WorldWideScience

Sample records for open automated demand

  1. Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specification (Version 1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish; Kiliccote, Sila; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan; Palensky, Peter; McParland, Charles

    2009-02-28

    The development of the Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specification, also known as OpenADR or Open Auto-DR, began in 2002 following the California electricity crisis. The work has been carried out by the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC), which is managed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This specification describes an open standards-based communications data model designed to facilitate sending and receiving demand response price and reliability signals from a utility or Independent System Operator to electric customers. OpenADR is one element of the Smart Grid information and communications technologies that are being developed to improve optimization between electric supply and demand. The intention of the open automated demand response communications data model is to provide interoperable signals to building and industrial control systems that are preprogrammed to take action based on a demand response signal, enabling a demand response event to be fully automated, with no manual intervention. The OpenADR specification is a flexible infrastructure to facilitate common information exchange between the utility or Independent System Operator and end-use participants. The concept of an open specification is intended to allow anyone to implement the signaling systems, the automation server or the automation clients.

  2. Open Automated Demand Response for Small Commerical Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudley, June Han; Piette, Mary Ann; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan

    2009-05-01

    This report characterizes small commercial buildings by market segments, systems and end-uses; develops a framework for identifying demand response (DR) enabling technologies and communication means; and reports on the design and development of a low-cost OpenADR enabling technology that delivers demand reductions as a percentage of the total predicted building peak electric demand. The results show that small offices, restaurants and retail buildings are the major contributors making up over one third of the small commercial peak demand. The majority of the small commercial buildings in California are located in southern inland areas and the central valley. Single-zone packaged units with manual and programmable thermostat controls make up the majority of heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems for small commercial buildings with less than 200 kW peak electric demand. Fluorescent tubes with magnetic ballast and manual controls dominate this customer group's lighting systems. There are various ways, each with its pros and cons for a particular application, to communicate with these systems and three methods to enable automated DR in small commercial buildings using the Open Automated Demand Response (or OpenADR) communications infrastructure. Development of DR strategies must consider building characteristics, such as weather sensitivity and load variability, as well as system design (i.e. under-sizing, under-lighting, over-sizing, etc). Finally, field tests show that requesting demand reductions as a percentage of the total building predicted peak electric demand is feasible using the OpenADR infrastructure.

  3. Northwest Open Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Dudley, Junqiao

    2010-03-17

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) demonstrated and evaluated open automated demand response (OpenADR) communication infrastructure to reduce winter morning and summer afternoon peak electricity demand in commercial buildings the Seattle area. LBNL performed this demonstration for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) in the Seattle City Light (SCL) service territory at five sites: Seattle Municipal Tower, Seattle University, McKinstry, and two Target stores. This report describes the process and results of the demonstration. OpenADR is an information exchange model that uses a client-server architecture to automate demand-response (DR) programs. These field tests evaluated the feasibility of deploying fully automated DR during both winter and summer peak periods. DR savings were evaluated for several building systems and control strategies. This project studied DR during hot summer afternoons and cold winter mornings, both periods when electricity demand is typically high. This is the DRRC project team's first experience using automation for year-round DR resources and evaluating the flexibility of commercial buildings end-use loads to participate in DR in dual-peaking climates. The lessons learned contribute to understanding end-use loads that are suitable for dispatch at different times of the year. The project was funded by BPA and SCL. BPA is a U.S. Department of Energy agency headquartered in Portland, Oregon and serving the Pacific Northwest. BPA operates an electricity transmission system and markets wholesale electrical power at cost from federal dams, one non-federal nuclear plant, and other non-federal hydroelectric and wind energy generation facilities. Created by the citizens of Seattle in 1902, SCL is the second-largest municipal utility in America. SCL purchases approximately 40% of its electricity and the majority of its transmission from BPA through a preference contract. SCL also

  4. Automation of Capacity Bidding with an Aggregator Using Open Automated Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2008-10-01

    This report summarizes San Diego Gas& Electric Company?s collaboration with the Demand Response Research Center to develop and test automation capability for the Capacity Bidding Program in 2007. The report describes the Open Automated Demand Response architecture, summarizes the history of technology development and pilot studies. It also outlines the Capacity Bidding Program and technology being used by an aggregator that participated in this demand response program. Due to delays, the program was not fully operational for summer 2007. However, a test event on October 3, 2007, showed that the project successfully achieved the objective to develop and demonstrate how an open, Web?based interoperable automated notification system for capacity bidding can be used by aggregators for demand response. The system was effective in initiating a fully automated demand response shed at the aggregated sites. This project also demonstrated how aggregators can integrate their demand response automation systems with San Diego Gas& Electric Company?s Demand Response Automation Server and capacity bidding program.

  5. Open Automated Demand Response Dynamic Pricing Technologies and Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatikar, Girish; Mathieu, Johanna L.; Piette, Mary Ann; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan

    2010-08-02

    This study examines the use of OpenADR communications specification, related data models, technologies, and strategies to send dynamic prices (e.g., real time prices and peak prices) and Time of Use (TOU) rates to commercial and industrial electricity customers. OpenADR v1.0 is a Web services-based flexible, open information model that has been used in California utilities' commercial automated demand response programs since 2007. We find that data models can be used to send real time prices. These same data models can also be used to support peak pricing and TOU rates. We present a data model that can accommodate all three types of rates. For demonstration purposes, the data models were generated from California Independent System Operator's real-time wholesale market prices, and a California utility's dynamic prices and TOU rates. Customers can respond to dynamic prices by either using the actual prices, or prices can be mapped into"operation modes," which can act as inputs to control systems. We present several different methods for mapping actual prices. Some of these methods were implemented in demonstration projects. The study results demonstrate show that OpenADR allows interoperability with existing/future systems/technologies and can be used within related dynamic pricing activities within Smart Grid.

  6. Northwest Open Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-08-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) performed a technology demonstration and evaluation for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) in Seattle City Light's (SCL) service territory. This report summarizes the process and results of deploying open automated demand response (OpenADR) in Seattle area with winter morning peaking commercial buildings. The field tests were designed to evaluate the feasibility of deploying fully automated demand response (DR) in four to six sites in the winter and the savings from various building systems. The project started in November of 2008 and lasted 6 months. The methodology for the study included site recruitment, control strategy development, automation system deployment and enhancements, and evaluation of sites participation in DR test events. LBNL subcontracted McKinstry and Akuacom for this project. McKinstry assisted with recruitment, site survey collection, strategy development and overall participant and control vendor management. Akuacom established a new server and enhanced its operations to allow for scheduling winter morning day-of and day-ahead events. Each site signed a Memorandum of Agreement with SCL. SCL offered each site $3,000 for agreeing to participate in the study and an additional $1,000 for each event they participated. Each facility and their control vendor worked with LBNL and McKinstry to select and implement control strategies for DR and developed their automation based on the existing Internet connectivity and building control system. Once the DR strategies were programmed, McKinstry commissioned them before actual test events. McKinstry worked with LBNL to identify control points that can be archived at each facility. For each site LBNL collected meter data and trend logs from the energy management and control system. The communication system allowed the sites to receive day-ahead as well as day-of DR test event signals. Measurement of DR was

  7. Open Automated Demand Response Communications in Demand Response for Wholesale Ancillary Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan; Hernandez, John; Chiu, Albert; Sezgen, Osman; Goodin, John

    2009-11-06

    The Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) is conducting a pilot program to investigate the technical feasibility of bidding certain demand response (DR) resources into the California Independent System Operator's (CAISO) day-ahead market for ancillary services nonspinning reserve. Three facilities, a retail store, a local government office building, and a bakery, are recruited into the pilot program. For each facility, hourly demand, and load curtailment potential are forecasted two days ahead and submitted to the CAISO the day before the operation as an available resource. These DR resources are optimized against all other generation resources in the CAISO ancillary service. Each facility is equipped with four-second real time telemetry equipment to ensure resource accountability and visibility to CAISO operators. When CAISO requests DR resources, PG&E's OpenADR (Open Automated DR) communications infrastructure is utilized to deliver DR signals to the facilities energy management and control systems (EMCS). The pre-programmed DR strategies are triggered without a human in the loop. This paper describes the automated system architecture and the flow of information to trigger and monitor the performance of the DR events. We outline the DR strategies at each of the participating facilities. At one site a real time electric measurement feedback loop is implemented to assure the delivery of CAISO dispatched demand reductions. Finally, we present results from each of the facilities and discuss findings.

  8. Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatikar, Girish; Piette, Mary Ann; Fujita, Sydny; McKane, Aimee; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Radspieler, Anthony; Mares, K.C.; Shroyer, Dave

    2009-12-30

    This study examines data center characteristics, loads, control systems, and technologies to identify demand response (DR) and automated DR (Open Auto-DR) opportunities and challenges. The study was performed in collaboration with technology experts, industrial partners, and data center facility managers and existing research on commercial and industrial DR was collected and analyzed. The results suggest that data centers, with significant and rapidly growing energy use, have significant DR potential. Because data centers are highly automated, they are excellent candidates for Open Auto-DR. 'Non-mission-critical' data centers are the most likely candidates for early adoption of DR. Data center site infrastructure DR strategies have been well studied for other commercial buildings; however, DR strategies for information technology (IT) infrastructure have not been studied extensively. The largest opportunity for DR or load reduction in data centers is in the use of virtualization to reduce IT equipment energy use, which correspondingly reduces facility cooling loads. DR strategies could also be deployed for data center lighting, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. Additional studies and demonstrations are needed to quantify benefits to data centers of participating in DR and to address concerns about DR's possible impact on data center performance or quality of service and equipment life span.

  9. Design and Implementation of an Open, Interoperable AutomatedDemand Response Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila; Ghatikar, Girish

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes the concept for and lessons from the development and field-testing of an open, interoperable communications infrastructure to support automating demand response (DR). Automating DR allows greater levels of participation and improved reliability and repeatability of the demand response and customer facilities. Automated DR systems have been deployed for critical peak pricing and demand bidding and are being designed for real time pricing. The system is designed to generate, manage, and track DR signals between utilities and Independent System Operators (ISOs) to aggregators and end-use customers and their control systems.

  10. Design and Operation of an Open, Interoperable Automated Demand Response Infrastructure for Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish; Kiliccote, Sila; Watson, David; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes the concept for and lessons from the development and field-testing of an open, interoperable communications infrastructure to support automated demand response (auto-DR). Automating DR allows greater levels of participation, improved reliability, and repeatability of the DR in participating facilities. This paper also presents the technical and architectural issues associated with auto-DR and description of the demand response automation server (DRAS), the client/server architecture-based middle-ware used to automate the interactions between the utilities or any DR serving entity and their customers for DR programs. Use case diagrams are presented to show the role of the DRAS between utility/ISO and the clients at the facilities.

  11. Open Automated Demand Response Technologies for Dynamic Pricing and Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatikar, Girish; Mathieu, Johanna L.; Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila

    2010-06-02

    We present an Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specifications (OpenADR) data model capable of communicating real-time prices to electricity customers. We also show how the same data model could be used to for other types of dynamic pricing tariffs (including peak pricing tariffs, which are common throughout the United States). Customers participating in automated demand response programs with building control systems can respond to dynamic prices by using the actual prices as inputs to their control systems. Alternatively, prices can be mapped into"building operation modes," which can act as inputs to control systems. We present several different strategies customers could use to map prices to operation modes. Our results show that OpenADR can be used to communicate dynamic pricing within the Smart Grid and that OpenADR allows for interoperability with existing and future systems, technologies, and electricity markets.

  12. Analysis of Open Automated Demand Response Deployments in California and Guidelines to Transition to Industry Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatikar, Girish; Riess, David; Piette, Mary Ann

    2014-01-02

    This report reviews the Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) deployments within the territories serviced by California?s investor-owned utilities (IOUs) and the transition from the OpenADR 1.0 specification to the formal standard?OpenADR 2.0. As demand response service providers and customers start adopting OpenADR 2.0, it is necessary to ensure that the existing Automated Demand Response (AutoDR) infrastructure investment continues to be useful and takes advantage of the formal standard and its many benefits. This study focused on OpenADR deployments and systems used by the California IOUs and included a summary of the OpenADR deployment from the U.S. Department of Energy-funded demonstration conducted by the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory collected and analyzed data about OpenADR 1.0 deployments, categorized architectures, developed a data model mapping to understand the technical compatibility of each version, and compared the capabilities and features of the two specifications. The findings, for the first time, provided evidence of the total enabled load shed and average first cost for system enablement in the IOU and SMUD service territories. The OpenADR 2.0a profile specification semantically supports AutoDR system architectures and data propagation with a testing and certification program that promotes interoperability, scaled deployments by multiple vendors, and provides additional features that support future services.

  13. Development and Demonstration of the Open Automated Demand Response Standard for the Residential Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herter, Karen; Rasin, Josh; Perry, Tim

    2009-11-30

    The goal of this study was to demonstrate a demand response system that can signal nearly every customer in all sectors through the integration of two widely available and non- proprietary communications technologies--Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) over lnternet protocol and Utility Messaging Channel (UMC) over FM radio. The outcomes of this project were as follows: (1) a software bridge to allow translation of pricing signals from OpenADR to UMC; and (2) a portable demonstration unit with an lnternet-connected notebook computer, a portfolio of DR-enabling technologies, and a model home. The demonstration unit provides visitors the opportunity to send electricity-pricing information over the lnternet (through OpenADR and UMC) and then watch as the model appliances and lighting respond to the signals. The integration of OpenADR and UMC completed and demonstrated in this study enables utilities to send hourly or sub-hourly electricity pricing information simultaneously to the residential, commercial and industrial sectors.

  14. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California -- Phase I Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Song, Katherine; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-04-01

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory?s research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities for wastewater treatment facilities in California. The report describes the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy use and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities. In addition, several energy efficiency and load management case studies are provided for wastewater treatment facilities.This study shows that wastewater treatment facilities can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for automated demand response at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to open automated demand response due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

  15. Automated Price and Demand Response Demonstration for Large Customers in New York City using OpenADR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joyce Jihyun; Yin, Rongxin; Kiliccote, Sila

    2013-10-01

    Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR), an XML-based information exchange model, is used to facilitate continuous price-responsive operation and demand response participation for large commercial buildings in New York who are subject to the default day-ahead hourly pricing. We summarize the existing demand response programs in New York and discuss OpenADR communication, prioritization of demand response signals, and control methods. Building energy simulation models are developed and field tests are conducted to evaluate continuous energy management and demand response capabilities of two commercial buildings in New York City. Preliminary results reveal that providing machine-readable prices to commercial buildings can facilitate both demand response participation and continuous energy cost savings. Hence, efforts should be made to develop more sophisticated algorithms for building control systems to minimize customer's utility bill based on price and reliability information from the electricity grid.

  16. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the results from the second season of research to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve the electric grid reliability and manage electricity costs. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. We refer to this as Auto-DR. The evaluation of the control and communications must be properly configured and pass through a set of test stages: Readiness, Approval, Price Client/Price Server Communication, Internet Gateway/Internet Relay Communication, Control of Equipment, and DR Shed Effectiveness. New commissioning tests are needed for such systems to improve connecting demand responsive building systems to the electric grid demand response systems.

  17. Opportunities for Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California - Phase II Report. San Luis Rey Wastewater Treatment Plant Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Lisa; Lekov, Alex; McKane, Aimee; Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-08-20

    This case study enhances the understanding of open automated demand response opportunities in municipal wastewater treatment facilities. The report summarizes the findings of a 100 day submetering project at the San Luis Rey Wastewater Treatment Plant, a municipal wastewater treatment facility in Oceanside, California. The report reveals that key energy-intensive equipment such as pumps and centrifuges can be targeted for large load reductions. Demand response tests on the effluent pumps resulted a 300 kW load reduction and tests on centrifuges resulted in a 40 kW load reduction. Although tests on the facility?s blowers resulted in peak period load reductions of 78 kW sharp, short-lived increases in the turbidity of the wastewater effluent were experienced within 24 hours of the test. The results of these tests, which were conducted on blowers without variable speed drive capability, would not be acceptable and warrant further study. This study finds that wastewater treatment facilities have significant open automated demand response potential. However, limiting factors to implementing demand response are the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration load, along with the cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities.

  18. Automated Demand Response Opportunities in Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Lisa; Song, Katherine; Lekov, Alex; McKane, Aimee

    2008-11-19

    Wastewater treatment is an energy intensive process which, together with water treatment, comprises about three percent of U.S. annual energy use. Yet, since wastewater treatment facilities are often peripheral to major electricity-using industries, they are frequently an overlooked area for automated demand response opportunities. Demand response is a set of actions taken to reduce electric loads when contingencies, such as emergencies or congestion, occur that threaten supply-demand balance, and/or market conditions occur that raise electric supply costs. Demand response programs are designed to improve the reliability of the electric grid and to lower the use of electricity during peak times to reduce the total system costs. Open automated demand response is a set of continuous, open communication signals and systems provided over the Internet to allow facilities to automate their demand response activities without the need for manual actions. Automated demand response strategies can be implemented as an enhanced use of upgraded equipment and facility control strategies installed as energy efficiency measures. Conversely, installation of controls to support automated demand response may result in improved energy efficiency through real-time access to operational data. This paper argues that the implementation of energy efficiency opportunities in wastewater treatment facilities creates a base for achieving successful demand reductions. This paper characterizes energy use and the state of demand response readiness in wastewater treatment facilities and outlines automated demand response opportunities.

  19. Opening up Library Automation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the history of library automation, the author has seen a steady advancement toward more open systems. In the early days of library automation, when proprietary systems dominated, the need for standards was paramount since other means of inter-operability and data exchange weren't possible. Today's focus on Application Programming…

  20. Home Network Technologies and Automating Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McParland, Charles

    2009-12-01

    Over the past several years, interest in large-scale control of peak energy demand and total consumption has increased. While motivated by a number of factors, this interest has primarily been spurred on the demand side by the increasing cost of energy and, on the supply side by the limited ability of utilities to build sufficient electricity generation capacity to meet unrestrained future demand. To address peak electricity use Demand Response (DR) systems are being proposed to motivate reductions in electricity use through the use of price incentives. DR systems are also be design to shift or curtail energy demand at critical times when the generation, transmission, and distribution systems (i.e. the 'grid') are threatened with instabilities. To be effectively deployed on a large-scale, these proposed DR systems need to be automated. Automation will require robust and efficient data communications infrastructures across geographically dispersed markets. The present availability of widespread Internet connectivity and inexpensive, reliable computing hardware combined with the growing confidence in the capabilities of distributed, application-level communications protocols suggests that now is the time for designing and deploying practical systems. Centralized computer systems that are capable of providing continuous signals to automate customers reduction of power demand, are known as Demand Response Automation Servers (DRAS). The deployment of prototype DRAS systems has already begun - with most initial deployments targeting large commercial and industrial (C & I) customers. An examination of the current overall energy consumption by economic sector shows that the C & I market is responsible for roughly half of all energy consumption in the US. On a per customer basis, large C & I customers clearly have the most to offer - and to gain - by participating in DR programs to reduce peak demand. And, by concentrating on a small number of relatively

  1. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Rockoff, Alexandra; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-05-11

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities for industrial refrigerated warehouses in California. The report describes refrigerated warehouses characteristics, energy use and demand, and control systems. It also discusses energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities and provides analysis results from three demand response studies. In addition, several energy efficiency, load management, and demand response case studies are provided for refrigerated warehouses. This study shows that refrigerated warehouses can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for open automated demand response (OpenADR) at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to OpenADR due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

  2. A Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Response Building Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auslander, David; Culler, David; Wright, Paul; Lu, Yan; Piette, Mary

    2013-12-30

    The goal of the 2.5 year Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Response (DIADR) project was to reduce peak electricity load of Sutardja Dai Hall at UC Berkeley by 30% while maintaining a healthy, comfortable, and productive environment for the occupants. We sought to bring together both central and distributed control to provide “deep” demand response1 at the appliance level of the building as well as typical lighting and HVAC applications. This project brought together Siemens Corporate Research and Siemens Building Technology (the building has a Siemens Apogee Building Automation System (BAS)), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (leveraging their Open Automated Demand Response (openADR), Auto-­Demand Response, and building modeling expertise), and UC Berkeley (related demand response research including distributed wireless control, and grid-­to-­building gateway development). Sutardja Dai Hall houses the Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS), which fosters collaboration among industry and faculty and students of four UC campuses (Berkeley, Davis, Merced, and Santa Cruz). The 141,000 square foot building, occupied in 2009, includes typical office spaces and a nanofabrication laboratory. Heating is provided by a district heating system (steam from campus as a byproduct of the campus cogeneration plant); cooling is provided by one of two chillers: a more typical electric centrifugal compressor chiller designed for the cool months (Nov-­ March) and a steam absorption chiller for use in the warm months (April-­October). Lighting in the open office areas is provided by direct-­indirect luminaries with Building Management System-­based scheduling for open areas, and occupancy sensors for private office areas. For the purposes of this project, we focused on the office portion of the building. Annual energy consumption is approximately 8053 MWh; the office portion is estimated as 1924 MWh. The maximum peak load

  3. A Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Response Building Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auslander, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Culler, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wright, Paul [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Yan [Siemens Corporate Research Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Piette, Mary [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The goal of the 2.5 year Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Response (DIADR) project was to reduce peak electricity load of Sutardja Dai Hall at UC Berkeley by 30% while maintaining a healthy, comfortable, and productive environment for the occupants. We sought to bring together both central and distributed control to provide “deep” demand response1 at the appliance level of the building as well as typical lighting and HVAC applications. This project brought together Siemens Corporate Research and Siemens Building Technology (the building has a Siemens Apogee Building Automation System (BAS)), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (leveraging their Open Automated Demand Response (openADR), Auto-­Demand Response, and building modeling expertise), and UC Berkeley (related demand response research including distributed wireless control, and grid-­to-­building gateway development). Sutardja Dai Hall houses the Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS), which fosters collaboration among industry and faculty and students of four UC campuses (Berkeley, Davis, Merced, and Santa Cruz). The 141,000 square foot building, occupied in 2009, includes typical office spaces and a nanofabrication laboratory. Heating is provided by a district heating system (steam from campus as a byproduct of the campus cogeneration plant); cooling is provided by one of two chillers: a more typical electric centrifugal compressor chiller designed for the cool months (Nov-­ March) and a steam absorption chiller for use in the warm months (April-­October). Lighting in the open office areas is provided by direct-­indirect luminaries with Building Management System-­based scheduling for open areas, and occupancy sensors for private office areas. For the purposes of this project, we focused on the office portion of the building. Annual energy consumption is approximately 8053 MWh; the office portion is estimated as 1924 MWh. The maximum peak load

  4. Role of Standard Demand Response Signals for Advanced Automated Aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Kiliccote, Sila

    2011-11-18

    Emerging standards such as OpenADR enable Demand Response (DR) Resources to interact directly with Utilities and Independent System Operators to allow their facility automation equipment to respond to a variety of DR signals ranging from day ahead to real time ancillary services. In addition, there are Aggregators in today’s markets who are capable of bringing together collections of aggregated DR assets and selling them to the grid as a single resource. However, in most cases these aggregated resources are not automated and when they are, they typically use proprietary technologies. There is a need for a framework for dealing with aggregated resources that supports the following requirements: • Allows demand-side resources to participate in multiple DR markets ranging from wholesale ancillary services to retail tariffs without being completely committed to a single entity like an Aggregator; • Allow aggregated groups of demand-side resources to be formed in an ad hoc fashion to address specific grid-side issues and support the optimization of the collective response of an aggregated group along a number of different dimensions. This is important in order to taylor the aggregated performance envelope to the needs to of the grid; • Allow aggregated groups to be formed in a hierarchical fashion so that each group can participate in variety of markets from wholesale ancillary services to distribution level retail tariffs. This paper explores the issues of aggregated groups of DR resources as described above especially within the context of emerging smart grid standards and the role they will play in both the management and interaction of various grid-side entities with those resources.

  5. Challenges and Demands on Automated Software Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonakdarpour, Borzoo; Kulkarni, Sandeep S.

    2008-01-01

    In the past three decades, automated program verification has undoubtedly been one of the most successful contributions of formal methods to software development. However, when verification of a program against a logical specification discovers bugs in the program, manual manipulation of the program is needed in order to repair it. Thus, in the face of existence of numerous unverified and un- certified legacy software in virtually any organization, tools that enable engineers to automatically verify and subsequently fix existing programs are highly desirable. In addition, since requirements of software systems often evolve during the software life cycle, the issue of incomplete specification has become a customary fact in many design and development teams. Thus, automated techniques that revise existing programs according to new specifications are of great assistance to designers, developers, and maintenance engineers. As a result, incorporating program synthesis techniques where an algorithm generates a program, that is correct-by-construction, seems to be a necessity. The notion of manual program repair described above turns out to be even more complex when programs are integrated with large collections of sensors and actuators in hostile physical environments in the so-called cyber-physical systems. When such systems are safety/mission- critical (e.g., in avionics systems), it is essential that the system reacts to physical events such as faults, delays, signals, attacks, etc, so that the system specification is not violated. In fact, since it is impossible to anticipate all possible such physical events at design time, it is highly desirable to have automated techniques that revise programs with respect to newly identified physical events according to the system specification.

  6. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Pumping water for agricultural irrigation represents a significant share of California’s annual electricity use and peak demand. It also represents a large source of potential flexibility, as farms possess a form of storage in their wetted soil. By carefully modifying their irrigation schedules, growers can participate in demand response without adverse effects on their crops. This report describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by agricultural irrigators in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use in California. Typical on-­farm controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Case studies of demand response programs in California and across the country are reviewed, and their results along with overall California demand estimates are used to estimate statewide demand response potential. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.

  7. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wray, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-30

    Previous research over a period of six years has identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response (DR), automated demand response (Auto-­DR), and Energy Efficiency (EE) measures. This report summarizes that work, including the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy used and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and automated demand response opportunities. Furthermore, this report summarizes the DR potential of three wastewater treatment facilities. In particular, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has collected data at these facilities from control systems, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. The collected data were then used to generate a summary of wastewater power demand, factors affecting that demand, and demand response capabilities. These case studies show that facilities that have implemented energy efficiency measures and that have centralized control systems are well suited to shed or shift electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. In summary, municipal wastewater treatment energy demand in California is large, and energy-­intensive equipment offers significant potential for automated demand response. In particular, large load reductions were achieved by targeting effluent pumps and centrifuges. One of the limiting factors to implementing demand response is the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration at an earlier stage of the process. Another limiting factor is that cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities, limit a facility’s potential to participate in other DR activities.

  8. Findings from Seven Years of Field Performance Data for Automated Demand Response in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Mathieu, Johanna; Parrish, Kristen

    2010-05-14

    California is a leader in automating demand response (DR) to promote low-cost, consistent, and predictable electric grid management tools. Over 250 commercial and industrial facilities in California participate in fully-automated programs providing over 60 MW of peak DR savings. This paper presents a summary of Open Automated DR (OpenADR) implementation by each of the investor-owned utilities in California. It provides a summary of participation, DR strategies and incentives. Commercial buildings can reduce peak demand from 5 to 15percent with an average of 13percent. Industrial facilities shed much higher loads. For buildings with multi-year savings we evaluate their load variability and shed variability. We provide a summary of control strategies deployed, along with costs to install automation. We report on how the electric DR control strategies perform over many years of events. We benchmark the peak demand of this sample of buildings against their past baselines to understand the differences in building performance over the years. This is done with peak demand intensities and load factors. The paper also describes the importance of these data in helping to understand possible techniques to reach net zero energy using peak day dynamic control capabilities in commercial buildings. We present an example in which the electric load shape changed as a result of a lighting retrofit.

  9. Enabling Automated Dynamic Demand Response: From Theory to Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frincu, Marc; Chelmis, Charalampos; Aman, Saima; Saeed, Rizwan; Zois, Vasileios; Prasanna, Viktor

    2015-07-14

    Demand response (DR) is a technique used in smart grids to shape customer load during peak hours. Automated DR offers utilities a fine grained control and a high degree of confidence in the outcome. However the impact on the customer's comfort means this technique is more suited for industrial and commercial settings than for residential homes. In this paper we propose a system for achieving automated controlled DR in a heterogeneous environment. We present some of the main issues arising in building such a system, including privacy, customer satisfiability, reliability, and fast decision turnaround, with emphasis on the solutions we proposed. Based on the lessons we learned from empirical results we describe an integrated automated system for controlled DR on the USC microgrid. Results show that while on a per building per event basis the accuracy of our prediction and customer selection techniques varies, it performs well on average when considering several events and buildings.

  10. Price Responsive Demand in New York Wholesale Electricity Market using OpenADR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joyce Jihyun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    In New York State, the default electricity pricing for large customers is Mandatory Hourly Pricing (MHP), which is charged based on zonal day-ahead market price for energy. With MHP, retail customers can adjust their building load to an economically optimal level according to hourly electricity prices. Yet, many customers seek alternative pricing options such as fixed rates through retail access for their electricity supply. Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) is an XML (eXtensible Markup Language) based information exchange model that communicates price and reliability information. It allows customers to evaluate hourly prices and provide demand response in an automated fashion to minimize electricity costs. This document shows how OpenADR can support MHP and facilitate price responsive demand for large commercial customers in New York City.

  11. Results and commissioning issues from an automated demand responsepilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, Dave; Sezgen, Osman; Motegi, Naoya

    2004-08-05

    This paper describes a research project to develop and test Automated Demand Response hardware and software technology in large facilities. We describe the overall project and some of the commissioning and system design problems that took place. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve the electric grid reliability purposes, manage electricity costs, and ensure that customers receive signals that encourage load reduction during times when the electric grid is near its capacity. There were a number of specific commissioning challenges in conducting this test including software compatibility, incorrect time zones, IT and EMCS failures, and hardware issues. The knowledge needed for this type of system commissioning combines knowledge of building controls with network management and knowledge of emerging information technologies.

  12. Results and commissioning issues from an automated demand responsepilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, Dave; Sezgen, Osman; Motegi, Naoya

    2004-08-05

    This paper describes a research project to develop and test Automated Demand Response hardware and software technology in large facilities. We describe the overall project and some of the commissioning and system design problems that took place. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve the electric grid reliability purposes, manage electricity costs, and ensure that customers receive signals that encourage load reduction during times when the electric grid is near its capacity. There were a number of specific commissioning challenges in conducting this test including software compatibility, incorrect time zones, IT and EMCS failures, and hardware issues. The knowledge needed for this type of system commissioning combines knowledge of building controls with network management and knowledge of emerging information technologies.

  13. Automated Demand Response: The Missing Link in the Electricity Value Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Rhyne, Ivin; Piette, Mary Ann; Thompson, Lisa; Lekov, Alex

    2008-08-01

    In 2006, the Public Interest Energy Research Program (PIER) Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory initiated research into Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) applications in California industry. The goal is to improve electric grid reliability and lower electricity use during periods of peak demand. The purpose of this research is to begin to define the relationship among a portfolio of actions that industrial facilities can undertake relative to their electricity use. This 'electricity value chain' defines energy management and demand response (DR) at six levels of service, distinguished by the magnitude, type, and rapidity of response. One element in the electricity supply chain is OpenADR, an open-standards based communications system to send signals to customers to allow them to manage their electric demand in response to supply conditions, such as prices or reliability, through a set of standard, open communications. Initial DRRC research suggests that industrial facilities that have undertaken energy efficiency measures are probably more, not less, likely to initiate other actions within this value chain such as daily load management and demand response. Moreover, OpenADR appears to afford some facilities the opportunity to develop the supporting control structure and to 'demo' potential reductions in energy use that can later be applied to either more effective load management or a permanent reduction in use via energy efficiency. Under the right conditions, some types of industrial facilities can shift or shed loads, without any, or minimal disruption to operations, to protect their energy supply reliability and to take advantage of financial incentives. In 2007 and 2008, 35 industrial facilities agreed to implement OpenADR, representing a total capacity of nearly 40 MW. This paper describes how integrated or centralized demand management and system-level network controls are linked to Open

  14. Automated Demand Response: The Missing Link in the Electricity Value Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Rhyne, Ivin; Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; Piette, MaryAnn

    2009-08-01

    In 2006, the Public Interest Energy Research Program (PIER) Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory initiated research into Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) applications in California industry. The goal is to improve electric grid reliability and lower electricity use during periods of peak demand. The purpose of this research is to begin to define the relationship among a portfolio of actions that industrial facilities can undertake relative to their electricity use. This ?electricity value chain? defines energy management and demand response (DR) at six levels of service, distinguished by the magnitude, type, and rapidity of response. One element in the electricity supply chain is OpenADR, an open-standards based communications system to send signals to customers to allow them to manage their electric demand in response to supply conditions, such as prices or reliability, through a set of standard, open communications. Initial DRRC research suggests that industrial facilities that have undertaken energy efficiency measures are probably more, not less, likely to initiate other actions within this value chain such as daily load management and demand response. Moreover, OpenADR appears to afford some facilities the opportunity to develop the supporting control structure and to"demo" potential reductions in energy use that can later be applied to either more effective load management or a permanent reduction in use via energy efficiency. Under the right conditions, some types of industrial facilities can shift or shed loads, without any, or minimal disruption to operations, to protect their energy supply reliability and to take advantage of financial incentives.1 In 2007 and 2008, 35 industrial facilities agreed to implement OpenADR, representing a total capacity of nearly 40 MW. This paper describes how integrated or centralized demand management and system-level network controls are linked to OpenADR systems. Case studies

  15. Automated Dynamic Demand Response Implementation on a Micro-grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuppannagari, Sanmukh R.; Kannan, Rajgopal; Chelmis, Charalampos; Prasanna, Viktor K.

    2016-11-16

    In this paper, we describe a system for real-time automated Dynamic and Sustainable Demand Response with sparse data consumption prediction implemented on the University of Southern California campus microgrid. Supply side approaches to resolving energy supply-load imbalance do not work at high levels of renewable energy penetration. Dynamic Demand Response (D2R) is a widely used demand-side technique to dynamically adjust electricity consumption during peak load periods. Our D2R system consists of accurate machine learning based energy consumption forecasting models that work with sparse data coupled with fast and sustainable load curtailment optimization algorithms that provide the ability to dynamically adapt to changing supply-load imbalances in near real-time. Our Sustainable DR (SDR) algorithms attempt to distribute customer curtailment evenly across sub-intervals during a DR event and avoid expensive demand peaks during a few sub-intervals. It also ensures that each customer is penalized fairly in order to achieve the targeted curtailment. We develop near linear-time constant-factor approximation algorithms along with Polynomial Time Approximation Schemes (PTAS) for SDR curtailment that minimizes the curtailment error defined as the difference between the target and achieved curtailment values. Our SDR curtailment problem is formulated as an Integer Linear Program that optimally matches customers to curtailment strategies during a DR event while also explicitly accounting for customer strategy switching overhead as a constraint. We demonstrate the results of our D2R system using real data from experiments performed on the USC smartgrid and show that 1) our prediction algorithms can very accurately predict energy consumption even with noisy or missing data and 2) our curtailment algorithms deliver DR with extremely low curtailment errors in the 0.01-0.05 kWh range.

  16. Direct versus Facility Centric Load Control for Automated Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Ed; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-11-06

    Direct load control (DLC) refers to the scenario where third party entities outside the home or facility are responsible for deciding how and when specific customer loads will be controlled in response to Demand Response (DR) events on the electric grid. Examples of third parties responsible for performing DLC may be Utilities, Independent System Operators (ISO), Aggregators, or third party control companies. DLC can be contrasted with facility centric load control (FCLC) where the decisions for how loads are controlled are made entirely within the facility or enterprise control systems. In FCLC the facility owner has more freedom of choice in how to respond to DR events on the grid. Both approaches are in use today in automation of DR and both will continue to be used in future market segments including industrial, commercial and residential facilities. This paper will present a framework which can be used to differentiate between DLC and FCLC based upon where decisions are made on how specific loads are controlled in response to DR events. This differentiation is then used to compare and contrast the differences between DLC and FCLC to identify the impact each has on:(1)Utility/ISO and third party systems for managing demand response, (2)Facility systems for implementing load control, (3)Communications networks for interacting with the facility and (4)Facility operators and managers. Finally a survey of some of the existing DR related specifications and communications standards is given and their applicability to DLC or FCLC. In general FCLC adds more cost and responsibilities to the facilities whereas DLC represents higher costs and complexity for the Utility/ISO. This difference is primarily due to where the DR Logic is implemented and the consequences that creates. DLC may be more certain than FCLC because it is more predictable - however as more loads have the capability to respond to DR signals, people may prefer to have their own control of end-use loads

  17. Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project for Small and Medium Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Janie; Kiliccote, Sila; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Piette, Mary Ann; Chiu, Albert K.; Kellow, Bashar; Koch, Ed; Lipkin, Paul

    2011-07-01

    Small and medium commercial customers in California make up about 20-25% of electric peak load in California. With the roll out of smart meters to this customer group, which enable granular measurement of electricity consumption, the investor-owned utilities will offer dynamic prices as default tariffs by the end of 2011. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, which successfully deployed Automated Demand Response (AutoDR) Programs to its large commercial and industrial customers, started investigating the same infrastructures application to the small and medium commercial customers. This project aims to identify available technologies suitable for automating demand response for small-medium commercial buildings; to validate the extent to which that technology does what it claims to be able to do; and determine the extent to which customers find the technology useful for DR purpose. Ten sites, enabled by eight vendors, participated in at least four test AutoDR events per site in the summer of 2010. The results showed that while existing technology can reliably receive OpenADR signals and translate them into pre-programmed response strategies, it is likely that better levels of load sheds could be obtained than what is reported here if better understanding of the building systems were developed and the DR response strategies had been carefully designed and optimized for each site.

  18. Open Location Management in Automated Warehousing Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Yu (Yugang); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractA warehouse needs to have sufficient open locations to be able to store incoming shipments of various sizes. In combination with ongoing load retrievals open locations gradually spread over the storage area. Unfavorable positions of open locations negatively impact the average load retri

  19. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California’s Dairy Processing Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homan, Gregory K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-30

    During periods of peak electrical demand on the energy grid or when there is a shortage of supply, the stability of the grid may be compromised or the cost of supplying electricity may rise dramatically, respectively. Demand response programs are designed to mitigate the severity of these problems and improve reliability by reducing the demand on the grid during such critical times. In 2010, the Demand Response Research Center convened a group of industry experts to suggest potential industries that would be good demand response program candidates for further review. The dairy industry was suggested due to the perception that the industry had suitable flexibility and automatic controls in place. The purpose of this report is to provide an initial description of the industry with regard to demand response potential, specifically automated demand response. This report qualitatively describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by dairy processing facilities in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use. Typical process equipment and controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Two case studies of demand response at dairy facilities in California and across the country are reviewed. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.

  20. Demonstration of automated price response in large customers in New York City using Auto-DR and OpenADR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joyce Jihyun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schetrit, Oren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yin, Rongxin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Demand response (DR) – allowing customers to respond to reliability requests and market prices by changing electricity use from their normal consumption pattern – continues to be seen as an attractive means of demand-side management and a fundamental smart-grid improvement that links supply and demand. From October 2011 to December 2013, the Demand Response Research Center at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, and partners Honeywell and Akuacom, have conducted a demonstration project enabling Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) in large commercial buildings located in New York City using Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) communication protocols. In particular, this project focuses on demonstrating how the OpenADR platform, enabled by Akuacom, can automate and simplify interactions between buildings and various stakeholders in New York State and enable the automation of customers’ price response to yield bill savings under dynamic pricing. In this paper, the cost control opportunities under day-ahead hourly pricing and Auto-DR control strategies are presented for four demonstration buildings; present the breakdown of Auto-DR enablement costs; summarize the field test results and their load impact; and show potential bill savings by enabling automated price response under Consolidated Edison’s Mandatory Hourly Pricing (MHP) tariff. For one of the sites, the potential bill savings at the site’s current retail rate are shown. Facility managers were given granular equipment-level opt-out capability to ensure full control of the sites during the Auto-DR implementation. The expected bill savings ranged from 1.1% to 8.0% of the total MHP bill. The automation and enablement costs ranged from $70 to $725 per kW shed. The results show that OpenADR can facilitate the automation of price response, deliver savings to the customers and opt-out capability of the implementation retains control of the

  1. Automated Demand Response for Energy Sustainability Cost and Performance Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-23

    limitations are foreseen in the use of OpenADR, and no potential cost disadvantages (such as increased first cost, installation cost, and/or...commercial firms. The temperature data was measured at the KBYS Fort Irwin / Barstow station, which is located on the Bicycle Lake Army Airfield about

  2. Clarity: An Open Source Manager for Laboratory Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Nigel F.; Echenique, José Rojas; Marx, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Software to manage automated laboratories interfaces with hardware instruments, gives users a way to specify experimental protocols, and schedules activities to avoid hardware conflicts. In addition to these basics, modern laboratories need software that can run multiple different protocols in parallel and that can be easily extended to interface with a constantly growing diversity of techniques and instruments. We present Clarity: a laboratory automation manager that is hardware agnostic, portable, extensible and open source. Clarity provides critical features including remote monitoring, robust error reporting by phone or email, and full state recovery in the event of a system crash. We discuss the basic organization of Clarity; demonstrate an example of its implementation for the automated analysis of bacterial growth; and describe how the program can be extended to manage new hardware. Clarity is mature; well documented; actively developed; written in C# for the Common Language Infrastructure; and is free and open source software. These advantages set Clarity apart from currently available laboratory automation programs. PMID:23032169

  3. Clarity: an open-source manager for laboratory automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Nigel F; Rojas Echenique, José I; Marx, Christopher J

    2013-04-01

    Software to manage automated laboratories, when interfaced with hardware instruments, gives users a way to specify experimental protocols and schedule activities to avoid hardware conflicts. In addition to these basics, modern laboratories need software that can run multiple different protocols in parallel and that can be easily extended to interface with a constantly growing diversity of techniques and instruments. We present Clarity, a laboratory automation manager that is hardware agnostic, portable, extensible, and open source. Clarity provides critical features including remote monitoring, robust error reporting by phone or email, and full state recovery in the event of a system crash. We discuss the basic organization of Clarity, demonstrate an example of its implementation for the automated analysis of bacterial growth, and describe how the program can be extended to manage new hardware. Clarity is mature, well documented, actively developed, written in C# for the Common Language Infrastructure, and is free and open-source software. These advantages set Clarity apart from currently available laboratory automation programs. The source code and documentation for Clarity is available at http://code.google.com/p/osla/.

  4. Open-Source Automated Mapping Four-Point Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handy Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientists have begun using self-replicating rapid prototyper (RepRap 3-D printers to manufacture open source digital designs of scientific equipment. This approach is refined here to develop a novel instrument capable of performing automated large-area four-point probe measurements. The designs for conversion of a RepRap 3-D printer to a 2-D open source four-point probe (OS4PP measurement device are detailed for the mechanical and electrical systems. Free and open source software and firmware are developed to operate the tool. The OS4PP was validated against a wide range of discrete resistors and indium tin oxide (ITO samples of different thicknesses both pre- and post-annealing. The OS4PP was then compared to two commercial proprietary systems. Results of resistors from 10 to 1 MΩ show errors of less than 1% for the OS4PP. The 3-D mapping of sheet resistance of ITO samples successfully demonstrated the automated capability to measure non-uniformities in large-area samples. The results indicate that all measured values are within the same order of magnitude when compared to two proprietary measurement systems. In conclusion, the OS4PP system, which costs less than 70% of manual proprietary systems, is comparable electrically while offering automated 100 micron positional accuracy for measuring sheet resistance over larger areas.

  5. Open-Source Automated Mapping Four-Point Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Handy; Allen, Spencer W; Oberloier, Shane W; Bihari, Nupur; Gwamuri, Jephias; Pearce, Joshua M

    2017-01-26

    Scientists have begun using self-replicating rapid prototyper (RepRap) 3-D printers to manufacture open source digital designs of scientific equipment. This approach is refined here to develop a novel instrument capable of performing automated large-area four-point probe measurements. The designs for conversion of a RepRap 3-D printer to a 2-D open source four-point probe (OS4PP) measurement device are detailed for the mechanical and electrical systems. Free and open source software and firmware are developed to operate the tool. The OS4PP was validated against a wide range of discrete resistors and indium tin oxide (ITO) samples of different thicknesses both pre- and post-annealing. The OS4PP was then compared to two commercial proprietary systems. Results of resistors from 10 to 1 MΩ show errors of less than 1% for the OS4PP. The 3-D mapping of sheet resistance of ITO samples successfully demonstrated the automated capability to measure non-uniformities in large-area samples. The results indicate that all measured values are within the same order of magnitude when compared to two proprietary measurement systems. In conclusion, the OS4PP system, which costs less than 70% of manual proprietary systems, is comparable electrically while offering automated 100 micron positional accuracy for measuring sheet resistance over larger areas.

  6. Semi-automated categorization of open-ended questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schonlau

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Text data from open-ended questions in surveys are difficult to analyze and are frequently ignored. Yet open-ended questions are important because they do not constrain respondents’ answer choices. Where open-ended questions are necessary, sometimes multiple human coders hand-code answers into one of several categories. At the same time, computer scientists have made impressive advances in text mining that may allow automation of such coding. Automated algorithms do not achieve an overall accuracy high enough to entirely replace humans. We categorize open-ended questions soliciting narrative responses using text mining for easy-to-categorize answers and humans for the remainder using expected accuracies to guide the choice of the threshold delineating between “easy” and “hard”. Employing multinomial boosting avoids the common practice of converting machine learning “confidence scores” into pseudo-probabilities. This approach is illustrated with examples from open-ended questions related to respondents’ advice to a patient in a hypothetical dilemma, a follow-up probe related to respondents’ perception of disclosure/privacy risk, and from a question on reasons for quitting smoking from a follow-up survey from the Ontario Smoker’s Helpline. Targeting 80% combined accuracy, we found that 54%-80% of the data could be categorized automatically in research surveys.

  7. Costs to Automate Demand Response - Taxonomy and Results from Field Studies and Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schetrit, Oren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheung, Iris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, Becky Z [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-31

    During the past decade, the technology to automate demand response (DR) in buildings and industrial facilities has advanced significantly. Automation allows rapid, repeatable, reliable operation. This study focuses on costs for DR automation in commercial buildings with some discussion on residential buildings and industrial facilities. DR automation technology relies on numerous components, including communication systems, hardware and software gateways, standards-based messaging protocols, controls and integration platforms, and measurement and telemetry systems. This report compares cost data from several DR automation programs and pilot projects, evaluates trends in the cost per unit of DR and kilowatts (kW) available from automated systems, and applies a standard naming convention and classification or taxonomy for system elements. Median costs for the 56 installed automated DR systems studied here are about $200/kW. The deviation around this median is large with costs in some cases being an order of magnitude great or less than the median. This wide range is a result of variations in system age, size of load reduction, sophistication, and type of equipment included in cost analysis. The costs to automate fast DR systems for ancillary services are not fully analyzed in this report because additional research is needed to determine the total cost to install, operate, and maintain these systems. However, recent research suggests that they could be developed at costs similar to those of existing hot-summer DR automation systems. This report considers installation and configuration costs and does include the costs of owning and operating DR automation systems. Future analysis of the latter costs should include the costs to the building or facility manager costs as well as utility or third party program manager cost.

  8. Development and evaluation of fully automated demand response in large facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Sezgen, Osman; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Shockman, Christine; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-03-30

    This report describes the results of a research project to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve electric grid reliability, manage electricity costs, and ensure that customers receive signals that encourage load reduction during times when the electric grid is near its capacity. The two main drivers for widespread demand responsiveness are the prevention of future electricity crises and the reduction of electricity prices. Additional goals for price responsiveness include equity through cost of service pricing, and customer control of electricity usage and bills. The technology developed and evaluated in this report could be used to support numerous forms of DR programs and tariffs. For the purpose of this report, we have defined three levels of Demand Response automation. Manual Demand Response involves manually turning off lights or equipment; this can be a labor-intensive approach. Semi-Automated Response involves the use of building energy management control systems for load shedding, where a preprogrammed load shedding strategy is initiated by facilities staff. Fully-Automated Demand Response is initiated at a building or facility through receipt of an external communications signal--facility staff set up a pre-programmed load shedding strategy which is automatically initiated by the system without the need for human intervention. We have defined this approach to be Auto-DR. An important concept in Auto-DR is that a facility manager is able to ''opt out'' or ''override'' an individual DR event if it occurs at a time when the reduction in end-use services is not desirable. This project sought to improve the feasibility and nature of Auto-DR strategies in large facilities. The research focused on technology development, testing

  9. Classification and Expression of Open Education Learners' Demands for Quality%Classification and Expression of Open Education Learners' Demands for Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Demands of open education learners for quality are of great help in strengthening the education itself. Such demands originate either sentimentally and rationally, and they are expressed in the following four ways: active involvement, passive involvement, self-withdrawal, and forced withdrawal.

  10. Free and open-source automated 3-D microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Bas; Petersen, Emily E; Hunt, Emily J; Pearce, Joshua M

    2016-11-01

    Open-source technology not only has facilitated the expansion of the greater research community, but by lowering costs it has encouraged innovation and customizable design. The field of automated microscopy has continued to be a challenge in accessibility due the expense and inflexible, noninterchangeable stages. This paper presents a low-cost, open-source microscope 3-D stage. A RepRap 3-D printer was converted to an optical microscope equipped with a customized, 3-D printed holder for a USB microscope. Precision measurements were determined to have an average error of 10 μm at the maximum speed and 27 μm at the minimum recorded speed. Accuracy tests yielded an error of 0.15%. The machine is a true 3-D stage and thus able to operate with USB microscopes or conventional desktop microscopes. It is larger than all commercial alternatives, and is thus capable of high-depth images over unprecedented areas and complex geometries. The repeatability is below 2-D microscope stages, but testing shows that it is adequate for the majority of scientific applications. The open-source microscope stage costs less than 3-9% of the closest proprietary commercial stages. This extreme affordability vastly improves accessibility for 3-D microscopy throughout the world. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  11. Application of existing technology to meet increasing demands for automated sample handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, A T; Kegelman, J E; Kohli, C; McCabe, D D; Moore, J F

    1990-09-01

    As the clinical laboratory advances toward total automation, the marketplace is now demanding more-efficient sample-handling systems. These demands have arisen over a relatively short period of time, in part because of heightened concern over laboratory safety and the resulting manpower shortages. Adding sample-handling capabilities to existing instrumentation is often a challenge, because usually mechanical or system constraints are present that interfere. This challenge has been overcome in the DuPont Sample Management System (SMS), a second-generation general chemistry analyzer that incorporates the latest barcode and computer-interfacing technology. The development of the SMS system relies heavily on recent advances in technology, e.g., software modeling and computer-aided design. The SMS system includes a barcode scanner based on "charge-coupled device" technology, a random-access sample wheel, and new software that oversees the various functions.

  12. Effects of Granular Control on Customers’ Perspective and Behavior with Automated Demand Response Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schetrit, Oren; Kim, Joyce; Yin, Rongxin; Kiliccote, Sila

    2014-08-01

    Automated demand response (Auto-DR) is expected to close the loop between buildings and the grid by providing machine-to-machine communications to curtail loads without the need for human intervention. Hence, it can offer more reliable and repeatable demand response results to the grid than the manual approach and make demand response participation a hassle-free experience for customers. However, many building operators misunderstand Auto-DR and are afraid of losing control over their building operation. To ease the transition from manual to Auto-DR, we designed and implemented granular control of Auto-DR systems so that building operators could modify or opt out of individual load-shed strategies whenever they wanted. This paper reports the research findings from this effort demonstrated through a field study in large commercial buildings located in New York City. We focused on (1) understanding how providing granular control affects building operators’ perspective on Auto-DR, and (2) evaluating the usefulness of granular control by examining their interaction with the Auto-DR user interface during test events. Through trend log analysis, interviews, and surveys, we found that: (1) the opt-out capability during Auto-DR events can remove the feeling of being forced into load curtailments and increase their willingness to adopt Auto-DR; (2) being able to modify individual load-shed strategies allows flexible Auto-DR participation that meets the building’s changing operational requirements; (3) a clear display of automation strategies helps building operators easily identify how Auto-DR is functioning and can build trust in Auto-DR systems.

  13. Towards Automated Lecture Capture, Navigation and Delivery System for Web-Lecture on Demand

    CERN Document Server

    Kannan, Rajkumar

    2010-01-01

    Institutions all over the world are continuously exploring ways to use ICT in improving teaching and learning effectiveness. The use of course web pages, discussion groups, bulletin boards, and e-mails have shown considerable impact on teaching and learning in significant ways, across all disciplines. ELearning has emerged as an alternative to traditional classroom-based education and training and web lectures can be a powerful addition to traditional lectures. They can even serve as a main content source for learning, provided users can quickly navigate and locate relevant pages in a web lecture. A web lecture consists of video and audio of the presenter and slides complemented with screen capturing. In this paper, an automated approach for recording live lectures and for browsing available web lectures for on-demand applications by end users is presented.

  14. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California - Southeast Water Pollution Control Plant Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goli, Sasank [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faulkner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-12-20

    This report details a study into the demand response potential of a large wastewater treatment facility in San Francisco. Previous research had identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response and automated demand response, and this study was conducted to investigate facility attributes that are conducive to demand response or which hinder its implementation. One years' worth of operational data were collected from the facility's control system, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. These data were analyzed to determine factors which affected facility power demand and demand response capabilities The average baseline demand at the Southeast facility was approximately 4 MW. During the rainy season (October-March) the facility treated 40% more wastewater than the dry season, but demand only increased by 4%. Submetering of the facility's lift pumps and centrifuges predicted load shifts capabilities of 154 kW and 86 kW, respectively, with large lift pump shifts in the rainy season. Analysis of demand data during maintenance events confirmed the magnitude of these possible load shifts, and indicated other areas of the facility with demand response potential. Load sheds were seen to be possible by shutting down a portion of the facility's aeration trains (average shed of 132 kW). Load shifts were seen to be possible by shifting operation of centrifuges, the gravity belt thickener, lift pumps, and external pump stations These load shifts were made possible by the storage capabilities of the facility and of the city's sewer system. Large load reductions (an average of 2,065 kW) were seen from operating the cogeneration unit, but normal practice is continuous operation, precluding its use for demand response. The study also identified potential demand response opportunities that warrant further study: modulating variable-demand aeration loads, shifting

  15. On-demand droplet loading for automated organic chemistry on digital microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Gaurav J; Ding, Huijiang; Sadeghi, Saman; Chen, Supin; Kim, Chang-Jin C J; van Dam, R Michael

    2013-07-21

    Organic chemistry applications on digital microfluidic devices often involve reagents that are volatile or sensitive and must be introduced to the chip immediately before use. We present a new technique for automated, on-demand loading of ~1 μL droplets from large (~1 mL), sealed, off-chip reservoirs to a digital microfluidic chip in order to address this challenge. Unlike aqueous liquids which generally are non-wetting to the hydrophobic surface and must be actively drawn into the electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) chip by electrode activation, organic liquids tend to be wetting and can spontaneously flood the chip, and hence require a retracting force for controlled liquid delivery. Using a combination of compressed inert gas and gravity to exert driving and retracting forces on the liquid, the simple loading technique enables precise loading of droplets of both wetting and non-wetting liquids in a reliable manner. A key feature from a practical point of view is that all of the wetted parts are inexpensive and potentially disposable, thus avoiding cross-contamination in chemical and biochemical applications. We provide a theoretical treatment of the underlying physics, discuss the effect of geometry and liquid properties on its performance, and show repeatable reagent loading using the technique. Its versatility is demonstrated with the loading of several aqueous and non-aqueous liquids on an EWOD digital microfluidic device.

  16. An open-source automated continuous condition-based maintenance platform for commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Gowri, Krishnan; Hernandez, George

    2016-09-09

    This paper describes one such reference process that can be deployed to provide continuous automated conditioned-based maintenance management for buildings that have BIM, a building automation system (BAS) and a computerized maintenance management software (CMMS) systems. The process can be deployed using an open source transactional network platform, VOLTTRON™, designed for distributed sensing and controls and supports both energy efficiency and grid services.

  17. Smart grids clouds, communications, open source, and automation

    CERN Document Server

    Bakken, David

    2014-01-01

    The utilization of sensors, communications, and computer technologies to create greater efficiency in the generation, transmission, distribution, and consumption of electricity will enable better management of the electric power system. As the use of smart grid technologies grows, utilities will be able to automate meter reading and billing and consumers will be more aware of their energy usage and the associated costs. The results will require utilities and their suppliers to develop new business models, strategies, and processes.With an emphasis on reducing costs and improving return on inve

  18. An Open Service Provider Concept for Enterprise Complex Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaschenko, A. V.; Sitnikov, P. V.; Tanonykhina, M. O.

    2017-01-01

    The paper introduces a solution for IT services representation and management in the integrated information space of distributed enterprises. It is proposed to develop an Open Service Provider as a software platform for interaction between IT services providers and their users. Implementation of the proposed concept and approach is illustrated by an after-sales customer support system for a large manufacturing corporation delivered by SEC “Open Code”.

  19. PLACE: an open-source python package for laboratory automation, control, and experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jami L; Tom Wörden, Henrik; van Wijk, Kasper

    2015-02-01

    In modern laboratories, software can drive the full experimental process from data acquisition to storage, processing, and analysis. The automation of laboratory data acquisition is an important consideration for every laboratory. When implementing a laboratory automation scheme, important parameters include its reliability, time to implement, adaptability, and compatibility with software used at other stages of experimentation. In this article, we present an open-source, flexible, and extensible Python package for Laboratory Automation, Control, and Experimentation (PLACE). The package uses modular organization and clear design principles; therefore, it can be easily customized or expanded to meet the needs of diverse laboratories. We discuss the organization of PLACE, data-handling considerations, and then present an example using PLACE for laser-ultrasound experiments. Finally, we demonstrate the seamless transition to post-processing and analysis with Python through the development of an analysis module for data produced by PLACE automation.

  20. Stress reactions to cognitively demanding tasks and open-plan office noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Jesper; Mathiesen, Line; Nielsen, Pernille Kofoed

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of cognitively demanding work tasks and office noise on heart rate variability (HRV), cardiovascular responses and electromyography (EMG) activity in the trapezius muscles. METHODS: Ten female volunteers were exposed to simulated open-plan office noise for 35...... min (Leq 65 dBA), while engaged in cognitively demanding tasks. Task performance, self-rated stress and energy, affective state, perceived exertion in the shoulders and in the head, EMG in the left and right trapezius muscle, blood pressure, heart period length, HRV, and salivary cortisol were...... measured. RESULTS: Cognitively demanding work tasks were associated with changes in HRV, systolic blood pressure and EMG that reflects increased sympathetic activity in the autonomic nervous system. No effect of noise was observed, except for a higher rating of perceived exertion in the head and, contrary...

  1. Search Analytics: Automated Learning, Analysis, and Search with Open Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundman, K.; Mattmann, C. A.; Hyon, J.; Ramirez, P.

    2016-12-01

    The sheer volume of unstructured scientific data makes comprehensive human analysis impossible, resulting in missed opportunities to identify relationships, trends, gaps, and outliers. As the open source community continues to grow, tools like Apache Tika, Apache Solr, Stanford's DeepDive, and Data-Driven Documents (D3) can help address this challenge. With a focus on journal publications and conference abstracts often in the form of PDF and Microsoft Office documents, we've initiated an exploratory NASA Advanced Concepts project aiming to use the aforementioned open source text analytics tools to build a data-driven justification for the HyspIRI Decadal Survey mission. We call this capability Search Analytics, and it fuses and augments these open source tools to enable the automatic discovery and extraction of salient information. In the case of HyspIRI, a hyperspectral infrared imager mission, key findings resulted from the extractions and visualizations of relationships from thousands of unstructured scientific documents. The relationships include links between satellites (e.g. Landsat 8), domain-specific measurements (e.g. spectral coverage) and subjects (e.g. invasive species). Using the above open source tools, Search Analytics mined and characterized a corpus of information that would be infeasible for a human to process. More broadly, Search Analytics offers insights into various scientific and commercial applications enabled through missions and instrumentation with specific technical capabilities. For example, the following phrases were extracted in close proximity within a publication: "In this study, hyperspectral images…with high spatial resolution (1 m) were analyzed to detect cutleaf teasel in two areas. …Classification of cutleaf teasel reached a users accuracy of 82 to 84%." Without reading a single paper we can use Search Analytics to automatically identify that a 1 m spatial resolution provides a cutleaf teasel detection users accuracy of 82

  2. Automated Morphometry of the Visual Pathway in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernowo, Aditya T.; Boucard, Christine C.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Cornelissen, Frans W.

    PURPOSE. To establish whether primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is associated with a change in volume of the visual pathway structures between the eyes and the visual cortex. METHODS. To answer this question, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used in combination with automated segmentation and

  3. Automated Morphometry of the Visual Pathway in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernowo, Aditya T.; Boucard, Christine C.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Cornelissen, Frans W.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. To establish whether primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is associated with a change in volume of the visual pathway structures between the eyes and the visual cortex. METHODS. To answer this question, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used in combination with automated segmentation and v

  4. An open-source java platform for automated reaction mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, John D; Mehta, Dinesh P; Kouri, Tina M

    2010-09-27

    This article presents software applications that have been built upon a modular, open-source, reaction mapping library that can be used in both cheminformatics and bioinformatics research. We first describe the theoretical underpinnings and modular architecture of the core software library. We then describe two applications that have been built upon that core. The first is a generic reaction viewer and mapper, and the second classifies reactions according to rules that can be modified by end users with little or no programming skills.

  5. Demo abstract: Flexhouse-2-an open source building automation platform with a focus on flexible control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehrke, Oliver; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Svendsen, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    in or on buildings, and most of these resources will not be communicating directly with the smart grid; in order to allow internal coordination and optimization of resource use at building level, a building automation platform will act as an intermediary. Such a platform must be easy to adapt to the multitude......, an open-source implementation of a building automation system which has been designed with a strong focus on enabling the integration of the building into a smart power system and dedicated support for the requirements of an R&D environment. We will demonstrate the need for such a platform, discuss...

  6. ADAPTING ON DEMAND EXAMINATION SYSTEM IN NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA END OF SEMESTER EXAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonkwo, Charity AKUADI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Teaching–learning process is incomplete without effective and meaningful assessment of students learning outcomes. This applies to both conventional modes of education as well as to open and distance learning modes. So far, conduct of examinations at the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN, has been cumbersome and be-decked with ‘hydra headed’ problems, such as: dearth of skilled academics, finances, prompt marking of scripts and collation/processing of acceptable results leading to release of incomplete or meaningless results. Hence the need for re-engineering the examination process at the NOUN. This paper discusses the On Demand Examination System (ODES, an Information Communication and Technology (ICT based innovation which enables the assessment of students, as at and on their own readiness and demand. But, opined that NOUN can make better use of ODES by convenient adaptation and use of the ODES software functionalities and processes. The ODES can be used to handle the challenging examination processes such as generating items that could be administered to students as a group at the End of Semester Examination. The results of the examination can then be timely processedd and released following the laid down procedures already entrenched by the use of the software to overcome most of the burden experienced so far. Since, the institution, the students and even the staff are not technologically ready for On Demand Examination for now.

  7. The Allocation of Automated Test Equipment Capacity with Variability in Demand and Processing Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    L., Richardson, S. C., Savage , H. S., Devers, W. C., Balaban, H. S., Bailey, E. K., et al. (1996). The Capability of the Consolidated Automated...Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 8. Kara Harp Okulu Savunma Bilimleri Enstitusu Bakanliklar Ankara, Turkey 9. Kara Kuvvetleri Komutanligi

  8. Open Source High Content Analysis Utilizing Automated Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görlitz, Frederik; Kelly, Douglas J; Warren, Sean C; Alibhai, Dominic; West, Lucien; Kumar, Sunil; Alexandrov, Yuriy; Munro, Ian; Garcia, Edwin; McGinty, James; Talbot, Clifford; Serwa, Remigiusz A; Thinon, Emmanuelle; da Paola, Vincenzo; Murray, Edward J; Stuhmeier, Frank; Neil, Mark A A; Tate, Edward W; Dunsby, Christopher; French, Paul M W

    2017-01-18

    We present an open source high content analysis instrument utilizing automated fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) for assaying protein interactions using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) based readouts of fixed or live cells in multiwell plates. This provides a means to screen for cell signaling processes read out using intramolecular FRET biosensors or intermolecular FRET of protein interactions such as oligomerization or heterodimerization, which can be used to identify binding partners. We describe here the functionality of this automated multiwell plate FLIM instrumentation and present exemplar data from our studies of HIV Gag protein oligomerization and a time course of a FRET biosensor in live cells. A detailed description of the practical implementation is then provided with reference to a list of hardware components and a description of the open source data acquisition software written in µManager. The application of FLIMfit, an open source MATLAB-based client for the OMERO platform, to analyze arrays of multiwell plate FLIM data is also presented. The protocols for imaging fixed and live cells are outlined and a demonstration of an automated multiwell plate FLIM experiment using cells expressing fluorescent protein-based FRET constructs is presented. This is complemented by a walk-through of the data analysis for this specific FLIM FRET data set.

  9. OpenComet: an automated tool for comet assay image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyori, Benjamin M; Venkatachalam, Gireedhar; Thiagarajan, P S; Hsu, David; Clement, Marie-Veronique

    2014-01-01

    Reactive species such as free radicals are constantly generated in vivo and DNA is the most important target of oxidative stress. Oxidative DNA damage is used as a predictive biomarker to monitor the risk of development of many diseases. The comet assay is widely used for measuring oxidative DNA damage at a single cell level. The analysis of comet assay output images, however, poses considerable challenges. Commercial software is costly and restrictive, while free software generally requires laborious manual tagging of cells. This paper presents OpenComet, an open-source software tool providing automated analysis of comet assay images. It uses a novel and robust method for finding comets based on geometric shape attributes and segmenting the comet heads through image intensity profile analysis. Due to automation, OpenComet is more accurate, less prone to human bias, and faster than manual analysis. A live analysis functionality also allows users to analyze images captured directly from a microscope. We have validated OpenComet on both alkaline and neutral comet assay images as well as sample images from existing software packages. Our results show that OpenComet achieves high accuracy with significantly reduced analysis time.

  10. OpenComet: An automated tool for comet assay image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M. Gyori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive species such as free radicals are constantly generated in vivo and DNA is the most important target of oxidative stress. Oxidative DNA damage is used as a predictive biomarker to monitor the risk of development of many diseases. The comet assay is widely used for measuring oxidative DNA damage at a single cell level. The analysis of comet assay output images, however, poses considerable challenges. Commercial software is costly and restrictive, while free software generally requires laborious manual tagging of cells. This paper presents OpenComet, an open-source software tool providing automated analysis of comet assay images. It uses a novel and robust method for finding comets based on geometric shape attributes and segmenting the comet heads through image intensity profile analysis. Due to automation, OpenComet is more accurate, less prone to human bias, and faster than manual analysis. A live analysis functionality also allows users to analyze images captured directly from a microscope. We have validated OpenComet on both alkaline and neutral comet assay images as well as sample images from existing software packages. Our results show that OpenComet achieves high accuracy with significantly reduced analysis time.

  11. The Intelligent Automation Demands of Taiwanese Companies with Businesses in Taiwan and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Mei Tai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Most Taiwanese companies invest in Mainland Mainland Mainland Mainland China due to its cheap and a great deal of labor force, or production flexibility. Facing that Mainland China's labor conditions undergo sudden discontinuity, Taiwanese firms with businesses in Taiwan and Mainland China have to change their business models in order to overcome the current difficulties, and create new opportunities. This study shows that the "manufacturing process of the manufacturing industry" is the most important automation item for Taiwanese firms with businesses in Taiwan and Mainland China, followed by "system integration of the manufacturing industry" and "product design of the manufacturing industry", etc. Nearly 60% of these companies have further intelligent automation requirements, and they may combine several methods such as "self-develop" and "collaborate with other companies".

  12. Optimized Energy Management of a Single-House Residential Micro-Grid With Automated Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Monsef, Hassan; Rahimi-Kian, Ashkan

    2015-01-01

    to take part in demand response (DR) programs. The superior performance and efficiency of the proposed system is studied through several scenarios and case studies and validated in comparison with the conventional models. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed MOEMS has the capability...

  13. Automated drop-on-demand system with real-time gravimetric control for precise dosage formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, A; Brown, M; Muzzio, F; Takhistov, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Many of the therapies for personalized medicine have few dosage options, and the successful translation of these therapies to the clinic is significantly dependent on the drug/formulation delivery platform. We have developed a lab-scale integrated system for microdosing of drug formulations with high accuracy and precision that is capable of feedback control. The designed modular drug dispensing system includes a microdispensing valve unit and is fully automated with a LabVIEW-controlled computer interface. The designed system is capable of dispensing drug droplets with volumes ranging from nanoliters to microliters with high accuracy (relative standard deviation gravimetric control.

  14. Open-Source Assisted Laboratory Automation through Graphical User Interfaces and 3D Printers: Application to Equipment Hyphenation for Higher-Order Data Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siano, Gabriel G; Montemurro, Milagros; Alcaráz, Mirta R; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2017-09-25

    Higher-order data generation implies some automation challenges, which are mainly related to the hidden programming languages and electronic details of the equipment. When techniques and/or equipment hyphenation are the key to obtaining higher-order data, the required simultaneous control of them demands funds for new hardware, software, and licenses, in addition to very skilled operators. In this work, we present Design of Inputs-Outputs with Sikuli (DIOS), a free and open-source code program that provides a general framework for the design of automated experimental procedures without prior knowledge of programming or electronics. Basically, instruments and devices are considered as nodes in a network, and every node is associated both with physical and virtual inputs and outputs. Virtual components, such as graphical user interfaces (GUIs) of equipment, are handled by means of image recognition tools provided by Sikuli scripting language, while handling of their physical counterparts is achieved using an adapted open-source three-dimensional (3D) printer. Two previously reported experiments of our research group, related to fluorescence matrices derived from kinetics and high-performance liquid chromatography, were adapted to be carried out in a more automated fashion. Satisfactory results, in terms of analytical performance, were obtained. Similarly, advantages derived from open-source tools assistance could be appreciated, mainly in terms of lesser intervention of operators and cost savings.

  15. 自动需求响应信息交换接口设计%Design of Automated Demand Response Information Exchange Interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁兵; 张荣; 李彬; 陈宋宋

    2014-01-01

    Automated demand response information exchange interface, which is one of the key technologies for automated demand response, is entity connecting customer automation systems, demand response service systems in power grid-side and the third-party aggregation service systems for participating in the automated demand response. Information exchange capabilities between demand response systems are realized by the interface. By analyzing demand response business, architecture, hierarchical model and functions of interface were designed in this paper. By integrating function layer, information layer and communication layer entities, efficient, flexible, convenient and secure demand response information exchange can be implemented by the interface that mapped to a physical network reasonable, which is significant for automated demand response.%自动需求响应信息交换接口是连接参加自动需求响应的用户自动化系统、电网公司的需求响应服务系统及第三方的聚合服务系统的实体。接口能实现需求响应各系统间的信息交换功能,是自动需求响应的关键技术之一。从需求响应业务分析出发,设计了接口的体系架构、层次模型和接口功能,通过接口的功能层、信息层和通信层实体间的密切配合,合理映射到物理网络后可进行高效、灵活、方便、安全的需求响应信息交换,对实现需求响应的自动化具有重要意义。

  16. Automated Demand Response Approaches to Household Energy Management in a Smart Grid Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adika, Christopher Otieno

    The advancement of renewable energy technologies and the deregulation of the electricity market have seen the emergence of Demand response (DR) programs. Demand response is a cost-effective load management strategy which enables the electricity suppliers to maintain the integrity of the power grid during high peak periods, when the customers' electrical load is high. DR programs are designed to influence electricity users to alter their normal consumption patterns by offering them financial incentives. A well designed incentive-based DR scheme that offer competitive electricity pricing structure can result in numerous benefits to all the players in the electricity market. Lower power consumption during peak periods will significantly enhance the robustness of constrained networks by reducing the level of power of generation and transmission infrastructure needed to provide electric service. Therefore, this will ease the pressure of building new power networks as we avoiding costly energy procurements thereby translating into huge financial savings for the power suppliers. Peak load reduction will also reduce the inconveniences suffered by end users as a result of brownouts or blackouts. Demand response will also drastically lower the price peaks associated with wholesale markets. This will in turn reduce the electricity costs and risks for all the players in the energy market. Additionally, DR is environmentally friendly since it enhances the flexibility of the power grid through accommodation of renewable energy resources. Despite its many benefits, DR has not been embraced by most electricity networks. This can be attributed to the fact that the existing programs do not provide enough incentives to the end users and, therefore, most electricity users are not willing to participate in them. To overcome these challenges, most utilities are coming up with innovative strategies that will be more attractive to their customers. Thus, this dissertation presents various

  17. Automated Metadata Formatting for Cornell’s Print-on-Demand Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Dietrich

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cornell University Library has made Print-On Demand (POD books available for many of its digitized out-of-copyright books. The printer must be supplied with metadata from the MARC bibliographic record in order to produce book covers. Although the names of authors are present in MARC records, they are given in an inverted order suitable for alphabetical filing rather than the natural order that is desirable for book covers. This article discusses a process for parsing and manipulating the MARC author strings to identify their various component parts and to create natural order strings. In particular, the article focuses on processing non-name information in author strings, such as titles that were commonly used in older works, e.g., baron or earl, and suffixes appended to names, e.g., "of Bolsena." Relevant patterns are identified and a Python script is used to manipulate the author name strings.

  18. Implementing a parametric maximum flow algorithm for optimal open pit mine design under uncertain supply and demand

    OpenAIRE

    M W A Asad; R Dimitrakopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Conventional open pit mine optimization models for designing mining phases and ultimate pit limit do not consider expected variations and uncertainty in metal content available in a mineral deposit (supply) and commodity prices (market demand). Unlike the conventional approach, a stochastic framework relies on multiple realizations of the input data so as to account for uncertainty in metal content and financial parameters, reflecting potential supply and demand. This paper presents a new met...

  19. Automated classification of self-grooming in mice using open-source software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boom, Bastijn J G; Pavlidi, Pavlina; Wolf, Casper J H; Mooij, Adriana H; Willuhn, Ingo

    2017-09-01

    Manual analysis of behavior is labor intensive and subject to inter-rater variability. Although considerable progress in automation of analysis has been made, complex behavior such as grooming still lacks satisfactory automated quantification. We trained a freely available, automated classifier, Janelia Automatic Animal Behavior Annotator (JAABA), to quantify self-grooming duration and number of bouts based on video recordings of SAPAP3 knockout mice (a mouse line that self-grooms excessively) and wild-type animals. We compared the JAABA classifier with human expert observers to test its ability to measure self-grooming in three scenarios: mice in an open field, mice on an elevated plus-maze, and tethered mice in an open field. In each scenario, the classifier identified both grooming and non-grooming with great accuracy and correlated highly with results obtained by human observers. Consistently, the JAABA classifier confirmed previous reports of excessive grooming in SAPAP3 knockout mice. Thus far, manual analysis was regarded as the only valid quantification method for self-grooming. We demonstrate that the JAABA classifier is a valid and reliable scoring tool, more cost-efficient than manual scoring, easy to use, requires minimal effort, provides high throughput, and prevents inter-rater variability. We introduce the JAABA classifier as an efficient analysis tool for the assessment of rodent self-grooming with expert quality. In our "how-to" instructions, we provide all information necessary to implement behavioral classification with JAABA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An open-source toolbox for automated phenotyping of mice in behavioral tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan P Patel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Classifying behavior patterns in mouse models of neurological, psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders is critical for understanding disease causality and treatment. However, complete characterization of behavior is time-intensive, prone to subjective scoring, and often requires specialized equipment. Although several reports describe automated home-cage monitoring and individual task scoring methods, we report the first open source, comprehensive toolbox for automating the scoring of several common behavior tasks used by the neuroscience community. We show this new toolbox is robust and achieves equal or better consistency when compared to manual scoring methods. We use this toolbox to study the alterations in behavior that occur following blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI, and study if these behavior patterns are altered following genetic deletion of the transcription factor Ets-like kinase 1 (Elk-1. Due to the role of Elk-1 in neuronal survival and proposed role in synaptic plasticity, we hypothesized that Elk-1 deletion would improve some neurobehavioral deficits, while impairing others, following blast exposure. In Elk-1 knockout animals, deficits in open field, spatial object recognition and elevated zero maze performance after blast exposure disappeared, while new significant deficits appeared in spatial and associative memory. These are the first data suggesting a molecular mediator of anxiety deficits following blast-induced traumatic brain injury, and represent the utility of the broad screening tool we developed. More broadly, we envision this open-source toolbox will provide a more consistent and rapid analysis of behavior across many neurological diseases, promoting the rapid discovery of novel pathways mediating disease progression and treatment.

  1. Open-Source Automated Parahydrogen Hyperpolarizer for Molecular Imaging Using (13)C Metabolic Contrast Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Aaron M; Shchepin, Roman V; Truong, Milton L; Wilkens, Ken; Pham, Wellington; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2016-08-16

    An open-source hyperpolarizer producing (13)C hyperpolarized contrast agents using parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) for biomedical and other applications is presented. This PHIP hyperpolarizer utilizes an Arduino microcontroller in conjunction with a readily modified graphical user interface written in the open-source processing software environment to completely control the PHIP hyperpolarization process including remotely triggering an NMR spectrometer for efficient production of payloads of hyperpolarized contrast agent and in situ quality assurance of the produced hyperpolarization. Key advantages of this hyperpolarizer include: (i) use of open-source software and hardware seamlessly allowing for replication and further improvement as well as readily customizable integration with other NMR spectrometers or MRI scanners (i.e., this is a multiplatform design), (ii) relatively low cost and robustness, and (iii) in situ detection capability and complete automation. The device performance is demonstrated by production of a dose (∼2-3 mL) of hyperpolarized (13)C-succinate with %P13C ∼ 28% and 30 mM concentration and (13)C-phospholactate at %P13C ∼ 15% and 25 mM concentration in aqueous medium. These contrast agents are used for ultrafast molecular imaging and spectroscopy at 4.7 and 0.0475 T. In particular, the conversion of hyperpolarized (13)C-phospholactate to (13)C-lactate in vivo is used here to demonstrate the feasibility of ultrafast multislice (13)C MRI after tail vein injection of hyperpolarized (13)C-phospholactate in mice.

  2. Revisiting the Fully Automated Double-ring Infiltrometer using Open-source Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, J.; Werkema, D., Jr.; Lane, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    The double-ring infiltrometer (DRI) is commonly used for measuring soil hydraulic conductivity. However, constant-head DRI tests typically involve the use of Mariotte tubes, which can be problematic to set-up, and time-consuming to maintain and monitor during infiltration tests. Maheshwari (1996, Australian Journal of Soil Research, v. 34, p. 709-714) developed a method for eliminating Mariotte tubes for constant-head tests using a computer-controlled combination of water-level indicators and solenoids to maintain a near-constant head in the DRI. A pressure transducer mounted on a depth-to-volume calibrated tank measures the water delivery rates during the test and data are saved on a hard drive or floppy disk. Here we use an inexpensive combination of pressure transducers, microcontroller, and open-source electronics that eliminate the need for Mariotte tubes. The system automates DRI water delivery and data recording for both constant- and falling-head infiltration tests. The user has the option of choosing water supplied to the DRI through a pressurized water system, pump, or gravity fed. An LCD screen enables user interface and observation of data for quality analysis in the field. The digital data are stored on a micro-SD card in standard column format for future retrieval and easy importing into conventional processing and plotting software. We show the results of infiltrometer tests using the automated system and a conventional Mariotte tube system conducted over test beds of uniform soils.

  3. An Open-Source Automated Peptide Synthesizer Based on Arduino and Python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gali, Hariprasad

    2017-10-01

    The development of the first open-source automated peptide synthesizer, PepSy, using Arduino UNO and readily available components is reported. PepSy was primarily designed to synthesize small peptides in a relatively small scale (<100 µmol). Scripts to operate PepSy in a fully automatic or manual mode were written in Python. Fully automatic script includes functions to carry out resin swelling, resin washing, single coupling, double coupling, Fmoc deprotection, ivDde deprotection, on-resin oxidation, end capping, and amino acid/reagent line cleaning. Several small peptides and peptide conjugates were successfully synthesized on PepSy with reasonably good yields and purity depending on the complexity of the peptide.

  4. Evaluating the Validity and Applicability of Automated Essay Scoring in Two Massive Open Online Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Dawna Reilly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of massive open online courses (MOOCs to expand students’ access to higher education has raised questions regarding the extent to which this course model can provide and assess authentic, higher level student learning. In response to this need, MOOC platforms have begun utilizing automated essay scoring (AES systems that allow students to engage in critical writing and free-response activities. However, there is a lack of research investigating the validity of such systems in MOOCs. This research examined the effectiveness of an AES tool to score writing assignments in two MOOCs. Results indicated that some significant differences existed between Instructor grading, AES-Holistic scores, and AES-Rubric Total scores within two MOOC courses. However, use of the AES system may still be useful given instructors’ assessment needs and intent. Findings from this research have implications for instructional technology administrators, educational designers, and instructors implementing AES learning activities in MOOC courses.

  5. Adapting on Demand Examination System in National Open University of Nigeria End of Semester Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, Charity Akuadi

    2011-01-01

    Teaching-learning process is incomplete without effective and meaningful assessment of students learning outcomes. This applies to both conventional modes of education as well as to open and distance learning modes. So far, conduct of examinations at the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN), has been cumbersome and be-decked with "hydra…

  6. Open-source software for demand forecasting of clinical laboratory test volumes using time-series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Demand forecasting is the area of predictive analytics devoted to predicting future volumes of services or consumables. Fair understanding and estimation of how demand will vary facilitates the optimal utilization of resources. In a medical laboratory, accurate forecasting of future demand, that is, test volumes, can increase efficiency and facilitate long-term laboratory planning. Importantly, in an era of utilization management initiatives, accurately predicted volumes compared to the realized test volumes can form a precise way to evaluate utilization management initiatives. Laboratory test volumes are often highly amenable to forecasting by time-series models; however, the statistical software needed to do this is generally either expensive or highly technical. Method: In this paper, we describe an open-source web-based software tool for time-series forecasting and explain how to use it as a demand forecasting tool in clinical laboratories to estimate test volumes. Results: This tool has three different models, that is, Holt-Winters multiplicative, Holt-Winters additive, and simple linear regression. Moreover, these models are ranked and the best one is highlighted. Conclusion: This tool will allow anyone with historic test volume data to model future demand.

  7. Open-source Software for Demand Forecasting of Clinical Laboratory Test Volumes Using Time-series Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Emad A; Naugler, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Demand forecasting is the area of predictive analytics devoted to predicting future volumes of services or consumables. Fair understanding and estimation of how demand will vary facilitates the optimal utilization of resources. In a medical laboratory, accurate forecasting of future demand, that is, test volumes, can increase efficiency and facilitate long-term laboratory planning. Importantly, in an era of utilization management initiatives, accurately predicted volumes compared to the realized test volumes can form a precise way to evaluate utilization management initiatives. Laboratory test volumes are often highly amenable to forecasting by time-series models; however, the statistical software needed to do this is generally either expensive or highly technical. In this paper, we describe an open-source web-based software tool for time-series forecasting and explain how to use it as a demand forecasting tool in clinical laboratories to estimate test volumes. This tool has three different models, that is, Holt-Winters multiplicative, Holt-Winters additive, and simple linear regression. Moreover, these models are ranked and the best one is highlighted. This tool will allow anyone with historic test volume data to model future demand.

  8. Open source software for semi-automated histomorphometry of bone resorption and formation parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Hof, Rob J; Rose, Lorraine; Bassonga, Euphemie; Daroszewska, Anna

    2017-06-01

    Micro-CT analysis has become the standard method for assessing bone volume and architecture in small animals. However, micro-CT does not allow the assessment of bone turnover parameters such as bone formation rate and osteoclast (OC) number and surface. For these crucial variables histomorphometric analysis is still an essential technique. Histomorphometry however, is time consuming and, especially in mouse bones, OCs can be difficult to detect. The main purpose of this study was to develop and validate a relatively easy and rapid method to measure static and dynamic bone histomorphometry parameters. Here we present the adaptation of established staining protocols and three novel open source image analysis packages: TrapHisto, OsteoidHisto and CalceinHisto that allow rapid, semi-automated analysis of histomorphometric bone resorption, osteoid, and calcein double labelling parameters respectively. These three programs are based on ImageJ, but use a relatively simple user interface that hides the underlying complexity of the image analysis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Critical Aspects of Modern Open Source SoftwareTechnology to Support Emerging Demands

    CERN Document Server

    Farooq, Umer; Shabbir, Usman; Nazir, Sohail; 10.5120/3330-4580

    2011-01-01

    Software has gained immense importance in our everyday lifeand is handling each and every aspect of today's technologicalworld. The idea of software at initial phase was implemented bya very precise minority of individual and now it's everywherewhether one's personal life or an organization .Financiallystrong organization and people who can purchase this bounty oftechnological era can fulfill their desires efficiently. For sure it's not a generalized case that one is financially strong and caneasily afford the desired software. There are numerous userswho cannot do so. Open source software has a way out for theseusers it provides them the same facilities and functionalities asin their equivalent software irrespective of any financialpressure. So the financially constrained personals ororganization can make use of open source software forachievement of their desired tasks. In this research paper ananalysis of open source software has been presented byproviding a brief comparison of Ubuntu as an emerging highqu...

  10. Automated population of an i2b2 clinical data warehouse from an openEHR-based data repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarbrandt, Birger; Tute, Erik; Marschollek, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Detailed Clinical Model (DCM) approaches have recently seen wider adoption. More specifically, openEHR-based application systems are now used in production in several countries, serving diverse fields of application such as health information exchange, clinical registries and electronic medical record systems. However, approaches to efficiently provide openEHR data to researchers for secondary use have not yet been investigated or established. We developed an approach to automatically load openEHR data instances into the open source clinical data warehouse i2b2. We evaluated query capabilities and the performance of this approach in the context of the Hanover Medical School Translational Research Framework (HaMSTR), an openEHR-based data repository. Automated creation of i2b2 ontologies from archetypes and templates and the integration of openEHR data instances from 903 patients of a paediatric intensive care unit has been achieved. In total, it took an average of ∼2527s to create 2.311.624 facts from 141.917 XML documents. Using the imported data, we conducted sample queries to compare the performance with two openEHR systems and to investigate if this representation of data is feasible to support cohort identification and record level data extraction. We found the automated population of an i2b2 clinical data warehouse to be a feasible approach to make openEHR data instances available for secondary use. Such an approach can facilitate timely provision of clinical data to researchers. It complements analytics based on the Archetype Query Language by allowing querying on both, legacy clinical data sources and openEHR data instances at the same time and by providing an easy-to-use query interface. However, due to different levels of expressiveness in the data models, not all semantics could be preserved during the ETL process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gemvid, an open source, modular, automated activity recording system for rats using digital video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leprince Pierre

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measurement of locomotor activity is a valuable tool for analysing factors influencing behaviour and for investigating brain function. Several methods have been described in the literature for measuring the amount of animal movement but most are flawed or expensive. Here, we describe an open source, modular, low-cost, user-friendly, highly sensitive, non-invasive system that records all the movements of a rat in its cage. Methods Our activity monitoring system quantifies overall free movements of rodents without any markers, using a commercially available CCTV and a newly designed motion detection software developed on a GNU/Linux-operating computer. The operating principle is that the amount of overall movement of an object can be expressed by the difference in total area occupied by the object in two consecutive picture frames. The application is based on software modules that allow the system to be used in a high-throughput workflow. Documentation, example files, source code and binary files can be freely downloaded from the project website at http://bioinformatics.org/gemvid/. Results In a series of experiments with objects of pre-defined oscillation frequencies and movements, we documented the sensitivity, reproducibility and stability of our system. We also compared data obtained with our system and data obtained with an Actiwatch device. Finally, to validate the system, results obtained from the automated observation of 6 rats during 7 days in a regular light cycle are presented and are accompanied by a stability test. The validity of this system is further demonstrated through the observation of 2 rats in constant dark conditions that displayed the expected free running of their circadian rhythm. Conclusion The present study describes a system that relies on video frame differences to automatically quantify overall free movements of a rodent without any markers. It allows the monitoring of rats in their own

  12. Capitalizing on global demands for open data access and interoperability - the USGIN story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Stephen; Allison, Lee

    2016-04-01

    U.S. Geoscience Information Network (USGIN - http://usgin.org) data integration framework packages data so that it can be accessible through a broad array of open-source software and applications, including GeoServer, QGIS, GrassGIS, uDig, and gvSIG. USGIN data-sharing networks are designed to interact with other data exchange systems and have the ability to connect information on a granular level without jeopardizing data ownership. The system is compliant with international standards and protocols, scalable, extensible, and can be deployed throughout the world for a myriad of applications. Using GeoSciML as its data transfer standard and a collaborative approach to Content Model development and management, much of the architecture is publically available through GitHub. Initially developed by the USGS and Association of American State Geologists as a distributed, self-maintained platform for sharing geoscience information, USGIN meets all the requirements of the White House Open Data Access Initiative that applies to (almost) all federally-funded research and all federally-maintained data, opening up huge opportunities for further deployment. In December 2015, the USGIN Content Model schema was recommended for adoption by the White House-led US Group on Earth Observations (USGEO) "Draft Common Framework for Earth-Observation Data" for all US earth observation (i.e., satellite) data. The largest USGIN node is the U.S. National Geothermal Data System (NGDS - www.geothermaldata.org). NGDS provides free open access to ~ 10 million data records, maps, and reports, sharing relevant geoscience and land use data to propel geothermal development and production in the U.S. NGDS currently serves information from hundreds of the U.S. Department of Energy's sponsored projects and geologic data feeds from 60+ data providers in all 50 states, using free and open source software, in a federated system where data owners maintain control of their data. This interactive online

  13. OpenCyto: an open source infrastructure for scalable, robust, reproducible, and automated, end-to-end flow cytometry data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finak, Greg; Frelinger, Jacob; Jiang, Wenxin; Newell, Evan W; Ramey, John; Davis, Mark M; Kalams, Spyros A; De Rosa, Stephen C; Gottardo, Raphael

    2014-08-01

    Flow cytometry is used increasingly in clinical research for cancer, immunology and vaccines. Technological advances in cytometry instrumentation are increasing the size and dimensionality of data sets, posing a challenge for traditional data management and analysis. Automated analysis methods, despite a general consensus of their importance to the future of the field, have been slow to gain widespread adoption. Here we present OpenCyto, a new BioConductor infrastructure and data analysis framework designed to lower the barrier of entry to automated flow data analysis algorithms by addressing key areas that we believe have held back wider adoption of automated approaches. OpenCyto supports end-to-end data analysis that is robust and reproducible while generating results that are easy to interpret. We have improved the existing, widely used core BioConductor flow cytometry infrastructure by allowing analysis to scale in a memory efficient manner to the large flow data sets that arise in clinical trials, and integrating domain-specific knowledge as part of the pipeline through the hierarchical relationships among cell populations. Pipelines are defined through a text-based csv file, limiting the need to write data-specific code, and are data agnostic to simplify repetitive analysis for core facilities. We demonstrate how to analyze two large cytometry data sets: an intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) data set from a published HIV vaccine trial focused on detecting rare, antigen-specific T-cell populations, where we identify a new subset of CD8 T-cells with a vaccine-regimen specific response that could not be identified through manual analysis, and a CyTOF T-cell phenotyping data set where a large staining panel and many cell populations are a challenge for traditional analysis. The substantial improvements to the core BioConductor flow cytometry packages give OpenCyto the potential for wide adoption. It can rapidly leverage new developments in computational

  14. Open systems in substation automation systems in the view of net operators; Offene Systeme in der Stationsleittechnik aus Netzbetreibersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutt, U. [Stadtwerke Hannover AG (Germany). Abt. Leittechnische Anlagen; Hoppe-Oehl, H. [RWE Net AG Essen (Germany). Leittechnik Planung; Hylla, H.J. [Meag, Halle (Germany). Abt. Leittechnik

    2000-10-30

    The substation automation systems of electrical transmission and distribution nets create the essential basis for the telemonitoring and remote control of nets. Concerning these long-lived capital goods the economic efficiency over the lifetime of the installed technology at adequate functionality is primary. Economic efficiency also means that the control devices can be expanded and maintained at low cost according to net requirements. Aligned to the mentioned requirements employers and producers strive to develop new potential of savings of costs based on new technologies - particularly concerning the enormous competition in the power economy. In this relation open systems in substation automation systems are discussed seriously as a new chance. This subscription describes the chances and risks of open systems in substation automation systems in the view of net operators and reflects the possibilities of the standard drafts of the series IEC 61850. (orig.) [German] Die stationsbezogene Leittechnik der Stromversorgungsnetze schafft eine wesentliche Basis fuer die Fernueberwachung und Fernsteuerung des Netzes. Bei diesen langlebigen Investitionsguetern steht bei angemessener Funktionalitaet die Wirtschaftlichkeit der eingesetzten Technik ueber die gesamte Lebensdauer im Vordergrund. Als neue Chance werden offene Systeme fuer die Stationsleittechnik diskutiert. Die Verfasser beschreiben aus Anwendersicht die Chancen und Risiken von offenen Systemen in der Stationsleittechnik und spiegeln daran die Normentwuerfe der Reihe IEC 61850. (orig.)

  15. 自动需求响应系统的需求及架构研究%Studies on Requirements and Architecture for Automated Demand Response System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶; 孙万珺; 王婷

    2015-01-01

    用户是电力系统服务的最终对象,需求响应(demand response,DR)与用户紧密相关,随着智能电网的发展,传统的交互模式已经不能满足DR领域的需求。该文综合阐述国内外自动需求响应(automated demand response,ADR)系统的研究进展,提出ADR系统概念模型,逻辑架构和物理部署,从而明确 ADR 系统的参与角色及作用;剖析 ADR系统的业务需求,功能需求及非功能需求,分析系统构建的关键技术,包括用例分析技术、信息模型技术、通信传输技术、可视化技术、需求响应测量与评估及一致性和安全要求等,对需求响应自动化建设具有重要意义。最后,介绍ADR在国内的相关试点工程,对下一步工作提出展望。%Customer is the ultimate object of power system services, while demand response (DR) is closely related to the customer. With the development of smart grid, the traditional interactive mode cannot meet the needs of DR field. This paper described the progress of domestic automated demand response (ADR), and then proposed configuration, logical structure and physical deployment of ADR system, which thus cleared the participation role and effects of ADR system. This paper analyzed business requirements, functional requirements and non-functional requirements of ADR system, and also analyzed key technology to build the system, including case analysis technology, information modeling technology, communications transmission technology, visualization technology, demand response measurement and evaluation technology, consistency and safety requirements, and so on. These requirements were important for building ADR system. Finally, ADR related pilot projects in China were introduced, and expectations for the next step were raised.

  16. GeNeDA: An Open-Source Workflow for Design Automation of Gene Regulatory Networks Inspired from Microelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madec, Morgan; Pecheux, François; Gendrault, Yves; Rosati, Elise; Lallement, Christophe; Haiech, Jacques

    2016-10-01

    The topic of this article is the development of an open-source automated design framework for synthetic biology, specifically for the design of artificial gene regulatory networks based on a digital approach. In opposition to other tools, GeNeDA is an open-source online software based on existing tools used in microelectronics that have proven their efficiency over the last 30 years. The complete framework is composed of a computation core directly adapted from an Electronic Design Automation tool, input and output interfaces, a library of elementary parts that can be achieved with gene regulatory networks, and an interface with an electrical circuit simulator. Each of these modules is an extension of microelectronics tools and concepts: ODIN II, ABC, the Verilog language, SPICE simulator, and SystemC-AMS. GeNeDA is first validated on a benchmark of several combinatorial circuits. The results highlight the importance of the part library. Then, this framework is used for the design of a sequential circuit including a biological state machine.

  17. Does the Location of Bruch's Membrane Opening Change Over Time? Longitudinal Analysis Using San Diego Automated Layer Segmentation Algorithm (SALSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belghith, Akram; Bowd, Christopher; Medeiros, Felipe A; Hammel, Naama; Yang, Zhiyong; Weinreb, Robert N; Zangwill, Linda M

    2016-02-01

    We determined if the Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) location changes over time in healthy eyes and eyes with progressing glaucoma, and validated an automated segmentation algorithm for identifying the BMO in Cirrus high-definition coherence tomography (HD-OCT) images. We followed 95 eyes (35 progressing glaucoma and 60 healthy) for an average of 3.7 ± 1.1 years. A stable group of 50 eyes had repeated tests over a short period. In each B-scan of the stable group, the BMO points were delineated manually and automatically to assess the reproducibility of both segmentation methods. Moreover, the BMO location variation over time was assessed longitudinally on the aligned images in 3D space point by point in x, y, and z directions. Mean visual field mean deviation at baseline of the progressing glaucoma group was -7.7 dB. Mixed-effects models revealed small nonsignificant changes in BMO location over time for all directions in healthy eyes (the smallest P value was 0.39) and in the progressing glaucoma eyes (the smallest P value was 0.30). In the stable group, the overall intervisit-intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV) were 98.4% and 2.1%, respectively, for the manual segmentation and 98.1% and 1.9%, respectively, for the automated algorithm. Bruch's membrane opening location was stable in normal and progressing glaucoma eyes with follow-up between 3 and 4 years indicating that it can be used as reference point in monitoring glaucoma progression. The BMO location estimation with Cirrus HD-OCT using manual and automated segmentation showed excellent reproducibility.

  18. OpenCyto: an open source infrastructure for scalable, robust, reproducible, and automated, end-to-end flow cytometry data analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Finak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry is used increasingly in clinical research for cancer, immunology and vaccines. Technological advances in cytometry instrumentation are increasing the size and dimensionality of data sets, posing a challenge for traditional data management and analysis. Automated analysis methods, despite a general consensus of their importance to the future of the field, have been slow to gain widespread adoption. Here we present OpenCyto, a new BioConductor infrastructure and data analysis framework designed to lower the barrier of entry to automated flow data analysis algorithms by addressing key areas that we believe have held back wider adoption of automated approaches. OpenCyto supports end-to-end data analysis that is robust and reproducible while generating results that are easy to interpret. We have improved the existing, widely used core BioConductor flow cytometry infrastructure by allowing analysis to scale in a memory efficient manner to the large flow data sets that arise in clinical trials, and integrating domain-specific knowledge as part of the pipeline through the hierarchical relationships among cell populations. Pipelines are defined through a text-based csv file, limiting the need to write data-specific code, and are data agnostic to simplify repetitive analysis for core facilities. We demonstrate how to analyze two large cytometry data sets: an intracellular cytokine staining (ICS data set from a published HIV vaccine trial focused on detecting rare, antigen-specific T-cell populations, where we identify a new subset of CD8 T-cells with a vaccine-regimen specific response that could not be identified through manual analysis, and a CyTOF T-cell phenotyping data set where a large staining panel and many cell populations are a challenge for traditional analysis. The substantial improvements to the core BioConductor flow cytometry packages give OpenCyto the potential for wide adoption. It can rapidly leverage new developments in

  19. Market transformation lessons learned from an automated demand response test in the Summer and Fall of 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shockman, Christine; Piette, Mary Ann; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-08-01

    A recent pilot test to enable an Automatic Demand Response system in California has revealed several lessons that are important to consider for a wider application of a regional or statewide Demand Response Program. The six facilities involved in the site testing were from diverse areas of our economy. The test subjects included a major retail food marketer and one of their retail grocery stores, financial services buildings for a major bank, a postal services facility, a federal government office building, a state university site, and ancillary buildings to a pharmaceutical research company. Although these organizations are all serving diverse purposes and customers, they share some underlying common characteristics that make their simultaneous study worthwhile from a market transformation perspective. These are large organizations. Energy efficiency is neither their core business nor are the decision makers who will enable this technology powerful players in their organizations. The management of buildings is perceived to be a small issue for top management and unless something goes wrong, little attention is paid to the building manager's problems. All of these organizations contract out a major part of their technical building operating systems. Control systems and energy management systems are proprietary. Their systems do not easily interact with one another. Management is, with the exception of one site, not electronically or computer literate enough to understand the full dimensions of the technology they have purchased. Despite the research team's development of a simple, straightforward method of informing them about the features of the demand response program, they had significant difficulty enabling their systems to meet the needs of the research. The research team had to step in and work directly with their vendors and contractors at all but one location. All of the participants have volunteered to participate in the study for altruistic

  20. An Open Source approach to automated hydrological analysis of ungauged drainage basins in Serbia using R and SAGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatanovic, Nikola; Milovanovic, Irina; Cotric, Jelena

    2014-05-01

    Drainage basins are for the most part ungauged or poorly gauged not only in Serbia but in most parts of the world, usually due to insufficient funds, but also the decommission of river gauges in upland catchments to focus on downstream areas which are more populated. Very often, design discharges are needed for these streams or rivers where no streamflow data is available, for various applications. Examples include river training works for flood protection measures or erosion control, design of culverts, water supply facilities, small hydropower plants etc. The estimation of discharges in ungauged basins is most often performed using rainfall-runoff models, whose parameters heavily rely on geomorphometric attributes of the basin (e.g. catchment area, elevation, slopes of channels and hillslopes etc.). The calculation of these, as well as other paramaters, is most often done in GIS (Geographic Information System) software environments. This study deals with the application of freely available and open source software and datasets for automating rainfall-runoff analysis of ungauged basins using methodologies currently in use hydrological practice. The R programming language was used for scripting and automating the hydrological calculations, coupled with SAGA GIS (System for Automated Geoscientivic Analysis) for geocomputing functions and terrain analysis. Datasets used in the analyses include the freely available SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) terrain data, CORINE (Coordination of Information on the Environment) Land Cover data, as well as soil maps and rainfall data. The choice of free and open source software and datasets makes the project ideal for academic and research purposes and cross-platform projects. The geomorphometric module was tested on more than 100 catchments throughout Serbia and compared to manually calculated values (using topographic maps). The discharge estimation module was tested on 21 catchments where data were available and compared

  1. Photo-induction and automated quantification of reversible mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in primary mouse myotubes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Blanchet

    Full Text Available Opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP is involved in various cellular processes including apoptosis induction. Two distinct states of mPTP opening have been identified allowing the transfer of molecules with a molecular weight <1500 Da or <300 Da. The latter state is considered to be reversible and suggested to play a role in normal cell physiology. Here we present a strategy combining live-cell imaging and computer-assisted image processing allowing spatial visualization and quantitative analysis of reversible mPTP openings ("ΔΨ flickering" in primary mouse myotubes. The latter were stained with the photosensitive cation TMRM, which partitions between the cytosol and mitochondrial matrix as a function of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ. Controlled illumination of TMRM-stained primary mouse myotubes induced ΔΨ flickering in particular parts of the cell ("flickering domains". A novel quantitative automated analysis was developed and validated to detect and quantify the frequency, size, and location of individual ΔΨ flickering events in myotubes.

  2. AROSICS: An Automated and Robust Open-Source Image Co-Registration Software for Multi-Sensor Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Scheffler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Geospatial co-registration is a mandatory prerequisite when dealing with remote sensing data. Inter- or intra-sensoral misregistration will negatively affect any subsequent image analysis, specifically when processing multi-sensoral or multi-temporal data. In recent decades, many algorithms have been developed to enable manual, semi- or fully automatic displacement correction. Especially in the context of big data processing and the development of automated processing chains that aim to be applicable to different remote sensing systems, there is a strong need for efficient, accurate and generally usable co-registration. Here, we present AROSICS (Automated and Robust Open-Source Image Co-Registration Software, a Python-based open-source software including an easy-to-use user interface for automatic detection and correction of sub-pixel misalignments between various remote sensing datasets. It is independent of spatial or spectral characteristics and robust against high degrees of cloud coverage and spectral and temporal land cover dynamics. The co-registration is based on phase correlation for sub-pixel shift estimation in the frequency domain utilizing the Fourier shift theorem in a moving-window manner. A dense grid of spatial shift vectors can be created and automatically filtered by combining various validation and quality estimation metrics. Additionally, the software supports the masking of, e.g., clouds and cloud shadows to exclude such areas from spatial shift detection. The software has been tested on more than 9000 satellite images acquired by different sensors. The results are evaluated exemplarily for two inter-sensoral and two intra-sensoral use cases and show registration results in the sub-pixel range with root mean square error fits around 0.3 pixels and better.

  3. Automated TV based system for open field studies: Effects of methamphetamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanger, H.J.; Vanwersch, R.A.P.; Wolthuis, O.L.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described whereby open field behaviour of rats can be automatically registered using a TV camera, a video converter, an X-Y recorder and a papertape puncher. Use is made of the scanning properties of the TV camera to obtain the X and Y coordinates of the rat's position and to print this

  4. A Low Cost/Low Power Open Source Sensor System for Automated Tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Kyukwang Kim; Hyeong Keun Kim; Hwijoon Lim; Hyun Myung

    2016-01-01

    In this research an open source, low power sensor node was developed to check the growth of mycobacteria in a culture bottle with a nitrate reductase assay method for a drug susceptibility test. The sensor system reports the temperature and color sensor output frequency change of the culture bottle when the device is triggered. After the culture process is finished, a nitrite ion detecting solution based on a commercial nitrite ion detection kit is injected into the culture bottle by a syring...

  5. MouseMove: an open source program for semi-automated analysis of movement and cognitive testing in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Andre L; Ju, Lining; Ah Kim, Hyun; Zhang, Shenpeng R; Lee, Jessica A A; Sturgeon, Sharelle A; Sobey, Christopher G; Jackson, Shaun P; Schoenwaelder, Simone M

    2015-11-04

    The Open Field (OF) test is one of the most commonly used assays for assessing exploratory behaviour and generalised locomotor activity in rodents. Nevertheless, the vast majority of researchers still rely upon costly commercial systems for recording and analysing OF test results. Consequently, our aim was to design a freely available program for analysing the OF test and to provide an accompanying protocol that was minimally invasive, rapid, unbiased, without the need for specialised equipment or training. Similar to commercial systems, we show that our software-called MouseMove-accurately quantifies numerous parameters of movement including travel distance, speed, turning and curvature. To assess its utility, we used MouseMove to quantify unilateral locomotor deficits in mice following the filament-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion model of acute ischemic stroke. MouseMove can also monitor movement within defined regions-of-interest and is therefore suitable for analysing the Novel Object Recognition test and other field-related cognitive tests. To the best of our knowledge, MouseMove is the first open source software capable of providing qualitative and quantitative information on mouse locomotion in a semi-automated and high-throughput fashion, and hence MouseMove represents a sound alternative to commercial movement analysis systems.

  6. Decon2LS: An open-source software package for automated processing and visualization of high resolution mass spectrometry data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Gordon A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data generated from liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-MS-based studies of a biological sample can contain large amounts of biologically significant information in the form of proteins, peptides, and metabolites. Interpreting this data involves inferring the masses and abundances of biomolecules injected into the instrument. Because of the inherent complexity of mass spectral patterns produced by these biomolecules, the analysis is significantly enhanced by using visualization capabilities to inspect and confirm results. In this paper we describe Decon2LS, an open-source software package for automated processing and visualization of high-resolution MS data. Drawing extensively on algorithms developed over the last ten years for ICR2LS, Decon2LS packages the algorithms as a rich set of modular, reusable processing classes for performing diverse functions such as reading raw data, routine peak finding, theoretical isotope distribution modelling, and deisotoping. Because the source code is openly available, these functionalities can now be used to build derivative applications in relatively fast manner. In addition, Decon2LS provides an extensive set of visualization tools, such as high performance chart controls. Results With a variety of options that include peak processing, deisotoping, isotope composition, etc, Decon2LS supports processing of multiple raw data formats. Deisotoping can be performed on an individual scan, an individual dataset, or on multiple datasets using batch processing. Other processing options include creating a two dimensional view of mass and liquid chromatography (LC elution time features, generating spectrum files for tandem MS data, creating total intensity chromatograms, and visualizing theoretical peptide profiles. Application of Decon2LS to deisotope different datasets obtained across different instruments yielded a high number of features that can be used to

  7. Automated System of Study Nonlinear Processes in Electro-vacuum Devices with Open Resonant Periodic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Vorobyov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the experimental equipment and the results of investigations of nonlinear processes occurring during the excitation of electromagnetic oscillations in the resonant electron beam devices such as an orotron-generator of diffraction radiation. These devices are finding wide application in physics and microwave technology, now. A technique for experimental research, which bases on the using of the universal electro vacuum equipment diffraction radiation analyzer and the microprocessor system for collecting and processing data. The experimental investigations results of the energy and frequency characteristics for the most common modes of the excitation oscillations in the open resonant systems such as an orotron. The implementations on the optimum modes for the oscillations excitation in such devices were recommended.

  8. A Low Cost/Low Power Open Source Sensor System for Automated Tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyukwang Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research an open source, low power sensor node was developed to check the growth of mycobacteria in a culture bottle with a nitrate reductase assay method for a drug susceptibility test. The sensor system reports the temperature and color sensor output frequency change of the culture bottle when the device is triggered. After the culture process is finished, a nitrite ion detecting solution based on a commercial nitrite ion detection kit is injected into the culture bottle by a syringe pump to check bacterial growth by the formation of a pigment by the reaction between the solution and the color sensor. Sensor status and NRA results are broadcasted via a Bluetooth low energy beacon. An Android application was developed to collect the broadcasted data, classify the status of cultured samples from multiple devices, and visualize the data for the end users, circumventing the need to examine each culture bottle manually during a long culture period. The authors expect that usage of the developed sensor will decrease the cost and required labor for handling large amounts of patient samples in local health centers in developing countries. All 3D-printerable hardware parts, a circuit diagram, and software are available online.

  9. A Low Cost/Low Power Open Source Sensor System for Automated Tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyukwang; Kim, Hyeong Keun; Lim, Hwijoon; Myung, Hyun

    2016-06-22

    In this research an open source, low power sensor node was developed to check the growth of mycobacteria in a culture bottle with a nitrate reductase assay method for a drug susceptibility test. The sensor system reports the temperature and color sensor output frequency change of the culture bottle when the device is triggered. After the culture process is finished, a nitrite ion detecting solution based on a commercial nitrite ion detection kit is injected into the culture bottle by a syringe pump to check bacterial growth by the formation of a pigment by the reaction between the solution and the color sensor. Sensor status and NRA results are broadcasted via a Bluetooth low energy beacon. An Android application was developed to collect the broadcasted data, classify the status of cultured samples from multiple devices, and visualize the data for the end users, circumventing the need to examine each culture bottle manually during a long culture period. The authors expect that usage of the developed sensor will decrease the cost and required labor for handling large amounts of patient samples in local health centers in developing countries. All 3D-printerable hardware parts, a circuit diagram, and software are available online.

  10. Zero in on Key Open Problems in Automated NMR Protein Structure Determination

    KAUST Repository

    Abbas, Ahmed

    2015-11-12

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is one of the main approaches for protein struc- ture determination. The biggest advantage of this approach is that it can determine the three-dimensional structure of the protein in the solution phase. Thus, the natural dynamics of the protein can be studied. However, NMR protein structure determina- tion is an expertise intensive and time-consuming process. If the structure determi- nation process can be accelerated or even automated by computational methods, that will significantly advance the structural biology field. Our goal in this dissertation is to propose highly efficient and error tolerant methods that can work well on real and noisy data sets of NMR. Our first contribution in this dissertation is the development of a novel peak pick- ing method (WaVPeak). First, WaVPeak denoises the NMR spectra using wavelet smoothing. A brute force method is then used to identify all the candidate peaks. Af- ter that, the volume of each candidate peak is estimated. Finally, the peaks are sorted according to their volumes. WaVPeak is tested on the same benchmark data set that was used to test the state-of-the-art method, PICKY. WaVPeak shows significantly better performance than PICKY in terms of recall and precision. Our second contribution is to propose an automatic method to select peaks pro- duced by peak picking methods. This automatic method is used to overcome the limitations of fixed number-based methods. Our method is based on the Benjamini- Hochberg (B-H) algorithm. The method is used with both WaVPeak and PICKY to automatically select the number of peaks to return from out of hundreds of candidate peaks. The volume (in WaVPeak) and the intensity (in PICKY) are converted into p-values. Peaks that have p-values below some certain threshold are selected. Ex- perimental results show that the new method is better than the fixed number-based method in terms of recall. To improve precision, we tried to eliminate false peaks using

  11. Automated tracing of open-field coronal structures for an optimized large-scale magnetic field reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uritsky, V. M.; Davila, J. M.; Jones, S. I.

    2014-12-01

    Solar Probe Plus and Solar Orbiter will provide detailed measurements in the inner heliosphere magnetically connected with the topologically complex and eruptive solar corona. Interpretation of these measurements will require accurate reconstruction of the large-scale coronal magnetic field. In a related presentation by S. Jones et al., we argue that such reconstruction can be performed using photospheric extrapolation methods constrained by white-light coronagraph images. Here, we present the image-processing component of this project dealing with an automated segmentation of fan-like coronal loop structures. In contrast to the existing segmentation codes designed for detecting small-scale closed loops in the vicinity of active regions, we focus on the large-scale geometry of the open-field coronal features observed at significant radial distances from the solar surface. The coronagraph images used for the loop segmentation are transformed into a polar coordinate system and undergo radial detrending and initial noise reduction. The preprocessed images are subject to an adaptive second order differentiation combining radial and azimuthal directions. An adjustable thresholding technique is applied to identify candidate coronagraph features associated with the large-scale coronal field. A blob detection algorithm is used to extract valid features and discard noisy data pixels. The obtained features are interpolated using higher-order polynomials which are used to derive empirical directional constraints for magnetic field extrapolation procedures based on photospheric magnetograms.

  12. IHC Profiler: an open source plugin for the quantitative evaluation and automated scoring of immunohistochemistry images of human tissue samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frency Varghese

    Full Text Available In anatomic pathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC serves as a diagnostic and prognostic method for identification of disease markers in tissue samples that directly influences classification and grading the disease, influencing patient management. However, till today over most of the world, pathological analysis of tissue samples remained a time-consuming and subjective procedure, wherein the intensity of antibody staining is manually judged and thus scoring decision is directly influenced by visual bias. This instigated us to design a simple method of automated digital IHC image analysis algorithm for an unbiased, quantitative assessment of antibody staining intensity in tissue sections. As a first step, we adopted the spectral deconvolution method of DAB/hematoxylin color spectra by using optimized optical density vectors of the color deconvolution plugin for proper separation of the DAB color spectra. Then the DAB stained image is displayed in a new window wherein it undergoes pixel-by-pixel analysis, and displays the full profile along with its scoring decision. Based on the mathematical formula conceptualized, the algorithm is thoroughly tested by analyzing scores assigned to thousands (n = 1703 of DAB stained IHC images including sample images taken from human protein atlas web resource. The IHC Profiler plugin developed is compatible with the open resource digital image analysis software, ImageJ, which creates a pixel-by-pixel analysis profile of a digital IHC image and further assigns a score in a four tier system. A comparison study between manual pathological analysis and IHC Profiler resolved in a match of 88.6% (P<0.0001, CI = 95%. This new tool developed for clinical histopathological sample analysis can be adopted globally for scoring most protein targets where the marker protein expression is of cytoplasmic and/or nuclear type. We foresee that this method will minimize the problem of inter-observer variations across labs and

  13. IHC Profiler: An Open Source Plugin for the Quantitative Evaluation and Automated Scoring of Immunohistochemistry Images of Human Tissue Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Renu; De, Abhijit

    2014-01-01

    In anatomic pathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) serves as a diagnostic and prognostic method for identification of disease markers in tissue samples that directly influences classification and grading the disease, influencing patient management. However, till today over most of the world, pathological analysis of tissue samples remained a time-consuming and subjective procedure, wherein the intensity of antibody staining is manually judged and thus scoring decision is directly influenced by visual bias. This instigated us to design a simple method of automated digital IHC image analysis algorithm for an unbiased, quantitative assessment of antibody staining intensity in tissue sections. As a first step, we adopted the spectral deconvolution method of DAB/hematoxylin color spectra by using optimized optical density vectors of the color deconvolution plugin for proper separation of the DAB color spectra. Then the DAB stained image is displayed in a new window wherein it undergoes pixel-by-pixel analysis, and displays the full profile along with its scoring decision. Based on the mathematical formula conceptualized, the algorithm is thoroughly tested by analyzing scores assigned to thousands (n = 1703) of DAB stained IHC images including sample images taken from human protein atlas web resource. The IHC Profiler plugin developed is compatible with the open resource digital image analysis software, ImageJ, which creates a pixel-by-pixel analysis profile of a digital IHC image and further assigns a score in a four tier system. A comparison study between manual pathological analysis and IHC Profiler resolved in a match of 88.6% (P<0.0001, CI = 95%). This new tool developed for clinical histopathological sample analysis can be adopted globally for scoring most protein targets where the marker protein expression is of cytoplasmic and/or nuclear type. We foresee that this method will minimize the problem of inter-observer variations across labs and further help in

  14. A Survey on Theory and Practice of Automated Demand Response%自动需求响应的理论与实践综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高赐威; 梁甜甜; 李扬

    2014-01-01

    自动需求响应是智能电网的核心技术功能之一,但是对于自动需求响应及其在智能电网中的重要作用,国内外在学术研究、工业实践等方面都存在巨大的差距。自动需求响应不依赖于任何的人工操作,可以大大提高需求响应的时效性、可靠性、灵活性和成本效益。自动需求响应颠覆了传统的需求响应认识,将需求响应的主要功能从优化电能配置拓展到了向系统提供实时辅助服务,真正将需求响应纳入实时调度范畴,充分利用负荷的实时可调节潜力,极大地提高系统间歇性能源接入能力和安全稳定运行能力。文章还讨论了智能电网新技术对自动需求响应功能的支撑作标准及试点工程。最后,分析了国内实施自动需求响应存在的障碍,指出了我国开展自动需求响应的潜力和发展方向。%Automated demand response (ADR) is one of the core technical functions of smart grids, however, as for ADR itself and its important role in smart grid there is large gap in both academic researches and engineering practices home and abroad. Independent of any manual operation, ADR can obviously improve timeliness, reliability and flexibility as well as cost-effectiveness of demand response (DR). ADR subverts the traditional understanding of DR and expands main functions of DR from optimizing power allocation to providing real-time auxiliary services to power system, thus ADR is really brought DR into the field of real-time dispatching, fully utilizes real-time adjustable potential of power load, tremendously enhances the connecting-ability of Intermittent energy sources and secure and stable operation capability of power grids. In this paper the supporting role of smart grid technology to ADR functions is discussed and based on international investigation the research items, standards and pilot projects related to ADR are introduced. Finally, existing obstacles to the

  15. Multicentre, randomized, open-label study of on-demand treatment with two prophylaxis regimens of recombinant coagulation factor IX in haemophilia B subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, L A; Rusen, L; Elezovic, I; Smith, L M; Korth-Bradley, J M; Rendo, P

    2014-05-01

    Few randomized studies have reported on the use of factor IX (FIX) for secondary prophylaxis in haemophilia B patients. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two secondary prophylaxis regimens of recombinant coagulation FIX, nonacog alfa, compared with on-demand therapy. Male subjects aged 6-65 years with severe or moderately severe haemophilia B (FIX:C ≤ 2, n = 50) and ≥12 bleeding episodes (including ≥6 haemarthroses episodes) within 12 months of study participation were enrolled in this multicentre, randomized, open-label, four-period crossover trial. The primary measure was the annualized bleeding rate (ABR) of two prophylactic regimens vs. on-demand therapy. In the intent-to-treat group, mean ABR values were 35.1, 2.6 and 4.6 for the first on-demand period, the 50 IU kg(-1) twice-weekly period, and the 100 IU kg(-1) once-weekly period respectively. Differences in ABR between the first on-demand period and both prophylaxis regimens were significant (P < 0.0001); no significant differences were observed between prophylaxis regimens (P = 0.22). Seven serious adverse events occurred in five subjects, none related to study drug. Results demonstrated that secondary prophylaxis therapy with nonacog alfa 50 IU kg(-1) twice weekly or 100 IU kg(-1) once weekly reduced ABR by 89.4% relative to on-demand treatment. Both prophylaxis regimens demonstrated favourable safety profiles in subjects with haemophilia B.

  16. Manufacturing and automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Córdoba Nieto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents concepts and definitions from different sources concerning automation. The work approaches automation by virtue of the author’s experience in manufacturing production; why and how automation prolects are embarked upon is considered. Technological reflection regarding the progressive advances or stages of automation in the production area is stressed. Coriat and Freyssenet’s thoughts about and approaches to the problem of automation and its current state are taken and examined, especially that referring to the problem’s relationship with reconciling the level of automation with the flexibility and productivity demanded by competitive, worldwide manufacturing.

  17. Comparison of three optimized digestion methods for rapid determination of chemical oxygen demand: Closed microwaves, open microwaves and ultrasound irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domini, Claudia E. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Hidalgo, Montserrat [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Marken, Frank [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Canals, Antonio [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain)]. E-mail: a.canals@ua.es

    2006-03-02

    In the present work, experimental design was used for the fast optimization of three kinds of sample digestion procedures with the final aim of obtaining the COD value of wastewater samples. The digestion methods evaluated were 'closed microwave-assisted' (CMWD), 'open microwave-assisted' (OMWD) and 'ultrasound-assisted' (USD). Classical digestion was used as reference method. The optimum values for the different variables studied in each method were: 90 psi pressure, 475 W power and 4 min irradiation time (CMWD); 150 deg. C temperature and 4 min irradiation time (OMWD); 90% of maximum nominal power (180 W), 0.9 s (s{sup -1}) cycles and 1 min irradiation time (USD). In all cases, interference concentration that produces a deviation of 10% in COD values is 13.4, 23.4, 21.1 and 2819 mg/L for S{sup 2-}, Fe{sup 2+}, NO{sub 2} {sup -} and Cl{sup -}, respectively. Under optimum conditions, the proposed digestion methods have been successfully applied, with the exception of pyridine, to several pure organic compounds and COD recoveries for 10 real wastewater samples were ranged between 88 and 104% of the values obtained with the classical (open reflux) method used as reference, with R.S.D. lower than 4% in most cases. Thus, the use of ultrasound energy for COD determination seems to be an interesting and promising alternative to conventional open reflux and microwave-assisted digestion methods used for the same purpose since the instrumentation is simpler, cheaper and safer and the digestion step faster than the ones used for the same purpose.

  18. First field demonstration of cloud datacenter workflow automation employing dynamic optical transport network resources under OpenStack and OpenFlow orchestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyrkowiec, Thomas; Autenrieth, Achim; Gunning, Paul; Wright, Paul; Lord, Andrew; Elbers, Jörg-Peter; Lumb, Alan

    2014-02-10

    For the first time, we demonstrate the orchestration of elastic datacenter and inter-datacenter transport network resources using a combination of OpenStack and OpenFlow. Programmatic control allows a datacenter operator to dynamically request optical lightpaths from a transport network operator to accommodate rapid changes of inter-datacenter workflows.

  19. Marketing automation

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Dania TODOR

    2017-01-01

    The automation of the marketing process seems to be nowadays, the only solution to face the major changes brought by the fast evolution of technology and the continuous increase in supply and demand. In order to achieve the desired marketing results, businessis have to employ digital marketing and communication services. These services are efficient and measurable thanks to the marketing technology used to track, score and implement each campaign. Due to the...

  20. AutoRoot: open-source software employing a novel image analysis approach to support fully-automated plant phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Michael P; Fozard, Susan; Torres Torres, Mercedes; Forde, Brian G; French, Andrew P

    2017-01-01

    Computer-based phenotyping of plants has risen in importance in recent years. Whilst much software has been written to aid phenotyping using image analysis, to date the vast majority has been only semi-automatic. However, such interaction is not desirable in high throughput approaches. Here, we present a system designed to analyse plant images in a completely automated manner, allowing genuine high throughput measurement of root traits. To do this we introduce a new set of proxy traits. We test the system on a new, automated image capture system, the Microphenotron, which is able to image many 1000s of roots/h. A simple experiment is presented, treating the plants with differing chemical conditions to produce different phenotypes. The automated imaging setup and the new software tool was used to measure proxy traits in each well. A correlation matrix was calculated across automated and manual measures, as a validation. Some particular proxy measures are very highly correlated with the manual measures (e.g. proxy length to manual length, r(2) > 0.9). This suggests that while the automated measures are not directly equivalent to classic manual measures, they can be used to indicate phenotypic differences (hence the term, proxy). In addition, the raw discriminative power of the new proxy traits was examined. Principal component analysis was calculated across all proxy measures over two phenotypically-different groups of plants. Many of the proxy traits can be used to separate the data in the two conditions. The new proxy traits proposed tend to correlate well with equivalent manual measures, where these exist. Additionally, the new measures display strong discriminative power. It is suggested that for particular phenotypic differences, different traits will be relevant, and not all will have meaningful manual equivalent measures. However, approaches such as PCA can be used to interrogate the resulting data to identify differences between datasets. Select images can

  1. AG-NGS: a powerful and user-friendly computing application for the semi-automated preparation of next-generation sequencing libraries using open liquid handling platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejas, Sergio; Álvarez, Rebeca; Benguria, Alberto; Dopazo, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is becoming one of the most widely used technologies in the field of genomics. Library preparation is one of the most critical, hands-on, and time-consuming steps in the NGS workflow. Each library must be prepared in an independent well, increasing the number of hours required for a sequencing run and the risk of human-introduced error. Automation of library preparation is the best option to avoid these problems. With this in mind, we have developed automatic genomics NGS (AG-NGS), a computing application that allows an open liquid handling platform to be transformed into a library preparation station without losing the potential of an open platform. Implementation of AG-NGS does not require programming experience, and the application has also been designed to minimize implementation costs. Automated library preparation with AG-NGS generated high-quality libraries from different samples, demonstrating its efficiency, and all quality control parameters fell within the range of optimal values.

  2. Automated search for star clusters in large multiband surveys: II. Discovery and investigation of open clusters in the galactic plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkova, E. V.; Koposov, S. E.; Zolotukhin, I. Yu.; Beletsky, Yu. V.; Vlasov, A. D.; Leonova, S. I.

    2010-02-01

    Automated search for star clusters in J, H, K s data from 2MASS catalog has been performed using the method developed by Koposov et al. (2008). We have found and verified 153 new clusters in the interval of the galactic latitude -24° http://ocl.sai.msu.ru ocl.sai.msu.ru" TargetType="URL"/> has been developed to facilitate dissemination and scientific usage of the results.

  3. Automated search for star clusters in large multiband surveys: II. Discovery and investigation of open clusters in the Galactic plane

    CERN Document Server

    Glushkova, Elena; Zolotukhin, Ivan; Beletsky, Yuri; Vlasov, Andrey; Leonova, Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Automated search for star clusters in J,H,K_s data from 2MASS catalog has been performed using the method developed by Koposov et. al (2008). We have found and verified 153 new clusters in the interval of the galactic latitude -24 < b < 24 degrees. Color excesses E(B-V), distance moduli and ages were determined for 130 new and 14 yet-unstudied known clusters. In this paper, we publish a catalog of coordinates, diameters, and main parameters of all the clusters under study. A special web-site available at http://ocl.sai.msu.ru has been developed to facilitate dissemination and scientific usage of the results.

  4. Automated 3D Scene Reconstruction from Open Geospatial Data Sources: Airborne Laser Scanning and a 2D Topographic Database

    OpenAIRE

    Lingli Zhu; Matti Lehtomäki; Juha Hyyppä; Eetu Puttonen; Anssi Krooks; Hannu Hyyppä

    2015-01-01

    Open geospatial data sources provide opportunities for low cost 3D scene reconstruction. In this study, based on a sparse airborne laser scanning (ALS) point cloud (0.8 points/m2) obtained from open source databases, a building reconstruction pipeline for CAD building models was developed. The pipeline includes voxel-based roof patch segmentation, extraction of the key-points representing the roof patch outline, step edge identification and adjustment, and CAD building model generation. The a...

  5. An automated, open-source pipeline for mass production of digital elevation models (DEMs) from very-high-resolution commercial stereo satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shean, David E.; Alexandrov, Oleg; Moratto, Zachary M.; Smith, Benjamin E.; Joughin, Ian R.; Porter, Claire; Morin, Paul

    2016-06-01

    We adapted the automated, open source NASA Ames Stereo Pipeline (ASP) to generate digital elevation models (DEMs) and orthoimages from very-high-resolution (VHR) commercial imagery of the Earth. These modifications include support for rigorous and rational polynomial coefficient (RPC) sensor models, sensor geometry correction, bundle adjustment, point cloud co-registration, and significant improvements to the ASP code base. We outline a processing workflow for ∼0.5 m ground sample distance (GSD) DigitalGlobe WorldView-1 and WorldView-2 along-track stereo image data, with an overview of ASP capabilities, an evaluation of ASP correlator options, benchmark test results, and two case studies of DEM accuracy. Output DEM products are posted at ∼2 m with direct geolocation accuracy of computing environment. We are leveraging these resources to produce dense time series and regional mosaics for the Earth's polar regions.

  6. IQMNMR: Open source software using time-domain NMR data for automated identification and quantification of metabolites in batches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most promising aspects of metabolomics is metabolic modeling and simulation. Central to such applications is automated high-throughput identification and quantification of metabolites. NMR spectroscopy is a reproducible, nondestructive, and nonselective method that has served as the foundation of metabolomics studies. However, the automated high-throughput identification and quantification of metabolites in NMR spectroscopy is limited by severe spectral overlap. Although numerous software programs have been developed for resolving overlapping resonances, as well as for identifying and quantifying metabolites, most of these programs are frequency-domain methods, considerably influenced by phase shifts and baseline distortions, and effective only in small-scale studies. Almost all these programs require multiple spectra for each application, and do not automatically identify and quantify metabolites in batches. Results We created IQMNMR, an R package that integrates a relaxation algorithm, digital filter, and similarity search algorithm. It differs from existing software in that it is a time-domain method; it uses not only frequency to resolve overlapping resonances but also relaxation time constants; it requires only one NMR spectrum per application; is uninfluenced by phase shifts and baseline distortions; and most important, yields a batch of quantified metabolites. Conclusions IQMNMR provides a solution that can automatically identify and quantify metabolites by one-dimensional proton NMR spectroscopy. Its time-domain nature, stability against phase shifts and baseline distortions, requirement for only one NMR spectrum, and capability to output a batch of quantified metabolites are of considerable significance to metabolic modeling and simulation. IQMNMR is available at http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/IQMNMR/.

  7. Automated 3D Scene Reconstruction from Open Geospatial Data Sources: Airborne Laser Scanning and a 2D Topographic Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingli Zhu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Open geospatial data sources provide opportunities for low cost 3D scene reconstruction. In this study, based on a sparse airborne laser scanning (ALS point cloud (0.8 points/m2 obtained from open source databases, a building reconstruction pipeline for CAD building models was developed. The pipeline includes voxel-based roof patch segmentation, extraction of the key-points representing the roof patch outline, step edge identification and adjustment, and CAD building model generation. The advantages of our method lie in generating CAD building models without the step of enforcing the edges to be parallel or building regularization. Furthermore, although it has been challenging to use sparse datasets for 3D building reconstruction, our result demonstrates the great potential in such applications. In this paper, we also investigated the applicability of open geospatial datasets for 3D road detection and reconstruction. Road central lines were acquired from an open source 2D topographic database. ALS data were utilized to obtain the height and width of the road. A constrained search method (CSM was developed for road width detection. The CSM method was conducted by splitting a given road into patches according to height and direction criteria. The road edges were detected patch by patch. The road width was determined by the average distance from the edge points to the central line. As a result, 3D roads were reconstructed from ALS and a topographic database.

  8. Marketing automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TODOR Raluca Dania

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The automation of the marketing process seems to be nowadays, the only solution to face the major changes brought by the fast evolution of technology and the continuous increase in supply and demand. In order to achieve the desired marketing results, businessis have to employ digital marketing and communication services. These services are efficient and measurable thanks to the marketing technology used to track, score and implement each campaign. Due to the technical progress, the marketing fragmentation, demand for customized products and services on one side and the need to achieve constructive dialogue with the customers, immediate and flexible response and the necessity to measure the investments and the results on the other side, the classical marketing approached had changed continue to improve substantially.

  9. Fully-automated approach to hippocampus segmentation using a graph-cuts algorithm combined with atlas-based segmentation and morphological opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kichang; Yoon, Uicheul; Lee, Dong-Kyun; Kim, Geon Ha; Seo, Sang Won; Na, Duk L; Shim, Hack-Joon; Lee, Jong-Min

    2013-09-01

    The hippocampus has been known to be an important structure as a biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, it requires accurate, robust and reproducible delineation of hippocampal structures. In this study, an automated hippocampal segmentation method based on a graph-cuts algorithm combined with atlas-based segmentation and morphological opening was proposed. First of all, the atlas-based segmentation was applied to define initial hippocampal region for a priori information on graph-cuts. The definition of initial seeds was further elaborated by incorporating estimation of partial volume probabilities at each voxel. Finally, morphological opening was applied to reduce false positive of the result processed by graph-cuts. In the experiments with twenty-seven healthy normal subjects, the proposed method showed more reliable results (similarity index=0.81±0.03) than the conventional atlas-based segmentation method (0.72±0.04). Also as for segmentation accuracy which is measured in terms of the ratios of false positive and false negative, the proposed method (precision=0.76±0.04, recall=0.86±0.05) produced lower ratios than the conventional methods (0.73±0.05, 0.72±0.06) demonstrating its plausibility for accurate, robust and reliable segmentation of hippocampus.

  10. VideoHacking: Automated Tracking and Quantification of Locomotor Behavior with Open Source Software and Off-the-Shelf Video Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Emily E; Lee, Kathyann L; Schlabach, Sadie A; Woods, Ian G

    2015-01-01

    Differences in nervous system function can result in differences in behavioral output. Measurements of animal locomotion enable the quantification of these differences. Automated tracking of animal movement is less labor-intensive and bias-prone than direct observation, and allows for simultaneous analysis of multiple animals, high spatial and temporal resolution, and data collection over extended periods of time. Here, we present a new video-tracking system built on Python-based software that is free, open source, and cross-platform, and that can analyze video input from widely available video capture devices such as smartphone cameras and webcams. We validated this software through four tests on a variety of animal species, including larval and adult zebrafish (Danio rerio), Siberian dwarf hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), and wild birds. These tests highlight the capacity of our software for long-term data acquisition, parallel analysis of multiple animals, and application to animal species of different sizes and movement patterns. We applied the software to an analysis of the effects of ethanol on thigmotaxis (wall-hugging) behavior on adult zebrafish, and found that acute ethanol treatment decreased thigmotaxis behaviors without affecting overall amounts of motion. The open source nature of our software enables flexibility, customization, and scalability in behavioral analyses. Moreover, our system presents a free alternative to commercial video-tracking systems and is thus broadly applicable to a wide variety of educational settings and research programs.

  11. VideoHacking: Automated Tracking and Quantification of Locomotor Behavior with Open Source Software and Off-the-Shelf Video Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Emily E.; Lee, Kathyann L.; Schlabach, Sadie A.; Woods, Ian G.

    2015-01-01

    Differences in nervous system function can result in differences in behavioral output. Measurements of animal locomotion enable the quantification of these differences. Automated tracking of animal movement is less labor-intensive and bias-prone than direct observation, and allows for simultaneous analysis of multiple animals, high spatial and temporal resolution, and data collection over extended periods of time. Here, we present a new video-tracking system built on Python-based software that is free, open source, and cross-platform, and that can analyze video input from widely available video capture devices such as smartphone cameras and webcams. We validated this software through four tests on a variety of animal species, including larval and adult zebrafish (Danio rerio), Siberian dwarf hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), and wild birds. These tests highlight the capacity of our software for long-term data acquisition, parallel analysis of multiple animals, and application to animal species of different sizes and movement patterns. We applied the software to an analysis of the effects of ethanol on thigmotaxis (wall-hugging) behavior on adult zebrafish, and found that acute ethanol treatment decreased thigmotaxis behaviors without affecting overall amounts of motion. The open source nature of our software enables flexibility, customization, and scalability in behavioral analyses. Moreover, our system presents a free alternative to commercial video-tracking systems and is thus broadly applicable to a wide variety of educational settings and research programs. PMID:26240518

  12. Progress toward Producing Demand-Response-Ready Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Sastry, Chellury

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes several historical and ongoing efforts to make small electrical demand-side devices like home appliances more responsive to the dynamic needs of electric power grids. Whereas the utility community often reserves the word demand response for infrequent 2 to 6 hour curtailments that reduce total electrical system peak load, other beneficial responses and ancillary services that may be provided by responsive electrical demand are of interest. Historically, demand responses from the demand side have been obtained by applying external, retrofitted, controlled switches to existing electrical demand. This report is directed instead toward those manufactured products, including appliances, that are able to provide demand responses as soon as they are purchased and that require few, or no, after-market modifications to make them responsive to needs of power grids. Efforts to be summarized include Open Automated Demand Response, the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturer standard CHA 1, a simple interface being developed by the U-SNAP Alliance, various emerging autonomous responses, and the recent PinBus interface that was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  13. Retention payoff-based cost per day open regression equations: Application in a user-friendly decision support tool for investment analysis of automated estrus detection technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolecheck, K A; Heersche, G; Bewley, J M

    2016-12-01

    Assessing the economic implications of investing in automated estrus detection (AED) technologies can be overwhelming for dairy producers. The objectives of this study were to develop new regression equations for estimating the cost per day open (DO) and to apply the results to create a user-friendly, partial budget, decision support tool for investment analysis of AED technologies. In the resulting decision support tool, the end user can adjust herd-specific inputs regarding general management, current reproductive management strategies, and the proposed AED system. Outputs include expected DO, reproductive cull rate, net present value, and payback period for the proposed AED system. Utility of the decision support tool was demonstrated with an example dairy herd created using data from DairyMetrics (Dairy Records Management Systems, Raleigh, NC), Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (Columbia, MO), and published literature. Resulting herd size, rolling herd average milk production, milk price, and feed cost were 323 cows, 10,758kg, $0.41/kg, and $0.20/kg of dry matter, respectively. Automated estrus detection technologies with 2 levels of initial system cost (low: $5,000 vs. high: $10,000), tag price (low: $50 vs. high: $100), and estrus detection rate (low: 60% vs. high: 80%) were compared over a 7-yr investment period. Four scenarios were considered in a demonstration of the investment analysis tool: (1) a herd using 100% visual observation for estrus detection before adopting 100% AED, (2) a herd using 100% visual observation before adopting 75% AED and 25% visual observation, (3) a herd using 100% timed artificial insemination (TAI) before adopting 100% AED, and (4) a herd using 100% TAI before adopting 75% AED and 25% TAI. Net present value in scenarios 1 and 2 was always positive, indicating a positive investment situation. Net present value in scenarios 3 and 4 was always positive in combinations using a $50 tag price, and in scenario 4, the $5

  14. Revealing Dimensions of Thinking in Open-Ended Self-Descriptions: An Automated Meaning Extraction Method for Natural Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    A new method for extracting common themes from written text is introduced and applied to 1,165 open-ended self-descriptive narratives. Drawing on a lexical approach to personality, the most commonly-used adjectives within narratives written by college students were identified using computerized text analytic tools. A factor analysis on the use of these adjectives in the self-descriptions produced a 7-factor solution consisting of psychologically meaningful dimensions. Some dimensions were unipolar (e.g., Negativity factor, wherein most loaded items were negatively valenced adjectives); others were dimensional in that semantically opposite words clustered together (e.g., Sociability factor, wherein terms such as shy, outgoing, reserved, and loud all loaded in the same direction). The factors exhibited modest reliability across different types of writ writing samples and were correlated with self-reports and behaviors consistent with the dimensions. Similar analyses with additional content words (adjectives, adverbs, nouns, and verbs) yielded additional psychological dimensions associated with physical appearance, school, relationships, etc. in which people contextualize their self-concepts. The results suggest that the meaning extraction method is a promising strategy that determines the dimensions along which people think about themselves.

  15. Energy Demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stehfest, E. et al.

    2014-01-01

    Key policy issues – How will energy demand evolve particularly in emerging and medium- and low- income economies? – What is the mix of end-use energy carriers to meet future energy demand? – How can energy efficiency contribute to reducing the growth rate of energy demand and mitigate pressures on t

  16. Automated Contingency Management for Propulsion Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Increasing demand for improved reliability and survivability of mission-critical systems is driving the development of health monitoring and Automated Contingency...

  17. Automation synthesis modules review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, S; Lodi, F; Malizia, C; Cicoria, G; Marengo, M

    2013-06-01

    The introduction of (68)Ga labelled tracers has changed the diagnostic approach to neuroendocrine tumours and the availability of a reliable, long-lived (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator has been at the bases of the development of (68)Ga radiopharmacy. The huge increase in clinical demand, the impact of regulatory issues and a careful radioprotection of the operators have boosted for extensive automation of the production process. The development of automated systems for (68)Ga radiochemistry, different engineering and software strategies and post-processing of the eluate were discussed along with impact of automation with regulations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Automated Demand Response for Energy Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    potential cost disadvantages (such as increased first cost, installation cost, and/or operations & maintenance costs) are expected. 2.3.5 Social Acceptance...temperature data was measured at the KBYS Fort Irwin / Barstow station, which is located on the Bicycle Lake Army Airfield about three miles from the

  19. Demand Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of uncertainty resolution found in productivity heterogeneity models...... in untested destinations. The option to forecast demands causes firms to delay exporting in order to gather more information about foreign demand. Third, since uncertainty is resolved after entry, many firms enter a destination and then exit after learning that they cannot profit. This prediction reconciles...

  20. STUDY ON C2 B E-BUSINESS AUTOMATED NEGOTIATION SYSTEM FOR TOURISM SUPPORTING DEMANDS AGGREGATION%支持需求聚合的C2B旅游电子商务自动谈判系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓文; 韩冰; 蒋永辉; 于瑾

    2015-01-01

    为了更好地撮合旅游服务供需双方的交易活动,将C2 B电子商务模式和自动谈判系统相结合,提出一种新的支持需求聚合的C2B旅游电子商务自动谈判系统。引入Agent技术自动聚合大量分散的旅游服务需求,再由C2B电子商务自动谈判系统通过谈判代理Agent和旅游服务企业方的谈判Agent进行自动谈判,撮合旅游服务供需双方交易。阐述系统的总体框架和运行机制;研究需求聚合的策略和方法;基于FIPA规范设计相应的自动谈判协议和自动谈判过程控制算法。基于JADE开发了一套原型系统,验证了相关设计的可行性。%We propose in this paper a new C2B e-business automated negotiation system for tourism supporting demands aggregation for better coupling the transaction activities of both suppliers and demanders in tourism services by combing C2B e-business pattern with automa-ted negotiation system.Agent technology is introduced to automatically aggregate a great deal of scattered personal tourism service demands, then the aggregated demands will be inputted to C2B e-business automated negotiation system, though its negotiation Agent, to automatically negotiate with the negotiation Agent of tourism services companies, so as to match the transactions between both the suppliers and demanders of the travel services.In this paper we elaborate the overall framework and operation mechanism of the system, and study the strategy and method of demands aggregation.Based on FIPA specification we designed correlated automated negotiation protocol and the control algorithm of automated negotiation process.Based on JADE we developed a prototype system, and the feasibility of the relative design has been valida-ted as well.

  1. Demand forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor, Belčec

    2011-01-01

    Companies operate in an increasingly challenging environment that requires them to continuously improve all areas of the business process. Demand forecasting is one area in manufacturing companies where we can hope to gain great advantages. Improvements in forecasting can result in cost savings throughout the supply chain, improve the reliability of information and the quality of the service for our customers. In the company Danfoss Trata, d. o. o. we did not have a system for demand forecast...

  2. A Backstairs to a Degree. Demands for an Open University in Late Victorian England. Leeds Studies in Adult and Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Stuart

    This book examines the proposal of individuals in England's university extension movement in the final 2 decades of the 19th century to create a part-time teaching university that shared the following similarities with present-day open universities: a policy of admitting all individuals likely to benefit from the university irrespective of their…

  3. Opportunities, Barriers and Actions for Industrial Demand Response in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee T.; Piette, Mary Ann; Faulkner, David; Ghatikar, Girish; Radspieler Jr., Anthony; Adesola, Bunmi; Murtishaw, Scott; Kiliccote, Sila

    2008-01-31

    In 2006 the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) formed an Industrial Demand Response Team to investigate opportunities and barriers to implementation of Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) systems in California industries. Auto-DR is an open, interoperable communications and technology platform designed to: Provide customers with automated, electronic price and reliability signals; Provide customers with capability to automate customized DR strategies; Automate DR, providing utilities with dispatchable operational capability similar to conventional generation resources. This research began with a review of previous Auto-DR research on the commercial sector. Implementing Auto-DR in industry presents a number of challenges, both practical and perceived. Some of these include: the variation in loads and processes across and within sectors, resource-dependent loading patterns that are driven by outside factors such as customer orders or time-critical processing (e.g. tomato canning), the perceived lack of control inherent in the term 'Auto-DR', and aversion to risk, especially unscheduled downtime. While industry has demonstrated a willingness to temporarily provide large sheds and shifts to maintain grid reliability and be a good corporate citizen, the drivers for widespread Auto-DR will likely differ. Ultimately, most industrial facilities will balance the real and perceived risks associated with Auto-DR against the potential for economic gain through favorable pricing or incentives. Auto-DR, as with any ongoing industrial activity, will need to function effectively within market structures. The goal of the industrial research is to facilitate deployment of industrial Auto-DR that is economically attractive and technologically feasible. Automation will make DR: More visible by providing greater transparency through two-way end-to-end communication of DR signals from end-use customers; More repeatable, reliable, and persistent because the automated

  4. Warehouse automation

    OpenAIRE

    Pogačnik, Jure

    2017-01-01

    An automated high bay warehouse is commonly used for storing large number of material with a high throughput. In an automated warehouse pallet movements are mainly performed by a number of automated devices like conveyors systems, trolleys, and stacker cranes. From the introduction of the material to the automated warehouse system to its dispatch the system requires no operator input or intervention since all material movements are done automatically. This allows the automated warehouse to op...

  5. Smashing the Stovepipe: Leveraging the GMSEC Open Architecture and Advanced IT Automation to Rapidly Prototype, Develop and Deploy Next-Generation Multi-Mission Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Satellite/Payload Ground Systems - Typically highly-customized to a specific mission's use cases - Utilize hundreds (or thousands!) of specialized point-to-point interfaces for data flows / file transfers Documentation and tracking of these complex interfaces requires extensive time to develop and extremely high staffing costs Implementation and testing of these interfaces are even more cost-prohibitive, and documentation often lags behind implementation resulting in inconsistencies down the road With expanding threat vectors, IT Security, Information Assurance and Operational Security have become key Ground System architecture drivers New Federal security-related directives are generated on a daily basis, imposing new requirements on current / existing ground systems - These mandated activities and data calls typically carry little or no additional funding for implementation As a result, Ground System Sustaining Engineering groups and Information Technology staff continually struggle to keep up with the rolling tide of security Advancing security concerns and shrinking budgets are pushing these large stove-piped ground systems to begin sharing resources - I.e. Operational / SysAdmin staff, IT security baselines, architecture decisions or even networks / hosting infrastructure Refactoring these existing ground systems into multi-mission assets proves extremely challenging due to what is typically very tight coupling between legacy components As a result, many "Multi-Mission" ops. environments end up simply sharing compute resources and networks due to the difficulty of refactoring into true multi-mission systems Utilizing continuous integration / rapid system deployment technologies in conjunction with an open architecture messaging approach allows System Engineers and Architects to worry less about the low-level details of interfaces between components and configuration of systems GMSEC messaging is inherently designed to support multi-mission requirements, and

  6. Information management - Assessing the demand for information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, William H.

    1991-01-01

    Information demand is defined in terms of both information content (what information) and form (when, how, and where it is needed). Providing the information richness required for flight crews to be informed without overwhelming their information processing capabilities will require a great deal of automated intelligence. It is seen that the essence of this intelligence is comprehending and capturing the demand for information.

  7. Demanding Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2010-01-01

    It was the kind of crisis most universities dread. In November 2006, a group of minority student leaders at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) threatened to sue the university if administrators did not heed demands that included providing more funding for multicultural student groups. This article discusses how this threat…

  8. 北极航道开通对我国能源供求形势的影响%Impact of the Opening of Arctic Waterway on China’ s Energy Supply and Demand Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘萍; 胡麦秀

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarized the status quo of China’ s energy supply and demand,and on this basis,according to the data of China Statistical Yearbook,the ARIMA model was constructed by using the total energy demand time series from 2013 to 1990,and the fitting and testing were car-ried out.Using this model to forecast the energy demand from 2016 to 2018,the situation of ener-gy supply and demand in China was revealed.The results showed that the energy demand in the future would continue to grow.In the case of insufficient energy supply,China’ s energy supply needs to rely on a large number of imports,and the stable supply of imported energy in China is under threat.In this context,the opening of the Arctic waterway is an opportunity for China’ s en-ergy supply,which will ease the impact of China’ s energy supply and demand situation.Further-more,relevant policy proposals were put forward.%文章对我国能源供求现状进行概述,在此基础上根据《中国统计年鉴》中的数据,利用1990-2013年的能源需求总量时间序列构建ARIMA模型,进行相关拟合与检验,并运用此模型对2016-2018年的能源需求量进行预测,揭示我国面临的能源供求形势。结果表明,未来我国能源需求量将持续增长,在能源供给相对不足的情况下需依赖大量进口,而进口能源的稳定供应又受到各种威胁制约。在此背景下讨论北极航道开通为我国能源供应带来的机遇,以及对缓和我国能源供求形势产生的影响,进而提出相关政策建议。

  9. Accounting Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril1

    2017-01-01

    Accounting Automation   Click Link Below To Buy:   http://hwcampus.com/shop/accounting-automation/  Or Visit www.hwcampus.com Accounting Automation” Please respond to the following: Imagine you are a consultant hired to convert a manual accounting system to an automated system. Suggest the key advantages and disadvantages of automating a manual accounting system. Identify the most important step in the conversion process. Provide a rationale for your response. ...

  10. Home Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I briefly discuss the importance of home automation system. Going in to the details I briefly present a real time designed and implemented software and hardware oriented house automation research project, capable of automating house's electricity and providing a security system to detect the presence of unexpected behavior.

  11. The what, why, and how of born-open data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouder, Jeffrey N

    2016-09-01

    Although many researchers agree that scientific data should be open to scrutiny to ferret out poor analyses and outright fraud, most raw data sets are not available on demand. There are many reasons researchers do not open their data, and one is technical. It is often time consuming to prepare and archive data. In response, my laboratory has automated the process such that our data are archived the night they are created without any human approval or action. All data are versioned, logged, time stamped, and uploaded including aborted runs and data from pilot subjects. The archive is GitHub, github.com, the world's largest collection of open-source materials. Data archived in this manner are called born open. In this paper, I discuss the benefits of born-open data and provide a brief technical overview of the process. I also address some of the common concerns about opening data before publication.

  12. Theory and key problems for automated demand response of user side considering generalized demand side resources%计及广义需求侧资源的用户侧自动响应机理与关键问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤庆峰; 刘念; 张建华

    2014-01-01

    Automated demand response (Auto-DR) is one of the key technologies in smart grid. When the generalized demand side resources (DSR) are connected to the grid, the implementation of auto-DR on the user side needs more requirements. Firstly, this paper introduces the basic form of smart unit of the electricity consumption on the user side and analyses the applicability of DSR such as controllable load, distributed energy resources, energy storage and electric vehicles. Two operation modes of auto-DR (“Independent users & smart unit” and “collective users & aggregated smart unit”) are proposed, and their related electrical and information structure is also introduced. Secondly, the research status and development of auto-DR on user side are summarized, including system architecture design, load features and forecasting of different type of users, categories of load type and control models, optimization models and methods, etc. Finally, the paper concludes that key problems such as short-term load forecast of users, models of load regulation and planning, optimized operation for auto-DR and comprehensive benefit evaluation still need further research.%自动需求响应是智能电网的关键技术之一,在广义需求侧资源接入的情况下,对用户侧如何实施自动需求响应提出了更高要求。首先,介绍了用户侧的智能用电单元的基本形态,分析了负荷、分布式电源、储能与电动汽车等需求侧资源的适用性;提出了“独立用户+节点型智能用电单元”与“集体用户+聚合型智能用电单元”两种用户自动需求响应运行模式,并给出了相应的电气与信息架构。其次,从系统架构设计、用户负荷特征及负荷预测、负荷可调控性及控制模型、优化模型与方法等多个方面综述了用户侧自动需求响应的国内外研究现状及发展动态。最后,总结分析认为用户侧短期负荷预测、负荷可调控性与可计划

  13. Demand Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of uncertainty resolution found in productivity heterogeneity models...... the high rate of exit seen in the first years of exporting. Finally, when faced with multiple countries in which to export, some firms will choose to sequentially export in order to slowly learn more about its chances for success in untested markets....

  14. Contaminant analysis automation demonstration proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, M.G.; Schur, A.; Heubach, J.G.

    1993-10-01

    The nation-wide and global need for environmental restoration and waste remediation (ER&WR) presents significant challenges to the analytical chemistry laboratory. The expansion of ER&WR programs forces an increase in the volume of samples processed and the demand for analysis data. To handle this expanding volume, productivity must be increased. However. The need for significantly increased productivity, faces contaminant analysis process which is costly in time, labor, equipment, and safety protection. Laboratory automation offers a cost effective approach to meeting current and future contaminant analytical laboratory needs. The proposed demonstration will present a proof-of-concept automated laboratory conducting varied sample preparations. This automated process also highlights a graphical user interface that provides supervisory, control and monitoring of the automated process. The demonstration provides affirming answers to the following questions about laboratory automation: Can preparation of contaminants be successfully automated?; Can a full-scale working proof-of-concept automated laboratory be developed that is capable of preparing contaminant and hazardous chemical samples?; Can the automated processes be seamlessly integrated and controlled?; Can the automated laboratory be customized through readily convertible design? and Can automated sample preparation concepts be extended to the other phases of the sample analysis process? To fully reap the benefits of automation, four human factors areas should be studied and the outputs used to increase the efficiency of laboratory automation. These areas include: (1) laboratory configuration, (2) procedures, (3) receptacles and fixtures, and (4) human-computer interface for the full automated system and complex laboratory information management systems.

  15. Automated Asteroseismic Analysis of Solar-type Stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Christoffer; Campante, T.L.; Chaplin, W.J.

    2010-01-01

    The rapidly increasing volume of asteroseismic observations on solar-type stars has revealed a need for automated analysis tools. The reason for this is not only that individual analyses of single stars are rather time consuming, but more importantly that these large volumes of observations open...... the possibility to do population studies on large samples of stars and such population studies demand a consistent analysis. By consistent analysis we understand an analysis that can be performed without the need to make any subjective choices on e.g. mode identification and an analysis where the uncertainties...

  16. Library Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakne, B. N.; Giri, V. V.; Waghmode, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    New technologies library provides several new materials, media and mode of storing and communicating the information. Library Automation reduces the drudgery of repeated manual efforts in library routine. By use of library automation collection, Storage, Administration, Processing, Preservation and communication etc.

  17. Turkey opens electricity markets as demand grows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeigue, J.; Da Cunha, A.; Severino, D. [Global Business Reports (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Turkey's growing power market has attracted investors and project developers for over a decade, yet their plans have been dashed by unexpected political or financial crises or, worse, obstructed by a lengthy bureaucratic approval process. Now, with a more transparent retail electricity market, government regulators and investors are bullish on Turkey. Is Turkey ready to turn the power on? This report closely examine Turkey's plans to create a power infrastructure capable of providing the reliable electricity supplies necessary for sustained economic growth. It was compiled with on-the-ground research and extensive interview with key industrial and political figures. Today, hard coal and lignite account for 21% of Turkey's electricity generation and gas-fired plants account for 50%. The Alfin Elbistan-B lignite-fired plant has attracted criticism for its lack of desulfurization units and ash dam facilities that have tarnished the industry's image. A 1,100 MW hard-coal fired plant using supercritical technology is under construction. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Automation or De-automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlach, Igor; Wessel, Oliver

    2008-09-01

    In the global automotive industry, for decades, vehicle manufacturers have continually increased the level of automation of production systems in order to be competitive. However, there is a new trend to decrease the level of automation, especially in final car assembly, for reasons of economy and flexibility. In this research, the final car assembly lines at three production sites of Volkswagen are analysed in order to determine the best level of automation for each, in terms of manufacturing costs, productivity, quality and flexibility. The case study is based on the methodology proposed by the Fraunhofer Institute. The results of the analysis indicate that fully automated assembly systems are not necessarily the best option in terms of cost, productivity and quality combined, which is attributed to high complexity of final car assembly systems; some de-automation is therefore recommended. On the other hand, the analysis shows that low automation can result in poor product quality due to reasons related to plant location, such as inadequate workers' skills, motivation, etc. Hence, the automation strategy should be formulated on the basis of analysis of all relevant aspects of the manufacturing process, such as costs, quality, productivity and flexibility in relation to the local context. A more balanced combination of automated and manual assembly operations provides better utilisation of equipment, reduces production costs and improves throughput.

  19. Library Automation in Nigeria: The Bowen University Library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper shares Bowen University Library, Iwo, Nigeria automation experiences using Open Source Library Management Software, Koha. ... settle the issue of regular power supply with management before embarking on automation project.

  20. The Impact Of The Introduction of The Automated Trading System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Impact Of The Introduction of The Automated Trading System On The Nigerian Stock Market. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... of the Automated Trading System (ATS) on the quoted stock prices on the Nigerian stock market.

  1. Comparative Study of Algorithms for Automated Generalization of Linear Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimjon, S.; Gupta, P. K.; Sukhmani, R. S. G. S.

    2014-11-01

    Automated generalization, rooted from conventional cartography, has become an increasing concern in both geographic information system (GIS) and mapping fields. All geographic phenomenon and the processes are bound to the scale, as it is impossible for human being to observe the Earth and the processes in it without decreasing its scale. To get optimal results, cartographers and map-making agencies develop set of rules and constraints, however these rules are under consideration and topic for many researches up until recent days. Reducing map generating time and giving objectivity is possible by developing automated map generalization algorithms (McMaster and Shea, 1988). Modification of the scale traditionally is a manual process, which requires knowledge of the expert cartographer, and it depends on the experience of the user, which makes the process very subjective as every user may generate different map with same requirements. However, automating generalization based on the cartographic rules and constrains can give consistent result. Also, developing automated system for map generation is the demand of this rapid changing world. The research that we have conveyed considers only generalization of the roads, as it is one of the indispensable parts of a map. Dehradun city, Uttarakhand state of India was selected as a study area. The study carried out comparative study of the generalization software sets, operations and algorithms available currently, also considers advantages and drawbacks of the existing software used worldwide. Research concludes with the development of road network generalization tool and with the final generalized road map of the study area, which explores the use of open source python programming language and attempts to compare different road network generalization algorithms. Thus, the paper discusses the alternative solutions for automated generalization of linear objects using GIS-technologies. Research made on automated of road network

  2. Automotive automation: Investigating the impact on drivers' mental workload

    OpenAIRE

    Young, M.S.; Stanton, N A

    1997-01-01

    Recent advances in technology have meant that an increasing number of vehicle driving tasks are becoming automated. Such automation poses new problems for the ergonomist. Of particular concern in this paper are the twofold effects of automation on mental workload - novel technologies could increase attentional demand and workload, alternatively one could argue that fewer driving tasks will lead to the problem of reduced attentional demand and driver underload. A brief review of...

  3. OpenSBLI: A framework for the automated derivation and parallel execution of finite difference solvers on a range of computer architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, Christian T; Sandham, Neil D

    2016-01-01

    Exascale computing will feature novel and potentially disruptive hardware architectures. Exploiting these to their full potential is non-trivial. Numerical modelling frameworks involving finite difference methods are currently limited by the 'static' nature of the hand-coded discretisation schemes and repeatedly may have to be re-written to run efficiently on new hardware. In contrast, OpenSBLI uses code generation to derive the model's code from a high-level specification. Users focus on the equations to solve, whilst not concerning themselves with the detailed implementation. Source-to-source translation is used to tailor the code and enable its execution on a variety of hardware.

  4. The Employment-Impact of Automation in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Standard neoclassical models of labour demand predict that automation does not produce long-term increases in unemployment. Supporting evidence in Canada between 1970 and 2008 is explained by the reallocation of labour from industries with high levels of automation such as Manufacturing to industries with low levels of automation such as Retail and Wholesale Trade, and Business Services. Recent evidence indicates however that on-going technological advances are now driving labour automation i...

  5. Cooperative Control and Active Interfaces for Vehicle Assitsance and Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Flemisch, Frank; Kelsch, Johann; Löper, Christan; Schieben, Anna; Schindler, Julian; Heesen, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Enabled by scientific, technological and societal progress, and pulled by human demands, more and more aspects of our life can be assisted or automated by technical artefacts. One example is the transportation domain, where in the sky commercial aircraft are flying highly automated most of the times and where on the roads a gradual revolution takes place towards assisted, highly automated or even fully automated cars and trucks. Automobiles and mobility are changing gradually t...

  6. EST2uni: an open, parallel tool for automated EST analysis and database creation, with a data mining web interface and microarray expression data integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuez Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed sequence tag (EST collections are composed of a high number of single-pass, redundant, partial sequences, which need to be processed, clustered, and annotated to remove low-quality and vector regions, eliminate redundancy and sequencing errors, and provide biologically relevant information. In order to provide a suitable way of performing the different steps in the analysis of the ESTs, flexible computation pipelines adapted to the local needs of specific EST projects have to be developed. Furthermore, EST collections must be stored in highly structured relational databases available to researchers through user-friendly interfaces which allow efficient and complex data mining, thus offering maximum capabilities for their full exploitation. Results We have created EST2uni, an integrated, highly-configurable EST analysis pipeline and data mining software package that automates the pre-processing, clustering, annotation, database creation, and data mining of EST collections. The pipeline uses standard EST analysis tools and the software has a modular design to facilitate the addition of new analytical methods and their configuration. Currently implemented analyses include functional and structural annotation, SNP and microsatellite discovery, integration of previously known genetic marker data and gene expression results, and assistance in cDNA microarray design. It can be run in parallel in a PC cluster in order to reduce the time necessary for the analysis. It also creates a web site linked to the database, showing collection statistics, with complex query capabilities and tools for data mining and retrieval. Conclusion The software package presented here provides an efficient and complete bioinformatics tool for the management of EST collections which is very easy to adapt to the local needs of different EST projects. The code is freely available under the GPL license and can be obtained at http

  7. Wireless Demand Response Controls for HVAC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federspiel, Clifford

    2009-06-30

    The objectives of this scoping study were to develop and test control software and wireless hardware that could enable closed-loop, zone-temperature-based demand response in buildings that have either pneumatic controls or legacy digital controls that cannot be used as part of a demand response automation system. We designed a SOAP client that is compatible with the Demand Response Automation Server (DRAS) being used by the IOUs in California for their CPP program, design the DR control software, investigated the use of cellular routers for connecting to the DRAS, and tested the wireless DR system with an emulator running a calibrated model of a working building. The results show that the wireless DR system can shed approximately 1.5 Watts per design CFM on the design day in a hot, inland climate in California while keeping temperatures within the limits of ASHRAE Standard 55: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy.

  8. 三开门自动温室气体测定箱的应用效果%Effect of greenhouse gas measurement of three-side-open automated chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万运帆; 李玉娥; 刘运通; 高清竹; 秦晓波; 刘硕; 马欣

    2011-01-01

    为了降低农田自动温室气体测定箱在观测过程中对作物生长环境及作物生长的干扰,本研究在玉米大田环境条件下比较了一种新型的三开门 自动温室气体测定箱与传统单开门自动温室气体测定箱对环境空气温湿度、土壤温度与水分、玉米生长以及温室气体排放的影响.结果表明:三开门温室气体测定箱能显著减小与大田环境条件下的空气温度、湿度及土壤温度的差异;相对于单开门箱,三开门箱在箱体打开及关闭条件下气温平均低0.90和0.74℃,空气湿度平均增加1.36%和降低5.69%:在玉米小喇叭口期前土壤温度约降低2℃,小喇叭口期后差异不显著;对土壤水分的影响在玉米苗期有一定的作用,但差异小显著;三开 门箱相对于单开门箱能显著降低箱体对作物生长的影响,还能降低CO2平均通量值6.85%及N2O的平均通量值3.68%,而对CH4平均通量值基本无影响.因此,三开门箱相对于传统单开门自动温室气体测定箱能显著减小测定箱时观测环境及作物生长的干扰,应用这种箱体观测能更好地反映田间温室气体排放状况.%In order to decrease the disturbance of automatic chamber on crop growth and its growing environment during greenhouse gases measurement, the effect experiment of a three-side-open automated chamber on greenhouse gases measurement in maize field was conducted in compare with traditional open-at-top chamber. The experiment was to test the three-side-open chamber's character on ambient temperature, ambient relative humidity, soil temperature, soil moisture, crop growth and greenhouse gases emission. Results showed that in compare with traditional open-at-top chamber, the three-side-open chamber can significantly decrease the influence of chamber on ambient temperature, ambient relative humidity and soil temperature. It can decrease ambient temperature by 0.90℃and increase air relative humidity by 1

  9. Network based automation for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahabeddini Parizi, Mohammad; Radziwon, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of appropriate automation concepts which increase productivity in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) requires a lot of effort, due to their limited resources. Therefore, it is strongly recommended for small firms to open up for the external sources of knowledge, which...... automation solutions. The empirical data collection involved application of a combination of comparative case study method with action research elements. This article provides an outlook over the challenges in implementing technological improvements and the way how it could be resolved in collaboration...... with other members of the same regional ecosystem. The findings highlight two main automation related areas where manufacturing SMEs could leverage on external sources on knowledge – these are assistance in defining automation problem as well as appropriate solution and provider selection. Consequently...

  10. Automating Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John

    2007-01-01

    In past years, higher education's financial management side has been riddled with manual processes and aging mainframe applications. This article discusses schools which had taken advantage of an array of technologies that automate billing, payment processing, and refund processing in the case of overpayment. The investments are well worth it:…

  11. Production of Candida antarctica lipase B gene open reading frame using automated PCR gene assembly protocol on robotic workcell and expression in an ethanologenic yeast for use as resin-bound biocatalyst in biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen R; Moser, Bryan R; Harmsen, Amanda J; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Jones, Marjorie A; Pinkelman, Rebecca; Bang, Sookie S; Tasaki, Ken; Doll, Kenneth M; Qureshi, Nasib; Saha, Badal C; Liu, Siqing; Jackson, John S; Robinson, Samantha; Cotta, Michael C; Rich, Joseph O; Caimi, Paolo

    2011-02-01

    A synthetic Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) gene open reading frame (ORF) for expression in yeast was constructed, and the lycotoxin-1 (Lyt-1) C3 variant gene ORF, potentially to improve the availability of the active enzyme at the surface of the yeast cell, was added in frame with the CALB ORF using an automated PCR assembly and DNA purification protocol on an integrated robotic workcell. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains expressing CALB protein or CALB Lyt-1 fusion protein were first grown on 2% (w/v) glucose, producing 9.3 g/L ethanol during fermentation. The carbon source was switched to galactose for GAL1-driven expression, and the CALB and CALB Lyt-1 enzymes expressed were tested for fatty acid ethyl ester (biodiesel) production. The synthetic enzymes catalyzed the formation of fatty acid ethyl esters from ethanol and either corn or soybean oil. It was further demonstrated that a one-step-charging resin, specifically selected for binding to lipase, was capable of covalent attachment of the CALB Lyt-1 enzyme, and that the resin-bound enzyme catalyzed the production of biodiesel. High-level expression of lipase in an ethanologenic yeast strain has the potential to increase the profitability of an integrated biorefinery by combining bioethanol production with coproduction of a low-cost biocatalyst that converts corn oil to biodiesel.

  12. Feasibility Analysis of Crane Automation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Ming-xiao; MEI Xue-song; JIANG Ge-dong; ZHANG Gui-qing

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the modeling methods, open-loop control and closed-loop control techniques of various forms of cranes, worldwide, and discusses their feasibilities and limitations in engineering. Then the dynamic behaviors of cranes are analyzed. Finally, we propose applied modeling methods and feasible control techniques and demonstrate the feasibilities of crane automation.

  13. Collaborations in Open Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, Howard

    2015-01-01

    This thesis researches automated services for professionals aiming at starting collaborative learning projects in open learning environments, such as MOOCs. It investigates the theoretical backgrounds of team formation for collaborative learning. Based on the outcomes, a model is developed describin

  14. Collaborations in Open Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, Howard

    2015-01-01

    This thesis researches automated services for professionals aiming at starting collaborative learning projects in open learning environments, such as MOOCs. It investigates the theoretical backgrounds of team formation for collaborative learning. Based on the outcomes, a model is developed

  15. Demand Forecasting Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Mackie, Peter; Nellthorp, John; Laird, James

    2005-01-01

    Demand forecasts form a key input to the economic appraisal. As such any errors present within the demand forecasts will undermine the reliability of the economic appraisal. The minimization of demand forecasting errors is therefore important in the delivery of a robust appraisal. This issue is addressed in this note by introducing the key issues, and error types present within demand fore...

  16. Mechatronic Design Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun

    successfully design analogue filters, vibration absorbers, micro-electro-mechanical systems, and vehicle suspension systems, all in an automatic or semi-automatic way. It also investigates the very important issue of co-designing plant-structures and dynamic controllers in automated design of Mechatronic......This book proposes a novel design method that combines both genetic programming (GP) to automatically explore the open-ended design space and bond graphs (BG) to unify design representations of multi-domain Mechatronic systems. Results show that the method, formally called GPBG method, can...... systems....

  17. Heating automation

    OpenAIRE

    Tomažič, Tomaž

    2013-01-01

    This degree paper presents usage and operation of peripheral devices with microcontroller for heating automation. The main goal is to make a quality system control for heating three house floors and with that, increase efficiency of heating devices and lower heating expenses. Heat pump, furnace, boiler pump, two floor-heating pumps and two radiator pumps need to be controlled by this system. For work, we have chosen a development kit stm32f4 - discovery with five temperature sensors, LCD disp...

  18. Automation Security

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzoev, Dr. Timur

    2014-01-01

    Web-based Automated Process Control systems are a new type of applications that use the Internet to control industrial processes with the access to the real-time data. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks contain computers and applications that perform key functions in providing essential services and commodities (e.g., electricity, natural gas, gasoline, water, waste treatment, transportation) to all Americans. As such, they are part of the nation s critical infrastructu...

  19. An Overview of Moonlight Applications Test Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appasami Govindasamy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days web applications are developed by new technologies like Moonlight, Silverlight, JAVAFX, FLEX, etc. Silverlight is Microsoft's cross platform runtime and development technology for running Web-based multimedia applications in windows platform. Moonlight is an open-source implementation of the Silverlight development platform for Linux and other Unix/X11-based operating systems. It is a new technology in .Net 4.0 to develop rich interactive and attractive platform independent web applications. User Interface Test Automation is very essential for Software industries to reduce test time, cost and man power. Moonlight is new .NET technology to develop rich interactive Internet applications with the collaboration of Novel Corporation. Testing these kinds of applications are not so easy to test, especially the User interface test automation is very difficult. Software test automation has the capability to decrease the overall cost of testing and improve software quality, but most testing organizations have not been able to achieve the full potential of test automation. Many groups that implement test automation programs run into a number of common pitfalls. These problems can lead to test automation plans being completely scrapped, with the tools purchased for test automation becoming expensive. Often teams continue their automation effort, burdened with huge costs in maintaining large suites of automated test scripts. This paper will first discuss some of the key benefits of software test automation, and then examine the most common techniques used to implement software test automation of Moonlight Applications Test Automation. It will then discuss test automation and their potential. Finally, it will do test automation.

  20. Automation in biological crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw Stewart, Patrick; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given. PMID:24915074

  1. Automation in biological crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patrick Shaw; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given.

  2. Sensing for advancing mining automation capability:A review of underground automation technology development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ralston Jonathon; Reid David; Hargrave Chad; Hainsworth David

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the role of automation technologies for improving the safety, productivity, and environmental sustainability of underground coal mining processes. This is accomplished by reviewing the impact that the introduction of automation technology has made through the longwall shearer auto-mation research program of Longwall Automation Steering Committee (LASC). This result has been achieved through close integration of sensing, processing, and control technologies into the longwall mining process. Key to the success of the automation solution has been the development of new sensing methods to accurately measure the location of longwall equipment and the spatial configuration of coal seam geology. The relevance of system interoperability and open communications standards for facilitat-ing effective automation is also discussed. Importantly, the insights gained through the longwall automa-tion development process are now leading to new technology transfer activity to benefit other underground mining processes.

  3. Open3DQSAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosco, Paolo; Balle, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Open3DQSAR is a freely available open-source program aimed at chemometric analysis of molecular interaction fields. MIFs can be imported from different sources (GRID, CoMFA/CoMSIA, quantum-mechanical electrostatic potential or electron density grids) or generated by Open3DQSAR itself. Much focus...... has been put on automation through the implementation of a scriptable interface, as well as on high computational performance achieved by algorithm parallelization. Flexibility and interoperability with existing molecular modeling software make Open3DQSAR a powerful tool in pharmacophore assessment...

  4. Application of Open Source Automation Control Software Sedona in Internet of Things%开源自动化控制软件Sedona在物联网中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱旭华

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the present state of the Internet of things, key technologies and its development direction. It mainly in-troduces an open source automation control software called Sedona which is used in the Internet of things. It describes the workflow of developing source code, presents the design flow of the integration and summarizes the technical features of the architecture. Sedona lan- guage is a kind of universal component-oriented modularizd programming languages; Sedona virtual machine is a small analytical instru-ment with good portability; a variety of communication protocols are embedded, being able to run on any network based on IP communi-cation. Finally the goal of centralized equipment control and dispersion management are realized.%通过讨论物联网的现状、关键技术及发展方向,主要介绍了一种开源自动化控制软件Sedona在物联网的应用技术,包括在物联网架构中如何进行软件开发和应用程序设计,并介绍了该架构的技术特点。Sedona语言是一种通用的面向组件化的编程语言。Sedona虚拟机是一个小型解析器,具有良好的移植性,内嵌多种通信协议,可以运行在任何基于IP通信的网络上。最终实现各设备之间集中控制、分散管理的目标。

  5. How to assess sustainability in automated manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkman, Teunis Johannes; Rödger, Jan-Markus; Bey, Niki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe how sustainability in automation can be assessed. The assessment method is illustrated using a case study of a robot. Three aspects of sustainability assessment in automation are identified. Firstly, we consider automation as part of a larger system that fulfi......The aim of this paper is to describe how sustainability in automation can be assessed. The assessment method is illustrated using a case study of a robot. Three aspects of sustainability assessment in automation are identified. Firstly, we consider automation as part of a larger system...... that fulfills the market demand for a given functionality. Secondly, three aspects of sustainability have to be assessed: environment, economy, and society. Thirdly, automation is part of a system with many levels, with different actors on each level, resulting in meeting the market demand. In this system...... is a minor contributor to the carbon footprint at cell or line level, from the perspective of a robot producer reducing the electricity consumption during the robot's use stage can be a considerable improvement in the carbon footprint of a robot, and thus in the sustainability profile of the robot....

  6. Automated Critical Peak Pricing Field Tests: Program Descriptionand Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Xu, Peng

    2006-04-06

    California utilities have been exploring the use of critical peak prices (CPP) to help reduce needle peaks in customer end-use loads. CPP is a form of price-responsive demand response (DR). Recent experience has shown that customers have limited knowledge of how to operate their facilities in order to reduce their electricity costs under CPP (Quantum 2004). While the lack of knowledge about how to develop and implement DR control strategies is a barrier to participation in DR programs like CPP, another barrier is the lack of automation of DR systems. During 2003 and 2004, the PIER Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) conducted a series of tests of fully automated electric demand response (Auto-DR) at 18 facilities. Overall, the average of the site-specific average coincident demand reductions was 8% from a variety of building types and facilities. Many electricity customers have suggested that automation will help them institutionalize their electric demand savings and improve their overall response and DR repeatability. This report focuses on and discusses the specific results of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing (Auto-CPP, a specific type of Auto-DR) tests that took place during 2005, which build on the automated demand response (Auto-DR) research conducted through PIER and the DRRC in 2003 and 2004. The long-term goal of this project is to understand the technical opportunities of automating demand response and to remove technical and market impediments to large-scale implementation of automated demand response (Auto-DR) in buildings and industry. A second goal of this research is to understand and identify best practices for DR strategies and opportunities. The specific objectives of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing test were as follows: (1) Demonstrate how an automated notification system for critical peak pricing can be used in large commercial facilities for demand response (DR). (2) Evaluate effectiveness of such a system. (3) Determine how customers

  7. Automated Critical Peak Pricing Field Tests: Program Descriptionand Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Xu, Peng

    2006-04-06

    California utilities have been exploring the use of critical peak prices (CPP) to help reduce needle peaks in customer end-use loads. CPP is a form of price-responsive demand response (DR). Recent experience has shown that customers have limited knowledge of how to operate their facilities in order to reduce their electricity costs under CPP (Quantum 2004). While the lack of knowledge about how to develop and implement DR control strategies is a barrier to participation in DR programs like CPP, another barrier is the lack of automation of DR systems. During 2003 and 2004, the PIER Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) conducted a series of tests of fully automated electric demand response (Auto-DR) at 18 facilities. Overall, the average of the site-specific average coincident demand reductions was 8% from a variety of building types and facilities. Many electricity customers have suggested that automation will help them institutionalize their electric demand savings and improve their overall response and DR repeatability. This report focuses on and discusses the specific results of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing (Auto-CPP, a specific type of Auto-DR) tests that took place during 2005, which build on the automated demand response (Auto-DR) research conducted through PIER and the DRRC in 2003 and 2004. The long-term goal of this project is to understand the technical opportunities of automating demand response and to remove technical and market impediments to large-scale implementation of automated demand response (Auto-DR) in buildings and industry. A second goal of this research is to understand and identify best practices for DR strategies and opportunities. The specific objectives of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing test were as follows: (1) Demonstrate how an automated notification system for critical peak pricing can be used in large commercial facilities for demand response (DR). (2) Evaluate effectiveness of such a system. (3) Determine how customers

  8. Automated urinalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, D A; Statland, B E

    1988-09-01

    Many sources of variation affect urinalysis testing. These are due to physiologic changes in the patient, therapeutic interventions, and collection, transportation, and storage of urine specimens. There are problems inherent to the manual performance of this high-volume test. Procedures are poorly standardized across the United States, and even within the same laboratory there can be significant technologist-to-technologist variability. The methods used can perturb the specimen so that recovery of analytes is less than 100 per cent in the aliquot examined. The absence of significant automation of the entire test, with the one exception of the Yellow IRIS, is unusual in the clinical laboratory setting, where most other hematology and chemistry testing has been fully automated. Our evaluation of the Yellow IRIS found that this system is an excellent way to improve the quality of the results and thereby physician acceptance. There is a positive impact for those centers using this instrument, both for the laboratory and for the hospital.

  9. Open Standards in Practice: An OGC China Forum Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Peng; Zhang, Mingda; Taylor, Trevor; Xie, Jibo; Zhang, Hongping; Tong, Xiaochong; Yu, Jinsongdi; Huang, Juntao

    2016-11-01

    Open standards like OGC standards can be used to improve interoperability and support machine-to-machine interaction over the Web. In the Big Data era, standard-based data and processing services from various vendors could be combined to automate the extraction of information and knowledge from heterogeneous and large volumes of geospatial data. This paper introduces an ongoing OGC China forum initiative, which will demonstrate how OGC standards can benefit the interaction among multiple organizations in China. The ability to share data and processing functions across organizations using standard services could change traditional manual interactions in their business processes, and provide on-demand decision support results by on-line service integration. In the initiative, six organizations are involved in two “MashUp” scenarios on disaster management. One “MashUp” is to derive flood maps in the Poyang Lake, Jiangxi. And the other one is to generate turbidity maps on demand in the East Lake, Wuhan, China. The two scenarios engage different organizations from the Chinese community by integrating sensor observations, data, and processing services from them, and improve the automation of data analysis process using open standards.

  10. Automated Budget System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  11. Participation through Automation: Fully Automated Critical PeakPricing in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote,Sila; Linkugel, Eric

    2006-06-20

    California electric utilities have been exploring the use of dynamic critical peak prices (CPP) and other demand response programs to help reduce peaks in customer electric loads. CPP is a tariff design to promote demand response. Levels of automation in DR can be defined as follows: Manual Demand Response involves a potentially labor-intensive approach such as manually turning off or changing comfort set points at each equipment switch or controller. Semi-Automated Demand Response involves a pre-programmed demand response strategy initiated by a person via centralized control system. Fully Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. The receipt of the external signal initiates pre-programmed demand response strategies. They refer to this as Auto-DR. This paper describes the development, testing, and results from automated CPP (Auto-CPP) as part of a utility project in California. The paper presents the project description and test methodology. This is followed by a discussion of Auto-DR strategies used in the field test buildings. They present a sample Auto-CPP load shape case study, and a selection of the Auto-CPP response data from September 29, 2005. If all twelve sites reached their maximum saving simultaneously, a total of approximately 2 MW of DR is available from these twelve sites that represent about two million ft{sup 2}. The average DR was about half that value, at about 1 MW. These savings translate to about 0.5 to 1.0 W/ft{sup 2} of demand reduction. They are continuing field demonstrations and economic evaluations to pursue increasing penetrations of automated DR that has demonstrated ability to provide a valuable DR resource for California.

  12. Demand Response Resource Quantification with Detailed Building Energy Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Elaine; Horsey, Henry; Merket, Noel; Stoll, Brady; Nag, Ambarish

    2017-04-03

    Demand response is a broad suite of technologies that enables changes in electrical load operations in support of power system reliability and efficiency. Although demand response is not a new concept, there is new appetite for comprehensively evaluating its technical potential in the context of renewable energy integration. The complexity of demand response makes this task difficult -- we present new methods for capturing the heterogeneity of potential responses from buildings, their time-varying nature, and metrics such as thermal comfort that help quantify likely acceptability of specific demand response actions. Computed with an automated software framework, the methods are scalable.

  13. Automation 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Zieliński, Cezary; Kaliczyńska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    This book consists of papers presented at Automation 2017, an international conference held in Warsaw from March 15 to 17, 2017. It discusses research findings associated with the concepts behind INDUSTRY 4.0, with a focus on offering a better understanding of and promoting participation in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Each chapter presents a detailed analysis of a specific technical problem, in most cases followed by a numerical analysis, simulation and description of the results of implementing the solution in a real-world context. The theoretical results, practical solutions and guidelines presented are valuable for both researchers working in the area of engineering sciences and practitioners looking for solutions to industrial problems. .

  14. DataBase on demand

    CERN Document Server

    Aparicio, Ruben Gaspar; Coterillo Coz, I

    2012-01-01

    At CERN a number of key database applications are running on user-managed MySQL database services. The database on demand project was born out of an idea to provide the CERN user community with an environment to develop and run database services outside of the actual centralised Oracle based database services. The Database on Demand (DBoD) empowers the user to perform certain actions that had been traditionally done by database administrators, DBA's, providing an enterprise platform for database applications. It also allows the CERN user community to run different database engines, e.g. presently open community version of MySQL and single instance Oracle database server. This article describes a technology approach to face this challenge, a service level agreement, the SLA that the project provides, and an evolution of possible scenarios.

  15. DataBase on Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar Aparicio, R.; Gomez, D.; Coterillo Coz, I.; Wojcik, D.

    2012-12-01

    At CERN a number of key database applications are running on user-managed MySQL database services. The database on demand project was born out of an idea to provide the CERN user community with an environment to develop and run database services outside of the actual centralised Oracle based database services. The Database on Demand (DBoD) empowers the user to perform certain actions that had been traditionally done by database administrators, DBA's, providing an enterprise platform for database applications. It also allows the CERN user community to run different database engines, e.g. presently open community version of MySQL and single instance Oracle database server. This article describes a technology approach to face this challenge, a service level agreement, the SLA that the project provides, and an evolution of possible scenarios.

  16. Short communication: Use of a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique for measuring enteric methane emissions in Holstein cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorich, C D; Varner, R K; Pereira, A B D; Martineau, R; Soder, K J; Brito, A F

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to measure enteric CH4 emissions using a new portable automated open-circuit gas quantification system (GQS) and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique (SF6) in midlactation Holstein cows housed in a tiestall barn. Sixteen cows averaging 176 ± 34 d in milk, 40.7 ± 6.1 kg of milk yield, and 685 ± 49 kg of body weight were randomly assigned to 1 out of 2 treatments according to a crossover design. Treatments were (1) ad libitum (adjusted daily to yield 10% orts) and (2) restricted feed intake [set to restrict feed by 10% of baseline dry matter intake (DMI)]. Each experimental period lasted 22d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. A common diet was fed to the cows as a total mixed ration and contained 40.4% corn silage, 11.2% grass-legume haylage, and 48.4% concentrate on a dry matter basis. Spot 5-min measurements using the GQS were taken twice daily with a 12-h interval between sampling and sampling times advanced 2h daily to account for diurnal variation in CH4 emissions. Canisters for the SF6 method were sampled twice daily before milking with 4 local background gas canisters inside the barn analyzed for background gas concentrations. Enteric CH4 emissions were not affected by treatments and averaged 472 and 458 g/d (standard error of the mean = 18 g/d) for ad libitum and restricted intake treatments, respectively (data not shown). The GQS appears to be a reliable method because of the relatively low coefficients of variation (ranging from 14.1 to 22.4%) for CH4 emissions and a moderate relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.42) between CH4 emissions and DMI. The SF6 resulted in large coefficients of variation (ranging from 16.0 to 111%) for CH4 emissions and a poor relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.17) between CH4 emissions and DMI, likely because of limited barn ventilation and high background gas concentration. Research with improved barn ventilation systems or

  17. The Systems Development Life Cycle as a Planning Methodology for Library Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, David

    1985-01-01

    Discussion of the systems development life cycle (SDLC) that supports operational and managerial planning of automation projects covers challenges of library automation, evolution and scope of SDLC, lack of dissemination of SDLC literature within library and information science community, and corrective measures to meet library automation demands.…

  18. Innovation and Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2007-01-01

    the demand-side of markets in the simplest possible way. This strategy has allowed a gradual increase in the sophistication of supply-side aspects of economic evolution, but the one-sided focus on supply is facing diminishing returns. Therefore, demand-side aspects of economic evolution have in recent years...... received increased attention. The present paper argues that the new emphasis on demand-side factors is quite crucial for a deepened understanding of economic evolution. The major reasons are the following: First, demand represents the core force of selection that gives direction to the evolutionary process....... Second, firms' innovative activities relate, directly or indirectly, to the structure of expected and actual demand. Third, the demand side represents the most obvious way of turning to the much-needed analysis of macro-evolutionary change of the economic system....

  19. PERFECT DEMAND ILLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Yu. Sulimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to technique «Perfect demand illusion», which allows to strengthen the competitive advantageof retailers. Also in the paper spells out the golden rules of visual merchandising.The definition of the method «Demand illusion», formulated the conditions of its functioning, and is determined by the mainhypothesis of the existence of this method.Furthermore, given the definition of the «Perfect demand illusion», and describes its additional conditions. Also spells out the advantages of the «Perfect demandillusion», before the «Demand illusion».

  20. Divers of Passenger Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    -Overview drivers of passenger demand -Driver 1: Economic growth in developing countries -Driver 2: International business travel in developed countries -Driver 3: International leisure travel in developed countries

  1. Smart Home Automation with Linux

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Linux users can now control their homes remotely! Are you a Linux user who has ever wanted to turn on the lights in your house, or open and close the curtains, while away on holiday? Want to be able to play the same music in every room, controlled from your laptop or mobile phone? Do you want to do these things without an expensive off-the-shelf kit? In Beginning Linux Home Automation, Steven Goodwin will show you how a house can be fully controlled by its occupants, all using open source software. From appliances to kettles to curtains, control your home remotely! What you'll learn* Control a

  2. 3D-Printed Microfluidic Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Anthony K.; Bhattacharjee, Nirveek; Horowitz, Lisa F.; Chang, Tim C.; Folch, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic automation – the automated routing, dispensing, mixing, and/or separation of fluids through microchannels – generally remains a slowly-spreading technology because device fabrication requires sophisticated facilities and the technology’s use demands expert operators. Integrating microfluidic automation in devices has involved specialized multi-layering and bonding approaches. Stereolithography is an assembly-free, 3D-printing technique that is emerging as an efficient alternative for rapid prototyping of biomedical devices. Here we describe fluidic valves and pumps that can be stereolithographically printed in optically-clear, biocompatible plastic and integrated within microfluidic devices at low cost. User-friendly fluid automation devices can be printed and used by non-engineers as replacement for costly robotic pipettors or tedious manual pipetting. Engineers can manipulate the designs as digital modules into new devices of expanded functionality. Printing these devices only requires the digital file and electronic access to a printer. PMID:25738695

  3. 3D-printed microfluidic automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Anthony K; Bhattacharjee, Nirveek; Horowitz, Lisa F; Chang, Tim C; Folch, Albert

    2015-04-21

    Microfluidic automation - the automated routing, dispensing, mixing, and/or separation of fluids through microchannels - generally remains a slowly-spreading technology because device fabrication requires sophisticated facilities and the technology's use demands expert operators. Integrating microfluidic automation in devices has involved specialized multi-layering and bonding approaches. Stereolithography is an assembly-free, 3D-printing technique that is emerging as an efficient alternative for rapid prototyping of biomedical devices. Here we describe fluidic valves and pumps that can be stereolithographically printed in optically-clear, biocompatible plastic and integrated within microfluidic devices at low cost. User-friendly fluid automation devices can be printed and used by non-engineers as replacement for costly robotic pipettors or tedious manual pipetting. Engineers can manipulate the designs as digital modules into new devices of expanded functionality. Printing these devices only requires the digital file and electronic access to a printer.

  4. Generic Automated Multi-function Finger Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarpardaz, M.; Tarkian, M.; Sirkett, D.; Ölvander, J.; Feng, X.; Elf, J.; Sjögren, R.

    2016-11-01

    Multi-function fingers that are able to handle multiple workpieces are crucial in improvement of a robot workcell. Design automation of multi-function fingers is highly demanded by robot industries to overcome the current iterative, time consuming and complex manual design process. However, the existing approaches for the multi-function finger design automation are unable to entirely meet the robot industries’ need. This paper proposes a generic approach for design automation of multi-function fingers. The proposed approach completely automates the design process and requires no expert skill. In addition, this approach executes the design process much faster than the current manual process. To validate the approach, multi-function fingers are successfully designed for two case studies. Further, the results are discussed and benchmarked with existing approaches.

  5. Cognitive task demands, self-control demands and the mental well-being of office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, Robert S; Brasher, Kate

    2011-09-01

    The cognitive task demands of office workers and the self-control demands of their work roles were measured in a sample of 196 employees in two different office layouts using a self-report questionnaire, which was circulated electronically. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that both factors were associated with mental well-being, but not with physical well-being, while controlling for exposure to psychosocial stressors. The interaction between cognitive task demands and self-control demands had the strongest association with mental well-being, suggesting that the deleterious effect of one was greater when the other was present. An exploratory analysis revealed that the association was stronger for employees working in a large open-plan office than for those working in smaller offices with more privacy. Frustration of work goals was the cognitive task demand having the strongest negative impact on mental well-being. Methodological limitations and scale psychometrics (particularly the use of the NASA Task Load Index) are discussed. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Modern office work has high mental demands and low physical demands and there is a need to design offices to prevent adverse psychological reactions. It is shown that cognitive task demands interact with self-control demands to degrade mental well-being. The association was stronger in an open-plan office.

  6. Paramedic Physical Demands Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    medical bags, cardiac monitor, stretcher, stair chair, etc.) were not standardized across services. As a result the total amount of equipment weight ...report describes the pushing/pulling, walking, and stair climbing demands as observed during the observation periods. Walking demands varied between the...standard deviation about the mean. .................................................................. 25 Figure 7 - The maximum weight (heaviest patient

  7. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  8. Causality in demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Jensen, Frank; Setälä, Jari;

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on causality in demand. A methodology where causality is imposed and tested within an empirical co-integrated demand model, not prespecified, is suggested. The methodology allows different causality of different products within the same demand system. The methodology is applied...... to fish demand. On the German market for farmed trout and substitutes, it is found that supply sources, i.e. aquaculture and fishery, are not the only determinant of causality. Storing, tightness of management and aggregation level of integrated markets might also be important. The methodological...... implication is that more explicit focus on causality in demand analyses provides improved information. The results suggest that frozen trout forms part of a large European whitefish market, where prices of fresh trout are formed on a relatively separate market. Redfish is a substitute on both markets...

  9. Automation of Flexible Migration Workflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk von Suchodoletz

    2011-03-01

    images for certain migration workflows. View-paths may rise in demand, as the generation of PDF output files from Word Perfect input could be cached as pre-fabricated emulator system images. The current groundwork provides several possible optimizations, such as using the automation features of the original environments.

  10. 45 CFR 30.11 - Demand for payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... this part, including immediate referral to Justice for litigation. (b) Demand letters. The specific..., including income tax refunds, salary, certain benefit payments such as Social Security, retirement, and...) Reporting the debt to a credit bureau or other automated database; (E) Referring the debt to Justice...

  11. Domestic Demand Will Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China can invigorate its economy by expanding domestic demand and boosting consumption chinese bankers are preparing to set up finance companies that provide consumer loans in major cities like Beijing and Shanghai.

  12. Intelligent energy demand forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Wei-Chiang

    2013-01-01

    This book offers approaches and methods to calculate optimal electric energy allocation, using evolutionary algorithms and intelligent analytical tools to improve the accuracy of demand forecasting. Focuses on improving the drawbacks of existing algorithms.

  13. Household fuel demand analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.; Hirst, E.; Jackson, J.

    1976-01-01

    This study develops econometric models of residential demands for electricity, natural gas, and petroleum products. Fuel demands per household are estimated as functions of fuel prices, per capita income, heating degree days, and mean July temperature. Cross-sectional models are developed using a large data base containing observations for each state and year from 1951 through 1974. Long-run own-price elasticities for all three fuels are greater than unity with natural gas showing the greatest sensitivity to own-price changes. Cross-price elasticities are all less than unity except for the elasticity of demand for oil with respect to the price of gas (which is even larger than the own-price elasticity of demand for oil). The models show considerable stabiity with respect to own-price elasticities but much instability with respect to the cross-price and income elasticities.

  14. Impact of Energy Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambel, Ali B.

    1970-01-01

    The types of pollutants associated with the process of power production are identified. A nine-point proposal is presented on the ways the increase in power demands might be achieved with the minimum threat to the environment. (PR)

  15. DeMand: A tool for evaluating and comparing device-level demand and supply forecast models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Bijay; Siksnys, Laurynas; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2016-01-01

    datasets, forecast models, features, and errors measures, thus semi-automating most of the steps of the forecast model selection and validation process. This paper presents the architecture and data model of the DeMand system; and provides a use-case example on how one particular forecast model...

  16. Development of an automated scoring system for plant comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Pourrut

    2015-05-01

    -\tnucleus density: increase the density of nuclei is of importance to increase scoring reliability (Sharma et al., 2012. In conclusion, increasing plant nucleus extraction yield and automated scoring of nuclei do represent big challenges. However, our promising preliminary results open up the perspective of an automated high-throughput scoring of plant nuclei.

  17. Autonomy and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Jay

    2017-01-01

    A significant level of debate and confusion has surrounded the meaning of the terms autonomy and automation. Automation is a multi-dimensional concept, and we propose that Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) automation should be described with reference to the specific system and task that has been automated, the context in which the automation functions, and other relevant dimensions. In this paper, we present definitions of automation, pilot in the loop, pilot on the loop and pilot out of the loop. We further propose that in future, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) RPAS Panel avoids the use of the terms autonomy and autonomous when referring to automated systems on board RPA. Work Group 7 proposes to develop, in consultation with other workgroups, a taxonomy of Levels of Automation for RPAS.

  18. An automated swimming respirometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    STEFFENSEN, JF; JOHANSEN, K; BUSHNELL, PG

    1984-01-01

    An automated respirometer is described that can be used for computerized respirometry of trout and sharks.......An automated respirometer is described that can be used for computerized respirometry of trout and sharks....

  19. Configuration Management Automation (CMA) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Configuration Management Automation (CMA) will provide an automated, integrated enterprise solution to support CM of FAA NAS and Non-NAS assets and investments. CMA...

  20. Bayesian Safety Risk Modeling of Human-Flightdeck Automation Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

    2015-01-01

    Usage of automatic systems in airliners has increased fuel efficiency, added extra capabilities, enhanced safety and reliability, as well as provide improved passenger comfort since its introduction in the late 80's. However, original automation benefits, including reduced flight crew workload, human errors or training requirements, were not achieved as originally expected. Instead, automation introduced new failure modes, redistributed, and sometimes increased workload, brought in new cognitive and attention demands, and increased training requirements. Modern airliners have numerous flight modes, providing more flexibility (and inherently more complexity) to the flight crew. However, the price to pay for the increased flexibility is the need for increased mode awareness, as well as the need to supervise, understand, and predict automated system behavior. Also, over-reliance on automation is linked to manual flight skill degradation and complacency in commercial pilots. As a result, recent accidents involving human errors are often caused by the interactions between humans and the automated systems (e.g., the breakdown in man-machine coordination), deteriorated manual flying skills, and/or loss of situational awareness due to heavy dependence on automated systems. This paper describes the development of the increased complexity and reliance on automation baseline model, named FLAP for FLightdeck Automation Problems. The model development process starts with a comprehensive literature review followed by the construction of a framework comprised of high-level causal factors leading to an automation-related flight anomaly. The framework was then converted into a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) using the Hugin Software v7.8. The effects of automation on flight crew are incorporated into the model, including flight skill degradation, increased cognitive demand and training requirements along with their interactions. Besides flight crew deficiencies, automation system

  1. On the emergence of pervasive home automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torbensen, Rune Sonnich

    2012-01-01

    Home automation could be useful in a number of use cases: Comfort, energy savings, security, and elder care. However, it has not become mainstream yet due to issues in the following areas: cooperation, communication, development tools, platforms, usability, price, and security. This work presents...... a comprehensive analysis of market actors and home automation technologies in order to determine customer requirements, industrial challenges, and incitement structures. A vision called Pervasive Home Automation is defined as the scenario where all electronic devices in the residence are able to communicate...... and cooperate as services on a common home network. The strategy to foster a Pervasive Home Automation market is based on the hypothesis that if the necessary means, i.e. tools, protocols etc., are publicly available then vendors would enter a common, open cooperation framework as long as they remain...

  2. Workflow automation architecture standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T. [Boeing Computer Services Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-11-14

    This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

  3. Automation for On-road Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerardino, Guillermo Andrés Pocovi; Lauridsen, Mads; Alvarez, Beatriz Soret

    2015-01-01

    The support of mission-critical communication (MCC) opens the possibility to implement a broad range of novel applications. V2X communication for traffic safety and automation is, among others, one of these innovative applications expected to bring big benefits to society: accidents are prevented...

  4. Eye metrics for task-dependent automation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imants, P.; Greef, T.E. de

    2014-01-01

    Future air traffic is expected to grow increasingly, opening up a gap for task dependent automation and adaptive interfaces, helping the Air Traffic Controller to cope with fluctuating workloads. One of the challenging factors in the application of such intelligent systems concerns the question what

  5. Automation in Clinical Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the trend toward automation in clinical pathology laboratories has largely bypassed the clinical microbiology laboratory. In this article, we review the historical impediments to automation in the microbiology laboratory and offer insight into the reasons why we believe that we are on the cusp of a dramatic change that will sweep a wave of automation into clinical microbiology laboratories. We review the currently available specimen-processing instruments as well as the total laboratory automation solutions. Lastly, we outline the types of studies that will need to be performed to fully assess the benefits of automation in microbiology laboratories. PMID:23515547

  6. Research of Social Sports Professional Students Occupation Literacy Culture Openly Based on Social Demand%基于社会需求开放式培养社会体育专业学生职业素养研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝小刚; 高雪梅

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the social needs and professional quality requirements of social sports professional, and to promote social sports professional education output and social needs smooth docking, social sports professional social needs and professional quality requirements, training objectives and social needs of the problem and open up the cultivation of students' professional quality are deeply analyzed. The research thinks: social sports instructors, fitness coaches and marketing personnel, sports science and technology logistics service personnel and sports industry management and management personnel are the main talents needs for the social sports industry. However, the professional knowledge and skills of the students in social sports specialty and the requirements of the professional quality of the students cannot reach the requirements of the society accounting for the gap between cultivation goals and the social needs. Finally, using the advantages of sports system, with the introduction of the German“dual system”vocational education model, and the introduction of advanced enterprise management concept to strengthen cooperation and exchanges with sports system units. Sports industry related enterprises and enterprise training institutions to open cooperative education model should be introduced to improve the professional quality and professional skills, so that social sports professional students can better adapt to social needs and industry professional quality requirements, so as to better serve the community.%为了解社会体育专业社会需求及职业素养要求,促进社会体育专业教育输出与社会需求平滑对接,对社会体育专业社会需求及职业素养要求、培养目标与社会需求脱节问题及开放式合作培养学生职业素养进行了深入的调查分析与研究。研究认为:社会体育指导员、健身教练与营销人员、竞技体育科技后勤服务人员与体育产业经营与

  7. Travel Demand Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, Frank [ORNL; Garrow, Dr. Laurie [Georgia Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the principal types of both passenger and freight demand models in use today, providing a brief history of model development supported by references to a number of popular texts on the subject, and directing the reader to papers covering some of the more recent technical developments in the area. Over the past half century a variety of methods have been used to estimate and forecast travel demands, drawing concepts from economic/utility maximization theory, transportation system optimization and spatial interaction theory, using and often combining solution techniques as varied as Box-Jenkins methods, non-linear multivariate regression, non-linear mathematical programming, and agent-based microsimulation.

  8. Education on Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Lis; Hende, Merete

    2015-01-01

    Dette notat beskriver nogle af resultaterne fra programmet "Education on Demand' i projektet Det erhvervsrettede Uddannelseslaboratorium. Programmet har haft fokus på udfordringer og forandringsbehov i uddannelsesinstitutioner og -systemet. Herunder har det beskæftiget sig særligt med de to temat......Dette notat beskriver nogle af resultaterne fra programmet "Education on Demand' i projektet Det erhvervsrettede Uddannelseslaboratorium. Programmet har haft fokus på udfordringer og forandringsbehov i uddannelsesinstitutioner og -systemet. Herunder har det beskæftiget sig særligt med de...

  9. Demand Modelling in Telecommunications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chvalina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the existing possibilities for using Standard Statistical Methods and Artificial Intelligence Methods for a short-term forecast and simulation of demand in the field of telecommunications. The most widespread methods are based on Time Series Analysis. Nowadays, approaches based on Artificial Intelligence Methods, including Neural Networks, are booming. Separate approaches will be used in the study of Demand Modelling in Telecommunications, and the results of these models will be compared with actual guaranteed values. Then we will examine the quality of Neural Network models. 

  10. Energy Assessment of Automated Mobility Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuche [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-03

    Automated vehicles (AVs) are increasingly being discussed as the basis for on-demand mobility services, introducing a new paradigm in which a fleet of AVs displace private automobiles for day-to-day travel in dense activity districts. This project examines such a concept to displace privately owned automobiles within a region containing dense activity generators (jobs, retail, entertainment, etc.), referred to as an automated mobility district (AMDs). The project reviews several such districts including airport, college campuses, business parks, downtown urban cores, and military bases, with examples of previous attempts to meet the mobility needs apart from private automobiles, some with automated technology and others with more traditional transit based solutions. The issues and benefits of AMDs are framed within the perspective of intra-district, inter-district, and border issues, and the requirements for a modeling framework are identified to adequately reflect the breadth of mobility, energy, and emissions impact anticipated with AMDs.

  11. AUTOMATION OF CONVEYOR BELT TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Marinović

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Belt conveyor transport, although one of the most economical mining transport system, introduce many problems to mantain the continuity of the operation. Every stop causes economical loses. Optimal operation require correct tension of the belt, correct belt position and velocity and faultless rolls, which are together input conditions for automation. Detection and position selection of the faults are essential for safety to eliminate fire hazard and for efficient maintenance. Detection and location of idler roll faults are still open problem and up to now not solved successfully (the paper is published in Croatian.

  12. The Intelligent CAI System for Chemistry Based on Automated Reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓京; 张景中

    1999-01-01

    A new type of intelligent CAI system for chemistry is developed in this paper based on automated reasoning with chemistry knowledge.The system has shown its ability to solve chemistry problems,to assist students and teachers in studies and instruction with the automated reasoning functions.Its open mode of the knowledge base and its unique style of the interface between the system and human provide more opportunities for the users to acquire living knowledge through active participation.The automated reasoning based on basic chemistry knowledge also opened a new approach to the information storage and management of the ICAI system for sciences.

  13. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2004-07-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  14. The demand for euros

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Roelands, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the demand for euros using panel data for 10 euro area countries covering the period from 1999 to 2008. Monetary aggregates are constructed to ensure that money is a national concept by excluding deposits owned by non-residents and including external deposits owned by

  15. DEMAND AND PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VĂDUVA MARIA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Studying the consumer’s behavior by the ordinal approach of utility with the help of indifference curves allows us to deduce the two “movement laws of demand” in this chapter: the demand for a “normal” good is decreasing function of its price and an increasing function of income. We will use the elasticity concept to measure the intensity of the relation that is established between the demand, on the one hand, and prices or income, on the other hand: elasticity – price, direct and crossed, and elasticity – income. We can classify the goods in many categories, depending on the values that this elasticity takes. The demand elasticity can be determined depending on price and income. It reflects the proportion in which the demand for different products changes with the modification of the consumers’ income, the other factors remaining constant. The elasticity compared to the income is a demonstration of legality from the consumer’s sphere, which determines a certain hierarchy of the needs of each population category in a certain level of income. The movement of prices orients both the options and decisions of producers, namely the most useful productions and the most efficient investments, as well as the consumers’ options and decisions on the most advantageous buying of goods and services that they need. The prices appear as a “signal system” coordinating and making coherence the economic agents’ decisions – producers, consumers and population.

  16. Automated DNA Sequencing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Ekkebus, C.P.; Hauser, L.J.; Kress, R.L.; Mural, R.J.

    1999-04-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a core DNA sequencing facility to support biological research endeavors at ORNL and to conduct basic sequencing automation research. This facility is novel because its development is based on existing standard biology laboratory equipment; thus, the development process is of interest to the many small laboratories trying to use automation to control costs and increase throughput. Before automation, biology Laboratory personnel purified DNA, completed cycle sequencing, and prepared 96-well sample plates with commercially available hardware designed specifically for each step in the process. Following purification and thermal cycling, an automated sequencing machine was used for the sequencing. A technician handled all movement of the 96-well sample plates between machines. To automate the process, ORNL is adding a CRS Robotics A- 465 arm, ABI 377 sequencing machine, automated centrifuge, automated refrigerator, and possibly an automated SpeedVac. The entire system will be integrated with one central controller that will direct each machine and the robot. The goal of this system is to completely automate the sequencing procedure from bacterial cell samples through ready-to-be-sequenced DNA and ultimately to completed sequence. The system will be flexible and will accommodate different chemistries than existing automated sequencing lines. The system will be expanded in the future to include colony picking and/or actual sequencing. This discrete event, DNA sequencing system will demonstrate that smaller sequencing labs can achieve cost-effective the laboratory grow.

  17. Audit: Automated Disk Investigation Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Karabiyik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Software tools designed for disk analysis play a critical role today in forensics investigations. However, these digital forensics tools are often difficult to use, usually task specific, and generally require professionally trained users with IT backgrounds. The relevant tools are also often open source requiring additional technical knowledge and proper configuration. This makes it difficult for investigators without some computer science background to easily conduct the needed disk analysis. In this paper, we present AUDIT, a novel automated disk investigation toolkit that supports investigations conducted by non-expert (in IT and disk technology and expert investigators. Our proof of concept design and implementation of AUDIT intelligently integrates open source tools and guides non-IT professionals while requiring minimal technical knowledge about the disk structures and file systems of the target disk image.

  18. AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF BREAKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Farhadzade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breakers relate to Electric Power Systems’ equipment, the reliability of which influence, to a great extend, on reliability of Power Plants. In particular, the breakers determine structural reliability of switchgear circuit of Power Stations and network substations. Failure in short-circuit switching off by breaker with further failure of reservation unit or system of long-distance protection lead quite often to system emergency.The problem of breakers’ reliability improvement and the reduction of maintenance expenses is becoming ever more urgent in conditions of systematic increasing of maintenance cost and repair expenses of oil circuit and air-break circuit breakers. The main direction of this problem solution is the improvement of diagnostic control methods and organization of on-condition maintenance. But this demands to use a great amount of statistic information about nameplate data of breakers and their operating conditions, about their failures, testing and repairing, advanced developments (software of computer technologies and specific automated information system (AIS.The new AIS with AISV logo was developed at the department: “Reliability of power equipment” of AzRDSI of Energy. The main features of AISV are:· to provide the security and data base accuracy;· to carry out systematic control of breakers conformity with operating conditions;· to make the estimation of individual  reliability’s value and characteristics of its changing for given combination of characteristics variety;· to provide personnel, who is responsible for technical maintenance of breakers, not only with information but also with methodological support, including recommendations for the given problem solving  and advanced methods for its realization.

  19. Demand surge following earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Anna H.

    2012-01-01

    Demand surge is understood to be a socio-economic phenomenon where repair costs for the same damage are higher after large- versus small-scale natural disasters. It has reportedly increased monetary losses by 20 to 50%. In previous work, a model for the increased costs of reconstruction labor and materials was developed for hurricanes in the Southeast United States. The model showed that labor cost increases, rather than the material component, drove the total repair cost increases, and this finding could be extended to earthquakes. A study of past large-scale disasters suggested that there may be additional explanations for demand surge. Two such explanations specific to earthquakes are the exclusion of insurance coverage for earthquake damage and possible concurrent causation of damage from an earthquake followed by fire or tsunami. Additional research into these aspects might provide a better explanation for increased monetary losses after large- vs. small-scale earthquakes.

  20. Demand scenarios, worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development and the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Existing methods are inadequate for developing aggregate (regional and global) and long-term (several decades) passenger transport demand scenarios, since they are mainly based on simple extensions of current patterns rather than causal relationships that account for the competition among transport modes (aircraft, automobiles, buses and trains) to provide transport services. The demand scenario presented in this paper is based on two empirically proven invariances of human behavior. First, transport accounts for 10 to 15 percent of household total expenditures for those owning an automobile, and around 5 percent for non-motorized households on average (travel money budget). Second, the mean time spent traveling is approximately one hour per capita per day (travel time budget). These two budgets constraints determine the dynamics of the scenario: rising income increases per capita expenditure on travel which, in turn, increase demand for mobility. Limited travel time constraints travelers to shift to faster transport systems. The scenario is initiated with the first integrated historical data set on traffic volume in 11 world regions and the globe from 1960 to 1990 for all major modes of motorized transport. World average per capita traffic volume, which was 1,800 kilometers in 1960 and 4,2090 in 1990, is estimated to rise to 7,900 kilometers in 2020 - given a modest average increase in Gross World Product of 1.9% per year. Higher economic growth rates in Asian regions result in an increase in regional per capita traffic volume up to a factor of 5.3 from 1990 levels. Modal splits continue shifting to more flexible and faster modes of transport. At one point, passenger cars can no longer satisfy the increasing demand for speed (i.e. rising mobility within a fixed time budget). In North America it is estimated that the absolute traffic volume of automobiles will gradually decline starting in the 2010s. (author) 13 figs., 6 tabs., 35 refs.

  1. Market Expects Demand Increase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In the recent releasing Textile Industry Invigorating Plan,"givingattention to both domestlc and overseas markets"is put into a keyposition.Under a series policies,such as increasing the tax rebaterate for textile and garment exports,and granting loan for SME,thefurther development of this industry is expectative.Otherwise,weshould know that it costs time for demand driving.This need ourpatients.The only questionis how much time we have to wait.

  2. Migration and Tourism Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Carlos LEITÃO

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study considers the relationship between immigration and Portuguese tourism demand for the period 1995-2008, using a dynamic panel data approach. The findings indicate that Portuguese tourism increased significantly during the period in accordance with the values expected for a developed country. The regression results show that income, shock of immigration, population, and geographical distance between Portugal and countries of origin are the main determinants of Portuguese tourism.

  3. Resilience Evaluation of Demand Response as Spinning Reserve under Cyber-Physical Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas AlMajali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the future, automated demand response mechanisms will be used as spinning reserve. Demand response in the smart grid must be resilient to cyber-physical threats. In this paper, we evaluate the resilience of demand response when used as spinning reserve in the presence of cyber-physical threats. We quantify this evaluation by correlating the stability of the system in the presence of attacks measured by system frequency (Hz and attack level measured by the amount of load (MW that responds to the demand response event. The results demonstrate the importance of anticipating the dependability of demand response before it can be relied upon as spinning reserve.

  4. On the Demand for Education in India

    OpenAIRE

    Steinberg, Mary BM

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation I examine the impacts of market forces and government programs on households' demand for human capital in India. The first chapter examines the impact of ITES Centers on school enrollment using administrative enrollment data from three states in India, and finds that when these centers open, enrollment in primary school increases significantly. The effects are very localized, and using supplementary survey evidence we argue that this is driven by limited information diff...

  5. Laboratory Automation and Middleware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riben, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The practice of surgical pathology is under constant pressure to deliver the highest quality of service, reduce errors, increase throughput, and decrease turnaround time while at the same time dealing with an aging workforce, increasing financial constraints, and economic uncertainty. Although not able to implement total laboratory automation, great progress continues to be made in workstation automation in all areas of the pathology laboratory. This report highlights the benefits and challenges of pathology automation, reviews middleware and its use to facilitate automation, and reviews the progress so far in the anatomic pathology laboratory.

  6. Automation of hydroelectric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasser, H.S. (Consolidated Papers, Inc., Wisconsin Rapids, WI (US))

    1990-03-01

    This paper describes how the author's company has been automating its hydroelectric generating plants. The early automations were achieved with a relay-type supervisory control system, relay logic, dc tachometer, and a pneumatic gate-position controller. While this system allowed the units to be started and stopped from a remote location, they were operated at an output that was preset by the pneumatic control at the generating site. The supervisory control system at the site provided such information as unit status, generator breaker status, and a binary coded decimal (BCD) value of the pond level. The generating units are started by energizing an on-site relay that sets the pneumatic gate controller to a preset value above the synchronous speed of the hydroelectric generator. The pneumatic controller then opens the water-wheel wicket gates to the preset startup position. As the hydroelectric generator starts to turn, the machine-mounted dc tachometer produces a voltage. At a dc voltage equivalent to synchronous speed, the generator main breaker closes, and a contact from the main breaker starts a field-delay timer. Within a few seconds, the field breaker closes. Once the cycle is complete, a relay changes the pneumatic setpoint to a preset operating point of about 8/10 wicket gate opening.

  7. Meeting increased demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Andrew

    2004-07-01

    New Zealand is a little country with a little economy but with a population that's rapidly aging. New Zealand's population is only 4.3 million people. It's GDP is only $US58.6 billion (2002). New Zealand's expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP is not out of line with that of other countries. As a nation we have been increasing expenditure on health over recent years. In 1990 we spent 7% of GDP on health. In 1995 that increased to 7.65% and is now 8.3%. However, in per capita terms our expenditure on health does not compare so well with like countries. The size of New Zealand's economy is restricting what our country spends on health. Health is already the second highest demand on the New Zealand tax dollar. The tolerance of New Zealanders would be challenged if a Government attempted to increase taxes further to meet the growing demands for expenditure on health, but at the same time the population's expectations are increasing. This is the challenging situation we face today. What lies ahead? Like all industrialized countries New Zealand is facing an aging population. The population below age 40 is decreasing, but it is increasing significantly over that age. 16% of the population is currently aged over 60. By 2051 this proportion will almost double to just over 31%. Coupled with the aging population is increased awareness and expectations, as access to options for treatment and technology becomes readily accessible to the population through such media as the internet. The extent of the impact of the aging population can be clearly represented by focusing on one specialty such as orthopaedics. The New Zealand Orthopaecic Association undertook a study in July 2003 which concluded (among other things) that as a result of the projected aging of the population, over the next 50 years: Musculo-skeletal operations will increase by over 30%. The number of hip replacements will nearly double. The incidence of osteoporosis will increase by a massive 201%. The number

  8. Evaluation of Representative Smart Grid Investment Project Technologies: Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Bonebrake, Christopher A.

    2012-02-14

    This document is one of a series of reports estimating the benefits of deploying technologies similar to those implemented on the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects. Four technical reports cover the various types of technologies deployed in the SGIG projects, distribution automation, demand response, energy storage, and renewables integration. A fifth report in the series examines the benefits of deploying these technologies on a national level. This technical report examines the impacts of a limited number of demand response technologies and implementations deployed in the SGIG projects.

  9. AiiDA: Automated Interactive Infrastructure and Database for Computational Science

    CERN Document Server

    Pizzi, Giovanni; Sabatini, Riccardo; Marzari, Nicola; Kozinsky, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Computational science has seen in the last decades a spectacular rise in the scope, breadth, and depth of its efforts. Notwithstanding this prevalence and impact, it is often still performed using the renaissance model of individual artisans gathered in a workshop, under the guidance of an established practitioner. Great benefits could follow instead from adopting concepts and tools coming from computer science to manage, preserve, and share these computational efforts. We illustrate here our paradigm sustaining such vision, based around the four pillars of Automation, Data, Environment, and Sharing, and discuss its implementation in the open-source AiiDA platform (http://www.aiida.net). The platform is tuned first to the demands of computational materials science: coupling remote management with automatic data generation; ensuring provenance, preservation, and searchability of heterogeneous data through a design based on directed acyclic graphs; encoding complex sequences of low-level codes into scientific w...

  10. Automating checks of plan check automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabi, Tarek; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2014-07-08

    While a few physicists have designed new plan check automation solutions for their clinics, fewer, if any, managed to adapt existing solutions. As complex and varied as the systems they check, these programs must gain the full confidence of those who would run them on countless patient plans. The present automation effort, planCheck, therefore focuses on versatility and ease of implementation and verification. To demonstrate this, we apply planCheck to proton gantry, stereotactic proton gantry, stereotactic proton fixed beam (STAR), and IMRT treatments.

  11. Automate functional testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kalindri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, software engineers are increasingly turning to the option of automating functional tests, but not always have successful in this endeavor. Reasons range from low planning until over cost in the process. Some principles that can guide teams in automating these tests are described in this article.

  12. Automation in Warehouse Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg, R.; Verriet, J.

    2012-01-01

    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and support

  13. More Benefits of Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Malcolm

    1988-01-01

    Describes a study that measured the benefits of an automated catalog and automated circulation system from the library user's point of view in terms of the value of time saved. Topics discussed include patterns of use, access time, availability of information, search behaviors, and the effectiveness of the measures used. (seven references)…

  14. A scheme for a future distribution automation system in Finnish utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M.; Kaerkkaeinen, S. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Partanen, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation summarizes the results of a project, the aim of which was to define the optimal set of functions for the future distribution automation (DA) systems in Finland. The general factors. which affect the automation needs, are first discussed. The benefits of various functions of DA and demand side management (DSM) are then studied. Next a computer model for a DA feasibility analysis is presented, and some computation results are given. From these. the proposed automation scheme is finally concluded

  15. A scheme for a future distribution automation system in Finnish utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M.; Kaerkkaeinen, S. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Partanen, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    This presentation summarizes the results of a project, the aim of which was to define the optimal set of functions for the future distribution automation (DA) systems in Finland. The general factors, which affect the automation needs, are first discussed. The benefits of various functions of DA and demand side management (DSM) are then studied. Next a computer model for a DA feasibility analysis is presented, and some computation results are given. From these, the proposed automation scheme is finally concluded

  16. Automated model building

    CERN Document Server

    Caferra, Ricardo; Peltier, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    This is the first book on automated model building, a discipline of automated deduction that is of growing importance Although models and their construction are important per se, automated model building has appeared as a natural enrichment of automated deduction, especially in the attempt to capture the human way of reasoning The book provides an historical overview of the field of automated deduction, and presents the foundations of different existing approaches to model construction, in particular those developed by the authors Finite and infinite model building techniques are presented The main emphasis is on calculi-based methods, and relevant practical results are provided The book is of interest to researchers and graduate students in computer science, computational logic and artificial intelligence It can also be used as a textbook in advanced undergraduate courses

  17. Automation in Warehouse Development

    CERN Document Server

    Verriet, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and supports the quality of picking processes. Secondly, the development of models to simulate and analyse warehouse designs and their components facilitates the challenging task of developing warehouses that take into account each customer’s individual requirements and logistic processes. Automation in Warehouse Development addresses both types of automation from the innovative perspective of applied science. In particular, it describes the outcomes of the Falcon project, a joint endeavour by a consortium of industrial and academic partners. The results include a model-based approach to automate warehouse control design, analysis models for warehouse design, concepts for robotic item handling and computer vision, and auton...

  18. Automation in Immunohematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Bajpai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process.

  19. Advances in inspection automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Walter H.; Mair, H. Douglas; Jansen, Dion; Lombardi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    This new session at QNDE reflects the growing interest in inspection automation. Our paper describes a newly developed platform that makes the complex NDE automation possible without the need for software programmers. Inspection tasks that are tedious, error-prone or impossible for humans to perform can now be automated using a form of drag and drop visual scripting. Our work attempts to rectify the problem that NDE is not keeping pace with the rest of factory automation. Outside of NDE, robots routinely and autonomously machine parts, assemble components, weld structures and report progress to corporate databases. By contrast, components arriving in the NDT department typically require manual part handling, calibrations and analysis. The automation examples in this paper cover the development of robotic thickness gauging and the use of adaptive contour following on the NRU reactor inspection at Chalk River.

  20. Automation in immunohematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Meenu; Kaur, Ravneet; Gupta, Ekta

    2012-07-01

    There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process.

  1. A Validity-Based Approach to Quality Control and Assurance of Automated Scoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejar, Isaac I.

    2011-01-01

    Automated scoring of constructed responses is already operational in several testing programmes. However, as the methodology matures and the demand for the utilisation of constructed responses increases, the volume of automated scoring is likely to increase at a fast pace. Quality assurance and control of the scoring process will likely be more…

  2. Individual Differences in Response to Automation: The Five Factor Model of Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalma, James L.; Taylor, Grant S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of operator personality (Five Factor Model) and characteristics of the task and of adaptive automation (reliability and adaptiveness--whether the automation was well-matched to changes in task demand) to operator performance, workload, stress, and coping. This represents the first investigation of how the Five…

  3. Building energy demand aggregation and simulation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gianniou, Panagiota; Heller, Alfred; Rode, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the minimization of energy consumption and the optimization of efficiency of the overall energy grid have been in the agenda of most national and international energy policies. At the same time, urbanization has put cities under the microscope towards achieving cost-effective energy...... savings due to their compact and highly dense form. Thus, accurate estimation of energy demand of cities is of high importance to policy-makers and energy planners. This calls for automated methods that can be easily expandable to higher levels of aggregation, ranging from clusters of buildings...... to neighbourhoods and cities. Buildings occupy a key place in the development of smart cities as they represent an important potential to integrate smart energy solutions. Building energy consumption affects significantly the performance of the entire energy network. Therefore, a realistic estimation...

  4. Reducing and Calibrating SCUBA Data on Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenness, Tim; Bohlender, David A.; Gaudet, Séverin J.; Economou, Frossie; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Durand, Daniel; Hill, Norman R.

    One of the most important aspects of the new GRID and virtual observatory initiatives is the production of reliably calibrated data from telescope archives. The archive for the Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope is small enough (about 100 GB) to allow it to be on-line and for it to be processed in a reasonable amount of time. This makes it possible to address the important issues of calibration and source identification in a dataset that is tractable with reasonable computer hardware. This paper will focus on the JAC's and CADC's experience of automating the processing of SCUBA data, the difficulties and the successes, culminating in the ability of the SCUBA archive at the CADC to serve reduced images on demand.

  5. AZOrange - High performance open source machine learning for QSAR modeling in a graphical programming environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stålring Jonna C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Machine learning has a vast range of applications. In particular, advanced machine learning methods are routinely and increasingly used in quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR modeling. QSAR data sets often encompass tens of thousands of compounds and the size of proprietary, as well as public data sets, is rapidly growing. Hence, there is a demand for computationally efficient machine learning algorithms, easily available to researchers without extensive machine learning knowledge. In granting the scientific principles of transparency and reproducibility, Open Source solutions are increasingly acknowledged by regulatory authorities. Thus, an Open Source state-of-the-art high performance machine learning platform, interfacing multiple, customized machine learning algorithms for both graphical programming and scripting, to be used for large scale development of QSAR models of regulatory quality, is of great value to the QSAR community. Results This paper describes the implementation of the Open Source machine learning package AZOrange. AZOrange is specially developed to support batch generation of QSAR models in providing the full work flow of QSAR modeling, from descriptor calculation to automated model building, validation and selection. The automated work flow relies upon the customization of the machine learning algorithms and a generalized, automated model hyper-parameter selection process. Several high performance machine learning algorithms are interfaced for efficient data set specific selection of the statistical method, promoting model accuracy. Using the high performance machine learning algorithms of AZOrange does not require programming knowledge as flexible applications can be created, not only at a scripting level, but also in a graphical programming environment. Conclusions AZOrange is a step towards meeting the needs for an Open Source high performance machine learning platform, supporting the

  6. CONSUMER DEMAND FOR FOOD DIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jonq-Ying; Mark G. Brown

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, consumer demand for food diversity is measured by the entropy and Simpson indices for budget shares. Results show that consumer demand for food diversity is related to total food expenditures and household size and composition.

  7. Space station automation study. Automation requirements derived from space manufacturing concepts. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The two manufacturing concepts developed represent innovative, technologically advanced manufacturing schemes. The concepts were selected to facilitate an in depth analysis of manufacturing automation requirements in the form of process mechanization, teleoperation and robotics, and artificial intelligence. While the cost effectiveness of these facilities has not been analyzed as part of this study, both appear entirely feasible for the year 2000 timeframe. The growing demand for high quality gallium arsenide microelectronics may warrant the ventures.

  8. Automation, consolidation, and integration in autoimmune diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzoli, Renato; D'Aurizio, Federica; Villalta, Danilo; Bizzaro, Nicola

    2015-08-01

    Over the past two decades, we have witnessed an extraordinary change in autoimmune diagnostics, characterized by the progressive evolution of analytical technologies, the availability of new tests, and the explosive growth of molecular biology and proteomics. Aside from these huge improvements, organizational changes have also occurred which brought about a more modern vision of the autoimmune laboratory. The introduction of automation (for harmonization of testing, reduction of human error, reduction of handling steps, increase of productivity, decrease of turnaround time, improvement of safety), consolidation (combining different analytical technologies or strategies on one instrument or on one group of connected instruments) and integration (linking analytical instruments or group of instruments with pre- and post-analytical devices) opened a new era in immunodiagnostics. In this article, we review the most important changes that have occurred in autoimmune diagnostics and present some models related to the introduction of automation in the autoimmunology laboratory, such as automated indirect immunofluorescence and changes in the two-step strategy for detection of autoantibodies; automated monoplex immunoassays and reduction of turnaround time; and automated multiplex immunoassays for autoantibody profiling.

  9. Bioeconomic Analysis of Pesticide Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Moffitt, L. Joe; Farnsworth, Richard L.

    1981-01-01

    The ability of insects to develop resistance to specific pesticides affects pesticide demand. However, the affect of resistance on demand cannot be observed or measured. This analysis substitutes an expression for the unobserved resistance variable in a pesticide demand model and then illustrates the model's potential by estimating demand for DDT. To arrive at the expression characterizing the unobserved resistance variable a biological resistance model is constructed then incorporated into t...

  10. Rewarding yet demanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkedal, S T B; Torsting, A M B; Møller, T

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study, by exploring client perspectives, was to achieve a better understanding of how people with schizophrenia experience an occupational therapy intervention designed to enable them to carry out meaningful occupations in the early phases of recovery. METHOD: A qualitative......, as demanding. Participants valued engaging in real-life occupations while anchoring new strategies but also the occupational therapist's role in dealing with failure. Participants felt the intervention assisted in their recovery process and enabled them to engage in meaningful occupations. CONCLUSION......: The study provided unique insight into how participants experienced a client-centred partnership with an occupational therapist in the early phases of recovery. The intervention was feasible and supported the participants' recovery process....

  11. Physical demands in worklife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrand, I

    1988-01-01

    Industrial occupations which are physically strenuous in the traditional sense of the word have decreased in number. They have partly been replaced by "light," repetitive, monotonous work tasks performed in a sitting position. The number of heavy work tasks within the service sector has increased. Specialization has been intensified. The individual's capacity for strenuous work is still of importance to successful work performance. Many studies show that an optional choice of work pace in physically demanding occupational work results in an adaptation of pace or intensity until the worker is utilizing 40-50% of her or his capacity. When the work rate is constrained, the relative strain of the individual varies inversely with the physical work capacity. The frequency of musculoskeletal disorders has concurrently increased with the implementation of industrial mechanization. New, wise, ergonomic moves are needed to stop this development.

  12. Policy challenges of increasing automation in driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata M. Khan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The convergence of information and communication technologies (ICT with automotive technologies has already resulted in automation features in road vehicles and this trend is expected to continue in the future owing to consumer demand, dropping costs of components, and improved reliability. While the automation features that have taken place so far are mainly in the form of information and driver warning technologies (classified as level I pre-2010, future developments in the medium term (level II 2010–2025 are expected to exhibit connected cognitive vehicle features and encompass increasing degree of automation in the form of advanced driver assistance systems. Although autonomous vehicles have been developed for research purposes and are being tested in controlled driving missions, the autonomous driving case is only a long term (level III 2025+ scenario. This paper contributes knowledge on technological forecasts regarding automation, policy challenges for each level of technology development and application context, and the essential instrument of cost-effectiveness for policy analysis which enables policy decisions on the automation systems to be assessed in a consistent and balanced manner. The cost of a system per vehicle is viewed against its effectiveness in meeting policy objectives of improving safety, efficiency, mobility, convenience and reducing environmental effects. Example applications are provided that illustrate the contribution of the methodology in providing information for supporting policy decisions. Given the uncertainties in system costs as well as effectiveness, the tool for assessing policies for future generation features probabilistic and utility-theoretic analysis capability. The policy issues defined and the assessment framework enable the resolution of policy challenges while allowing worthy innovative automation in driving to enhance future road transportation.

  13. Participatory Demand-supply Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaee, S.A.; Oey, M.A.; Nevejan, C.I.M.; Brazier, F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Introducing the notion of Participatory Demand-Supply (PDS) systems as socio-technical systems, this paper focuses on a new approach to coordinating demand and supply in dynamic environments. A participatory approach to demand and supply provides a new frame of reference for system design, for which

  14. Participatory Demand-supply Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaee, S.A.; Oey, M.A.; Nevejan, C.I.M.; Brazier, F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Introducing the notion of Participatory Demand-Supply (PDS) systems as socio-technical systems, this paper focuses on a new approach to coordinating demand and supply in dynamic environments. A participatory approach to demand and supply provides a new frame of reference for system design, for which

  15. Systematic review automation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

  16. Chef infrastructure automation cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Marschall, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Chef Infrastructure Automation Cookbook contains practical recipes on everything you will need to automate your infrastructure using Chef. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to automate your server and cloud infrastructure.The book first shows you the simplest way to achieve a certain task. Then it explains every step in detail, so that you can build your knowledge about how things work. Eventually, the book shows you additional things to consider for each approach. That way, you can learn step-by-step and build profound knowledge on how to go about your configuration management

  17. Automated PCB Inspection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Usama BUKHARI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of an automated PCB inspection system as per the need of industry is a challenging task. In this paper a case study is presented, to exhibit, a proposed system for an immigration process of a manual PCB inspection system to an automated PCB inspection system, with a minimal intervention on the existing production flow, for a leading automotive manufacturing company. A detailed design of the system, based on computer vision followed by testing and analysis was proposed, in order to aid the manufacturer in the process of automation.

  18. Universal electronics for miniature and automated chemical assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Pawel L

    2015-02-21

    This minireview discusses universal electronic modules (generic programmable units) and their use by analytical chemists to construct inexpensive, miniature or automated devices. Recently, open-source platforms have gained considerable popularity among tech-savvy chemists because their implementation often does not require expert knowledge and investment of funds. Thus, chemistry students and researchers can easily start implementing them after a few hours of reading tutorials and trial-and-error. Single-board microcontrollers and micro-computers such as Arduino, Teensy, Raspberry Pi or BeagleBone enable collecting experimental data with high precision as well as efficient control of electric potentials and actuation of mechanical systems. They are readily programmed using high-level languages, such as C, C++, JavaScript or Python. They can also be coupled with mobile consumer electronics, including smartphones as well as teleinformatic networks. More demanding analytical tasks require fast signal processing. Field-programmable gate arrays enable efficient and inexpensive prototyping of high-performance analytical platforms, thus becoming increasingly popular among analytical chemists. This minireview discusses the advantages and drawbacks of universal electronic modules, considering their application in prototyping and manufacture of intelligent analytical instrumentation.

  19. A model based message passing approach for flexible and scalable home automation controllers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienhaus, D. [INNIAS GmbH und Co. KG, Frankenberg (Germany); David, K.; Klein, N.; Kroll, D. [ComTec Kassel Univ., SE Kassel Univ. (Germany); Heerdegen, F.; Jubeh, R.; Zuendorf, A. [Kassel Univ. (Germany). FG Software Engineering; Hofmann, J. [BSC Computer GmbH, Allendorf (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    There is a large variety of home automation systems that are largely proprietary systems from different vendors. In addition, the configuration and administration of home automation systems is frequently a very complex task especially, if more complex functionality shall be achieved. Therefore, an open model for home automation was developed that is especially designed for easy integration of various home automation systems. This solution also provides a simple modeling approach that is inspired by typical home automation components like switches, timers, etc. In addition, a model based technology to achieve rich functionality and usability was implemented. (orig.)

  20. Automated detection and analysis of Ca(2+) sparks in x-y image stacks using a thresholding algorithm implemented within the open-source image analysis platform ImageJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Elliot M; Steele, Derek S

    2014-02-04

    Previous studies have used analysis of Ca(2+) sparks extensively to investigate both normal and pathological Ca(2+) regulation in cardiac myocytes. The great majority of these studies used line-scan confocal imaging. In part, this is because the development of open-source software for automatic detection of Ca(2+) sparks in line-scan images has greatly simplified data analysis. A disadvantage of line-scan imaging is that data are collected from a single row of pixels, representing only a small fraction of the cell, and in many instances x-y confocal imaging is preferable. However, the limited availability of software for Ca(2+) spark analysis in two-dimensional x-y image stacks presents an obstacle to its wider application. This study describes the development and characterization of software to enable automatic detection and analysis of Ca(2+) sparks within x-y image stacks, implemented as a plugin within the open-source image analysis platform ImageJ. The program includes methods to enable precise identification of cells within confocal fluorescence images, compensation for changes in background fluorescence, and options that allow exclusion of events based on spatial characteristics.

  1. Open access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Open access week Van 19 tot en met 25 oktober 2015 vond wereldwijd de Open Access Week plaats. Tijdens deze week werden er over de hele wereld evenementen georganiseerd waar open access een rol speelt. Ook in Nederland zijn er diverse symposia, workshops en debatten georganiseerd zoals het debat in

  2. Estimating Reduced Consumption for Dynamic Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelmis, Charalampos [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Aman, Saima [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Saeed, Muhammad Rizwan [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Frincu, Marc [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Prasanna, Viktor K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-01-30

    Growing demand is straining our existing electricity generation facilities and requires active participation of the utility and the consumers to achieve energy sustainability. One of the most effective and widely used ways to achieve this goal in the smart grid is demand response (DR), whereby consumers reduce their electricity consumption in response to a request sent from the utility whenever it anticipates a peak in demand. To successfully plan and implement demand response, the utility requires reliable estimate of reduced consumption during DR. This also helps in optimal selection of consumers and curtailment strategies during DR. While much work has been done on predicting normal consumption, reduced consumption prediction is an open problem that is under-studied. In this paper, we introduce and formalize the problem of reduced consumption prediction, and discuss the challenges associated with it. We also describe computational methods that use historical DR data as well as pre-DR conditions to make such predictions. Our experiments are conducted in the real-world setting of a university campus microgrid, and our preliminary results set the foundation for more detailed modeling.

  3. I-94 Automation FAQs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — In order to increase efficiency, reduce operating costs and streamline the admissions process, U.S. Customs and Border Protection has automated Form I-94 at air and...

  4. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven

    2016-01-01

    This edited book comprises papers about the impacts, benefits and challenges of connected and automated cars. It is the third volume of the LNMOB series dealing with Road Vehicle Automation. The book comprises contributions from researchers, industry practitioners and policy makers, covering perspectives from the U.S., Europe and Japan. It is based on the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015 which was jointly organized by the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in July 2015. The topical spectrum includes, but is not limited to, public sector activities, human factors, ethical and business aspects, energy and technological perspectives, vehicle systems and transportation infrastructure. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  5. Automating the Media Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Mary A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the need to develop more efficient information retrieval skills by the use of new technology. Lists four stages used in automating the media center. Describes North Carolina's pilot programs. Proposes benefits and looks at the media center's future. (MVL)

  6. Hydrometeorological Automated Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of Hydrologic Development of the National Weather Service operates HADS, the Hydrometeorological Automated Data System. This data set contains the last 48...

  7. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation 2

    2015-01-01

    This paper collection is the second volume of the LNMOB series on Road Vehicle Automation. The book contains a comprehensive review of current technical, socio-economic, and legal perspectives written by experts coming from public authorities, companies and universities in the U.S., Europe and Japan. It originates from the Automated Vehicle Symposium 2014, which was jointly organized by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Burlingame, CA, in July 2014. The contributions discuss the challenges arising from the integration of highly automated and self-driving vehicles into the transportation system, with a focus on human factors and different deployment scenarios. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  8. Disassembly automation automated systems with cognitive abilities

    CERN Document Server

    Vongbunyong, Supachai

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a number of aspects to be considered in the development of disassembly automation, including the mechanical system, vision system and intelligent planner. The implementation of cognitive robotics increases the flexibility and degree of autonomy of the disassembly system. Disassembly, as a step in the treatment of end-of-life products, can allow the recovery of embodied value left within disposed products, as well as the appropriate separation of potentially-hazardous components. In the end-of-life treatment industry, disassembly has largely been limited to manual labor, which is expensive in developed countries. Automation is one possible solution for economic feasibility. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  9. Towards automated biomedical ontology harmonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Gustavo A; Lopez, Diego M; Blobel, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomedical ontologies is increasing, especially in the context of health systems interoperability. Ontologies are key pieces to understand the semantics of information exchanged. However, given the diversity of biomedical ontologies, it is essential to develop tools that support harmonization processes amongst them. Several algorithms and tools are proposed by computer scientist for partially supporting ontology harmonization. However, these tools face several problems, especially in the biomedical domain where ontologies are large and complex. In the harmonization process, matching is a basic task. This paper explains the different ontology harmonization processes, analyzes existing matching tools, and proposes a prototype of an ontology harmonization service. The results demonstrate that there are many open issues in the field of biomedical ontology harmonization, such as: overcoming structural discrepancies between ontologies; the lack of semantic algorithms to automate the process; the low matching efficiency of existing algorithms; and the use of domain and top level ontologies in the matching process.

  10. Scalable Automated Model Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-20

    of processing. 6. FUTURE WORK We note that these optimizations are just the tip of the iceberg in solving this problem faster. Advanced model ...Scalable Automated Model Search Evan Sparks Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at Berkeley Technical Report No...2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Scalable Automated Model Search 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  11. Marketing automation supporting sales

    OpenAIRE

    Sandell, Niko

    2016-01-01

    The past couple of decades has been a time of major changes in marketing. Digitalization has become a permanent part of marketing and at the same time enabled efficient collection of data. Personalization and customization of content are playing a crucial role in marketing when new customers are acquired. This has also created a need for automation to facilitate the distribution of targeted content. As a result of successful marketing automation more information of the customers is gathered ...

  12. Automation of Diagrammatic Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Jamnik, Mateja; Bundy, Alan; Green, Ian

    1997-01-01

    Theorems in automated theorem proving are usually proved by logical formal proofs. However, there is a subset of problems which humans can prove in a different way by the use of geometric operations on diagrams, so called diagrammatic proofs. Insight is more clearly perceived in these than in the corresponding algebraic proofs: they capture an intuitive notion of truthfulness that humans find easy to see and understand. We are identifying and automating this diagrammatic reasoning on mathemat...

  13. Shielded cells transfer automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, J J

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear waste from shielded cells is removed, packaged, and transferred manually in many nuclear facilities. Radiation exposure is absorbed by operators during these operations and limited only through procedural controls. Technological advances in automation using robotics have allowed a production waste removal operation to be automated to reduce radiation exposure. The robotic system bags waste containers out of glove box and transfers them to a shielded container. Operators control the system outside the system work area via television cameras. 9 figures.

  14. Instant Sikuli test automation

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to follow style using the Starter guide approach.This book is aimed at automation and testing professionals who want to use Sikuli to automate GUI. Some Python programming experience is assumed.

  15. ACCOUNTING AUTOMATIONS RISKS

    OpenAIRE

    Муравський, В. В.; Хома, Н. Г.

    2015-01-01

    Accountant accepts active voice in organization of the automated account in the conditions of the informative systems introduction in enterprise activity. Effective accounting automation needs identification and warning of organizational risks. Authors researched, classified and generalized the risks of introduction of the informative accounting systems. The ways of liquidation of the organizational risks sources andminimization of their consequences are gives. The method of the effective con...

  16. Automated security management

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Shaer, Ehab; Xie, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    In this contributed volume, leading international researchers explore configuration modeling and checking, vulnerability and risk assessment, configuration analysis, and diagnostics and discovery. The authors equip readers to understand automated security management systems and techniques that increase overall network assurability and usability. These constantly changing networks defend against cyber attacks by integrating hundreds of security devices such as firewalls, IPSec gateways, IDS/IPS, authentication servers, authorization/RBAC servers, and crypto systems. Automated Security Managemen

  17. Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.

  18. Marketing automation supporting sales

    OpenAIRE

    Sandell, Niko

    2016-01-01

    The past couple of decades has been a time of major changes in marketing. Digitalization has become a permanent part of marketing and at the same time enabled efficient collection of data. Personalization and customization of content are playing a crucial role in marketing when new customers are acquired. This has also created a need for automation to facilitate the distribution of targeted content. As a result of successful marketing automation more information of the customers is gathered ...

  19. Mission operations and command assurance - Automating an operations TQM task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welz, Linda; Kazz, Sheri; Potts, Sherrill; Witkowski, Mona; Bruno, Kristin

    1993-01-01

    A long-term program is in progress at JPL to reduce cost and risk of mission operations through defect prevention and error management. A major element of this program, Mission Operations and Command Assurance (MO&CA), provides a system level function on flight projects to instill quality in mission operations. MO&CA embodies the total quality management TQM principle of continuous process improvement (CPI) and uses CPI in applying automation to mission operations to reduce risk and costs. MO&CA has led efforts to apply and has implemented automation in areas that impact the daily flight project work environment including Incident Surprise Anomaly tracking and reporting; command data verification, tracking and reporting; and command support data usage. MO&CA's future work in automation will take into account that future mission operations systems must be designed to avoid increasing error through the introduction of automation, while adapting to the demands of smaller flight teams.

  20. Demand and Congestion in Multiplex Transportation Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Awwad, Zeyad; Jiang, Shan; González, Marta C.

    2016-01-01

    Urban transportation systems are multimodal, sociotechnical systems; however, while their multimodal aspect has received extensive attention in recent literature on multiplex networks, their sociotechnical aspect has been largely neglected. We present the first study of an urban transportation system using multiplex network analysis and validated Origin-Destination travel demand, with Riyadh’s planned metro as a case study. We develop methods for analyzing the impact of additional transportation layers on existing dynamics, and show that demand structure plays key quantitative and qualitative roles. There exist fundamental geometrical limits to the metro’s impact on traffic dynamics, and the bulk of environmental accrue at metro speeds only slightly faster than those planned. We develop a simple model for informing the use of additional, “feeder” layers to maximize reductions in global congestion. Our techniques are computationally practical, easily extensible to arbitrary transportation layers with complex transfer logic, and implementable in open-source software. PMID:27657738

  1. Feeding a fierce demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlontinov, D.

    2008-09-15

    Wolverine is a metallurgical coal mining project located in British Columbia (BC). The Wolverine project is owned by Western, who is currently expanding the project by developing an open pit mine property with a reserve of 18 million tonnes located close to its current mine. The company has purchased several new trucks, front shovel loaders, and blasthole drills, and is now shifting over 65,000 bank cubic meters (BCM) per day. Western is also planning to develop an underground mine in the region. The company has formed contracts and business relationships with several smaller companies in order to allow for more rapid startups of its mining operations. However, the company's expansion has been impeded by shortages in qualified mining personnel. The Wolverine project had been engaged in long-term contracts with the Japanese steel industry. Western has now established a number of relationships with clients in Europe, China, and South Korea. 3 figs.

  2. Elements of EAF automation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.; Dragna, E. C.

    2017-01-01

    Our article presents elements of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) automation. So, we present and analyze detailed two automation schemes: the scheme of electrical EAF automation system; the scheme of thermic EAF automation system. The application results of these scheme of automation consists in: the sensitive reduction of specific consummation of electrical energy of Electric Arc Furnace, increasing the productivity of Electric Arc Furnace, increase the quality of the developed steel, increasing the durability of the building elements of Electric Arc Furnace.

  3. Information Demand Pattern for Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Stamer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern organizations face the challenge of having to manage an increasing amount of information. The resulting information overload leads more and more to problems in decision making with potentially negative economic consequences. Decision-makers and knowledge intensive workers are especially affected. To address this problem, information demand patterns were proposed which capture organizational knowledge about the information demand of single roles. This work extends the concept of information demand patterns from single roles to teams. Using the knowledge intensive field of project management, the paper shows how to apply the concept of information demand patterns for a whole team. The contributions of this work are (1 the methodical approach to develop information demand patterns for teams, (2 an actual information demand pattern for a steering committee in the context of project management, (3 reflections on the differences between role patterns and team patterns.

  4. Bot, Cyborg and Automated Turing Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jeff

    The Automated Turing test (ATT) is almost a standard security technique for addressing the threat of undesirable or malicious bot programs. In this paper, we motivate an interesting adversary model, cyborgs, which are either humans assisted by bots or bots assisted by humans. Since there is always a human behind these bots, or a human can always be available on demand, ATT fails to differentiate such cyborgs from humans. The notion of “telling humans and cyborgs apart” is novel, and it can be of practical relevance in network security. Although it is a challenging task, we have had some success in telling cyborgs and humans apart automatically.

  5. Open Access: From Myth to Paradox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginsparg, Paul (Cornell University)

    2009-05-06

    True open access to scientific publications not only gives readers the possibility to read articles without paying subscription, but also makes the material available for automated ingestion and harvesting by 3rd parties. Once articles and associated data become universally treatable as computable objects, openly available to 3rd party aggregators and value-added services, what new services can we expect, and how will they change the way that researchers interact with their scholarly communications infrastructure? I will discuss straightforward applications of existing ideas and services, including citation analysis, collaborative filtering, external database linkages, interoperability, and other forms of automated markup, and speculate on the sociology of the next generation of users.

  6. SaDA: From Sampling to Data Analysis—An Extensible Open Source Infrastructure for Rapid, Robust and Automated Management and Analysis of Modern Ecological High-Throughput Microarray Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Saurabh Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most crucial characteristics of day-to-day laboratory information management is the collection, storage and retrieval of information about research subjects and environmental or biomedical samples. An efficient link between sample data and experimental results is absolutely important for the successful outcome of a collaborative project. Currently available software solutions are largely limited to large scale, expensive commercial Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS. Acquiring such LIMS indeed can bring laboratory information management to a higher level, but most of the times this requires a sufficient investment of money, time and technical efforts. There is a clear need for a light weighted open source system which can easily be managed on local servers and handled by individual researchers. Here we present a software named SaDA for storing, retrieving and analyzing data originated from microorganism monitoring experiments. SaDA is fully integrated in the management of environmental samples, oligonucleotide sequences, microarray data and the subsequent downstream analysis procedures. It is simple and generic software, and can be extended and customized for various environmental and biomedical studies.

  7. SaDA: From Sampling to Data Analysis-An Extensible Open Source Infrastructure for Rapid, Robust and Automated Management and Analysis of Modern Ecological High-Throughput Microarray Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kumar Saurabh; Thual, Dominique; Spurio, Roberto; Cannata, Nicola

    2015-06-03

    One of the most crucial characteristics of day-to-day laboratory information management is the collection, storage and retrieval of information about research subjects and environmental or biomedical samples. An efficient link between sample data and experimental results is absolutely important for the successful outcome of a collaborative project. Currently available software solutions are largely limited to large scale, expensive commercial Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS). Acquiring such LIMS indeed can bring laboratory information management to a higher level, but most of the times this requires a sufficient investment of money, time and technical efforts. There is a clear need for a light weighted open source system which can easily be managed on local servers and handled by individual researchers. Here we present a software named SaDA for storing, retrieving and analyzing data originated from microorganism monitoring experiments. SaDA is fully integrated in the management of environmental samples, oligonucleotide sequences, microarray data and the subsequent downstream analysis procedures. It is simple and generic software, and can be extended and customized for various environmental and biomedical studies.

  8. Universities and Patent Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Andrew K; Feldman, Robin

    2015-11-01

    Research universities have made enormous contributions to the field of medicine and the treatment of human disease. Alone or in collaboration with pharmaceutical companies, academic researchers have added to the store of knowledge that has led to numerous life science breakthroughs. A new chapter may be opening for academic researchers, however, that could lead to a darker tale. 'The mouse that trolled: the long and tortuous history of a gene mutation patent that became an expensive impediment to Alzheimer's research, by Bubela et al., chronicles one such tale.' The authors do an excellent job of bringing to life the twisting saga that engulfed numerous academic and non-profit Alzheimer's researchers over many years. The authors note that the story is an outlier, but sadly, that may not be the case. There are increasing signs that academic researchers and their institutions are being caught up in the rush for gold that is accompanying the proliferation of the non-practicing entity business model. As I have noted before, academic institutions have a dual role, as keepers of the academic flame and guardians of the public monies entrusted to them through state and federal research funding. The specter of taxpayer money being used, not to advance research and for the betterment of society, but as part of schemes to extract money from productive companies may not sit well with voters, and ultimately, with legislators. In that case, researchers and institutions themselves may have much to lose.

  9. North American oil demand outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, M.B. [National Economic Research Associates, White Plains, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    An understanding of the relationship of economic growth and potential petroleum product demand is needed to forecast the potential for North American oil demand growth as well as knowledge of world supply and price. The bullish expectations for economic growth in the US and Canada auger well for North American refiners and marketeers. The growth in world economic output forecast, however, means a larger oil demand and an increase in OPEC`s pricing power. Such price increases could depress North American oil demand growth. (author)

  10. An integrated communications demand model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubleday, C. F.

    1980-11-01

    A computer model of communications demand is being developed to permit dynamic simulations of the long-term evolution of demand for communications media in the U.K. to be made under alternative assumptions about social, economic and technological trends in British Telecom's business environment. The context and objectives of the project and the potential uses of the model are reviewed, and four key concepts in the demand for communications media, around which the model is being structured are discussed: (1) the generation of communications demand; (2) substitution between media; (3) technological convergence; and (4) competition. Two outline perspectives on the model itself are given.

  11. Modular reconfigurable machines incorporating modular open architecture control

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Padayachee, J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available degrees of freedom on a single platform. A corresponding modular Open Architecture Control (OAC) system is presented. OAC overcomes the inflexibility of fixed proprietary automation, ensuring that MRMs provide the reconfigurability and extensibility...

  12. New Lifecycle for Firewall Openings

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2011-01-01

    The first line in defending CERN against malicious traffic from the Internet is CERN's outer perimeter firewall. Following a well-defined set of rules, this firewall permits or denies any incoming network traffic to communicate with CERN hosts and controls outgoing traffic towards the Internet. System administrators can usually request firewall openings for the servers they are responsible for by using the LANDB Web interface (http://network.cern.ch). These requests are approved or rejected following the result of a subsequent security scan performed by the Computer Security Team. In the past, the number of firewall openings has grown significantly. System administrators naturally care more about their openings than about demanding closure once an opening has become obsolete or the server has changed purpose. Even worse, servers might pass under a new responsibility, i.e. a new system administrator, who does not even know about the current firewall openings. Indeed, a manual review of all firewall openings h...

  13. Stochastic model of forecasting spare parts demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan S. Milojević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available If demand is known for the whole planning period (complete information, then this type of demand or a supply system is deterministic. In the simplest cases, the demand per time unit is constant. If demand levels change over time following a precisely determined and pre-known principle, this type of demand is also classified as deterministic. This quality of demand is very rare. In most cases demand is the product of a process, for example TMS maintenance, whose progression cannot be predicted due to a number of factors influencing the process and causing random demand changes. In this case, a supply system must function according to the complete information and with a certain degree of uncertainty. In cases when demand may be defined by some of the laws of the probability theory, we are talking about stochastic demand and a stochastic supply system. Demand can be described by mathematical expectation, mathematical expectation and standard deviation, probability distribution or as a random process. However, there is usually a need for the most complex description, i.e. the complex random process because both intensity of demand and the probability distribution change during the observed intervals. The level of temporal (dynamic series is traditionally considered as a complex phenomenon consisting of four components: - basic tendency of phenomenon development - cyclical impact (long-term, 'ancient' - seasonal effects - random fluctuations. The basic tendency of phenomenon development means a long-term evolution of phenomena. A function that expresses the trajectory of changes of the basic tendency of a phenomenon development in the form of the equation is called a trend. Often, the trend involves time regression; i.e. the coefficients of the proposed functions are often determined by the least squares method. To roughly determine the coefficients of the proposed function, the sum of three and three-point methods are also used. After checking the

  14. ON-DEMAND SERIAL DILUTION USING QUANTIZED NANO/PICOLITER-SCALE DROPLETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jambovane, Sachin R.; Prost, Spencer A.; Sheen, Allison M.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2014-10-29

    This paper describes a fully automated droplet-based microfluidic device for on-demand serial dilution that is capable of achieving a dilution ratio of >6000 (concentration ranges from 1 mM to 160nM) over 35 nanoliter-scale droplets. This serial diluter can be applied to high throughput and label-free kinetic assays by integrating with our previously developed on-demand droplet-based microfluidic with mass spectrometry detection.

  15. The Dome Automations of ATA50 and MASS-DIMM Telescopes for DAG Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, E.; Celik, H. I.; Ozbaldan, E. E.; Guney, Y.; Yesilyaprak, C.

    2016-12-01

    In the scope of Eastern Anatolia Observatory (DAG) Project, The DAG Technical Team has carried out various automation studies like dome, camera, atmospherical equipments, etc. The domes of ATA50 and MASS-DIMM Telescopes have almost similar opening systems. Both telescopes will run as robotic very soon; therefore it's mandatory and inevitable to make the automations of their domes. The automation studies as its electronics and software developed by DAG Technical Team are presented.

  16. Open hardware for open science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the open source software movement, the Open Hardware Repository was created to enable hardware developers to share the results of their R&D activities. The recently published CERN Open Hardware Licence offers the legal framework to support this knowledge and technology exchange.   Two years ago, a group of electronics designers led by Javier Serrano, a CERN engineer, working in experimental physics laboratories created the Open Hardware Repository (OHR). This project was initiated in order to facilitate the exchange of hardware designs across the community in line with the ideals of “open science”. The main objectives include avoiding duplication of effort by sharing results across different teams that might be working on the same need. “For hardware developers, the advantages of open hardware are numerous. For example, it is a great learning tool for technologies some developers would not otherwise master, and it avoids unnecessary work if someone ha...

  17. Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  18. Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  19. Demand Response in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob; Knudsen, Jesper Viese; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, moves toward higher integration of Renewable Energy Resources have called for fundamental changes in both the planning and operation of the overall power grid. One such change is the incorporation of Demand Response (DR), the process by which consumers can adjust their demand i...

  20. Job demands-resources model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Bakker (Arnold); E. Demerouti (Eva)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract* The question of what causes job stress and what motivates people has received a lot of research attention during the past five decades. In this paper, we discuss Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory, which represents an extension of the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker &

  1. Technical Workers in Great Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Labor and Social Security Ministry conducted a survey on 81 labor markets across China in the second quarter of this year, the results of which showed that the demand for technical workers, especially those of middle and senior titles, far outnumbers the supply.The survey shows that the demand/supply

  2. Job demands-resources model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Bakker (Arnold); E. Demerouti (Eva)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract* The question of what causes job stress and what motivates people has received a lot of research attention during the past five decades. In this paper, we discuss Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory, which represents an extension of the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker & Demerout

  3. CAREER GUIDE FOR DEMAND OCCUPATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEE, E.R.; WELCH, JOHN L.

    THIS PUBLICATION UPDATES THE "CAREER GUIDE FOR DEMAND OCCUPATIONS" PUBLISHED IN 1959 AND PROVIDES COUNSELORS WITH INFORMATION ABOUT OCCUPATIONS IN DEMAND IN MANY AREAS WHICH REQUIRE PREEMPLOYMENT TRAINING. IT PRESENTS, IN COLUMN FORM, THE EDUCATION AND OTHER TRAINING USUALLY REQUIRED BY EMPLOYERS, HIGH SCHOOL SUBJECTS OF PARTICULAR PERTINENCE TO…

  4. Job demands-resources model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Bakker (Arnold); E. Demerouti (Eva)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract* The question of what causes job stress and what motivates people has received a lot of research attention during the past five decades. In this paper, we discuss Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory, which represents an extension of the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker & Demerout

  5. Materials Testing and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Wayne D.; Zweigoron, Ronald B.

    1980-07-01

    The advent of automation in materials testing has been in large part responsible for recent radical changes in the materials testing field: Tests virtually impossible to perform without a computer have become more straightforward to conduct. In addition, standardized tests may be performed with enhanced efficiency and repeatability. A typical automated system is described in terms of its primary subsystems — an analog station, a digital computer, and a processor interface. The processor interface links the analog functions with the digital computer; it includes data acquisition, command function generation, and test control functions. Features of automated testing are described with emphasis on calculated variable control, control of a variable that is computed by the processor and cannot be read directly from a transducer. Three calculated variable tests are described: a yield surface probe test, a thermomechanical fatigue test, and a constant-stress-intensity range crack-growth test. Future developments are discussed.

  6. Automation of Taxiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Bursík

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the possibility of automation of taxiing, which is the part of a flight, which, under adverse weather conditions, greatly reduces the operational usability of an airport, and is the only part of a flight that has not been affected by automation, yet. Taxiing is currently handled manually by the pilot, who controls the airplane based on information from visual perception. The article primarily deals with possible ways of obtaining navigational information, and its automatic transfer to the controls. Analyzed wand assessed were currently available technologies such as computer vision, Light Detection and Ranging and Global Navigation Satellite System, which are useful for navigation and their general implementation into an airplane was designed. Obstacles to the implementation were identified, too. The result is a proposed combination of systems along with their installation into airplane’s systems so that it is possible to use the automated taxiing.

  7. EDISON - research programme on electricity distribution automation 1993-1997. Interim report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M. [ed.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1997-12-31

    The report comprises a summary of the results of the first four years of the research programme EDISON on distribution automation in Finnish utilities. The five year research programme (1993-1997) is conducted under the leadership of VTT Energy, in cooperation with universities, distribution companies and the manufacturing industry. The main part of the funding is from the Technology Development Centre TEKES and from manufacturing companies. The goal of the research programme is to develop a new scheme for a complete distribution automation system, including the network automation, computer systems in the control centre and the customer associated automation functions. In addition, the techniques for demand side management are developed and integrated into the automation scheme. The final aim is to demonstrate the automation functions and systems of the scheme in real distribution systems. The results of fifteen projects are now given. These results should be considered intermediate, since most projects will be continued in 1997. (orig.) 43 refs.

  8. EDISON - research programme on electricity distribution automation 1993-1997. Interim report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M. [ed.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1996-12-31

    The report comprises a summary of the results of the first three years of the research programme EDISON on distribution automation in Finnish electrical utilities. The five year research programme (1993-1997) is conducted under the leadership of VTT Energy, in cooperation with universities, distribution companies and the manufacturing industry. The main part of funding is from the Technology Development Centre (Tekes) and from manufacturing companies. The goal of the research programme is to develop a new scheme for a complete distribution automation system, including the network automation, computer systems in the control centre and the customer automation functions. In addition, the techniques for demand side management are developed and integrated into the automation scheme. The final aim is to demonstrate the automation functions and systems of the scheme in real distribution systems. The results of thirteen projects are now given. These results should be considered intermediate, since most projects will be continued in 1996. (orig.)

  9. EDISON - research programme on electric distribution automation 1993-1997. Final report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M. [ed.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-08-01

    This report comprises a summary of the results of the five year research programme EDISON on distribution automation in Finnish utilities. The research programme (1993 - 1997) was conducted under the leadership of VTT Energy, in cooperation with universities, distribution companies and the manufacturing industry. The main part of the funding has been from the Technology Development Centre TEKES and from manufacturing companies. The goal of the research programme was to develop a new scheme for a complete distribution automation system, including the network automation, computer systems in the control centre and the customer associated automation functions. In addition, the techniques for demand side management were developed and integrated into the automation scheme. The final aim was to demonstrate the automation functions and systems of the scheme in real distribution systems. The results of nineteen projects are given in this report

  10. Are demand forecasting techniques applicable to libraries?

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Examines the nature and limitations of demand forecasting, discuses plausible methods of forecasting demand for information, suggests some useful hints for demand forecasting and concludes by emphasizing unified approach to demand forecasting.

  11. Are demand forecasting techniques applicable to libraries?

    OpenAIRE

    M S Sridhar

    1984-01-01

    Examines the nature and limitations of demand forecasting, discuses plausible methods of forecasting demand for information, suggests some useful hints for demand forecasting and concludes by emphasizing unified approach to demand forecasting.

  12. Automating the CMS DAQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.; et al.

    2014-01-01

    We present the automation mechanisms that have been added to the Data Acquisition and Run Control systems of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment during Run 1 of the LHC, ranging from the automation of routine tasks to automatic error recovery and context-sensitive guidance to the operator. These mechanisms helped CMS to maintain a data taking efficiency above 90% and to even improve it to 95% towards the end of Run 1, despite an increase in the occurrence of single-event upsets in sub-detector electronics at high LHC luminosity.

  13. Automating the CMS DAQ

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Behrens, Ulf; Branson, James; Chaze, Olivier; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Hartl, Christian; Hegeman, Jeroen Guido; Holzner, Andre Georg; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Franciscus; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius; Morovic, Srecko; Nunez Barranco Fernandez, Carlos; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Ozga, Wojciech Andrzej; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Spataru, Andrei Cristian; Stieger, Benjamin Bastian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Veverka, Jan; Wakefield, Christopher Colin; Zejdl, Petr

    2014-01-01

    We present the automation mechanisms that have been added to the Data Acquisition and Run Control systems of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment during Run 1 of the LHC, ranging from the automation of routine tasks to automatic error recovery and context-sensitive guidance to the operator. These mechanisms helped CMS to maintain a data taking efficiency above 90\\% and to even improve it to 95\\% towards the end of Run 1, despite an increase in the occurrence of single-event upsets in sub-detector electronics at high LHC luminosity.

  14. Altering user' acceptance of automation through prior automation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekier, Marek; Molesworth, Brett R C

    2016-08-22

    Air navigation service providers worldwide see increased use of automation as one solution to overcome the capacity constraints imbedded in the present air traffic management (ATM) system. However, increased use of automation within any system is dependent on user acceptance. The present research sought to determine if the point at which an individual is no longer willing to accept or cooperate with automation can be manipulated. Forty participants underwent training on a computer-based air traffic control programme, followed by two ATM exercises (order counterbalanced), one with and one without the aid of automation. Results revealed after exposure to a task with automation assistance, user acceptance of high(er) levels of automation ('tipping point') decreased; suggesting it is indeed possible to alter automation acceptance. Practitioner Summary: This paper investigates whether the point at which a user of automation rejects automation (i.e. 'tipping point') is constant or can be manipulated. The results revealed after exposure to a task with automation assistance, user acceptance of high(er) levels of automation decreased; suggesting it is possible to alter automation acceptance.

  15. Information security for energy automation. Actual safety standards and -regulations; Informationssicherheit fuer Energieautomatisierungssysteme. Aktuelle Sicherheitsstandards und -richtlinien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nartmann, Bernd; Seewald, Maik G. [Siemens AG, Nuernberg (Germany). Energy Sector; Knorr, Konstantin [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany). Corporate Technology

    2009-04-20

    Information security has gained tremendous importance for energy automation systems over the last years.Especially vendors that cover the entire energy automation chain with their product portfolio have to face several new demanding challenges. The authors describe suitable approaches and implementation issues that are derived from selected IEC 62351 requirements following the product lifecycle process. (orig./GL)

  16. Open Source and Open Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Publication reference: Koper, R. (2008). Open Source and Open Standards. In J. M. Spector, M. Merrill, J. van Merriënboer & M. P. Driscol (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology (3rd ed., pp. 355-368). New York: Routledge.

  17. Optimized and Automated design of Plasma Diagnostics for Additive Manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, James; Quinley, Morgan; Melnik, Paul; Sieck, Paul; Smith, Trevor; Chun, Katherine; Woodruff, Simon

    2016-10-01

    Despite having mature designs, diagnostics are usually custom designed for each experiment. Most of the design can be now be automated to reduce costs (engineering labor, and capital cost). We present results from scripted physics modeling and parametric engineering design for common optical and mechanical components found in many plasma diagnostics and outline the process for automated design optimization that employs scripts to communicate data from online forms through proprietary and open-source CAD and FE codes to provide a design that can be sent directly to a printer. As a demonstration of design automation, an optical beam dump, baffle and optical components are designed via an automated process and printed. Supported by DOE SBIR Grant DE-SC0011858.

  18. Automated visual inspection of imprinted pharmaceutical tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukovec, Marko; Špiclin, Žiga; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2007-09-01

    This paper is on automated visual inspection of tablets that may, in contrast to manual tablet sorting, provide objective and reproducible tablet quality assurance. Visual inspection of the ever-increasing numbers of produced imprinted tablets, regulatory enforced for unambiguous identification of active ingredients and dosage strength of each tablet, is especially demanding. The problem becomes more tractable by incorporating some a priori knowledge of the imprint shape and/or appearance. For this purpose, we consider two alternative automated tablet defect detection methods. The geometrical method, incorporating geometrical a priori knowledge of the imprint shape, enables specific inspection of the imprinted and non-imprinted tablet surface, while the statistical method exploits statistical a priori knowledge of tablet surface appearance, derived from a training image database. The two methods were evaluated on a large tablet image database, consisting of 3445 images of four types of imprinted tablets, with and without typical production defects. A 'gold standard' for testing the performances of the two inspection methods was established by manually classifying the tablets into good and five defective classes. The results, obtained by ROC (receiver operating characteristics) analysis, indicate that the statistical method yields better defect detection sensitivity and specificity than the geometrical method. Both presented image analysis methods are quite general and promising tools for automated visual inspection of imprinted pharmaceutical tablets.

  19. OpenADR Open Source Toolkit: Developing Open Source Software for the Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McParland, Charles

    2011-02-01

    Demand response (DR) is becoming an increasingly important part of power grid planning and operation. The advent of the Smart Grid, which mandates its use, further motivates selection and development of suitable software protocols to enable DR functionality. The OpenADR protocol has been developed and is being standardized to serve this goal. We believe that the development of a distributable, open source implementation of OpenADR will benefit this effort and motivate critical evaluation of its capabilities, by the wider community, for providing wide-scale DR services

  20. Can fully automated detection of corticospinal tract damage be used in stroke patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Leff, Alexander P.; Seghier, Mohamed L.; Kou, Nancy; Park, Chang-hyun; Ward, Nick S.

    2013-01-01

    We compared manual infarct definition, which is time-consuming and open to bias, with an automated abnormal tissue detection method in measuring corticospinal tract-infarct overlap volumes in chronic stroke patients to help predict motor outcome.

  1. Protokoller til Home Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kristian Ellebæk

    2008-01-01

    computer, der kan skifte mellem foruddefinerede indstillinger. Nogle gange kan computeren fjernstyres over internettet, så man kan se hjemmets status fra en computer eller måske endda fra en mobiltelefon. Mens nævnte anvendelser er klassiske indenfor home automation, er yderligere funktionalitet dukket op...

  2. Automated Student Model Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedinger, Kenneth R.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth A.; Stamper, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Student modeling plays a critical role in developing and improving instruction and instructional technologies. We present a technique for automated improvement of student models that leverages the DataShop repository, crowd sourcing, and a version of the Learning Factors Analysis algorithm. We demonstrate this method on eleven educational…

  3. Automated Accounting. Instructor Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Duane R.

    This curriculum guide was developed to assist business instructors using Dac Easy Accounting College Edition Version 2.0 software in their accounting programs. The module consists of four units containing assignment sheets and job sheets designed to enable students to master competencies identified in the area of automated accounting. The first…

  4. Automated Web Applications Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan CĂPRIŢĂ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Unit tests are a vital part of several software development practicesand processes such as Test-First Programming, Extreme Programming andTest-Driven Development. This article shortly presents the software quality andtesting concepts as well as an introduction to an automated unit testingframework for PHP web based applications.

  5. Myths in test automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmine Francis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myths in automation of software testing is an issue of discussion that echoes about the areas of service in validation of software industry. Probably, the first though that appears in knowledgeable reader would be Why this old topic again? What's New to discuss the matter? But, for the first time everyone agrees that undoubtedly automation testing today is not today what it used to be ten or fifteen years ago, because it has evolved in scope and magnitude. What began as a simple linear scripts for web applications today has a complex architecture and a hybrid framework to facilitate the implementation of testing applications developed with various platforms and technologies. Undoubtedly automation has advanced, but so did the myths associated with it. The change in perspective and knowledge of people on automation has altered the terrain. This article reflects the points of views and experience of the author in what has to do with the transformation of the original myths in new versions, and how they are derived; also provides his thoughts on the new generation of myths.

  6. Automated Composite Column Wrapping

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    The Automated Composite Column Wrapping is performed by a patented machine known as Robo-Wrapper. Currently there are three versions of the machine available for bridge retrofit work depending on the size of the columns being wrapped. Composite column retrofit jacket systems can be structurally just as effective as conventional steel jacketing in improving the seismic response characteristics of substandard reinforced concrete columns.

  7. ERGONOMICS AND PROCESS AUTOMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Carrión Muñoz, Rolando; Docente de la FII - UNMSM

    2014-01-01

    The article shows the role that ergonomics in automation of processes, and the importance for Industrial Engineering.  El artículo nos muestra el papel que tiene la ergonomía en la automatización de los procesos, y la importancia para la Ingeniería Industrial.

  8. Microcontroller for automation application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    The description of a microcontroller currently being developed for automation application was given. It is basically an 8-bit microcomputer with a 40K byte random access memory/read only memory, and can control a maximum of 12 devices through standard 15-line interface ports.

  9. Coping with Unemployment: Personality, Role Demands, and Time Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoye, Greet; Lootens, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Time structure has been found to be an important coping mechanism for dealing with the negative effects of unemployment on psychological well-being. This study extends the literature by investigating personality (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and proactivity) and role demands (marital status, being the only…

  10. Coping with Unemployment: Personality, Role Demands, and Time Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoye, Greet; Lootens, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Time structure has been found to be an important coping mechanism for dealing with the negative effects of unemployment on psychological well-being. This study extends the literature by investigating personality (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and proactivity) and role demands (marital status, being the only…

  11. Consumer demand and quality assurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Wognum, Nel; Trienekens, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Consumers differ in their demands, and this mau have implications for the type of supply chain governance that is most suitable for serving them. We present a segmentation of pork consumers in the EU based on their food-related lifestyles and demand for different pork products. We then present...... an inventory of pork chain governance and quality management systems, also resulting from a pan-European study, and attempt to match types of chains to consumer segments, arguing that the type of quality demanded by the consumers has implications especially for the quality management system governing the chain...

  12. Demand, Energy, and Power Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    demand, but first, let’s talk some more about why electrical demand charges occur. Electric Load Leveling: 5 ** show flip chart of daily utility load (see...and cost savings for energy are available as a result of lowering demand. 3 ’~ show flip chart of block structure (see copy at end of script) Shown... flip chart (see copy at end of script) This is a graphical representation of real, apparent and reactive power in3 an AC circuit. Real power is the power

  13. Open IS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germonprez, Matt; Crowston, Kevin; Avital, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The collective intelligence and collective action of “open” communities have produced a variety of complex knowledge goods and radical social change. The Information Systems (IS) community has invested significant effort into researching open communities and the ecosystems in which they operate...... therefore seeks to stimulate a thoughtful and dynamic discussion around the proposition that becoming a more open community will enhance the IS discipline’s scholarly inquiry and global impact....

  14. Open IS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germonprez, Matt; Crowston, Kevin; Avital, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The collective intelligence and collective action of “open” communities have produced a variety of complex knowledge goods and radical social change. The Information Systems (IS) community has invested significant effort into researching open communities and the ecosystems in which they operate...... therefore seeks to stimulate a thoughtful and dynamic discussion around the proposition that becoming a more open community will enhance the IS discipline’s scholarly inquiry and global impact....

  15. Automated Development of Accurate Algorithms and Efficient Codes for Computational Aeroacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, John W.; Dyson, Rodger W.

    1999-01-01

    The simulation of sound generation and propagation in three space dimensions with realistic aircraft components is a very large time dependent computation with fine details. Simulations in open domains with embedded objects require accurate and robust algorithms for propagation, for artificial inflow and outflow boundaries, and for the definition of geometrically complex objects. The development, implementation, and validation of methods for solving these demanding problems is being done to support the NASA pillar goals for reducing aircraft noise levels. Our goal is to provide algorithms which are sufficiently accurate and efficient to produce usable results rapidly enough to allow design engineers to study the effects on sound levels of design changes in propulsion systems, and in the integration of propulsion systems with airframes. There is a lack of design tools for these purposes at this time. Our technical approach to this problem combines the development of new, algorithms with the use of Mathematica and Unix utilities to automate the algorithm development, code implementation, and validation. We use explicit methods to ensure effective implementation by domain decomposition for SPMD parallel computing. There are several orders of magnitude difference in the computational efficiencies of the algorithms which we have considered. We currently have new artificial inflow and outflow boundary conditions that are stable, accurate, and unobtrusive, with implementations that match the accuracy and efficiency of the propagation methods. The artificial numerical boundary treatments have been proven to have solutions which converge to the full open domain problems, so that the error from the boundary treatments can be driven as low as is required. The purpose of this paper is to briefly present a method for developing highly accurate algorithms for computational aeroacoustics, the use of computer automation in this process, and a brief survey of the algorithms that

  16. Automating spectral measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Fred T.

    2008-09-01

    This paper discusses the architecture of software utilized in spectroscopic measurements. As optical coatings become more sophisticated, there is mounting need to automate data acquisition (DAQ) from spectrophotometers. Such need is exacerbated when 100% inspection is required, ancillary devices are utilized, cost reduction is crucial, or security is vital. While instrument manufacturers normally provide point-and-click DAQ software, an application programming interface (API) may be missing. In such cases automation is impossible or expensive. An API is typically provided in libraries (*.dll, *.ocx) which may be embedded in user-developed applications. Users can thereby implement DAQ automation in several Windows languages. Another possibility, developed by FTG as an alternative to instrument manufacturers' software, is the ActiveX application (*.exe). ActiveX, a component of many Windows applications, provides means for programming and interoperability. This architecture permits a point-and-click program to act as automation client and server. Excel, for example, can control and be controlled by DAQ applications. Most importantly, ActiveX permits ancillary devices such as barcode readers and XY-stages to be easily and economically integrated into scanning procedures. Since an ActiveX application has its own user-interface, it can be independently tested. The ActiveX application then runs (visibly or invisibly) under DAQ software control. Automation capabilities are accessed via a built-in spectro-BASIC language with industry-standard (VBA-compatible) syntax. Supplementing ActiveX, spectro-BASIC also includes auxiliary serial port commands for interfacing programmable logic controllers (PLC). A typical application is automatic filter handling.

  17. DEMAND CATEGORISATION, FORECASTING, AND INVENTORY CONTROL FOR INTERMITTENT DEMAND ITEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Babiloni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: It is commonly assumed that intermittent demand appears randomly, with many periods without demand; but that when it does appear, it tends to be higher than unit size. Basic and well-known forecasting techniques and stock policies perform very poorly with intermittent demand, making new approaches necessary. To select the appropriate inventory management policy, it is important to understand the demand pattern for the items, especially when demand is intermittent. The use of a forecasting method designed for an intermittent demand pattern, such as Croston’s method, is required instead of a simpler and more common approach such as exponential smoothing. The starting point is to establish taxonomic rules to select efficiently the most appropriate forecasting and stock control policy to cope with thousands of items found in real environments. This paper contributes to the state of the art in: (i categorisation of the demand pattern; (ii methods to forecast intermittent demand; and (iii stock control methods for items with intermittent demand patterns. The paper first presents a structured literature review to introduce managers to the theoretical research about how to deal with intermittent demand items in both forecasting and stock control methods, and then it points out some research gaps for future development for the three topics.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Daar word algemeen aanvaar dat intermitterende vraag op toevalswyse voorkom, met verskeie periodes waar daar geen vraag is nie. Wanneer die vraag dan wel materialiseer, oorskry dit dikwels die eenheidsgrootte. Die bekende vooruitskattingstegnieke en voorraadbeleidstellings het min sukses waar intermitterende vraag voorkom, sodat nuwe benaderings nodig is om die problem aan te spreek. Om ‘n geskikte voorraadbestuur-beleid te selekteer, is dit noodsaaklik om die vraagpatroon van die items te verstaan, juis in gevalle van intermitterende patrone. Die gebruik van

  18. Electrical Assessment, Capacity, and Demand Study for Fort Wainwright, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Melave Gym w/Pool 61508 85.0 (101.2) 4.0 Automated Combat Pistol Range 62302 12.1 0.0 12.1 Band Facility 65104 6.6 (65.2) 0.0 Pedestrian Access...and demand. 3.4.2 Net power shortfall Based on the above scenarios, there is a need to supplement the existing power available to the FWA to meet...reliable. • Other Advantages. Other areas as documented. • Other Disadvantages . Other areas as documented. 6.3 Short-term capacity shortage

  19. Temperature Effect on Energy Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Duk [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    We provide various estimates of temperature effect for accommodating seasonality in energy demand, particularly natural gas demand. We exploit temperature response and monthly temperature distribution to estimate the temperature effect on natural gas demand. Both local and global smoothed temperature responses are estimated from empirical relationship between hourly temperature and hourly energy consumption data during the sample period (1990 - 1996). Monthly temperature distribution estimates are obtained by kernel density estimation from temperature dispersion within a month. We integrate temperature response and monthly temperature density over all the temperatures in the sample period to estimate temperature effect on energy demand. Then, estimates of temperature effect are compared between global and local smoothing methods. (author). 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Consumer demand and quality assurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Wognum, Nel; Trienekens, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Consumers differ in their demands, and this mau have implications for the type of supply chain governance that is most suitable for serving them. We present a segmentation of pork consumers in the EU based on their food-related lifestyles and demand for different pork products. We then present an......, and that these implications are different for fresh meat and processed meat. The paper closes with a call for more collaboration between chain researchers and consumer researchers.......Consumers differ in their demands, and this mau have implications for the type of supply chain governance that is most suitable for serving them. We present a segmentation of pork consumers in the EU based on their food-related lifestyles and demand for different pork products. We then present...

  1. Saving Electricity and Demand Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki

    A lot of people lost their lives in the tremendous earthquake in Tohoku region on March 11. A large capacity of electric power plants in TEPCO area was also damaged and large scale power shortage in this summer is predicted. In this situation, electricity customers are making great effort to save electricity to avoid planned outage. Customers take actions not only by their selves but also by some customers' cooperative movements. All actions taken actually are based on responses to request form the government or voluntary decision. On the other hand, demand response based on a financial stimulus is not observed as an actual behavior. Saving electricity by this demand response only discussed in the newspapers. In this commentary, the events regarding electricity-saving measure after this disaster are described and the discussions on demand response, especially a raise in power rate, are put into shapes in the context of this electricity supply-demand gap.

  2. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  3. Information Demand Pattern for Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Stamer; Kurt Sandkuhl; Veronika Zeiner

    2016-01-01

    Modern organizations face the challenge of having to manage an increasing amount of information. The resulting information overload leads more and more to problems in decision making with potentially negative economic consequences. Decision-makers and knowledge intensive workers are especially affected. To address this problem, information demand patterns were proposed which capture organizational knowledge about the information demand of single roles. This work extends the concept of informa...

  4. effects of corporate culture on the implementation of automation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the perception of library staff on the effects corporate ... in the North East Zone of Nigeria should be opened in their policies and involve ..... to internet. 83. 79. 22. 21. 105(100). 5. Automation system coverage in library.

  5. Open-Source Colorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzalone, Gerald C.; Glover, Alexandra G.; Pearce, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    The high cost of what have historically been sophisticated research-related sensors and tools has limited their adoption to a relatively small group of well-funded researchers. This paper provides a methodology for applying an open-source approach to design and development of a colorimeter. A 3-D printable, open-source colorimeter utilizing only open-source hardware and software solutions and readily available discrete components is discussed and its performance compared to a commercial portable colorimeter. Performance is evaluated with commercial vials prepared for the closed reflux chemical oxygen demand (COD) method. This approach reduced the cost of reliable closed reflux COD by two orders of magnitude making it an economic alternative for the vast majority of potential users. The open-source colorimeter demonstrated good reproducibility and serves as a platform for further development and derivation of the design for other, similar purposes such as nephelometry. This approach promises unprecedented access to sophisticated instrumentation based on low-cost sensors by those most in need of it, under-developed and developing world laboratories. PMID:23604032

  6. Scenarios of energy demand and efficiency potential for Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzvetanov, P.; Ruicheva, M.; Denisiev, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents aggregated results on macroeconomic and final energy demand scenarios developed within the Bulgarian Country Study on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation, supported by US Country Studies Program. The studies in this area cover 5 main stages: (1) {open_quotes}Baseline{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Energy Efficiency{close_quotes} socioeconomic and energy policy philosophy; (2) Modeling of macroeconomic and sectoral development till 2020; (3) Expert assessments on the technological options for energy efficiency increase and GHG mitigation in the Production, Transport and Households and Services Sectors; (4) Bottom-up modeling of final energy demand; and (5) Sectoral and overall energy efficiency potential and policy. Within the Bulgarian Country Study, the presented results have served as a basis for the final integration stage {open_quotes}Assessment of the Mitigation Policy and Measures in the Energy System of Bulgaria{close_quotes}.

  7. Open access journals – what publishers offer, what researchers want

    CERN Document Server

    Dallmeier-Tiessen, Suenje; Goerner, Bettina; Hyppoelae, Jenni; Igo-Kemenes, Peter; Kahn, Deborah; Lamber, Simon; Lengenfelder, Anja; Leonard, Chris; Mele, Salvatore; Nowicka, Malgorzata; Polydoratou, Panayiota; Ross, David; Ruiz-Perez, Sergio; Schimmer, Ralf; Swaisland, Mark; van der Stelt, Wim

    2011-01-01

    The SOAP (Study of Open Access Publishing) project has analyzed the current supply and demand situation in the open access journal landscape. Starting from the Directory of Open Access Journals, several sources of data were considered, including journal websites and direct inquiries within the publishing industry to comprehensively map the present supply of online peer-reviewed OA journals. The demand for open access publishing is summarised, as assessed through a large-scale survey of researchers' opinions and attitudes. Some forty thousand answers were collected across disciplines and around the world, reflecting major support for the idea of open access, while highlighting drivers of and barriers to open access publishing.

  8. Open access

    CERN Document Server

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispe...

  9. Exploring ethical justification for self-demand amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasini, Floris

    2006-01-01

    Self-demand amputees are persons who need to have one or more healthy limbs or digits amputated to fit the way they see themselves. They want to rid themselves of a limb that they believe does not belong to their body-identity. The obsessive desire to have appendages surgically removed to fit an alternative body-image is medically and ethically controversial. My purpose in this paper is to provide a number of normative and professional ethical perspectives on whether or not it is possible to justify surgery for self-demand amputees. In doing so I proceed dialogically, moving between empirical context and normative theory, revealing the taken for granted normative assumptions (what I call the natural attitude--a technical term borrowed from phenomenology) that provide ethical limits to justifying the treatment of self-demand amputees. While I critically examine both Kantian responses against as well as Utilitarian responses for amputation on demand, I conclude that neither normative tradition can fully incorporate an understanding of what it is like to be a self-demand amputee. Since neither theory can justify the apparent non-rational desire of amputation on demand, ethical justification, I argue, falls short of the recognition that there may be a problem. To end, I introduce a meta-ethical idea, "the struggle for recognition," opening up the theoretical possibility of a hermeneutics of recognition before ethical justification that may be more sensitive to the problem of radical embodied difference exemplified by self-demand amputees.

  10. Open Brief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Leach

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To commence the thirtieth annual conference of the Society of Architectural Historians, Australia and New Zealand (SAHANZ, held on Australia’s Gold Coast in July 2013, ten delegates were invited with very little warning to take five minutes and one image to offer a provocation on the open matters of architectural history in the present moment. The term “open” was taken as the conference theme—a device used by SAHANZ meetings not so much to define the scope of papers presented as to declare the conference flavour year by year. It was not, therefore, an open conference (anything goes so much as a conference on open issues (where, indeed, to go.  The ten interlocutors were invited after the conference to document their interventions and they are presented here as a record of the preoccupations of a specific moment and institutional geography with all the idiosyncrasies and commonalities it might reveal to a broader audience.

  11. ATLAS Distributed Computing Automation

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Borrego, C; Campana, S; Di Girolamo, A; Elmsheuser, J; Hejbal, J; Kouba, T; Legger, F; Magradze, E; Medrano Llamas, R; Negri, G; Rinaldi, L; Sciacca, G; Serfon, C; Van Der Ster, D C

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment benefits from computing resources distributed worldwide at more than 100 WLCG sites. The ATLAS Grid sites provide over 100k CPU job slots, over 100 PB of storage space on disk or tape. Monitoring of status of such a complex infrastructure is essential. The ATLAS Grid infrastructure is monitored 24/7 by two teams of shifters distributed world-wide, by the ATLAS Distributed Computing experts, and by site administrators. In this paper we summarize automation efforts performed within the ATLAS Distributed Computing team in order to reduce manpower costs and improve the reliability of the system. Different aspects of the automation process are described: from the ATLAS Grid site topology provided by the ATLAS Grid Information System, via automatic site testing by the HammerCloud, to automatic exclusion from production or analysis activities.

  12. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-05-31

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC.

  13. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-05-31

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC.

  14. The automation of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ross D; Rowland, Jem; Oliver, Stephen G; Young, Michael; Aubrey, Wayne; Byrne, Emma; Liakata, Maria; Markham, Magdalena; Pir, Pinar; Soldatova, Larisa N; Sparkes, Andrew; Whelan, Kenneth E; Clare, Amanda

    2009-04-03

    The basis of science is the hypothetico-deductive method and the recording of experiments in sufficient detail to enable reproducibility. We report the development of Robot Scientist "Adam," which advances the automation of both. Adam has autonomously generated functional genomics hypotheses about the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and experimentally tested these hypotheses by using laboratory automation. We have confirmed Adam's conclusions through manual experiments. To describe Adam's research, we have developed an ontology and logical language. The resulting formalization involves over 10,000 different research units in a nested treelike structure, 10 levels deep, that relates the 6.6 million biomass measurements to their logical description. This formalization describes how a machine contributed to scientific knowledge.

  15. AUTOMATED SOFTWARE DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Strasheim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Automated distribution of computer software via electronic means in large corporate networks is growing in popularity. The relative importance of personal computer software, in financial and logistical terms, is described and the developing need for automated software distribution explained. An actual comparitive example of alternative software distribution strategies is presented and discussed proving the viability of Electronic Software Distribution.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Geoutomatiseerde verspreiding van rekenaarprogrammatuur met behulp van elektroniese metodes in groot korporatiewe netwerke, is toenemend populer, Die relatiewe belangrikheid van persoonlike rekenaarprogrammatuur in finansiele en logistieke terme word bespreek en die groeiende behoefte na geoutomatiseerde programmatuurverspreiding verduidelik. 'n Werklike vergelykende voorbeeld van alternatiewe programmatuurverspreidingsstrategiee word aangebied en bespreek wat die lewensvatbaarheid van Elektroniese Programmatuurverspreiding bewys.

  16. Evaluating Performance Portability of OpenACC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabne, Amit J [ORNL; Sakdhnagool, Putt [ORNL; Lee, Seyong [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Accelerator-based heterogeneous computing is gaining momentum in High Performance Computing arena. However, the increased complexity of the accelerator architectures demands more generic, high-level programming models. OpenACC is one such attempt to tackle the problem. While the abstraction endowed by OpenACC offers productivity, it raises questions on its portability. This paper evaluates the performance portability obtained by OpenACC on twelve OpenACC programs on NVIDIA CUDA, AMD GCN, and Intel MIC architectures. We study the effects of various compiler optimizations and OpenACC program settings on these architectures to provide insights into the achieved performance portability.

  17. Automated Cooperative Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Pahle, Joseph; Brown, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of the Automated Cooperative Trajectories project. An introduction to the phenomena of wake vortices is given, along with a summary of past research into the possibility of extracting energy from the wake by flying close parallel trajectories. Challenges and barriers to adoption of civilian automatic wake surfing technology are identified. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is described that will support future research. Finally, a roadmap for future research and technology transition is proposed.

  18. The Automated Medical Office

    OpenAIRE

    Petreman, Mel

    1990-01-01

    With shock and surprise many physicians learned in the 1980s that they must change the way they do business. Competition for patients, increasing government regulation, and the rapidly escalating risk of litigation forces physicians to seek modern remedies in office management. The author describes a medical clinic that strives to be paperless using electronic innovation to solve the problems of medical practice management. A computer software program to automate information management in a c...

  19. The Automated Medical Office

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    With shock and surprise many physicians learned in the 1980s that they must change the way they do business. Competition for patients, increasing government regulation, and the rapidly escalating risk of litigation forces physicians to seek modern remedies in office management. The author describes a medical clinic that strives to be paperless using electronic innovation to solve the problems of medical practice management. A computer software program to automate information management in a c...

  20. Automation of printing machine

    OpenAIRE

    Sušil, David

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is focused on the automation of the printing machine and comparing the two types of printing machines. The first chapter deals with the history of printing, typesettings, printing techniques and various kinds of bookbinding. The second chapter describes the difference between sheet-fed printing machines and offset printing machines, the difference between two representatives of rotary machines, technological process of the products on these machines, the description of the mac...

  1. Open Education and the Open Science Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Openness as a complex code word for a variety of digital trends and movements has emerged as an alternative mode of "social production" based on the growing and overlapping complexities of open source, open access, open archiving, open publishing, and open science. This paper argues that the openness movement with its reinforcing structure of…

  2. Automated sampling and data processing derived from biomimetic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Mark; Vissing, Thomas; Boesen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in biomimetic membrane systems have resulted in an increase in membrane lifetimes from hours to days and months. Long-lived membrane systems demand the development of both new automated monitoring equipment capable of measuring electrophysiological membrane characteristics and new....... The combined solution provides a cost efficient and fast way to acquire, process and administrate large amounts of voltage clamp data that may be too laborious and time consuming to handle manually....

  3. Automation technology saves 30% energy; Automatisierungstechnik spart 30% Energie ein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinkow, Torsten; Meyer, Michael [Wago Kontakttechnik GmbH und Co. KG, Minden (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    A systematic energy management is in more demand than ever in order to reduce the increasing energy costs. What used to be a difficult puzzle consisting of different technology components in the early days is today easier to solve by means of a standardized and cost-effective automation technology. With its IO system, Wago Kontakttechnik GmbH and Co. KG (Minden, Federal Republic of Germany) supplies a complete and coordinated portfolio for the energy efficiency.

  4. Energy study of automated guideway transit (AGT) systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C.; Cronin, R.H.; Ellis, H.T.

    1979-08-01

    Automated guideway transit systems provide passenger transportation on exclusive guideways in vehicles without operators. An energy study of 6 AGT systems was made for the Seattle-Tacoma International Airport; Tampa International Airport; Busch Gardens, Wiliamsburg, Virginia; Fairland Town Center, Dearborne, Michigan; Dallas-Fort Worth Regional Airport; and West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virinia. Selected physical, operating, and economic characteristics of the systems; services rendered; direct, indirect, and capital energy demands; and energy intensities are described.

  5. Energy supply and demand in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, E. D.

    1978-01-01

    The author expresses his views on future energy demand on the west coast of the United States and how that energy demand translates into demand for major fuels. He identifies the major uncertainties in determining what future demands may be. The major supply options that are available to meet projected demands and the policy implications that flow from these options are discussed.

  6. Energy Production System Management - Renewable energy power supply integration with Building Automation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Joao [Centre of Mechatronics Engineering - CEM/Institut of Mechanical Engineering - IDMEC, University of Evora, R. Romao Ramalho, 59, 7000-671 Evora (Portugal); Martins, Joao [Centre of Technology and Systems/Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-06-15

    Intelligent buildings, historically and technologically, refers to the integration of four distinctive systems: Building Automation Systems (BAS), Telecommunication Systems, Office Automation Systems and Computer Building Management Systems. The increasing sophisticated BAS has become the ''heart and soul'' of modern intelligent buildings. Integrating energy supply and demand elements - often known as Demand-Side Management (DSM) - has became an important energy efficiency policy concept. Nowadays, European countries have diversified their power supplies, reducing the dependence on OPEC, and developing a broader mix of energy sources maximizing the use of renewable energy domestic sources. In this way it makes sense to include a fifth system into the intelligent building group: Energy Production System Management (EPSM). This paper presents a Building Automation System where the Demand-Side Management is fully integrated with the building's Energy Production System, which incorporates a complete set of renewable energy production and storage systems. (author)

  7. Toward an Integrated Framework for Automated Development and Optimization of Online Advertising Campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Thomaidou, Stamatina; Vazirgiannis, Michalis; Liakopoulos, Kyriakos

    2012-01-01

    Creating and monitoring competitive and cost-effective pay-per-click advertisement campaigns through the web-search channel is a resource demanding task in terms of expertise and effort. Assisting or even automating the work of an advertising specialist will have an unrivaled commercial value. In this paper we propose a methodology, an architecture, and a fully functional framework for semi- and fully- automated creation, monitoring, and optimization of cost-efficient pay-per-click campaigns ...

  8. The Open

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saitya Brata Das

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Open darkness and light, remembrance and oblivion, coming into existence and disappearing in death play their originary co-belonging, or co-figuration. Existence belongs to this opening and is exposed to its coming to presence: it is on the basis of this originary opening, this originary historical which is revealed to this mortal being called ‘man,’ on the basis of this revelation, man founds something like politics and history. There thus comes into existence out of this freedom, out of this “play space”2, this field called ‘polis’3 where there takes place war and festival, where historical revolutions tear apart history, brings ruptures and discontinuities in the very mode of his existence, where man seeks the foundation of his own foundation (which is his metaphysical task , where occurs the dialectics of negativity between man and man, where man puts at stake his own death, his own dissolution, and by the power of his own dissolution stands in relation to the total world that he seeks to dominate. This means that man’s attempts to metaphysically found his own political and historical existence must presuppose a far more originary non-foundation, the differentiating revealing of the open, the ungrounded spacing play, or playing space of natality and mortality.

  9. Open innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Joel; Bogers, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    by small, new, and not-for-profit organizations, as well as the linkage of individual actions and motivations to open innovation. Other opportunities include better measuring the costs, benefits, antecedents, mediators and moderators of the effects of OI on performance, and understanding why and how OI...

  10. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  11. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  12. Fundamental Travel Demand Model Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Instances of transportation models are abundant and detailed "how to" instruction is available in the form of transportation software help documentation. The purpose of this paper is to look at the fundamental inputs required to build a transportation model by developing an example passenger travel demand model. The example model reduces the scale to a manageable size for the purpose of illustrating the data collection and analysis required before the first step of the model begins. This aspect of the model development would not reasonably be discussed in software help documentation (it is assumed the model developer comes prepared). Recommendations are derived from the example passenger travel demand model to suggest future work regarding the data collection and analysis required for a freight travel demand model.

  13. Credit demand in Mozambican manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byiers, Bruce; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    manager education and business association membership are associated with whether a firm is credit constrained or not. Using our preferred measure of credit constraint suggests that around 43 per cent of the firms surveyed are constrained, and these enterprises would almost triple their debt burden......This paper uses two industrial firm surveys to identify the key determinants of credit demand in Mozambican manufacturing. We construct five different measures of being credit constrained and estimate desired debt demand. Besides firm size and ownership structure, we find evidence that general...

  14. Demand inducement as cheap talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcott, P

    1999-12-01

    The doctor-patient interaction is analysed in a game of cheap talk. Causes and consequences of imperfect agency are examined. One form of imperfect agency, supplier-induced demand, is a feature of neologism proof equilibria with some parameter values but not with others. The model is used to evaluate two tests that have been used to test for the existence of supplier-induced demand. The analysis suggests that the two tests, which compare the medical utilization of informed and uninformed consumers, are not valid.

  15. Microprocessor-based integration of microfluidic control for the implementation of automated sensor monitoring and multithreaded optimization algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezra, Elishai; Maor, Idan; Bavli, Danny; Shalom, Itai; Levy, Gahl; Prill, Sebastian; Jaeger, Magnus S; Nahmias, Yaakov

    2015-08-01

    Microfluidic applications range from combinatorial synthesis to high throughput screening, with platforms integrating analog perfusion components, digitally controlled micro-valves and a range of sensors that demand a variety of communication protocols. Currently, discrete control units are used to regulate and monitor each component, resulting in scattered control interfaces that limit data integration and synchronization. Here, we present a microprocessor-based control unit, utilizing the MS Gadgeteer open framework that integrates all aspects of microfluidics through a high-current electronic circuit that supports and synchronizes digital and analog signals for perfusion components, pressure elements, and arbitrary sensor communication protocols using a plug-and-play interface. The control unit supports an integrated touch screen and TCP/IP interface that provides local and remote control of flow and data acquisition. To establish the ability of our control unit to integrate and synchronize complex microfluidic circuits we developed an equi-pressure combinatorial mixer. We demonstrate the generation of complex perfusion sequences, allowing the automated sampling, washing, and calibrating of an electrochemical lactate sensor continuously monitoring hepatocyte viability following exposure to the pesticide rotenone. Importantly, integration of an optical sensor allowed us to implement automated optimization protocols that require different computational challenges including: prioritized data structures in a genetic algorithm, distributed computational efforts in multiple-hill climbing searches and real-time realization of probabilistic models in simulated annealing. Our system offers a comprehensive solution for establishing optimization protocols and perfusion sequences in complex microfluidic circuits.

  16. Open Source, Open Access, Open Review, Open Data. Initiativen zu mehr Offenheit in der digitalen Welt

    OpenAIRE

    Herb, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the principles of openess, open access and open availability of information based on the examples of open access to scientific information, open government data, open geographical data and open source software.

  17. Open Source, Open Access, Open Review, Open Data. Initiativen zu mehr Offenheit in der digitalen Welt

    OpenAIRE

    Herb, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the principles of openess, open access and open availability of information based on the examples of open access to scientific information, open government data, open geographical data and open source software.

  18. 46 CFR 169.689 - Demand loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.689 Demand loads. Demand loads must meet § 111.60-7 of this chapter except that smaller demand loads for motor feeders...

  19. Automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeat markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The dinucleotide repeats (i.e., microsatellites) such as CA-repeats are a highly polymorphic, highly abundant class of PCR-amplifiable markers that have greatly streamlined genetic mapping experimentation. It is expected that over 30,000 such markers (including tri- and tetranucleotide repeats) will be characterized for routine use in the next few years. Since only size determination, and not sequencing, is required to determine alleles, in principle, dinucleotide repeat genotyping is easily performed on electrophoretic gels, and can be automated using DNA sequencers. Unfortunately, PCR stuttering with these markers generates not one band for each allele, but a pattern of bands. Since closely spaced alleles must be disambiguated by human scoring, this poses a key obstacle to full automation. We have developed methods that overcome this obstacle. Our model is that the observed data is generated by arithmetic superposition (i.e., convolution) of multiple allele patterns. By quantitatively measuring the size of each component band, and exploiting the unique stutter pattern associated with each marker, closely spaced alleles can be deconvolved; this unambiguously reconstructs the {open_quotes}true{close_quotes} allele bands, with stutter artifact removed. We used this approach in a system for automated diagnosis of (X-linked) Duchenne muscular dystrophy; four multiplexed CA-repeats within the dystrophin gene were assayed on a DNA sequencer. Our method accurately detected small variations in gel migration that shifted the allele size estimate. In 167 nonmutated alleles, 89% (149/167) showed no size variation, 9% (15/167) showed 1 bp variation, and 2% (3/167) showed 2 bp variation. We are currently developing a library of dinucleotide repeat patterns; together with our deconvolution methods, this library will enable fully automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeats from sizing data.

  20. OpenAPC. Open-Access-Publikationskosten als Open Data

    OpenAIRE

    Tullney, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Präsentationsfolien zum Vortrag „OpenAPC. Open-Access-Publikationskosten als Open Data“ in der Session „Ausgestaltung eines wissenschaftsadäquaten APC-Marktes: Grundsätze, Finanzierungsansätze und Management“ der Open-Access-Tage 2015 in Zürich (https://www.open-access.net/community/open-access-tage/open-access-tage-2015-zuerich/programm/#c1974)

  1. Automated Asteroseismic Analysis of Solar-type Stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Christoffer; Campante, T.L.; Chaplin, W.J.

    2010-01-01

    The rapidly increasing volume of asteroseismic observations on solar-type stars has revealed a need for automated analysis tools. The reason for this is not only that individual analyses of single stars are rather time consuming, but more importantly that these large volumes of observations open...... are calculated in a consistent way. Here we present a set of automated asterosesimic analysis tools. The main engine of these set of tools is an algorithm for modelling the autocovariance spectra of the stellar acoustic spectra allowing us to measure not only the frequency of maximum power and the large...

  2. An approximation algorithm for a facility location problem with stochastic demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bumb, A.F.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.

    2004-01-01

    In this article we propose, for any $\\epsilon>0$, a $2(1+\\epsilon)$-approximation algorithm for a facility location problem with stochastic demands. This problem can be described as follows. There are a number of locations, where facilities may be opened and a number of demand points, where requests

  3. Effective Management of High-Use/High-Demand Space Using Restaurant-Style Pagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The library landscape is changing at a fast pace, with an increase in the demand for study space including quiet, individualized study space; open group study space; and as enclosed group study space. In large academic libraries, managing limited high-demand resources is crucial and is partially being driven by the greater emphasis on group…

  4. An approximation algorithm for a facility location problem with stochastic demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bumb, A.F.; Ommeren, van J.C.W.

    2004-01-01

    In this article we propose, for any $\\epsilon>0$, a $2(1+\\epsilon)$-approximation algorithm for a facility location problem with stochastic demands. This problem can be described as follows. There are a number of locations, where facilities may be opened and a number of demand points, where requests

  5. Adaptive Automation Design and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    measures, such as electroencephalography (EEG), electrocardiography (ECG), electrodermal activity (EDA), electromyography (EMG) [9,79,105] or behavioral...between the different types of automation, but also between different levels and stages of automation. The idea of developing systems that adapt...several variables. If the human operator within a partially automated system is suffering from a lack of sleep , he may not perform the task at the level for

  6. Greater Buyer Effectiveness through Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    FOB = free on board FPAC = Federal Procurement Automation Council FPDS = Federal Procurement Data System 4GL = fourth generation language GAO = General...Procurement Automation Council ( FPAC ), entitled Compendium of Automated Procurement Systems in Federal Agencies. The FPAC inventory attempted to identify...In some cases we have updated descriptions of systems identified by the FPAC study, but many of the newer systems are identified here for the first

  7. 78 FR 66039 - Modification of National Customs Automation Program Test Concerning Automated Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Modification of National Customs Automation Program Test... National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) test concerning the Simplified Entry functionality in the...'s (CBP's) National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) test concerning Automated...

  8. 77 FR 48527 - National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Test Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Test Concerning...: General notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces modifications to the National Customs Automation Program...) National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) test concerning Automated Commercial Environment...

  9. Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davies, Molly [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Eliseeva, Ekaterina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faulkner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hong, Tienzen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sullivan, Douglas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling.

  10. Voltage Controlled Dynamic Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    . An adaptive dynamic model has been developed to determine composite voltage dependency of an aggregated load on feeder level. Following the demand dispatch or control signal, optimum voltage setting at the LV substation is determined based on the voltage dependency of the load. Furthermore, a new technique...

  11. The moral demands of affluence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderholm, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, Garrett Cullity made a significant contribution to the literature on what the world’s relatively affluent owe to the world’s relatively poor through the publishing of The Moral Demands of Affluence. In this discussion note, I draw attention to a logical problem in Cullity’s master argument...

  12. Projecting Electricity Demand in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, Donna J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, David B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Markel, Tony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the development of end-use electricity projections and load curves that were developed for the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study (hereafter RE Futures), which explored the prospect of higher percentages (30% - 90%) of total electricity generation that could be supplied by renewable sources in the United States. As input to RE Futures, two projections of electricity demand were produced representing reasonable upper and lower bounds of electricity demand out to 2050. The electric sector models used in RE Futures required underlying load profiles, so RE Futures also produced load profile data in two formats: 8760 hourly data for the year 2050 for the GridView model, and in 2-year increments for 17 time slices as input to the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model. The process for developing demand projections and load profiles involved three steps: discussion regarding the scenario approach and general assumptions, literature reviews to determine readily available data, and development of the demand curves and load profiles.

  13. Demand-Side Energy Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molderink, Albert; Iniewski, K.

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about climate change, increasing energy prices and dependability of energy supply ask for drastic changes in the energy supply chain, but also in the current demand-supply philosophy. Current trends in energy consumptions result in an increasing and more fluctuating electricity usage, causi

  14. Faculty Demand in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Danielle

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the factors that shift the demand curve for faculty at not-for-profit private institutions. It is unique in that to the author's knowledge no other study has directly addressed the question of how the positive correlation between average faculty salaries and faculty-student ratios can be reconciled with…

  15. Physical Demands Study - Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-26

    and the rounds in the boxes weigh 35 lb, which is lighter than equipment handled in the other physically demanding job tasks already identified...and standards. Ergonomics . 53: 858-871. 40 Appendix A: Questionnaires Completed by Volunteers prior to each Focus Group Interview 1 2 3 4a 4b 5

  16. The Cognitive Demands of Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrance, Mark; Jeffery, Gaynor

    1999-01-01

    Writing is a complex activity that places demands on cognitive resources. This volume presents original theory and research exploring the ways in which the sub-components of the writing process (generating and organizing content, producing grammatical sentences, etc.) differ in their cognitive deman

  17. Market demands to Danish pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    2001-01-01

    . The study focuses on the development on the most important markets for Danish pork. The countries are Denmark, Japan, UK, Germany, Italy, France, USA, Russia and South Korea. The primary purpose is to identify market demands of importance to the Danish pork sector in order to maintain and strengthen its...

  18. Cotton Demand Dropping in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The ICAC claimed, global cotton market outlook is bleak in the 2012/2013 annual. Global cotton production is estimated at 25.9 million tons and cotton usage is estimated at 23.4 million tons. Cotton supply will exceed demand; the excess volume will reach 2.4 million tons.

  19. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...

  20. Employer Demands from Business Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Stephen; Dutton, Matthew; McQuaid, Ronald; Richard, Alec

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on research carried out with employers to determine demand for business and management skills in the Scottish workforce. Design/methodology/approach: The research used a questionnaire in which employers were interviewed (either telephone or face to face), completed themselves and returned by e-mail,…

  1. World-wide distribution automation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaney, T.M.

    1994-12-31

    A worldwide power distribution automation system is outlined. Distribution automation is defined and the status of utility automation is discussed. Other topics discussed include a distribution management system, substation feeder, and customer functions, potential benefits, automation costs, planning and engineering considerations, automation trends, databases, system operation, computer modeling of system, and distribution management systems.

  2. Automating NEURON Simulation Deployment in Cloud Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, David B; Santamaria, Fidel

    2017-01-01

    Simulations in neuroscience are performed on local servers or High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities. Recently, cloud computing has emerged as a potential computational platform for neuroscience simulation. In this paper we compare and contrast HPC and cloud resources for scientific computation, then report how we deployed NEURON, a widely used simulator of neuronal activity, in three clouds: Chameleon Cloud, a hybrid private academic cloud for cloud technology research based on the OpenStack software; Rackspace, a public commercial cloud, also based on OpenStack; and Amazon Elastic Cloud Computing, based on Amazon's proprietary software. We describe the manual procedures and how to automate cloud operations. We describe extending our simulation automation software called NeuroManager (Stockton and Santamaria, Frontiers in Neuroinformatics, 2015), so that the user is capable of recruiting private cloud, public cloud, HPC, and local servers simultaneously with a simple common interface. We conclude by performing several studies in which we examine speedup, efficiency, total session time, and cost for sets of simulations of a published NEURON model.

  3. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.

    2008-09-15

    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  4. Automating CPM-GOMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Bonnie; Vera, Alonso; Matessa, Michael; Freed, Michael; Remington, Roger

    2002-01-01

    CPM-GOMS is a modeling method that combines the task decomposition of a GOMS analysis with a model of human resource usage at the level of cognitive, perceptual, and motor operations. CPM-GOMS models have made accurate predictions about skilled user behavior in routine tasks, but developing such models is tedious and error-prone. We describe a process for automatically generating CPM-GOMS models from a hierarchical task decomposition expressed in a cognitive modeling tool called Apex. Resource scheduling in Apex automates the difficult task of interleaving the cognitive, perceptual, and motor resources underlying common task operators (e.g. mouse move-and-click). Apex's UI automatically generates PERT charts, which allow modelers to visualize a model's complex parallel behavior. Because interleaving and visualization is now automated, it is feasible to construct arbitrarily long sequences of behavior. To demonstrate the process, we present a model of automated teller interactions in Apex and discuss implications for user modeling. available to model human users, the Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection (GOMS) method [6, 21] has been the most widely used, providing accurate, often zero-parameter, predictions of the routine performance of skilled users in a wide range of procedural tasks [6, 13, 15, 27, 28]. GOMS is meant to model routine behavior. The user is assumed to have methods that apply sequences of operators and to achieve a goal. Selection rules are applied when there is more than one method to achieve a goal. Many routine tasks lend themselves well to such decomposition. Decomposition produces a representation of the task as a set of nested goal states that include an initial state and a final state. The iterative decomposition into goals and nested subgoals can terminate in primitives of any desired granularity, the choice of level of detail dependent on the predictions required. Although GOMS has proven useful in HCI, tools to support the

  5. Application Security Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaika, Majid A.

    2011-01-01

    With today's high demand for online applications and services running on the Internet, software has become a vital component in our lives. With every revolutionary technology comes challenges unique to its characteristics; for online applications, security is one huge concern and challenge. Currently, there are several schemes that address…

  6. [Automated anesthesia record system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tao; Liu, Jin

    2005-12-01

    Based on Client/Server architecture, a software of automated anesthesia record system running under Windows operation system and networks has been developed and programmed with Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0, Visual Basic 6.0 and SQL Server. The system can deal with patient's information throughout the anesthesia. It can collect and integrate the data from several kinds of medical equipment such as monitor, infusion pump and anesthesia machine automatically and real-time. After that, the system presents the anesthesia sheets automatically. The record system makes the anesthesia record more accurate and integral and can raise the anesthesiologist's working efficiency.

  7. AUTOMATED API TESTING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNIL L. BANGARE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test. With the help of software testing we can verify or validate the software product. Normally testing will be done after development of software but we can perform the software testing at the time of development process also. This paper will give you a brief introduction about Automated API Testing Tool. This tool of testing will reduce lots of headache after the whole development of software. It saves time as well as money. Such type of testing is helpful in the Industries & Colleges also.

  8. The automated medical office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petreman, M

    1990-08-01

    With shock and surprise many physicians learned in the 1980s that they must change the way they do business. Competition for patients, increasing government regulation, and the rapidly escalating risk of litigation forces physicians to seek modern remedies in office management. The author describes a medical clinic that strives to be paperless using electronic innovation to solve the problems of medical practice management. A computer software program to automate information management in a clinic shows that practical thinking linked to advanced technology can greatly improve office efficiency.

  9. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response. International Experiences and Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ghatikar, Girish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ni, Chun Chun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dudley, Junqiao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Martin, Phil [Enernoc, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Wikler, Greg

    2012-06-01

    Demand response (DR) is a load management tool which provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional supply-side solutions to address the growing demand during times of peak electrical load. According to the US Department of Energy (DOE), demand response reflects “changes in electric usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high wholesale market prices or when system reliability is jeopardized.” 1 The California Energy Commission (CEC) defines DR as “a reduction in customers’ electricity consumption over a given time interval relative to what would otherwise occur in response to a price signal, other financial incentives, or a reliability signal.” 2 This latter definition is perhaps most reflective of how DR is understood and implemented today in countries such as the US, Canada, and Australia where DR is primarily a dispatchable resource responding to signals from utilities, grid operators, and/or load aggregators (or DR providers).

  10. Demand chain management - The evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ericsson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of Supply Chain Management (SCM and Demand Chain Management (DCM are among the new and debated topics concerning logistics in the literature. The question considered in this paper is: “Are these concepts needed or will they just add to the confusion?” Lasting business concepts have always evolved in close interaction between business and academia. Different approaches start out in business and they are then, more or less si- multaneously, aligned, integrated, systemised and structured in academia. In this way a terminology (or language is provided that helps in further diffusion of the concepts. There is a lack of consensus on the definition of the concept of SCM. This may be one of the major reasons for the difficulty in advancing the science and measuring the results of implementation in business. Relationships in SCM span from rather loose coalitions to highly structured virtual network integrations. DCM is a highly organised chain in which the key is mutual interdependence and partnership. The purpose is to create a distinctive competence for the chain as a whole that helps to identify and satisfy customer needs and wishes. The classical research concerning vertical marketing systems is very helpful in systemising the rather unstructured discussions in current SCM research. The trend lies in increasing competition between channels rather than between companies, which in turn leads to the creation of channels with a high degree of partnership and mutual interdependence between members. These types of channels are known as organised vertical marketing systems in the classic marketing channel research. The behaviour in these types of channels, as well as the formal and informal structures, roles in the network, power and dependence relations, etc. are well covered topics in the literature. The concept of vertical marketing systems lies behind the definition of demand chains and demand chain management proposed in this paper. A

  11. An Analysis of Open Source Security Software Products Downloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the continued demand for open source security software, a gap in the identification of success factors related to the success of open source security software persists. There are no studies that accurately assess the extent of this persistent gap, particularly with respect to the strength of the relationships of open source software…

  12. An Analysis of Open Source Security Software Products Downloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the continued demand for open source security software, a gap in the identification of success factors related to the success of open source security software persists. There are no studies that accurately assess the extent of this persistent gap, particularly with respect to the strength of the relationships of open source software…

  13. Automated Postediting of Documents

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, K; Knight, Kevin; Chander, Ishwar

    1994-01-01

    Large amounts of low- to medium-quality English texts are now being produced by machine translation (MT) systems, optical character readers (OCR), and non-native speakers of English. Most of this text must be postedited by hand before it sees the light of day. Improving text quality is tedious work, but its automation has not received much research attention. Anyone who has postedited a technical report or thesis written by a non-native speaker of English knows the potential of an automated postediting system. For the case of MT-generated text, we argue for the construction of postediting modules that are portable across MT systems, as an alternative to hardcoding improvements inside any one system. As an example, we have built a complete self-contained postediting module for the task of article selection (a, an, the) for English noun phrases. This is a notoriously difficult problem for Japanese-English MT. Our system contains over 200,000 rules derived automatically from online text resources. We report on l...

  14. Maneuver Automation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uffelman, Hal; Goodson, Troy; Pellegrin, Michael; Stavert, Lynn; Burk, Thomas; Beach, David; Signorelli, Joel; Jones, Jeremy; Hahn, Yungsun; Attiyah, Ahlam; Illsley, Jeannette

    2009-01-01

    The Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) automates the process of generating commands for maneuvers to keep the spacecraft of the Cassini-Huygens mission on a predetermined prime mission trajectory. Before MAS became available, a team of approximately 10 members had to work about two weeks to design, test, and implement each maneuver in a process that involved running many maneuver-related application programs and then serially handing off data products to other parts of the team. MAS enables a three-member team to design, test, and implement a maneuver in about one-half hour after Navigation has process-tracking data. MAS accepts more than 60 parameters and 22 files as input directly from users. MAS consists of Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) scripts that link, sequence, and execute the maneuver- related application programs: "Pushing a single button" on a graphical user interface causes MAS to run navigation programs that design a maneuver; programs that create sequences of commands to execute the maneuver on the spacecraft; and a program that generates predictions about maneuver performance and generates reports and other files that enable users to quickly review and verify the maneuver design. MAS can also generate presentation materials, initiate electronic command request forms, and archive all data products for future reference.

  15. Automated Test Case Generation

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I would like to present the concept of automated test case generation. I work on it as part of my PhD and I think it would be interesting also for other people. It is also the topic of a workshop paper that I am introducing in Paris. (abstract below) Please note that the talk itself would be more general and not about the specifics of my PhD, but about the broad field of Automated Test Case Generation. I would introduce the main approaches (combinatorial testing, symbolic execution, adaptive random testing) and their advantages and problems. (oracle problem, combinatorial explosion, ...) Abstract of the paper: Over the last decade code-based test case generation techniques such as combinatorial testing or dynamic symbolic execution have seen growing research popularity. Most algorithms and tool implementations are based on finding assignments for input parameter values in order to maximise the execution branch coverage. Only few of them consider dependencies from outside the Code Under Test’s scope such...

  16. Automating quantum experiment control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kelly E.; Amini, Jason M.; Doret, S. Charles; Mohler, Greg; Volin, Curtis; Harter, Alexa W.

    2017-03-01

    The field of quantum information processing is rapidly advancing. As the control of quantum systems approaches the level needed for useful computation, the physical hardware underlying the quantum systems is becoming increasingly complex. It is already becoming impractical to manually code control for the larger hardware implementations. In this chapter, we will employ an approach to the problem of system control that parallels compiler design for a classical computer. We will start with a candidate quantum computing technology, the surface electrode ion trap, and build a system instruction language which can be generated from a simple machine-independent programming language via compilation. We incorporate compile time generation of ion routing that separates the algorithm description from the physical geometry of the hardware. Extending this approach to automatic routing at run time allows for automated initialization of qubit number and placement and additionally allows for automated recovery after catastrophic events such as qubit loss. To show that these systems can handle real hardware, we present a simple demonstration system that routes two ions around a multi-zone ion trap and handles ion loss and ion placement. While we will mainly use examples from transport-based ion trap quantum computing, many of the issues and solutions are applicable to other architectures.

  17. Automated digital magnetofluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, J; Garcia, A A; Marquez, M [Harrington Department of Bioengineering Arizona State University, Tempe AZ 85287-9709 (United States)], E-mail: tony.garcia@asu.edu

    2008-08-15

    Drops can be moved in complex patterns on superhydrophobic surfaces using a reconfigured computer-controlled x-y metrology stage with a high degree of accuracy, flexibility, and reconfigurability. The stage employs a DMC-4030 controller which has a RISC-based, clock multiplying processor with DSP functions, accepting encoder inputs up to 22 MHz, provides servo update rates as high as 32 kHz, and processes commands at rates as fast as 40 milliseconds. A 6.35 mm diameter cylindrical NdFeB magnet is translated by the stage causing water drops to move by the action of induced magnetization of coated iron microspheres that remain in the drop and are attracted to the rare earth magnet through digital magnetofluidics. Water drops are easily moved in complex patterns in automated digital magnetofluidics at an average speed of 2.8 cm/s over a superhydrophobic polyethylene surface created by solvent casting. With additional components, some potential uses for this automated microfluidic system include characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces, water quality analysis, and medical diagnostics.

  18. Open Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderhoff, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Museums around the world hold enormous troves of public domain artworks. In digitized form, they can be powerful tools for research and learning, as well as building blocks, in the hands of students, teachers, scholars, developers, and creative people. By opening up their digitized assets for reuse......, museums have a unique opportunity to broaden the scope of their public mission to serve and educate the public on 21st century media terms. What could be controversial about that? Art museums have a long legacy of restricting access to high quality images of artworks in order to protect them from improper...

  19. Open University

    CERN Document Server

    Pentz,M

    1975-01-01

    Michel Pentz est née en Afrique du Sud et venu au Cern en 1957 comme physicien et président de l'associaion du personnel. Il est également fondateur du mouvement Antiapartheid de Genève et a participé à la fondation de l'Open University en Grande-Bretagne. Il nous parle des contextes pédagogiques, culturels et nationaux dans lesquels la méthode peut s'appliquer.

  20. Automation of static and dynamic non-dispersive liquid phase microextraction. Part 2: Approaches based on impregnated membranes and porous supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexovič, Michal; Horstkotte, Burkhard; Solich, Petr; Sabo, Ján

    2016-02-11

    A critical overview on automation of modern liquid phase microextraction (LPME) approaches based on the liquid impregnation of porous sorbents and membranes is presented. It is the continuation of part 1, in which non-dispersive LPME techniques based on the use of the extraction phase (EP) in the form of drop, plug, film, or microflow have been surveyed. Compared to the approaches described in part 1, porous materials provide an improved support for the EP. Simultaneously they allow to enlarge its contact surface and to reduce the risk of loss by incident flow or by components of surrounding matrix. Solvent-impregnated membranes or hollow fibres are further ideally suited for analyte extraction with simultaneous or subsequent back-extraction. Their use can therefore improve the procedure robustness and reproducibility as well as it "opens the door" to the new operation modes and fields of application. However, additional work and time are required for membrane replacement and renewed impregnation. Automation of porous support-based and membrane-based approaches plays an important role in the achievement of better reliability, rapidness, and reproducibility compared to manual assays. Automated renewal of the extraction solvent and coupling of sample pretreatment with the detection instrumentation can be named as examples. The different LPME methodologies using impregnated membranes and porous supports for the extraction phase and the different strategies of their automation, and their analytical applications are comprehensively described and discussed in this part. Finally, an outlook on future demands and perspectives of LPME techniques from both parts as a promising area in the field of sample pretreatment is given.

  1. Robotic Automation in Computer Controlled Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. D.; Yu, G.; Bibby, M.; Dunn, C.; Li, H.; Wu, Y.; Zheng, X.; Zhang, P.

    2016-02-01

    We first present a Case Study - the manufacture of 1.4 m prototype mirror-segments for the European Extremely Large Telescope, undertaken by the National Facility for Ultra Precision Surfaces, at the OpTIC facility operated by Glyndwr University. Scale-up to serial-manufacture demands delivery of a 1.4 m off-axis aspheric hexagonal segment with surface precision robots and computer numerically controlled ('CNC') polishing machines for optical fabrication. The objective was not to assess which is superior. Rather, it was to understand for the first time their complementary properties, leading us to operate them together as a unit, integrated in hardware and software. Three key areas are reported. First is the novel use of robots to automate currently-manual operations on CNC polishing machines, to improve work-throughput, mitigate risk of damage to parts, and reduce dependence on highly-skilled staff. Second is the use of robots to pre-process surfaces prior to CNC polishing, to reduce total process time. The third draws the threads together, describing our vision of the automated manufacturing cell, where the operator interacts at cell rather than machine level. This promises to deliver a step-change in end-to-end manufacturing times and costs, compared with either platform used on its own or, indeed, the state-of-the-art used elsewhere.

  2. Autonomous Hybrid Priority Queueing for Scheduling Residential Energy Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalimullah, I. Q.; Shamroukh, M.; Sahar, N.; Shetty, S.

    2017-05-01

    The advent of smart grid technologies has opened up opportunities to manage the energy consumption of the users within a residential smart grid system. Demand response management is particularly being employed to reduce the overall load on an electricity network which could in turn reduce outages and electricity costs. The objective of this paper is to develop an intelligible scheduler to optimize the energy available to a micro grid through hybrid queueing algorithm centered around the consumers’ energy demands. This is achieved by shifting certain schedulable load appliances to light load hours. Various factors such as the type of demand, grid load, consumers’ energy usage patterns and preferences are considered while formulating the logical constraints required for the algorithm. The algorithm thus obtained is then implemented in MATLAB workspace to simulate its execution by an Energy Consumption Scheduler (ECS) found within smart meters, which automatically finds the optimal energy consumption schedule tailor made to fit each consumer within the micro grid network.

  3. Energy demand modeling for Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobur Khodjaev

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to energy demand forecasting in Uzbekistan. Studies show that in spite of the abundant reserves of hydrocarbons, low energy efficiency can have an adverse impact on energy security in Uzbekistan in the future. Oil and gas are the main primary energy source and they ensure energy security of Uzbekistan. Energy demand forecasting is essential in order to develop an effective energy policy. Such forecast can be useful to plan oil and gas production volumes, to identify priorities for the industrial modernization and to create favorable conditions for sustainable economic development in the future. Author proposes model based on translog function for developing medium-and long-term development programs in energy sector and the modernization and technological re-equipment of industry.

  4. Using Publish-Subscribe Messaging for System Status and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Danford S.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) system is a message-based plug-and-play open system architecture used in many of NASA mission operations centers. This presentation will focus on the use of GMSEC standard messages to report and analyze the status of a system and enable the automation of the system's components. In GMSEC systems, each component reports its status using a keep-alive message and also publishes status and activities as log messages. In addition, the components can accept functional directive messages from the GMSEC message bus. Over the past several years, development teams have found ways to utilize these messages to create innovative display pages and increasingly sophisticated approaches to automation. This presentation will show the flexibility and value of the message-based approach to system awareness and automation.

  5. Automated Functional Testing based on the Navigation of Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    García, Boni; 10.4204/EPTCS.61.4

    2011-01-01

    Web applications are becoming more and more complex. Testing such applications is an intricate hard and time-consuming activity. Therefore, testing is often poorly performed or skipped by practitioners. Test automation can help to avoid this situation. Hence, this paper presents a novel approach to perform automated software testing for web applications based on its navigation. On the one hand, web navigation is the process of traversing a web application using a browser. On the other hand, functional requirements are actions that an application must do. Therefore, the evaluation of the correct navigation of web applications results in the assessment of the specified functional requirements. The proposed method to perform the automation is done in four levels: test case generation, test data derivation, test case execution, and test case reporting. This method is driven by three kinds of inputs: i) UML models; ii) Selenium scripts; iii) XML files. We have implemented our approach in an open-source testing fra...

  6. Disruptive innovation: the demand side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havighurst, Clark C

    2008-01-01

    The notion of disruptive innovation provides a welcome framework for considering the prospects for low-cost alternatives in American medicine. Such innovations as have been seen, however, are largely the result of demand by patients paying their own bills because they have high-deductible coverage or are uninsured. Many other cost-saving innovations are discouraged by financing systems that are themselves largely immune to competition from disruptive innovators.

  7. Demand controlled ventilation; Behovsstyrt ventilasjon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Henning Holm

    2006-07-01

    The terms CAV and VAV have been known terms for many years in the ventilation business. The terms are also included in building regulations, but the time is now right to focus on demand controlled ventilation (DCV). The new building regulations and the accompanying energy framework underline the need for a more nuanced thinking when it comes to controlling ventilation systems. Descriptions and further details of the ventilation systems are provided (ml)

  8. Fish demand and supply projections

    OpenAIRE

    Sverdrup-Jensen, S.

    1997-01-01

    It has been predicted that the global demand for fish for human consumption will increase by more than 50% over the next 15 years. The FAO has projected that the increase in supply will originate primarily from marine fisheries, aquaculture and to a lesser extent from inland fisheries, but with a commensurate price increase. However, there are constraints to increased production in both marine and inland fisheries, such as overfishing, overexploitation limited potential increase and environme...

  9. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  10. Classification of Automated Search Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehrer, Greg; Stokes, Jack W.; Chellapilla, Kumar; Platt, John C.

    As web search providers seek to improve both relevance and response times, they are challenged by the ever-increasing tax of automated search query traffic. Third party systems interact with search engines for a variety of reasons, such as monitoring a web site’s rank, augmenting online games, or possibly to maliciously alter click-through rates. In this paper, we investigate automated traffic (sometimes referred to as bot traffic) in the query stream of a large search engine provider. We define automated traffic as any search query not generated by a human in real time. We first provide examples of different categories of query logs generated by automated means. We then develop many different features that distinguish between queries generated by people searching for information, and those generated by automated processes. We categorize these features into two classes, either an interpretation of the physical model of human interactions, or as behavioral patterns of automated interactions. Using the these detection features, we next classify the query stream using multiple binary classifiers. In addition, a multiclass classifier is then developed to identify subclasses of both normal and automated traffic. An active learning algorithm is used to suggest which user sessions to label to improve the accuracy of the multiclass classifier, while also seeking to discover new classes of automated traffic. Performance analysis are then provided. Finally, the multiclass classifier is used to predict the subclass distribution for the search query stream.

  11. Get smart! automate your house!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Amstel, P.; Gorter, N.; De Rouw, J.

    2016-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability This manual will help you in reducing both energy usage and costs by automating your home. It gives an introduction to a number of home automation systems that every homeowner can install.

  12. Automated Methods Of Corrosion Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Reeve, John Ch

    1997-01-01

    The chapter describes the following automated measurements: Corrosion Measurements by Titration, Imaging Corrosion by Scanning Probe Microscopy, Critical Pitting Temperature and Application of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Permeation Cell.......The chapter describes the following automated measurements: Corrosion Measurements by Titration, Imaging Corrosion by Scanning Probe Microscopy, Critical Pitting Temperature and Application of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Permeation Cell....

  13. Investigating Comparative Advantages of Advance Demand Information in Presence of Heterogeneous Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Bisheng; Larsen, Christian

    The paper studies aspects of advance demand information and heterogeneous demand in a mathematical model of an inventory system. The concept advance demand information is that customers ahead in time of actual demand place their orders. The concept heterogeneous demand refers to that there are di......The paper studies aspects of advance demand information and heterogeneous demand in a mathematical model of an inventory system. The concept advance demand information is that customers ahead in time of actual demand place their orders. The concept heterogeneous demand refers...

  14. Energy demand and population change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, E L; Edmonds, J A

    1981-09-01

    During the post World War 2 years energy consumption has grown 136% while population grew about 51%; per capita consumption of energy expanded, therefore, about 60%. For a given population size, demographic changes mean an increase in energy needs; for instance the larger the group of retirement age people, the smaller their energy needs than are those for a younger group. Estimates indicate that by the year 2000 the energy impact will be toward higher per capita consumption with 60% of the population in the 19-61 age group of workers. Rising female labor force participation will increase the working group even more; it has also been found that income and energy grow at a proportional rate. The authors predict that gasoline consumption within the US will continue to rise with availability considering the larger number of female drivers and higher per capita incomes. The flow of illegal aliens (750,000/year) will have a major impact on income and will use greater amounts of energy than can be expected. A demographic change which will lower energy demands will be the slowdown of the rate of household formation caused by the falling number of young adults. The response of energy demand to price changes is small and slow but incomes play a larger role as does the number of personal automobiles and social changes affecting household formation. Households, commercial space, transportation, and industry are part of every demand analysis and population projections play a major role in determining these factors.

  15. Evaluation of an automated protocol for efficient and reliable DNA extraction of dietary samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallinger, Corinna; Staudacher, Karin; Sint, Daniela; Thalinger, Bettina; Oehm, Johannes; Juen, Anita; Traugott, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Molecular techniques have become an important tool to empirically assess feeding interactions. The increased usage of next-generation sequencing approaches has stressed the need of fast DNA extraction that does not compromise DNA quality. Dietary samples here pose a particular challenge, as these demand high-quality DNA extraction procedures for obtaining the minute quantities of short-fragmented food DNA. Automatic high-throughput procedures significantly decrease time and costs and allow for standardization of extracting total DNA. However, these approaches have not yet been evaluated for dietary samples. We tested the efficiency of an automatic DNA extraction platform and a traditional CTAB protocol, employing a variety of dietary samples including invertebrate whole-body extracts as well as invertebrate and vertebrate gut content samples and feces. Extraction efficacy was quantified using the proportions of successful PCR amplifications of both total and prey DNA, and cost was estimated in terms of time and material expense. For extraction of total DNA, the automated platform performed better for both invertebrate and vertebrate samples. This was also true for prey detection in vertebrate samples. For the dietary analysis in invertebrates, there is still room for improvement when using the high-throughput system for optimal DNA yields. Overall, the automated DNA extraction system turned out as a promising alternative to labor-intensive, low-throughput manual extraction methods such as CTAB. It is opening up the opportunity for an extensive use of this cost-efficient and innovative methodology at low contamination risk also in trophic ecology.

  16. Integrated, Automated Distributed Generation Technologies Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Kevin

    2014-09-30

    The purpose of the NETL Project was to develop a diverse combination of distributed renewable generation technologies and controls and demonstrate how the renewable generation could help manage substation peak demand at the ATK Promontory plant site. The Promontory plant site is located in the northwestern Utah desert approximately 25 miles west of Brigham City, Utah. The plant encompasses 20,000 acres and has over 500 buildings. The ATK Promontory plant primarily manufactures solid propellant rocket motors for both commercial and government launch systems. The original project objectives focused on distributed generation; a 100 kW (kilowatt) wind turbine, a 100 kW new technology waste heat generation unit, a 500 kW energy storage system, and an intelligent system-wide automation system to monitor and control the renewable energy devices then release the stored energy during the peak demand time. The original goal was to reduce peak demand from the electrical utility company, Rocky Mountain Power (RMP), by 3.4%. For a period of time we also sought to integrate our energy storage requirements with a flywheel storage system (500 kW) proposed for the Promontory/RMP Substation. Ultimately the flywheel storage system could not meet our project timetable, so the storage requirement was switched to a battery storage system (300 kW.) A secondary objective was to design/install a bi-directional customer/utility gateway application for real-time visibility and communications between RMP, and ATK. This objective was not achieved because of technical issues with RMP, ATK Information Technology Department’s stringent requirements based on being a rocket motor manufacturing facility, and budget constraints. Of the original objectives, the following were achieved: • Installation of a 100 kW wind turbine. • Installation of a 300 kW battery storage system. • Integrated control system installed to offset electrical demand by releasing stored energy from renewable sources

  17. Integrated, Automated Distributed Generation Technologies Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Kevin [Atk Launch Systems Inc., Brigham City, UT (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the NETL Project was to develop a diverse combination of distributed renewable generation technologies and controls and demonstrate how the renewable generation could help manage substation peak demand at the ATK Promontory plant site. The Promontory plant site is located in the northwestern Utah desert approximately 25 miles west of Brigham City, Utah. The plant encompasses 20,000 acres and has over 500 buildings. The ATK Promontory plant primarily manufactures solid propellant rocket motors for both commercial and government launch systems. The original project objectives focused on distributed generation; a 100 kW (kilowatt) wind turbine, a 100 kW new technology waste heat generation unit, a 500 kW energy storage system, and an intelligent system-wide automation system to monitor and control the renewable energy devices then release the stored energy during the peak demand time. The original goal was to reduce peak demand from the electrical utility company, Rocky Mountain Power (RMP), by 3.4%. For a period of time we also sought to integrate our energy storage requirements with a flywheel storage system (500 kW) proposed for the Promontory/RMP Substation. Ultimately the flywheel storage system could not meet our project timetable, so the storage requirement was switched to a battery storage system (300 kW.) A secondary objective was to design/install a bi-directional customer/utility gateway application for real-time visibility and communications between RMP, and ATK. This objective was not achieved because of technical issues with RMP, ATK Information Technology Department’s stringent requirements based on being a rocket motor manufacturing facility, and budget constraints. Of the original objectives, the following were achieved: • Installation of a 100 kW wind turbine. • Installation of a 300 kW battery storage system. • Integrated control system installed to offset electrical demand by releasing stored energy from renewable sources

  18. Study on Customer Demands for Product Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Zhiyong; YANG Mingzhong; LI Yibing; LI Jun

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the satisfaction degree of customers' individual demands for products and reduce the risk of the product innovation, the characteristics of customer demands for product innovation are analyzed, and the type and content of customer demands are discussed. Then the framework of customer demands acquisition for product innovation is established. Finally, the prototype system of customer demands information acquisition and product customization for product innovation which takes mobile phone as the example is developed successfully.

  19. Automated Desalting Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Maegan K.; Liu, De-Ling; Kanik, Isik; Beegle, Luther

    2010-01-01

    Because salt and metals can mask the signature of a variety of organic molecules (like amino acids) in any given sample, an automated system to purify complex field samples has been created for the analytical techniques of electrospray ionization/ mass spectroscopy (ESI/MS), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and biological assays where unique identification requires at least some processing of complex samples. This development allows for automated sample preparation in the laboratory and analysis of complex samples in the field with multiple types of analytical instruments. Rather than using tedious, exacting protocols for desalting samples by hand, this innovation, called the Automated Sample Processing System (ASPS), takes analytes that have been extracted through high-temperature solvent extraction and introduces them into the desalting column. After 20 minutes, the eluent is produced. This clear liquid can then be directly analyzed by the techniques listed above. The current apparatus including the computer and power supplies is sturdy, has an approximate mass of 10 kg, and a volume of about 20 20 20 cm, and is undergoing further miniaturization. This system currently targets amino acids. For these molecules, a slurry of 1 g cation exchange resin in deionized water is packed into a column of the apparatus. Initial generation of the resin is done by flowing sequentially 2.3 bed volumes of 2N NaOH and 2N HCl (1 mL each) to rinse the resin, followed by .5 mL of deionized water. This makes the pH of the resin near neutral, and eliminates cross sample contamination. Afterward, 2.3 mL of extracted sample is then loaded into the column onto the top of the resin bed. Because the column is packed tightly, the sample can be applied without disturbing the resin bed. This is a vital step needed to ensure that the analytes adhere to the resin. After the sample is drained, oxalic acid (1 mL, pH 1.6-1.8, adjusted with NH4OH) is pumped into the column. Oxalic acid works as a

  20. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Jin, X.; Earle, L.

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses.The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  1. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jin, X. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses. The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  2. Automated Standard Hazard Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebler, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The current system used to generate standard hazard reports is considered cumbersome and iterative. This study defines a structure for this system's process in a clear, algorithmic way so that standard hazard reports and basic hazard analysis may be completed using a centralized, web-based computer application. To accomplish this task, a test server is used to host a prototype of the tool during development. The prototype is configured to easily integrate into NASA's current server systems with minimal alteration. Additionally, the tool is easily updated and provides NASA with a system that may grow to accommodate future requirements and possibly, different applications. Results of this project's success are outlined in positive, subjective reviews complete by payload providers and NASA Safety and Mission Assurance personnel. Ideally, this prototype will increase interest in the concept of standard hazard automation and lead to the full-scale production of a user-ready application.

  3. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  4. Automated attendance accounting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automated accounting system useful for applying data to a computer from any or all of a multiplicity of data terminals is disclosed. The system essentially includes a preselected number of data terminals which are each adapted to convert data words of decimal form to another form, i.e., binary, usable with the computer. Each data terminal may take the form of a keyboard unit having a number of depressable buttons or switches corresponding to selected data digits and/or function digits. A bank of data buffers, one of which is associated with each data terminal, is provided as a temporary storage. Data from the terminals is applied to the data buffers on a digit by digit basis for transfer via a multiplexer to the computer.

  5. Automating the multiprocessing environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arpasi, D.J.

    1989-03-01

    An approach to automate the programming and operation of tree-structured networks of multiprocessor systems is discussed. A conceptual, knowledge-based operating environment is presented, and requirements for two major technology elements are identified as follows: (1) An intelligent information translator is proposed for implementating information transfer between dissimilar hardware and software, thereby enabling independent and modular development of future systems and promoting a language-independence of codes and information; (2) A resident system activity manager, which recognizes the systems capabilities and monitors the status of all systems within the environment, is proposed for integrating dissimilar systems into effective parallel processing resources to optimally meet user needs. Finally, key computational capabilities which must be provided before the environment can be realized are identified.

  6. Automated electronic filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Amal

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a novel, efficient and powerful scheme for designing and evaluating the performance characteristics of any electronic filter designed with predefined specifications. The author explains techniques that enable readers to eliminate complicated manual, and thus error-prone and time-consuming, steps of traditional design techniques. The presentation includes demonstration of efficient automation, using an ANSI C language program, which accepts any filter design specification (e.g. Chebyschev low-pass filter, cut-off frequency, pass-band ripple etc.) as input and generates as output a SPICE(Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) format netlist. Readers then can use this netlist to run simulations with any version of the popular SPICE simulator, increasing accuracy of the final results, without violating any of the key principles of the traditional design scheme.

  7. [From automation to robotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The introduction of automation into the laboratory of biology seems to be unavoidable. But at which cost, if it is necessary to purchase a new machine for every new application? Fortunately the same image processing techniques, belonging to a theoretic framework called Mathematical Morphology, may be used in visual inspection tasks, both in car industry and in the biology lab. Since the market for industrial robotics applications is much higher than the market of biomedical applications, the price of image processing devices drops, and becomes sometimes less than the price of a complete microscope equipment. The power of the image processing methods of Mathematical Morphology will be illustrated by various examples, as automatic silver grain counting in autoradiography, determination of HLA genotype, electrophoretic gels analysis, automatic screening of cervical smears... Thus several heterogeneous applications may share the same image processing device, provided there is a separate and devoted work station for each of them.

  8. Automated Essay Scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semire DIKLI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated Essay Scoring Semire DIKLI Florida State University Tallahassee, FL, USA ABSTRACT The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali, 2004. AES is defined as the computer technology that evaluates and scores the written prose (Shermis & Barrera, 2002; Shermis & Burstein, 2003; Shermis, Raymat, & Barrera, 2003. Revision and feedback are essential aspects of the writing process. Students need to receive feedback in order to increase their writing quality. However, responding to student papers can be a burden for teachers. Particularly if they have large number of students and if they assign frequent writing assignments, providing individual feedback to student essays might be quite time consuming. AES systems can be very useful because they can provide the student with a score as well as feedback within seconds (Page, 2003. Four types of AES systems, which are widely used by testing companies, universities, and public schools: Project Essay Grader (PEG, Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA, E-rater, and IntelliMetric. AES is a developing technology. Many AES systems are used to overcome time, cost, and generalizability issues in writing assessment. The accuracy and reliability of these systems have been proven to be high. The search for excellence in machine scoring of essays is continuing and numerous studies are being conducted to improve the effectiveness of the AES systems.

  9. OpenER, a Dutch Initiative in Open Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuwer, Robert; Mulder, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Over the period 2006-2008, the Dutch Open Universiteit Nederland conducted an experiment in which Open Educational Resources (OER) were offered in an effort to bridge the gap between informal and formal learning and to establish a new style of entry portal to higher education with no barriers at all. OpenER received considerable attention both in…

  10. The UK-DALE dataset, domestic appliance-level electricity demand and whole-house demand from five UK homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jack; Knottenbelt, William

    2015-01-01

    Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home's total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers require data describing not just the aggregate demand per building but also the 'ground truth' demand of individual appliances. In this context, we present UK-DALE: an open-access dataset from the UK recording Domestic Appliance-Level Electricity at a sample rate of 16 kHz for the whole-house and at 1/6 Hz for individual appliances. This is the first open access UK dataset at this temporal resolution. We recorded from five houses, one of which was recorded for 655 days, the longest duration we are aware of for any energy dataset at this sample rate. We also describe the low-cost, open-source, wireless system we built for collecting our dataset.

  11. Road infrastructure and demand induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder; Lahrmann, Harry

    2006-01-01

    Based on available traffic counts, port statistics and statistics from bridge operators, the paper analyses the development in traffic before and after the opening of selected motorway sections and bridges in Denmark. The paper employs a screenline methodlogy where the total traffic flow across a...

  12. In-die job automation for PROVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnick, Ronald J., Jr.; Kim, Stephen; Waechter, Matthias; Seidel, Dirk; Mueller, Andreas; Beyer, Dirk

    2011-05-01

    The increasing demands for registration metrology for repeatability, accuracy, and resolution in order to be able to perform measurements in the active area on production features have prompted the development of PROVETM, the nextgeneration registration metrology tool that utilizes 193nm illumination and a metrology stage that is actively controlled in all six degrees of freedom. PROVETM addresses full in-die capability for double patterning lithography and sophisticated inverse-lithography schemes. Innovative approaches for image analysis, such as 2D correlation, have been developed to achieve this demanding goal. In order to take full advantage of the PROVETM resolution and measurement capabilities, a direct link to the mask data preparation for job automation and marker identification is inevitable. This paper describes an integrated solution using Synopsys' CATSR for extracting and preparing tool-specific job input data for PROVE. In addition to the standard marking functionalities, CATSR supports the 2D correlation method by providing reference clips in OASIS.MASK format.

  13. Physical demands during folk dancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigaeus, E; Kilbom, A

    1980-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the aerobic demands during one of the most popular and demanding Swedish folk dances the "hambo". Six men and six women, ranging in age from 22 to 32, participated. Their physical work capacity was investigated on a bicycle ergometer and a treadmill, using two to three submaximal and one maximal loads. All subjects were moderately well-trained and their average maximal oxygen uptake on the treadmill were 2.5 and 3.7 l/min (42.8 and 53.2 ml/kg . min-1) for women and men, respectively. When dancing the "hambo" the heart rate was telemetered, and the Douglas bag technique was used for measurements of pulmonary ventilation and oxygen uptake. The physical demand during "hambo" dancing was high in all subjects. Oxygen uptake was 38.5 and 37.3 ml/kg . min-1 and heart rate 179 and 172 in women and men, respectively. Women used 90% and men 70% of their maximal aerobic power obtained on the treadmill. The pulmonary ventilation and respiratory quotient of the female subjects were lower when dancing as compared to running, possibly because of voluntary restriction of the movements of the thoracic cage. Some popular Scandinavian folk dances are performed at a speed and with an activity pattern resembling the "hambo", while others are performed at a slower pace. The exercise intensity used in "hambo" is more than sufficient to induce training effects in the average individual provided that the dancing is performed at the frequency and for length of time usually recommended for physical training. For older or less fit people dances with a slow pace can be used for training purposes.

  14. An inventory control project in a major Danish company using compound renewal demand models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian; Seiding, Claus Hoe; Teller, Christian

    operation is highly automated. However, the procedures for estimating demands and the policies for the inventory control system that were in use at the beginning of the project did not fully match the sophisticated technological standard of the physical system. During the initial phase of the project...... inventory control variables based on the fitted demand distributions and a service level requirement stated in terms of an order fill rate. Finally, we validated the results of our models against the procedures that had been in use in the company. It was concluded that the new procedures were considerably...

  15. An inventory control project in a major Danish company using compound renewal demand models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian; Seiding, Claus Hoe; Teller, Christian

    2008-01-01

    -conditioning systems. The warehouse logistics operation is highly automated. However, the procedures for estimating demands and the policies for the inventory control system that were in use at the beginning of the project did not fully match the sophisticated technological standard of the physical system. During...... procedures for determining suitable inventory control variables based on the fitted demand distributions and a service-level requirement stated in terms of an order fill rate. Finally, we validated the results of our models against the procedures that had been in use in the company. It was concluded...

  16. An inventory control project in a major Danish company using compound renewal demand models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian; Seiding, Claus Hoe; Teller, Christian

    2008-01-01

    -conditioning systems. The warehouse logistics operation is highly automated. However, the procedures for estimating demands and the policies for the inventory control system that were in use at the beginning of the project did not fully match the sophisticated technological standard of the physical system. During...... that the new procedures provided a better fit with the actual demand processes and were more consistent with the stated objectives for the distribution centre. We also initiated the implementation and integration of the new procedures into the company's inventory management system....

  17. High School Open On-Line Courses (HOOC): A Case Study from Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, Enrique; Pisani, Armando

    2013-01-01

    The first implementation of complete high school, open on-line courses (HOOC) aiming to support the training and basic scientific knowledge of young students from the Liceo Ginnasio Dante Alighieri in Gorizia, Italy, is discussed. Using the open source and automated recording system openEyA, HOOC give a student the opportunity to watch on-line, at…

  18. Emotional labor demands and compensating wage differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glomb, Theresa M; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D; Rotundo, Maria

    2004-08-01

    The concept of emotional labor demands and their effects on workers has received considerable attention in recent years, with most studies concentrating on stress, burnout, satisfaction, or other affective outcomes. This study extends the literature by examining the relationship between emotional labor demands and wages at the occupational level. Theories describing the expected effects of job demands and working conditions on wages are described. Results suggest that higher levels of emotional labor demands are associated with lower wage rates for jobs low in cognitive demands and with higher wage rates for jobs high in cognitive demands. Implications of these findings are discussed. (c) 2004 APA

  19. Openness initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, S.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  20. Automated global water mapping based on wide-swath orbital synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhoff, R. S.; Kleuskens, M. P. H.; Winsemius, H. C.; Huizinga, H. J.; Brakenridge, G. R.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents an automated technique, embedded in an online service, which ingests orbital synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery and outputs surface water maps in near real time and on a global scale. The service anticipates future open data dissemination of water extent information using the European Space Agency's Sentinel-1 data. The classification methods used are innovative but practical and different per 1 × 1 degree tile. For each tile, a probability distribution function of a pixel, being covered with water or being dry is established based on a long SAR training dataset. These probability distributions are conditional on the backscatter and the incidence angle. In classification mode the probability of water coverage is calculated, conditional on the current backscatter - incidence angle combination. The overlap between the probability distributions of a pixel being wet or dry is used as a proxy for the quality of our classification. The service has multiple uses, e.g. for water body dynamics in times of drought or for urgent inundation extent determination during floods. The service generates data systematically: it is not an on-demand service activated only for emergency response, but instead is always up-to-date and available. We demonstrate its use in flood situations using Envisat ASAR information during the 2011 Thailand floods. A first merge with a NASA near real time water product based on MODIS optical satellite imagery shows excellent agreement between these independent satellite-based water products.

  1. Design automation of ΔΣ switched capacitor modulators using spice and MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Dejan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerning the fact that the design of contemporary integrated circuits (IC is practically impossible without using sophisticated Electronic Design Automation (EDA software, this paper gives some interesting thoughts and considerations about that issue. As technology processes advances on year basis consequently EDA industry is forced to follow this trend as well. This, on the other hand, requires IC designer to frequently and efficiently accommodate to new working environments. Authors of this paper suggest a method for high level circuit analysis that is based on using common (open source or low cost circuit simulators but precise and fast enough to meet requirements imposed by demanding mixed-signal blocks. The paper demonstrates the proposed EDA procedure on an example of second order ΔΣ modulator design. It illustrates considerable simulation time saving which is more than welcome in a world of analogue and mixed-signal design. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR32004: Advanced technologies for measurement, control, and communication on the electric grid

  2. Automated Test Input Generation for Android: Are We There Yet?

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhary, Shauvik Roy; Gorla, Alessandra; Orso, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Mobile applications, often simply called "apps", are increasingly widespread, and we use them daily to perform a number of activities. Like all software, apps must be adequately tested to gain confidence that they behave correctly. Therefore, in recent years, researchers and practitioners alike have begun to investigate ways to automate apps testing. In particular, because of Android's open source nature and its large share of the market, a great deal of research has been performed on input g...

  3. Trusted Mobile Client for Document Security in Mobile Office Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaojun Yu; Qiaoyan Wen

    2011-01-01

    Mobile Office Automation is a popular application on the mobile platform. However, the mobile platform has no enough security protection in front of the open system, such as internet. The document security problem in this application has become a hot topic. This paper proposed a new solution to this problem. The solution based on the trusted computing technology, which implements the platform security by hardware. The solution also includes the transparent encryption technology that means app...

  4. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffner, Grayson

    2009-02-01

    While there is general agreement that demand response (DR) is a valued component in a utility resource plan, there is a lack of consensus regarding how to value DR. Establishing the value of DR is a prerequisite to determining how much and what types of DR should be implemented, to which customers DR should be targeted, and a key determinant that drives the development of economically viable DR consumer technology. Most approaches for quantifying the value of DR focus on changes in utility system revenue requirements based on resource plans with and without DR. This ''utility centric'' approach does not assign any value to DR impacts that lower energy and capacity prices, improve reliability, lower system and network operating costs, produce better air quality, and provide improved customer choice and control. Proper valuation of these benefits requires a different basis for monetization. The review concludes that no single methodology today adequately captures the wide range of benefits and value potentially attributed to DR. To provide a more comprehensive valuation approach, current methods such as the Standard Practice Method (SPM) will most likely have to be supplemented with one or more alternative benefit-valuation approaches. This report provides an updated perspective on the DR valuation framework. It includes an introduction and four chapters that address the key elements of demand response valuation, a comprehensive literature review, and specific research recommendations.

  5. Living with the extreme demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teppo Eskelinen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the ethical literature on extreme poverty suggests, that some, if not most, of the incomes of the residents of rich countries ought to be donated to the global poor. Yet complying with this ethical demand becomes increasingly more difficult as the changes in lifestyle in the (postindustrial north demand ever more consumption in order to obtain the necessities for survival in such societies. In this article, I will discuss Peter Singer's famous arguments for the ethical duty to donate one's possessions, and elaborate the conception of needs prevalent in both Singer's theory and the theories of many of his critics. My argument is that we have to recognise a category of needs called 'social necessities' that are neither luxuries nor basic needs. This leads to two main conclusions: first, the space for ethical deliberation on whether to donate to life-saving purposes is socially conditioned; and second, ethical strategies of redistribution ought to be accompanied with institutional changes, which also concern the conditions in wealthy countries.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v7i1.1791

  6. Demand Side Bidding. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spahn, Andrew

    2003-12-31

    This document sets forth the final report for a financial assistance award for the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) to enhance coordination between the building operators and power system operators in terms of demand-side responses to Location Based Marginal Pricing (LBMP). Potential benefits of this project include improved power system reliability, enhanced environmental quality, mitigation of high locational prices within congested areas, and the reduction of market barriers for demand-side market participants. NARUC, led by its Committee on Energy Resources and the Environment (ERE), actively works to promote the development and use of energy efficiency and clean distributive energy policies within the framework of a dynamic regulatory environment. Electric industry restructuring, energy shortages in California, and energy market transformation intensifies the need for reliable information and strategies regarding electric reliability policy and practice. NARUC promotes clean distributive generation and increased energy efficiency in the context of the energy sector restructuring process. NARUC, through ERE's Subcommittee on Energy Efficiency, strives to improve energy efficiency by creating working markets. Market transformation seeks opportunities where small amounts of investment can create sustainable markets for more efficient products, services, and design practices.

  7. Positional demands of professional rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Angus; Draper, Nick; Lewis, John; Gieseg, Steven P; Gill, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Rugby union is a physically intense intermittent sport coupled with high force collisions. Each position within a team has specific requirements which are typically based on speed, size and skill. The aim of this study was to investigate the contemporary demands of each position and whether they can explain changes in psychophysiological stress. Urine and saliva samples were collected before and after five selected Super 15 rugby games from 37 players. Total neopterin (NP), cortisol and immunoglobulin A were analysed by SCX-high performance liquid chromatography and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Global positioning system software provided distance data, while live video analysis provided impact data. All contemporary demands were analysed as events per minute of game time. Forwards were involved in more total impacts, tackles and rucks compared to backs (p cortisol and sIgA. The results indicate distance covered and number of impacts per minute of game time is position-dependent whereas changes in psychophysiological stress are independent. This information can be used to adapt training and recovery interventions to better prepare each position based on the physical requirements of the game.

  8. Towards an automated detection of oestrus in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Dizier, M; Chastant-Maillard, S

    2012-12-01

    Heat detection is a key factor in the profitability of dairy herds. However, this detection demands a significant part of the breeder's working time and is made difficult by the short duration and the discrete behavioural changes associated with oestrus in modern dairy cows. Progress has been made in monitoring cow with electronics, biosensors and computer. As a result, automated heat detection systems have been developed. Currently available tools are automated detectors of standing heat, activity-metres and automated in-line systems measuring milk progesterone. Camera-software systems and monitoring of body temperature are being developed and may also be used as heat detection tools. The heat detection rate of most systems is above 80% with a specificity of detection generally higher than 90%. The accuracy, however, may vary considerably depending on the tool and model developed. The initial investment of several thousands of euros required for these automated systems becomes a source of profit in large herds, provided the recorded data are properly managed.

  9. Photonomics: automation approaches yield economic aikido for photonics device manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Scott

    2002-09-01

    In the glory days of photonics, with exponentiating demand for photonics devices came exponentiating competition, with new ventures commencing deliveries seemingly weekly. Suddenly the industry was faced with a commodity marketplace well before a commodity cost structure was in place. Economic issues like cost, scalability, yield-call it all "Photonomics" -now drive the industry. Automation and throughput-optimization are obvious answers, but until now, suitable modular tools had not been introduced. Available solutions were barely compatible with typical transverse alignment tolerances and could not automate angular alignments of collimated devices and arrays. And settling physics served as the insoluble bottleneck to throughput and resolution advancement in packaging, characterization and fabrication processes. The industry has addressed these needs in several ways, ranging from special configurations of catalog motion devices to integrated microrobots based on a novel mini-hexapod configuration. This intriguing approach allows tip/tilt alignments to be automated about any point in space, such as a beam waist, a focal point, the cleaved face of a fiber, or the optical axis of a waveguide- ideal for MEMS packaging automation and array alignment. Meanwhile, patented new low-cost settling-enhancement technology has been applied in applications ranging from air-bearing long-travel stages to subnanometer-resolution piezo positioners to advance resolution and process cycle-times in sensitive applications such as optical coupling characterization and fiber Bragg grating generation. Background, examples and metrics are discussed, providing an up-to-date industry overview of available solutions.

  10. Gallbladder removal - open

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholecystectomy - open; Surgery - gallbladder - open ... a medical instrument called a laparoscope ( laparoscopic cholecystectomy ). Open gallbladder surgery is used when laparoscopic surgery cannot ...

  11. Opening Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovini, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen To quote Mr Jean Terrien: "Physics must be one step ahead of metrology". A long-serving Director of the BIPM, he said these words when visiting the IMGC in 1970 as a member of the scientific board of our Institute. At that time it was still an open question whether the IMGC should start research work on the absolute measurement of silicon lattice spacing. Mr Terrien underlined the revolutionary character of x-ray interferometry and, eventually, he caused the balance needle to lean towards the ... right direction. Mr Terrien correctly foresaw that, like Michelson's interferometer of 1880, x-ray interferometry could have a prominent place in today's science and technology. And while, in the first case, after more than a century we can see instruments based on electromagnetic wave interaction within every one's reach in laboratories and, sometimes, in workshops, in the second case, twenty-five years since the first development of an x-ray interferometer we can witness its role in nanometrology. Today and tomorrow we meet to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal place in the value of the Avogadro constant. We are aware that the quest for this achievement requires the cooperation of scientists with complementary capabilities. I am sure that the present workshop is a very good opportunity to present and discuss results and to improve and extend existing cooperation. The new adjustment of fundamental constants envisaged by the CODATA Task Group is redoubling scientists' efforts to produce competitive values of NA. The results of the measurements of the silicon lattice spacing in terms of an optical wavelength, which were available for the 1986 adjustment, combined with the determination of silicon molar volume, demonstrate how such an NA determination produces a consistent set of other constants and opens the way to a possible redefinition of the kilogram. We shall see in these two days how far we have progressed along this road. For us at the

  12. Flux-P: Automating Metabolic Flux Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta E. Ebert

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative knowledge of intracellular fluxes in metabolic networks is invaluable for inferring metabolic system behavior and the design principles of biological systems. However, intracellular reaction rates can not often be calculated directly but have to be estimated; for instance, via 13C-based metabolic flux analysis, a model-based interpretation of stable carbon isotope patterns in intermediates of metabolism. Existing software such as FiatFlux, OpenFLUX or 13CFLUX supports experts in this complex analysis, but requires several steps that have to be carried out manually, hence restricting the use of this software for data interpretation to a rather small number of experiments. In this paper, we present Flux-P as an approach to automate and standardize 13C-based metabolic flux analysis, using the Bio-jETI workflow framework. Exemplarily based on the FiatFlux software, it demonstrates how services can be created that carry out the different analysis steps autonomously and how these can subsequently be assembled into software workflows that perform automated, high-throughput intracellular flux analysis of high quality and reproducibility. Besides significant acceleration and standardization of the data analysis, the agile workflow-based realization supports flexible changes of the analysis workflows on the user level, making it easy to perform custom analyses.

  13. Automating the Purple Crow Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicks Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Purple Crow LiDAR (PCL was built to measure short and long term coupling between the lower, middle, and upper atmosphere. The initial component of my MSc. project is to automate two key elements of the PCL: the rotating liquid mercury mirror and the Zaber alignment mirror. In addition to the automation of the Zaber alignment mirror, it is also necessary to describe the mirror’s movement and positioning errors. Its properties will then be added into the alignment software. Once the alignment software has been completed, we will compare the new alignment method with the previous manual procedure. This is the first among several projects that will culminate in a fully-automated lidar. Eventually, we will be able to work remotely, thereby increasing the amount of data we collect. This paper will describe the motivation for automation, the methods we propose, preliminary results for the Zaber alignment error analysis, and future work.

  14. National Automated Conformity Inspection Process -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The National Automated Conformity Inspection Process (NACIP) Application is intended to expedite the workflow process as it pertains to the FAA Form 81 0-10 Request...

  15. Home automation with Intel Galileo

    CERN Document Server

    Dundar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    This book is for anyone who wants to learn Intel Galileo for home automation and cross-platform software development. No knowledge of programming with Intel Galileo is assumed, but knowledge of the C programming language is essential.

  16. Automating the Purple Crow Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Shannon; Sica, R. J.; Argall, P. S.

    2016-06-01

    The Purple Crow LiDAR (PCL) was built to measure short and long term coupling between the lower, middle, and upper atmosphere. The initial component of my MSc. project is to automate two key elements of the PCL: the rotating liquid mercury mirror and the Zaber alignment mirror. In addition to the automation of the Zaber alignment mirror, it is also necessary to describe the mirror's movement and positioning errors. Its properties will then be added into the alignment software. Once the alignment software has been completed, we will compare the new alignment method with the previous manual procedure. This is the first among several projects that will culminate in a fully-automated lidar. Eventually, we will be able to work remotely, thereby increasing the amount of data we collect. This paper will describe the motivation for automation, the methods we propose, preliminary results for the Zaber alignment error analysis, and future work.

  17. Building Automation Using Wired Communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Supriya Gund*,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a building automation system where communication technology LAN has been used. This paper mainly focuses on the controlling of home appliances remotely and providing security when the user is away from the place. This system provides ideal solution to the problems faced by home owners in daily life. This system provides security against intrusion as well as automates various home appliances using LAN. To demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed system, the device such as fire sensor, gas sensor, panic switch, intruder switch along with the smartcard have been developed and evaluated with the building automation system. These techniques are successfully merged in a single building automation system. This system offers a complete, low cost powerful and user friendly way of real-time monitoring and remote control of a building.

  18. Evolution of Home Automation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Rihan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern society home and office automation has becomeincreasingly important, providing ways to interconnectvarious home appliances. This interconnection results infaster transfer of information within home/offices leading tobetter home management and improved user experience.Home Automation, in essence, is a technology thatintegrates various electrical systems of a home to provideenhanced comfort and security. Users are grantedconvenient and complete control over all the electrical homeappliances and they are relieved from the tasks thatpreviously required manual control. This paper tracks thedevelopment of home automation technology over the lasttwo decades. Various home automation technologies havebeen explained briefly, giving a chronological account of theevolution of one of the most talked about technologies ofrecent times.

  19. Prospects for European labour demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, R M

    1988-07-01

    The impact of economic and technological trends upon the level and structure of labor demand is examined, exploring the methods used to model the labor market and making special reference to demography and technology. Evidence on recent and prospective changes in labor demand is reviewed for France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the UK. The models used to explore future employment scenarios usually fail to incorporate the linkages required to fully analyze the various demographic-economic interactions. Further, this is not generally viewed as a limitation, given the time frame of most employment projections and their preoccupation with changes in the structure of labor demand. Medium-term multisectoral models tend to pay more attention to both demographic and technical change, but the treatment of both aspects is limited. The projections provide a framework for considering how both socioeconomic behavior and policy might change to achieve different outcomes. The greater a model's behavioral content, as expressed in its relationships between different variables, the greater the insight obtainable from simulation exercises. The 1st half of the 1970s was characterized by a reduction in German employment, representing the severest of European reactions to the oil crisis. The 2nd half of the decade recorded rapid growth in Italy and the Netherlands. The 1980s started with marked declines in Germany and the UK. Overall, the net gains of the 1970s were lost in the recession following the 2nd oil crisis. In none of the 5 countries studied does any realistic prospect emerge of achieving full employment before 2000. The most optimistic outcome is that unemployment will decline only slowly, it at all. The growth of both new forms and areas of employment will not compensate sufficiently for the loss of jobs elsewhere and the growth of labor supply. The industrial sector will continue to experience change in favor of the service sector but at a slower rate than during

  20. Driving demand for broadband networks and services

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Raul L

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the reasons why various groups around the world choose not to adopt broadband services and evaluates strategies to stimulate the demand that will lead to increased broadband use. It introduces readers to the benefits of higher adoption rates while examining the progress that developed and emerging countries have made in stimulating broadband demand. By relying on concepts such as a supply and demand gap, broadband price elasticity, and demand promotion, this book explains differences between the fixed and mobile broadband demand gap, introducing the notions of substitution and complementarity between both platforms. Building on these concepts, ‘Driving Demand for Broadband Networks and Services’ offers a set of best practices and recommendations aimed at promoting broadband demand.  The broadband demand gap is defined as individuals and households that could buy a broadband subscription because they live in areas served by telecommunications carriers but do not do so because of either ...