WorldWideScience

Sample records for oophoritis

  1. Autoimmune oophoritis: A rarely encountered ovarian lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunitha Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune oophoritis is a rare disorder causing ovarian failure clinically characterized by amenorrhea and infertility. It often occurs in a setting of autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes. A 38-year-old female presented with a 3 years history of secondary amenorrhea. She was on treatment for Hashimoto′s thyroiditis and Addison′s disease. The ovaries were cystic and histologically featured by folliculotropic lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory infiltrate concentrated in the theca interna layer of developing follicles, but sparing the primordial follicles.

  2. [Abscessing salpingo-oophoritis caused by Actinomyces in a woman using an IUD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milia, S; D'Ovidio, N; Firinu, C

    1983-04-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that there is a connection between actinomycetic genital swelling and longterm use of the Lippes Loop. After a literature review, a case of actinomycetic abscessing salpingo-ovaritis in a woman who had worn the same Lippes Loop for 12 years is reported. It is concluded that Actinomyces must be always considered a potential etiological agent in all cases where genital swelling is found in patients fitted with such loops. (author's modified)

  3. [The computed tomographic semiotics of inflammatory diseases of the adnexa uteri].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todua, F I; Karmazanovskiĭ, G G; Podzolkova, N M

    1990-01-01

    The authors sum up the results of CT and clinical investigation of 46 women with inflammatory diseases of the uterine appendages: salpingo-oophoritis, pyosalpinx, pyoovarium, and 2 types of tuboovarian abscesses. They have shown CT potentialities in differential diagnosis of inflammations of the uterine appendages with cysts and true ovarian tumors on the basis of routine investigation and an iv contrast study of intensified images. Retrospective analysis of the most typical diagnostic errors is given.

  4. [Role and place of antibacterial therapy in prophylaxis of disturbances in reproductive function of women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkin, E V; Podonina, N M; Kordubaĭlova, N I

    2012-01-01

    One-stage retrospective analysis of 350 primary medical documents of the female patients treated under hospital conditions for salpingo-oophoritis in 2010-2011 was performed. The results were compared with those of the investigation of the present etiological pattern of pelvic inflammatory diseases (PID) by the data of the microbiological examination of 117 patients with PID and susceptibility of the isolates to the antibacterials. The frequency and efficiency of the use of antibacterials alone or in combinations were analysed in the treatment of various clinical forms of PID. The ovarian reserve was estimated in 87 patients after recovery from salpingo-oophoritis. 52 of them had an episode of the chronic process exacerbation and 35 had the first episode of acute PID. The ovarian reserve was estimated by determination of the anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), basal FSH level, ovarian volume and antral follicle count. A statistically significant decrease of the ovarian reserve in the patients with chronic salpingo-oophoritis confirmed the necessity of rational treatment of the acute inflammatory process.

  5. Progress on Clinical Study of Acupuncture Treatment for Chronic Pelvic Inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wen-jie; HUANG Guo-qi

    2008-01-01

    @@ Chronic pelvic inflammation is mostly caused byincomplete treatment of acute pelvic inflammation orby transference from pathologic condition due to poorbody constitution, including chronic endometritis,chronic salpingo-oophoritis and chronic inflammationof connective tissue, and is a commonly andfrequently encountered disease in the gynecologydepartment. Due to long duration, intractablecondition and high recurrent rate, it is also acommonly encountered reason to induce heterotopicpregnancy, sterility, pelvic pain and pelvic adhesivediseases. In the investigative study on the domesticliterature about acupuncture treatment of chronicpelvic inflammation in the recent five years, theauthor hopes to summarize the information forreference in the clinical treatment and to point outsome issues existing in the current clinical study.

  6. Pelvic actinomycosis and usage of intrauterine contraceptive devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J; Aaron, J

    1982-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is one of the most commonly encountered serious infectious disease entities in gynecology. The past decade has witnessed many advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of PID. It is now evident that such pelvic infections are largely polymicrobial in origin, with major involvement by anaerobic organisms. Salpingo-oophoritis is a part of the spectrum of PID. Included among this group of infections are tubo-ovarian abscesses, traditionally referred to as either gonococcal or non-gonococcal in origin. Within the latter group of infections the importance of anaerobic organisms has also been elucidated. Of particular interest is the reported observation of an increased frequency of salpingo-oophoritis among users of intrauterine devices (IUDs). These reports have noted the specific occurrence of serious pelvic infections due to Actinomyces species, and this will be the topic of the infectious disease conference. Our patient presented with a chronic illness characterized by lethargy, back pain, fever, and anemia; subsequently evaluation disclosed the presence of a large pelvic mass which was confirmed as a tubo-ovarian abscess at surgery. Histological evaluation demonstrated involvement by Actinomyces species. This patient's illness is discussed as a complication of chronic IUD usage with reference to specific management for this emerging problem.

  7. Tubo-ovarian abscess with Morganella morganii bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yen Yi; Chiu, Sheng Kang; Lai, Hung Cheng; Chang, Feng Yee

    2009-08-01

    Tubo-ovarian abscess caused by Morganella morganii is unusual. A 54-year-old menopausal woman visited the emergency room with lower abdominal pain, vomiting, and fever for 4 days. Pelvic examination revealed lifting tenderness over the right adnexum without motion tenderness of the uterus. Pelvic sonogram revealed a cystic lesion with heterogeneous content in the right ovary. Salpingo-oophoritis was suspected. Clindamycin and gentamicin were administered intravenously after obtaining blood cultures. Laparoscopy was done because of sustained fever, and an ovarian abscess was found. Laparoscopic salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. The patient was discharged 5 days later and oral clindamycin was prescribed. However, she was readmitted due to intermittent fever. The result of blood culture obtained before surgery disclosed M. morganii, which was resistant to clindamycin and cefazolin. Her symptoms resolved after administration of intravenous flomoxef. This report highlights the fact that antimicrobial resistance of M. morganii may complicate the management and outcome of this infection.

  8. The role of autoimmunity in premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbod Ebrahimi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF is a heterogeneous syndrome with several causative factors. Autoimmune mechanisms are involved in pathogenesis of 4-30 % of POF cases. The present review focuses on the role of autoimmunity in the pathophysiology of POF. The evidences for an autoimmune etiology are: demonstration of ovarian autoantibodies, the presence of lymphocytic oophoritis, and association with other autoimmune disorders. Several ovarian antigenic targets have been identified in POF patients. The oocyte seems to be the most often targeted cell. Lymphocytic oophoritis is widely present in POF associated adrenal insufficiency. Addisonۥs disease is one of the most common autoimmune disorders associated with POF. Early detection of this potentially life threatening disease was recommended in several studies. The gold standard for detecting autoimmune POF is ovarian biopsy. This procedure is not recommended due to unknown clinical value, expense, and risks. Several immunoassays have been proposed as substitute diagnostic tools. Nevertheless, there is no clinically proven sensitive and specific serum test to confirm the diagnosis of autoimmune POF or to anticipate the patient’s chance of developing POF or associated diseases. Some authors suggested the possible effects of immuno-modulating therapy on the resumption of ovarian function and fertility in a selected group of autoimmune POF patients. However, in most instances, this treatment fails to reverse the course of the disease. Numerous studies illustrated that standard treatment outcome for infertility is less effective in the presence of ovarian autoimmunity. The antibody-induced damage could be a pathogenic factor. Nevertheless, the precise cause remains obscure.

  9. [Complications of systemic cytomegalovirus infection in therapy-resistant Hodgkin's lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsai, Gábor; Tampu-Kiss, Tatjana; Dezső, Balázs; Miltényi, Zsófia; Illés, Arpád; Méhes, Gábor

    2012-05-13

    Cytomegalovirus infection related changes frequently remain masked by local symptoms of tumor invasion or therapeutic side effects in cancer patients. The spectrum of cytomegalovirus manifestations, however, can be highly varied and may contribute to the failure of different organs with fatal outcome. The case of a 29-year-old female patient is presented who obtained polychemotherapy and allogenic stem cell transplantation following the diagnosis of classical Hodgkin's disease. Despite intensified treatment, only partial response could be achieved and the outcome of the disease was death. Postmortem examination revealed regressive lymph node infiltration as well as nodular liver and spleen manifestations of classical Hodgkin's disease. In addition, parenchymal tissues (lung, kidneys, small intestine, liver, pancreas and ovaries) showed the classical morphology of widespread cytomegalovirus infection. Bilateral enlargement of the ovaries was caused by a partially necrotic giant cell proliferation in the subepithelial cortex. CD30-negativity and cytomegalovirus antigen positivity of the large atypical cell infiltrate supported the diagnosis of cytomegalia oophoritis with morphological overlap between cytomegalovirus-infected giant cells and residual Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg cells. Further to the cytopathic effect in multiple organs, significant hemophagocytosis was also observed in the spleen, liver and bone marrow. In summary, active cytomegalovirus infection may be a major cause of multi-organ failure in the immunosuppressed oncohematological patient. Careful postmortem analysis demonstrated both the activity of the viral infection and the efficacy of the anti-viral treatment, when applied.

  10. Pseudoactinomycotic Radiate Granules (PAMRAGs)- An Unusual Differential Diagnosis for Ovarian Neoplasm; A Diagnostic Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P J, Cicy; P J, Tessy; P, Lekshmidevi; V, Letha; Poothiode, Usha

    2015-03-01

    Pseudoactinomycotic radiate granules (PAMRAGs) are rarely detected lesions in ovary. Endometrium is the usual site and a detailed search of literature yielded only two cases in the ovary. PAMRAGs must be differentiated from actinomycotic granules which are also strongly associated with the use of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs). In cases of suppurative oophoritis due to actinomycosis, a proper diagnosis and culture confirmation is mandatory to avoid further complications. This case is reported due to its rarity, unusual clinical presentation and to highlight the importance of special stains in cases of tuboovarian abscess, where PAMRAGs may cause diagnostic dilemma. Our patient was a 50 yr old female admitted with clinical diagnosis of malignant ovarian tumour. After preoperative work up, panhysterectomy, infracolic omentectomy and excision biopsy of the right inguinal lymph node were done. Peroperatively the right ovary was enlarged and adherent to the fallopian tube and pelvic wall. Gross examination revealed a right tuboovarian mass with yellowish areas of necrosis and fibrosis. Histology showed a suppurative granulomatous lesion with spherical granules having club like peripheral projections. A panel of special stains (GMS, GRAMs and AFB) done were negative. Thus, we ruled out actinomycosis and gave a diagnosis of PAMRAG.

  11. Regulation of Murine Ovarian Epithelial Carcinoma by Vaccination against the Cytoplasmic Domain of Anti-Müllerian Hormone Receptor II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagri Sakalar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-Müllerian hormone receptor, type II (AMHR2, is a differentiation protein expressed in 90% of primary epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOCs, the most deadly gynecologic malignancy. We propose that AMHR2 may serve as a useful target for vaccination against EOC. To this end, we generated the recombinant 399-amino acid cytoplasmic domain of mouse AMHR2 (AMHR2-CD and tested its efficacy as a vaccine target in inhibiting growth of the ID8 transplantable EOC cell line in C57BL/6 mice and in preventing growth of autochthonous EOCs that occur spontaneously in transgenic mice. We found that AMHR2-CD immunization of C57BL/6 females induced a prominent antigen-specific proinflammatory CD4+ T cell response that resulted in a mild transient autoimmune oophoritis that resolved rapidly with no detectable lingering adverse effects on ovarian function. AMHR2-CD vaccination significantly inhibited ID8 tumor growth when administered either prophylactically or therapeutically, and protection against EOC growth was passively transferred into naive recipients with AMHR2-CD-primed CD4+ T cells but not with primed B cells. In addition, prophylactic AMHR2-CD vaccination of TgMISIIR-TAg transgenic mice significantly inhibited growth of autochthonous EOCs and provided a 41.7% increase in mean overall survival. We conclude that AMHR2-CD vaccination provides effective immunotherapy of EOC with relatively benign autoimmune complications.

  12. CT findings of acute pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi Hee; Moon, Min Hoan; Sung, Chang Kyu; Woo, Hyunsik; Oh, Sohee

    2014-12-01

    To determine the computed tomographic (CT) findings of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). This retrospective, single-institution case-control study was approved by our institutional review board, and the informed consent was waived owing to the retrospective nature of the study. CT images of 32 women with clinically proven acute PID and 32 control subjects with other conditions of similar presentation were retrospectively reviewed. Analysis of CT findings included hepatic capsular enhancement, pelvic fat haziness, complicated ascites, uterine serosal enhancement, tubal thickening, endometritis, and oophoritis. Comparison of CT findings was performed with the Chi square test or the Fisher exact test and logistic regression analysis was used to determine significant CT findings in predicting PID. The CT findings that showed a statistically significant difference were hepatic capsular enhancement on late arterial phase (p = 0.003), pelvic fat haziness (p = 0.045), and tubal thickening (p = 0.001). Subsequent multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of hepatic capsular enhancement on late arterial phase and tubal thickening were significant predictors of PID (hepatic capsular enhancement on late arterial phase, p = 0.015, odds ratio [OR] = 4.8; tubal thickening, p = 0.005, OR = 10.5). Diagnostic morphological CT findings in women with clinically proven PID and acute abdominal pain include hepatic capsular enhancement on late arterial phase and tubal thickening.

  13. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Multimodality Imaging Approach with Clinical-Pathologic Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revzin, Margarita V; Mathur, Mahan; Dave, Haatal B; Macer, Matthew L; Spektor, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a common medical problem, with almost 1 million cases diagnosed annually. Historically, PID has been a clinical diagnosis supplemented with the findings from ultrasonography (US) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. However, the diagnosis of PID can be challenging because the clinical manifestations may mimic those of other pelvic and abdominal processes. Given the nonspecific clinical manifestations, computed tomography (CT) is commonly the first imaging examination performed. General CT findings of early- and late-stage PID include thickening of the uterosacral ligaments, pelvic fat stranding with obscuration of fascial planes, reactive lymphadenopathy, and pelvic free fluid. Recognition of these findings, as well as those seen with cervicitis, endometritis, acute salpingitis, oophoritis, pyosalpinx, hydrosalpinx, tubo-ovarian abscess, and pyometra, is crucial in allowing prompt and accurate diagnosis. Late complications of PID include tubal damage resulting in infertility and ectopic pregnancy, peritonitis caused by uterine and/or tubo-ovarian abscess rupture, development of peritoneal adhesions resulting in bowel obstruction and/or hydroureteronephrosis, right upper abdominal inflammation (Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome), and septic thrombophlebitis. Recognition of these late manifestations at CT can also aid in proper patient management. At CT, careful assessment of common PID mimics, such as endometriosis, adnexal torsion, ruptured hemorrhagic ovarian cyst, adnexal neoplasms, appendicitis, and diverticulitis, is important to avoid misinterpretation, delay in management, and unnecessary surgery. Correlation with the findings from complementary imaging examinations, such as US and MR imaging, is useful for establishing a definitive diagnosis. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  14. MRI in pelvic inflammatory disease: a pictorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeyda-Pommersheim, Ferenc; Kalb, Bobby; Costello, James; Liau, Joy; Meshksar, Arash; Arif Tiwari, Hina; Martin, Diego

    2017-03-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an ascending infection of the female genital tract caused by the spread of bacteria from the vagina to the pelvic reproductive organs and occasionally the peritoneum. The most common causative organisms are sexually transmitted. PID is a significant source of morbidity among reproductive age women both as a cause of abdominal pain and as a common cause of infertility. Its clinical presentation is often nonspecific, and the correct diagnosis may first come to light based on the results of imaging studies. MRI is well suited for the evaluation of PID and its complications due to its superior soft tissue contrast and high sensitivity for inflammation. MRI findings in acute PID include cervicitis, endometritis, salpingitis/oophoritis, and inflammation in the pelvic soft tissues. Acute complications include pyosalpinx, tuboovarian abscess, peritonitis, and perihepatitis. Hydrosalpinx, pelvic inclusion cysts and ureteral obstruction may develop as chronic sequela of PID. The pathophysiology, classification, treatment, and prognosis of PID are reviewed, followed by case examples of the appearance of acute and subclinical PID on MR images.

  15. The nuclear and developmental competence of cumulus-oocyte complexes is enhanced by three-dimensional coculture with conspecific denuded oocytes during in vitro maturation in the domestic cat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, M G; Luvoni, G C; Comizzoli, P

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the efficacy of coculture with conspecific cumulus-denuded oocytes (CDOs) during in vitro maturation in a three-dimensional system of barium alginate microcapsules on the in vitro embryo development of domestic cat cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). In Experiment I, COCs were cocultured with conspecific CDOs or cultured separately in a 3D system for 24 hr of in vitro maturation, before assessing the meiotic progression. In Experiment II, the in vitro fertilization of COCs and CDOs was carried out with chilled epididymal spermatozoa and the presumptive zygotes were cultured in vitro separately for 7 days in 3D microcapsules before assesment of embryonic development. The results showed that the viability was maintained and that meiosis was resumed in the 3D culture system. The presence of CDOs during in vitro maturation improved the meiotic competence of the COCs, since the proportions of telophase I/metaphase II were higher than that in the groups cultured separately. The enrichment of the maturation system by companion oocytes also enhanced the ability of COCs to develop into embryos, and increased the percentages of morula and blastoycst stages. The COCs cocultured with CDOs developed at higher rates than the COCs cultured separately and the CDOs themselves. The beneficial effects of coculture with conspecific CDOs were presumably due to the paracrine action of some secreted factors that enhanced many molecular patterns related to the complex of cumulus oophorous cells. Further investigations to understand how the 3D microenvironment can influence the features of oocytes and embryos are required. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. 67例成人流行性腮腺炎的临床分析%Clinical analysis of 67 patients with adult mumps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐秀亮; 江启贵; 樊庆东; 朱艳

    2013-01-01

      目的:分析成人流行性腮腺炎患者的流行病学及临床特征.方法:回顾性分析池州市人民医院2006年1月至2011年9月收治的67例成人流行性腮腺炎住院患者的临床资料.结果:67例患者中,男性44例(65.67%).68.66%的患者年龄在18~30岁之间.全年均可发病,发病时间主要集中在2月和5月.31例(46.27%)有流行性腮腺炎接触史.50例(74.63%)患者无腮腺炎疫苗接种史.36例(53.73%)患者出现1种或多种并发症,主要并发症是睾丸炎、卵巢炎和胰腺炎.结论:成人流行性腮腺炎以男性多见,多无疫苗接种史,多有明确的接触史,全年均可发病;成人患者病情重,并发症多.应加强针对成年人的疫苗接种.%Objective: To analyze the epidemiological and clinical features of patients infected with mumps in Chizhou. Methods: The clinical data records of 67 patients infected with mumps who were hospitalized in People’s Hospital of Chizhou from January 2006 to September 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Among the 67 patients, 44 (65.67%) patients are male. There were 46 cases (68.66%) whose onset age ranged from 18 to 30 years old. The time of onset was mainly concentrated in May and July. Thirty one cases (46.27%) had a mumps contact history, 50 cases (74.63%) had no history of mumps vaccination and 36 cases (53.73%) had one or more complications. The main complications are orchitis, oophoritis and pancreatitis. Conclusion: Adult mumps are more common in males. Most of the patients had a clear history of exposure but no history of vaccination. It can occur in all year around. The adult patients had more severe illness and more complications. Thus, vaccination for adults should be strengthened.

  17. Holistic Nursing Intervention for Mumps%流行性腮腺炎整体护理干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢冬云

    2015-01-01

    Objective To summarize the clinical features of mumps in children and explore the corresponding nursing intervention. Methods 50 children with mumps admitted in our hospital from June 2011 to October 2014 were divided into the experimental group and the control group with 25 children in each in accordance with the sealed envelope method, treated by the holistic nurs-ing and conventional nursing, respectively. And the nursing efficacy was compared between the two groups. Results Patients with silent infection of mumps and early mumps patients are all the sources of infection of mumps. Mumps frequently occurs in children of school age. Most of the children have no precursory symptoms. The complications include meningitis, orchitis, oophoritis and pancreatitis. The incidence of complications was 4.0%in the experimental group, and 16.0% in the control group, the level of sat-isfaction of the children's families was 96.0% in the experimental group, and 80.0% in the control group, the difference between the two groups was statistically significant(P<0.05). Conclusion Mumps seriously affects the healthy growth of children. Early find-ing, early treatment, early nursing, active prevention and treatment of the complications can promote the recovery and improve the prognosis. Holistic nursing has higher clinical application effect, so it is worthy of promotion.%目的:总结流行性腮腺炎患儿的临床特点,探讨护理措施。方法随机选取2011年6月—2014年10月该院流行性腮腺炎患儿50例,按信封法将其分成实验组25例,对照组25例,分别给予常规护理、整体护理,对比护理效果。结果隐性感染者和早期病人均为腮腺炎传染源,好发于学龄儿童,多数患儿无前驱症状,并发症包括脑膜炎、睾丸炎、卵巢炎以及胰腺炎。实验组并发症发生率为4.0%,患儿家属满意度为96.0%,与对照组的16.0%、80.0%比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论流行

  18. 1株鸽源鸡杆菌复合群3的分离和鉴定%Isolation and identification of one pigeon-origin Gallibacterium genomo sp3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓林; 陈英; 余松城; 邹年莉; 吴瑞婷; 夏静; 牛婷; 王富妍; 黄勇

    2014-01-01

    报道我国鸽场中鸡杆菌的感染情况.四川某种鸽场的种鸽出现以消瘦、呼吸困难、气管和肺出血、腹膜炎、输卵管炎等为主要特征的疾病.选取代表性病例,进行细菌分离和病毒检测,并对分离菌进行形态学观察、生化鉴定、动物试验、药敏试验和16S rRNA 基因序列分析.结果显示,部分病鸽只检测到新城疫病毒;从肝、肺中分离到1株革兰阴性短杆菌,命名为 SC01,该菌株为致病菌,小鼠半数致死量(LD50)为1.26×109 CFU/mL,能发酵多数糖和醇类,对头孢类药物较敏感.将 SC01与 GenBank 中同源性较近的15株细菌的16S rRNA 基因序列进行同源性分析,发现 SC01株与4株鸡杆菌复合群3(Gallibacterium genomo sp.3)的同源性为98.5%~99.5%,其中与EU423996的同源性最高,为99.5%,证实该菌株为鸡杆菌复合群3.试验结果为鸡杆菌复合群3感染的流行病学调查、诊断与治疗提供了新的参考.%Summary Gallibacterium infection was a new infectious disease observed in some areas of China,which was mainly harmful for laying hen,resulting in salpingitis,oophoritis,peritonitis,septicemia,hepatitis,enteritis, respiratory tract diseases,and so on.So far,most of the G.anatis were isolated from poultry,including chickens, ducks,pigeons,geese,parrots,quail and guinea fowl,etc.Isolation of Gallibacterium from pigeons was not reported in China. A contagious disease occurred in one breeding farm of pigeon in Sichuan Province in January of 2013,with the characteristic signs of depressed wasting,dyspnea,diarrhea,and so on.The morbidity was about 43%,and the mortality was about 18%.The disease was mainly found in female pigeons,and female pigeons of different ages could be infected,especially pigeons of 1 to 1.5 years old.Mild bleeding and mucus could be observed in diseased pigeons,and other gross lesions could also be observed including hemorrhage of lung,peritonitis,salpingitis,mild bleeding of duodenum,and so on