nielsen, J P


    Equations are developed for liquid metal pressure in centrifugal dental casting, given the instantaneous rotational velocity, density, and certain dimensions of the casting machine and casting pattern. A "reference parabola" is introduced making the fluid pressure concept more understandable. A specially designed specimen demonstrates experimentally the reference parabola at freezing.

  2. Squeeze Casting of Steel Weapon Components


    equipment. The squeeze casting process also differs from rheo- casting.(10-12) Unlike the former, the rheocasting process (8) "Ferrous Die Casting...various phases of rheocasting . At least so far, the process has not been applied to fabrication of complex steel components of the type that are under

  3. Numerical simulation study of the influence on stability of slope by underground mining under opencast coal mine slope

    LIU Ting-ting; LU Guo-bin; TONG Li-ming


    In view of the study on mining transferred from open-pit to underground,the research on the problem of the stability of slope is less.This article combined the actual situation of the Gaohai Coal Mine in Fuxin City and set up a three-dimensional model of the part of Huizhou open-pit slope by the finite difference software.Through the three-dimensional numerical simulation study of the influence on the stability of slope by underground mining,the basic characteristics of the open-pit slope deformation and the situation of basic stability were discussed.The simulation results of the mining slope of the displacement and deformation analysis of the state for mining provide a reference to the slope stability research.

  4. Mining and environment

    Kisgyorgy, S.


    The realization of new mining projects should be preceded by detailed studies on the impact of mining activities on the environment. For defining the conditions of environmental protection and for making proper financial plans the preparation of an information system is needed. The possible social effects of the mining investments have to be estimated, first of all from the points of view of waste disposal, mining hydrology, subsidence due to underground mining etc.

  5. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron

    Zhou Jiyang; Liu Jincheng


    @@ Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron(Ⅳ) 3.7 Segregation of SG iron The non-uniform distribution of solute elements during solidification results in the micro segregation of SG iron.As for the redistribution of elements in the phases of the solidification structure,there is no intrinsic difference between SG iron and grey iron[132].

  6. Search for chameleons with CAST

    Anastassopoulos, V.; Arik, M.; Aune, S.


    energy threshold used for axions from 1 keV to 400 eV CAST became sensitive to the converted solar chameleon spectrum which peaks around 600 eV. Even though we have not observed any excess above background, we can provide a 95% C.L. limit for the coupling strength of chameleons to photons of βΥ≤1011...

  7. Inoculation Effects of Cast Iron

    E. Fraś


    Full Text Available The paper presents a solidification sequence of graphite eutectic cells of A and D types, as well as globular and cementite eutectics. The morphology of eutectic cells in cast iron, the equations for their growth and the distances between the graphite precipitations in A and D eutectic types were analyzed. It is observed a critical eutectic growth rate at which one type of eutectic transformed into another. A mathematical formula was derived that combined the maximum degree of undercooling, the cooling rate of cast iron, eutectic cell count and the eutectic growth rate. One type of eutectic structure turned smoothly into the other at a particular transition rate, transformation temperature and transformational eutectic cell count. Inoculation of cast iron increased the number of eutectic cells with flake graphite and the graphite nodule count in ductile iron, while reducing the undercooling. An increase in intensity of inoculation caused a smooth transition from a cementite eutectic structure to a mixture of cementite and D type eutectic structure, then to a mixture of D and A types of eutectics up to the presence of only the A type of eutectic structure. Moreover, the mechanism of inoculation of cast iron was studied.

  8. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron

    Zhou Jiyang; Liu Jincheng


    @@ Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron(Ⅲ) 3.6 Solidification morphology of SG iron Solidification morphology refers to the description of change,distribution and interrelationship of the solidification structures such as graphite spheroids,austenite,eutectic cells,etc.[99

  9. Tape casting of magnesium oxide.

    Ayala, Alicia; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.; Bencoe, Denise Nora; Reiterer, Markus; Shah, Raja A.


    A tape casting procedure for fabricating ceramic magnesium oxide tapes has been developed as a method to produce flat sheets of sintered MgO that are thin and porous. Thickness of single layer tapes is in the range of 200-400 {micro}m with corresponding surface roughness values in the range of 10-20 {micro}m as measured by laser profilometry. Development of the tape casting technique required optimization of pretreatment for the starting magnesium oxide (MgO) powder as well as a detailed study of the casting slurry preparation and subsequent heat treatments for sintering and final tape flattening. Milling time of the ceramic powder, plasticizer, and binder mixture was identified as a primary factor affecting surface morphology of the tapes. In general, longer milling times resulted in green tapes with a noticeably smoother surface. This work demonstrates that meticulous control of the entire tape casting operation is necessary to obtain high-quality MgO tapes.


    V. Ju. Stetsenko


    Full Text Available It is shown that the way of centrifugal casting into water-cooled mould with vertical rotation axis enables to receive hollow slugs with diameter 100–250 mm, with height under 200 mm with wall thickness under 15 mm of antifriction silumin АК15М3, which will replace expensive antifriction bronze.

  11. Cern Axion Solar Telescope (CAST)


    The CERN Solar Axion Telescope, CAST, aims to shed light on a 30-year-old riddle of particle physics by detecting axions originating from the 15 million degree plasma in the Sun 's core. Axions were proposed as an extension to the Standard Model of particle physics to explain why CP violation is observed in weak but not strong interactions.

  12. The CAST time projection chamber

    Autiero, D.; Beltrán, B.; Carmona, J. M.; Cebrián, S.; Chesi, E.; Davenport, M.; Delattre, M.; Di Lella, L.; Formenti, F.; Irastorza, I. G.; Gómez, H.; Hasinoff, M.; Lakic, B.; Luzón, G.; Morales, J.; Musa, L.; Ortiz, A.; Placci, A.; Rodrigurez, A.; Ruz, J.; Villar, J. A.; Zioutas, K.


    One of the three x-ray detectors of the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment searching for solar axions is a time projection chamber (TPC) with a multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) as a readout structure. Its design has been optimized to provide high sensitivity to the detection of the low intensity x-ray signal expected in the CAST experiment. A low hardware threshold of 0.8 keV is set to a safe level during normal data taking periods, and the overall efficiency for the detection of photons coming from conversion of solar axions is 62%. Shielding has been installed around the detector, lowering the background level to 4.10 × 10-5 counts cm-2 s-1 keV-1 between 1 and 10 keV. During phase I of the CAST experiment the TPC has provided robust and stable operation, thus contributing with a competitive result to the overall CAST limit on axion photon coupling and mass.

  13. Advanced Lost Foam Casting Technology

    Charles E. Bates; Harry E. Littleton; Don Askeland; Taras Molibog; Jason Hopper; Ben Vatankhah


    This report describes the research done under the six tasks to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. Task 1: Pattern Pyrolysis Products and Pattern Properties Task 2: Coating Quality Control Task 3: Fill and Solidification Code Task 4: Alternate Pattern Materials Task 5: Casting Distortion Task 6: Technology Transfer

  14. Biological and chemical development of mining lakes. Status report 1998/1999. Data acquisition, methods, trends; Biologische und chemische Entwicklung von Bergbaurestseen. Statusbericht 1998/1999. Bestandsaufnahme, Methoden und Entwicklungen

    Friese, K.; Tuempling, W. von (eds.)


    Acidification of mining lakes in central Germany and the Lausitz was investigated for three aspects: 1.) biological dynamics and material effects on plancton abundance and variety; 2.) Chemical and microbiological interactions between sediments influenced by mining (authochthone, allochthone) and water phase 3. 3.) Limnological and hydrochemical development of water systems in abandoned mining areas with a view to environmental quality and/or utilisation. The following objects were investigated. a) Goitsche open-cast mine (Bitterfeld district); b) Lake 111 (Koyne/Pllessa district), - Lakes 107, 117 (Koyne/Plessa district), Lake b (Schlabendorf-Nord district). [German] Kernproblem in den Braunkohlengebieten der neuen Bundeslaender ist die Versauerung von Bergbauseen. Die Bearbeitung des Verbundprojektes konzentriert sich in den Bergbaufolgelandschaften der Regionen Mitteldeutschland und Lausitz auf bergbaulich gestoerte und in Veraenderung befindliche Oberflaechenwasser-Systeme. Arbeitziele sind 1.) die Vertiefung der Kenntnisse zur biologischen Dynamik und zum stofflichen Einfluss auf die Diversitaet und Abundanz von Plankton in sauren Bergbauseen 2) Untersuchungen zu spezifischen Wechselwirkungen (chemisch, mikrobiologisch) zwischen bergbaulich beeinflussten Sedimenten (autochthon, allochthon) und der Wasserphase 3. Betrachtungen der limnologischen und hydrochemischen Entwicklung der Wassersysteme in Bergbaufolgelandschaften hinsichtlich Umweltqualitaetszielen und/oder Nutzungszielen. Im Rahmen des Verbundprojektes werden von den Sektionen Gewaesserforschung, Hydrogeologie, Analytik, Bodenforschung und Umweltmikrobiologie in Mitteldeutschland und der Lausitz folgende Objekte bearbeitet: a) Tagebaukomplex Goitsche (Bitterfelder Revier) und b) Restloch 111 (Revier Koyne/Plessa), - Restloch 107, 117 (Revier Koyne/Plessa), - Restloch B (Revier Schlabendorf-Nord). (orig.)

  15. Technological parameters of die casting and quality of casting from EN AC46500 alloy


    Die casting represents the highest technological level of metal mold casting. This technology enables production of almost all final products without necessity of further processing. The important aspect of efficiency and production is a proper casting parameters setting. In the submitted paper following die casting parameters are analyzed: plunger pressing speed and pressure. The studied parameters most significantly affect a qualitative of castings from EN AC46500 alloy and they influence t...

  16. 露天矿卡车调度系统数据处理技术的研究%Research on data processing technique of open-pit mine truck dispatch system

    王振军; 卢明银


    利用数据仓库DW(Data Warehouse)、联机分析处理OLAP(On-Line Analytical Processing)、数据挖掘DM(Data Mining)等技术对露天矿卡车调度系统存有的大量数据,提出分析处理的思路和方法.

  17. Continuous squeeze casting process by mass production

    Yun Xia; Rich Jacques


    Squeeze casting has become the most competitive casting process in the automotive industry because of its many advantages over high pressure die casting (HPDC). Many squeeze casting R & D and small amount volume making have been implemented around the world, but the mass production control still exists problem. SPX Contech squeeze casting process P2000 successfully achieved the goal of mass production; it includes lower metal turbulence, less gas entrapment, minimum volumetric shrinkage, and thus less porosity. Like other casting processes, however, the quality of squeeze castings is still sensitive to process control and gate and runner design. Casting defects can form in both die-filling and metal solidification phases. The occurrence of casting defects is directly attributed to improper adjustment or lack of control of process parameters including metal filling velocity, temperature, dwell time, cooling pattern, casting design, and etc. This paper presents examples using P2000 techniques to improve part quality in the following areas: runner & gate design, casting & runner layout in the die, squeeze pin application, high thermal conductivityinserts, cooling/heating systems, spray & lubricant techniques,and part stress calculation from shrinkage or displacement prediction after stress relief.

  18. Prediction of Part Distortion in Die Casting

    R. Allen Miller


    The die casting process is one of the net shape manufacturing techniques and is widely used to produce high production castings with tight tolerances for many industries. An understanding of the stress distribution and the deformation pattern of parts produced by die casting will result in less deviation from the part design specification, a better die design and eventually more productivity and cost savings. This report presents methods that can be used to simulate the die casting process in order to predict the deformation and stresses in the produced part and assesses the degree to which distortion modeling is practical for die casting at the current time. A coupled thermal-mechanical finite elements model was used to simulate the die casting process. The simulation models the effect of thermal and mechanical interaction between the casting and the die. It also includes the temperature dependant material properties of the casting. Based on a designed experiment, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the model to investigate the effect of key factors. These factors include the casting material model, material properties and thermal interaction between casting and dies. To verify the casting distortion predictions, it was compared against the measured dimensions of produced parts. The comparison included dimensions along and across the parting plane and the flatness of one surface.

  19. Renaturation and recultivation of former mining areas - implementation of research results of BMBF-major funding domain in the sphere of Lausitzer- und Mitteldeutsche Bergbau- Verwaltungsgesellschaft mbH; Renaturierung und Rekultivierung in den Bergbaufolgelandschaften - Umsetzung der Ergebnisse des BMBF-Foerderschwerpunktes im Wirkungsbereich der Lausitzer- und Mitteldeutsche Bergbau- Verwaltungsgesellschaft mbH

    Schlenstedt, J. [Lausitzer und Mitteldeutsche Bergbau- Verwaltungsgesellschaft mbH (LMBV), Berlin (Germany)


    Which research needs existed and still exists in the recultivation of mining dump soils when lignite was excavated in open-cast mining for more than hundred years? The essay try to give an overview of accomplished research projects. The closure of 32 another 1989 open-cast minings situated in support on an area of 1 000 km{sup 2}, with 1 060 km of embankments, of this 560 km dangerous tipped over embankments as well as a water deficit of 13 bn m{sup 3} meant an at least as big landscape change as the active mining causes. The tasks win in addition heavy social and economic dimensions by their number and extension besides the ecological one. The development of whole regions was stopped abruptly and had to be reorganized. Questions of the recultivation were affected directly by this. The lakeside design isn't restricted to subject area questions just like the recultivation of an inner dump as new forests but must be solved in a more comprehensive approach. Research combines in the Central German and in the Lausitzer area worked across the disciplines on these questions. Research for the economical meaning of the recultivation was accomplished. The results flowed into the 177 final operation plans, the subject concepts of the LMBV and the countries for nature conversation, the after-use concepts tuned with the communes and of course in the business regulations for the recultivation. This shows itself particularly public effective in the conservation large-scale projects. It is a direct flowing out of the results of the research combines and the intensive discussion to this. (orig.)

  20. Mining industry and US government cooperative research: Lessons learned and benefits to mining industry

    Pearson, D.C.; Stump, B.W.; Phillips, W.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Earth and Environmental Sciences Div.; Martin, R. [Thunder Basin Coal Co. (United States); Anderson, D.P. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences


    Since 1994, various mines in the US have cooperated with research scientists at the Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories to address issues related to verification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The CTBT requires that no country may conduct any nuclear explosion in the future. While the CTBT is a significant step toward reducing the global nuclear danger, verifying compliance with the treat requires that the monitoring system be able to detect, locate and identify much larger numbers of smaller amplitude seismic events than had been required previously. Large mining blasts conducted world-wide will be of sufficient amplitude to trigger the monitoring system at the lower threshold. It is therefore imperative that research into the range various blasting practices employed, the relationship of yield to seismic magnitude, and identification of anomalous blasting results be performed. This paper will describe a suite of experiments funded by the Department of Energy and conducted by the Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories in cooperation with the US mining industry. Observations of cast blasting, underground long wall generated coal bumps, stoping, and explosively induced collapse of room and pillar panels will be presented. Results of these dual use experiments which are of interest to the mining community will be discussed. These include (1) variation of amplitude of seismic energy at various azimuths from cast blasts, (2) identification of the extent of back failure following explosive removal of pillars, and (3) the use of single fired shots for calibration of the monitoring system. The wealth of information and discovery described in this paper is a direct result of mutual cooperation between the US Government and the US Mining Industry.

  1. Uranium mining operations in Spain

    Rios, J.-M.; Arnaiz, J.; Criado, M.; Lopez, A.


    The Empresa Nacional del Uranio, SA (ENUSA) was founded in 1972 to undertake and develop the industrial and procurement activities of the nuclear fuel cycle in Spain. Within the organisation of ENUSA, the Uranium Division is directly responsible for the uranium mining and production operations that have been carried out since 1973 in the area of Ciudad Rodrigo in the province of Salamanca. These activities are based on open pit mining, heap leaching and a hydrometallurgical plant (Elefante) for extracting uranium concentrates from the ore. This plant was shut down in 1993 and a new plant was started up on the same site (Quercus) with a dynamic leaching process. The nominal capacity of the new plant is 950 t U{sub 3}O{sub 8} per year. Because of the historically low uranium prices which have recently prevailed, the plant is currently running at a strategic production rate of 300 t U{sub 3}O{sub 8} per year. From 1981 to 1990, in the area of La Haba (Badajoz province), ENUSA also operated a uranium production site, based on open pit mining, and an experimental extraction plant (Lobo-G). ENUSA is currently decommissioning these installations. This paper describes innovations and improvements that ENUSA has recently introduced in the field of uranium concentrates production with a view to cutting production costs, and to improving the decommissioning and site restoration processes in those sites where production is being shut down or resources have been worked out. (author).

  2. Grizzly bear diet shifting on reclaimed mines

    Bogdan Cristescu


    Full Text Available Industrial developments and reclamation change habitat, possibly altering large carnivore food base. We monitored the diet of a low-density population of grizzly bears occupying a landscape with open-pit coal mines in Canada. During 2009–2010 we instrumented 10 bears with GPS radiocollars and compared their feeding on reclaimed coal mines and neighboring Rocky Mountains and their foothills. In addition, we compared our data with historical bear diet for the same population collected in 2001–2003, before extensive mine reclamation occurred. Diet on mines (n=331 scats was dominated by non-native forbs and graminoids, while diets in the Foothills and Mountains consisted primarily of ungulates and Hedysarum spp. roots respectively, showing diet shifting with availability. Field visitation of feeding sites (n=234 GPS relocation clusters also showed that ungulates were the main diet component in the Foothills, whereas on reclaimed mines bears were least carnivorous. These differences illustrate a shift to feeding on non-native forbs while comparisons with historical diet reveal emergence of elk as an important bear food. Food resources on reclaimed mines attract bears from wilderness areas and bears may be more adaptable to landscape change than previously thought. The grizzly bear’s ready use of mines cautions the universal view of this species as umbrella indicative of biodiversity.

  3. Inner surface roughness of complete cast crowns made by centrifugal casting machines.

    Ogura, H; Raptis, C N; Asgar, K


    Six variables that could affect the surface roughness of a casting were investigated. The variables were (1) type of alloy, (2) mold temperature, (3) metal casting temperature, (4) casting machine, (5) sandblasting, and (6) location of each section. It was determined that the training portion of a complete cast crown had rougher surfaces than the leading portion. Higher mold and casting temperatures produced rougher castings, and this effect was more pronounced in the case of the base metal alloy. Sandblasting reduced the roughness, but produced scratched surfaces. Sandblasting had a more pronounced affect on the surface roughness of the base metal alloy cast either at a higher mold temperature or metal casting temperature. The morphology and the roughness profile of the original cast surface differed considerably with the type of alloy used.

  4. Prediction for relocation scale of rural settlements based on farming radius in reclamation area of open-pit coal mine%基于耕作半径的采矿复垦区农村居民点安置规模预测

    胡兴定; 白中科


    耕作半径对农村居民点的规模具有重要影响,而地形则是耕作半径的决定因素之一。该文采用耕聚比和缓冲区分析的方法,对比采矿前后农村居民点的耕作半径变化。考虑研究区地形起伏的影响,计算耕作半径地形修正系数,确定最优耕作半径。在此基础上预测矿区复垦后可安置农村居民点的面积、数量及人口。研究结果表明:平朔复垦区农村居民点耕作半径地形修正系数为1.6836,复垦区规划农村居民点最优耕作半径为1500 m;复垦区预测回迁安置农村居民点总规模约651.24 hm2,共67个农村居民点;预测单个农村居民点面积9.72 hm2,控制耕地面积约109.68 hm2;预测回迁安置总人口约29521人,共7380户,该研究结果可为露天采矿复垦区农村居民点回迁安置规模与布局提供决策支持。%Mine reclamation has become a worldwide problem recently and has similar research directions both in China and abroad, including ecological restoration, mining technology, bioremediation technology, soil reconstruction techniques, soil quality testing, plant species selecting. The key target is to restore the ecological system and improve the environment. One of the main purposes of reclamation is to restore farmland, which is scarce in China. In addition, resettlement of residents and their living environment need to be taken into account. In this paper, the study area is the Pingshuo open-pit mine, which is located in Shuozhou City, Shanxi Province, China, and belongs to super-large open-pit mine with modern production. Mining activities began in 1987, and have lasted for 28 years until now. Fourteen rural settlements have moved, and resettlement population has reached 8400 by 2013.From the perspective of farming radius, buffer analysis of rural settlements was used to contrast the difference of farming radius before and after the open-pit mining by geographic information system

  5. Pressure rig for repetitive casting

    Vasquez, Peter (Inventor); Hutto, William R. (Inventor); Philips, Albert R. (Inventor)


    The invention is a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metal. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal into the mold. A ceramic cavity which holds molten metal is lined with blanket-type insulating material, necessitating only a relining for subsequent use and eliminating the lengthy cavity preparation inherent in previous rigs. In addition, the expandable rubber diaphragm is protected by the insulating material thereby decreasing its vulnerability to heat damage. As a result of the improved design the life expectancy of the pressure rig contemplated by the present invention is more than doubled. Moreover, the improved heat protection has allowed the casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures than possible in the conventional pressure rigs.

  6. Search for chameleons with CAST

    V. Anastassopoulos


    Full Text Available In this work we present a search for (solar chameleons with the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST. This novel experimental technique, in the field of dark energy research, exploits both the chameleon coupling to matter (βm and to photons (βγ via the Primakoff effect. By reducing the X-ray detection energy threshold used for axions from 1 keV to 400 eV CAST became sensitive to the converted solar chameleon spectrum which peaks around 600 eV. Even though we have not observed any excess above background, we can provide a 95% C.L. limit for the coupling strength of chameleons to photons of βγ≲1011 for 1<βm<106.

  7. Search for chameleons with CAST

    Anastassopoulos, V; Aune, S; Barth, K; Belov, A; Bräuninger, H; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Cetin, S A; Christensen, F; Collar, J I; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Desch, K; Dermenev, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Friedrich, P; Galán, J; García, J A; Gardikiotis, A; Garza, J G; Gazis, E N; Geralis, T; Giomataris, I; Hailey, C; Haug, F; Hasinoff, M D; Hofmann, D H H; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jakobsen, A; Jakovčić, K; Kaminski, J; Karuza, M; Kavuk, M; Krčmar, M; Krieger, C; Krüger, A; Lakić, B; Laurent, J M; Liolios, A; Ljubičić, A; Luzón, G; Neff, S; Ortega, I; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovarov, M J; Raffelt, G; Riege, H; Rosu, M; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Solanki, S K; Vafeiadis, T; Villar, J A; Vogel, J K; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K; Brax, P; Lavrentyev, I; Upadhye, A


    In this work we present a search for (solar) chameleons with the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). This novel experimental technique, in the field of dark energy research, exploits both the chameleon coupling to matter ($\\beta_{\\rm m}$) and to photons ($\\beta_{\\gamma}$) via the Primakoff effect. By reducing the X-ray detection energy threshold used for axions from 1$\\,$keV to 400$\\,$eV CAST became sensitive to the converted solar chameleon spectrum which peaks around 600$\\,$eV. Even though we have not observed any excess above background, we can provide a 95% C.L. limit for the coupling strength of chameleons to photons of $\\beta_{\\gamma}\\!\\lesssim\\!10^{11}$ for $1<\\beta_{\\rm m}<10^6$.

  8. Innovative algorithm for cast detection

    Gasparini, Francesca; Schettini, Raimondo; Gallina, Paolo


    The paper describes a method for detecting a color cast (i.e. a superimposed dominant color) in a digital image without any a priori knowledge of its semantic content. The color gamut of the image is first mapped in the CIELab color space. The color distribution of the whole image and of the so-called Near Neutral Objects (NNO) is then investigated using statistical tools then, to determine the presence of a cast. The boundaries of the near neutral objects in the color space are set adaptively by the algorithm on the basis of a preliminary analysis of the image color gamut. The method we propose has been tuned and successfully tested on a large data set of images, downloaded from personal web-pages or acquired using various digital and traditional cameras.

  9. Spontaneous combustion and simulation of mine fires and their effects on mine ventilation systems

    Gillies, A.D.S.; Wu, H.W.; Humphreys, D. [Gillies Wu Mining Technology Pty Ltd, Taringa, Qld (Australia). The Minserve Group


    The structure of a comprehensive research project into mine fires study applying the Ventgraph mine fire simulation software, preplanning of escape scenarios and general interaction with rescue responses is outlined. The project has Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) funding and also relies on substantial mining company site support. This practical input from mine operators is essential and allows the approach to be introduced in the most creditable way. The effort is built around the introduction of fire simulation computer software to the Australian mining industry and the consequent modelling of fire scenarios in selected different mine layouts. The primary objective of the part of the study described in this paper is to use mine fire simulation software to gain better understanding of how spontaneous combustion initiated fires can interact with the complex ventilation behaviour underground during a substantial fire. It focuses on the simulation of spontaneous combustion sourced heatings that develop into open fires. Further, it examines ventilation behaviour effects of spontaneous combustion initiated pillar fires and examines the difficulties these can be present if a ventilation reversal occurs. It also briefly examines simulation of use of the inertisation to assist in mine recovery. 16 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Development of new bond release criteria for surface coal mines in the eastern and interior coal provinces of the United States. Open file report (final) 18 jul 77-18 jul 78

    Knuth, W.M.; Fritz, E.L.; Schad, J.A.; Nagle, W.F.


    This study involved a review of bonding and bond release practices in the States of the eastern and midwestern coal provinces. Data was collected from regulatory authorities and site visits to document the bonding and release procedures in the States related to achieving successful reclamation. The regulations related to PL95-87 were reviewed. The analysis included suggested modified or new bond release criteria based on a review of applicable bond release inspection techniques, a conceptual graduated bonding system, and incentive procedures for reclamation of surface mine sites to alternative or higher land uses.

  11. The use of open-air mining machinery and equipment diagnosis and repair%矿山露天机械设备的使用诊断与维修



    伴随着机械化程度日益提高,文章结合多年设备设计及现场施工服务经验,对矿山机械设备的故障诊断、维修方法进行分析,旨在引起有关人员的重视。%Along with the increasing degree of mechanization, articles equipment combined with years of experience in design and site construction services for mining machinery equipment fault diagnosis and maintenance methods of analysis, to arouse the attention of the officer.

  12. Rapid Cycle Casting of Steel


    such as macrosegregation, hot tears, and blowholes are also difficult to control. Rheocasting l on the other hand, is a recent development which...viscosity. Advantages of the rheocasting process are: * Reduced attack of die or mold because of the reduced tempera- ture (by 1000 C for steel) and...4W W ’ V6W 4 1.2 THE SD PROCESS Many metals, including steel, can be cast at still lower tempera- soliifiction(2) tures than rheocasting by

  13. 关联规则挖掘研究述评%Association Rule Mining: A Survey

    贾彩燕; 倪现君


    Association rule mining has been one of the most popular data mining subejcts and has a wide range of applicability. In this paper, we first investigate the main approaches for the task of association rule mining, and analyzed the essence of the algorithms. Then we review foundations of assocation rule mining based on the several possible theoretical frameworks for data mining. What's more,we show the open problems in field of the association rule mining and figure out the tendency of its development in recent years.

  14. Computer precision simulation for titanium casting centrifugal mold filling of prescision titanium castings

    Daming XU


    Full Text Available Computer simulation codes were developed based on proposed mathematical model for centrifugal mold filling processes and previous computer software for 3D mold filling and solidification of castings. Sample simulations were implemented for mold filling processes of precision titanium castings under gravity and different centrifugal casting techniques. The computation results show that the alloy melt has a much stronger mold filling ability for thin section castings unde a centrifugal force field than that only under the gravity. A "return back" mold filling manner is showed to be a reasonable technique for centrifugal casting processes, especially for thin section prcision castings.

  15. Continuous monitoring of barometric pressure in deep mines

    Trutwin, W.; Mironowicz, W.; Wasilewski, S.; Krawczyk, J. [Research and Development Centre for Electrical Engineering and Automation in Mining EMAG, Katowice (Poland)


    Barometric pressure and its variation in deep underground workings have a considerable effect on ventilation conditions. Pressure changes which create transient states of air flow and air parameters in workings are especially significant. Experiments have shown that pressure changes have a remarkable effect on air parameters at mine workings. Continuous monitoring of the barometric pressure on the surface of mines allows for the detection of changes in pressure which influence alternations of pressure in the underground areas of mines. Important factors are the internal disturbances of pressure within a mine ventilation system due to variable conditions of fan operation and the operation of a winding machine where a mine cage moving in a shaft causes piston like disturbances. Local transient disturbances caused by temporary opening/closing of air stoppings due to personnel or underground transport traffic are of importance. The results of over two years of observations of barometric pressure and its influence on pressure variation in underground mine workings are presented. The observations were possible through the installation of pressure sensors at selected points of the downcast shaft in a mine. Of interest are the observations of the transient states of pressure and other air parameters caused by emergency fan stoppage, movement of a mine cage and changes due to the opening of air stoppings. Data acquired during experiments of opening and closing air stoppings were used for the validation of a flow model in a long working. 13 refs., 15 figs.

  16. Ship Underwater Threat Response System (SUTRS): A Feasibility Study of Organic Mine Point-Defense


    technology mines and sell this technology on the open market placing this ship killing technology in the hands of anyone with sufficient capital and...Mine Warfare Assessment, Naval Studies Board, National Reseach Council 2001). In addition to the technical advancements of state actors in the...accessed June 23, 2012). Committee for Mine Warfare Assessment, Naval Studies Board, National Reseach Council. Naval Mine Warfare: Operational and

  17. The environment of coal mining areas and the economic evaluation of the land reclamation

    王志宏; 肖兴田; 何志强


    The environment impact of the coal resources mining was analyzed. The method of economic evaluation for the coal mining was established to analyze land destruction. The opportunity cost method was used to quantitatively analyze and estimate the economic loss of the land destruction by coal mining. At the same time, the dump land reclamation of the Yuanbaoshan. Open Pit was taken as an example to evaluate environmental and economical benefit with the method of economic evaluation for the coal mining areas land reclamation.

  18. Mines and Mineral Resources

    Department of Homeland Security — Mines in the United States According to the Homeland Security Infrastructure Program Tiger Team Report Table E-2.V.1 Sub-Layer Geographic Names, a mine is defined as...

  19. Gold-Mining

    Raaballe, J.; Grundy, B.D.


    sooner than a manager of lower type. Third, a non-operating gold mine is valued as being of the lowest type in the pool and all else equal, high-asymmetri mines are valued lower than low-asymmetri mines. In a qualitative sense these results are robust with respect to different assumptions (re cost......  Based on standard option pricing arguments and assumptions (including no convenience yield and sustainable property rights), we will not observe operating gold mines. We find that asymmetric information on the reserves in the gold mine is a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence...... of operating gold mines. Asymmetric information on the reserves in the mine implies that, at a high enough price of gold, the manager of high type finds the extraction value of the company to be higher than the current market value of the non-operating gold mine. Due to this under valuation the maxim of market...

  20. Mining truck scheduling with stochastic maintenance cost

    Erkan TOPAL; Salih RAMAZAN


    Open pit mining operations utilize large scale and expensive equipment.For the mines implementing shovel and truck operation system,trucks constitute a large portion of these equipment and are used for hauling the mined materials.In order to have sustainable and viable operation,these equipment need to be utilized efficiently with minimum operating cost.Maintenance cost is a significant proportion of the overall operating costs.The maintenance cost of a truck changes non-linearly depending on the type,age and truck types.A new approach based on stochastic integer programming (SIP) techniques is used for annually scheduling a fixed fleet of mining trucks in a given operation,over the life of mine (multi-year time horizon) to minimize maintenance cost.The maintenance cost data in mining usually has uncertainty caused from the variability of the operational conditions at mines.To estimate the cost,usually historic data from different operations for new mines,and/or the historic data at the operating mines are used.However,maintenance cost varies depending on road conditions,age of equipment and many other local conditions at an operation.Traditional models aim to estimate the maintenance cost as a deterministic single value and financial evaluations are based on the estimated value.However,it does not provide a confidence on the estimate.The proposed model in this study assumes the truck maintenance cost is a stochastic parameter due to the significant level of uncertainty in the data and schedules the available fleet to meet the annual production targets.The scheduling has been performed by applying both the proposed stochastic and deterministic approaches.The approach provides a distribution for the maintenance cost of the optimized equipment schedule minimizing the cost.

  1. Gating of Permanent Molds for Aluminum Casting

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang


    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-011D13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was to determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings. Equipment and procedure for real time X-Ray radiography of molten aluminum flow into permanent molds have been developed. Other studies have been conducted using water flow and behavior of liquid aluminum in sand mold using real time photography. This investigation utilizes graphite molds transparent to X-Rays making it possible to observe the flow pattern through a number of vertically oriented grating systems. These have included systems that are choked at the base of a rounded vertical sprue and vertical gating systems with a variety of different ingates into the bottom of a mold cavity. These systems have also been changed to include gating systems with vertical and horizontal gate configurations. Several conclusions can be derived from this study. A sprue-well, as designed in these experiments, does not eliminate the vena contracta. Because of the swirling at the sprue-base, the circulating metal begins to push the entering metal stream toward the open runner mitigating the intended effect of the sprue-well. Improved designs of

  2. Mining in El Salvador

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir


    In this guest article, Vladimir Pacheco, a social scientist who has worked on mining and human rights shares his perspectives on a current campaign against mining in El Salvador – Central America’s smallest but most densely populated country.......In this guest article, Vladimir Pacheco, a social scientist who has worked on mining and human rights shares his perspectives on a current campaign against mining in El Salvador – Central America’s smallest but most densely populated country....

  3. Environmental consequences of the Retsof Salt Mine roof collapse

    Yager, Richard M.


    In 1994, the largest salt mine in North America, which had been in operation for more than 100 years, catastrophically flooded when the mine ceiling collapsed. In addition to causing the loss of the mine and the mineral resources it provided, this event formed sinkholes, caused widespread subsidence to land, caused structures to crack and subside, and changed stream flow and erosion patterns. Subsequent flooding of the mine drained overlying aquifers, changed the groundwater salinity distribution (rendering domestic wells unusable), and allowed locally present natural gas to enter dwellings through water wells. Investigations including exploratory drilling, hydrologic and water-quality monitoring, geologic and geophysical studies, and numerical simulation of groundwater flow, salinity, and subsidence have been effective tools in understanding the environmental consequences of the mine collapse and informing decisions about management of those consequences for the future. Salt mines are generally dry, but are susceptible to leaks and can become flooded if groundwater from overlying aquifers or surface water finds a way downward into the mined cavity through hundreds of feet of rock. With its potential to flood the entire mine cavity, groundwater is a constant source of concern for mine operators. The problem is compounded by the viscous nature of salt and the fact that salt mines commonly lie beneath water-bearing aquifers. Salt (for example halite or potash) deforms and “creeps” into the mined openings over time spans that range from years to centuries. This movement of salt can destabilize the overlying rock layers and lead to their eventual sagging and collapse, creating permeable pathways for leakage of water and depressions or openings at land surface, such as sinkholes. Salt is also highly soluble in water; therefore, whenever water begins to flow into a salt mine, the channels through which it flows increase in diameter as the surrounding salt dissolves

  4. [The cast structure after vacuum-pressure casting and centrifugal casting].

    Finger, W; Jung, T; Quast, U


    Evaluation of polished sections revealed the following: 1. Grain size in marginal areas of the crown is, in general, smaller than it is in the occlusal region. 2. Grain size varies depending on the casting method applied. Differences in hardness were found only to a limited extent. They were not always in line with the grain structure. This phenomenon deviating from the rule cannot satisfactorily be explained. The piping distribution was in accordance with observations made so far.

  5. Prediction of the solidification structure of casting and heterogeneous nucleation

    K. Ohsasa; H. Shirosawa; T. Narita


    The frequency of heterogeneous nucleation during the solidification of Al-Si binary alloy was estimated by comparing ex-perimentally obtained macrostructures of castings with numerically simulated ones. A molten alloy was unidirectionally solidifiedfrom a water-cooled copper chill in an adiabatic mold. The location of colunmar to equiaxed transition (CET) in the solidified alloyingot was measured. A numerical simulation for grain structure formation based on the Monte Carlo method was carried out, and thefrequency of heterogeneous nucleation in the alloy was evaluated by producing similar structure with the experimental one. The fre-quency of heterogeneous nucleation was expressed as a probabilistic function with an exponential form of undercooling that deter-mines the probability of nucleation event in the simulation. The value of the exponent is regarded as the nucleation parameter. Thenucleation parameter of Al-Si binary alloy varied with initial Sicontent.

  6. American mines, methods and men

    Walker, S.C.A. (Thames Water Utilities (UK))


    The paper is based on the author's visits to a number of American mines, to see their mining machinery and to discuss with mine management their industrial relations problems. The paper gives a brief review of American mines, methods and men and is in the form of a diary. Mines visited are: Ohio Valley Coal Company; Big John Mine; Pittsburgh Research Center of the US Bureau of Mines; Martinka Mine; Robin Hood Complex No 9 Mine (Boone County, West Virginia), Green Briar Mine (Virginia); Martin County Coal (Kentucky); Wabash Mine (Keensburgh, Illinois); Galatia Mine (Harrisburgh, Illinois); and William Station Mine (Sturgis, Kentucky). Details given include mining methods productivity and staffing levels. The mining machinery is described in detail in a separate article. 5 figs.

  7. Data Mining for CRM

    Thearling, Kurt

    Data Mining technology allows marketing organizations to better understand their customers and respond to their needs. This chapter describes how Data Mining can be combined with customer relationship management to help drive improved interactions with customers. An example showing how to use Data Mining to drive customer acquisition activities is presented.

  8. Gating of Permanent Molds for ALuminum Casting

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang


    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-01ID13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings.

  9. Clean Cast Steel Technology, Phase IV

    Charles E. Bates


    The objective of the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program was to improve casting product quality by removing or minimizing oxide defects and to allow the production of higher integrity castings for high speed machining lines. Previous research has concentrated on macro-inclusions that break, chip, or crack machine tool cutters and drills and cause immediate shutdown of the machining lines. The overall goal of the project is to reduce the amount of surface macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions have been identified by industrial sponsors as a major barrier to improving the quality and marketability of steel castings.

  10. Homogenity of Die Casting and Returning Material

    J. Malik


    Full Text Available Homogeneity of die castings is influenced by wide range of technological parameters as piston velocity in filling chamber of die casting machine, filling time of mould cavity, temperature of cast alloy, temperature of the mould, temperature of filling chamber, surface pressure on alloy during mould filling, final pressure and others. Based on stated parameters it is clear, that main parameters of die casting are filling time of die mould cavity and velocity of the melt in the ingates. Filling time must ensure the complete filling of the mould cavity before solidification process can negatively influence it. Among technological parameters also belong the returning material, which ratio in charge must be constrained according to requirement on final homogeneity of die castings. With the ratio of returning material influenced are the mechanical properties of castings, inner homogeneity and chemical composition.

  11. Advanced casting technologies for lightweight automotive applications

    Alan A. Luo


    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of alloy and process developments in aluminum and magnesium castings for lightweight automotive applications. Wear-resistant aluminum alloys, creep-resistant and high strength/ductility magnesium alloys have been developed for automotive applications. On the process front, vacuum-assisted die casting and high vacuum die casting technologies have been developed for high-integrity body and chassis applications. Thin-wall and hollow casting components are being produced by low-pressure die casting processes for structural applications. Overcasting technology is gaining traction and has enabled mixed material designs for automotive sub-systems such as engine cradles and instrument panel beams. Simulation tools developed to predict the interfacial interactions of the dissimilar components and the structural integrity of the overcast systems are being validated in the casting trials.

  12. Chilling Tendency and Chill of Cast Iron

    E. Fra(s); M. Górny; W. Kapturkiewicz; H. López


    An analytical expression is presented for the susceptibility of liquid cast iron to solidify according tothe Fe-C-X metastable system (also known as the chilling tendency of cast iron, CT). The analysis incorpo-rates the nucleation and growth processes associated with the eutectic transformation. The CT is related tothe physicochemical state of the liquid, the eutectic cells in the flake graphite, and the number of nodules innodular cast iron. In particular, the CT can be related to the critical wall thickness, Scr, or the chill width, Wcr,in wedge shaped castings. Finally, this work serves as a guide for understanding the effect of technical fac-tors such as the melt chemistry, the spheroidizing and inoculation practice, and the holding time and tam-perature on the resultant CT and chill of the cast iron. Theoretical calculations of Scr and Wcr compare wellwith experimental data for flake graphite and nodular cast iron.



    The influence of alloy elements, such as boron and silicon, on the microstructure and properties of as-cast high chromium cast iron is studied. The results show that boron and silicon have a great effect on the mechanical properties and the wear resistance. Through proper addition of boron and silicon, the properties of as-cast high chromium cast iron can be improved effectively. Through analyzing the distribution of elements by scanning electron microscope, it has been shown that the addition of boron and silicon lowers the mass fraction of chromium saturated in as-cast austenite, and makes it unstable and liable to be transformed into martensite. The as-cast high chromium cast iron with proper content of boron and silicon is suitable for the manufacture of lining for asphalt concrete mixer and its wear resistance is 14 times that of lining made of low alloy white cast iron.

  14. Influence of Technological Parameters of Furane Mixtures on Shrinkage Creation in Ductile Cast Iron Castings

    Vasková I.


    Full Text Available Ductile cast iron (GS has noticed great development in last decades and its boom has no analogue in history humankind. Ductile iron has broaden the use of castings from cast iron into areas, which where exclusively domains for steel castings. Mainly by castings, which weight is very high, is the propensity to shrinkage creation even higher. Shrinkage creation influences mainly material, construction of casting, gating system and mould. Therefore, the main realized experiment was to ascertain the influence of technological parameters of furane mixture on shrinkage creation in castings from ductile iron. Together was poured 12 testing items in 3 moulds forto determine and compare the impact of various technological parameters forms the propensity for shrinkage in the casting of LGG.


    V. Yu. Stecenko


    Full Text Available The way of cooling of castings from silumin AK15M3 is developed at the vertical centrifugal casting, enabling to receive bimetallic blanks with high-disperse eutectic and hypereutectic microstructures and minimal allowance for machining.

  16. Newly developed vacuum differential pressure casting of thin-walled complicated Al-alloy castings


    The newly designed vacuum differential pressure casting (VDPC) unit was introduced, by which the capability of the VDPC process to produce thin-walled complicated Al-alloy castings, that are free from oxides, gas pore and shrinkage cavity and thus enhance overall part quality, was studied. Experimental results were compared with those of traditional gravity pouring and vacuum suction casting. The first series of experiments were focused on investigating the castability of thin section Al-alloy casting. In the second series of experiments the metallographic evidence, casting strength and soundness were examined. Finally, case studies of very interesting thin walled complicated casting applications were described. The advantages of the described technique have made possible to produce thin walled complicated Al-alloy casting (up to a section thickness of 1 mm), which is not practical for gravity pouring and vacuum suction casting.

  17. Development and application of titanium alloy casting technology in China

    NAN Hai; XIE Cheng-mu; ZHAO Jia-qi


    The development and research of titanium cast alloy and its casting technology, especially its application inaeronautical industry in China are presented. The technology of molding, melting and casting of titanium alloy, casting quality control are introduced. The existing problems and development trend in titanium alloy casting technology are also discussed.

  18. Improved Foundry Castings Utilizing CAD/CAM


    designed to simulate the heat transfer behavior during freezing and the subsequent cooling of an arbitrarily shaped 3D casting solidify- ing in a sand...variety of complex 2D and 3D geometries may be simulated by these routines. It is important, however, to be aware of the assumptions made in the design...three-dimensional with a sand mold surrounding a steel casting. The simulation program is desing - ed to simulate any shape. The shape of test casting

  19. Thermal gradient analysis of solidifying casting

    J. Suchoń


    Full Text Available For description of casting solidification and crystallization process the thermal derivative analysis (TDA is commonly used. Besides the process kinetics considered in TDA method to describe the solidification process, the thermal gradient analysis can be also used for this purpose [1, 2]. In conducted studies analysis of thermal gradient distribution inside the solidifying wedge casting was shown which enabled determination of heat flow intensity on casting section.

  20. Theory of uniqueness of Indian Caste System

    Kumar, Ashwin


    Classical studies on pre-modern Indian social structure have suggested apparent differences between the Indian caste system and social stratification as one can discern in other parts of the world. However, one needs to question such dogmatic assertions that such vast differences really existed. An endeavor is made in this research paper to reflect on the nature of caste hierarchy in pre-modern India. The caste system forms the significant basis of pre-modern Indian social structure. Early wr...

  1. Caste and wealth inequality in India

    Zacharias, Ajit; Vakulabharanam, Vamsi


    In this paper, we conduct the novel exercise of analyzing the relationship between overall wealth inequality and caste divisions in India using nationally representative surveys on household wealth conducted during 1991–92 and 2002–03. According to our findings, the groups in India that are generally considered disadvantaged (known as Scheduled Castes or Scheduled Tribes) have, as one would expect, substantially lower wealth than the "forward" caste groups, while the Other Backward Classes an...

  2. Investigating MOOCs Through Blog Mining

    Yong Chen


    Full Text Available MOOCs (massive open online course is a disruptive innovation and a current buzzword in higher education. However, the discussion of MOOCs is disparate, fragmented, and distributed among different outlets. Systematic, extensively published research on MOOCs is unavailable. This paper adopts a novel method called blog mining to analyze MOOCs. The findings indicate, while MOOCs have benefitted learners, providers, and faculty who develop and teach MOOCs, challenges still exist, such as questionable course quality, high dropout rate, unavailable course credits, ineffective assessments, complex copyright, and limited hardware. Future research should explore the position of MOOCs and how it can be sustained.

  3. Vacuum-sealed casting process under pressure

    LI Chen-xi; GUO Tai-ming; WU Chun-jing; WANG Hong


    A new casting method, the vacuum-sealed mold casting under pressure, has been developed, and thin wall iron castings with high precision and smooth surface have been produced successfully with this casting method. The experimental results show that the liquid iron has a very excellent filling ability because a high negative pressure is formed in the mold cavity during filling process. The vacuum-sealed mold under pressure has very high compressive strength greater than 650 kPa, which is 3-4 times as high as that of the molds produced by high-pressure molding process or vacuum-sealed molding process.

  4. Cast functional accessories for heat treatment furnaces

    A. Drotlew


    Full Text Available The study gives examples of the cast functional accessories operating in furnaces for the heat treatment of metals and alloys. The describeddesign solutions of castings and their respective assemblies are used for charge preparation and handling. They were put in systematicorder depending on furnace design and the technological purpose of heat treatment. Basic grades of austenitic cast steel, used for castings of this type, were enumerated, and examples of general guidelines formulated for their use were stated. The functional accessories described in this study were designed and made by the Foundry Research Laboratory of West Pomeranian University of Technology.

  5. Friction Stir Processing of Cast Superalloys Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR effort examines the feasibility of an innovative fabrication technology incorporating sand casting and friction stir processing (FSP) for producing...

  6. Mining text data

    Aggarwal, Charu C


    Text mining applications have experienced tremendous advances because of web 2.0 and social networking applications. Recent advances in hardware and software technology have lead to a number of unique scenarios where text mining algorithms are learned. ""Mining Text Data"" introduces an important niche in the text analytics field, and is an edited volume contributed by leading international researchers and practitioners focused on social networks & data mining. This book contains a wide swath in topics across social networks & data mining. Each chapter contains a comprehensive survey including

  7. 露天采矿爆破振动特征参量的Logistic-ELM预测%Predicting blasting vibration characteristic parameters in open-pit mining based on Logistic-ELM

    温廷新; 戚磊; 邵良杉


    针对露天采矿爆破过程中特征参量的预测问题,采用Logistic回归分析和极限学习机(ELM )方法,选取总药量、水平距离、高差、前排抵抗线大小、预裂缝穿透率、岩体完整性、传播介质、测点与爆区相对位置、炸药爆速等9个主要影响因素,利用Logistic回归方法分析各个因素的重要程度,提取最主要的因素作为ELM模型的输入,建立基于Logistic‐ELM的露天采矿爆破振动特征参量预测模型。采用露天矿实际爆破过程中测量的100组数据作为学习样本,用于预测模型的训练,使用所得模型对其余15组检验样本进行预测并与真实结果对比。实验结果表明,经过Logistic回归分析提取影响爆破振动特征参量的主要因素后,所得模型可有效预测露天采矿爆破振动的特征参量,误差率较低。%In view of predicting characteristic parameters in the blasting process of open‐pit mining ,Logistic regression analysis and extreme learning machine (ELM ) method was used ,total dose ,horizontal distance and elevation difference ,size of the front resistance wire ,pre‐splitting fissure permeability ,rock mass integrity ,transmission medium ,relative position of measuring point and blasting area ,detonation velocity of explosive were selected as influence factors .Logistic regression method was used to analyze the factors’ important degree ,the main factors were extracted as input of ELM model ,then the blasting vibration characteristic parameters prediction model in open‐pit mining based on Logistic‐ELM was established .Taking 100 groups of open‐pit mining blasting data as learning samples and they were used to train the model .The model was used to forecast another 15 sets of data and compare with true values .Results show that after extracting main factors influencing the blasting vibration characteristic parameters with Logistic regression analysis ,the model can

  8. The multisensory body revealed through its cast shadows

    Francesco ePavani


    Full Text Available One key issue when conceiving the body as a multisensory object is how the cognitive system integrates visible instances of the self and other bodies with one’s own somatosensory processing, to achieve self-recognition and body ownership. Recent research has strongly suggested that shadows cast by our own body have a special status for cognitive processing, directing attention to the body in a fast and highly specific manner. The aim of the present article is to review the most recent scientific contributions addressing how body shadows affect both sensory/perceptual and attentional processes. The review examines three main points: (1 body shadows as a special window to investigate the construction of multisensory body perception; (2 experimental paradigms and related findings; (3 open questions and future trajectories. The reviewed literature suggests that shadows cast by one’s own body promote binding between personal and extrapersonal space and elicit automatic orienting of attention toward the body-part casting the shadow. Future research should address whether the effects exerted by body shadows are similar to those observed when observers are exposed to other visual instances of their body. The results will further clarify the processes underlying the merging of vision and somatosensation when creating body representations.

  9. The temperature gradient on section of casting in process of primary crystallization of chromium cast iron

    A. Studnicki


    Full Text Available The methodology of defining in article was introduced the temperature gradient in process of primary crystallization during cooling the casting from chromium cast iron on basis of measurements of thermal field in test DTA-K3. Insert also the preliminary results of investigations of influence temperature gradient on structure of studied wear resistance chromium cast iron.

  10. The temperature gradient on section of casting in process of primary crystallization of chromium cast iron


    The methodology of defining in article was introduced the temperature gradient in process of primary crystallization during cooling the casting from chromium cast iron on basis of measurements of thermal field in test DTA-K3. Insert also the preliminary results of investigations of influence temperature gradient on structure of studied wear resistance chromium cast iron.

  11. Influence of the casting processing route on the corrosion behavior of dental alloys.

    Galo, Rodrigo; Rocha, Luis Augusto; Faria, Adriana Claudia; Silveira, Renata Rodrigues; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; de Mattos, Maria da Gloria Chiarello


    Casting in the presence of oxygen may result in an improvement of the corrosion performance of most alloys. However, the effect of corrosion on the casting without oxygen for dental materials remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the casting technique and atmosphere (argon or oxygen) on the corrosion behavior response of six different dental casting alloys. The corrosion behavior was evaluated by electrochemical measurements performed in artificial saliva for the different alloys cast in two different conditions: arc melting in argon and oxygen-gas flame centrifugal casting. A slight decrease in open-circuit potential for most alloys was observed during immersion, meaning that the corrosion tendency of the materials increases due to the contact with the solution. Exceptions were the Co-based alloys prepared by plasma, and the Co-Cr-Mo and Ni-Cr-4Ti alloys processed by oxidized flame, in which an increase in potential was observed. The amount of metallic ions released into the artificial saliva solution during immersion was similar for all specimens. Considering the pitting potential, a parameter of high importance when considering the fluctuating conditions of the oral environment, Co-based alloys show the best performance in comparison with the Ni-based alloys, independent of the processing route.

  12. Exploration for the Newlands underground mine

    Francis, T. [MIM Holdings Limited, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Seedsman, R. [Coffey Partners International Ltd., (Australia); Whitby, K. [McElroy Bryan Geological Services Pty Ltd., (Australia); Bowen Basin Geologists Group, QLD (Australia); Geological Society of Australia Inc., Sydney, NSW (Australia)


    The Newlands Coal Pty Ltd open cut coal mining operations are located approximately 200 km by road west of Mackay, in Central Queensland. The issues of increasing depth of overburden and limited overburden, coal quality and its impact on yield are effecting the operational costs and future strategies of the mine . The longer term future of Newlands is dependent on the viability of an underground mine down-dip in the main deposit. This paper discusses the exploration programs and how the geological and geotechnical issues have been incorporated into the mine plan. A number of longwall panel layouts were considered giving due respect to the known faults encountered. The current layout has panels which run approximately North-South and average 1800 m in length with a 250 m face width. Panels have been limited in the South by the Ironbark and Blackbutt faults. In the North, the panel lengths are limited by the Ramp 3 fault. Not all faults present will have been located. In order to gain a better understanding of the geology, Newlands plan to extend the exploration underground using a continuous miner and shuttle cars. Mine plans are dynamic and change as additional information comes to hand. The exploration program has emphasized the need for a flexible approach to mine planning. (author). 4 figs.

  13. Development and testing of methods for in-situ-monitoring the environmental problems in areas of abandoned open-pit lignite mines. Final report; Entwicklung und Erprobung von Methoden zur In-situ-Langzeitueberwachung fuer Probleme der Folgelandschaften des Braunkohlenbergbaus. Schlussbericht

    Knoedel, K.; Koenig, F.


    In the project a concept and prototypes have been developed and tested for an automatic, computer-based monitoring of sites suspected to be hazardous in areas of abandoned open-pit lignite mines. In-situ measurements with milieuparameter probes and an optical sensor system in observation wells are combined with measurements between the wells using an electromagnetic system. Methods are being developed for monitoring the vadose and saturated zones. The areas of abandoned open-pit lignite mines in eastern Germany are not in a steady-state condition. Considerable changes are occurring due to redistribution and aeration of the sediments during removal of the overburden, due to disposal of solid and liquid wastes in the mine area, as well as to the re-establishment of normal groundwater levels. Monitoring will help to better understand the system. Precautionary and remedial measures must also be monitored as well as natural attenuation of pollutants. The results of the project are encouraging with regard to the range of the electromagnetic monitoring system as well as with regard to the long-term stability. Hence, the efficiency will be tested at a reference object in a long time test. (orig.) [German] Im Vorhaben sind ein Konzept und Prototypen fuer die vollautomatische, rechnergestuetzte Langzeitueberwachung (Monitoring) von Altlastenstandorten in den Braunkohlenbergbaufolgelandschaften entwickelt und getestet worden. Das Konzept basiert auf der Kombination lokaler Messungen mit Milieuparametersonden und einem System zur optischen Spektrometrie mit raeumlichen Ueberwachungsmethoden eines elektromagnetischen Ueberwachungssystems. Dabei wurden Loesungen sowohl fuer ein Monitoring in der wassergesaettigten als auch in der ungesaettigten Zone entwickelt. Derartige Ueberwachungssysteme werden kuenftig benoetigt, um zu einem besseren Verstaendnis und zur Loesung der Probleme in den Braunkohlenbergbaufolgelandschaften zu kommen, die durch die Belueftung und Umstrukturierung

  14. Data mining in radiology.

    Kharat, Amit T; Singh, Amarjit; Kulkarni, Vilas M; Shah, Digish


    Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining.

  15. Commercial Data Mining Software

    Zhang, Qingyu; Segall, Richard S.

    This chapter discusses selected commercial software for data mining, supercomputing data mining, text mining, and web mining. The selected software are compared with their features and also applied to available data sets. The software for data mining are SAS Enterprise Miner, Megaputer PolyAnalyst 5.0, PASW (formerly SPSS Clementine), IBM Intelligent Miner, and BioDiscovery GeneSight. The software for supercomputing are Avizo by Visualization Science Group and JMP Genomics from SAS Institute. The software for text mining are SAS Text Miner and Megaputer PolyAnalyst 5.0. The software for web mining are Megaputer PolyAnalyst and SPSS Clementine . Background on related literature and software are presented. Screen shots of each of the selected software are presented, as are conclusions and future directions.

  16. Data mining in radiology

    Amit T Kharat


    Full Text Available Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining.

  17. Spray casting project final report

    Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.


    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step.

  18. Control of Cast Iron Microstructure

    Graham, J.; Lillybeck, N.; Franco, N.; Stefanescu, D. M.


    The use of microgravity for industrial research in the processing of cast iron was investigated. Solidification experiments were conducted using the KC-135 and F-104 aircraft, and an experiment plan was developed for follow-on experiments using the Shuttle. Three areas of interest are identified: (1) measurement of thermophysical properties in the melt; (2) understanding of the relative roles of homogeneous nucleation, grain multiplication, and innocultants in forming the microstructure; and (3) exploring the possibility of obtaining an aligned graphite structure in hypereutectic Fe, Ni, and Co.

  19. Influence of Meteorological Factors on Needle Cast Damage in Young Scots Pine Stands

    Polmanis Kaspars


    Full Text Available Climate changes are expected to create favourable conditions for development and spread of diseases. Therefore, the impact of meteorological factors on needle cast damage, and relationship between degree of damage and growth of trees had been assessed in the study. Analysis was carried out in open-pollinated progeny trial of Norupe seed orchard clones, established in the spring of 2006, in Ltd. “Rīgas meži” (LLC “Riga Forests”. In this trial needle cast damage was assessed in three consecutive years using a fivegrade scale, dependent on the level of damages on current year needles. At the end of each growing season a tree height was measured. Plantation was significantly affected by infection average more than 66% of current year damaged by the disease. Significant (p<0.001 correlation was detected between the degree of needle cast damage and tree height increment as well as the tree height. Significant (p<0.001 differences in needle cast infection level as well as tree height and height increment were found also between open-pollinated families. The results suggest a potentially increasing needle cast infection due to predicted increase of temperature and precipitation, as well as the potential to select more resistant families against damages of this disease in tree breeding process.

  20. 30 CFR 56.6904 - Smoking and open flames.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking and open flames. 56.6904 Section 56.6904 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Requirements § 56.6904 Smoking and open flames. Smoking and use of open flames shall not be permitted within...