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Sample records for oocyte retrieval rescues

  1. 1,500 IU human chorionic gonadotropin administered at oocyte retrieval rescues the luteal phase when gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist is used for ovulation induction: a prospective, randomized, controlled study

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    Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær; Ejdrup Bredkjaer, Helle; Westergaard, Lars Grabow

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively assess the reproductive outcome with a small bolus of hCG administered on the day of oocyte retrieval after ovulation induction with a GnRH agonist (GnRHa). DESIGN: Prospective, randomized trial. SETTING: Three hospital-based IVF clinics. PATIENT(S): Three hundred five...

  2. Rapamycin Rescues the Poor Developmental Capacity of Aged Porcine Oocytes

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    Seung Eun Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Unfertilized oocytes age inevitably after ovulation, which limits their fertilizable life span and embryonic development. Rapamycin affects mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR expression and cytoskeleton reorganization during oocyte meiotic maturation. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of rapamycin treatment on aged porcine oocytes and their in vitro development. Rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes for 24 h (68 h in vitro maturation [IVM]; 44 h+10 μM rapamycin/24 h, 47.52±5.68 or control oocytes (44 h IVM; 42.14±4.40 significantly increased the development rate and total cell number compared with untreated aged oocytes (68 h IVM, 22.04±5.68 (p<0.05. Rapamycin treatment of aged IVM oocytes for 24 h also rescued aberrant spindle organization and chromosomal misalignment, blocked the decrease in the level of phosphorylated-p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, and increased the mRNA expression of cytoplasmic maturation factor genes (MOS, BMP15, GDF9, and CCNB1 compared with untreated, 24 h-aged IVM oocytes (p<0.05. Furthermore, rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS activity and DNA fragmentation (p<0.05, and downregulated the mRNA expression of mTOR compared with control or untreated aged oocytes. By contrast, rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes increased mitochondrial localization (p<0.05 and upregulated the mRNA expression of autophagy (BECN1, ATG7, MAP1LC3B, ATG12, GABARAP, and GABARAPL1, anti-apoptosis (BCL2L1 and BIRC5; p<0.05, and development (NANOG and SOX2; p<0.05 genes, but it did not affect the mRNA expression of pro-apoptosis genes (FAS and CASP3 compared with the control. This study demonstrates that rapamycin treatment can rescue the poor developmental capacity of aged porcine oocytes.

  3. Cryopreservation of in vitro matured oocytes after ex vivo oocyte retrieval from gynecologic cancer patients undergoing radical surgery.

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    Park, Chan Woo; Lee, Sun Hee; Yang, Kwang Moon; Lee, In Ho; Lim, Kyung Teak; Lee, Ki Heon; Kim, Tae Jin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to report a case series of in vitro matured (IVM) oocyte freezing in gynecologic cancer patients undergoing radical surgery under time constraints as an option for fertility preservation (FP). Case series report. University-based in vitro fertilization center. Six gynecologic cancer patients who were scheduled to undergo radical surgery the next day were referred for FP. The patients had endometrial (n=2), ovarian (n=3), and double primary endometrial and ovarian (n=1) cancer. Ex vivo retrieval of immature oocytes from macroscopically normal ovarian tissue was followed by mature oocyte freezing after IVM or embryo freezing with intracytoplasmic sperm injection. A total of 53 oocytes were retrieved from five patients, with a mean of 10.6 oocytes per patient. After IVM, a total of 36 mature oocytes were obtained, demonstrating a 67.9% maturation rate. With regard to the ovarian cancer patients, seven IVM oocytes were frozen from patient 3, who had stage IC cancer, whereas one IVM oocyte was frozen from patient 4, who had stage IV cancer despite being of a similar age. With regard to the endometrial cancer patients, 15 IVM oocytes from patient 1 were frozen. Five embryos were frozen after the fertilization of IVM oocytes from patient 6. Immature oocytes can be successfully retrieved ex vivo from macroscopically normal ovarian tissue before radical surgery. IVM oocyte freezing provides a possible FP option in patients with advanced-stage endometrial or ovarian cancer without the risk of cancer cell spillage or time delays.

  4. Cryopreservation of in vitro matured oocytes after ex vivo oocyte retrieval from gynecologic cancer patients undergoing radical surgery

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    Park, Chan Woo; Lee, Sun Hee; Yang, Kwang Moon; Lee, In Ho; Lim, Kyung Teak; Lee, Ki Heon

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to report a case series of in vitro matured (IVM) oocyte freezing in gynecologic cancer patients undergoing radical surgery under time constraints as an option for fertility preservation (FP). Methods Case series report. University-based in vitro fertilization center. Six gynecologic cancer patients who were scheduled to undergo radical surgery the next day were referred for FP. The patients had endometrial (n=2), ovarian (n=3), and double primary endometrial and ovarian (n=1) cancer. Ex vivo retrieval of immature oocytes from macroscopically normal ovarian tissue was followed by mature oocyte freezing after IVM or embryo freezing with intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Results A total of 53 oocytes were retrieved from five patients, with a mean of 10.6 oocytes per patient. After IVM, a total of 36 mature oocytes were obtained, demonstrating a 67.9% maturation rate. With regard to the ovarian cancer patients, seven IVM oocytes were frozen from patient 3, who had stage IC cancer, whereas one IVM oocyte was frozen from patient 4, who had stage IV cancer despite being of a similar age. With regard to the endometrial cancer patients, 15 IVM oocytes from patient 1 were frozen. Five embryos were frozen after the fertilization of IVM oocytes from patient 6. Conclusion Immature oocytes can be successfully retrieved ex vivo from macroscopically normal ovarian tissue before radical surgery. IVM oocyte freezing provides a possible FP option in patients with advanced-stage endometrial or ovarian cancer without the risk of cancer cell spillage or time delays. PMID:27358831

  5. Perioperative and post-operative complications of transvaginal ultrasound-guided oocyte retrieval: prospective study of >1000 oocyte retrievals.

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    Ludwig, A K; Glawatz, M; Griesinger, G; Diedrich, K; Ludwig, M

    2006-12-01

    Although transvaginal ultrasound-guided oocyte retrievals (OR) are performed routinely worldwide, there is very little systematic data about its complications. We performed a prospective cohort study following the perioperative and post-operative complications of over 1058 ORs. Additionally, we assessed the pain experienced during the OR. A total of 1166 OR were performed during the study period, of which 1058 (90.7%) ORs were included prospectively. Incomplete data meant that the remaining 9.3% were excluded. No complications were caused by sedation or general anaesthesia. Vaginal bleeding was observed in 2.8% of procedures, without any cases of intra-abdominal bleeding. An injury of pelvic structures (a ureteral lesion) occurred in one case. No case of pelvic infection, but one case of unexplained fever, was observed. A severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) occurred in 2.7% of cases. Although most patients tolerated the OR well, 3% of patients experienced severe to very severe pain after the OR and 2% of patients were still suffering from severe pain 2 days after the procedure. The pain level increased with the number of oocytes retrieved. About 0.7% of patients required hospitalization for pain treatment. Patients can be reassured that overall OR is a safe procedure. However, patients have to be counselled about the minor risks of the OR. The literature on complications is reviewed in the article.

  6. Pregnancy and fertilization potential of immature oocytes retrieved in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles.

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    Ko, Duck Sung; Lee, Sun-Hee; Park, Dong-Wook; Yang, Kwang Moon; Lim, Chun Kyu

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy potential of immature (metaphase I or germinal vesicle stage) oocytes retrieved in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. A total of 1,871 couples with infertility underwent 2,984 ICSI cycles. Cycles in which three or fewer oocytes were retrieved were included in this study in order to evaluate the pregnancy potential of immature oocytes. Cycles were divided into five groups (group I-V), according to the maturation status of the oocytes at the time of cumulus cell removal and ICSI. The fertilization and pregnancy rates after ICSI were analyzed and compared among the study groups based on the maturation status of the retrieved oocytes. The retrieval of only immature oocytes was associated with a significant decrease in the fertilization rate (76.1%±37.3% vs. 49.0%±49.1%, 66.7%±48.7%; group I vs. group II, group III, respectively) and the average number of transferred embryos (1.5±0.7 vs. 1.1±0.4, 1.1±0.6). The cycle cancellation rate was significantly higher when only immature oocytes were retrieved. The clinical pregnancy rate decreased significantly when the transferred embryos had originated from immature oocytes (16.9% vs. 10.3%, 1.2%). In ICSI cycles, the fertilization potential and pregnancy potential of the immature oocytes retrieved in ICSI cycles were inferior to those of mature oocytes. Therefore, increasing the number of injectable oocytes and transferrable embryos by using immature oocytes after their spontaneous in vitro maturation does not necessarily improve pregnancy outcomes.

  7. Pain relief for women undergoing oocyte retrieval for assisted reproduction.

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    Kwan, Irene; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Knox, Fiona; McNeil, Alex

    2013-01-31

    Various methods of conscious sedation and analgesia have been used for pain relief during oocyte recovery in in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) procedures. The choice of agent has also been influenced by the quality of sedation and analgesia as well as by concerns about possible detrimental effects on reproductive outcomes. To assess the effectiveness and safety of different methods of conscious sedation and analgesia on pain relief and pregnancy outcomes in women undergoing transvaginal oocyte retrieval. We searched the Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) on The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL (from their inception to present); the National Research Register and Current Controlled Trials. We searched reference lists of included studies for relevant studies and contacted authors for information on unpublished and ongoing trials. There was no language restriction. The search was updated in July 2012. Only randomised controlled trials comparing different methods of conscious sedation and analgesia for pain relief during oocyte recovery were included. Quality assessment and data extraction were performed independently by two review authors. Interventions were classified and analysed under broad categories or strategies of sedation and pain relief to compare different methods and administrative protocols of conscious sedation and analgesia. Outcomes were extracted and the data were pooled when appropriate. With this update, nine new studies were identified resulting in a total of 21 trials including 2974 women undergoing oocyte retrieval. These trials compared five different categories of conscious sedation and analgesia: 1) conscious sedation and analgesia versus placebo; 2) conscious sedation and analgesia versus other active interventions such as general and acupuncture anaesthesia; 3) conscious sedation and analgesia plus

  8. Does the number of oocytes retrieved influence pregnancy after fresh embryo transfer?

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    Qianfang Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The nature of the association between the number of oocytes retrieved and in vitro fertilization (IVF outcomes after fresh embryo transfer remains unclear because of conflicting results reported in the studies on this subject. In addition, the influence of the quality of the embryos transferred is usually neglected. The objective of this study is to assess the relationships of the number of oocytes retrieved, the number and quality of embryos transferred, and the prospects of pregnancy after fresh embryo transfer. METHODS: The data on 3131 infertile women undergoing their first IVF treatment cycle between January 2009 and December 2010 were collected retrospectively. Restricted cubic splines and stratified analyses were used to explore the relationships between the number of oocytes retrieved, the number and quality of embryos transferred, and the IVF outcomes. RESULTS: When stratified by the number and quality of transferred embryos, no significant differences in the chances for clinical pregnancy and live birth were found in three groups of oocytes yielded (≤6, 7-14, or ≥15. The relationship between the number of oocytes retrieved and pregnancy is nearly a reflection of the pattern of the relationship between the number of oocytes retrieved and the probability of having two good-quality embryos transferred. The patients with the "optimal" number of oocytes were not only younger but also had the highest probability of having two good-quality embryos replaced. CONCLUSIONS: Similarly aged patients have similar pregnancy prospects after fresh embryo transfer when the same number and quality of embryos are replaced, irrespective of their number of oocytes. Selecting the desired number of good-quality embryos for transfer is the key to IVF success. Thus, aiming at retrieving an optimal number of oocytes to maximize IVF outcomes in a fresh cycle could place undue stress on the patients and may not be the best medical decision.

  9. Nomogram to predict the number of oocytes retrieved in controlled ovarian stimulation.

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    Moon, Kyoung Yong; Kim, Hoon; Lee, Joong Yeup; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Jee, Byung Chul; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Ki Chul; Lee, Won Don; Lim, Jin Ho; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Ovarian reserve tests are commonly used to predict ovarian response in infertile patients undergoing ovarian stimulation. Although serum markers such as basal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or random anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level and ultrasonographic markers (antral follicle count, AFC) are good predictors, no single test has proven to be the best predictor. In this study, we developed appropriate equations and novel nomograms to predict the number of oocytes that will be retrieved using patients' age, serum levels of basal FSH and AMH, and AFC. We analyzed a database containing clinical and laboratory information of 141 stimulated in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles performed at a university-based hospital between September 2009 and December 2013. We used generalized linear models for prediction of the number of oocytes. Age, basal serum FSH level, serum AMH level, and AFC were significantly related to the number of oocytes retrieved according to the univariate and multivariate analyses. The equations that predicted the number of oocytes retrieved (log scale) were as follows: model (1) 3.21-0.036×(age)+0.089×(AMH), model (2) 3.422-0.03×(age)-0.049×(FSH)+0.08×(AMH), model (3) 2.32-0.017×(age)+0.039×(AMH)+0. 03×(AFC), model (4) 2.584-0.015×(age)-0.035×(FSH)+0.038×(AMH)+0.026×(AFC). model 4 showed the best performance. On the basis of these variables, we developed nomograms to predict the number of oocytes that can be retrieved. Our nomograms helped predict the number of oocytes retrieved in stimulated IVF cycles.

  10. Early Pregnancy Loss Following Laparoscopic Management of Ovarian Abscess Secondary to Oocyte Retrieval

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    Emre Goksan Pabuccu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Severe pelvic infections following ultrasound-guided transvaginal oocyte retrieval (TVOR are rare but challenging. Ovarian abscess formation is one of the consequences and management of such cases as highly debated in pregnant patients. In this case report, an early fetal loss following laparoscopic management of ovarian abscess is described and possible etiologies are discussed.

  11. The impact of different time intervals between hCG priming and oocyte retrieval on ART outcomes

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    Mohammad Hadi Bahadori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal oocyte morphology has been associated with the hormonal environment to which the gametes are exposed. Objective: In this study, we evaluated the oocytes morphology, fertilization rate, embryos quality, and implantation rate resulted of retrieved oocytes in different times after human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG administration. Materials and Methods: A total of 985 metaphase II oocytes were retrieved 35, 36, 37 and 38 h after the injection of HCG as groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively. Oocyte morphology was divided into (I normal morphology, (II extracytoplasmic abnormalities, (III cytoplasmic abnormalities and (IV intracytoplasmic vacuoles and in each group, oocytes were evaluated according to this classification. Results: Extracytoplasmic abnormalities were encountered in 17.76% and 31.1% of these oocytes (groups 3 and 4 respectively, p=0.007 in comparison with 12.23% group 2. Cytoplasmic abnormalities in group 4 were higher than other groups. 23.88% (p=0.039 and 43.25% (p=0.089 of resulted 2PN (two pronucleus from groups 3 and 4 showed grade Z3 respectively in comparison to group 2 (16.44%. Normal and various categories of abnormal oocytes did not differ regarding fertilization and cleavage rates (p=0.061. However, group 4 showed significant difference in the rate of embryos fragmentation (grade III and IV embryo in comparison with group 2 (40.96% vs. 24.93%, p=0.078. The pregnancy rate was higher in G2 and G3 groups (28.5 and 24.13% respectively. Conclusion: Oocyte retrieval time following HCG priming affected on oocyte morphology, 2PN pattern and embryos qualities subsequently. Both good quality embryo formation and pregnancy outcomes were noticeably higher when oocytes were retrieved 36 h after HCG priming in ART program.

  12. Association of number of retrieved oocytes with live birth rate and birth weight: an analysis of 231,815 cycles of in vitro fertilization.

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    Baker, Valerie L; Brown, Morton B; Luke, Barbara; Conrad, Kirk P

    2015-04-01

    To determine if number of retrieved oocytes correlates with live birth rate and incidence of low birth weight (LBW). Retrospective cohort. Not applicable. Women undergoing fresh embryo transfer with the use of either autologous (n = 194,627) or donor (n = 37,188) oocytes whose cycles were reported to the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology in the years 2004-2010. None. Live birth rate, birth weight, birth weight z-score, LBW. For both autologous and donor oocyte cycles, increasing number of retrieved oocytes paralleled live birth rate and embryos available for cryopreservation in most analyses, with all models adjusted for age and previous births. For cycles achieving singleton pregnancy with the use of autologous oocytes via transfer of two embryos, a higher number of retrieved oocytes was associated with lower mean birth weight, lower birth weight z-score, and greater incidence of LBW. In contrast, for cycles using donor oocytes, there was no association of number of retrieved oocytes with measures of birth weight. A higher number of retrieved oocytes was associated with an increased incidence of LBW in autologous singleton pregnancies resulting from transfer of two embryos, but not in donor oocyte cycles. Although the effect of high oocyte number on the incidence of LBW in autologous cycles was of modest magnitude, further study is warranted to determine if a subgroup of women may be particularly vulnerable. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Does Unilateral Oocyte Retrieval due to Transvaginally Inaccessible Ovaries, Contrary to Common Beliefs, Affect IVF/ICSI Treatment Outcomes That Much?

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    Olgan, Safak; Mumusoglu, Sezcan; Bozdag, Gurkan

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment outcomes of unilateral oocyte retrieval in patients with transvaginally inaccessible ovaries. Study Design. Ninety-two women who underwent unilateral oocyte retrieval were retrospectively matched for age, antral follicle count, and body mass index with 184 women who underwent bilateral oocyte retrieval. Each patient in bilateral oocyte retrieval group had the same number of cumulus oophorus complexes (COCs) from single ovary and had comparable number of follicles (±2) on contralateral site where follicular aspiration was performed. Results. The number of COCs, metaphase-2 oocytes, 2-pronuclei, and top-quality embryos was significantly lower in unilateral oocyte retrieval group. However, proportion of patients with an embryo transfer of at least one top-quality embryo was found to be comparable between unilateral and bilateral oocyte retrieval. Subsequently, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were found to be similar between the groups. The ROC curve analysis revealed (AUC = 0.74, 95% CI 0.63–0.86, p = 0.001) that retrieved COCs ≥ 5 from single ovary had sensitivity of 76.0% and specificity of 64.2% for occurrence of a clinical pregnancy. Conclusion. The patients with unilateral oocyte retrieval have reasonable chance of success with IVF. The retrieval of ≥5 COCs from accessible ovary might result in better treatment outcomes among these patients. PMID:27123444

  14. Does Unilateral Oocyte Retrieval due to Transvaginally Inaccessible Ovaries, Contrary to Common Beliefs, Affect IVF/ICSI Treatment Outcomes That Much?

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    Safak Olgan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate in vitro fertilization (IVF treatment outcomes of unilateral oocyte retrieval in patients with transvaginally inaccessible ovaries. Study Design. Ninety-two women who underwent unilateral oocyte retrieval were retrospectively matched for age, antral follicle count, and body mass index with 184 women who underwent bilateral oocyte retrieval. Each patient in bilateral oocyte retrieval group had the same number of cumulus oophorus complexes (COCs from single ovary and had comparable number of follicles (±2 on contralateral site where follicular aspiration was performed. Results. The number of COCs, metaphase-2 oocytes, 2-pronuclei, and top-quality embryos was significantly lower in unilateral oocyte retrieval group. However, proportion of patients with an embryo transfer of at least one top-quality embryo was found to be comparable between unilateral and bilateral oocyte retrieval. Subsequently, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were found to be similar between the groups. The ROC curve analysis revealed (AUC = 0.74, 95% CI 0.63–0.86, p=0.001 that retrieved COCs ≥ 5 from single ovary had sensitivity of 76.0% and specificity of 64.2% for occurrence of a clinical pregnancy. Conclusion. The patients with unilateral oocyte retrieval have reasonable chance of success with IVF. The retrieval of ≥5 COCs from accessible ovary might result in better treatment outcomes among these patients.

  15. [Effects of electroacupuncture on supplementary analgesia and improvement of adverse reactions induced by dolantin in oocyte retrieval].

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    Chen, Qian-Qiong; Wei, Qing-Lin; Zhang, Xue-Hong

    2012-12-01

    To observe the effect of electroacupuncture on supplementary analgesia and improvement of adverse reactions induced by dolantin in oocyte retrieval, and to provide scientific and effective evidence for application of electroacupuncture in oocyte retrieval. One hundred and thirty-four patients undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) were randomly divied into an observation group and a a control group, 67 cases in each group. They were all received intramuscular injection of 50 mg dolantin at 30 mn before the operation, and then the observation group was treated with acupuncture at Baihui (GV 20), pain point (Extra, right), Sanyangluo (TE 8, right), Zusanli (ST 36, right) and ear uterus point (right ear). Pain point and Sanyangluo (TE 8) were received electroacupuncture stimulation after Deqi until the oocyte retrieval operation was finished, and the oocyte retrieval operation was performed in the control group after 30 min of injection of dolantin. The pain grade and score were observed and the adverse reactions during operation or 1 h and 2 h after the operation were recorded. The excellent analgesia rate was 97.0% (65/ 67) in the observation group and 92.5% (62/67) in the control group, with significant difference in the analgesia effect (P < 0.05). The pain grade and pain score in the observation group were both superior to those in the control group (both P < 0.05). There were fewer cases with the adverse reactions i.e. vertigo, sweating, nausea in the observation group than that in the control group during operation or 1 h and 2 h after the operation (all P < 0.05). In the oocyte retrieval operation, under the guidance of vaginal B ultrasound, electroacupuncture has a good intraoperative supplementary analgesia effect without intraoperative and postoperative adverse reactions induced by dolantin.

  16. Live birth following in vitro maturation of oocytes retrieved from extracorporeal ovarian tissue aspiration and embryo cryopreservation for 5 years.

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    Uzelac, Peter S; Delaney, Abigail A; Christensen, Greg L; Bohler, Henry C L; Nakajima, Steven T

    2015-11-01

    To report a live birth after in vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes retrieved from extracorporeal ovarian tissue aspiration in the setting of fertility preservation. Observational study. Academic center. A 23-year-old woman. IVM from extracorporeal ovarian tissue aspiration. Live birth after IVM. A 23-year-old woman conceived with embryos derived from extracorporeal oocyte aspiration followed by IVM, embryo freezing, and frozen embryo transfer. A healthy live birth from extracorporeal aspiration of immature oocytes, IVM, and a frozen embryo transfer after 5 years was documented. Consideration of this technique should be made as a primary or adjunct intervention in the setting of fertility preservation. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of progesterone level prior to oocyte retrieval on the numbers of oocytes retrieved and embryo quality in IVF treatment cycles: an analysis of 2,978 cycles.

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    Zhu, Haiyan; Liu, Liu; Yang, Lingyun; Xue, Yamei; Tong, Xiaomei; Jiang, Lingying; Zhang, Songying

    2014-09-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the relationship between serum progesterone (P4) response after hCG administration and the number of oocytes retrieved and the embryo quality in fresh IVF cycles. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women aged 24-43 years who underwent first fresh IVF cycle from 2011 to 2013 at a single practice. We compared the post-hCG serum P4 level with values on the day of hCG trigger. Patients were analyzed in long and short protocols independently. In addition, patients were stratified by post-hCG P4 response. Number of oocytes retrieved and embryo quality were the primary outcomes of interest. Ordinary least square regression models and logistic regression analysis models were created to identify predictive factors associated with embryological outcomes while adjusting for potential confounders. Among the 2,978 IVF cycles, 2,484 patients were in long protocols, and 494 patients were in short protocols. After adjusting for patient age, rFSH duration, and basal FSH levels, the associations between P4 response after hCG administration and number of oocytes retrieved (P birth rate indirectly.

  18. The clinical significance of the retrieval of a low number of oocytes following mild ovarian stimulation for IVF : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberg, M. F. G.; Eijkemans, M. J. C.; Macklon, N. S.; Heijnen, E. M. E. W.; Baart, E. B.; Hohmann, F. P.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Broekmans, F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Milder ovarian stimulation protocols for in vitro fertilization (IVF) are being developed to minimize adverse effects. Mild stimulation regimens result in a decreased number of oocytes at retrieval. After conventional ovarian stimulation for IVF, a low number of oocytes are believed to represent

  19. Relationship between lower number of oocytes retrieved and clinical outcomes of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer

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    Wang Xue-mei; Jiang Hong; Zhang Wen-xiang; Wei Zhao-lian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical outcomes of the infertile women with retrieved oocytes less than or equal to 5 undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).Methods: The clinical data of 216 embryo transfer cycles with retrieved oocytes less than or equal to 5 during the procedure of IVF/ICSI in Reproductive Medicine Center of the 105th Hospital of PLA from Jul.2008 to Dec.2011 were analyze retrospectively.All the patients were divided into group A (< 35 years),group B (35-39 years) and group C (≥40 years) according to the ages,and 409 IVF/ICSI cycles with patients’ age less than 35 years old and 6-15 retrieved oocytes in the same period were served as controlled group.Then the patients ≥ 35 years were subdivided into gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) long protocol group,GnRH-a short group and GnRH antagonist group according to the protocols of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH).The clinical date and the outcomes were analyzed and compared among all groups.Results: There were significantly differences in clinical pregnancy rate (38.3 % vs.19.4 %) and early abortion rate (16.1% vs.50.0%) between group A and group C (P<0.05),and there were no significant differences in clinical pregnancy rate(38.3% vs.41.6%)and early abortion rate (16.1% vs.10.0%) between group A and control group (P>0.05).There were no significant differences in clinical pregnancy rates (29.01% vs.26.1% vs.25.9%)and early abortion rates (33.3% vs.33.3% vs.40.0%) among GnRH-a long protocol group,GnRH-a short group and GnRH antagonist group (P>0.05).Conclusions: Relatively satisfactory clinical outcomes of IVF/ICSI would still be got for the patients <35 years with retrieved oocytes less than or equal to 5,but whatever COH protocols such as GnRH-a long protocol,GnRH-a short and GnRH antagonist could not improve the outcomes of IVF/ICSI for the patients aged ≥35 with retrieved

  20. Discontinuation of rLH two days before hCG may increase the number of oocytes retrieved in IVF

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    Session Donna R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Administration of recombinant luteinizing hormone (rLH in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation may benefit a subpopulation of patients. However, late follicular phase administration of high doses of rLH may also reduce the size of the follicular cohort and promote monofollicular development. Methods To determine if rLH in late follicular development had a negative impact on follicular growth and oocyte yield, IVF patients in our practice who received rFSH and rLH for the entire stimulation were retrospectively compared with those that had the rLH discontinued at least two days prior to hCG trigger. Results The two groups had similar baseline characteristics before stimulation with respect to age, FSH level and antral follicle count. However, the group which had the rLH discontinued at least two days prior to their hCG shot, had a significantly higher number of oocytes retrieved, including a higher number of MII oocytes and number of 2PN embryos. Conclusions When using rLH for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, administering it from the start of stimulation and stopping it in the late follicular phase, at least two days prior to hCG trigger, may increase oocyte and embryo yield.

  1. Trans-vaginal oocyte retrieval and subsequent in vitro production of embryos from a cow involuntarily culled : case report

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    D.G. Shaw

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A Holstein cow of high genetic merit, in late lactation (205 days and diagnosed with salpingitis (after 4 infertile services and veterinary consultation, was subjected to 1 trans-vaginal oocyte collection attempt, prior to slaughter.Of an estimated 10 follicles punctured, a total of 4 cumulus-oocyte complexes were retrieved. These were matured in vitro in a maturation medium for 24 hours. After 24 hours maturation, the oocytes were fertilised in vitro with Percoll-processed frozen / thawed imported semen, of the owner's choice. Fertilisation was achieved in a modified Tyrode's medium. At 18 hours post-insemination, the presumptive zygotes were transferred into culture in vitro in Charles Rosenkran's aminoacid medium and supplemented on Day 4 post-insemination with 10 % foetal calf serum. All in vitro procedures were conducted in 50 mℓ medium droplets, under oil, in a humidified incubator at 38.5 oC in 5% CO2 in air. Three of the potential zygotes cleaved and, by Day 7 of culture, these had developed to the morula stage. The embryos were frozen in 1.5 M ethylene glycol and later transferred non-surgically to synchronised Holstein recipient heifers. One morula resulted in the only pregnancy and subsequent birth of a healthy heifer calf. An independent commercial company confirmed parentage through standard bloodtyping assays. The genetic salvage of oocytes, for in vitro production of embryos, has potential benefits to the producer.

  2. A retrievable rescue stent graft and radiofrequency positioning for rapid control of noncompressible hemorrhage.

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    Chun, Youngjae; Cho, Sung Kwon; Clark, William C; Wagner, William R; Gu, Xinzhu; Tevar, Amit D; McEnaney, Ryan M; Tillman, Bryan W

    2017-08-01

    Noncompressible hemorrhage of the torso remains a challenging surgical dilemma. Stent graft repair requires endovascular expertise, imaging, and inventory that are not available within the critical window of massive hemorrhage. We developed a retrievable stent graft for rapid hemorrhage. We further investigated a radiofrequency (RF) positioning approach as a possible alternative to the logistics of fluoroscopy. A retrievable stent graft was constructed with a novel "petal and stem" design from nitinol and covered with a sleeve of electrospun polyurethane. The stent graft was tested using an in vitro model of simulated hemorrhage. Next, the stent graft was examined in vivo using a porcine model of noncompressible hemorrhage. The stent was examined for hemorrhage control in a porcine model of either aortic or caval injury. An RF reader was assembled from an Arduino processor while RF tags were affixed to the ends of the stent graft. Detection accuracy of a handheld RF wand for an RF tag was quantified both in vitro and through tissue. The retrievable RESCUEstent graft was deployed within minutes and rapidly controlled traumatic hemorrhage angiographically in both aortic injury (n = 3) and caval injury (n = 2). Stent grafts were easily recaptured in both models in under 15 seconds. The LED light of a handheld RF detector illuminated when positioned directly over an RF tag. The RF detection approach revealed positioning accuracy to within 1 cm of the intended target, despite tissue interference. This study demonstrates the rapid deployment and retrieval of a RESCUE stent graft as well as the ability to tamponade injuries of the aorta and cava. In addition, this study demonstrates the feasibility of RF tags to guide stent placement through tissue. More rigorous models are needed to define the effectiveness of this approach in the setting of vascular injury and shock.

  3. Comparison of ultrasound-guided endometrial polypectomy carried out on the oocyte retrieval day and the first day of ovarian stimulation in IVF-ICSI cycles.

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    Moon, Jei-Won; Kim, Chung-Hoon; Park, So-Yun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chae, Hee-Dong; Kang, Byung-Moon

    2016-09-01

    In this retrospective cohort study, the effect of endometrial polypectomy carried out on the day of oocyte retrieval and on the first day of ovarian stimulation in patients with a large (≥10 mm) endometrial polyp undergoing IVF and intractyoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was investigated and compared. A total of 74 eligible IVF-ICSI cycles in 74 women who underwent endometrial polypectomy on either the day of oocyte pick-up (late polypectomy group, 39 cycles) or the first day of ovarian stimulation (early polypectomy group, 35 cycles) between January 2007 and July 2012 were included in this study. Patient characteristics between early and late polypectomy groups were similar. Total dose and days of recombinant human FSH administered, numbers of retrieved oocytes, mature oocytes, fertilized oocytes, grade 1 or 2 embryos and embryos transferred between the two groups were also similar, as was clinical pregnancy rate per cycle, embryo implantation rate and spontaneous abortion rate between the two groups. Therefore, endometrial polypectomy on the day of oocyte retrieval could be a more patient-friendly option for patients with a large endometrial polyp undergoing IVF-ICSI.

  4. A comparison of three different target-controlled remifentanil infusion rates during target-controlled propofol infusion for oocyte retrieval

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    Demet Coskun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of three different target-controlled remifentanil infusion rates during target-controlled propofol infusion on hemodynamic parameters, pain, sedation, and recovery score during oocyte retrieval. METHODS: Sixty-nine women were scheduled for oocyte retrieval. Target-controlled propofol infusion at an effectsite concentration of 1.5 μg/mL was instituted. The patients were randomly allocated to receive remifentanil at an effect-site concentration of either 1.5 (group I, n = 23, 2 (group II, n = 23 or 2.5 ng/mL (group III, n = 23. Hemodynamic variables, sedation, pain, the Aldrete recovery score, and side effects were recorded. RESULTS: Hemodynamic variables, sedation and pain scores and the number of patients with the maximum Aldrete recovery score 10 min after the procedure were comparable among the groups. The number of patients in group III with the maximum Aldrete recovery score 5 min after the procedure was significantly lower than that in groups I and II. One patient in group II and one patient in group III suffered from nausea. CONCLUSION: Similar pain-free conscious sedation conditions without significant changes in hemodynamic parameters were provided by all three protocols. However, target controlled infusion of remifentanil at 1.5 or 2 ng/mL proved superior at providing early recovery compared to 2.5 ng/mL.

  5. A comparison of three different target-controlled remifentanil infusion rates during target-controlled propofol infusion for oocyte retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Demet; Gunaydin, Berrin; Tas, Ayca; Inan, Gozde; Celebi, Hulya; Kaya, Kadir

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of three different target-controlled remifentanil infusion rates during target-controlled propofol infusion on hemodynamic parameters, pain, sedation, and recovery score during oocyte retrieval. Sixty-nine women were scheduled for oocyte retrieval. Target-controlled propofol infusion at an effect-site concentration of 1.5 μg/mL was instituted. The patients were randomly allocated to receive remifentanil at an effect-site concentration of either 1.5 (group I, n = 23), 2 (group II, n = 23) or 2.5 ng/mL (group III, n = 23). Hemodynamic variables, sedation, pain, the Aldrete recovery score, and side effects were recorded. Hemodynamic variables, sedation and pain scores and the number of patients with the maximum Aldrete recovery score 10 min after the procedure were comparable among the groups. The number of patients in group III with the maximum Aldrete recovery score 5 min after the procedure was significantly lower than that in groups I and II. One patient in group II and one patient in group III suffered from nausea. Similar pain-free conscious sedation conditions without significant changes in hemodynamic parameters were provided by all three protocols. However, target controlled infusion of remifentanil at 1.5 or 2 ng/mL proved superior at providing early recovery compared to 2.5 ng/mL.

  6. Intrauterine administration of hCG immediately after oocyte retrieval and the outcome of ICSI: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Navali, N; Gassemzadeh, A; Farzadi, L; Abdollahi, S; Nouri, M; Hamdi, K; Mallah, F; Jalilvand, F

    2016-11-01

    Does the intrauterine administration of hCG immediately after oocyte retrieval in antagonist cycles with ICSI and fresh embryo transfer (ET) influence the implantation rate or chemical and clinical pregnancy rates? The intrauterine administration of hCG after oocyte retrieval increases the implantation rate and chemical and clinical pregnancy rates. Over half of IVF/ICSI cycles fail due to implantation failure. Intrauterine administration of hCG, a few minutes before ET, increased the implantation and pregnancy rates in most but not in all studies. The effect of intrauterine administration of hCG, after oocyte retrieval, has not yet been studied. The study was a parallel, triple-blind randomized clinical trial (RCT) performed from September 2015 to February 2016, in a university hospital. We recruited women undergoing antagonist ovarian stimulation, ICSI and ET. For an effect size of 0.2, power of 80% at a significance level of 0.05, we needed 150 participants. Accounting for a 7% dropout rate, a total of 160 women was considered appropriate. A computer-generated randomization list with a block size of 4, with 1:1 allocation was used. The treatment allocation was placed in a sealed, opaque, envelope and picked up consecutively. Immediately after oocyte retrieval, patients in the intervention and control groups were treated with intrauterine injection of hCG and saline, respectively. Participants underwent ET on Day 3. A beta-hCG test was done at 2 weeks. If positive, three transvaginal-ultrasonographies (TVSs) were done at 3, 4 and 10 weeks after ET. The participants were called up thereafter and questioned about the continuity of their pregnancy. Of 1990 women attending the infertility clinic of our university hospital, 508 were IVF/ICSI candidates during the study period, and 245 of the patients on an antagonist cycle met the criteria to be invited into our trial. Inclusion criteria were normal ovarian reserve, age ≤41, undergoing ICSI, and fresh ET and normal

  7. The effect of a rise or fall of serum estradiol the day before oocyte retrieval in women aged 40-42 with diminished egg reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, J H; Amui, J; Choe, J K; Cohen, R

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effect of a drop in serum estradiol the day after injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles in women aged 40-42 with diminished oocyte reserve. Retrospective study with further requirement that the female partner had a day 3 serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) of ≥ 12 miU/mL and ≥ five antral follicles. A drop in serum estradiol the day after hCG injection is not associated with a lower chance of pregnancy compared to those women whose serum estradiol increases. However, their chances of releasing the oocyte before retrieval is significantly higher. A drop in serum estradiol in women of advanced reproductive age with diminished oocyte reserve should not signal the need to cancel the retrieval.

  8. Concomitant ovarian drilling and oocyte retrieval by laparoendoscopic single-site surgery led to live birth using in vitro maturation of oocyte and transfer of frozen-thawed blastocyst in woman with polycystic ovary syndrome.

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    Hirata, Tetsuya; Fujimoto, Akihisa; Koga, Kaori; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Osuga, Yutaka

    2014-05-01

    This case report describes a case of concomitant ovarian drilling and retrieval of oocytes using laparoendoscopic single-site surgery and the resultant birth of a healthy infant after transfer of frozen-thawed blastocyst from in vitro matured oocyte in a woman with polycystic ovary syndrome. A 33-year-old woman presented with anovulatory, clomiphene-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome, and 1-year history of infertility. Thirty-seven immature oocytes were retrieved and multiperforation of ovaries was performed at the same time by laparoendoscopic single-site surgery. Twenty-three oocytes reached metaphase II after 24-h culture in in vitro maturation medium, which was followed by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Eventually, seven embryos were vitrified and spontaneous ovulation was restored after the operation. Although the first single frozen-thawed blastocyst transferred in a natural cycle ended up a biochemical pregnancy, the second frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer resulted in successful pregnancy, followed by live birth of a healthy male infant. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. In vitro maturation, fertilization, embryo development & clinical outcome of human metaphase-I oocytes retrieved from stimulated intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles

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    Cristina Álvarez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The major cause of fertilisation failure after ICSI is failure of the oocyte to initiate the biochemical processes necessary for activation. This inability could be ascribed to cytoplasmic immaturity of those gametes even if they had reached nuclear maturity. The activation of a mature oocyte is characterised by release from metaphase II (MII arrest and extrusion of the second polar body, followed by pro-nuclear formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fate of in vitro matured (IVM metaphase I (MI oocytes subjected to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI at different time intervals after extrusion of the first polar body (1PB in in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles. Methods: A total of 8030 oocytes were collected from 1400 ICSI cycles, 5504 MII at the time of cumulus retrieval. Four hundred eight metaphase II (MII (27.1% matured to MII after in vitro culture for 2-26 h and 5389 sibling MII in the moment of oocyte denudation were injected. On the other hand, 49 ICSI cycles containing only MI oocytes at retrieval were injected at three different time intervals after reaching the MII. The intervals were as follows: 2-6 h (n=10, 8-11 h (n=4 and 23-26 h (n=10. Fertilization and development potential were evaluated in both studies. Results: Fertilization, embryo cleavage and quality were significantly lower in IVM MI compared to MII at time of denudation. Pregnancy rate was higher in group MII. Pregnancy was achieved in three embryo transfers when ICSI was performed within 2-6 h (group I and 8-11 h (group II after PB extrusion. One pregnancy was obtained in group I and a healthy neonate was born. Interpretation & conclusions: Immature oocytes from women whose ovaries have been stimulated could be matured, fertilized by ICSI, cleaved in vitro and to give rise to a live birth. However, the developmental competence of embryos derived from immature oocytes is reduced, compared with sibling in vivo matured oocytes

  10. Vitrification vs. slow cooling protocol using embryos cryopreserved in the 5th or 6th day after oocyte retrieval and IVF outcomes.

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    Joanna Matysiak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Modifying cryopreservation protocols may be seen as a way to simplify cryobanking procedure and increase satisfying outcomes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of slow cooling protocol and vitrification on IVF outcomes using embryos preserved in the 5th or 6th day after oocyte retrieval. The study compared 2 groups of human embryos underwent slow cooling protocol (n=189 and vitrification (n=58. All embryos were cryopreserved in the 5th or 6th day after oocyte retrieval. Pre- and postfreezing embryo evaluation was performed in 2 or 3 steps scale, respectively. The study evaluates the effectiveness of two freezing methods and influence of the freezing day, pre- and postfreezing embryo grading on clinical pregnancy rate. Study showed higher pregnancy rate after vitrification (50.4% than slow cooling protocol (25.9%. Significantly higher pregnancy rate was observed, when embryo preserved in the 5th day after oocyte retrieval (50.3% than in the 6th day (22.7%. Postfreezing embryos evaluation showed that high quality blastocysts gave nearly four times better pregnancy outcomes than the ones evaluated as poor quality, and three times better than the ones evaluated as moderate. Prospective trials are needed to evaluate pregnancy and neonatal outcomes after vitrification. The number of controlled studies concerning vitrification has not been large enough, yet.

  11. The effects of different types of media on in vitro maturation outcomes of human germinal vesicle oocytes retrieved in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles.

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    Fesahat, Farzaneh; Dehghani Firouzabadi, Razieh; Faramarzi, Azita; Khalili, Mohammad Ali

    2017-06-01

    Optimizing in vitro maturation (IVM) media to achieve better outcomes has been a matter of interest in recent years. The aim of this prospective clinical trial was to investigate the effects of different media on the IVM outcomes of immature oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage. A total of 400 immature oocytes at the GV stage with normal morphology were retrieved from 320 infertile women aged 31±4.63 years during stimulated intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. They were divided into groups of homemade IVM medium (I, n=100), cleavage medium (II, n=100), blastocyst medium (III, n=100), and Sage IVM medium (IV, n=100) and cultured for 24 to 48 hours at 37℃. ICSI was performed, and the rates of fertilization and embryo formation were compared across the four groups. In the 400 retrieved GV oocytes, the total maturation rates showed significant differences in groups I to IV (55%, 53%, 78%, and 68%, respectively, p<0.001). However, there were no significant differences in the fertilization, embryo formation, or arrest rates of metaphase II oocytes across these groups. In all groups, GV maturation was mostly completed after 24 hours, with fewer oocytes requiring 48 hours to mature (p<0.01). Moreover, the rate of high-quality embryos was higher in group IV than in the other groups (p=0.01). The quality of the IVM medium was found to affect clinical IVM outcomes. Additionally, blastocyst medium may be a good choice in IVM/ICSI cycles as an alternative IVM medium.

  12. Ultrasonographic-guided retrieval of cumulus oocyte complexes after super-stimulation in dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).

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    Wani, N A; Skidmore, J A

    2010-08-01

    In Experiment 1, studies were conducted to apply the transvaginal ultrasound guided ovum pick-up (OPU) technique in dromedary camels after their ovarian super-stimulation and in vivo oocyte maturation. In Experiment 2, the developmental potential of two commonly used oocyte types, i.e., in vivo matured oocytes collected by OPU and abattoir derived in vitro-matured oocytes was compared after their chemical activation. In Experiment 3, developmental competence of oocytes collected from super-stimulated camels by OPU, matured either in vivo or in vitro, was compared after their chemical activation. Mature female dromedary camels super-stimulated with a combination of eCG and pFSH were given an injection of 20 microg of the GnRH analogue, buserelin 24, 26, or 28 h before the scheduled OPU. For collection of cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) the transducer was guided through the vulva into the cranial most portion of the vagina and 17-gauge, 55 cm single-lumen needle was placed in the needle guide of the ultrasound probe and advanced through the vaginal fornix and into the follicle. Follicular fluid was aspirated using a regulated vacuum pump into tubes containing embryo-flushing media. Aspirates were searched for COCs using a stereomicroscope, and they were then denuded of cumulus cells by hyaluronidase and repeated pipetting. The oocytes were classified as mature (with a visible polar body), immature (with no visible polar body), activated (with divided or fragmented ooplasm) and others (degenerated and abnormal). Overall an average of 12.12 +/- 7.9 COCs were aspirated per animal with an oocyte recovery rate from the aspirated follicles of about 77%. The majority (> 90%) of the collected COCs by OPU were with loose and expanded cumulus cells. The proportion of matured oocytes obtained at 28-29 h (91.2 +/- 4.1) and 26-27 h (82.1 +/- 3.4) were higher (P dromedary camels 26-28 h after GnRH administration. The developmental response, to chemical activation, of in vivo

  13. Maternal hCG concentrations in early IVF pregnancies: associations with number of cells in the Day 2 embryo and oocytes retrieved.

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    Tanbo, T G; Eskild, A

    2015-12-01

    Do number of cells in the transferred cleavage stage embryo and number of oocytes retrieved for IVF influence maternal hCG concentrations in early pregnancies? Compared with transfer of a 2-cell embryo, transfer of a 4-cell embryo results in higher hCG concentrations on Day 12 after transfer, and more than 20 oocytes retrieved were associated with low hCG concentrations. Maternal hCG concentration in very early pregnancy varies considerably among women, but is likely to be an indicator of time since implantation of the embryo into the endometrium, in addition to number and function of trophoblast cells. We followed 1047 pregnancies after IVF/ICSI from oocyte retrieval until Day 12 after embryo transfer. Women were recruited in Norway during the years 2005-2013. Successful pregnancies after transfer of one single embryo that had been cultured for 2 days were included. Maternal hCG was quantified on Day 12 after embryo transfer by chemiluminescence immunoassay, which measures intact hCG and the free β-hCG chain. Information on a successful pregnancy, defined as birth after >16 weeks, was obtained by linkage to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Transfer of a 4-cell embryo resulted in higher maternal hCG concentrations compared with transfer of a 2-cell embryo (134.8 versus 87.8 IU/l, P 20) was associated with low hCG concentrations (P hCG concentrations in early pregnancy. Although embryo transfer was performed at the same time after fertilization, we do not know the exact time of implantation. A further limitation to our study is that the number of pregnancies after transfer of a 2-cell embryo was small (27 cases). Number of cells in the transferred embryo and number of oocytes retrieved may influence the conditions and timing for embryo implantation in different ways and thereby influence maternal hCG concentrations. Such knowledge may be important for interpretation of hCG concentrations in early pregnancy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University

  14. Clinical benefit of metaphase I oocytes

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    Van der Elst Josiane

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied the benefit of using in vitro matured metaphase I (MI oocytes for ICSI in patients with a maximum of 6 mature metaphase II (MII oocytes at retrieval. Methods In 2004, 187 ICSI cycles were selected in which maximum 6 MII oocytes and at least one MI oocyte were retrieved. MI oocytes were put in culture to mature until the moment of ICSI, which was performed between 2 to 11 hours after oocyte retrieval (day 0. In exceptional cases, when the patient did not have any mature oocyte at the scheduled time of ICSI, MI oocytes were left to mature overnight and were injected between 19 to 26 hours after retrieval (day 1. Embryos from MI oocytes were chosen for transfer only when no other good quality embryos from MII oocytes were available. Outcome parameters were time period of in vitro maturation (IVM, IVM and fertilization rates, embryo development, clinical pregnancy rates, implantation rates and total MI oocyte utilization rate. Results The overall IVM rate was 43%. IVM oocytes had lower fertilization rates compared to in vivo matured sibling oocytes (52% versus 68%, P Conclusion Fertilization of in vitro matured MI oocytes can result in normal embryos and pregnancy, making IVM worthwhile, particularly when few MII oocytes are obtained at retrieval.

  15. Application of diclofenac for oocyte retrieval analgesia in IVF-ET cycles%同杜叮在IVF-ET取卵术镇痛中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宇彬; 麦庆云; 钟依平; 周灿权

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨同杜叮在辅助生殖取卵术中应用的效果.方法 分析2010年11月-2011年4月,于本中心行试管婴儿取卵术的1 176例患者资料,按照镇痛药物使用情况,随机分为哌替啶组(573例)和同杜叮组(603例).收集围术期血压、脉搏、血氧饱和度等数据,记录术中疼痛程度及恶心、呕吐、头晕等不良反应及严重不良反应资料.另外,进行两组间IVF-ET指标比较.结果 哌替啶组术后血压及脉搏较同杜叮组低(P均<0.001),其余生命体征数据差别不明显(P均>0.05).同杜叮组一般不良反应较少(P均<0.05).两组间疼痛程度差异无统计学意义(P =0.304),IVF-ET指标差异亦无统计学意义(P均>0.05).同杜叮组术后发生了3例腹腔大出血伴休克.结论 在辅助生殖取卵术中使用同杜叮镇痛效果良好,不影响体外受精-胚胎移植结局,但是需要密切注意预防腹腔大出血的发生.%Objective To study the effect of diclofenac on oocyte retrieval of assisted reproduction. Methods The materials of 1 176 cases of oocyte retrieval in IVF cycles in our center from November 2010 to April 2011 was analyzed. According to the analgesic drug use,the patients were randomly divided into pethidine group(573 cases)and diclofenac group(603 cases). Data of perioperative blood pressure,pulse,blood oxygen saturation, etc was collected. The intraoperative pain degree and adverse reactions, which including nausea, vomiting, dizziness and serious adverse reactions were recorded. The IVF-ET results were also compared. Results The post-operation pressure and pulse of pethidine group were lower than those of diclofenac group( P 0.05). Cases of general body adverse reactions in diclofenac group were relative less than those of pethidine group ( P 0. 05 ) . There were 3 cases of serious postoperative abdominal bleeding with shock in diclofenac group. Conclusion Using diclofenac in the analgesic of oocyte retrieval in assisted reproductive

  16. Anesthetic management for oocyte retrieval: An exploratory analysis comparing outcome in in vitro fertilization cycles with and without pre-implantation genetic diagnosis

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    Alexander Ioscovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To date, there has been no comparison of outcomes in women undergoing anesthesia for in vitro fertilization (IVF oocyte retrieval for the purpose of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD because of their or their partner′s genetic disease relative to the outcome in women requiring IVF because of fertility issues. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study, wherein all demographic and anesthetic management data were collected from IVF and PGD units′ records for a 6-month period. Descriptive analyses and parametric tests were employed. Results: There were 307 cases IVF and 76 cases PGD: most (97.4% and 99.7%, respectively received general anesthesia with propofol and fentanyl ± dipyrone (90.5% and 93.3%, respectively with no adverse effects. The only statistically significant difference between IVF and PGD groups that was potentially clinically significant was post-procedure recovery time (23.0 ± 20.4 vs. 29.4 ± 35.8 min, respectively; P < 0.0001, but is explainable as greater caution by Anesthesiologists for higher-risk PGD cases having autosomal dominant diseases that may impact anesthesia management (myotonic dystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Marfan′s; two of these cases also recovered in the general post-anesthesia care unit, as a precaution for early diagnosis and treatment of potential post-procedural complication. Conclusions: Results of this first-ever survey of anesthesia for PGD compared with IVF cases imply that propofol-and-fentanyl-based anesthesia is safe and can be recommended, bearing in mind that with patients who have autosomal dominant diseases impacting anesthetic management it is prudent to be more cautious post-recovery.

  17. Impact of number of retrieved oocytes in women under 35 years old with a long protocol for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation on the clinical outcome of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer%35岁以下患者长方案促排卵获卵数对体外受精-胚胎移植结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅琴; 杨菁; 徐望明; 谢青贞; 肖卓妮; 尹太郎

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨体外受精-胚胎移植(IVF-ET)周期最佳获卵数及其对妊娠结局的影响.方法 回顾性分析我院2009年9月至2010年8月35岁以下行长方案IVF-ET治疗的544个获卵周期的资料.比较不同获卵数的受精率、卵裂率、优胚率、临床妊娠率及并发症等指标的差异.结果 不同获卵数各组间促性腺激素(Gn)刺激天数、Gn用量、卵裂率、优胚率无明显差别(P>0.05),获卵数>25个组受精率低于其他各组(P15个,临床妊娠率较前下降,累积妊娠率随获卵数增加而增加,当获卵数>25个,临床妊娠率和累积妊娠率明显下降.结论 获得适量的卵有利于获得较满意的妊娠结局.%Objective: To explore the effect of retrieved oocyte number on pregnancy outcome of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET).Methods: A retrospective analysis was carried out on 544-oocyte pick up(OPU) cycles in women under 35 years old with long protocol IVF-ET in the hospital from Sep 2009 to Aug 2010. The women were divided into 6 groups according to retrieved oocyte number: Group A (≤5 oocytes), Group B (6-10 oocytes), Group C (11-15 oocytes), Group D (16-20 oocytes), Group E (21-25 oocytes), Group F(>25 oocytes). The fertilization rate, cleavage rate, advanced embryo rate, clinical pregnancy rate, accumulated clinic pregnancy rate, complications etc. in 6 groups were analyzed.Results: The gonadotropin doses, gonadotropin days, cleavage rate or advanced embryo rate showed no statistical difference in women withdifferent number of retrieved oocytes (P>0. 05). The fertilization rate in the Group F was less than that in other groups (P<0.05). The frozen embryo number, the serum E2 level and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome rate were raised with number retrieved oocytes increased.The clinical pregnancy rate enhanced with the retrieved oocyte number increased in ≤15 oocytes of groups,while decreased in >15 oocytes of groups. The accumulated pregnancy rate

  18. 成熟卵泡获卵率对体外受精结局的影响%The influence of retrieved oocyte rate of mature follicles on the outcomes during in vitro fertilization & embryo transfer procedure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马黔红; 黄仲英; 樊伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of retrieved oocyte rate on clinical and laboratory results during in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer or intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedure. Methods 746 IVF/ ICSI cycles (693 patients) were analysed retrospectively in West China Second University Hospital of Sichuan University from May to December in 2010. Based on retrieved oocyte rate, all these cycles were divided into four groups: group A, retrieved oocyte rate ≥80%; group B, retrieved oocyte rate 50 %~79%; group C, retrieved o-ocyte rate 30%~49%; group D, retrieved oocyte rate 0. 05). The cases from group D obtained the lowest number of retrieved oocytes in the four groups, and there were significantly lower in group D than in group A and B in maturation rate of oocytes, fertilization rate, cleavage rate and embryo formation rate that could be transferred (P< 0. 05) , which resulting to the lower clinical pregnancy rate, implantation rate and cumulative pregnancy rate in group D than in group A and B (P<0. 05). Also, there were significantly lower in fertilization rate, cleavage rate, embryo formation rate that could be transferred in group C than in group A (P<0. 05), but cumulative pregnancy rate in group C was similar to group A and B. Conclusions Decreased retrieved oocyte rate may cause decreased oocyte maturation rate, fertilization rate, cleavage rate and good quality embryo rate, so as to lessen the clinical pregnancy rate.%目的 比较在体外受精-胚胎移植/卵细胞浆内单精子注射(IVF- ET/ICSI)过程中,控制性超促排卵(COH)后成熟卵泡获卵率对IVF- ET/ICSI的实验室和临床结局的影响.方法 回顾性分析2010年5月至2010年12月四川大学华西第二医院行IVF- ET/ICSI治疗的693例患者,共746个周期,根据获卵率将患者分为A组:获卵率≥80%;B组:获卵率50%~79%;C组:获卵率30%~49%;D组:获卵率<30%.比较4组患者的临床和实验室结局.结果 A、B组卵子成

  19. Differential expression of vascular endothelial growth factor angiogenic factors in different endometrial compartments in women who have an elevated progesterone level before oocyte retrieval, during in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Jin, Xiaoying; Liu, Liu; Man, Chi Wai; Huang, Jin; Wang, Chi Chiu; Zhang, Songying; Li, Tin Chiu

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between endometrial expressions of angiogenic factors around the time of embryo implantation and P level before oocyte retrieval during IVF-ET treatment. Retrospective study. University Assisted Reproductive Unit. Forty patients were recruited, 20 women with an elevated P level, and 20 women with a normal P level, into cancelled embryo transfer (ET) cycles. Endometrial biopsy samples were obtained from women who had an elevated or normal P level 7 days after human chorionic gonadotropin administration. The protein expression levels of VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and PLGF were examined using immunohistochemistry. A semiquantitative analysis was performed using histochemical-score analysis of staining intensity in the luminal epithelium, glandular epithelium, and stroma, separately. Luminal epithelial expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-C, and PLGF did not significantly differ in women with elevated or normal P levels before oocyte retrieval. Glandular epithelial expression of VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and PLGF was higher in women with elevated P levels, compared with those with normal P levels. A significantly higher stromal expression of VEGF-A and PLGF was found in women with elevated P levels. A high P level before oocyte retrieval was associated with expression of VEGF angiogenic factors in glandular epithelium and stromal compartment around the time of embryo implantation. Our findings suggest that the lower implantation rates observed in this group of women may relate to decreased endometrial receptivity arising from altered expression of angiogenic factors. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Plasmatic Concentration of Propofol 2.5µg/ml by TCI using Marsh Modified Model, during oocyte retrieval for IVF in Latin-American women (Venezuelans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramìrez-Paesano, Carlos; Fhima, Isaac Benjamin; Medina, Randolfo; Urbina, Maria Teresa; Martínez, Carlos; Biber, Jorge Lerner

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate efficacy of Propofol at Cp 2.5 µg/ ml administered by Target Controlled Infusion (TCI) using Marsh Modified Model, in pre-medicated with midazolam/ fentanil Latin-American women (Venezuelans) during oocyte retrieval for In Vitro Fertilization. Prospective, descriptive study included 72 women, 18-44 years old, ASA I-II, non obese, undergoing oocyte retrieval, pre-medicated with midazolam 0.04 mg/kg and fentanil 2µg/kg and received anesthesia based in Propofol at Cp 2.5µg/ml by Target Controlled Infusion using Marsh Modified Model. Demographic data, propofol doses, duration of procedure and recovery time was registered using descriptive statistic. Anesthesia efficacy was measured by Biespectral Analysis (BIS), Intra-Operative Movements Scale (0 to 5) graded, Postoperative Pain by Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and nausea/vomits incidence. ANOVA and Pearson Chi2 were used with an error of 0.05. Age average was 33.04±6 years old, procedure average time 18.06±8min, Propofol total doses 146.64±53 mgs, Propofol infusion doses average 155.2±3µg/Kg/min. During procedure, 70.8% of patients had no movement, 22.2% movement Grade I and 6.9% Grade II. (Grade I-II movement did not interfere with procedure continuity). 70.8% achieved BIS 40-50 and 93.1% had BIS equal o less than 60. There was a statistic significant correlation between BIS 40-50 and no movements. Recovery post-anesthesia time was 25.2±8 min. 98.6% of patients reported excellent comfort. With midazolam/fentanil pre-medication, Propofol at Cp 2.5µg/ml by TCI using Marsh Modified Model showed a 93% of effectiveness during oocyte retrieval in Latin-American women subjected to IVF, allowing an ultra- fast recovery time.

  1. Assessing the adequacy of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist leuprolide to trigger oocyte maturation and management of inadequate response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Frank E; Beall, Stephanie A; Cox, Jeris M; Richter, Kevin S; DeCherney, Alan H; Levy, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    To compare outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles with adequate versus inadequate response to the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist trigger rescued with the use of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) retrigger, and to identify risk factors associated with an inadequate trigger. Retrospective cohort study. Private practice. Women at high risk for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome who underwent an autologous IVF cycle and used GnRH agonist to trigger oocyte maturation before oocyte retrieval. Patients were triggered with GnRH agonist for final oocyte maturation before retrieval. Patients with an inadequate response, defined by low post-trigger serum LH and P concentrations or failure to recover oocytes after aspiration of several follicles, were retriggered with hCG. Number of oocytes retrieved, fertilization rate, clinical pregnancy, and live birth. Two percent of patients triggered with GnRH agonist had an inadequate response and were retriggered with hCG. There was no statistically significant difference in clinical outcomes between the cycles that were retriggered with hCG and successful GnRH agonist triggers. Low body mass index, low baseline LH, and higher total dosage of gonadotropins required for stimulation were associated with an increased risk of having an inadequate response to the GnRH agonist trigger. A small minority of patients triggered with GnRH agonist had an inadequate response. Rescheduling of oocyte retrieval after hCG retrigger yielded similar IVF outcomes. Evaluation of trigger response based on serum LH and P concentrations is time dependent. Patient characteristics suggestive of hypothalamic hypofunction were predictive of an inadequate response to the GnRH agonist trigger. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Avoidance of weekend oocyte retrievals during GnRH antagonist treatment by simple advancement or delay of hCG administration does not adversely affect IVF live birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremellen, K P; Lane, M

    2010-05-01

    The use of GnRH antagonists in IVF treatment has many advantages over agonist long down-regulation, yet its uptake has been hampered by an inability to program the start date for gonadotrophin stimulation so as to minimize weekend oocyte retrievals (ORs). In this study, we retrospectively analyzed whether conducting a strict Monday to Friday OR program impacts on IVF outcomes. A total of 1642 non-programmed IVF antagonist cycles were analyzed to determine if advancing or delaying the OR by 1 day from 'ideal' to avoid Saturday or Sunday OR, respectively, had any impact on IVF outcomes. The IVF outcomes of Tuesday to Thursday served as a control as no modification in OR timing was required on these days. Advancing the OR by 1 day from the ideal resulted in a small but significant decrease in the number of oocytes collected and embryos created. Delaying the OR by 1 day from ideal resulted in a small increase in the number of oocytes collected and embryos created. However, deviation from the ideal day of OR had no significant effect on live birth rates. It is possible to safely avoid weekend ORs during GnRH antagonist cycles by simply advancing an ideal Saturday OR to Friday, and delaying an ideal Sunday OR to Monday, without adversely impacting on IVF live birth outcomes.

  3. 体外受精取卵日手淫取精失败的取精方法%Research on methods to obtain sperm after failing to obtain sperm by masturbation in oocyte retrieval for in vitro fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲军; 丘彦

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究体外受精取卵日手淫取精失败的取精方法.方法 对120例体外受精取卵日手淫取精失败的临床资料进行回顾分析.结果 120例患者分别采用药物治疗法、性交法、阴茎头震荡刺激法、经直肠输精管壶腹和精囊及前列腺按摩法、经皮穿刺附睾睾丸法5种方法作为手淫取精失败的替代取精法,120例患者全部取精成功.结论 性交法、经皮穿刺附睾睾丸取精法是较满意的两种替代方法.提前冷冻精子是解决体外受精取卵日手淫取精失败的最佳方案.%Objective To research the methods to obtain sperm after failing to obtain sperm by masturbation in oocyte retrieval for in vitro fertilization. Methods To retrospectively analyse the clinical data of 120 patients failing to obtain sperm by masturbation in oocyte retrieval for in vitro fertilization. Results 120 patients adopted 5 methods respectively to obtain sperm for substitution,which including drug treatment,coitus,shaking and stimulating balanus,pressing ampulla of deferent duct and seminal vesicle and prostate per rectum, percutaneous epididymal and testicular sperm aspiration. Conclusion There are two frequently used methods to obtain sperm by coitus and percutaneous epididymal and testicular sperm aspiration for substitution. It is the optimal method to freeze sperm in advance to deal with one patient fail to obtain sperm by masturbation in oocyte retrieval for in vitro fertilization.

  4. First-trimester screening in pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology: significance of gestational dating by oocyte retrieval or sonographic measurement of crown-rump length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, A.C.; Loft, A.; Pinborg, A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate, in pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology, whether determination of gestational age (GA) by date of oocyte aspiration (DOA) or crown-rump length (CRL) at first-trimester screening influences the distribution of serum and sonographic markers or the perfo......OBJECTIVES: To evaluate, in pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology, whether determination of gestational age (GA) by date of oocyte aspiration (DOA) or crown-rump length (CRL) at first-trimester screening influences the distribution of serum and sonographic markers......-trimester screening. The correct method of GA dating for other purposes (e.g. estimated time of delivery) in IVF/ICSI pregnancies is still unresolved Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10...

  5. Study on Electroacupuncture in Improving Discomforts During and after Oocyte Retrieval%电针改善取卵术中术后不适症状的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈前琼; 魏清琳; 敬思猛; 彭文化; 王婷婷; 张学红

    2014-01-01

    目的观察电针对取卵术中、术后不适症状的改善情况,为今后电针在取卵术中的应用提供科学、有效的临床依据。方法将134例接受IVF-ET助孕的门诊患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组67例。两组患者均于术前30 min接受肌肉注射杜冷丁50 mg,治疗组注射杜冷丁后给予针刺百会、子宫(右耳)、疼痛穴(右)、三阳络(右)、足三里(右),得气后在疼痛穴和三阳络连接SDZ-2型电针仪,取卵手术结束后起针。对照组注射杜冷丁30 min后进行取卵手术。记录两组取卵手术时间;测量注射杜冷丁前和手术结束后血压;并观察两组患者术中不适症状眩晕、恶心、呕吐、出汗、口干、心悸、腹胀;术后0.5 h、1 h、1.5 h、2 h的不适症状(眩晕、恶心、呕吐、腹痛、乏力)。结果治疗组取卵时间与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗组术中不适症状眩晕、出汗、恶心、心悸出现率与对照组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);术后0.5 h、1 h、1.5 h、2 h不适症状(眩晕、呕吐、恶心、腹痛、乏力)与对照组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。术后不适症状(眩晕、呕吐、恶心、腹痛、乏力)组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。治疗组术前及术后收缩压、术后舒张压与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论在经阴道B超引导下的取卵术中,电针在缓解术中及术后不适症状方面有明显的作用。%Objective To observe the efficacy of electroacupuncture in improving discomforts during and after oocyte retrieval, for providing scientific and significant clinical evidence for the application of electroacupuncture to oocyte retrieval.Method A hundred and thirty-four outpatients receiving IVF-ET fertility treatment were randomized into a treatment group and a control group, 67 in each group. The two groups both received muscular injection with Sauteralgyl 50 mg

  6. 长方案IVF/ICSI周期中获卵数与助孕结局的关系%Relationship between Numbers of Retrieved Oocytes and Outcomes of Assisted Reproduction in IVF/ICSI Cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪佳; 黄静; 何钰辉; 柳胜贤

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究和分析长方案体外受精-胚胎移植(IVF/ICSI-ET)周期不同获卵数目与受精率、卵裂率、优质胚胎率、周期冷冻率、移植胚胎数、着床率、临床妊娠率之间的关系。方法:对本院生殖中心2011年1月-2012年12月实施长方案有获卵的共786个IVF/ICSI-ET新鲜周期进行回顾性总结和分析,根据不同获卵数分为五组(A组1~4枚,B组5~10枚,C组11~15枚,D组16~20枚,E组>20枚),比较各组年龄、受精率、卵裂率、优质胚胎率、周期冷冻率、移植胚胎数及临床妊娠率。结果:获卵数随年龄增加呈下降趋势,但五组年龄、移植胚胎数比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);五组受精率、卵裂率、优质胚胎率、冷冻周期率及临床妊娠率比较差异均有统计学意义(P0.05).However,the differences in fertilization rates, cleavage rates,good quality embryo rates,freezing cycle rates and clinical pregnancy rates of the five groups were statistically significant(P<0.01).Group C had the highest clinical pregnancy rates while group A had the lowest.The clinical pregnancy rates of group B and D were higher than those in group E.Conclusion:In IVF/ICSI cycles,if we have the same number of effectively transferred embryos,the number of retrieved oocytes is closely related to laboratory indexes and clinical pregnancy rates.The best clinical outcome can be reached by obtaining a modest number of oocytes.

  7. Fertilization and Embryo Development of Fresh and Cryopreserved Sibling Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F. Casper

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oocyte cryopreservation is potentially the best way to preserve female fertility forunmarried women or young girls at risk of losing ovarian function. The aim of this study was tocompare fertilization and embryo development in frozen-thawed oocytes to their fresh siblings inwomen undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF and embryo transfer (ET.Materials and Methods: Eleven infertile women undergoing infertility treatment, between theages of 24 to 37 years (mean ± SD = 31.6 ± 3.5, were included in this study. Mature oocytesfrom each patient were randomized into cryopreserved and fresh groups prior to intracytoplasmicsperm injection (ICSI. One hundred and thirty nine oocytes were retrieved, of which 105 were atmetaphase II (MII. Forty- five fresh MII oocytes were kept in culture whereas their sibling 60 MIIoocytes were cryopreserved using a slow cooling protocol. The frozen oocytes remained in LN2for 2 hours before thawing. ICSI was performed 1-2 hours after thawing for frozen oocytes and 4-5hours after retrieval for fresh oocytes. Fertilization and embryo development were compared.Results: Following thawing, 31 oocytes (51.6 % survived and 22 fertilized (79% while 32 freshoocytes fertilized upon ICSI (71%. The mean ± SE scores for embryos developing from frozenthawedoocytes were significantly lower at 48 and 72 hours post-ICSI than for embryos resultingfrom fresh oocytes (p<0.05.Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that oocyte freezing resulted in acceptable survival ratesfollowing cryopreservation, and similar fertilization rates following ICSI as compared to the freshsibling oocytes. However the number of blastomeres and the embryo quality on day three wassuperior in embryos from fresh oocytes when compared to the frozen oocytes.

  8. Maritime Rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Anechitoae

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The maritime rescue, as any other legal institution related to maritime events - collision, crash, etc.- has its distinctive features. The maritime rescue may be considered as the operation that arises frommaritime collision, because, while collision stems from a breach of a negative duty necessary in maritimenavigation, i.e. of not harming the other, the maritime rescue is the implementation of positive obligationsrequired to vessel captains by the material requirements of the marine life that adds to the elements of thelegal concept which can be summed up as follows: to go to the aid of a vessel in danger, provided that thevessel does not expose itself, through this action, to a serious danger. The institution of maritime rescueencourages maritime commercial activities by the fact that, thus, there are governed such clear rights andobligations saving life at sea and shipping goods.

  9. Developmental competence of oocytes recovered from postmortem ovaries of the endangered Indian blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambasiva Rao, Brahmasani; Uma Mahesh, Yelisetti; Lakshmikantan, Uthanda Raman; Suman, Komjeti; Venu Charan, Katari; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2010-12-01

    The ability to rescue gametes from endangered or wildlife species and to subsequently produce viable embryos holds tremendous potential as a means to increase the population size of endangered or wildlife species. The objective of this study was to assess the meiotic and developmental competence of oocytes recovered from postmortem ovaries of the Indian blackbuck. Oocytes collected from the ovaries of dead blackbucks were allowed to mature in vitro and then tested for developmental potential by activation with ionomycin followed by treatment with 6-dimethylaminopurine. The average number of oocytes recovered per ovary was 10.9, and recovery of the oocytes did not depend on the presence or absence of the corpus luteum, on the side, size and weight of the ovaries or on the type of oocytes recovered. The proportion of good quality oocytes showing cumulus expansion and extrusion of the first polar body were 79.3% and 46.1% when cultured with gonadotropins. In vitro maturation studies indicated that the proportion of oocytes that reached MII stage was significantly higher when good quality oocytes (68%) were used compared with fair quality oocytes (48%) when cultured in the presence of gonadotropins. Furthermore, fifty eight percent of the in vitro matured oocytes cleaved, and thirteen percent of the cleaved oocytes developed into blastocysts. These findings suggest that the oocytes recovered from postmortem ovaries of the blackbuck can be utilized for production of embryos.

  10. [Mitochondrial and oocyte development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei-Ping; Ren, Zhao-Rui

    2007-12-01

    Oocyte development and maturation is a complicated process. The nuclear maturation and cytoplasmic maturation must synchronize which can ensure normal oocyte fertilization and following development. Mitochondrial is the most important cellular organell in cytoplasm, and the variation of its distribution during oocyte maturation, the capacity of OXPHOS generating ATP as well as the content or copy number or transcription level of mitochondrial DNA play an important role in oocyte development and maturation. Therefore, the studies on the variation of mitochondrial distribution, function and mitochondrial DNA could enhance our understanding of the physiology of reproduction and provide new insight to solve the difficulties of assisted reproduction as well as cloning embryo technology.

  11. Total number of oocytes and zygotes are predictive of live birth pregnancy in fresh donor oocyte in vitro fertilization cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariton, Eduardo; Kim, Keewan; Mumford, Sunni L; Palmor, Marissa; Bortoletto, Pietro; Cardozo, Eden R; Karmon, Anatte E; Sabatini, Mary E; Styer, Aaron K

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the association of oocyte donor-recipient characteristics, oocyte donor response, and live birth pregnancy rate following fresh donor oocyte IVF-ET. Retrospective cohort study. Academic reproductive medicine practice. Two hundred thirty-seven consecutive fresh donor oocyte IVF-ET cycles from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2013 at the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center. None. Live birth rate per cycle initiated. The mean (±SD) age of oocyte donors and recipients was 27.0 ± 3.7 and 41.4 ± 4.6 years, respectively. Oocyte donor demographic/reproductive characteristics, ovarian reserve testing, and peak serum E2 during ovarian stimulation were similar among cycles which did and did not result in live birth, respectively. Overall implantation, clinical pregnancy, and live birth pregnancy rates per cycle initiated were 40.5%, 60.8%, and 54.9%, respectively. The greatest probability of live birth was observed in cycles with >10 oocytes retrieved, mature oocytes, oocytes with normal fertilization (zygote-two pronuclear stage), and cleaved embryos. The number of oocytes (total and mature), zygotes, and cleaved embryos are associated with live birth following donor oocyte IVF cycles. These findings suggest that specific peri-fertilization factors may be predictive of pregnancy outcomes following donor oocyte IVF cycles. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. How does vitrification affect oocyte viability in oocyte donation cycles? A prospective study to compare outcomes achieved with fresh versus vitrified sibling oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, M; Santaló, J; Boada, M; Clua, E; Rodríguez, I; Martínez, F; Coroleu, B; Barri, P N; Veiga, A

    2013-08-01

    How does vitrification affect oocyte viability? Vitrification does not affect oocyte viability in oocyte donation cycles. Oocyte vitrification is performed routinely and successfully in IVF and oocyte donation programs. This is a prospective study performed between June 2009 and February 2012 to compare ongoing pregnancy rates and other indices of viability between fresh and vitrified oocytes. A total of 99 donations with more than 16 oocytes (MII) in which oocytes were allocated both to a synchronous recipient (fresh oocytes) and to an asynchronous recipient (vitrified oocytes) were included. The participants were consenting couples (donors and recipients) from the oocyte donation program. On the day of retrieval, the oocytes allocated to the synchronous recipient were inseminated and those allocated for banking were denuded of cumulus and vitrified. Vitrified oocytes were microinjected with spermatozoa 2 h after warming. Embryo transfer was performed on Day 2 of development in both groups, and the remaining embryos were cryopreserved on Day 3. Clinical pregnancy was defined by a positive fetal heartbeat at 6 weeks. A total of 989 oocytes were warmed and 85.6% survived. No significant differences were observed between fresh and vitrified oocytes: fertilization rate (80.7 versus 78.2%), ongoing embryo rate (71.0 versus 68.2%) or good-quality embryo rate (54.1 versus 49.8%). The mean number of embryos transferred was similar in both groups (1.82 ± 0.44 versus 1.90 ± 0.34). The implantation rate (33.3 versus 34.0%) and the multiple pregnancy rate (27.7 versus 20.8) were also similar between both groups (P > 0.05). The live birth rate per cycle was 38.4% in the recipients of fresh oocytes and 43.4% in the recipients of vitrified oocytes (P > 0.05). Eighty five frozen embryo transfers were also evaluated. Comparing embryos from fresh and vitrified oocytes there were no significant differences in the embryo survival rate (70.1 versus 65.8%), clinical pregnancy rate

  13. Successful live birth after rescue ICSI following failed fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a conventional IVF cycle unexpected complete fertilization failure may occur in 10-25% of infertile women. To overcome this barrier of fertilization failure, some investigators have suggested intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI on day 1 of an unfertilized mature oocyte, the so called "rescue ICSI". We report a case of fertilization failure followed by rescue ICSI resulting in a live birth. Although the success of rescue ICSI is still questionable, this procedure is worth an attempt in order to give the best chance to the couple in that cycle.

  14. Successful live birth after rescue ICSI following failed fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neeta; Malhotra, Neena; Shende, Unnati; Tiwari, Abanish

    2013-01-01

    In a conventional IVF cycle unexpected complete fertilization failure may occur in 10-25% of infertile women. To overcome this barrier of fertilization failure, some investigators have suggested intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) on day 1 of an unfertilized mature oocyte, the so called “rescue ICSI”. We report a case of fertilization failure followed by rescue ICSI resulting in a live birth. Although the success of rescue ICSI is still questionable, this procedure is worth an attempt in order to give the best chance to the couple in that cycle. PMID:23869158

  15. Successful live birth after rescue ICSI following failed fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neeta; Malhotra, Neena; Shende, Unnati; Tiwari, Abanish

    2013-01-01

    In a conventional IVF cycle unexpected complete fertilization failure may occur in 10-25% of infertile women. To overcome this barrier of fertilization failure, some investigators have suggested intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) on day 1 of an unfertilized mature oocyte, the so called "rescue ICSI". We report a case of fertilization failure followed by rescue ICSI resulting in a live birth. Although the success of rescue ICSI is still questionable, this procedure is worth an attempt in order to give the best chance to the couple in that cycle.

  16. The potential use of maturation in vitro of human oocytes in low responder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, A; Neuspiller, F; Cobo, A C; Aragonés, M; Remohí, J; Simón, C; Pellicer, A

    2000-05-01

    To assess whether maturation in vitro of human oocytes (MIVHO) could be an alternative treatment in low responders to ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF). Prospective case-control study. Spontaneously ovulatory women who volunteered were included in our program of MIVHO at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. Rates of oocyte retrieval, in vitro maturation, fertilization, and development up to the blastocyst stage were studied. A significantly increased rate of oocyte retrieval was found when the pickup was performed before follicular selection. No differences were found when MIVHO was used in a low responder patient with an ovarian content of early antral follicles > 5 as compared to normal responders. MIVHO could be a successful choice in low responder patients with an acceptable number of early antral follicles. Oocyte retrieval should be performed before follicular selection in order to obtain more oocytes.

  17. Role of rescue IVF-ET treatment in the management of high response in stimulated IUI cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olufowobi, O; Sharif, K; Papaioannou, S; Mohamed, H; Neelakantan, D; Afnan, M

    2005-02-01

    Rescue in-vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) has been used in high response gonadotrophin intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles to minimise the risks of ovarian hyperstimulation and multiple gestation. Such unplanned IVF treatment increases the cost of treatment. But can this added cost and the risks associated with IVF be justified? We present our experience with this treatment using clinical pregnancy and live birth rates as the primary outcomes. Between 1998 to 2001, 40 women undergoing IUI cycles who over responded (>3 follicles measuring >15 mm in diameter on the planned day of hCG administration) to gonadotrophin were offered the choice of conversion to IVF-ET or cancel the cycle. 17/40 declined rescue IVF/ET and had their cycles cancelled. 23/40 converted to IVF/ET and underwent transvaginal oocyte retrieval. 21/23 had embryo transferred. The clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were 52% and 48%, respectively. Rescue IVF-ET offers excellent clinical pregnancy and live birth rates in high responders. However, affordability can be an obstacle in the utilization of this treatment option.

  18. Dietary saccharides and sweet tastants have differential effects on colonization of Drosophila oocytes by Wolbachia endosymbionts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises Camacho

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia bacteria are widespread, maternally transmitted endosymbionts of insects. Maintenance of sufficient Wolbachia titer in maternal germline cells is required for transmission efficacy. The mechanisms that regulate Wolbachia titer are not well understood; however, dietary sucrose was reported to elevate oocyte Wolbachia titer in Drosophila melanogaster whereas dietary yeast decreased oocyte titer. To further investigate how oocyte Wolbachia titer is controlled, this study analyzed the response of wMel Wolbachia to diets enriched in an array of natural sugars and other sweet tastants. Confocal imaging of D. melanogaster oocytes showed that food enriched in dietary galactose, lactose, maltose and trehalose elevated Wolbachia titer. However, oocyte Wolbachia titers were unaffected by exposure to the sweet tastants lactulose, erythritol, xylitol, aspartame and saccharin as compared to the control. Oocyte size was generally non-responsive to the nutrient-altered diets. Ovary size, however, was consistently smaller in response to all sugar- and sweetener-enriched diets. Furthermore, most dietary sugars administered in tandem with dietary yeast conferred complete rescue of oocyte titer suppression by yeast. All diets dually enriched in yeast and sugar also rescued yeast-associated ovary volume changes. This indicates oocyte colonization by Wolbachia to be a nutritionally sensitive process regulated by multiple mechanistic inputs.

  19. The Influence of Seasons on Oocyte Parameters in ICSI Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddigheh Esmaeilzadeh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of seasonal variability on the assisted reproductive technique (ART success rate.Materials and methods: This study was a descriptive – analytical survey performed on 91 infertile women undergoing  intracytoplasmic sperm injection – embryo transfer (ICSI-ET in different seasons. The patients aged less than 35 years old and had normal LH/FSH ratio. All patients entered long protocol down regulation treatment cycle and the picked up oocytes were transferred to GIII medium in the infertility laboratory. The cumulus characteristics, oocyte parameters including number of the retrieved oocytes, morphological characteristics, fertilization and degeneration rate and number of cleaved embryos were recorded. Data were analyzed by SPSS software.  Results: The number of embryos was significantly higher in autumn. Abnormal morphological parameters (color, size, zona thickness and the degeneration rate were significantly higher in spring. The number of retrieved oocytes, MI, MII oocytes and fertilization rate had no significant seasonal variations.Conclusion: The results of this study showed a significant seasonal variation in morphological parameters of the oocytes, degeneration rate and the number of formed embryos.

  20. GIS Support for Flood Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Gengsheng; Mioc, Darka; Anton, François

    2007-01-01

    Under flood events, the ground traffic is blocked in and around the flooded area due to damages to roads and bridges. The traditional transportation network may not always help people to make a right decision for evacuation. In order to provide dynamic road information needed for flood rescue, we...... developed an adaptive web-based transportation network application using Oracle technology. Moreover, the geographic relationships between the road network and flood areas are taken into account. The overlay between the road network and flood polygons is computed on the fly. This application allows users...... to retrieve the shortest and safest route in Fredericton road network during flood event. It enables users to make a timely decision for flood rescue. We are using Oracle Spatial to deal with emergency situations that can be applied to other constrained network applications as well....

  1. Improved developmental ability of porcine oocytes grown in nude mice after fusion with cytoplasmic fragments prepared by centrifugation: a model for utilization of primordial oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Nakai, Michiko; Tanihara, Fuminori; Noguchi, Junko; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro

    2013-11-01

    Primordial oocytes are a potential resource for medical and zoological application, but those of large animals have not yet been reported to show efficient embryonic development. In the present study, we established a pig model for production of blastocysts from primordial oocytes that had been grafted into nude mice and matured in vitro, in combination with fusion of cytoplasmic fragments. Neonatal porcine ovaries in which most follicles are at the primordial stage were minced and grafted into nude mice (Crlj:CD1-Foxn1(nu)). About 60 days after detection of vaginal opening, the mice were given 62.5 U/mL porcine FSH for 2 weeks by infusion to enhance follicular development. Developmentally competent oocytes collected from porcine ovaries (conventional oocytes) were matured in vitro and subjected to serial centrifugation to prepare cytoplasmic fragments without a metaphase plate (cytoplasts). Three cytoplasts were fused by electrostimulation to an oocyte retrieved from a host mouse (xenogeneic oocyte) and matured in vitro. Then these fused oocytes were fertilized and subsequently cultured in vitro. No blastocysts were generated from xenogeneic oocytes without fusion of cytoplasm. When xenogeneic oocytes had been fused with three cytoplasts, the blastocyst rate increased significantly to 14.3%, comparable to that for untreated conventional oocytes (20.0%). The numbers of cells in blastocysts for these fused oocytes (37.2 cells/blastocyst) were not significantly different from those for conventional oocytes (25.4 cells/blastocyst). Our findings show that it is possible to use primordial oocytes of large mammals in combination with xenografting of ovarian tissue and also ooplasmic fusion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Oocytes with a dark zona pellucida demonstrate lower fertilization, implantation and clinical pregnancy rates in IVF/ICSI cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Xu, Bo; Wu, Li-Min; Jin, Ren-Tao; Luan, Hong-Bing; Luo, Li-Hua; Zhu, Qing; Johansson, Lars; Liu, Yu-Sheng; Tong, Xian-Hong

    2014-01-01

    The morphological assessment of oocytes is important for embryologists to identify and select MII oocytes in IVF/ICSI cycles. Dysmorphism of oocytes decreases viability and the developmental potential of oocytes as well as the clinical pregnancy rate. Several reports have suggested that oocytes with a dark zona pellucida (DZP) correlate with the outcome of IVF treatment. However, the effect of DZP on oocyte quality, fertilization, implantation, and pregnancy outcome were not investigated in detail. In this study, a retrospective analysis was performed in 268 infertile patients with fallopian tube obstruction and/or male factor infertility. In 204 of these patients, all oocytes were surrounded by a normal zona pellucida (NZP, control group), whereas 46 patients were found to have part of their retrieved oocytes enclosed by NZP and the other by DZP (Group A). In addition, all oocytes enclosed by DZP were retrieved from 18 patients (Group B). No differences were detected between the control and group A. Compared to the control group, the rates of fertilization, good quality embryos, implantation and clinical pregnancy were significantly decreased in group B. Furthermore, mitochondria in oocytes with a DZP in both of the two study groups (A and B) were severely damaged with several ultrastructural alterations, which were associated with an increased density of the zona pellucida and vacuolization. Briefly, oocytes with a DZP affected the clinical outcome in IVF/ICSI cycles and appeared to contain more ultrastructural alterations. Thus, DZP could be used as a potential selective marker for embryologists during daily laboratory work.

  3. Joint Rescue Drill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Ships gather for a joint rescue drill at the Waigaoqiao Dock in Shanghai on August 24.A large-scale rescue drill, combining maritime and air forces,was held as part of the ongoing World Maritime Rescue Conference 2011 in the city.During the drill,

  4. 电针在取卵术中辅助镇痛作用及对杜冷丁不良反应的影响%Effects of electroacupuncture on supplementary analgesia and improvement of adverse reactions induced by dolantin in oocyte retrieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈前琼; 魏清琳; 张学红

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of electroacupuncture on supplementary analgesia and improvement of adverse reactions induced by dolantin in oocyte retrieval, and to provide scientific and effective evidence for application of electroacupuncture in oocyte retrieval. Methods One hundred and thirty-four patients undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 67 cases in each group. They were all received intramuscular injection of 50 mg dolantin at 30 min before the operation, and then the observation group was treated with acupuncture at Baihui (GV 20), pain point (Extra, right), Sanyangluo (TE 8, right), Zusanli (ST 36, right) and ear uterus point (right ear). Pain point and Sanyangluo (TE 8) were received electroacupuncture stimulation after Deqi until the oocyte retrieval operation was finished, and the oocyte retrieval operation was performed in the control group after 30 min of injection of dolantin. The pain grade and score were observed and the adverse reactions during operation or 1 h and 2 h after the operation were recorded. Results The excellent analgesia rate was 97. 0% (65/ 67) in the observation group and 92. 5% (62/67) in the control group, with significant difference in the analgesia effect (P<0. 05). The pain grade and pain score in the observation group were both superior to those in the control group (both P<0. 05). There were fewer cases with the adverse reactions i. e. vertigo, sweating, nausea in the observation group than that in the control group during operation or 1 h and 2 h after the operation (all P<0. 05). Conclusion In the oocyte retrieval operation, under the guidance of vaginal B ultrasound, electroacupuncture has a good intraoperative supplementary analgesia effect without intraoperative and postoperative adverse reactions induced by dolantin.%目的:观察电针在取卵术中辅助镇痛的效果,并对杜冷丁不良反应的改善作用进行

  5. Capu and Spire assemble a cytoplasmic actin mesh that maintains microtubule organization in the Drosophila oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgaard, Katja; Raposo, Alexandre A S F; Niccoli, Teresa; St Johnston, Daniel

    2007-10-01

    Mutants in the actin nucleators Cappuccino and Spire disrupt the polarized microtubule network in the Drosophila oocyte that defines the anterior-posterior axis, suggesting that microtubule organization depends on actin. Here, we show that Cappuccino and Spire organize an isotropic mesh of actin filaments in the oocyte cytoplasm. capu and spire mutants lack this mesh, whereas overexpressed truncated Cappuccino stabilizes the mesh in the presence of Latrunculin A and partially rescues spire mutants. Spire overexpression cannot rescue capu mutants, but prevents actin mesh disassembly at stage 10B and blocks late cytoplasmic streaming. We also show that the actin mesh regulates microtubules indirectly, by inhibiting kinesin-dependent cytoplasmic flows. Thus, the Capu pathway controls alternative states of the oocyte cytoplasm: when active, it assembles an actin mesh that suppresses kinesin motility to maintain a polarized microtubule cytoskeleton. When inactive, unrestrained kinesin movement generates flows that wash microtubules to the cortex.

  6. Oocyte cryopreservation in oncological patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcu, Eleonora; Fabbri, Raffaella; Damiano, Giuseppe; Fratto, Rosita; Giunchi, Susanna; Venturoli, Stefano

    2004-04-05

    The use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in oncological patients may reduce their reproductive potential. Sperm cryopreservation has been already used in men affected by neoplastic disease. Oocyte cryopreservation might be an important solution for these patients at risk of losing ovarian function. A program of oocyte cryopreservation for oncological patients is also present in our center. From June 1996 to January 2000, 18 patients awaiting chemotherapy and radiotherapy for neoplastic disease were included in our oocyte cryopreservation program. Our experience documents that oocyte storage may be a concrete and pragmatic alternative for oncological patients. The duration of oocyte storage does not seem to interfere with oocyte survival as pregnancies occurred even after several years of gamete cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen.

  7. Diving into the oocyte pool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Stine G; Pors, Susanne E; Yding Andersen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The ovarian reserve comprises an enormous surplus of follicles. Despite this, some women produce insufficient numbers of oocytes by conventional fertility treatments. However, recent technical accomplishments may transform assisted reproductive technology (ART) in such a way...... for revitalizing deficient oocytes may transform ART, and potentially enhance both quantity and quality of fertilizable oocytes; hereby augmenting the pregnancy potential of women with poor reproductive performance....

  8. Capu and Spire Assemble a Cytoplasmic Actin Mesh that Maintains Microtubule Organization in the Drosophila Oocyte

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlgaard, Katja; Alexandre A.S.F. Raposo; Niccoli, Teresa; St Johnston, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Summary Mutants in the actin nucleators Cappuccino and Spire disrupt the polarized microtubule network in the Drosophila oocyte that defines the anterior-posterior axis, suggesting that microtubule organization depends on actin. Here, we show that Cappuccino and Spire organize an isotropic mesh of actin filaments in the oocyte cytoplasm. capu and spire mutants lack this mesh, whereas overexpressed truncated Cappuccino stabilizes the mesh in the presence of Latrunculin A and partially rescues ...

  9. The potential significance of binovular follicles and binucleate giant oocytes for the development of genetic abnormalities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bernd Rosenbusch

    2012-12-01

    Normal development of a fertilizable female gamete emanates from a follicle containing only one oocyte that becomes haploid after first meiotic division. Binovular follicles including two oocytes and binucleate giant oocytes that are diploid after first meiosis constitute notable exceptions from this rule. Data provided by programmes of human-assisted reproduction on the occurrence of both phenomena have been reviewed to evaluate possible implications for the formation of genetic abnormalities. To exclude confusion with oocytes aspirated from two adjacent individual follicles, true binovularity has been defined as inclusion of two oocytes within a common zona pellucida or their fusion in the zonal region. A total of 18 conjoined oocytes have been reported and one of the oocyte was normally fertilized in seven cases. Simultaneous fertilization of both female gametes occurred only once. No pregnancy was achieved after transfer of an embryo from a binovular follicle. Binucleate giant oocytes have been observed sporadically but a few reports suggest an incidence of up to 0.3% of all gametes retrieved. Extensive studies performed by two independent centres demonstrated that giant oocytes are diploid at metaphase II, can undergo fertilization in vitro with formation of two or three pronuclei and develop into triploid zygotes and triploid or triploid/mosaic embryos. In summary, giant binucleate oocytes may be responsible for the development of digynic triploidy whereas the currently available data do not support a role of conjoined oocytes in producing dizygotic twins, mosaicism, chimaeras or tetraploidy. However, more information on the maturity and fertilizability of oocytes from binovular follicles is needed. Future studies should also evaluate a possible impact of pharmaceutical and environmental oestrogens on the formation of multiovular follicles.

  10. Hi-tech Rescue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Following the May 12 earthquake in Sichuan Province,rescue teams from across China have been racing against time to save as many people in the disaster area as possible.Among them is a squad clad in eye-catching orange uniforms whose members are better equipped than other rescuers and demonstrate higher levels of skill. It is the country’s best- trained earthquake emergency response team—the China National Earthquake Disaster Emergency Response and Rescue Team,also known as the China International Search and Rescue Team when it performs missions abroad.

  11. Oocyte maturation in humans: the role of gonadotropins and growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, E; Tarín, J J; Pellicer, A

    1993-07-01

    To determine the effect of FSH/LH in vivo and epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in vitro on human oocyte maturation. Oocyte-cumulus complexes were harvested from three different groups of patients: [1] unstimulated ovaries from women undergoing surgery; [2] multifollicular development achieved with a combination of FSH and LH in the absence of an ovulatory dose of hCG; and [3] oocyte-cumulus complexes retrieved after appropriate ovarian stimulation with FSH/LH and hCG for IVF purposes. In vitro fertilization program and patients undergoing surgery for benign disorders at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad, Valencia, Spain. Oocyte-cumulus complexes from unstimulated ovaries collected at surgery by follicular puncture and washing. Oocyte-cumulus complexes from stimulated cycles obtained by ultrasound-guided transvaginal aspiration. Oocyte-cumulus complexes cultured in vitro in the absence or presence of different concentrations of EGF and IGF-I. Germinal vesicle breakdown and metaphase-II stage after 24 and 48 hours. Comparison of the spontaneous resumption of meiosis and metaphase II oocytes among groups showed significant differences between unstimulated and stimulated ovaries after 24 and 48 hours in culture. Administration of hCG accelerated the percentage of maturation by 24 hours. Further incubation of unstimulated oocyte-cumulus complexes with EGF and IGF-I significantly increased the percentage of metaphase-II oocytes after 24 and 48 hours in culture. Epidermal growth factor and IGF-I are able to augment spontaneous maturaion in immature human oocytes. Because spontaneous maturation is mainly observed when follicles have been exposed to pharmacological doses of hMG, it is suggested that increasing FSH levels within the follicle is coincident with the generation of a positive signal necessary to complete oocyte maturation in humans. This signal may be linked to the dynamics of growth factors within the follicle itself.

  12. Effect of Fertilization Mode, the Woman's Age, Reproductive History and Numbers of Retrieved Oocytes on Abnormal Fertilization in Human IVF/ICSI%受精方式、女方年龄、生育史和取卵数对体外异常受精的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    习海涛; 陈华; 葛红山; 单丹; 吕杰强

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the affecting factors of abnormal fertilization in human IVF/ICSI. Methods: The 15 364 oocytes from 1 004 IVF cycles and 250 ICSI cycles were retrospectively analyzed by the fertilization mode, the age of women, reproductive history, the number of retrieved oocytes of the incidence of normal fertilization rate (2 pronuclear, 2PN) and abnormal fertilization rate (1PN, 3PN, 4PN). Results: 1) The incidence of 1PN rate was lower in the ICSI group than that in the IVF group, however, the incidence of 3PN/4PN fertilization rate was higher in the ICSI group than that in the IVF group. 2) In the ICSI group the incidence of 3PN/4PN was significantly increased when the age of female was older than 35 (P<0.05). 3) The incidence of 1PN in the group of primary infertility was obviously more than that in the group of secondary infertility. 4) Total normal fertility rate in the group of 6-10 retrieved oocytes was higher than that in the other groups(P<0.05), and the incidence rate of abnormal fertilization (1PN, 3PN, 4PN) in the group of 11-15 oocytes was singnificantly higher than that in the other groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: The affecting factors and fertilization mechanism are different between IVF and ICSI: considering multiple factors for every couple of infertility and optimal fertilization modality in IVF may decline the incidence of abnormal fertilization and improve the normal fertilizaton rate.%目的:探讨人卵子体外受精后单原核(PN)和多原核胚胎形成的影响因素,为提高正常受精率探寻可行的方法.方法:回顾性分析1 004个IVF周期和250个ICSI周期,共计15 364个卵细胞资料,研究胚胎原核形成与体外受精方式、女方年龄、生育史、获卵数的关系.结果:①ICSI周期的1PN率明显高于IVF周期,而3PN和4PN形成率则明显低于IVF(P<0.05).②当女方年龄>35岁时,1PN、3PN和4PN形成率均显著高于年龄≤35岁者(P<0.05);当女方年龄在28~35岁时2PN(-正-

  13. Microtubule–microtubule sliding by kinesin-1 is essential for normal cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen; Winding, Michael; Lakonishok, Margot; Wildonger, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes is a microtubule-based bulk cytoplasmic movement. Streaming efficiently circulates and localizes mRNAs and proteins deposited by the nurse cells across the oocyte. This movement is driven by kinesin-1, a major microtubule motor. Recently, we have shown that kinesin-1 heavy chain (KHC) can transport one microtubule on another microtubule, thus driving microtubule–microtubule sliding in multiple cell types. To study the role of microtubule sliding in oocyte cytoplasmic streaming, we used a Khc mutant that is deficient in microtubule sliding but able to transport a majority of cargoes. We demonstrated that streaming is reduced by genomic replacement of wild-type Khc with this sliding-deficient mutant. Streaming can be fully rescued by wild-type KHC and partially rescued by a chimeric motor that cannot move organelles but is active in microtubule sliding. Consistent with these data, we identified two populations of microtubules in fast-streaming oocytes: a network of stable microtubules anchored to the actin cortex and free cytoplasmic microtubules that moved in the ooplasm. We further demonstrated that the reduced streaming in sliding-deficient oocytes resulted in posterior determination defects. Together, we propose that kinesin-1 slides free cytoplasmic microtubules against cortically immobilized microtubules, generating forces that contribute to cytoplasmic streaming and are essential for the refinement of posterior determinants. PMID:27512034

  14. Microtubule-microtubule sliding by kinesin-1 is essential for normal cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen; Winding, Michael; Lakonishok, Margot; Wildonger, Jill; Gelfand, Vladimir I

    2016-08-23

    Cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes is a microtubule-based bulk cytoplasmic movement. Streaming efficiently circulates and localizes mRNAs and proteins deposited by the nurse cells across the oocyte. This movement is driven by kinesin-1, a major microtubule motor. Recently, we have shown that kinesin-1 heavy chain (KHC) can transport one microtubule on another microtubule, thus driving microtubule-microtubule sliding in multiple cell types. To study the role of microtubule sliding in oocyte cytoplasmic streaming, we used a Khc mutant that is deficient in microtubule sliding but able to transport a majority of cargoes. We demonstrated that streaming is reduced by genomic replacement of wild-type Khc with this sliding-deficient mutant. Streaming can be fully rescued by wild-type KHC and partially rescued by a chimeric motor that cannot move organelles but is active in microtubule sliding. Consistent with these data, we identified two populations of microtubules in fast-streaming oocytes: a network of stable microtubules anchored to the actin cortex and free cytoplasmic microtubules that moved in the ooplasm. We further demonstrated that the reduced streaming in sliding-deficient oocytes resulted in posterior determination defects. Together, we propose that kinesin-1 slides free cytoplasmic microtubules against cortically immobilized microtubules, generating forces that contribute to cytoplasmic streaming and are essential for the refinement of posterior determinants.

  15. Cryopreservation of unfertilized human oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachecki, James J; Cohen, Jacques; Garrisi, John; Munné, Santiago; Burgess, Colleen; Willadsen, Steen M

    2006-08-01

    Previous investigations revealed that choline-based freezing media developed in our laboratory were superior to conventional sodium-based media for storing mouse oocytes. This paper examines the ability of the choline-based medium CJ2 and a modified form of this medium, CJ3, to cryopreserve unfertilized human oocytes. Oocytes that were consented for research and matured overnight, as well as freshly collected, donor, mature metaphase II (MII) oocytes, were cryopreserved using choline-based media and an optimized slow-cooling protocol. The results showed higher survival and fertilization rates when CJ3 supplemented with 0.2 mmol/l sucrose was used as compared with CJ2 supplemented with either 0.1 mmol/l or 0.2 mmol/l sucrose. Freshly collected oocytes were more difficult to cryopreserve than those matured in vitro. Modification of the base medium proved to be one of the key factors in obtaining survival rates over 90%. Fertilization rates, embryo development, and genetic analysis of embryos resulting from control and frozen-thawed oocytes are provided. There appears to be a high correlation between chromosomal anomalies and abnormal morphology in embryos from thawed oocytes.

  16. Impact of stage III-IV endometriosis on recipients of sibling oocytes: matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, I; Navarro, J; Blasco, L; Simón, C; Pellicer, A; Remohí, J

    2000-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of severe endometriosis on IVF-ET outcome in women receiving oocytes from the-same donor. A matched case-control study. Oocyte donation program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. Fifty-eight recipients were included in a matched case-control study of IVF-ET in our oocyte donation program. Twenty-five patients were diagnosed by laparoscopy with stage III-IV endometriosis (group I), while the remaining 33 were free of the disease (group II). On the day of retrieval, oocytes from a single donor were donated to recipients from both groups. Some of the donors supplied oocytes for more than 2 patients. Recipients received steroid replacement therapy for endometrial preparation. Ovarian stimulation and oocyte retrieval in donors. Uterine embryo transfer (ET) in recipients after appropriate exogenous hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Pregnancy, implantation, miscarriage, and live birth rates. The number of oocytes donated and fertilized, as well as the number of available and transferred embryos, was not statistically different between the two groups. Pregnancy, implantation, and miscarriage rates were not affected by stage III-IV endometriosis when compared with the control group. The live birth rate was 28.0% in the group with endometriosis and 27.2% in the control group. These results show that implantation is not affected by stage III-IV endometriosis. Given the contemporary methods of endometrial preparation for transfer of embryos derived from donor oocytes, any potential negative effect of severe endometriosis on the uterine environment is undetectable.

  17. Rough weather rescue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report, which was commissioned by the Offshore Division of the Health and Safety Executive, reviews the type of equipment and techniques used to rescue people from the water around offshore platforms in rough weather. It also examines the limitations of the equipment in extreme conditions and reports the views of the various industry sectors (as determined by a questionnaire survey). The type of incidents covered by the report include: man overboard; helicopter ditching; and evacuation from totally enclosed motor propelled survival craft (TEMPSC) and life rafts. The report considers: the approach taken by other oil-producing countries; current escape, evacuation and rescue (EER) practices for the UK Continental Shelf (UKCS); environmental limits; methods for rescue and recovery from the water and TEMPSC; launch and recovery systems; fast rescue craft (FSC) and daughter craft; emergency response and rescue vessels; helicopters; casualty personal protection equipment; claimed versus actual equipment performance; training and practice procedures; attitudes to environmental limits; lessons learnt from incidents; mechanical recovery devices; equipment design and use in rough weather; and recommendations for improvements.

  18. Oocyte development, meiosis and aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Marie; Crichton, James H; Playfoot, Christopher J; Adams, Ian R

    2015-09-01

    Meiosis is one of the defining events in gametogenesis. Male and female germ cells both undergo one round of meiotic cell division during their development in order to reduce the ploidy of the gametes, and thereby maintain the ploidy of the species after fertilisation. However, there are some aspects of meiosis in the female germline, such as the prolonged arrest in dictyate, that appear to predispose oocytes to missegregate their chromosomes and transmit aneuploidies to the next generation. These maternally-derived aneuploidies are particularly problematic in humans where they are major contributors to miscarriage, age-related infertility, and the high incidence of Down's syndrome in human conceptions. This review will discuss how events that occur in foetal oocyte development and during the oocytes' prolonged dictyate arrest can influence meiotic chromosome segregation and the incidence of aneuploidy in adult oocytes.

  19. Oocytes with a dark zona pellucida demonstrate lower fertilization, implantation and clinical pregnancy rates in IVF/ICSI cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shi

    Full Text Available The morphological assessment of oocytes is important for embryologists to identify and select MII oocytes in IVF/ICSI cycles. Dysmorphism of oocytes decreases viability and the developmental potential of oocytes as well as the clinical pregnancy rate. Several reports have suggested that oocytes with a dark zona pellucida (DZP correlate with the outcome of IVF treatment. However, the effect of DZP on oocyte quality, fertilization, implantation, and pregnancy outcome were not investigated in detail. In this study, a retrospective analysis was performed in 268 infertile patients with fallopian tube obstruction and/or male factor infertility. In 204 of these patients, all oocytes were surrounded by a normal zona pellucida (NZP, control group, whereas 46 patients were found to have part of their retrieved oocytes enclosed by NZP and the other by DZP (Group A. In addition, all oocytes enclosed by DZP were retrieved from 18 patients (Group B. No differences were detected between the control and group A. Compared to the control group, the rates of fertilization, good quality embryos, implantation and clinical pregnancy were significantly decreased in group B. Furthermore, mitochondria in oocytes with a DZP in both of the two study groups (A and B were severely damaged with several ultrastructural alterations, which were associated with an increased density of the zona pellucida and vacuolization. Briefly, oocytes with a DZP affected the clinical outcome in IVF/ICSI cycles and appeared to contain more ultrastructural alterations. Thus, DZP could be used as a potential selective marker for embryologists during daily laboratory work.

  20. IVF for premature ovarian failure: first reported births using oocytes donated from a twin sister

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sills Eric

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Premature ovarian failure (POF remains a clinically challenging entity because in vitro fertilisation (IVF with donor oocytes is currently the only treatment known to be effective. Methods A 33 year-old nulligravid patient with a normal karyotype was diagnosed with POF; she had a history of failed fertility treatments and had an elevated serum FSH (42 mIU/ml. Oocytes donated by her dizygotic twin sister were used for IVF. The donor had already completed a successful pregnancy herself and subsequently produced a total of 10 oocytes after a combined FSH/LH superovulation regime. These eggs were fertilised with sperm from the recipient's husband via intracytoplasmic injection and two fresh embryos were transferred to the recipient on day three. Results A healthy twin pregnancy resulted from IVF; two boys were delivered by caesarean section at 39 weeks' gestation. Additionally, four embryos were cryopreserved for the recipient's future use. The sister-donor achieved another natural pregnancy six months after oocyte retrieval, resulting in a healthy singleton delivery. Conclusion POF is believed to affect approximately 1% of reproductive age females, and POF patients with a sister who can be an oocyte donor for IVF are rare. Most such IVF patients will conceive from treatment using oocytes from an anonymous oocyte donor. This is the first report of births following sister-donor oocyte IVF in Ireland. Indeed, while sister-donor IVF has been successfully undertaken by IVF units elsewhere, this is the only known case where oocyte donation involved twin sisters. As with all types of donor gamete therapy, pre-treatment counselling is important in the circumstance of sister oocyte donation.

  1. Effect of high fat diet on artificial oocyte activation following superovulation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Daisuke; Yasui, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Chika; Kitazato, Takane; Iwasa, Takeshi; Irahara, Minoru

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of increased dietary intake and high fat diet (HFD) in mice on artificial oocyte activation by using puromycin or roscovitine. Six-week-old mice were fed as either a control diet group, an increased dietary intake group or an HFD group for 4 weeks. Oocytes were obtained following superovulation and were divided into three treatment groups (no activation treatment, calcium ionophore and puromycin treatment, and calcium ionophore and roscovitine treatment) and were incubated for 4 h. Retrieved oocytes and numbers of oocytes activated as assessed by morphological changes were compared among the three treatment groups. The proportion of degenerated oocytes in HFD mice was significantly higher than that in control diet mice. The rates of activation in oocytes treated with roscovitine were 90.3% in control diet mice, 89.8% in increased dietary intake mice and 67.9% in HFD mice. The rate of activation in oocytes treated with roscovitine in HFD mice was significantly lower than the rates in control diet mice and increased dietary intake mice. The rates of activation in oocytes treated with puromycin were 90.6% in control diet mice, 94.0% in increased dietary intake mice and 71.4% in HFD mice, and the rate of activation in oocytes treated with puromycin in HFD mice was significantly lower than the rates in control diet mice and increased dietary intake mice. HFD-induced obesity deteriorated induction of oocyte activation by roscovitine or puromycin in mice.

  2. IVF for premature ovarian failure: first reported births using oocytes donated from a twin sister.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sills, Eric Scott

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Premature ovarian failure (POF) remains a clinically challenging entity because in vitro fertilisation (IVF) with donor oocytes is currently the only treatment known to be effective. METHODS: A 33 year-old nulligravid patient with a normal karyotype was diagnosed with POF; she had a history of failed fertility treatments and had an elevated serum FSH (42 mIU\\/ml). Oocytes donated by her dizygotic twin sister were used for IVF. The donor had already completed a successful pregnancy herself and subsequently produced a total of 10 oocytes after a combined FSH\\/LH superovulation regime. These eggs were fertilised with sperm from the recipient\\'s husband via intracytoplasmic injection and two fresh embryos were transferred to the recipient on day three. RESULTS: A healthy twin pregnancy resulted from IVF; two boys were delivered by caesarean section at 39 weeks\\' gestation. Additionally, four embryos were cryopreserved for the recipient\\'s future use. The sister-donor achieved another natural pregnancy six months after oocyte retrieval, resulting in a healthy singleton delivery. CONCLUSION: POF is believed to affect approximately 1% of reproductive age females, and POF patients with a sister who can be an oocyte donor for IVF are rare. Most such IVF patients will conceive from treatment using oocytes from an anonymous oocyte donor. This is the first report of births following sister-donor oocyte IVF in Ireland. Indeed, while sister-donor IVF has been successfully undertaken by IVF units elsewhere, this is the only known case where oocyte donation involved twin sisters. As with all types of donor gamete therapy, pre-treatment counselling is important in the circumstance of sister oocyte donation.

  3. Adverse Effect of Superovulation Treatment on Maturation, Function and Ultrastructural Integrity of Murine Oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myungook; Ahn, Jong Il; Lee, Ah Ran; Ko, Dong Woo; Yang, Woo Sub; Lee, Gene; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Lim, Jeong Mook

    2017-08-01

    Regular monitoring on experimental animal management found the fluctuation of ART outcome, which showed a necessity to explore whether superovulation treatment is responsible for such unexpected outcome. This study was subsequently conducted to examine whether superovulation treatment can preserve ultrastructural integrity and developmental competence of oocytes following oocyte activation and embryo culture. A randomized study using mouse model was designed and in vitro development (experiment 1), ultrastructural morphology (experiment 2) and functional integrity of the oocytes (experiment 3) retrieved after PMSG/hCG injection (superovulation group) or not (natural ovulation; control group) were evaluated. In experiment 1, more oocytes were retrieved following superovulation than following natural ovulation, but natural ovulation yielded higher (p superovulation. The capacity of mature oocytes to form pronucleus and to develop into blastocysts in vitro was similar. In experiment 2, a notable (p superovulation group. Multivesicular body formation was also increased, whereas early endosome formation was significantly decreased. No obvious changes in other microorganelles, however, were detected, which included the formation and distribution of mitochondria, cortical granules, microvilli, and smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum. In experiment 3, significant decreases in mitochondrial activity, ATP production and dextran uptake were detected in the superovulation group. In conclusion, superovulation treatment may change both maturational status and functional and ultrastuctural integrity of oocytes. Superovulation effect on preimplantation development can be discussed.

  4. International symposium on mine rescue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    To celebrate the 80th anniversary of creation of organized mine rescue activities in Poland, a symposium organized by the Central Mine Rescue Station in Bytom and the Association of Mining Engineers and Technicians in Katowice took place on 28-30 September 1987 in Szczyrk and was attended by 53 representatives of mine rescue services from 15 countries. Nineteen papers by Polish participants and 21 papers by foreign participants were presented on three main topics: modern methods of fighting mining hazards; lines of improvement for mine rescue services; modern mine rescue equipment. Polish-made equipment for mine rescue, hazard detection and combating hazards was exhibited. The Central Mine Rescue Station in Bytom presented a tender for such services as technical consulting, expertise, development of technology and direct participation in rescue operations. Participants to the symposium addressed the Organizing Committee of the World Mining Congress to include mine rescue issues in the program of the next Congress.

  5. Slmb antagonises the aPKC/Par-6 complex to control oocyte and epithelial polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais-de-Sá, Eurico; Mukherjee, Avik; Lowe, Nick; St Johnston, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    The Drosophila anterior-posterior axis is specified when the posterior follicle cells signal to polarise the oocyte, leading to the anterior/lateral localisation of the Par-6/aPKC complex and the posterior recruitment of Par-1, which induces a microtubule reorganisation that localises bicoid and oskar mRNAs. Here we show that oocyte polarity requires Slmb, the substrate specificity subunit of the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets proteins for degradation. The Par-6/aPKC complex is ectopically localised to the posterior of slmb mutant oocytes, and Par-1 and oskar mRNA are mislocalised. Slmb appears to play a related role in epithelial follicle cells, as large slmb mutant clones disrupt epithelial organisation, whereas small clones show an expansion of the apical domain, with increased accumulation of apical polarity factors at the apical cortex. The levels of aPKC and Par-6 are significantly increased in slmb mutants, whereas Baz is slightly reduced. Thus, Slmb may induce the polarisation of the anterior-posterior axis of the oocyte by targeting the Par-6/aPKC complex for degradation at the oocyte posterior. Consistent with this, overexpression of the aPKC antagonist Lgl strongly rescues the polarity defects of slmb mutant germline clones. The role of Slmb in oocyte polarity raises an intriguing parallel with C. elegans axis formation, in which PAR-2 excludes the anterior PAR complex from the posterior cortex to induce polarity, but its function can be substituted by overexpressing Lgl.

  6. Capu and Spire Assemble a Cytoplasmic Actin Mesh that Maintains Microtubule Organization in the Drosophila Oocyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgaard, Katja; Raposo, Alexandre A.S.F.; Niccoli, Teresa; St Johnston, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Summary Mutants in the actin nucleators Cappuccino and Spire disrupt the polarized microtubule network in the Drosophila oocyte that defines the anterior-posterior axis, suggesting that microtubule organization depends on actin. Here, we show that Cappuccino and Spire organize an isotropic mesh of actin filaments in the oocyte cytoplasm. capu and spire mutants lack this mesh, whereas overexpressed truncated Cappuccino stabilizes the mesh in the presence of Latrunculin A and partially rescues spire mutants. Spire overexpression cannot rescue capu mutants, but prevents actin mesh disassembly at stage 10B and blocks late cytoplasmic streaming. We also show that the actin mesh regulates microtubules indirectly, by inhibiting kinesin-dependent cytoplasmic flows. Thus, the Capu pathway controls alternative states of the oocyte cytoplasm: when active, it assembles an actin mesh that suppresses kinesin motility to maintain a polarized microtubule cytoskeleton. When inactive, unrestrained kinesin movement generates flows that wash microtubules to the cortex. PMID:17925229

  7. Multimedia Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanken, H.M.; Vries, de A.P.; Blok, H.E.; Feng, L.

    2007-01-01

    Retrieval of multimedia data is different from retrieval of structured data. A key problem in multimedia databases is search, and the proposed solutions to the problem of multimedia information retrieval span a rather wide spectrum of topics outside the traditional database area, ranging from inform

  8. Low oocyte yield during IVF treatment and the risk of a trisomic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honorato, Talita; Hoek, Annemieke; Henningsen, Anna-Karina

    2017-01-01

    .2% (22/357) controls. Low oocyte yield in IVF treatment was not associated with a higher risk of trisomic pregnancy (OR 1.43, 95% CI 0.64 to 3.19). Stratification for female age, adjustment for history of ovarian surgery, and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone protocol used did not change the results.......A low number of antral follicles may result in the selection of suboptimal oocytes that are prone to meiotic errors. The aim of this case-control study was to evaluate women receiving IVF treatment with low oocyte yield (defined as three or fewer oocytes retrieved after ovarian stimulation) who...... are at an increased risk of a trisomic pregnancy. Data were obtained from Danish and Dutch medical registries between 1983 and 2011. Analyses were carried out in 105 cases and 442 controls matched by age and year of IVF treatment. Cases were women with a trisomic pregnancy (trisomies 13, 18 or 21) resulting from...

  9. Prediction of Oocyte Number for Take-Home Baby Rate in Fresh ART Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spitzer D

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To guarantee the IVF success, the retrieval of several oocytes is mandatory to compensate those which reveal fertilization failure or growth arrest and in order to transfer a viable embryo. Thus, the aim of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH is the growth of multiple follicles and to obtain a high number of mature (metaphase II [MII] oocytes. Various factors such as the etiology of infertility, the stimulation protocol, or female age can influence the quality as well as quantity of oocytes. However, the pivotal question is the optimal oocyte number for a successful IVF therapy. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective study was to investigate a putative correlation between the oocyte number obtained per fresh cycle for IVF success and the baby take-home rate. In the period 2006–2009, 1345 fresh cycles using the long GnRH-agonist protocol were evaluated. Patients were grouped according to their age and COH response. The number of oocytes obtained per ovum pick-up (OPU and pregnancy outcome were found to be related to the age of patients. Pregnancy and birth rates were significantly lower in patients when oocyte number was below the expected median of the age group.

  10. Vitrification of in vitro matured oocytes collected from antral follicles at the time of ovarian tissue cryopreservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasano Giovanna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past few years, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has become an established procedure proposed in many centers around the world and transplantation has successfully resulted in full-term pregnancies and deliveries in human. This prospective study aims to evaluate the feasibility of vitrifying in vitro matured oocytes (IVM isolated at the time of ovarian tissue cryopreservation to improve the efficiency of fertility preservation programs. Methods Oocyte-cumulus complexes were retrieved from freshly collected ovarian cortex by aspirating antral follicular fluid, and were matured in vitro for 24-48 h prior to vitrification. Oocytes were matured in an IVM commercial medium (Copper Surgical, USA supplemented with 75 mIU/ml FSH and 75 mIU/ml LH and vitrified using a commercial vitrification kit (Irvine Scientific, California in high security vitrification straws (CryoBioSystem, France. Oocyte collection and IVM rates were evaluated according to the age, the cycle period and the amount of tissue collected. Results Immature oocyte retrieval from ovarian tissue was carried out in 57 patients between 8 and 35 years of age, undergoing ovarian tissue cryopreservation. A total of 266 oocytes were isolated, 28 of them were degenerated, 200 were at germinal vesicle stage (GV, 35 were in metaphase I (MI and 3 displayed a visible polar body (MII. The number of oocytes collected was positively correlated with the amount of tissue cryopreserved (p p = 0.005. Oocytes were obtained regardless of menstrual cycle period or contraception. A total maturation rate of 31% was achieved, leading to the vitrification of at least one mature oocyte for half of the cohort. Conclusions The study showed that a significant number of immature oocytes can be collected from excised ovarian tissue whatever the menstrual cycle phases and the age of the patients, even for prepubertal girls.

  11. A live birth of activated one-day-old unfertilized oocyte for a patient who experienced repeatedly near-total fertilization failure after intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Qun; CHEN Xi; LI Yang; ZHANG Xiao-hong; LIANG Rong; ZHAO Yong-ping; WEI Li-hui; SHEN Huan

    2012-01-01

    Total or near-total fertilization failure after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a rare event,but it occurs repeatedly because of sperm defects in activating oocyte.The case presents a successful pregnancy and live birth after calcium ionophore A23187 (A23187) activation on one-day-old unfertilized oocytes in a patient whose husband suffered oligoasthenoteratozoospermia,and who had experienced repeated near-total fertilization failure after ICSI.In the second ICSI cycle,only one oocyte was fertilized while nine were unfertilized.Oocyte activation with A23187 were performed on the one-day-old unfertilized oocytes after ICSI and resulted in fertilization and embryo transfer.A clinical pregnancy was achieved and a healthy baby was born.To our knowledge,this is the first reported case of a healthy birth after oocyte activation on the one-day-old unfertilized oocyte.This indicates that “rescue oocyte activation” on one-day-old unfertilized oocytes after ICSI may be helpful for preventing total or near-total fertilization failure after ICSI.

  12. Prospective Randomized Study on the Influence of Myoinositol in PCOS Women Undergoing IVF in the Improvement of Oocyte Quality, Fertilization Rate, and Embryo Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesoine, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the pathological factors involved in the failure of in vitro fertilization (IvF). The aim of the present study was to investigate if the combination of myoinositol + folic acid was able to improve the oocyte quality, the ratio between follicles and retrieved oocytes, the fertilization rate, and the embryo quality in PCOS patients undergoing IvF treatments. 29 patients with PCOS underwent IvF protocols for infertility treatment and were randomized prospectively into two groups. Group A (placebo) with 15 patients and group B (4000 mg myoinositol + 400 μg folic acid per day) with 14 patients. The patients of group B used for two months myoinositol + folic acid before starting the IvF protocol and data were obtained concerning number of follicles, number of oocytes, quality of oocytes, fertilization rates, and embryo quality in both groups. The ratio follicle/retrieved oocyte was better in the myoinositol group (= group B). Out of the 233 oocytes collected in the myoinositol group 136 were fertilized, whereas only 128 out of 300 oocytes in the placebo group were fertilized. More metaphase II and I oocytes were retrieved in relation to the total amount of oocytes in the myoinositol. More embryos of grade I quality were obtained in the myoinositol. The duration of stimulation was 9,7 days (±3,3) in the myoinositol group and 11,2 (±1,8) days in the placebo group and the number of used FSH units was lower in the myoinositol group: 1750 FSH units (mean) versus 1850 units (mean). Our evidence suggests that myoinositol therapy in women with PCOS results in better fertilization rates and a clear trend to a better embryo quality. As the number of retrieved oocytes was smaller in the myoinositol group, the risk of hyper stimulation syndrome can be reduced in these patients. PMID:27635136

  13. Prospective Randomized Study on the Influence of Myoinositol in PCOS Women Undergoing IVF in the Improvement of Oocyte Quality, Fertilization Rate, and Embryo Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Lesoine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is one of the pathological factors involved in the failure of in vitro fertilization (IvF. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the combination of myoinositol + folic acid was able to improve the oocyte quality, the ratio between follicles and retrieved oocytes, the fertilization rate, and the embryo quality in PCOS patients undergoing IvF treatments. 29 patients with PCOS underwent IvF protocols for infertility treatment and were randomized prospectively into two groups. Group A (placebo with 15 patients and group B (4000 mg myoinositol + 400 μg folic acid per day with 14 patients. The patients of group B used for two months myoinositol + folic acid before starting the IvF protocol and data were obtained concerning number of follicles, number of oocytes, quality of oocytes, fertilization rates, and embryo quality in both groups. The ratio follicle/retrieved oocyte was better in the myoinositol group (= group B. Out of the 233 oocytes collected in the myoinositol group 136 were fertilized, whereas only 128 out of 300 oocytes in the placebo group were fertilized. More metaphase II and I oocytes were retrieved in relation to the total amount of oocytes in the myoinositol. More embryos of grade I quality were obtained in the myoinositol. The duration of stimulation was 9,7 days (±3,3 in the myoinositol group and 11,2 (±1,8 days in the placebo group and the number of used FSH units was lower in the myoinositol group: 1750 FSH units (mean versus 1850 units (mean. Our evidence suggests that myoinositol therapy in women with PCOS results in better fertilization rates and a clear trend to a better embryo quality. As the number of retrieved oocytes was smaller in the myoinositol group, the risk of hyper stimulation syndrome can be reduced in these patients.

  14. Evolutionary conservation of the mature oocyte proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Lotan

    2014-06-01

    Significance: The current study provides the first proteomic profile of an oocyte of a cnidarian organism the starlet sea anemone N. vectensis and gives new insights on the ancient origin of an oocyte proteome template. The comparative analysis with a chordate oocyte suggests that the oocyte proteome predates the divergence of the cnidarian and bilaterian lineages. In addition, the data generated in the study will serve as a valuable resource for further developmental and evolutional studies.

  15. Effect of Collection Technique on Yield of Bovine Oocytes and the Development Potential of Oocytes from Different Grades of Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G Sianturi

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Oocyte collection technique is important to obtain a maximum number of oocytes to be employed on in vitro production of embryos. In this study, immature bovine oocytes were collected from slaughterhouse ovaries by two techniques: aspiration of 2- to 6-mm follicles and slicing. Following collection, oocyte qualities were classified into four categories (A, B, C, and D on the basis of cumulus attachment. Oocytes of each category were matured in vitro in CO2 incubator for 22-24 hours and cumulus expansion and maturation rates were observed. The total number of oocytes (group A+B+C+D and yield of good quality oocytes (only group A and B recovered per ovary by aspiration were 12.02 and 8.21, and by slicing were 29.38 and 19.65 (P<0.01, respectively. The total cumulus cells expansion rates of A, B, C and D oocytes were 97.1%, 88.3%, 6.0% and 20.6% respectively. Maturation rates for A, B and C categories of oocytes were 91.4%, 82.3% and 35.0% respectively while no matured oocyte was observed for group D oocytes. Maturation rates were significantly different between group A and C and also between B and C but not between A and B (P<0.05. In conclusion, slicing technique recovered more oocytes per ovary (2.4 times than that of aspiration and the best maturation rate was observed from category A oocytes which surrounded by more than 3 layers of cumulus cells. However oocytes of category A and B can be considered as good quality oocytes.

  16. Human oocyte maturation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coticchio, Giovanni; Dal-Canto, Mariabeatrice; Guglielmo, Maria-Cristina; Mignini-Renzini, Mario; Fadini, Rubens

    2012-01-01

    Oocytes from medium-sized antral follicles have already completed their growth phase and, if released from the follicular environment and cultured in vitro, are able to resume the meiotic process and mature. However, in vitro maturation (IVM) does not entirely support all the nuclear and cytoplasmic changes that occur physiologically as an effect of the ovulatory stimulus. Regardless, oocyte IVM is widely applied for the breeding of agriculturally important species. In assisted reproduction technology, IVM has been proposed as an alternative treatment to circumvent the drawbacks of standard ovarian stimulation regimens. Initially introduced to eliminate the risks of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome afflicting women presenting with polycystic ovaries, subsequently IVM has been suggested to represent an additional approach suitable also for normovulatory patients. So far, in children born from IVM cycles, no doubts of an increased incidence of congenital abnormalities have been raised. Many more births would be achieved if novel IVM systems, currently dominated by empiricism, could be conceived according to more physiological criteria. Recent findings shedding new light on the control of meiotic progression, the support of cumulus cells to the oocyte cellular reorganization occurring during maturation, and the modulation of the stimulus that promotes oocyte maturation downstream the mid-cycle gonadotropin signal are likely to provide crucial hints for the development of more efficient IVM systems.

  17. Human oocytes reprogram adult somatic nuclei of a type 1 diabetic to diploid pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Mitsutoshi; Johannesson, Bjarki; Sagi, Ido; Burnett, Lisa Cole; Kort, Daniel H; Prosser, Robert W; Paull, Daniel; Nestor, Michael W; Freeby, Matthew; Greenberg, Ellen; Goland, Robin S; Leibel, Rudolph L; Solomon, Susan L; Benvenisty, Nissim; Sauer, Mark V; Egli, Dieter

    2014-06-26

    The transfer of somatic cell nuclei into oocytes can give rise to pluripotent stem cells that are consistently equivalent to embryonic stem cells, holding promise for autologous cell replacement therapy. Although methods to induce pluripotent stem cells from somatic cells by transcription factors are widely used in basic research, numerous differences between induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells have been reported, potentially affecting their clinical use. Because of the therapeutic potential of diploid embryonic stem-cell lines derived from adult cells of diseased human subjects, we have systematically investigated the parameters affecting efficiency of blastocyst development and stem-cell derivation. Here we show that improvements to the oocyte activation protocol, including the use of both kinase and translation inhibitors, and cell culture in the presence of histone deacetylase inhibitors, promote development to the blastocyst stage. Developmental efficiency varied between oocyte donors, and was inversely related to the number of days of hormonal stimulation required for oocyte maturation, whereas the daily dose of gonadotropin or the total number of metaphase II oocytes retrieved did not affect developmental outcome. Because the use of concentrated Sendai virus for cell fusion induced an increase in intracellular calcium concentration, causing premature oocyte activation, we used diluted Sendai virus in calcium-free medium. Using this modified nuclear transfer protocol, we derived diploid pluripotent stem-cell lines from somatic cells of a newborn and, for the first time, an adult, a female with type 1 diabetes.

  18. Meiotic arrest in vitro by phosphodiesterase 3-inhibitor enhances maturation capacity of human oocytes and allows subsequent embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, D; Ron-El, R; Friedler, S; Schachter, M; Raziel, A; Cortvrindt, R; Smitz, J

    2006-01-01

    Controlling nuclear maturation during oocyte culture might improve nuclear-cytoplasmic maturation synchrony. We aimed to evaluate the quality of in vitro-matured, germinal vesicle (GV)-stage human oocytes following a prematuration culture (PMC) with a meiotic arrester, phosphodiesterase 3-inhibitor (PDE3-I). Follicles (diameter, 6-12 mm) were retrieved 34-36 h post-hCG administration from informed, consenting patients who had undergone controlled ovarian stimulation. Cumulus-enclosed oocytes (CEOs) presenting moderate expansion or full compaction were placed in PMC with the PDE3-I, Org9935, for 24 or 48 h. Subsequently, oocytes were removed from PMC, denuded of cumulus cells, matured in vitro, and fertilized, and the resulting embryos were cultured. In the presence of PDE3-I, approximately 98% of the oocytes were arrested at the GV stage. Following PDE3-I removal, oocytes acquired a higher maturation rate than oocytes that were immediately denuded of cumulus cells after retrieval and in vitro matured (67% vs. 46%, P = 0.01). In controls, immature CEOs retrieved with moderate expansion reached higher maturation rates compared to fully compacted CEOs, but in PMC groups, high values of maturation were achieved for both morphological classes of CEOs. No effect of PMC on fertilization was observed. A 24-h PMC period proved to be the most effective in preserving embryonic integrity. Similar proportions of nuclear abnormalities were observed in embryos of all in vitro groups. In summary, PMC with the specific PDE3-I had a beneficial effect on human CEOs by enhancing maturation, benefiting mainly the fully compacted CEOs. This resulted in an increased yield of mature oocytes available for insemination without compromising embryonic development. These results suggest that applying an inhibitor to control the rate of nuclear maturity by regulating intraoocyte PDE3 activity may allow the synchronization of nuclear and ooplasmic maturation.

  19. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sul Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation.

  20. Cold-induced changes in amphibian oocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelier, N.; Moreau, N.A.; N' Da, E.A.; Lautredou, N.F. (Centre de Biologie Cellulaire, Ivry-sur-Seine (France))

    1989-08-01

    Female Pleurodeles waltl newts (Amphibia, urodele), usually raised at 20 degrees C, were submitted to low temperatures; oocytes responded to this cold stress by drastic changes both in lampbrush chromosome structure and in protein pattern. Preexisting lateral loops of lampbrush chromosomes were reduced in size and number, while cold-induced loops which were tremendously developed, occurred on defined bivalents of the oocyte at constant, reproducible sites. A comparison of protein patterns in control and stressed oocytes showed two main differences: in stressed oocytes, overall protein synthesis was reduced, except for a set of polypeptides, the cold-stress proteins; second, there was a striking inversion of the relative amount of beta- and gamma-actin found in the oocyte nucleus before and after cold stress. Whereas beta-actin was the predominant form in control oocytes, gamma-actin became the major form in stressed oocytes.

  1. Reduced developmental competence of immature, in-vitro matured and postovulatory aged mouse oocytes following IVF and ICSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trounson Alan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study highlights basic physiological differences associated with oocyte maturation and ageing. The study explores the fertilizing capacity and resistance to injury of mouse oocytes at different stages of maturation and ageing following IVF and ICSI. Also, the study examines the developmental competence of embryos obtained from these oocytes. The outcome of the study supports views that the mouse can be a model for human IVF suggesting that utilizing in-vitro matured and failed fertilized oocytes to produce embryos mainly when limited number of oocytes is retrieved in a specific cycle, should be carefully considered. Methods Hybrid strain mouse oocytes were inseminated by in-vitro fertilization (IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Oocytes groups that were used were germinal vesicle (GV in-vitro matured metaphase II (IVM-MII, freshly ovulated MII (OV-MII, 13 hrs in-vitro aged MII (13 hrs-MII and 24 hrs in-vitro aged MII (24 hrs-MII. Fertilization and embryo development to the blastocyst stage were monitored up to 5 days in culture for IVF and ICSI zygotes. Sperm head decondensation and pronuclear formation were examined up to 9 hrs in oocytes following ICSI. Apoptotic events in blocked embryos were examined using the TUNNEL assay. Differences between females for the number and quality of GV and OV-MII oocytes were examined by ANOVA analyses. Differences in survival after ICSI, fertilization by IVF and ICSI and embryo development were analysed by Chi-square test with Yates correction. Results No differences in number and quality of oocytes were identified between females. The findings suggest that inability of GV oocytes to participate in fertilization and embryo development initiates primarily from their inability to support initial post fertilization events such as sperm decondensation and pronuclei formation. These events occur in all MII oocytes in similar rates (87–98% for IVF and ICSI. Following

  2. Caffeine delays oocyte aging and maintains the quality of aged oocytes safely in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Liu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Li; Wu, Dan-Ya; Nie, Zheng-Wen; Gao, Ying-Ying; Miao, Yi-Liang

    2017-03-28

    Caffeine, as an oocyte aging inhibitor, was used in many different species to control or delay oocyte aging. However, the safety of caffeine and developmental competence of aged oocytes inhibited by caffeine has not been studied systematically. So we detected the spindle morphology, distribution of cortical granules, zona pellucida hardening and pronucleus formation to assess oocyte quality of caffeine treated oocytes. We found that aged oocytes treated by caffeine maintained weak susceptibility to activating stimuli and regained normal competent after aged further 6 hr. Caffeine maintained the spindle morphology, changed cortical granules distribution of aged oocytes and could not prevent zona pellucida hardening. Furthermore, caffeine increased pronucleus formation of aged oocytes and decreased fragmentation after fertilization. These results suggested that caffeine could maintain the quality of aged oocytes safely in mouse.

  3. The rule of rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKie, John; Richardson, Jeff

    2003-06-01

    Jonsen coined the term "Rule of Rescue"(RR) to describe the imperative people feel to rescue identifiable individuals facing avoidable death. In this paper we attempt to draw a more detailed picture of the RR, identifying its conflict with cost-effectiveness analysis, the preference it entails for identifiable over statistical lives, the shock-horror response it elicits, the preference it entails for lifesaving over non-lifesaving measures, its extension to non-life-threatening conditions, and whether it is motivated by duty or sympathy. We also consider the measurement problems it raises, and argue that quantifying the RR would probably require a two-stage procedure. In the first stage the size of the individual utility gain from a health intervention would be assessed using a technique such as the Standard Gamble or the Time Trade-Off, and in the second the social benefits arising from the RR would be quantified employing the Person Trade-Off. We also consider the normative status of the RR. We argue that it can be defended from a utilitarian point of view, on the ground that rescues increase well-being by reinforcing people's belief that they live in a community that places great value upon life. However, utilitarianism has long been criticised for failing to take sufficient account of fairness, and the case is no different here: fairness requires that we do not discriminate between individuals on morally irrelevant grounds, whereas being "identifiable" does not seem to be a morally relevant ground for discrimination.

  4. Pharmaceutical Options for Triggering of Final Oocyte Maturation in ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Castillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the pioneering days of in vitro fertilization, hCG has been the gold standard to induce final follicular maturation. We herein reviewed different pharmaceutical options for triggering of final oocyte maturation in ART. The new upcoming agent seems to be GnRHa with its potential advantages over hCG trigger. GnRHa triggering elicits a surge of gonadotropins resembling the natural midcycle surge of gonadotropins, without the prolonged action of hCG, resulting in the retrieval of more mature oocytes and a significant reduction in or elimination of OHSS as compared to hCG triggering. The induction of final follicular maturation using GnRHa represents a paradigm shift in the ovulation triggering concept in ART and, thus, a way to develop a safer IVF procedure. Kisspeptins are key central regulators of the neuroendocrine mechanisms of human reproduction, who have been shown to effectively elicit an LH surge and to induce final oocyte maturation in IVF cycles. This new trigger concept may, therefore, offer a completely new, “natural” pharmacological option for ovulation induction. Whether kisspeptins will be the future agent to trigger ovulation remains to be further explored.

  5. Comparison of rescue ICSI at different times of non-IVF cycles in conventional IVF%对常规IVF未受精周期不同时间实施补救ICSI的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽霞; 席青松; 任新玲; 陈雯; 魏玉兰; 李豫峰; 章汉旺

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较常规体外受精(IVF)中未受精的病例在不同时间行补救卵胞浆内单精子注射(ICSI)再受精的临床结局,以探讨补救ICSI的临床应用价值及最佳的补救时机.方法:回顾性分析2007年1月-2009年7月在华中科技大学同济医学院附属同济医院生殖医学中心接受常规IVF治疗未受精并实施补救ICS1的93例患者,根据补救ICSI实施时间的不同,分为晚补救组(常规体外受精后20~22 h实施补救ICSI,16例)和早补救组(常规体外受精后4~8h实施补救ICS1,77例).结果:晚补救组与早补救组在女性年龄、不孕年限、平均每周期获卵数方面进行比较均无统计学差异(P>0.05).但晚补救组的正常受精率、卵裂率和奸娠率都低于早补救组(52.0% vs 63.0%,87.5% vs 94.1 %,0% vs 43.5%),两组之间比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:常规 IVF受精失败后行补救ICS1再受精是切实可行的,而合理的补救时间是获得理想临床结局的关键.%Objective: To compare the clinical outcomes of rescue intracytoplasmic sperm injection ( ICSI ) at different times of non - IVF cycles in conventional IVF, explore its clinical application value and the optimal rescue time. Methods: 93 cases receiving conventional IVF and rescue ICSI in the hospital from January 2007 to July 2009 were analyzed retrospectively; according to the different rescue ICSI times, they were divided into late rescue ICSI group (rescue ICSI was performed at 20 ~ 22 hours after conventional IVF, 16 cases) and early rescue ICSI group (rescue ICSI was performed at4 ~ 8 hours after conventional IVF, 77 cases) . Results: There was no significant difference in maternal age, duration of infertility and the mean number of oocytes retrieved every cycle between the two groups ( P > 0. 05 ) .The normal fertilization rate, cleavage rate and pregnancy rate in late rescue ICSI group were significantly lower than those in early rescue ICSI group (52. 0% vs

  6. Oocyte number as a predictor for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and live birth: an analysis of 256,381 in vitro fertilization cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Ryan G; Lan, Lan; Shah, Anish A; Yeh, Jason S; Price, Thomas M; Goldfarb, James M; Muasher, Suheil J

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the association between oocyte number and the rates of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and live birth (LB) in fresh autologous in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. Retrospective cohort study. An academic reproductive medicine practice. We analyzed data from 256,381 IVF cycles using the 2008-2010 Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology national registry. Patients were divided into five groups based on retrieved oocyte number. Rates of OHSS and LB were calculated for each group. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) was used to assess differences in OHSS and LB between groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate oocyte number as a predictor of OHSS and LB. None. The LB rate increased up to 15 oocytes, then plateaued (0-5: 17%, 6-10: 31.7%; 11-15: 39.3%; 16-20: 42.7%; 21-25: 43.8%; and >25 oocytes: 41.8%). However, the rate of OHSS became much more clinically significant after 15 oocytes (0-5: 0.09%; 6-10: 0.37%; 11-15: 0.93%; 16-20: 1.67%; 21-25: 3.03%; and >25 oocytes: 6.34%). These trends remained after adjustment with the use of GEE. ROC curves revealed that although oocyte number is not useful in the prediction of LB, 15 retrieved oocytes is the number that best predicts OHSS risk. Retrieval of >15 oocytes significantly increases OHSS risk without improving LB rate in fresh autologous IVF cycles. In general, less aggressive stimulation protocols should be considered, especially in high-responders, to optimize outcomes. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rescue vehicle Stirling engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Hainsworth; Pete Nicolay [CSIRO Exploration & Mining (Australia)

    2001-03-15

    The aim of this project was to develop a proof-of-concept Stirling engine and heat cell for use in the mining industry, primarily for underground applications. In particular, the Stirling engine, being an external combustion engine, offers the potential to operate on stored heat in low-oxygen or inert underground atmospheres. This makes it attractive for rescue vehicles, which are required to operate in such environments. A prototype Stirling engine with power output in the 15kW range was constructed and tested. Experimental measurements showed that this output was not achieved. While the basic thermodynamic principles of the design were valid, achieved output was well below the required value. The conclusion is that, because of the lack of commercial Stirling cycle-based products and the difficulty experienced in this project in overcoming the problem of high temperature seal implementation to produce a working prototype, the short term potential of the Stirling engine for mine rescue applications is limited.

  8. Relationship between the number of cells surrounding oocytes and energy states of oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, Yasuhisa; Ichinose, Tomoya; Ogawa, Kaori; Itami, Nobuhiko; Tasaki, Hidetaka; Shirasuna, Koumei; Kuwayama, Takehito; Iwata, Hisataka

    2016-10-15

    Lipid content, ATP content, and histone acetylation are thought to reflect the energy state of cells. In addition, the energy state closely associates with growth and developmental ability of oocytes. Oocyte growth is accompanied by active proliferation of the surrounding granulosa cells (GCs), and GCs play a key role in the provision of energy substrates to the oocytes. In the present study, we first examined the relationship among the average number of GCs per follicle, the average number of cumulus cells (CCs) per oocyte, and the average lipid content in oocytes that developed in vivo within individual donor gilts. Second, we validated the relationship between the number of cells surrounding oocytes and the energy states of oocytes by using an IVC system of oocyte granulosa cell complexes (OGCs) derived from early antral follicles. We collected cumulus cells and oocyte complexes (COCs) from antral follicles (3-5 mm in diameter) and found that average lipid content in oocytes significantly correlated with the average number of both GCs/follicle and CCs/oocyte (P cell number of OGCs, as well as the lipid content, ATP content, and acetylation level of H4K12 in oocytes grown in vitro. In addition, glucose consumption by OGCs was calculated from the sample media collected at Days 13 and 14. The lipid content of oocytes grown in vitro, significantly correlated with the number of cells surrounding the oocytes (P number of cells surrounding the oocytes (P number of cells surrounding the oocytes, and glucose uptake by OGCs is crucial for lipid content and ATP content, and H4K12 acetylation in oocytes.

  9. [Controversy in ART: should we cryopreserve oocytes or embryos? Do prefer oocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, P

    2014-09-01

    Since the beginning of IVF, cryopreservation concern spermatozoa or embryos due to the poor efficiency of oocyte freezing. To date, oocyte vitrification allows changing our practice privileging female gamete vitrification instead of human embryo freezing.

  10. Sex, Deportation and Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plambech, Sine

    2017-01-01

    This contribution explores the economies interlinked by the migration of Nigerian women sex workers. The literature and politics of sex work migration and human trafficking economies are commonly relegated to the realm that focuses on profits for criminal networks and pimps, in particular...... recirculating the claim that human trafficking is the “third largest” criminal economy after drugs and weapons. Based on ethnographic fieldwork among Nigerian sex worker migrants conducted in Benin City, Nigeria, in 2011 and 2012, this study brings together four otherwise isolated migration economies...... – facilitation, remittances, deportation, and rescue – and suggests that we have to examine multiple sites and relink these in order to more fully understand the complexity of sex work migration. Drawing upon literature within transnational feminist analysis, critical human trafficking studies, and migration...

  11. Model of the Search and Rescue operations in Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetislav ŠoŁkic

    2015-06-01

    Definition of terms Rescue: An operation to retrieve persons in distress, provide for their initial medical or other needs and deliver them to a place of safety. Work should contribute to the establishment of thinking for model of SAR in Republic of Serbia due to the growing need of interventions in the prevention and elimination of consequences of natural disasters and better organization of search and rescue using the standards prescribed in the the world.

  12. The RNA-binding protein, ZFP36L2, influences ovulation and oocyte maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Ball

    Full Text Available ZFP36L2 protein destabilizes AU-rich element-containing transcripts and has been implicated in female fertility. In the C57BL/6NTac mouse, a mutation in Zfp36l2 that results in the decreased expression of a form of ZFP36L2 in which the 29 N-terminal amino acid residues have been deleted, ΔN-ZFP36L2, leads to fertilized eggs that arrest at the two-cell stage. Interestingly, homozygous ΔN-Zfp36l2 females in the C57BL/6NTac strain release 40% fewer eggs than the WT littermates (Ramos et al., 2004, suggesting an additional defect in ovulation and/or oocyte maturation. Curiously, the same ΔN-Zfp36l2 mutation into the SV129 strain resulted in anovulation, prompting us to investigate a potential problem in ovulation and oocyte maturation. Remarkably, only 20% of ΔN-Zfp36l2 oocytes in the 129S6/SvEvTac strain matured ex vivo, suggesting a defect on the oocyte meiotic maturation process. Treatment of ΔN-Zfp36l2 oocytes with a PKA inhibitor partially rescued the meiotic arrested oocytes. Furthermore, cAMP levels were increased in ΔN-Zfp36l2 oocytes, linking the cAMP/PKA pathway and ΔN-Zfp36l2 with meiotic arrest. Since ovulation and oocyte maturation are both triggered by LHR signaling, the downstream pathway was investigated. Adenylyl cyclase activity was increased in ΔN-Zfp36l2 ovaries only upon LH stimulation. Moreover, we discovered that ZFP36L2 interacts with the 3'UTR of LHR mRNA and that decreased expression levels of Zfp36l2 correlates with higher levels of LHR mRNA in synchronized ovaries. Furthermore, overexpression of ZFP36L2 decreases the endogenous expression of LHR mRNA in a cell line. Therefore, we propose that lack of the physiological down regulation of LHR mRNA levels by ZFP36L2 in the ovaries is associated with anovulation and oocyte meiotic arrest.

  13. Live Birth from ICSI-TESA into In Vitro Matured Oocytes: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatırnaz, Şafak; Hatırnaz, Ebru; Bakacak, Murat; Bostancı, Mehmet Sühha; Atasever, Melahat

    2015-01-01

    Repeated in vitro Fertilization (IVF) failure together with Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) is one of the distressing situations leading couples to search for alternative treatment options. For such patients with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) who have experienced Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome, mild ovarian stimulation with in vitro oocyte maturation could be a promising alternative. Testicular Sperm Aspiration (TESA) of spermatozoa from a known obstructive azoospermic patient is a limiting factor for IVM (in vitro maturation) but the couple reported here accepted mild IVF -IVM with TESA. In the treatment of a 32-year old woman, 9 immature oocytes were retrieved, 5 in vitro matured oocytes (maturation rate 55%) and after fertilization by Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI), 3 oocytes (fertilization rate 60%) which had two pronuclei and two good quality embryos on day 2, were transferred. A live pregnancy was observed by ultrasound scan and healthy infant was delivered. Although the number of births from ICSI of immature oocytes injected with surgically derived sperm is quite low, the selection of this mode of therapy as an alternative to conventional IVF will overcome the limitations and provides a new option in IVF practice.

  14. Formin-2, polyploidy, hypofertility and positioning of the meiotic spindle in mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, Benjamin; Lim, Hyunjung; Carabatsos, Mary Jo; Harrington, Anne; Ecsedy, Jeffrey; Pellman, David; Maas, Richard; Leder, Philip

    2002-12-01

    Successful reproduction in mammals requires a competent egg, which is formed during meiosis through two assymetrical cell divisions. Here, we show that a recently identified formin homology (FH) gene, formin-2 (Fmn2), is a maternal-effect gene that is expressed in oocytes and is required for progression through metaphase of meiosis I. Fmn2(-/-) oocytes cannot correctly position the metaphase spindle during meiosis I and form the first polar body. We demonstrate that Fmn2 is required for microtubule-independent chromatin positioning during metaphase I. Fertilization of Fmn2(-/-) oocytes results in polyploid embryo formation, recurrent pregnancy loss and sub-fertility in Fmn2(-/-) females. Injection of Fmn2 mRNA into Fmn2-deficient oocytes rescues the metaphase I block. Given that errors in meiotic maturation result in severe birth defects and are the most common cause of chromosomal aneuploidy and pregnancy loss in humans, studies of Fmn2 may provide a better understanding of infertility and birth defects.

  15. Roles of brca2 (fancd1 in oocyte nuclear architecture, gametogenesis, gonad tumors, and genome stability in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rodríguez-Marí

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mild mutations in BRCA2 (FANCD1 cause Fanconi anemia (FA when homozygous, while severe mutations cause common cancers including breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers when heterozygous. Here we report a zebrafish brca2 insertional mutant that shares phenotypes with human patients and identifies a novel brca2 function in oogenesis. Experiments showed that mutant embryos and mutant cells in culture experienced genome instability, as do cells in FA patients. In wild-type zebrafish, meiotic cells expressed brca2; and, unexpectedly, transcripts in oocytes localized asymmetrically to the animal pole. In juvenile brca2 mutants, oocytes failed to progress through meiosis, leading to female-to-male sex reversal. Adult mutants became sterile males due to the meiotic arrest of spermatocytes, which then died by apoptosis, followed by neoplastic proliferation of gonad somatic cells that was similar to neoplasia observed in ageing dead end (dnd-knockdown males, which lack germ cells. The construction of animals doubly mutant for brca2 and the apoptotic gene tp53 (p53 rescued brca2-dependent sex reversal. Double mutants developed oocytes and became sterile females that produced only aberrant embryos and showed elevated risk for invasive ovarian tumors. Oocytes in double-mutant females showed normal localization of brca2 and pou5f1 transcripts to the animal pole and vasa transcripts to the vegetal pole, but had a polarized rather than symmetrical nucleus with the distribution of nucleoli and chromosomes to opposite nuclear poles; this result revealed a novel role for Brca2 in establishing or maintaining oocyte nuclear architecture. Mutating tp53 did not rescue the infertility phenotype in brca2 mutant males, suggesting that brca2 plays an essential role in zebrafish spermatogenesis. Overall, this work verified zebrafish as a model for the role of Brca2 in human disease and uncovered a novel function of Brca2 in vertebrate oocyte nuclear architecture.

  16. An optimal hostage rescue problem

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Fengbo

    2000-01-01

    We propose the following mathematical model of optinal reacue problems concerning hostage.Suppose i persons are taken as hostages at any given point in time t,and we have to make a decision on attempting either rescue or no resuce. Let p be the probability of a hostage being killed in a rescue attempt,and let s be the probability of criminal(s) surrendering up to the following point in time if no rescue attempt is made.Futher,let g and r be the probabilities of a hostage being,respectively,ki...

  17. Emergency Rescue Location Model with Uncertain Rescue Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to model emergency rescue location problem with uncertain rescue time, an uncertain expected cost minimization model is proposed under uncertain environment. For solving this model, we convert the uncertain model to its equivalent deterministic form. Finally, a numerical example has been presented to illustrate the model. The computational results which were solved by the down mountain algorithm are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model.

  18. First pregnancy and live birth resulting from cryopreserved embryos obtained from in vitro matured oocytes after oophorectomy in an ovarian cancer patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasath, E B; Chan, M L H; Wong, W H W; Lim, C J W; Tharmalingam, M D; Hendricks, M; Loh, S F; Chia, Y N

    2014-02-01

    In vitro maturation (IVM) of immature oocytes retrieved from surgically resected ovaries has been proposed as a method of fertility preservation in ovarian cancer patients undergoing definitive surgery. While there had been several reports of successful derivation of mature oocytes and or embryos, there have been no reports as yet of successful pregnancies. In this case report, we present a pregnancy and live birth from a young patient, with stage IIIC ovarian cancer, who had undergone fertility sparing surgery. The immature oocytes recovered after oophorectomy were fertilized after IVM. The embryos obtained were cryopreserved and later transferred to achieve a singleton healthy pregnancy leading to a live birth.

  19. The generation of live offspring from vitrified oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gabriel Sanchez-Partida

    Full Text Available Oocyte cryopreservation is extremely beneficial for assisted reproductive technologies, the treatment of infertility and biotechnology and offers a viable alternative to embryo freezing and ovarian grafting approaches for the generation of embryonic stem cells and live offspring. It also offers the potential to store oocytes to rescue endangered species by somatic cell nuclear transfer and for the generation of embryonic stem cells to study development in these species. We vitrified mouse oocytes using a range of concentrations of trehalose (0 to 0.3 M and demonstrated that 0.1 and 0.3 M trehalose had similar developmental rates, which were significantly different to the 0.2 M cohort (P<0.05. As mitochondria are important for fertilisation outcome, we observed that the clustering and distribution of mitochondria of the 0.2 M cohort were more affected by vitifrication than the other groups. Nevertheless, all 3 cohorts were able to develop to blastocyst, following in vitro fertilisation, although developmental rates were better for the 0.1 and 0.3 M cohorts than the 0.2 M cohort (P<0.05. Whilst blastocysts gave rise to embryonic stem-like cells, it was apparent from immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR that these cells did not demonstrate true pluripotency and exhibited abnormal karyotypes. However, they gave rise to teratomas following injection into SCID mice and differentiated into cells of each of the germinal layers following in vitro differentiation. The transfer of 2-cell embryos from the 0.1 and 0.3 M cohorts resulted in the birth of live offspring that had normal karyotypes (9/10. When 2-cell embryos from vitrified oocytes underwent vitrification, and were thawed and transferred, live offspring were obtained that exhibited normal karyotypes, with the exception of one offspring who was larger and died at 7 months. We conclude that these studies highlight the importance of the endometrial environment for the maintenance of genetic stability and

  20. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist triggering is effective, even at a low dose, for final oocyte maturation in ART cycles: Case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülekli, Bülent; Göde, Funda; Sertkaya, Zerrin; Işık, Ahmet Zeki

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of low-dose gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist for final oocyte maturation in females undergoing assisted reproductive treatment (ART) cycles. Nine females undergoing ovarian stimulation in a GnRH antagonist protocol who received triptorelin 0.1 mg to trigger final oocyte maturation were included. Treatment outcomes of these patients were compared with those of controls, matched for age and oocyte number (n=14), who received 0.2 mg triptorelin at the same time. The luteal phase was supported with vaginal micronized progesterone and oral estradiol hemihydrate 2 mg twice daily. The mean (±) numbers of retrieved, metaphase II, and fertilized oocytes were 15.66±7.82, 14±7.28, and 10.11±5.86, respectively. The implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were 46.1% and 71.4%, respectively. Of the pregnancies, 2 were live births, 1 was a preterm birth (twins), 2 are on-going, and 2 ended as miscarriages. No case of OHSS was encountered. On comparison of the results of these patients (fresh cycles; n=7) with those of matched controls, there were no significant differences in terms of retrieved mature oocytes, implantation rates, or clinical pregnancy rates (p>0.05). These findings suggest that low-dose GnRH agonist triggering has similar efficacy as standard doses in terms of retrieved mature oocytes and clinical pregnancy rates in in vitro fertilization cycles.

  1. Molecular and structural aspects of oocyte maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hölzenspies, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    In the mammalian ovary, oocytes are contained within follicles, specialized structures that facilitate oocyte growth and development. During the reproductive cycle, several follicles are recruited into growth, and through a process of selection, one (human, cow) or several (mouse, pig) of these foll

  2. Apoptosis in mammalian oocytes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Meenakshi; Prasad, Shilpa; Tripathi, Anima; Pandey, Ashutosh N; Ali, Irfan; Singh, Arvind K; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Chaube, Shail K

    2015-08-01

    Apoptosis causes elimination of more than 99% of germ cells from cohort of ovary through follicular atresia. Less than 1% of germ cells, which are culminated in oocytes further undergo apoptosis during last phases of oogenesis and depletes ovarian reserve in most of the mammalian species including human. There are several players that induce apoptosis directly or indirectly in oocytes at various stages of meiotic cell cycle. Premature removal of encircling granulosa cells from immature oocytes, reduced levels of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, increased levels of calcium (Ca(2+)) and oxidants, sustained reduced level of maturation promoting factor, depletion of survival factors, nutrients and cell cycle proteins, reduced meiotic competency, increased levels of proapoptotic as well as apoptotic factors lead to oocyte apoptosis. The BH3-only proteins also act as key regulators of apoptosis in oocyte within the ovary. Both intrinsic (mitochondria-mediated) as well as extrinsic (cell surface death receptor-mediated) pathways are involved in oocyte apoptosis. BID, a BH3-only protein act as a bridge between both apoptotic pathways and its cleavage activates cell death machinery of both the pathways inside the follicular microenvironment. Oocyte apoptosis leads to the depletion of ovarian reserve that directly affects reproductive outcome of various mammals including human. In this review article, we highlight some of the important players and describe the pathways involved during oocyte apoptosis in mammals.

  3. Probability to retrieve testicular spermatozoa in azoospermic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.-J.Glander; L.-C.Horn; W.Dorschner; U.Paasch; J.Kratzsch

    2000-01-01

    Aim: The degree of probability to retrieve spermatozoa from testicular tissue for intracytoplasmic sperm injection into oocytes is of interest for counselling of infertility patients. We investigated the relation of sperm retrieval to clinical data and histological pattern in testicular biopsies from azoospermic patients. Methods: In 264 testicular biopsies from 142 azoospermic patients, the testicular tissue was shredded to separate the spermatozoa, histological semi - thin sections of which were then evaluated using Johnsen score. Results: The retrieval of spermatozoa correlated significantly ( P 18 U/L, testicular volume < 5 mL, mean Johnsen score<5, and maximum Johnsen score < 7.

  4. [FERTILITY PRESERVATION OF WOMEN: OOCYTE VITRIFICATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat, Pallas Seijas

    2015-09-01

    Cryopreservation ofhuman oocytes to delay fertility also be an option for women who are going to be subjected to a cancer/autoimmune treatment. It allows for creating a bank of oocytes for donation in assisted reproduction centers. The legislation allows the use of cryopreserved oocytes throughout the reproductive life of women with what conservation could last up to 48-50 years. Oocyte vitrification is a ultrafast freezing method in which cryoprotectants are used to prevent the formation of ice crystals within the cell. Treatment for oocyte vitrification process is similar to IVF treatment, ending at the time of obtaining the ova. The eggs obtained in the laboratory are classified according to maturity and quality. The apartments will be cryopreserved by vitrification technique tanks and maintained in liquid nitrogen until used for reproductive purposes.

  5. Flash flood swift water rescues, Texas, 2005–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidehi Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although rainfall patterns are complex and difficult to predict, climate models suggest precipitation in Texas will occur less frequently and with greater intensity in the future. In combination with rapid population growth and development, extreme rainfall events are likely to lead to flash floods and necessitate swift water rescues. Swift water rescues are used to retrieve person(s from swift water flowing at a rate of 1 knot or greater. Data were obtained from the Texas Fire Marshal’s Office and analyzed to describe spatial and temporal characteristics of rescues. Between 2005 and 2014, 3256 swift water rescues were reported from 136 of 254 (54% counties. Over half (54.6%, n = 1777 occurred in counties known as Flash Flood Alley, which includes Texas’ largest and fastest growing cities. Less than 1.0% (n = 18 were reported from 49 counties designated as completely rural, or with an urban population less than 2500. Increases in swift water rescues were seen between March and September and during major weather events such as tropical storms. Because county-level data was utilized and demographic data was missing in all but 2% (n = 47 of the incidents, our ability to identify populations at risk or target interventions in the future using this data is limited. Despite the frequency of flash flood events and swift water rescues in Texas, knowledge gaps persist that should be addressed through the conduct of interdisciplinary research by epidemiologists and climatologists and by disseminating evidence-based health education and safety programs, particularly in rapidly growing counties that make up Texas’ Flash Flood Alley.

  6. Diffused Intra-Oocyte Hydrogen Peroxide Activates Myeloperoxidase and Deteriorates Oocyte Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana N Khan

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is a relatively long-lived signaling molecule that plays an essential role in oocyte maturation, implantation, as well as early embryonic development. Exposure to relatively high levels of H2O2 functions efficiently to accelerate oocyte aging and deteriorate oocyte quality. However, little precise information exists regarding intra-oocyte H2O2 concentrations, and its diffusion to the oocyte milieu. In this work, we utilized an L-shaped amperometric integrated H2O2-selective probe to directly and quantitatively measure the real-time intra-oocyte H2O2 concentration. This investigation provides an exact measurement of H2O2 in situ by reducing the possible loss of H2O2 caused by diffusion or reactivity with other biological systems. This experiment suggests that the intra-oocyte H2O2 levels of oocytes obtained from young animals are reasonably high and remained constant during the procedure measurements. However, the intra-oocyte H2O2 concentration dropped significantly (40-50% reduction in response to catalase pre-incubation, suggesting that the measurements are truly H2O2 based. To further confirm the extracellular diffusion of H2O2, oocytes were incubated with myeloperoxidase (MPO, and the diffused H2O2 triggered MPO chlorinating activity. Our results show that the generated hypochlorous acid (HOCl facilitated the deterioration in oocyte quality, a process that could be prevented by pre-incubating the oocytes with melatonin, which was experimentally proven to be oxidized utilizing HPLC methods. This study is the first to demonstrate direct quantitative measurement of intracellular H2O2, and its extracellular diffusion and activation of MPO as well as its impact on oocyte quality. These results may help in designing more accurate treatment plans in assisted reproduction under inflammatory conditions.

  7. Alterations in transcript abundance of bovine oocytes recovered at growth and dominance phases of the first follicular wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanitz Wilhelm

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oocyte developmental competence is highly affected by the phase of ovarian follicular wave. Previous studies have shown that oocytes from subordinate follicles recovered at growth phase (day 3 after estrus are developmentally more competent than those recovered at dominance phase (day 7 after estrus. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with these differences are not well elucidated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate transcript abundance of bovine oocytes retrieved from small follicles at growth and dominance phases of the first follicular wave and to identify candidate genes related to oocyte developmental competence using cDNA microarray. Results Comparative gene expression analysis of oocytes from growth and dominance phases and subsequent data analysis using Significant Analysis of Microarray (SAM revealed a total of 51 differentially regulated genes, including 36 with known function, 6 with unknown function and 9 novel transcripts. Real-time PCR has validated 10 transcripts revealed by microarray analysis and quantified 5 genes in cumulus cells derived from oocytes of both phases. The expression profile of 8 (80% transcripts (ANAXA2, FL396, S100A10, RPL24, PP, PTTG1, MSX1 and BMP15 was in agreement with microarray data. Transcript abundance of five candidate genes in relation to oocyte developmental competence was validated using Brilliant Cresyl Blue (BCB staining as an independent model. Furthermore, localization of mRNA and protein product of the candidate gene MSX1 in sections of ovarian follicles at days 0, 1, 3 and 7 of estrous cycle showed a clear fluorescent signal in both oocytes and cumulus cells with higher intensity in the former. Moreover, the protein product was detected in bovine oocytes and early cleavage embryos after fertilization with higher intensity around the nucleus. Conclusion This study has identified distinct sets of differentially regulated transcripts between

  8. Impact of estrogen-to-oocyte ratio on live birth rate in women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Zhiqin; Wang, Keyan; Guo, Yihong; Su, Yingchun; Zhai, Jun; Sun, Yingpu

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate whether the ratio of serum estrogen level on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) administration to number of oocyte retrieved has any impact on live birth rate in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), we retrospectively analyzed the clinical data from 7,112 women treated with GnRH-a long protocol in our center. Cycles were firstly divided into 6 groups according to the E2/oocyte ratio (Live birth rate (39.4%) in women with E2/oocyte ratio ≥ 750 pg/ml was the lowest compared with that in other groups. We further divided the top 10% of patients into high estrogen group (E2/oocyte ≥ 740 pg/ml; n = 713). Compared with controls, those with high E2/oocyte ratio had significantly higher peak E2 level (6711.85 pg/ml versus 4670.89 pg/ml; P = 0.000) on the day of hCG administration; however, the live birth rate (39.27% versus 45.67%; P = 0.001) was significantly lower for women with high estrogen level. Thus, we conclude that high E2/oocyte ratio adversely affects live birth rate in women undergoing IVF treated with GnRH-a long protocol.

  9. The predictive value of serum concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone for oocyte quality, fertilization, and implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Edson; Braga, Daniela P. A. F.; Setti, Amanda; Figueira, Rita de Cássia; Iaconelli Jr, Assumpto

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to identify a possible correlation between serum levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and oocyte quality, embryo developmental competence, and implantation potential. Methods 4488 oocytes obtained from 408 patients undergoing ICSI cycles were evaluated. Oocyte dimorphisms, embryo quality on days two and three, blastocyst formation competence, fertilization rates, implantation rates, and pregnancy rates were correlated with serum levels of AMH using Pearson's correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Results A positive correlation was observed between serum levels of AMH and number of retrieved oocytes (CC: 0.600, p<0.001), fertilization rate (CC:0.595, p=0.048), and number of obtained embryos (CC:0.495, p<0.001). AMH did not affect the quality of cleavage stage embryos or the chance of blastocyst formation. However, AMH levels affected oocyte quality (OR:0.75, CI 0.44-0.96, p<0.001), and implantation (CC:0,116, p=0.031) and pregnancy (OR:1.22, CI:1.03-1.53, p<0.001) rates. Conclusion Serum levels of AMH are a useful predictor of ovarian response to COS, oocyte quality, and fertilization. However, AMH levels may also compromise clinical outcomes; lower AMH levels did not impair embryo development. PMID:28837024

  10. Childless women's beliefs and knowledge about oocyte freezing for social and medical reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniluk, J C; Koert, E

    2016-10-01

    What factors inform a woman's decision-making about oocyte freezing to preserve fertility for social and medical reasons? Women lacked knowledge about the costs and viability of oocyte freezing as a fertility preservation option for social and medical reasons, and identified health consequences, costs, and viability as being particularly influential in their decision-making. Having only recently become a viable fertility preservation option, relatively little is known about childless women's beliefs or knowledge about oocyte freezing for social or medical reasons. A cross sectional study of 500 childless women was conducted in August, 2015. A total of 500 childless, presumed fertile, women from 18 to 38 years of age completed an online, self-report questionnaire assessing beliefs and knowledge about oocyte freezing to preserve fertility for social or medical reasons. Financial costs (85.6%), health risks to themselves (86.4%) or their offspring (87.8%), and success rates (82%) were the primary factors that women felt would influence their decision to freeze their oocytes. Partner's feelings (88.6%), prognosis for a full recovery (85.4%), and concerns about the health effects of the hormones or oocyte retrieval procedure (85.4%) were identified as being particularly important when considering oocyte freezing for medical reasons. Consistent with their perceptions of having little or no knowledge about oocyte freezing, there was an overall correct response rate of 33% to the 12 knowledge questions. The online format and use of a survey company to recruit participants may have increased the risk of self-selection bias and limit the generalizability of these findings. The findings may also be limited by the fact that the participants were not facing cancer treatments, and the younger participants were not nearing the end of their reproductive lifespan, and therefore would not have had reason to learn about, or consider, fertility preservation for medical or social

  11. Effect of Female Body Mass Index on Oocyte Quantity in Fertility Treatments (IVF): Treatment Cycle Number Is a Possible Effect Modifier. A Register-Based Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Wulf; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Degn, Birte

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Overweight and obese women may require higher doses of gonadotrophin when undergoing In Vitro Fertilization Treatment (IVF). Consequently, one may expect a sub-optimal oocyte retrieval in the first treatment cycle and thus a larger compensation in gonadotrophin-dose in the following......-cycles during the period 1999-2009. Exclusion criteria were missing information on BMI or treatment type. Further, women were excluded if they had ovulated before oocyte retrieval. According to baseline BMI, women were divided into four categories following the World Health Organization standards. Multiple...

  12. Effects of Mono-(2-Ethylhexyl Phthalate and Di-(2-Ethylhexyl Phthalate Administrations on Oocyte Meiotic Maturation, Apoptosis and Gene Quantification in Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forouzan Absalan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Phthalates, which are commonly used to render plastics into soft and flexible materials, have also been determined as developmental and reproductive toxicants in human and animals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mono-(2- ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP and di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP oral administrations on maturation of mouse oocytes, apoptosis and gene transcription levels. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, immature oocytes recovered from Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI mouse strain (6-8 weeks, were divided into seven different experimental and control groups. Control group oocytes were retrieved from mice that received only normal saline. The experimental groups I, II or III oocytes were retrieved from mice treated with 50, 100 or 200 μl DEHP (2.56 μM solution, respectively. The experimental groups IV, V or VI oocytes were retrieved from mouse exposed to 50, 100 or 200 μl MEHP (2.56 μM solution, respectively. Fertilization and embryonic development were carried out in OMM and T6 medium. Apoptosis was assessed by annexin V-FITC/Dead Cell Apoptosis Kit, with PI staining. In addition, the mRNA levels of Pou5f1, Ccna1 and Asah1 were examined in oocytes. Finally, mouse embryo at early blastocyst stage was stained with acridine-orange (AO and ethidium-bromide (EB, in order to access their viability. Results: The proportion of oocytes that progressed up to metaphase II (MII and 2-cells embryo formation stage was significantly decreased by exposure to MEHP or DEHP, in a dose-dependent manner. Annexin V and PI positive oocytes showed greater quantity in the treated mice than control. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR revealed that expression levels of Pou5f1, Asah1 and Ccna1 were significantly lower in the treated mouse oocytes than control. The total cell count for blastocyst developed from the treated mouse oocytes was lower than the controls

  13. The DNA damage response in mammalian oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eCarroll

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage is one of the most common insults that challenge all cells. To cope, an elaborate molecular and cellular response has evolved to sense, respond to and correct the damage. This allows the maintenance of DNA fidelity essential for normal cell viability and the prevention of genomic instability that can lead to tumour formation. In the context of oocytes, the impact of DNA damage is not one of tumour formation but of the maintenance of fertility. Mammalian oocytes are particularly vulnerable to DNA damage because physiologically they may lie dormant in the ovary for many years (>40 in humans until they receive the stimulus to grow and acquire the competence to become fertilized. The implication of this is that in some organisms, such as humans, oocytes face the danger of cumulative genetic damage for decades. Thus, the ability to detect and repair DNA damage is essential to maintain the supply of oocytes necessary for reproduction. Therefore, failure to confront DNA damage in oocytes could cause serious anomalies in the embryo that may be propagated in the form of mutations to the next generation allowing the appearance of hereditary disease. Despite the potential impact of DNA damage on reproductive capacity and genetic fidelity of embryos, the mechanisms available to the oocyte for monitoring and repairing such insults have remained largely unexplored until recently. Here, we review the different aspects of the response to DNA damage in mammalian oocytes. Specifically, we address the oocyte DNA damage response from embryonic life to adulthood and throughout oocyte development.

  14. Efficacy of Kisspeptin-54 to Trigger Oocyte Maturation in Women at High Risk of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) During In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbara, Ali; Jayasena, Channa N; Christopoulos, Georgios; Narayanaswamy, Shakunthala; Izzi-Engbeaya, Chioma; Nijher, Gurjinder M K; Comninos, Alexander N; Peters, Deborah; Buckley, Adam; Ratnasabapathy, Risheka; Prague, Julia K; Salim, Rehan; Lavery, Stuart A; Bloom, Stephen R; Szigeti, Matyas; Ashby, Deborah A; Trew, Geoffrey H; Dhillo, Waljit S

    2015-09-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment is an effective therapy for infertility, but can result in the potentially life-threatening complication, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). This study aimed to investigate whether kisspeptin-54 can be used to effectively and safely trigger oocyte maturation in women undergoing IVF treatment at high risk of developing OHSS. This was a phase 2, multi-dose, open-label, randomized clinical trial of 60 women at high risk of developing OHSS carried out during 2013-2014 at Hammersmith Hospital IVF unit, London, United Kingdom. Following a standard recombinant FSH/GnRH antagonist protocol, patients were randomly assigned to receive a single injection of kisspeptin-54 to trigger oocyte maturation using an adaptive design for dose allocation (3.2 nmol/kg, n = 5; 6.4 nmol/kg, n = 20; 9.6 nmol/kg, n = 15; 12.8 nmol/kg, n = 20). Oocytes were retrieved 36 h after kisspeptin-54 administration, assessed for maturation, and fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection with subsequent transfer of one or two embryos. Women were routinely screened for the development of OHSS. Oocyte maturation was measured by oocyte yield (percentage of mature oocytes retrieved from follicles ≥ 14 mm on ultrasound). Secondary outcomes include rates of OHSS and pregnancy. Oocyte maturation occurred in 95% of women. Highest oocyte yield (121%) was observed following 12.8 nmol/kg kisspeptin-54, which was +69% (confidence interval, -16-153%) greater than following 3.2 nmol/kg. At all doses of kisspeptin-54, biochemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, and live birth rates per transfer (n = 51) were 63, 53, and 45%, respectively. Highest pregnancy rates were observed following 9.6 nmol/kg kisspeptin-54 (85, 77, and 62%, respectively). No woman developed moderate, severe, or critical OHSS. Kisspeptin-54 is a promising approach to effectively and safely trigger oocyte maturation in women undergoing IVF treatment at high risk of developing OHSS.

  15. Image retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnager, Susanne

    1997-01-01

    The paper touches upon indexing and retrieval for effective searches of digitized images. Different conceptions of what subject indexing means are described as a basis for defining an operational subject indexing strategy for images. The methodology is based on the art historian Erwin Panofsky...... of signs and connotation as meanings relating to feelings or associations. A joint methodology is suggested between the two researchers and the methodology is implemented in analyzing press photos. Fields of application discussed include the messages in an image and the linking between information running....... The empirical analysis demonstrates how the results can be applied as the foundation for a semantic model....

  16. Image retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnager, Susanne

    1997-01-01

    The paper touches upon indexing and retrieval for effective searches of digitized images. Different conceptions of what subject indexing means are described as a basis for defining an operational subject indexing strategy for images. The methodology is based on the art historian Erwin Panofsky...... of signs and connotation as meanings relating to feelings or associations. A joint methodology is suggested between the two researchers and the methodology is implemented in analyzing press photos. Fields of application discussed include the messages in an image and the linking between information running...

  17. Joseph Conrad's tormented Rescue (fantasy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, William

    2014-02-01

    Joseph Conrad was a notoriously tormented writer for whom the creative act was often a punishment severe enough to drive him into paralyzing depressions that delayed the completion of his novels, sometimes for years. By far the most agonizing of these projects was The Rescue, a novel he began in 1898, abandoned a year later, tried unsuccessfully to continue several times over the next two decades, but was only able to resume in 1918 and to complete, after another tortured two-year struggle, in 1920. An explanation for this incapacity, that is powerfully suggested by the novel's evocative title and perhaps unintentionally ironic subtitle (A Romance of the Shallows) has not yet been explored. Using Freud's 1910 essay on the rescue fantasy, "Contributions to the Psychology of Love: A Special Type of Choice of Object Made by Men," and Emanuel Berman's instructive revision and expansion of the concept in his 2003 American Imago essay, "Ferenczi, Rescue, and Utopia," I argue that a substantial explanation for Conrad's tormented history with The Rescue is ascribable to its quite remarkably faithful treatment of a rescue fantasy with deep and disabling resonance for its author. More specifically, the difficulty was compounded by the novel's dramatization of the soul-crushing conflict between two such fantasies: one in the service of the masculine ideal of unflinching dedication to a heroic purpose, the other promising satisfaction to the equally potent demands of emotional and sexual desire. Features of Conrad's narrative fit so tightly and consistently with the theory as Freud (and Abraham) proposed and as Berman elaborated it that The Rescue offers itself as one of those rare and reinforcing instances wherein the literary text seems to validate the psychoanalytic theory at least as persuasively as the theory "understands" the text.

  18. Fractal organization of feline oocyte cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vico, G; Peretti, V; Losa, G A

    2005-01-01

    The present study aimed at verifying whether immature cat oocytes with morphologic irregular cytoplasm display self-similar features which can be analytically described by fractal analysis. Original images of oocytes collected by ovariectomy were acquired at a final magnification of 400x with a CCD video camera connected to an optic microscope. After greyscale thresholding segmentation of cytoplasm, image profiles were submitted to fractal analysis using FANAL++, a program which provided an analytical standard procedure for determining the fractal dimension (FD). The presentation of the oocyte influenced the magnitude of the fractal dimension with the highest FD of 1.91 measured on grey-dark cytoplasm characterized by a highly connected network of lipid droplets and intracellular membranes. Fractal analysis provides an effective quantitative descriptor of the real cytoplasm morphology, which can influence the acquirement of in vitro developmental competence, without introducing any bias or shape approximation and thus contributes to an objective and reliable classification of feline oocytes.

  19. Fractal organization of feline oocyte cytoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G De Vico

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at verifying whether immature cat oocytes with morphologic irregular cytoplasm display selfsimilar features which can be analytically described by fractal analysis. Original images of oocytes collected by ovariectomy were acquired at a final magnification of 400 X with a CCD video camera connected to an optic microscope. After greyscale thresholding segmentation of cytoplasm, image profiles were submitted to fractal analysis using FANAL++, a program which provided an analytical standard procedure for determining the fractal dimension (FD. The presentation of the oocyte influenced the magnitude of the fractal dimension with the highest FD of 1.91 measured on grey-dark cytoplasm characterized by a highly connected network of lipid droplets and intracellular membranes. Fractal analysis provides an effective quantitative descriptor of the real cytoplasm morphology, which can influence the acquirement of in vitro developmental competence, without introducing any bias or shape approximation and thus contributes to an objective and reliable classification of feline oocytes.

  20. Age-dependent radiosensitivity of mouse oocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, C.

    1976-06-08

    It has been shown that there are three distinct phases of radiosensitivity in oocytes of prepubertal mice: a period of rapidly increasing sensitivity between 0 and 4 days of age; a period of consistent, high sensitivity between 5 and 18 days of age; and a period of decreasing sensitivity from 19 to at least 21 days of age. Two distinct phases have been demonstrated for the rate of population decline of the oocytes of primary follicles: an initial period of rapid loss from 0 to 4 days of age; and a period of much slower loss from 5 through 23 days of age. Correlations have been drawn between the first two phases of radiosensitivity and morphological changes in the oocyte, and between the third phase of radiosensitivity and endocrinological changes in the maturing animal. The reaction of oocytes to radiation has been separated into two categories: immediate death (within 24 hours); and delayed death (over the entire lifespan of the animal). (auth)

  1. Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdun Kuyucu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted till the puberty. Under LH influence it starts again and first meiosis completes before ovulation. Oocyte maturation can be regarded as the process of coming metaphase II from prophase I of oocyte at the puberty and can be studied as nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Meiosis is completed when fertilization occures and zygot is formed. In this article oogenesis, folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation process are summerized with related studies and reiews are revised. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(4.000: 227-240

  2. Oocyte Cryopreservation in Human Assited Reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J Konc; S Cseh; E Varga; R Kriston; K Kanyó

    2006-01-01

    Embryo cryopreservation(CP) has became a very important part of the clinical use of in vitro fertilization. Oocyte CP offers more advantages compared with embryo freezing with regard to less ethical, legal and moral problems. However, the efficiency of this procedure is still low, which prevents its clinical application in wide range. The aim of our paper is to review the basic principles, technical and safety aspects and current status of oocyte cryopreservation in human assisted reproduction.

  3. Bovine cumulus-oocyte disconnection in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddox-Hyttel, Poul

    1987-01-01

    Cumulus-oocyte complexes were obtained from cows by aspiration of small (1-6 mm in diameter) antral follicles after slaughter. Complexes with a compact multilayered cumulus investment were cultured and processed for transmission electron microscopy after different periods of culture including a 0...... frequency of gap junctions was maintained until 12-18 h of culture where the junctional contact was completely disrupted. This decrease in intercellular communication was parallelled by resumption of oocyte meiosis....

  4. Metabolic Determinants of Mitochondrial Function in Oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, Emily A; Moley, Kelle H

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial production of cellular energy is essential to oocyte function, zygote development and successful continuation of pregnancy. This review focuses on several key functions of healthy oocyte mitochondria and the effect of pathologic states such as aging, oxidative stress and apoptosis on these functions. The effect of these abnormal conditions is presented in terms of clinical presentations, specifically maternal obesity, diminished ovarian reserve and assisted reproductive technologies.

  5. The potential role of granulosa cells in the maturation rate of immature human oocytes and embryo development: A co-culture study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Bahia Namavar; Mosallanezhad, Zahra; Matloob, Najmeh; Davari, Maryam; Ghobadifar, Mohamed Amin

    2015-09-01

    In order to increase the number of mature oocytes usable for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), we aimed to investigate the effect of co-culturing granulosa cells (GCs) on human oocyte maturation in vitro, the fertilization rate, and embryo development. A total of 133 immature oocytes were retrieved and were randomly divided into two groups; oocytes that were cultured with GCs (group A) and oocytes that were cultured without GCs (group B). After in vitro maturation, only oocytes that displayed metaphase II (MII) underwent the ICSI procedure. The maturation and fertilization rates were analyzed, as well as the frequency of embryo development. The mean age of the patients, their basal levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, and the number of oocytes recovered from the patients were all comparable between the two study groups. The number of oocytes that reached MII (mature oocytes) was 59 out of 70 (84.28%) in group A, compared to 41 out of 63 (65.07%) in group B (p=0.011). No significant difference between fertilization rates was found between the two study groups (p=0.702). The embryo development rate was higher in group A (33/59, 75%) than in group B (12/41, 42.85%; p=0.006). The proportion of highest-quality embryos and the blastocyst formation rate were significantly lower in group B than in group A (p=0.003 and p<0.001, respectively). The findings of the current study demonstrate that culturing immature human oocytes with GCs prior to ICSI improves the maturation rate and the likelihood of embryo development.

  6. Conforming with current regulation in Turkey regarding the freezing of oocytes: A case report of the first pregnancy in Turkey achieved through oocyte vitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Kahraman MD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To present the first pregnancy achieved in Turkey with frozen–warmed oocytes in a case with previous nine unsuccessful assisted reproductive technology (ART attempts. Methods: The clinical follow-up of a 33-year-old female applying to our ART centre after a long and complicated history of infertility is described. Results: In April 2013, the woman attempted our centre for her 10th ART trial. She informed us on oocyte pick-up (OPU day that her husband had been hospitalized following a car crush in Albania and was unable to travel to our clinic to give a sperm sample. We were therefore placed in the position of having to make an emergency decision. OPU was done and seven oocytes were retrieved. Six metaphase II (MII oocytes out of seven Cumulus Oocyte Complexes (COCs were vitrified using the Kitazato Vitrification Cryotop Kit. Six months later, in November 2013, the patient applied for transfer. Two blastocysts were transferred and the ART trial resulted with a singleton pregnancy and the birth of a healthy new-born at term via cesarean section. Conclusion: Regulation Codes on Assisted Reproductive Procedures and Assisted Reproductive Technology Centres, published in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Turkey, on 6 March 2010 forbade the freezing of gonad cells and tissues except when essential for medical reasons and stated that this would be specified later. However, the Regulation Codes published in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Turkey, on 30 September 2014 provided no further clarification. Unfortunately, the wording of the regulations did not specifically address this unexpected emergency situation. However, we saw our decision to cryopreserve the oocytes as a valid interpretation of the regulations, bearing in mind also the requirement that sperm and oocyte in the IVF process must be those of a married couple. Turkish medicolegal regulations should be revised to increase the chances of more women taking advantage

  7. Conforming with current regulation in Turkey regarding the freezing of oocytes: A case report of the first pregnancy in Turkey achieved through oocyte vitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Semra; Ulker, Kahraman; Pirkevi Çetinkaya, Caroline; Kumtepe Colakoglu, Yesim; Yelke, Hakan K.; Yilanlioglu, Cihangir

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To present the first pregnancy achieved in Turkey with frozen–warmed oocytes in a case with previous nine unsuccessful assisted reproductive technology (ART) attempts. Methods: The clinical follow-up of a 33-year-old female applying to our ART centre after a long and complicated history of infertility is described. Results: In April 2013, the woman attempted our centre for her 10th ART trial. She informed us on oocyte pick-up (OPU) day that her husband had been hospitalized following a car crush in Albania and was unable to travel to our clinic to give a sperm sample. We were therefore placed in the position of having to make an emergency decision. OPU was done and seven oocytes were retrieved. Six metaphase II (MII) oocytes out of seven Cumulus Oocyte Complexes (COCs) were vitrified using the Kitazato Vitrification Cryotop Kit. Six months later, in November 2013, the patient applied for transfer. Two blastocysts were transferred and the ART trial resulted with a singleton pregnancy and the birth of a healthy new-born at term via cesarean section. Conclusion: Regulation Codes on Assisted Reproductive Procedures and Assisted Reproductive Technology Centres, published in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Turkey, on 6 March 2010 forbade the freezing of gonad cells and tissues except when essential for medical reasons and stated that this would be specified later. However, the Regulation Codes published in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Turkey, on 30 September 2014 provided no further clarification. Unfortunately, the wording of the regulations did not specifically address this unexpected emergency situation. However, we saw our decision to cryopreserve the oocytes as a valid interpretation of the regulations, bearing in mind also the requirement that sperm and oocyte in the IVF process must be those of a married couple. Turkish medicolegal regulations should be revised to increase the chances of more women taking advantage of the procedure

  8. Successful live birth in a woman with resistant ovary syndrome following in vitro maturation of oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Pan, Ping; Yuan, Ping; Qiu, Qi; Yang, Dongzi

    2016-09-06

    Resistant ovary syndrome (ROS) is a rare endocrine disorder characterized with hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism. Infertility is a common complaint of woman presenting with ROS, and little progress has been made in term of reproduction with the patient's own gamete. So far only one case report of live birth has been reported after in vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes in a patient suffering from ROS in 2013. A secondary infertile woman of 33 years-old was manifested with oligomenorrhea and markedly increased gonadotropin levels around postmenopausal range, but had normal antral follicle count, normal serum inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone levels. She had normal karyotype of 46,XX and normal thyroid function. There were no abnormal findings in some autoantibody assays and FSH receptor sequencing. After oral contraceptive pills combined with triptorelin depot were administered, her gonadotropin levels reduced but it showed no response to high doses of exogenous gonadotropins (hp-HMG 300IU/d for 15 days). Then endometrium was prepared with estradiol valerate and IVM from small antral follicles were performed. Five immature oocytes were retrieved. Twenty-four hours after IVM culture, 3 oocytes matured to metaphase II stage and were inseminated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection using her husband's sperm. Two top-quality embryos were transferred and one embryo was cryopreserved. The patient got pregnant and delivered a healthy boy at term. IVM using their own oocytes could be an available treatment for infertile women with ROS.

  9. Live birth from a 46-year-old using fresh autologous oocytes through in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolice, Mark P

    2014-07-01

    To report a live birth with IVF from a 46-year-old woman using autologous oocytes. Case report. Reproductive endocrinology and infertility private practice and ambulatory IVF center. One 46-year-old nulligravid woman. IVF with fresh ET. Live birth after IVF. A 46-year-old with antimullerian hormone (AMH) level less than 0.16 conceived through IVF using autologous oocytes. A total of seven oocytes were retrieved, from which four embryos were transferred at the cleavage stage, resulting in a pregnancy and delivery of a healthy male infant weighing 1,580 g at 31 and 3/7 weeks' estimated gestational age. The prognosis for a live birth from IVF in a patient with very advanced reproductive age, particularly with an undetectable AMH level using autologous oocytes, remains extremely poor. This case should be interpreted with caution so as to not provide false hope to women aged 45 and above. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigating the mechanical properties of zona pellucida of whole human oocytes by atomic force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfi, Laura; Masiero, Elena; Giolo, Elena; Martinelli, Monica; Luppi, Stefania; Dal Zilio, Simone; Delfino, Ines; Bortul, Roberta; Zweyer, Marina; Ricci, Giuseppe; Lazzarino, Marco

    2016-08-08

    The role of mechanics in numerous biological processes is nowadays recognized, while in others, such as the fertilization process, it is still neglected. In the case of oocytes the description of their mechanical properties could improve the comprehension of the oocyte-spermatozoon interaction and be helpful for application in in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. Herein the mechanical properties of whole human oocytes (HOs) immediately after retrieval are investigated by indentation measurements with atomic force spectroscopy under physiological conditions. Measurements are performed on immature (metaphase I - MI) and mature (metaphase II - MII) HOs. According to their morphological characteristics MII-HOs are classified as "suitable" and "rejected"; these latter would be usually rejected for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). For all maturation stages we observe that the elastic response of the zona pellucida (ZP) outer layer was different and distinguishable from the rest of the ZP-HO. The elasticity of this ZP outer layer varies with maturation and quality: stiffness decreases from immature MI to good quality MII, up to poor-quality rejected MII. An indirect analysis with IVF outcome indicates that the ZP outer layer of analysed HOs donated by women who achieved pregnancy is stiffer than that of HOs from women with negative outcome. Our findings suggest that mechanical properties can represent important oocyte quality indicators that may be exploited for the design of innovative ICSI dedicated cell sorters.

  11. IL-6 and mouse oocyte spindle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jashoman Banerjee

    Full Text Available Interleukin 6 (IL-6 is considered a major indicator of the acute-phase inflammatory response. Endometriosis and pelvic inflammation, diseases that manifest elevated levels of IL-6, are commonly associated with higher infertility. However, the mechanistic link between elevated levels of IL-6 and poor oocyte quality is still unclear. In this work, we explored the direct role of this cytokine as a possible mediator for impaired oocyte spindle and chromosomal structure, which is a critical hurdle in the management of infertility. Metaphase-II mouse oocytes were exposed to recombinant mouse IL-6 (50, 100 and 200 ng/mL for 30 minutes and subjected to indirect immunofluorescent staining to identify alterations in the microtubule and chromosomal alignment compared to untreated controls. The deterioration in microtubule and chromosomal alignment were evaluated utilizing both fluorescence and confocal microscopy, and were quantitated with a previously reported scoring system. Our results showed that IL-6 caused a dose-dependent deterioration in microtubule and chromosomal alignment in the treated oocytes as compared to the untreated group. Indeed, IL-6 at a concentration as low as 50 ng/mL caused deterioration in the spindle structure in 60% of the oocytes, which increased significantly (P<0.0001 as IL-6 concentration was increased. In conclusion, elevated levels of IL-6 associated with endometriosis and pelvic inflammation may reduce the fertilizing capacity of human oocyte through a mechanism that involves impairment of the microtubule and chromosomal structure.

  12. How many oocytes are optimal to achieve multiple live births with one stimulation cycle? The one-and-done approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Denis A; Leung, Angela; Resetkova, Nina; Ruthazer, Robin; Penzias, Alan S; Sakkas, Denny; Alper, Michael M

    2017-02-01

    To study how many infertility patients would complete an average-sized family (achieve ≥2 live births) after a single, complete in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle. A retrospective cohort study. University-affiliated private infertility practice. Women undergoing IVF. None. The outcome of 1 or ≥2 live births after a single retrieval cycle, followed by use of all embryos in subsequent frozen cycles in relation to oocyte number. The pregnancy rate was statistically significantly higher when ≥15 oocytes were retrieved (289 of 699, 41.3%) than live births and assuming that all remaining frozen embryos were used, we found that 498 of 2,226 (22.4%) patients would achieve ≥2 live births. We performed multivariate analysis, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the model was 0.802. When controlling for multiple factors we found that as the number of oocytes retrieved increased, the chance of at least two live births increased, with odds ratio 1.08 (8% live birth increase per additional oocyte). We demonstrate that one fresh cycle with high oocyte yield is an optimal way to plan IVF treatment. With modern cryopreservation methods, the concept of "one-and-done" could safely achieve ≥2 live births with just one stimulation cycle in almost a quarter of our patients. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rotorcraft and Enabling Robotic Rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Larry A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines some of the issues underlying potential robotic rescue devices (RRD) in the context where autonomous or manned rotorcraft deployment of such robotic systems is a crucial attribute for their success in supporting future disaster relief and emergency response (DRER) missions. As a part of this discussion, work related to proof-of-concept prototyping of two notional RRD systems is summarized.

  14. CERN Fire Brigade rescue simulation

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Fire Brigade is made up of experienced firemen from all of the 20 Member States. In these images they are seen at a 'Discovery Monday' held at the Microcosm exhibition. Here visitors learn how the Fire Brigade deal with various situations, including a simulated cave rescue performed by the Hazardous Environments Response Team.

  15. Self-Rescue Mask Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Nine new self-rescue mask instructors have been trained since early 2013, which provides CERN with a total of 26 self-rescue mask instructors to date. This will allow us to meet the increasing training needs caused by the Long Shut Down LS1.   The self-rescue mask instructors have trained 1650 persons in 2012 and about 500 persons since the beginning of the year on how to wear the masks properly. We thank all the instructors and all the persons that made this training possible. Please remember that the self-rescue masks training sessions are scheduled as follows: Basic course: Tuesday and Thursday mornings (2 sessions – 8.30 AM and 10.30 AM), duration:  1.30 hour, in French and English – registration via CERN online training catalogue – Course code 077Y00. Refresher training : Monday mornings (2 sessions – 8.30 AM and 10.30 AM), duration: 1.30 hour , in French and English – registration via CERN online training catalogue &...

  16. Clinical pregnancies and livebirths achieved by intracytoplasmic injection of round headed acrosomeless spermatozoa with and without oocyte activation in familial globozoospermia:case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Enver K.Dirican; Ahmet Isik; Kubilay Vicdan; Eran Sozen; Zekiye Suludere

    2008-01-01

    We report the successful outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment in two siblings with familial globozoospermia. After controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and oocyte pick-up, retrieved oocytes were mechanically activated before ICSI and a fertilization rate of 33.3% was achieved in the first case. The second couple underwent ICSI without oocyte activation and a 9.1% fertilization rate was obtained. The transfer of two grade Ⅰ embryos in the first couple and one grade Ⅰ embryo in the second couple resulted in clinical pregnancies with healthy livebirths. It was concluded that the main problem of cases with globozoospermia is a low fertilization rate, and even though ICSI and oocyte activation can increase this rate it is not necessarily needed to achieve a pregnancy.

  17. Computer-assisted oocyte morphometry before ICSI: correlation of oocyte measurements with fertilization and embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Maria das Graças R S; Lobach, Veronica N M; Pereira, Francisco A N; Lemos, Cláudia N C D; Reis, Fernando M; Camargos, Aroldo F

    2012-03-01

    The present study aimed to correlate morphometric parameters of the oocytes with the occurrence of fertilization following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In a prospective, controlled cohort design, women (n = 32) who were candidates for ICSI had oocytes (n = 258) collected and submitted to morphometric evaluation using the Cronus3 software program. The morphometric parameters obtained were oocyte diameter, perivitelline space width, zona pellucida thickness, and first polar body diameter. The median oocyte diameter was similar in cases in which fertilization occurred compared with those in which fertilization failed (75.2 and 75.9 μm, respectively; P = .218). The 2 groups also had similar measurements of perivitelline space, zona pellucida, and first polar body. However, the best quality zygotes identified by a morphological score resulted from oocytes with larger diameter (75.6 vs 74.0 μm; P < .01) and narrow perivitelline space (5.3 vs 7.1 μm; P < .01). Embryo development, as assessed by cleavage at second day of culture, was not significantly associated with oocyte morphometric parameters. These findings suggest that morphometric parameters of the oocytes do not correlate with the occurrence of fertilization following ICSI but may assist in selecting oocytes more likely to originate high-quality zygotes.

  18. In vitro oocyte culture-based manipulation of zebrafish maternal genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Sreelaja; Lindeman, Robin E; Pelegri, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    In animals, females deposit gene products into developing oocytes, which drive early cellular events in embryos immediately after fertilization. As maternal gene products are present before fertilization, the functional manipulation of maternal genes is often challenging to implement, requiring gene expression or targeting during oogenesis. Maternal expression can be achieved through transgenesis, but transgenic approaches are time consuming and subject to undesired epigenetic effects. Here, we have implemented in vitro culturing of experimentally manipulated immature oocytes to study maternal gene contribution to early embryonic development in the zebrafish. We demonstrate phenotypic rescue of a maternal-effect mutation by expressing wild-type product in cultured oocytes. We also generate loss-of-function phenotypes in embryos through either the expression of a dominant-negative transcript or injection of translation-blocking morpholino oligonucleotides. Finally, we demonstrate subcellular localization during the early cell divisions immediately after fertilization of an exogenously provided maternal product fused to a fluorescent protein. These manipulations extend the potential to carry out genetic and imaging studies of zebrafish maternal genes during the egg-to-embryo transition. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Reliability of Search and Rescue Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burciu, Zbigniew

    2012-06-01

    Determination of the reliability of Search and Rescue action system allows the SAR Mission Coordinator to increase the effectiveness of the action through the proper selection of operational characteristics of the system elements, in particular the selection of the rescue units and auxiliary units. The paper presents the example of the influence of water temperature and time of the action on the reliability of search and rescue action in the case of rescuing a survivor in the water.

  20. Nuclear structures in Tribolium castaneum oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogolyubov, Dmitry S; Batalova, Florina M; Kiselyov, Artyom M; Stepanova, Irina S

    2013-10-01

    The first ultrastructural and immunomorphological characteristics of the karyosphere (karyosome) and extrachromosomal nuclear bodies in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, are presented. The karyosphere forms early in the diplotene stage of meiotic prophase by the gathering of all oocyte chromosomes in a limited nuclear volume. Using the BrUTP assay, T. castaneum oocyte chromosomes united in the karyosphere maintain their transcriptional activity until the end of oocyte growth. Hyperphosphorylated RNA polymerase II and basal transcription factors (TFIID and TFIIH) were detected in the perichromatin region of the karyosphere. The T. castaneum karyosphere has an extrachromosomal capsule that separates chromosomes from the rest of the nucleoplasm. Certain structural proteins (F-actin, lamin B) were found in the capsule. Unexpectedly, the karyosphere capsule in T. castaneum oocytes was found to be enriched in TMG-capped snRNAs, which suggests that the capsule is not only a structural support for the karyosphere, but may be involved in biogenesis of snRNPs. We also identified the counterparts of 'universal' extrachromosomal nuclear domains, Cajal bodies (CBs) and interchromatin granule clusters (IGCs). Nuclear bodies containing IGC marker protein SC35 display some features unusual for typical IGCs. SC35 domains in T. castaneum oocytes are predominantly fibrillar complex bodies that do not contain trimethyl guanosine (TMG)-capped small nuclear (sn) RNAs. Microinjections of 2'-O-methyl (U)22 probes into the oocytes allowed revealing poly(A)+ RNAs in these nuclear domains. Several proteins related to mRNA export (heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein core protein A1, export adapters Y14 and Aly and export receptor NXF1) were also detected there. We believe that unusual SC35 nuclear domains of T. castaneum oocytes are possibly involved in mRNP but not snRNP biogenesis.

  1. Regulation of oocyte growth in the mouse ovary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, T.; Pedersen, T.; Faber, M.

    1969-01-01

    MICE are born with a finite number of oocytes which develop in foetal life from primordial oogonia and their direct mitotic progeny. After birth no new oocytes are formed, and the total number of oocytes decreases with advancing age. During the first 2 weeks of life this decrease is due to degene......MICE are born with a finite number of oocytes which develop in foetal life from primordial oogonia and their direct mitotic progeny. After birth no new oocytes are formed, and the total number of oocytes decreases with advancing age. During the first 2 weeks of life this decrease is due...

  2. 78 FR 39531 - Mine Rescue Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... Rescue Teams; CFR Correction #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 126 / Monday, July 1, 2013 / Rules... Rescue Teams CFR Correction In Title 30 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1 to 199, revised as of... Miner Act Requirements for Underground Coal Mine Operators and Mine Rescue Teams Type of mine...

  3. In-vitro maturation of human germinal vesicle sta ge oocytes cultured with human follicular fluid: a report of 3 pregnancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘嘉茵; 钱云; 冒韵东; 丁卫

    2002-01-01

    In-vitro maturation (IVM) of human oocyte is an assisted reproductive technique , which has been used in clinic for more than 10 years since the first report by Cha 1991[1]. Many clinical trials have indicated that IVM technology is not only used to treat infertile women with stubborn polycystic ovarian syn drome (PCOS)[2], to prevent patients from ovarian hyperstimulation syn drome (OHSS)[3],and to rescue the poor developed oocytes in stimu lated cycles , but also to reduce the cost and to avert the side-effects of gonadotropin sti mulation for in-vitro fertilization (IVF). Although there were lots of studies involving to the competence of the immature oocyte from mammalian or human ovar ies to become mature in vitro, the pregnancy rate from IVM is much lower than th at of IVF as reported[4]. This indicates that optimization of IVM remains a challenge.

  4. Live birth following vitrification of in vitro matured oocytes derived from sibling smaller follicles at follicle selection phase in the context of in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Lv, Jie-Qiang; Ge, Hong-Shan; Wu, Xin-Mei; Xi, Hai-Tao; Chi, Hai-Hong; Zhu, Chun-Fang; Huang, Jian-Ying

    2014-09-01

    In ovarian stimulation, a 31-year-old woman with polycystic ovary syndrome was at the risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, follicle aspiration was performed, and eight immature oocytes were collected from follicle fluids. After 28 h in vitro culture, six of them reached MII and were vitrified. The patient failed to conceive in her fresh in vitro fertilization cycle and next two replacement cycles. In the third replacement cycle, a successful pregnancy was obtained by vitrified-thawed oocytes. This case demonstrates that follicular aspiration during follicle selection phase has protective effects against developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, and rescued immature oocytes are viable and could produce promising embryos for live birth.

  5. Low utilization of extra embryos in donor oocyte in vitro fertilization cycles: an ethical dilemma to donor management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Heather; Briton-Jones, Christine; Hill, David

    2013-08-01

    To explore outcomes of donor In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) cycles with regards to cryopreservation and utilization of extra embryos after fresh transfer. A database search was performed to identify all consecutive fresh donor oocyte cycles from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010 at a private fertility laboratory. Parameters analyzed included: number of oocytes retrieved, number of patients choosing embryo cryopreservation, number of patients returning for frozen embryo transfer (FET), and pregnancy outcomes. A total of 1070 fresh oocyte donor cycles were identified. Average number of oocytes retrieved was 16.9 ± 7.9, and average number of embryos transferred was 2.3 ± 0.96. Sixty-six percent of patients cryopreserved excess embryos following fresh transfer, and only 40 % of these patients ultimately returned for FET. Patients who conceived in their fresh cycle were much less likely to return for FET than those who did not (25 % v 65 %, p ethical dilemmas when considering the large numbers of remaining embryos that will never be utilized.

  6. Oocyte cryopreservation for donor egg banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Ana; Remohí, José; Chang, Ching-Chien; Nagy, Zsolt Peter

    2011-09-01

    Oocyte donation is an efficient alternative to using own oocytes in IVF treatment for different indications. Unfortunately, 'traditional' (fresh) egg donations are challenged with inefficiency, difficulties of synchronization, very long waiting periods and lack of quarantine measures. Given the recent improvements in the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation, it is reasonable to examine if egg donation through oocyte cryopreservation has merits. The objective of the current manuscript is to review existing literature on this topic and to report on the most recent outcomes from two established donor cryobank centres. Reports on egg donation using slow freezing are scarce and though results are encouraging, outcomes are not yet comparable to a fresh egg donation treatment. Vitrification on the other hand appears to provide high survival rates (90%) of donor oocytes and comparable fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates to traditional (fresh) egg donation. Besides the excellent outcomes, the ease of use for both donors and recipients, higher efficiency, lower cost and avoiding the problem of synchronization are all features associated with the benefit of a donor egg cryobank and makes it likely that this approach becomes the future standard of care. Oocyte donation is one of the last resorts in IVF treatment for couples challenged with infertility problems. However, traditional (fresh) egg donation, as it is performed today, is not very efficient, as typically all eggs from one donor are given to only one recipient, it is arduous as it requires an excellent synchronization between the donor and recipient and there are months or years of waiting time. Because of the development of an efficient oocyte cryopreservation technique, it is now possible to cryo-store donor (as well as non-donor) eggs, maintaining their viability and allowing their use whenever there is demand. Therefore, creating a donor oocyte cryobank would carry many advantages

  7. Apoptosis maintains oocyte quality in aging Caenorhabditis elegans females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Andux

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In women, oocytes arrest development at the end of prophase of meiosis I and remain quiescent for years. Over time, the quality and quantity of these oocytes decreases, resulting in fewer pregnancies and an increased occurrence of birth defects. We used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to study how oocyte quality is regulated during aging. To assay quality, we determine the fraction of oocytes that produce viable eggs after fertilization. Our results show that oocyte quality declines in aging nematodes, as in humans. This decline affects oocytes arrested in late prophase, waiting for a signal to mature, and also oocytes that develop later in life. Furthermore, mutations that block all cell deaths result in a severe, early decline in oocyte quality, and this effect increases with age. However, mutations that block only somatic cell deaths or DNA-damage-induced deaths do not lower oocyte quality. Two lines of evidence imply that most developmentally programmed germ cell deaths promote the proper allocation of resources among oocytes, rather than eliminate oocytes with damaged chromosomes. First, oocyte quality is lowered by mutations that do not prevent germ cell deaths but do block the engulfment and recycling of cell corpses. Second, the decrease in quality caused by apoptosis mutants is mirrored by a decrease in the size of many mature oocytes. We conclude that competition for resources is a serious problem in aging germ lines, and that apoptosis helps alleviate this problem.

  8. Final Oocyte Maturation in Assisted Reproduction with Human Chorionic Gonadotropin and Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone agonist (Dual Trigger).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sofia Andrade de; Calsavara, Vinícius Fernando; Cortés, Gemma Castillón

    2016-12-01

    Final oocyte maturation with Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) and ovarian stimulation with Follicle Stimulation Hormone (FSH) combined with Gonadotrophin-releasing Hormone (GnRH) antagonist to block Luteinizing hormone (LH) surge is a standard procedure of in vitro Fertilization (IVF) and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI). However, GnRH agonist has been replacing the use of hCG in certain situations, especially in patients at risk of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS). Some studies have also shown advantages in the combined use of GnRH agonist concurrently with hCG in inducing final oocyte maturation, a treatment known as "Dual Trigger". In theory, this method combines the advantages of both induction regimens, and it has brought promising results. The objective of this study is to compare Dual Trigger with the use of hCG alone or the use of GnRH agonist alone. A systematic review of articles on Dual Trigger and a retrospective cohort study comparing the three methods of induction of final oocyte maturation have been conducted. It has been found that Dual Triggering for poor responder patients had a statistically significant increase in the number of retrieved oocytes, mature oocytes, and fertilized embryos in the positive beta hCG rate, implantation rate, and newborn/transferred embryo (TE) rate.

  9. Ultrastructure of quiescent oocytes of Cebus albifrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, B R; Hertig, A T

    1975-11-01

    Quiescent oocytes of the monkey Cebus albifrons were examined with the electron microscope. In many respects the ultrastructure of these cells was similar to that of other mammalian species. Elongate and oval mitochondria, lamellar Golgi complexes, small profiles of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and vacuolar organelles were randomly distributed around a round nucleus which usually contained a nucleolus and clumps of heterochromatin. Among the unusual morphological characteristics of these oocytes are 'membranous aggregates', membrane-bound organelles containing a complex of convoluted membranes, some very dense rod-like structures and a droplet of moderate density which resembles lipid. A similar droplet is frequently found in mitochondria. Rough endoplasmic reticulum is abundant in many of these oocytes, forming parallel arrays and concentric rings around the nucleus. Folded membrane complexes, apparent elaborations of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, are frequently found in the cytoplasm in continuity with cisternae of smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum and associated with vesicles which often contain flocculent material. The morphology of Cebus oocytes suggests a greater rate of steroid and protein synthesis, transport, and storage than is usually indicated by the ultrastructure of other mammalian oocytes.

  10. Polarized light microscopy in mammalian oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamaño, J N; Muñoz, M; Diez, C; Gómez, E

    2010-06-01

    The meiotic spindle structure plays a key role in normal chromosome alignment and segregation during meiosis. Polarized light microscopy (PLM) allows non-invasive evaluation of the meiotic spindle of metaphase oocytes from different animal species. The purpose of this article is to review the use of PLM in animal reproduction, mainly in the assessment of the meiotic spindle in oocytes. A brief overview of the methods to assess the meiotic spindle is presented as well as the principles behind the PLM. The use of PLM to evaluate oocyte quality and spindle morphology is discussed and the results on the viability of the oocytes after being exposed to PLM are presented. Several researchers showed that PLM could be successfully implemented on cryopreservation, nuclear transfer and intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedures as a tool to improve the outcome of these procedures. In addition, PLM can be used to develop studies on oocyte maturation and spindle dynamics. However, the information on the practical use of this technology in farm animals is very limited and further studies are needed to assess the importance of PLM in animal reproduction.

  11. Control of nucleus positioning in mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonacid, Maria; Terret, Marie-Emilie; Verlhac, Marie-Hélène

    2017-08-12

    The position of the nucleus in a cell can instruct morphogenesis in some cases, conveying spatial and temporal information and abnormal nuclear positioning can lead to disease. In oocytes from worm, sea urchin, frog and some fish, nucleus position regulates embryo development, it marks the animal pole and in Drosophila it defines the future dorso-ventral axis of the embryo and of the adult body plan. However, in mammals, the oocyte nucleus is centrally located and does not instruct any future embryo axis. Yet an off-center nucleus correlates with poor outcome for mouse and human oocyte development. This is surprising since oocytes further undergo two extremely asymmetric divisions in terms of the size of the daughter cells (enabling polar body extrusion), requiring an off-centering of their chromosomes. In this review we address not only the bio-physical mechanism controlling nucleus positioning via an actin-mediated pressure gradient, but we also speculate on potential biological relevance of nuclear positioning in mammalian oocytes and early embryos. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The RESCueH Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard Nielsen, Anette; Nielsen, Bent; Andersen, Kjeld;

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the most important lifestyle factors affecting the disease burden in the Western world. The results of treatment in daily practice are modest at best. The aim of the RESCueH programme is to develop and evaluate methods, which are as practice-near as possible......, and therefore can be implemented quickly and easily in everyday clinical practice. It is the first clinical alcohol programme to be transatlantic in scope, with implementation in treatment centers located in Denmark, Germany and the US. The RESCueH programme comprises 5 randomized controlled trials......, and the studies can be expected to result in (1) more patients starting treatment in specialized outpatient clinics, (2) a greater number of elderly patients being treated, (3) increased patient motivation for treatment and thus improved adherence, (4) more patients with stable positive outcomes after treatment...

  13. Motility contrast imaging of live porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ran; Turek, John; Machaty, Zoltan; Nolte, David

    2013-02-01

    Freshly-harvested porcine oocytes are invested with cumulus granulosa cells in cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). The cumulus cell layer is usually too thick to image the living oocyte under a conventional microscope. Therefore, it is difficult to assess the oocyte viability. The low success rate of implantation is the main problem for in vitro fertilization. In this paper, we demonstrate our dynamic imaging technique called motility contrast imaging (MCI) that provides a non-invasive way to monitor the COCs before and after maturation. MCI shows a change of intracellular activity during oocyte maturation, and a measures dynamic contrast between the cumulus granulosa shell and the oocytes. MCI also shows difference in the spectral response between oocytes that were graded into quality classes. MCI is based on shortcoherence digital holography. It uses intracellular motility as the endogenous imaging contrast of living tissue. MCI presents a new approach for cumulus-oocyte complex assessment.

  14. Calcium ion currents mediating oocyte maturation events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosti Elisabetta

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During maturation, the last phase of oogenesis, the oocyte undergoes several changes which prepare it to be ovulated and fertilized. Immature oocytes are arrested in the first meiotic process prophase, that is morphologically identified by a germinal vesicle. The removal of the first meiotic block marks the initiation of maturation. Although a large number of molecules are involved in complex sequences of events, there is evidence that a calcium increase plays a pivotal role in meiosis re-initiation. It is well established that, during this process, calcium is released from the intracellular stores, whereas less is known on the role of external calcium entering the cell through the plasma membrane ion channels. This review is focused on the functional role of calcium currents during oocyte maturation in all the species, from invertebrates to mammals. The emerging role of specific L-type calcium channels will be discussed.

  15. Growth of primordial oocytes in neonatal and adult mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammad; Miyano, Takashi

    2010-12-01

    Mammalian ovaries are endowed with a huge number of small oocytes (primordial oocytes) in primordial follicles. A small number of primordial oocytes start to grow, while others remain quiescent. Little is known about the mechanism regulating the activation of primordial oocytes. Recently, we found that primordial follicles in mature cows and prepubertal pigs took longer to initiate growth in xenografts compared with those in neonatal animals. We think that primordial oocytes in adult mammals are different from those in neonatal mammals. In this review, we summarize the results regarding the activation of primordial oocytes in neonatal and adult ovaries of different species and propose a model in which ovaries of neonatal mammals contain a mixed population of both quiescent and activated primordial oocytes, while almost all primordial oocytes are quiescent in adult females. The dormancy of primordial oocytes may be required to reserve the non-growing oocyte pool for the long reproductive life in mammals. FOXO3 is considered one of the molecules responsible for the dormancy of primordial oocytes in adult ovaries. These quiescent primordial oocytes are activated, perhaps by certain mechanisms involving the interaction between stimulatory and inhibitory factors, to enter the growth phase.

  16. Oocyte Pickup from Live Cows Through Laparoscopic Guided Aspiration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this experiment, the bovine follicular oocytes were aspirated from the ovaries of Chinese Holsteins with laparoscope made in China. The results were as following: for identifying the suitable negative aspiration pressure, six different pressures (50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300mmHg)were tested. The aspiration pressure of 100mmHg was the best. Its oocyte recovery rate was 37. 2%, and G I , G Ⅱ oocyte rate was 89. 5%. The heifers were picked up by laparoscope once or twice a week. Each heifer was collected with 2. 4 oocytes once a week or 4. 4 oocytes twice a week.Its oocyte recovery rate was 48. 0% and the G Ⅰ ,G Ⅱ oocyte rate was 93. 5%. In addition, 1.9 oocytes were collected from each cow once a week or 5.4 oocytes from each cow twice a week. Its oocyte recovery rate was 51.7% and the G Ⅰ , G Ⅱ oocyte rate was 85. 1%. It showed that it was possible to pick up bovine oocyte twice a week. Two cows were picked up twice a week for several weeks(53 times). 268 follicles were aspirated(5.1 follicles per cow per time), and 141 oocytes were recovered(2.7 oocytes per cow per time). The oocyte recovery rate was 52.5%, and the G Ⅰ , G Ⅱ oocyte rate was 85. 1%. It was advisable to pick up oocytes twice a week continuously. Some cows in estrous cycles were superovulated with PMSG(500IU). Each of them could be recovered 2.3 follicles and 1.1 oocytes, the others were superovulated with FSH(0. 7mg) , each of them could be aspirated with 4.4 follicles and 2.3 oocytes. It was obvious that the effect of OPU(oocyte pick up) by superovulation with FSH was much better than that with PMSG. The best time for OPU with laparoscope was at the beginning of cow's estrous cycles. At the first day of their estrus, each of them could be averagely aspirated with 8 follicles and 5.7 oocytes.

  17. Collaboration mechanism of intercity emergency rescue ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Yiping; Zhao Lindu

    2009-01-01

    With the development of metropolitan regions and the appearance of urban agglomerations,cities have been more closely related.For the restricted emergency rescue resource in a single city,it has become more and more imminent for the demand of the intercity collaborative resistance to major accident,so as to improve the protection capacity of urban security.In order to find an effective intercity emergency rescue collaborative system,this paper introduces the concept and analysis method of ecosystem theory into intercity emergency rescue.Based on theanalysis of the formation-process of emergency rescue individual,population and community,a three-level intercity emergency rescue collaborative system is constructed according to the characteristics of dynamics and structure of intercity emergency rescue ecosystem,then the collaboration mechanism of information,resource and process in the intercity emergency rescue ecosystem is also studied in this paper,so as to offer available strategy and method for the ecosystem theory applied to intercity emergency rescue.Through the studies of intercity emergency rescue eco,system,it illuminates that the proposed emergency system can not only cope with the major accident more timely and effectively,but also integrate the intercity information resources and emergency rescue resource and process optimi,zation.

  18. Cryopreservation of hamster oocytes: effects of vitrification or freezing on human sperm penetration of zona-free hamster oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critser, J K; Arneson, B W; Aaker, D V; Ball, G D

    1986-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted for evaluation of the efficacy of conventional freezing or vitrification of hamster oocytes for use in a human sperm penetration assay (hSPA). In experiment 1, oocytes were cryopreserved and evaluated for survival on the basis of morphologic criteria. Survival of vitrified oocytes and that of frozen oocytes were not different, whereas all cryopreserved groups had lower survival than noncryopreserved controls. In experiment 2, oocytes were conventionally frozen or vitrified and evaluated in an hSPA. Vitrified oocytes had a lower frequency of sperm penetration than frozen oocytes, and all cryopreserved groups had lower penetration rates than untreated controls. In experiment 3, oocytes were exposed to the cryoprotectant used to vitrify (VS1) or freeze (DMSO) but not cooled prior to evaluation in an hSPA. Exposure to DMSO but not VS1 reduced hSPA values. It is concluded from these experiments that while all cryopreserved oocytes do not survive, at current stages of development conventionally frozen oocytes perform better than vitrified oocytes in the hSPA and losses associated with conventional freezing procedures may be related to cryoprotectant exposure, whereas vitrification losses are more probably due to events associated with rapid cooling and/or warming of the oocytes.

  19. Improving oocyte quality by transfer of autologous mitochondria from fully grown oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Stine Gry; Pors, Susanne Elisabeth; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2017-01-01

    options using autologous mitochondria to potentially augment pregnancy potential in ART. Autologous transfer of mitochondria from the patient's own germline cells has attracted much attention as a possible new treatment to revitalize deficient oocytes. IVF births have been reported after transfer...... of oogonial precursor cell-derived mitochondria; however, the source and quality of the mitochondria are still unclear. In contrast, fully grown oocytes are loaded with mitochondria which have passed the genetic bottleneck and are likely to be of high quality. An increased supply of such oocytes could...... with high quality mitochondria can be obtained from natural or stimulated ovaries and potentially be used to improve both quality and quantity of oocytes available for fertility treatment....

  20. Age-Associated Lipidome Changes in Metaphase II Mouse Oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuck Jun Mok

    Full Text Available The quality of mammalian oocytes declines with age, which negatively affects fertilization and developmental potential. The aging process often accompanies damages to macromolecules such as proteins, DNA, and lipids. To investigate if aged oocytes display an altered lipidome compared to young oocytes, we performed a global lipidomic analysis between oocytes from 4-week-old and 42 to 50-week-old mice. Increased oxidative stress is often considered as one of the main causes of cellular aging. Thus, we set up a group of 4-week-old oocytes treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, a commonly used oxidative stressor, to compare if similar lipid species are altered between aged and oxidative-stressed oocytes. Between young and aged oocytes, we identified 26 decreased and 6 increased lipids in aged oocytes; and between young and H2O2-treated oocytes, we identified 35 decreased and 26 increased lipids in H2O2-treated oocytes. The decreased lipid species in these two comparisons were overlapped, whereas the increased lipid species were distinct. Multiple phospholipid classes, phosphatidic acid (PA, phosphatidylinositol (PI, phosphatidylserine (PS, and lysophosphatidylserine (LPS significantly decreased both in H2O2-treated and aged oocytes, suggesting that the integrity of plasma membrane is similarly affected under these conditions. In contrast, a dramatic increase in diacylglycerol (DG was only noted in H2O2-treated oocytes, indicating that the acute effect of H2O2-caused oxidative stress is distinct from aging-associated lipidome alteration. In H2O2-treated oocytes, the expression of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 increased along with increases in phosphatidylcholine. Overall, our data reveal that several classes of phospholipids are affected in aged oocytes, suggesting that the integrity of plasma membrane is associated with maintaining fertilization and developmental potential of mouse oocytes.

  1. First Babies from Cryopreserved Oocytes in Hungary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Konc J; Kanyo K; Varga E; Kriston R; Cseh S

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of oocyte cryopreservation (CP) in our clinical ICSIprogram.Methods Freezing procedure with medium containing 1.5 mol/L propanediol (PrOH)+ 0.3 mol/L succrose and traditional slow-freezingprotocol were used. Thawed oocytes were fertilized with ICSI (4-6 h after thawing), and fertilization was assessed 12-16 h later. Laser assisted hatching was performed on all transferred embryos and embryo transfer was carried out 48-72 h after ICSI.Results Eighty-five eggs were thawed and survival rate of 75.3% (64/85) was obtained.Sixty-four oocytes were inseminated with ICSI, 47fertilized (47/64; 73.4%) and a cleavage rate of 85% (40/47) was obtained. Embryo transfers were performed in 18patients, and 4 (19%) resulted in clinical pregnancies. One of the pregnancies encountered first trimester abortion. Implantation rate were 17.2% (5/29) per embryo and 5. 8% (5/85) per egg thawed. In all cases, chorion biopsy was performed resulting46 XY kariotype.Conclusion Our results provide further evidence of that although egg freezing cannot currently claim to be a routine procedure in human IVF, there will certainly be a place for oocyte CP in reproductive medicine in the future.

  2. Bovine cumulus-oocyte disconnection in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddox-Hyttel, Poul

    1987-01-01

    Cumulus-oocyte complexes were obtained from cows by aspiration of small (1-6 mm in diameter) antral follicles after slaughter. Complexes with a compact multilayered cumulus investment were cultured and processed for transmission electron microscopy after different periods of culture including a 0...

  3. [Karyosphere capsule in Tribolium castaneum oocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalova, F M; Bogoliubov, D S

    2013-01-01

    Structure and composition of the karyosphere (karyosome) capsule were studied in the oocytes of a laboratory insect, Tribolium castaneum, with the use of electron microscopy and immunoelectron cytochemistry. Basing on the study of nuclear structure dynamics, we distinguished 8 stages that characterize the period of oocyte growth. At the diplotene stage, T. castaneum oocyte chromosomes conjoin early into a compact karyosphere, but a significant chromatin condensation does not occur. The process of karyosphere formation is accompanied by the development of an extensive extrachromosome capsule surrounding chromatin. The capsule consists of a material of different morphological types. Significant molecular components of the T. castaneum karyosphere capsule are represented by the proteins of nuclear matrix including F-actin and lamin B. Besides the structural proteins, the Sm proteins of small nuclear (sn) RNPs and mature 2,2,7-trimethyl guanosine (TMG) 5'-capped snRNAs are revealed immunocytochemically in the karyosphere capsule. The obtained data can form a basis for further expansion of ideas on the functions of the karyosphere capsule as a specialized extrachromosomal nuclear domain of the oocytes. We believe that the T. castaneum karyosphere capsule plays not only a structural role, but may be involved directly in the processes related to gene expression.

  4. Evaluation of dual trigger with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and human chorionic gonadotropin in improving oocyte maturity rates: A prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Mahajan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mature oocytes are prerequisite for achieving the process of in vitro fertilization. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG is the standard trigger used for stimulating ovulation but is associated with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger achieves oocyte maturation and lowers the incidence of OHSS, but it has limitations of higher pregnancy loss rate and miscarriage rates. Coadministration of both hormones is found to improve the pregnancy rates and the number of mature oocytes retrieved. We aimed to assess if the dual trigger is better than the conventional hCG in triggering oocyte maturation. METHODOLOGY: The study included 76 female patients aged 24–43 years who were randomly divided into two groups with 38 patients in each arm. The study included patients with antimullerian hormone (AMH 4 ng/ml and AFC/ovary >12 to avoid OHSS risk with hCG trigger. RESULTS: The study showed statistically insignificant differences between dual group versus hCG group in terms of the number of oocytes retrieved (10.0 ± 5.6 vs. 8.7 ± 5.0; P = 0.2816, the number of mature oocytes recovered (8.4 ± 5.0 vs. 7.2 ± 4.0; P = 0.2588, fertilization rate (5.9 ± 4.2 vs. 5.6 ± 3.3; P = 0.7390, and the number of usable embryos on day 3 (4.0 ± 3.0 vs. 4.0 ± 2.4; P = 0.8991. CONCLUSION: The dual trigger is equivalent to hCG in triggering oocyte maturation.

  5. Birth after human chorionic gonadotropin-primed oocyte in vitro maturation and fertilization with testicular sperm in a normo-ovulatory patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia González-Ortega

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we present a case of in vitro maturation (IVM with surgical retrieved testicular sperm in a normo-ovulatory female. Human chorionic gonadotropin-primed IVM, testicular biopsy for sperm retrieval and intracytoplasmic sperm injection with fresh sperm were performed. Fourteen cumulus-oocyte complexes were obtained in germinal vesicle or metaphase I stage, eight oocytes reached metaphase II, seven presumptive zygotes were obtained, and three cleavage stages embryos in day 2 were transferred producing a singleton pregnancy. A single healthy newborn was obtained. Our results suggest that IVM may be an alternative for in vitro fertilization in normo-ovulatory women even if surgical retrieval of sperm is needed. Further research is required to depict contributing factors to the success of IVM in indications different from polycystic ovaries syndrome and the role of male gamete.

  6. Birth after human chorionic gonadotropin-primed oocyte in vitro maturation and fertilization with testicular sperm in a normo-ovulatory patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ortega, Claudia; Piña-Aguilar, Raul Eduardo; Cancino-Villareal, Patricia; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Antonio Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we present a case of in vitro maturation (IVM) with surgical retrieved testicular sperm in a normo-ovulatory female. Human chorionic gonadotropin-primed IVM, testicular biopsy for sperm retrieval and intracytoplasmic sperm injection with fresh sperm were performed. Fourteen cumulus-oocyte complexes were obtained in germinal vesicle or metaphase I stage, eight oocytes reached metaphase II, seven presumptive zygotes were obtained, and three cleavage stages embryos in day 2 were transferred producing a singleton pregnancy. A single healthy newborn was obtained. Our results suggest that IVM may be an alternative for in vitro fertilization in normo-ovulatory women even if surgical retrieval of sperm is needed. Further research is required to depict contributing factors to the success of IVM in indications different from polycystic ovaries syndrome and the role of male gamete. PMID:27803591

  7. Ultrastructure and mitochondrial numbers in pre- and postpubertal pig oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard; Callesen, Henrik; Løvendahl, Peter

    2016-01-01

    with different diameters from pre- and postpubertal pigs. The ultrastructure of smaller prepubertal immature oocytes indicated active cells in close contact with cumulus cells. The postpubertal oocytes were more quiescent cell types. The small prepubertal oocytes had a lower total mitochondrial number......, but no differences were observed in mitochondrial densities between groups. Mature postpubertal oocytes adhered to the following characteristics: presence of metaphase II, lack of contact between cumulus cells and oocyte, absence of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes, peripheral location of cortical...

  8. Brazilian rescue plan sparks surprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to Financial Times,when Guido Mantega,Brazil's finance minister,suddenly proposed a “Bric” rescue package for the eurozone this week,he caught not only other world leaders by surprise but also many of his fellow countrymen.Even as officials from other members of the so-called Bric grouping,Russia,India and China,said it was the first they heard of the idea,many ordinary Brazilians expressed shock at the notion of bailing out the world's richest trading bloc.

  9. The Data Rescue @ Home Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, A.; Allan, R.; Valente, M. A.; Tinz, B.; Brönnimann, S.

    2012-04-01

    Climate science as a whole as well as reanalyses as a special case can significantly profit from the recovery, imaging and digitisation of historical observations. The importance of this fact is reflected in large, global data rescue projects and initiatives such as the Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions over the Earth (ACRE, www.met-acre.org) or the EU FP7 ERA-CLIM project (www.era-clim.eu). From the time before 1957, there are still large amounts of surface data e.g. from former colonies and from overseas territories of European countries )e.g. Portugal, France and Germany) that need to be rescued. Also in case of the very early upper-air observations before the 1930s, even Europe and North America still hold an important quantity of data to be recovered in digital form. Here, we present the web platform "Data Rescue @ Home" (www.data-rescue-at-home.org), which has been developed at ETH Zurich and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, and which has been designed to take advantage of the voluntary assistance of the thousands of people on the web who are interested in climate or old weather data. On the website, these volunteers can enter meteorological data shown on digital images into entry masks that resemble the original. By registering, the users get access to their personal digitisation statistics and help optimising the project. At the moment, 4 digitisation projects are online: One project is dealing with German upper-air data from the Second World War period. In a second project, station data from Tulagi (Solomon Islands) is being digitised. Finally, two collaborative projects have been included: One in cooperation with the Instituto Dom Luiz (Univ. Lisbon, Portugal), where Portuguese station data from Angra (Azores) is digitised, and a further one in cooperation with the German Meteorological Service (DWD), in which precipitation data from former German colonies is being digitised. On our poster, we will report on the status of the projects

  10. In vitro maturation alters gene expression in bovine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adona, Paulo R; Leal, Cláudia L V; Biase, Fernando H; De Bem, Tiago H; Mesquita, Lígia G; Meirelles, Flávio V; Ferraz, André L; Furlan, Luiz R; Monzani, Paulo S; Guemra, Samuel

    2016-08-01

    Gene expression profiling of in vivo- and in vitro-matured bovine oocytes can identify transcripts related to the developmental potential of oocytes. Nonetheless, the effects of in vitro culturing oocytes are yet to be fully understood. We tested the effects of in vitro maturation on the transcript profile of oocytes collected from Bos taurus indicus cows. We quantified the expression of 1488 genes in in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes. Of these, 51 genes were up-regulated, whereas 56 were down-regulated (≥2-fold) in in vivo-matured oocytes in comparison with in vitro-matured oocytes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of nine genes confirmed the microarray results of differential expression between in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes (EZR, EPN1, PSEN2, FST, IGFBP3, RBBP4, STAT3, FDPS and IRS1). We interrogated the results for enrichment of Gene Ontology categories and overlap with protein-protein interactions. The results revealed that the genes altered by in vitro maturation are mostly related to the regulation of oocyte metabolism. Additionally, analysis of protein-protein interactions uncovered two regulatory networks affected by the in vitro culture system. We propose that the differentially expressed genes are candidates for biomarkers of oocyte competence. In vitro oocyte maturation can affect the abundance of specific transcripts and are likely to deplete the developmental competence.

  11. Human oocyte chromosome analysis: complicated cases and major pitfalls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bernd Rosenbusch; Michael Schneider; Hans Wilhelm Michelmann

    2008-08-01

    Human oocytes that remained unfertilized in programmes of assisted reproduction have been analysed cytogenetically for more than 20 years to assess the incidence of aneuploidy in female gametes. However, the results obtained so far are not indisputable as a consequence of difficulties in evaluating oocyte chromosome preparations. Because of the lack of guidelines, we decided to summarize for the first time, the possible pitfalls in human oocyte chromosome analysis. Therefore, we screened the material from our previous studies and compiled representative, complicated cases with recommendations for their cytogenetic classification. We point out that maturity and size of the oocyte are important parameters and that fixation artefacts, as well as the particular structure of oocyte chromosomes, may predispose one to misinterpretations. Moreover, phenomena related to oocyte activation and fertilization are illustrated and explained. This compilation may help to avoid major problems in future studies and contribute to a more precise, and uniform assessment of human oocyte chromosomes.

  12. Selection of Ovine Oocytes by Brilliant Cresyl Blue Staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheep oocytes derived from the ovaries collected from the slaughterhouse are often used for research on in vitro embryo production, animal cloning, transgenesis, embryonic stem cells, and other embryo biotechnology aspects. Improving the in vitro culture efficiency of oocytes can provide more materials for similar studies. Generally, determination of oocyte quality is mostly based on the layers of cumulus cells and cytoplasm or cytoplasm uniformity and colors. This requires considerable experience to better identify oocyte quality because of the intense subjectivity involved (Gordon (2003, Madison et al. (1992 and De Loos et al. (1992. BCB staining is a function of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD activity, an enzyme synthesized in developing oocytes, which decreases in activity with maturation. Therefore, unstained oocytes (BCB− are high in G6PD activity, while the less mature oocytes stains are deep blue (BCB+ due to insuffcient G6PD activity to decolorize the BCB dye.

  13. Advances in Search and Rescue at Sea

    CERN Document Server

    Breivik, Øyvind; Maisondieu, Christophe; Olagnon, Michel

    2012-01-01

    A topical collection on "Advances in Search and Rescue at Sea" has appeared in recent issues of Ocean Dynamics following the latest in a series of workshops on "Technologies for Search and Rescue and other Emergency Marine Operations" (2004, 2006, 2008 and 2011), hosted by IFREMER in Brest, France. Here we give a brief overview of the history of search and rescue at sea before we summarize the main results of the papers that have appeared in the topical collection. Keywords: Search and rescue (SAR), Trajectory modelling, Stochastic Lagrangian ocean models, Lagrangian measurement methods, ocean surface currents.

  14. Location awareness in a mountain rescue domain

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The notion of location awareness in a Mountain Rescue domain is critical for the mission coordinator of a Mountain Rescue Team who tries to organize the team and make informed decisions for all its members. The knowledge of location of each member of the team while they are on a mission, could be provided by sending GPS coordinates from a device that each rescue worker would carry, to the server of the team located at its headquarters. The physical characteristics of the Mountain Rescue domai...

  15. Phaseolus immature embryo rescue technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerts, Pascal; Toussaint, André; Mergeai, Guy; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Predominant among the production constraints of the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris are infestation of Ascochyta blight, Bean Golden Mosaic virus (BGMV), and Bean Fly. Interbreeding with Phaseolus -coccineus L. and/or Phaseolus polyanthus Greenm has been shown to provide P. vulgaris with greater resistance to these diseases. For interspecific crosses to be successful, it is important to use P. coccineus and P. polyanthus as female parents; this prevents rapid reversal to the recurrent parent P. vulgaris. Although incompatibility barriers are post-zygotic, early hybrid embryo abortion limits the success of F1 crosses. While rescue techniques for globular and early heart-shaped embryos have improved in recent years, -success in hybridization remains very low. In this study, we describe six steps that allowed us to rescue 2-day-old P. vulgaris embryos using a pod culture technique. Our methods consisted of (i) pod culture, (ii) extraction and culture of immature embryos, (iii) dehydration of embryos, (iv) germination of embryos, (v) rooting of developed shoots, and (vi) hardening of plantlets.

  16. Oocyte Degeneration Associated with Follicle Cells in Female Mactra chinensis (Bivalvia: Mactridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung Han; Chung, Ee-Yung; Lee, Ki-Young

    2014-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies of oocyte degeneration in the oocyte, and the functions of follicle cells during oocyte degeneration are described to clarify the reproductive mechanism on oocyte degeneration of Mactra chinensis using cytological methods. Commonly, the follicle cells are attached to the oocyte. Follicle cells play an important role in oocyte degeneration. In particular, the functions of follicle cells during oocyte degeneration are associated with phagocytosis and the intracellular di...

  17. Oocyte polarized light microscopy, assay of specific follicular fluid metabolites, and gene expression in cumulus cells as different approaches to predict fertilization efficiency after ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelli, Alberto; Canosa, Stefano; Bergandi, Loredana; Skorokhod, Oleksii A; Biasoni, Valentina; Carosso, Andrea; Bertagna, Angela; Maule, Milena; Aldieri, Elisabetta; D'Eufemia, Maria Diletta; Evangelista, Francesca; Colacurci, Nicola; Benedetto, Chiara

    2017-06-23

    The complex relationship between oocyte morphology, specific follicular fluid metabolites, gene expression in cumulus granulosa cells, and oocyte competence toward fertilization and embryo development still needs further clarification. Forty-six oocytes retrieved from the largest pre-ovulatory follicle of patients undergoing intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were considered assessing: (a) oocyte morphological characteristics at polarized light microscopy (PLM), (b) specific follicular fluid (FF) metabolites previously suggested to influence oocyte competence (AMH, markers of redox status and of cytotoxicity), (c) transcription of AMH and AMH type II receptor genes in cumulus cells. Data were analyzed using mono-parametric tests and multivariable logistic analysis in order to correlate morphological and biochemical data with fertilization. Comparing normally fertilized oocytes (n = 29, F group) with unfertilized (n = 17, nF group) we observed that: (a) the meiotic spindle area and major axis were significantly higher in nF group and in fertilized oocytes undergoing an early embryo development arrest; (b) AMH level in FF was comparable in F and nF groups; (c) the FF of nF group contained significantly higher levels of cytotoxicity (lactate dehydrogenase) and oxidative stress (Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, 4-hydroxynonenal-protein conjugates) markers; (d) cumulus cells of nF group showed significantly higher AMH receptor type II gene expression. Taken together, these observations suggest that an excessive cytotoxicity level can alter AMH signal transduction within cumulus cells, in turn leading to partial inhibition of aromatase activity, altered cytoplasmic maturation and increased oxidative stress, factors able to impair oocyte fertilization competence and embryo growth.

  18. Correlation between oocyte number and follicular fluid concentration of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in women after superovulation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppan, M; Varnagy, A; Reglodi, D; Brubel, R; Nemeth, J; Tamas, A; Mark, L; Bodis, J

    2012-11-01

    Follicular growth, ovulation, and luteinization are influenced by interactions of peptide and steroid hormone-signaling cascades in the ovary. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) plays an important role in the regulation of several endocrine processes and is present in ovarian follicular fluid (FF). However, little is known about PACAP in FF with regard to maturation, ovulation, fertilization, and successful pregnancy. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between PACAP concentration in FF and ovarian response to superovulation treatment in infertile women, performed in volunteers (n = 132; aged between 20 and 35). After treatment, the number of harvested oocytes was recorded and PACAP immunoreactivity in FF was measured by radioimmunoassay. All the corresponding PACAP concentrations were below 290 fmol/ml in cases when the number of harvested oocytes exceeded 14 per patient, while in all cases above 290 fmol/ml, the number of oocytes was below 14. Using these cutoff values, we determined three study groups: high-PACAP concentration, high-oocyte number, and low-PACAP concentration-low-oocyte number groups. Median values of PACAP concentration in these groups were 411.2, 106.5, and 101.0 fmol/ml, respectively, while the median values of harvested oocytes were 5.5, 19.0, and 5.0, respectively. Differences were significant, indicating a correlation between concentration of PACAP in FF and the number of recruited oocytes. Higher concentrations of PACAP in FF might be associated with lower number of developing oocytes, while low concentrations of PACAP might correlate with a markedly higher number of ova retrieved, thus predicting a higher chance for ovarian hyperstimulation. Our present study is among the first few human clinical studies with direct conclusions drawn for possible clinical impact of PACAP.

  19. Aromatase is expressed and active in the rainbow trout oocyte during final oocyte maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohin, Maella; Bodinier, Pascal; Fostier, Alexis; Chesnel, Franck; Bobe, Julien

    2011-07-01

    While it is generally well accepted that the ovarian follicular sites of estradiol-17β (E2) synthesis are restricted to somatic cells, the possible contribution of the germinal compartment has received little or no attention in teleosts. In order to demonstrate the expression of ovarian aromatase in the oocyte, cyp19a1a mRNA was studied in ovarian follicles by in situ hybridization. In addition, the expression of cyp19a1a was studied in both somatic and germinal compartments of the ovarian follicle in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during final oocyte maturation (i.e., maturational competence acquisition and subsequent meiosis resumption) by real-time PCR. The enzymatic activity of ovarian aromatase was also studied in both somatic and germinal compartments of the ovarian follicle. Finally, E2 levels were monitored in follicle-enclosed oocytes throughout the pre-ovulatory period. We were able to demonstrate a significant ovarian aromatase expression and activity in the late vitellogenic oocyte. Furthermore, a dramatic decrease in aromatase expression and activity occurs in the oocyte during late oogenesis, concomitantly with the trend observed in surrounding follicular layers. We also report an unexpected increase of E2 levels in the oocyte during the pre-ovulatory period. To our knowledge, these observations are reported for the first time in any teleost species. Together, our data support the hypothesis of the participation of the germinal compartment in follicular estrogen synthesis and a biological role of E2 during oocyte and/or early embryo development.

  20. 30 CFR 49.18 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.18 Section... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.18 Training for mine rescue teams. (a) Prior to serving on a mine rescue team each member shall complete, at a minimum, an...

  1. Oocyte induction of EGF responsiveness in somatic cells is associated with the acquisition of porcine oocyte developmental competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Lesley J; Sugimura, Satoshi; Gilchrist, Robert B

    2015-06-01

    Oocytes progressively acquire the competence to support embryo development as oogenesis proceeds with ovarian folliculogenesis. The objectives of this study were to investigate oocyte-secreted factor (OSF) participation in the development of somatic cell epidermal growth factor (EGF) responsiveness associated with oocyte developmental competence. A well-established porcine model was employed using oocytes from small (4 mm) antral follicles, representing low vs moderate developmental competence, respectively. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were treated in vitro with inducers of oocyte maturation, and cumulus cell functions and oocyte developmental competence were assessed. COCs from small follicles responded to FSH but, unlike COCs from larger follicles, were incapable of responding to EGF family growth factors known to mediate oocyte maturation in vivo, exhibiting perturbed cumulus expansion and expression of associated transcripts (HAS2 and TNFAIP6). Low and moderate competence COCs expressed equivalent levels of EGF receptor (EGFR) mRNA; however, the former had less total EGFR protein leading to failed activation of phospho-EGFR and phospho-ERK1/2, despite equivalent total ERK1/2 protein levels. Native OSFs from moderate, but not from low, competence oocytes established EGF responsiveness in low competence COCs. Four candidate recombinant OSFs failed to mimic the actions of native OSFs in regulating cumulus expansion. Treatment with OSFs and EGF enhanced oocyte competence but only of the low competence COCs. These data suggest that developmental acquisition by the oocyte of capacity to regulate EGF responsiveness in the oocyte's somatic cells is a major milestone in the oocyte's developmental program and contributes to coordinated oocyte and somatic cell development.

  2. Propagation of elite rescue dogs by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun Ju; Choi, Jin; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Geon A; Jo, Young Kwang; Choi, Yoo Bin; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the efficiency of two oocyte activation culture media to produce cloned dogs from an elite rescue dog and to analyze their behavioral tendencies. In somatic cell nuclear transfer procedure, fused couplets were activated by calcium ionophore treatment for 4 min, cultured in two media: modified synthetic oviduct fluid (mSOF) with 1.9 mmol/L 6-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) (SOF-DMAP) or porcine zygote medium (PZM-5) with 1.9 mmol/L DMAP (PZM-DMAP) for 4 h, and then were transferred into recipients. After embryo transfer, pregnancy was detected in one out of three surrogate mothers that received cloned embryos from the PZM-DMAP group (33.3%), and one pregnancy (25%) was detected in four surrogate mothers receiving cloned embryos from the SOF-DMAP group. Each pregnant dog gave birth to one healthy cloned puppy by cesarean section. We conducted the puppy aptitude test with two cloned puppies; the two cloned puppies were classified as the same type, accepting humans and leaders easily. The present study indicated that the type of medium used in 6-DMAP culture did not increase in cloning efficiency and dogs cloned using donor cells derived from one elite dog have similar behavioral tendencies.

  3. Fertilization of IVF/ICSI Using Sibling Oocytes from Couples with Subfertile Male or Unexplained Infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志凌; 林虹; 肖婉芬; 王玉莲

    2004-01-01

    The significance of the performance of conventional in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) using sibling oocytes from couples with subfertile male or unexplained infertility was evaluated. A total of 410 sibling oocyte cumulus-corona complexes (OCCC)from 21 couples with subfertile male (group A) and 11 unexplained infertile couples (group B) were randomly divided, in order of retrieval, into two groups inseminated either by conventional IVF or by ICSI. The treatment outcomes and the influence of infertility factors on fertilization in each group were compared. The results showed that although the two pronuclear (2PN) fertilization rate per injected sibling oocytes was significantly higher after ICSI (group A: 68.2 % ±28.8 %; group B: 66.2 %±24.9 %) than after conventional IVF (group A: 41.8 %±32.7 %; group B: 40. 1 %±22.1 %), the other variables studied included: the fertilization rates of per allocated sibling oocytes IVF/ICSI, the fertilization rates of sibling oocytes IVF/ICSI after excluding failed IVF fertilization cycles, as well as the cleavage rates of normal fertilization were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Similarly, though the total fertilization failure rate in the IVF group (group A: 42.9 %;group B: 36.4 %) was significantly higher than in the ICSI group (group A: 4.8 %; group B: 0),we did not cancel cycles due to the normal fertilization of sibling oocytes. Embryo transfer was possible in all 32 couples. There were 10 clinical pregnancies in the two groups. We also discovered a possible association between some semen parameters and sperm functions of group A, and women age and duration of infertility of group B and fertilization. It is suggested that adoption of the split IVF/ICSI technology in the above cases may help eliminate fertilization failures. This is also a useful method to investigate the effect of single factor on the employment of assisted reproductive tech nology.

  4. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... limitations of foreign body detection and removal? What is Foreign Body Retrieval? Foreign body retrieval involves the ... or computed tomography (CT). top of page How is the procedure performed? There are a number of ...

  5. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign body retrieval is the ... may undergo an ultrasound, x-ray or CT scan to locate and remove the object. Tell your ...

  6. Production of lion (Panthera leo) blastocysts after in vitro maturation of oocytes and intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, Lorena; Hribal, Romy; Stagegaard, Julia; Zahmel, Jennifer; Jewgenow, Katarina

    2015-04-01

    Assisted reproductive techniques are becoming widely applied to the breeding of endangered species, but establishing reliable protocols for the production of embryos in vitro is challenging because of the scarcity of sample material. In our study, we applied an assisted reproductive technique protocol for IVM and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), developed in the domestic cat, to oocytes retrieved from ovaries of four 2-year-old lionesses (Panthera leo) eight hours postmortem. In total, 68 cumulus-oocyte complexes of good quality were randomly distributed and cultured for 32 to 34 hours in two different maturation culture media, consisting of Medium 199 with Earle's salts, 3 mg/mL BSA, 0.1 mg/mL cysteine, 1.4 mg/mL sodium pyruvate, 0.6 mg/mL sodium lactate, 0.15 mg/mL l-glutamine, and 0.055 mg/mL gentamicin. Hormonal supplementation of IVM_1 was 0.02 IU/mL FSH and 0.05 IU/mL LH; IVM_2 consisted of 1.64 IU/mL FSH, 1.06 IU/mL LH, and 1 μg/mL 17ß-estradiol. Differences in hormonal supplementation did not produce significant differences in oocyte maturation rates, which were 39.4% in IVM_1 and 34.3% in IVM_2. Matured oocytes were microinjected with homologous frozen-thawed spermatozoa, and subsequent cleavage rates were 30.8% and 58.3%, respectively. Half of the embryos derived from oocytes matured in IVM_1 developed into blastocysts, whereas only 28.6% of embryos from oocytes matured in IVM_2 reached the blastocyst stage. Morula stages were present from Day 6 onward, and blastocyst stages from Day 9 on, indicating a slower developmental speed in comparison with domestic cats. This is the first report of in vitro-produced blastocysts using ICSI in the lion, and the results report that IVM and ICSI can be successfully performed with cumulus-oocyte complexes retrieved from ovaries after eight hours of shipping, obtaining competent embryos in culture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolism throughout follicle and oocyte development in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Fernandez, Esther; Picton, Helen M; Dumollard, Rémi

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic studies of mammalian embryos started with the development of in vitro culture systems more than 40 years ago. More recently, metabolic studies have begun to shed light on the requirements of growing oocytes/follicles from the earliest stages of folliculogenesis. While growing oocytes preferentially metabolise pyruvate over glucose, the somatic compartment of ovarian follicles is more glycolytic. The metabolic preferences of the oocyte are reflected in the early zygote, which becomes increasingly dependent on glycolytic energy production as development progresses to the blastocyst stage. Furthermore, the intricate metabolic relationship between each oocyte and its somatic surroundings is critical for oocyte growth and developmental competence. Measurements of amino acid turnover in bovine oocytes indicate that glutamine, arginine and leucine are consistently depleted, while alanine is produced, showing similarities with amino acid turnover in preimplantation embryos. Amino acid profiling is a good predictor of embryo quality and might also turn out to be a predictor of oocyte developmental competence. Finally, recent studies have uncovered lipid metabolism in oocytes and early embryos, suggesting that endogenous fatty acids might be used for energy production. Together, metabolic studies have revealed the multiplicity of energetic substrates used by oocytes and early embryos, and suggest that the versatility of the metabolic pathways available for energy production is key for high developmental potential. Metabolic studies of early embryos are now being applied to follicle culture, and the goal of describing the metabolome of the growing oocyte in its follicle is now very attainable.

  8. Knockdown of FOXO3 induces primordial oocyte activation in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammad; Lee, Jibak; Zengyo, Mai; Miyano, Takashi

    2010-02-01

    Mammalian ovaries are endowed with a large number of primordial follicles, each containing a nongrowing oocyte. Only a small population of primordial oocytes (oocytes in primordial follicles) is activated to enter the growth phase throughout a female's reproductive life. Little is known about the mechanism regulating the activation of primordial oocytes. Here, we found that the primordial oocytes from infant pigs (10- to 20-day-old) grew to full size at 2 months after xenografting to immunodeficient mice, whereas those from prepubertal pigs (6-month-old) survived without initiation of their growth even after 4 months; thereafter, they started to grow and reached full size after 6 months. These results suggest that the mechanism regulating the activation of primordial oocytes in prepubertal pigs is different from that in infant pigs. In this regard, the involvement of FOXO3, a forkhead transcription factor, was studied. In prepubertal pigs, FOXO3 was detected in almost all (94+/-2%) primordial oocyte nuclei, and in infant pigs, 42+/-7% primordial oocytes were FOXO3 positive. At 4 months after xenografting, the percentage of FOXO3-positive primordial oocytes from prepubertal pigs had decreased to the infant level. Further, siRNA was designed to knock down porcine FOXO3. FOXO3-knockdown primordial follicles from prepubertal pigs developed to the antral stage accompanied by oocyte growth at 2 months after xenografting. These results suggest that primordial oocytes are dormant in prepubertal pigs by a FOXO3-related mechanism to establish a nongrowing oocyte pool in the ovary, and that a transient knockdown of the FOXO3 activates the primordial oocytes to enter the growth phase.

  9. Rescue coronary stenting in acute myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Enrico; Meneghetti, Paolo; Molinari, Gionata; Zardini, Piero

    1996-01-01

    Failed rescue coronary angioplasty is a high risk situation because of high mortality. Coronary stent has given us the chance of improving and maintaining the patency of the artery. We report our preliminary experience of rescue stenting after unsuccessful coronary angioplasty.

  10. Fire Service Training. Rescue Practices. (Revised).

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    One of a set of fourteen instructional outlines for use in a course to train novice firemen, this guide covers the topic of rescue operations. Two types of rescue functions are recognized: the primary one consists of locating and saving trapped victims, and the secondary one of recovering bodies and making the area safe for other workers and…

  11. Connectionist Interaction Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominich, Sandor

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of connectionist views for adaptive clustering in information retrieval focuses on a connectionist clustering technique and activation spreading-based information retrieval model using the interaction information retrieval method. Presents theoretical as well as simulation results as regards computational complexity and includes…

  12. Follicular steroid hormones as markers of oocyte quality and oocyte development potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpintero, Nayara López; Suárez, Onica Armijo; Mangas, Carmen Cuadrado; Varea, Carolina González; Rioja, Rubén Gómez

    2014-07-01

    Various components of follicular fluid are suggested as biochemical predictors of oocyte quality. Previous studies of follicular steroid hormone levels have shown disparate results when related with fertilization outcomes. The objective of the study was to relate the levels of steroid hormones of each individual follicle with oocyte maturation, fertilization results, embryo quality, and pregnancy rates. Prospective cohort study in a university hospital. In 31 patients, who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection, it was performed an ultrasound guided aspiration of follicular fluid of the first two mature follicles from each ovary. Follicular levels of estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Generalized estimating equation model. In follicular fluids with mature oocyte presence, in normal as well as in failed fertilization, there was a positive correlation between follicular testosterone and progesterone (r = 0.794, P = 0.0001 and r = 0.829, P = 0.0001). Progesterone levels were higher in cases of normal fertilization compared to failed fertilization (P = 0.003). B quality embryos came from oocytes immersed in follicular fluids with higher estradiol values and higher estradiol/progesterone and estradiol/testosterone ratios than those of C quality (P = 0.01; P = 0.0009; P = 0.001). Estradiol levels were higher in patients who achieved pregnancy (P = 0.02). The analysis of follicular hormone composition could be considered as an additional tool in oocyte selection.

  13. Cytoplasmic Streaming in the Drosophila Oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Margot E

    2016-10-06

    Objects are commonly moved within the cell by either passive diffusion or active directed transport. A third possibility is advection, in which objects within the cytoplasm are moved with the flow of the cytoplasm. Bulk movement of the cytoplasm, or streaming, as required for advection, is more common in large cells than in small cells. For example, streaming is observed in elongated plant cells and the oocytes of several species. In the Drosophila oocyte, two stages of streaming are observed: relatively slow streaming during mid-oogenesis and streaming that is approximately ten times faster during late oogenesis. These flows are implicated in two processes: polarity establishment and mixing. In this review, I discuss the underlying mechanism of streaming, how slow and fast streaming are differentiated, and what we know about the physiological roles of the two types of streaming.

  14. Satellite-Based Technologies in Use for Extreme Nocturnal Mountain Rescue Operations: a Synergetic Approach Applying Geophysical Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchroithner, Manfred F.; Ehlert, Guido; Hetze, Bernd; Kohlschmidt, Horst; Prechtel, Nikolas

    2014-06-01

    Mountain-rescue operations require rapid response whilst also ensuring the security of the rescue teams. Rescuing people in a big rock-face is even more difficult if night or fog prevent sight. The paper presents a technical solution to optimally support, under these aggravated conditions, the location of the casualties and the navigation of the rescue team(s) in a rock-face from a coordination station. In doing so, standard components like a smartphones with GPS functionality, a data communication on a client-server basis and VR visualisation software have been adapted to the specific requirements. Remote support of the navigation in steep rocky terrain requires a highly accurate wall model which permits the local experts of the coordination station to dependably estimate geometry and structure of the rock along the rescue route and to convey necessary directives to the retrieval team. Based on terrestrial laser-scans from different locations, such a model has been generated for the mighty Dachstein South Face (Austria) and texturised with digital photographs. Over a twelve-month period, a transdisciplinary team of the Dresden University of Technology (Informatics, Electrical Engineering, Cartography) developed and integrated the various technical modules of the mountain-rescue support-system (digital rock-face model, optimised GPS data transmission between mobile device, server and client, data filtering, and dynamic visualisation component). In summer 2011 the proper functioning of the prototype was demonstrated in a rescue exercise under foggy dusk conditions.

  15. Use of clomiphene-based stimulation protocol in oocyte donors: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study was undertaken to compare between clomiphene citrate (CC and gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist-based protocols in donor-recipient cycles in terms of parameters of ovarian stimulation and obstetric outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and three fertile oocyte donors were stimulated using two different protocols: Clomiphene based (n = 103 and antagonist based (n = 100. Donors in the one group were stimulated from day 1 or 2 of spontaneous or withdrawal bleeds with CC (50 mg/day and recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH till the day of trigger while donors in the other group were stimulated using recombinant FSH from day 1 or 2, and the antagonist was added as per flexible antagonist protocol. When >3 follicles were >17 mm in diameter, trigger was given with 2 mg leuprolide intramuscular. Transvaginal oocyte retrieval was done after 34 h of trigger. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in between the two groups in terms of age, antral follicle count, starting dose of gonadotropins, total dose required, duration of stimulation, number of follicles retrieved, mature follicles, and fertilization rate. The serum estradiol levels were significantly raised in the clomiphene group (P < 0.001. Pregnancy rate was similar in both the groups. The clinical pregnancy rate was 65.94% in the clomiphene group and 57.46% in the antagonist group. The live birth rate per cycle started was 47.8% in the clomiphene group and 39.55% in the antagonist group. There was one case of ectopic pregnancy in the antagonist group. CONCLUSION: Controlled ovarian stimulation using clomiphene and gonadotropin is a viable option for donor oocyte cycles. The cost and number of injections used per cycle can be reduced by using the clomiphene-based protocols.

  16. Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Yurdun Kuyucu; Ozgul Tap

    2009-01-01

    Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf) follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted til...

  17. Pregnancy and birth rates after oocyte donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remohí, J; Gartner, B; Gallardo, E; Yalil, S; Simón, C; Pellicer, A

    1997-04-01

    To determine accumulated conception and live birth rates in ovum donation. Retrospective study from a computer database. Pregnancies with one gestational sac observed by ultrasound have been included as conceptional cycles and pregnancies that resulted in one live child were recorded for the analysis of the live birth rates. Life table analysis was applied. Oocyte donation program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. Three hundred ninety-seven recipients undergoing a total of 627 ETs were analyzed. Ovarian stimulation and ovum pick-up in donors. Uterine ET in recipients after appropriate exogenous steroid replacement. Accumulated and estimated (95% confidence intervals [CI]) conception and live birth rates in the oocyte donation program as well as considering age and cause of infertility of the recipients. Pregnancy rate after one cycle was 53.4% (CI 50.9% to 55.9%), with a delivery rate of 42.6% (CI 40.1% to 45.1%). Accumulated pregnancy rate increased up to 94.8% (CI 90.6% to 99.0%) after four transfers. Similarly, live birth rates reached 88.7% (CI 88.1% to 89.3%) after four attempts of ET by ovum donation. Cycle fecundity rates were maintained at approximately 50% after each attempt. Implantation rate was 18.3% (430/2,340 replaced embryos). Age and cause of entering the program did not influence the overall results of ovum donation. Oocyte donation is a successful treatment modality for infertile couples that offers even higher success rates than natural conception. No difference in cumulative pregnancy rate was observed regardless of recipient age, indication for oocyte donation, or number of cycles attempted.

  18. In Vitro Maturation of Cumulus-Oocyte Complexes for Efficient Isolation of Oocytes from Outbred Deer Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung Kyu; He, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Background The outbred (as with humans) deer mice have been a useful animal model of research on human behavior and biology including that of the reproductive system. One of the major challenges in using this species is that the yield of oocyte isolation via superovulation is dismal according to the literature to date less than ∼5 oocytes per animal can be obtained so far. Objective The goal of this study is to improve the yield of oocyte isolation from outbred deer mice close to that of most laboratory mice by in vitro maturation (IVM) of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). Methods Oocytes were isolated by both superovulation and IVM. For the latter, COCs were obtained by follicular puncture of antral follicles in both the surface and inner cortical layers of ovaries. Immature oocytes in the COCs were then cultured in vitro under optimized conditions to obtain metaphase II (MII) oocytes. Quality of the oocytes from IVM and superovulation was tested by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo development. Results Less than ∼5 oocytes per animal could be isolated by superovulation only. However, we successfully obtained 20.3±2.9 oocytes per animal by IVM (16.0±2.5) and superovulation (4.3±1.3) in this study. Moreover, IVF and embryo development studies suggest that IVM oocytes have even better quality than that from superovulation The latter never developed to beyond 2-cell stage as usual while 9% of the former developed to 4-cells. Significance We have successfully established the protocol for isolating oocytes from deer mice with high yield by IVM. Moreover, this is the first ever success to develop in vitro fertilized deer mice oocytes beyond the 2-cell stage in vitro. Therefore, this study is of significance to the use of deer mice for reproductive biology research. PMID:23457518

  19. In vitro maturation of cumulus-oocyte complexes for efficient isolation of oocytes from outbred deer mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Kyu Choi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The outbred (as with humans deer mice have been a useful animal model of research on human behavior and biology including that of the reproductive system. One of the major challenges in using this species is that the yield of oocyte isolation via superovulation is dismal according to the literature to date less than ∼5 oocytes per animal can be obtained so far. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to improve the yield of oocyte isolation from outbred deer mice close to that of most laboratory mice by in vitro maturation (IVM of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs. METHODS: Oocytes were isolated by both superovulation and IVM. For the latter, COCs were obtained by follicular puncture of antral follicles in both the surface and inner cortical layers of ovaries. Immature oocytes in the COCs were then cultured in vitro under optimized conditions to obtain metaphase II (MII oocytes. Quality of the oocytes from IVM and superovulation was tested by in vitro fertilization (IVF and embryo development. RESULTS: Less than ∼5 oocytes per animal could be isolated by superovulation only. However, we successfully obtained 20.3±2.9 oocytes per animal by IVM (16.0±2.5 and superovulation (4.3±1.3 in this study. Moreover, IVF and embryo development studies suggest that IVM oocytes have even better quality than that from superovulation The latter never developed to beyond 2-cell stage as usual while 9% of the former developed to 4-cells. SIGNIFICANCE: We have successfully established the protocol for isolating oocytes from deer mice with high yield by IVM. Moreover, this is the first ever success to develop in vitro fertilized deer mice oocytes beyond the 2-cell stage in vitro. Therefore, this study is of significance to the use of deer mice for reproductive biology research.

  20. Auxiliary Salvage Tow and Rescue: T-STAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Chain 2 Shots 2.5" Die Lock 4 19.7 10,000 lb Stato Anchors and Racks 2 11.2 Retrieval Pendant 600’ 1" 4 1.8 Wire; 2.5” x 1,800’ 2 15.0 Buoys, Crown...89.3 Buoy 4 26.8 Buoy Racks 2 44.6 Lines 11" x 1200’ Cir Nylon 4 7.6 Rescue FADS-III 1 2.9 Recompression Chamber 1 2.7 TOTAL 262.3...Accommodations 9 660 WORKING SPACES Accommodations 33 670 STOWAGE SPACES Accommodations 27 90 SPECIAL PURPOSE SYSTEMS Displacement 2 00 Total

  1. Radiation-enhanced murine sarcoma virus genome rescue activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, K.S.S.

    1975-01-01

    Although the doses of x ray (312-2,500 R) used for irradiation of cells caused impairment of DNA synthesis and cell replication, co-cultivation of x-irradiated MuLV-carrier cells with un-irradiated nonproducer cells of MSV-induced tumour resulted in as much as a 20-fold increase in MSV retrieval compared with the un-irradiated control. The enhancement was apparent also as a 3-fold increase in the number of cells producing MSV (infectious centers) in the co-cultivation plate. This suggested that the MSV genome rescue efficiency in terms of MSV per cell, as well as the number of cells producing MSV, increased markedly. By uridine-/sup 3/H-labeling and focus assay experiments, evidence was presented which suggested that an increase in MSV/MuLV ratio in the culture fluid of co-cultivation plates was obtained when the MuLV-carrier cells were pre-irradiated. By contrast, x irradiation of the nonproducer cells prior to co-cultivation caused only reductions in MSV genome rescue efficiency. However, use of x irradiated MuLV-carrier cells for co-cultivation with x-irradiated nonproducer cells restored this efficiency to some extent. The dose-survival curve of the nonproducer cells was not much different from those of the MuLV-carrier cells after x irradiation. It was suggested that the viability of non-producer cells was required for replication of MuLV transferred from the carrier cells and for subsequent MSV genome rescue.

  2. Interactions between oocytes and cumulus cells during in vitro maturation of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes in a chemically defined medium: effect of denuded oocytes on cumulus expansion and oocyte maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appeltant, R; Somfai, T; Nakai, M; Bodó, S; Maes, D; Kikuchi, K; Van Soom, A

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify interactions between oocytes and cumulus cells (CCs) on the level of cumulus expansion and oocyte maturation during IVM of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in a chemically defined medium using a system that allows individual tracking of oocytes. Especially, the influence of oocyte-secreted factors was investigated by the aid of addition of denuded oocytes (DOs) as a possible approach to improve the IVM system. The basic maturation medium was porcine oocyte medium with addition of gonadotropins only during the first 20 hours of IVM. During IVM, COCs were kept fixed to the bottom of culture dish by adhesive Cell-Tak coating, which enabled individual tracking of COCs during IVM. Size changes in COCs during IVM were measured by digital image analysis. Cumulus expansion in a porcine oocyte medium of intact COCs increased in a typical manner until 20 hours and decreased in size subsequently until 48 hours of IVM (P  0.05) but did enhance cumulus expansion of oocytectomized complexes (P medium: carbenoxolone repressed the expansion of COCs at 20 hours of IVM. In conclusion, the porcine oocyte enhances cumulus expansion both by gap junctional communications and presumably by oocyte-secreted factor production. Nevertheless, the presence of oocytes is not a prerequisite for this process. In return, CCs maintain meiotic arrest in cumulus-enclosed oocytes during the initial culture through gap junctions. On the basis of these findings, future research could investigate if coculture with DOs during IVM is beneficial for fertilization and embryo development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Ultrasound on Parthenogenic Activation of Mouse Oocyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gurabi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Artificial stimulation of mouse oocyte, in the absence of sperm contribution,can induce its parthenogenic activation of oocyte. Ultrasound is one of the newest methodsfor artificial activation of mammal oocytes, and its successful utilization in pig oocyteactivation has been recently reported. Our objective was to assess the effect of ultrasoundon mouse oocyte activation.Materials and Methods: Our groups included1 control group, 3 experimental groups consistingof 1, 2 and 3 repetitions of ultrasound exposure, and 3 sham groups handled similarto experimental groups but ultrasound system was off during treatments.In experimental groups, adult female NMRI mice at the interval between pregnant mareserum gonadotropin (PMSG and human corionic gonadotropin (hCG injections, wereexposed to continuous ultrasound with 3.28 MHz frequency and peak intensity (Ipk = 355mW/cm2.Sixteen hours after injection of hCG, the mice were euthanized and their oocytes werecollected; thereafter, parthenogenic oocytes were counted.Results: Data analysis using the ANOVA test shows a significant increase in the number ofparthenogenic oocytes in mice with 3 overall exposures to ovarian ultrasound (p<0.05.A significant decrease in the number of metaphase II (MII oocytes numbers was alsoseen in mice treated with ultrasound (p<0.05.Conclusion: Ultrasound is thought to induce pores generation in oocyte membranes andprovides an easier inward transport of Ca++ into oocytes. This phenomenon can inducemeiosis resumption in immature oocytes. With increased exposure repetitions from 1 to 3times and greater Ca++ arrival, oocytes can be parthenogenetically activated.

  4. Selection of Ovine Oocytes by Brilliant Cresyl Blue Staining

    OpenAIRE

    Liqin Wang; Jiapeng Lin; Juncheng Huang; Jing Wang; Yuncheng Zhao; Tong Chen

    2012-01-01

    Sheep oocytes derived from the ovaries collected from the slaughterhouse are often used for research on in vitro embryo production, animal cloning, transgenesis, embryonic stem cells, and other embryo biotechnology aspects. Improving the in vitro culture efficiency of oocytes can provide more materials for similar studies. Generally, determination of oocyte quality is mostly based on the layers of cumulus cells and cytoplasm or cytoplasm uniformity and colors. This requires considerable exper...

  5. Efficacy of Kisspeptin-54 to Trigger Oocyte Maturation in Women at High Risk of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) During In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbara, Ali; Jayasena, Channa N.; Christopoulos, Georgios; Narayanaswamy, Shakunthala; Izzi-Engbeaya, Chioma; Nijher, Gurjinder M. K.; Comninos, Alexander N.; Peters, Deborah; Buckley, Adam; Ratnasabapathy, Risheka; Prague, Julia K.; Salim, Rehan; Lavery, Stuart A.; Bloom, Stephen R.; Szigeti, Matyas; Ashby, Deborah A.; Trew, Geoffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Context: In vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment is an effective therapy for infertility, but can result in the potentially life-threatening complication, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether kisspeptin-54 can be used to effectively and safely trigger oocyte maturation in women undergoing IVF treatment at high risk of developing OHSS. Setting and Design: This was a phase 2, multi-dose, open-label, randomized clinical trial of 60 women at high risk of developing OHSS carried out during 2013–2014 at Hammersmith Hospital IVF unit, London, United Kingdom. Intervention: Following a standard recombinant FSH/GnRH antagonist protocol, patients were randomly assigned to receive a single injection of kisspeptin-54 to trigger oocyte maturation using an adaptive design for dose allocation (3.2 nmol/kg, n = 5; 6.4 nmol/kg, n = 20; 9.6 nmol/kg, n = 15; 12.8 nmol/kg, n = 20). Oocytes were retrieved 36 h after kisspeptin-54 administration, assessed for maturation, and fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection with subsequent transfer of one or two embryos. Women were routinely screened for the development of OHSS. Main Outcome Measure: Oocyte maturation was measured by oocyte yield (percentage of mature oocytes retrieved from follicles ≥ 14 mm on ultrasound). Secondary outcomes include rates of OHSS and pregnancy. Results: Oocyte maturation occurred in 95% of women. Highest oocyte yield (121%) was observed following 12.8 nmol/kg kisspeptin-54, which was +69% (confidence interval, −16–153%) greater than following 3.2 nmol/kg. At all doses of kisspeptin-54, biochemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, and live birth rates per transfer (n = 51) were 63, 53, and 45%, respectively. Highest pregnancy rates were observed following 9.6 nmol/kg kisspeptin-54 (85, 77, and 62%, respectively). No woman developed moderate, severe, or critical OHSS. Conclusion: Kisspeptin-54 is a promising approach to effectively and safely

  6. The population genetics of evolutionary rescue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Allen Orr

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary rescue occurs when a population that is threatened with extinction by an environmental change adapts to the change sufficiently rapidly to survive. Here we extend the mathematical theory of evolutionary rescue. In particular, we model evolutionary rescue to a sudden environmental change when adaptation involves evolution at a single locus. We consider adaptation using either new mutations or alleles from the standing genetic variation that begin rare. We obtain several results: i the total probability of evolutionary rescue from either new mutation or standing variation; ii the conditions under which rescue is more likely to involve a new mutation versus an allele from the standing genetic variation; iii a mathematical description of the U-shaped curve of total population size through time, conditional on rescue; and iv the time until the average population size begins to rebound as well as the minimal expected population size experienced by a rescued population. Our analysis requires taking into account a subtle population-genetic effect (familiar from the theory of genetic hitchhiking that involves "oversampling" of those lucky alleles that ultimately sweep to high frequency. Our results are relevant to conservation biology, experimental microbial evolution, and medicine (e.g., the dynamics of antibiotic resistance.

  7. PTK2b function during fertilization of the mouse oocyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Jinping [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); McGinnis, Lynda K. [Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Carlton, Carol [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Beggs, Hilary E. [Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kinsey, William H., E-mail: wkinsey@kumc.edu [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • PTK2b is expressed in oocytes and is activated following fertilization. • PTK2b suppression in oocytes prevents fertilization, but not parthenogenetic activation. • PTK2b suppression prevents the oocyte from fusing with or incorporating bound sperm. • PTK2b suppressed oocytes that fail to fertilize do not exhibit calcium oscillations. - Abstract: Fertilization triggers rapid changes in intracellular free calcium that serve to activate multiple signaling events critical to the initiation of successful development. Among the pathways downstream of the fertilization-induced calcium transient is the calcium-calmodulin dependent protein tyrosine kinase PTK2b or PYK2 kinase. PTK2b plays an important role in fertilization of the zebrafish oocyte and the objective of the present study was to establish whether PTK2b also functions in mammalian fertilization. PTK2b was activated during the first few hours after fertilization of the mouse oocyte during the period when anaphase resumption was underway and prior to the pronuclear stage. Suppression of PTK2b kinase activity in oocytes blocked sperm incorporation and egg activation although sperm-oocyte binding was not affected. Oocytes that failed to incorporate sperm after inhibitor treatment showed no evidence of a calcium transient and no evidence of anaphase resumption suggesting that egg activation did not occur. The results indicate that PTK2b functions during the sperm-egg fusion process or during the physical incorporation of sperm into the egg cytoplasm and is therefore critical for successful development.

  8. A navigation and control system for an autonomous rescue vehicle in the space station environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Lawrence

    1991-01-01

    A navigation and control system was designed and implemented for an orbital autonomous rescue vehicle envisioned to retrieve astronauts or equipment in the case that they become disengaged from the space station. The rescue vehicle, termed the Extra-Vehicular Activity Retriever (EVAR), has an on-board inertial measurement unit ahd GPS receivers for self state estimation, a laser range imager (LRI) and cameras for object state estimation, and a data link for reception of space station state information. The states of the retriever and objects (obstacles and the target object) are estimated by inertial state propagation which is corrected via measurements from the GPS, the LRI system, or the camera system. Kalman filters are utilized to perform sensor fusion and estimate the state propagation errors. Control actuation is performed by a Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU). Phase plane control techniques are used to control the rotational and translational state of the retriever. The translational controller provides station-keeping or motion along either Clohessy-Wiltshire trajectories or straight line trajectories in the LVLH frame of any sufficiently observed object or of the space station. The software was used to successfully control a prototype EVAR on an air bearing floor facility, and a simulated EVAR operating in a simulated orbital environment. The design of the navigation system and the control system are presented. Also discussed are the hardware systems and the overall software architecture.

  9. The dormant and the fully competent oocyte: comparing the transcriptome of human oocytes from primordial follicles and in metaphase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl, Marie Louise; Borup, Rehannah; Vikeså, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Oocytes become enclosed in primordial follicles during fetal life and remain dormant there until activation followed by growth and meiotic resumption. Current knowledge about the molecular pathways involved in oogenesis is incomplete. This study identifies the specific transcriptome of the human...... oocyte in the quiescent state and at the pinnacle of maturity at ovulation. In silico bioinformatic comparisons were made between the transcriptome of human oocytes from dormant primordial follicles and that of human metaphase II (MII) oocytes and granulosa cells and unique gene expression profiles were...

  10. Hydrogen sulfide donor protects porcine oocytes against aging and improves the developmental potential of aged porcine oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Krejcova

    Full Text Available Porcine oocytes that have matured in in vitro conditions undergo the process of aging during prolonged cultivation, which is manifested by spontaneous parthenogenetic activation, lysis or fragmentation of aged oocytes. This study focused on the role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S in the process of porcine oocyte aging. H2S is a gaseous signaling molecule and is produced endogenously by the enzymes cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS, cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST. We demonstrated that H2S-producing enzymes are active in porcine oocytes and that a statistically significant decline in endogenous H2S production occurs during the first day of aging. Inhibition of these enzymes accelerates signs of aging in oocytes and significantly increases the ratio of fragmented oocytes. The presence of exogenous H2S from a donor (Na2S.9H2O significantly suppressed the manifestations of aging, reversed the effects of inhibitors and resulted in the complete suppression of oocyte fragmentation. Cultivation of aging oocytes in the presence of H2S donor positively affected their subsequent embryonic development following parthenogenetic activation. Although no unambiguous effects of exogenous H2S on MPF and MAPK activities were detected and the intracellular mechanism underlying H2S activity remains unclear, our study clearly demonstrates the role of H2S in the regulation of porcine oocyte aging.

  11. Serous papillary adenocarcinoma possibly related to the presence of primitive oocyte-like cells in the adult ovarian surface epithelium: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virant-Klun Irma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The presence of oocytes in the ovarian surface epithelium has already been confirmed in the fetal ovaries. We report the presence of SSEA-4, SOX-2, VASA and ZP2-positive primitive oocyte-like cells in the adult ovarian surface epithelium of a patient with serous papillary adenocarcinoma. Case presentation Ovarian tissue was surgically retrieved from a 67-year old patient. Histological analysis revealed serous papillary adenocarcinoma. A proportion of ovarian cortex sections was deparaffinized and immunohistochemically stained for the expression of markers of pluripotency SSEA-4 and SOX-2 and oocyte-specific markers VASA and ZP2. The analysis confirmed the presence of round, SSEA-4, SOX-2, VASA and ZP2-positive primitive oocyte-like cells in the ovarian surface epithelium. These cells were possibly related to the necrotic malignant tissue. Conclusion Primitive oocyte-like cells present in the adult ovarian surface epithelium persisting probably from the fetal period of life or developed from putative stem cells are a pathological condition which is not observed in healthy adult ovaries, and might be related to serous papillary adenocarcinoma manifestation in the adult ovarian surface epithelium. This observation needs attention to be further investigated.

  12. Anti-Mullerian hormone : a marker for oocyte quantity, oocyte quality and embryo quality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fong, S. Lie; Baart, E. B.; Martini, E.; Schipper, I.; Visser, J. A.; Themmen, A. P. N.; de Jong, F. H.; Fauser, B. J. C. M.; Laven, J. S. E.

    2008-01-01

    Serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) concentrations decline with increasing age and constitute a Sensitive marker for ovarian ageing. In addition, basal serum AMH concentrations predict ovarian response during IVF cycles. Concomitantly, oocyte quantity and embryo quality decrease with advancing age. H

  13. Toward a Behavioral Ecology of Rescue Behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hollis, Karen L; Nowbahari, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Although the study of helping behavior has revolutionized the field of behavioral ecology, scientific examination of rescue behavior remains extremely rare, except perhaps in ants, having been described as early as 1874...

  14. Search and Rescue Mission Using Multicopters

    OpenAIRE

    Steen, Thor Audun

    2014-01-01

    Search and rescue operations can greatly benefit from the use of autonomous unmanned aerial systems to survey the environment and collect evidence about the positions of missing persons. This thesis considers the design of an autonomous multicopter system for use in a search and rescue mission. The ArduPilot Mega is used as the autopilot and is presented together with detailed information about the utilized hardware and software. The design of a low- level control interface is implemented as ...

  15. Location Awareness in a Mountain Rescue Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Georgopoulos, Panagiotis; Edwards, Christopher; Dunmore, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Aiding the efficient collaboration and coordination of rescue teams is a challenging task especially in a heterogeneous mountainous region. Knowing the exact location of the rescuers during a mountain search and rescue mission can be of great value for the successful progress of the mission and help the mission coordinator in taking informed decisions. The devised Location Awareness System can provide, in a quasi real time manner, exact location information of the rescuers on the mountain, to...

  16. Private information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Xun; Bertino, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    This book deals with Private Information Retrieval (PIR), a technique allowing a user to retrieve an element from a server in possession of a database without revealing to the server which element is retrieved. PIR has been widely applied to protect the privacy of the user in querying a service provider on the Internet. For example, by PIR, one can query a location-based service provider about the nearest car park without revealing his location to the server.The first PIR approach was introduced by Chor, Goldreich, Kushilevitz and Sudan in 1995 in a multi-server setting, where the user retriev

  17. Increasing age influences uterine integrity, but not ovarian function or oocyte quality, in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosier, Adrienne E; Comizzoli, Pierre; Baker, Tom; Davidson, Autumn; Munson, Linda; Howard, JoGayle; Marker, Laurie L; Wildt, David E

    2011-08-01

    pathologies. The discovery that a significant proportion of oocytes from older females have developmental capacity in vitro suggests that in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer may be useful for "rescuing" the genome of older, nonreproductive cheetahs.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope Crew Rescue Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Teri L.; Canga, Michael A.; Cates, Grant R.

    2010-01-01

    In the aftermath of the 2003 Columbia accident, NASA removed the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) from the Space Shuttle manifest. Reasons cited included concerns that the risk of flying the mission would be too high. The HST SM4 was subsequently reinstated and flown as Space Transportation System (STS)-125 because of improvements in the ascent debris environment, the development of techniques for astronauts to perform on orbit repairs to damaged thermal protection, and the development of a strategy to provide a viable crew rescue capability. However, leading up to the launch of STS-125, the viability of the HST crew rescue capability was a recurring topic. For STS-125, there was a limited amount of time available to perform a crew rescue due to limited consumables (power, oxygen, etc.) available on the Orbiter. The success of crew rescue depended upon several factors, including when a problem was identified; when and what actions, such as powering down, were begun to conserve consumables; and where the Launch on Need (LON) vehicle was in its ground processing cycle. Crew rescue success also needed to be weighed against preserving the Orbiter s ability to have a landing option in case there was a problem with the LON vehicle. This paper focuses on quantifying the HST mission loss of crew rescue capability using Shuttle historical data and various power down strategies. Results from this effort supported NASA s decision to proceed with STS-125, which was successfully completed on May 24th 2009.

  19. Maternal factors required for oocyte developmental competence in mice: transcriptome analysis of non-surrounded nucleolus (NSN) and surrounded nucleolus (SN) oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun-Yu; Li, Mo; Luo, Yi-Bo; Song, Shuhui; Tian, Dongmei; Yang, Jin; Zhang, Bing; Hou, Yi; Schatten, Heide; Liu, Zhonghua; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2013-06-15

    During mouse antral follicle development, the oocyte chromatin gradually transforms from a less condensed state with no Hoechst-positive rim surrounding the nucleolus (NSN) to a fully condensed chromatin state with a Hoechst-positive rim surrounding the nucleolus (SN). Compared with SN oocytes, NSN oocytes display a higher gene transcription activity and a lower rate of meiosis resumption (G2/M transition), and they are mostly arrested at the two-cell stage after in vitro fertilization. To explore the differences between NSN and SN oocytes, and the maternal factors required for oocyte developmental competence, we compared the whole-transcriptome profiles between NSN and SN oocytes. First, we found that the NSN and SN oocytes were different in their metabolic pathways. In the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway, the SN oocytes tend to produce diacylglycerol, whereas the NSN oocytes tend to produce phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate. For energy production, the SN oocytes and NSN oocytes differed in the gluconeogenesis and in the synthesis processes. Second, we also found that the key genes associated with oocyte meiosis and/or preimplantation embryo development were differently expressed in the NSN and SN oocytes. Our results illustrate that during the NSN-SN transition, the oocytes change their metabolic activities and accumulate maternal factors for further oocyte maturation and post-fertilization embryo development.

  20. The effect of follicular fluid hormones on oocyte recovery after ovarian stimulation: FSH level predicts oocyte recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaudo Paolo F

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian stimulation for assisted reproductive technology (ART overcomes the physiologic process to develop a single dominant follicle. However, following stimulation, egg recovery rates are not 100%. The objective of this study is to determine if the follicular fluid hormonal environment is associated with oocyte recovery. Methods This is a prospective study involving patients undergoing ART by standard ovarian stimulation protocols at an urban academic medical center. A total of 143 follicular fluid aspirates were collected from 80 patients. Concentrations of FSH, hCG, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone and prolactin were determined. A multivariable regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between the follicular fluid hormones and oocyte recovery. Results Intrafollicular FSH was significantly associated with oocyte recovery after adjustment for hCG (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.03–1.42. The hCG concentration alone, in the range tested, did not impact the odds of oocyte recovery (AOR = 0.99, 95%CI 0.93–1.07. Estradiol was significantly associated with oocyte recovery (AOR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.96–0.99. After adjustment for progesterone, the strength of association between FSH and oocyte recovery increased (AOR = 1.84, 95%CI 1.45–2.34. Conclusion The relationship between FSH and oocyte recovery is significant and appears to work through mechanisms independent of the sex hormones. FSH may be important for the physiologic event of separation of the cumulus-oocyte complex from the follicle wall, thereby influencing oocyte recovery. Current methods for inducing the final stages of oocyte maturation, with hCG administration alone, may not be optimal. Modifications of treatment protocols utilizing additional FSH may enhance oocyte recovery.

  1. Oxidative stress and ageing of the post-ovulatory oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Tessa; Aitken, R John

    2013-12-01

    With extended periods of time following ovulation, the metaphase II stage oocyte experiences deterioration in quality referred to as post-ovulatory oocyte ageing. Post-ovulatory ageing occurs both in vivo and in vitro and has been associated with reduced fertilization rates, poor embryo quality, post-implantation errors and abnormalities in the offspring. Although the physiological consequences of post-ovulatory oocyte ageing have largely been established, the molecular mechanisms controlling this process are not well defined. This review analyses the relationships between biochemical changes exhibited by the ageing oocyte and the symptoms associated with the ageing phenotype. We also discuss molecular events that are potentially involved in orchestrating post-ovulatory ageing with a particular focus on the role of oxidative stress. We propose that oxidative stress may act as the initiator for a cascade of events that create the aged oocyte phenotype. Specifically, oxidative stress has the capacity to cause a decline in levels of critical cell cycle factors such as maturation-promoting factor, impair calcium homoeostasis, induce mitochondrial dysfunction and directly damage multiple intracellular components of the oocyte such as lipids, proteins and DNA. Finally, this review addresses current strategies for delaying post-ovulatory oocyte ageing with a particular focus on the potential use of compounds such as caffeine or selected antioxidants in the development of more refined media for the preservation of oocyte integrity during IVF procedures.

  2. Perinatal outcomes in 375 children born after oocyte donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchau, Sara S; Loft, Anne; Larsen, Elisabeth C;

    2013-01-01

    To describe perinatal outcomes in children born after oocyte donation (OD) compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and spontaneous conception (SC).......To describe perinatal outcomes in children born after oocyte donation (OD) compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and spontaneous conception (SC)....

  3. Follicle-stimulating hormone accelerates mouse oocyte development in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeestere, Isabelle; Streiff, Agathe K; Suzuki, João; Al-Khabouri, Shaima; Mahrous, Enas; Tan, Seang Lin; Clarke, Hugh J

    2012-07-01

    During folliculogenesis, oocytes grow and acquire developmental competence in a mutually dependent relationship with their adjacent somatic cells. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) plays an essential and well-established role in the differentiation of somatic follicular cells, but its function in the development of the oocyte has still not been elucidated. We report here that oocytes of Fshb(-/-) mice, which cannot produce FSH, grow at the same rate and reach the same size as those of wild-type mice. Consistent with this observation, the granulosa cells of Fshb(-/-) mice express the normal quantity of mRNA encoding Kit ligand, which has been implicated in oocyte growth. Oocytes of Fshb(-/-) mice also accumulate normal quantities of cyclin B1 and CDK1 proteins and mitochondrial DNA. Moreover, they acquire the ability to complete meiotic maturation in vitro and undergo transition from non-surrounded nucleolus to surrounded nucleolus. However, these events of late oocyte development are significantly delayed. Following in vitro maturation and fertilization, only a small number of embryos derived from oocytes of Fshb(-/-) mice reach the blastocyst stage. Administration of equine chorionic gonadotropin, which provides FSH activity, 48 h before in vitro maturation increases the number of blastocysts obtained subsequently. These results indicate that FSH is not absolutely required for oocyte development in vivo but that this process occurs more rapidly in its presence. We suggest that FSH may coordinate the development of the germline and somatic compartments of the follicle, ensuring that ovulation releases a developmentally competent egg.

  4. Induction and inhibition of oocyte maturation by EDCs in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokumoto Mika

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oocyte maturation in lower vertebrates is triggered by maturation-inducing hormone (MIH, which acts on unidentified receptors on the oocyte surface and induces the activation of maturation-promoting factor (MPF in the oocyte cytoplasm. We previously described the induction of oocyte maturation in fish by an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC, diethylstilbestrol (DES, a nonsteroidal estrogen. Methods In this study, stimulatory and inhibitory effects of EDCs and natural steroids on oocyte maturation were examined in zebrafish. For effective agents, some details about the mechanism in induction or inhibition of maturation were examined. Possible groups of DES interacting with the MIH receptor are discussed based on relative potency of steroids to induce maturation. Results Among agents tested, tamoxifen (TAM and its metabolite 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT showed stimulatory activity similar to DES. The time courses of the change in germinal vesicle breakdown and an intracellular molecular event (the synthesis of cyclin B induced by TAM were indistinguishable from those induced by MIH. In contrast, pentachlorophenol (PCP had a potent inhibitory effect on MIH-induced oocyte maturation. PCP inhibited not only MIH-induced maturation but also DES- and TAM-induced maturation. Methoxychlor also inhibited maturation when oocytes were pre-treated with this agent. Conclusion These results suggest that EDCs act as agonists or antagonists in the induction of oocyte maturation in fish.

  5. Hormonal control of mammalian oocyte meiosis at diplotene stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meijia; Xia, Guoliang

    2012-04-01

    Mammalian oocytes grow and undergo meiosis within ovarian follicles. Fully grown oocytes are arrested at the first meiotic prophase by a mural granulosa origin "arrester" until a surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary at the mid-cycle stimulates the immature oocyte to resume meiosis. Recent evidence indicates that natriuretic peptide precursor type C (NPPC) produced by mural granulosa cells stimulates the generation of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) by cumulus cell natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2), which diffuses into oocyte via gap junctions and inhibits oocyte phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3A) activity and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) hydrolysis and maintains meiotic arrest with a high intraoocyte cAMP level. This cAMP is generated through the activity of the Gs G-protein by the G-protein-coupled receptor, GPR3 and GPR12, and adenylyl cyclases (ADCY) endogenous to the oocyte. Further studies suggest that endocrine hormones, such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), LH, 17β-estradiol (E2) and oocyte-derived paracrine factors (ODPFs), participate in oocyte meiosis possibly by the regulation of NPPC and/or NPR2. A detailed investigation of NPPC and NPR2 expression in follicle cells will elucidate the precise molecular mechanisms of gonadotropins, and control the arrest as well as resumption of meiosis.

  6. Oocyte-to-embryo transition: kinase cabal plots regime change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, David; Lee, Laura A

    2006-02-07

    The transition from oocyte to embryo is among the most enthralling events in developmental biology. Recent studies of this transition in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have revealed how conserved kinases administer the destruction of key oocyte meiotic regulators to create an embryo.

  7. 30 CFR 49.12 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.12... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.12 Availability of mine rescue teams. (a) Except where alternative compliance is permitted for small and remote mines (§ 49.13),...

  8. 30 CFR 49.8 - Training for mine rescue teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.8 Section 49... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.8 Training for mine rescue teams. (a) Prior to serving on a mine rescue team each member shall complete, at a minimum, an initial 20-hour course of instruction as...

  9. Functional Topography of the Fully Grown Human Oocyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Manuela; Calligaro, Alberto; Behr, Barry; Pera, Renee Rejo; Redi, Carlo Alberto; Wossidlo, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In vivo maturation (IVM) of human oocytes is a technique used to increase the number of usable oocytes for in vitro fertilization (IVF) and represents a necessity for women with different ovarian pathologies. During IVM the oocytes progress from the germinal vesicle stage (GV) through the metaphase II and during this journey both nuclear and cytoplasmic rearrangements must be obtained to increase the probability to get viable and healthy zygotes/embryos after IVF. As the successful clinical outcomes of this technique are a reality, we wanted to investigate the causes behind oocytes maturation arrest. For obvious ethical reasons, we were able to analyze only few human immature oocytes discarded and donated to research by transmission electron microscopy showing that, as in the mouse, they have different chromatin and cytoplasmic organizations both essential for further embryo development.

  10. Oocyte donation in patients without ovarian function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devroey, P; Wisanto, A; Camus, M; Van Waesberghe, L; Bourgain, C; Liebaers, I; Van Steirteghem, A C

    1988-08-01

    The clinical, hormonal and cytogenetic findings in 36 women with primary ovarian failure, referred for oocyte or embryo donations are reported. Fifteen women were suffering from ovarian dysgenesis and 11 from premature menopause. Six of these 26 patients showed X-chromosome abnormalities. One patient had a Noonan syndrome. The remaining 10 had surgical menopause. The mean duration of their infertility was 6.5 +/- 3.2 years (+/- SD). All patients had elevated serum gonadotrophins within the menopausal range. Hypothalamic, pituitary and thyroid function were found to be intact. In one of the 15 ovarian biopsies on the patients with chromosomal competent ovarian failure, primordial follicles were found. Hysterosalpingograms revealed a normal uterine cavity in all patients. In view of oocyte donation, careful evaluation of the obstetric risk was mandatory in the six patients with X-chromosome aberrations and in the patient with the Noonan syndrome, because of their short stature and possible concomitant cardiovascular and renal disease. After substitution therapy with oestradiol valerate and natural progesterone, 13 pregnancies were established, seven patients delivered (one set of twins), eight healthy children were born, three pregnancies aborted and three pregnancies are progressing normally.

  11. Organisation of Xenopus oocyte and egg cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, P; Pérez-Mongiovi, D; Houliston, E

    1999-03-15

    The division of the Xenopus oocyte cortex into structurally and functionally distinct "animal" and "vegetal" regions during oogenesis provides the basis of the organisation of the early embryo. The vegetal region of the cortex accumulates specific maternal mRNAs that specify the development of the endoderm and mesoderm, as well as functionally-defined "determinants" of dorso-anterior development, and recognisable "germ plasm" determinants that segregate into primary germ cells. These localised elements on the vegetal cortex underlie both the primary animal-vegetal polarity of the egg and the organisation of the developing embryo. The animal cortex meanwhile becomes specialised for the events associated with fertilisation: sperm entry, calcium release into the cytoplasm, cortical granule exocytosis, and polarised cortical contraction. Cortical and subcortical reorganisations associated with meiotic maturation, fertilisation, cortical rotation, and the first mitotic cleavage divisions redistribute the vegetal cortical determinants, contributing to the specification of dorso-anterior axis and segregation of the germ line. In this article we consider what is known about the changing organisation of the oocyte and egg cortex in relation to the mechanisms of determinant localisation, anchorage, and redistribution, and show novel ultrastructural views of cortices isolated at different stages and processed by the rapid-freeze deep-etch method. Cortical organisation involves interactions between the different cytoskeletal filament systems and internal membranes. Associated proteins and cytoplasmic signals probably modulate these interactions in stage-specific ways, leaving much to be understood.

  12. Dormancy and activation of human oocytes from primordial and primary follicles: molecular clues to oocyte regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, E H; Grøndahl, M L; Grund, S; Hardy, K; Heuck, A; Sunde, L; Franks, S; Andersen, C Y; Villesen, P; Lykke-Hartmann, K

    2017-08-01

    Do specific transcriptome dynamics in human oocytes from primordial and primary follicles identify novel pathways in oocyte activation? The transcriptomic profiles in oocytes from primordial and primary follicles, respectively, revealed several new canonical pathways as putative mediators of oocyte dormancy and activation. Cellular signaling pathways including PI3K/AKT and AKT/mTOR as well as TGF-β and IGF signaling are known to regulate the primordial-to-primary transition in mammalian follicle development. We performed a class comparison study on human oocytes from primordial (n = 436) and primary (n = 182) follicles donated by three women having ovarian tissue cryopreserved before chemotherapy. RNA was extracted from oocytes from primordial and primary follicles isolated by Laser Capture Microdissection, and submitted to the HiSeq Illumina platform. Data mapping, quality control, filtering and expression analysis were performed using Tophat (2.0.4), Cufflinks (2.0.2), BWA (0.6.2) and software R. Modeling of complex biological systems was performed using the IPA® software. Finally, qPCR and immunohistochemistry were employed to explore expression and localization of selected genes and products in human ovarian tissue. We found 223 and 268 genes down-regulated and up-regulated, respectively, in the oocytes during the human primordial-to-primary follicle transition (P 2). IPA® enrichment analysis revealed known pathways ('mTOR Signaling', 'PI3K/AKT Signaling' and 'PTEN Signaling') as well as enriched canonical pathways not previously associated with human ovarian follicle development such as 'ErB Signaling' and 'NGF Signaling' in the down-regulated category and 'Regulation of eIF4 and P70S6K Signaling' and 'HER-2 Signaling in Breast Cancer' in the up-regulated group. Additionally, immunohistochemistry on human ovarian tissue explored the intraovarian localization of VASA, FOXO1 and eIF4E. http://users-birc.au.dk/biopv/published_data/ernst_2017/. This is a

  13. Efficient Graffiti Image Retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chunlei; Wong, Pak C.; Ribarsky, William; Fan, Jianping

    2012-07-05

    Research of graffiti character recognition and retrieval, as a branch of traditional optical character recognition (OCR), has started to gain attention in recent years. We have investigated the special challenge of the graffiti image retrieval problem and propose a series of novel techniques to overcome the challenges. The proposed bounding box framework locates the character components in the graffiti images to construct meaningful character strings and conduct image-wise and semantic-wise retrieval on the strings rather than the entire image. Using real world data provided by the law enforcement community to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, we show that the proposed framework outperforms the traditional image retrieval framework with better retrieval results and improved computational efficiency.

  14. The HhH2/NDD domain of the Drosophila Nod chromokinesin-like protein is required for binding to chromosomes in the oocyte nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wei; Hawley, R Scott

    2005-12-01

    Nod is a chromokinesin-like protein that plays a critical role in segregating achiasmate chromosomes during female meiosis. The C-terminal half of the Nod protein contains two putative DNA-binding domains. The first of these domains, known as the HMGN domain, consists of three tandemly repeated high-mobility group N motifs. This domain was previously shown to be both necessary and sufficient for binding of the C-terminal half of Nod to mitotic chromosomes in embryos. The second putative DNA-binding domain, denoted HhH(2)/NDD, is a helix-hairpin-helix(2)/Nod-like DNA-binding domain. Although the HhH(2)/NDD domain is not required or sufficient for chromosome binding in embryos, several well-characterized nod mutations have been mapped in this domain. To characterize the role of the HhH(2)/NDD domain in mediating Nod function, we created a series of UAS-driven transgene constructs capable of expressing either a wild-type Nod-GFP fusion protein or proteins in which the HhH(2)/NDD domain had been altered by site-directed mutagenesis. Although wild-type Nod-GFP localizes to the oocyte chromosomes and rescues the segregation defect in nod mutant oocytes, two of three proteins carrying mutants in the HhH(2)/NDD domain fail to either rescue the nod mutant phenotype or bind to oocyte chromosomes. However, these mutant proteins do bind to the polytene chromosomes in nurse-cell nuclei and enter the oocyte nucleus. Thus, even though the HhH(2)/NDD domain is not essential for chromosome binding in other cell types, it is required for chromosome binding in the oocyte. These HhH(2)/NDD mutants also block the localization of Nod to the posterior pole of stage 9-10A oocytes, a process that is thought to facilitate the interaction of Nod with the plus ends of microtubules (Cui et al. 2005). This observation suggests that the Nod HhH2/NDD domain may play other roles in addition to binding Nod to meiotic chromosomes.

  15. Antral follicle count (AFC) can be used in the prediction of ovarian response but cannot predict the oocyte/embryo quality or the in vitro fertilization outcome in an egg donation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Marco Antonio Barreto; Garrido, Nicolás; Alvarez, Claudio; Bellver, José; Meseguer, Marcos; Pellicer, Antonio; Remohí, José

    2009-01-01

    To verify whether the antral follicle count (AFC) could predict ovarian response, oocyte/embryo quality, and IVF outcome. Prospective study. Instituto Universitario-Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad, Valencia, Spain. One thousand seventy-four donors and 975 oocyte recipient cycles. Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH), endometrial preparation, IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection, ET. COH and oocyte/embryo quality parameters and IVF outcome. We observed lower E(2) levels and fewer mature retrieved oocyte numbers among donors who showed an AFC that was <10. These donors also showed significantly higher cancellation and no-donation rates; poor and/or insufficient response was the principal cause (82%). However, there were no differences among the groups regarding embryo development parameters and IVF outcome. AFC is a noninvasive and simple tool that can improve the oocyte donor's selection of an egg donation program. This study suggests that AFC is a good predictor of ovarian response but cannot be used to predict oocyte/embryo quality or IVF outcome.

  16. Use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger during in vitro fertilization is associated with similar endocrine profiles and oocyte measures in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Kathleen E; Senapati, Suneeta; Dokras, Anuja

    2015-01-01

    To compare endocrine profiles and IVF outcomes after using GnRH agonists (GnRHa) to trigger final oocyte maturation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with other hyper-responders. Retrospective cohort study. Academic center. Forty women with PCOS and 74 hyper-responders without PCOS. GnRHa trigger. Number of oocytes. Serum E2, LH, and P levels on the day of GnRHa trigger and the day after trigger did not differ significantly between groups. There were no significant differences in total number of oocytes or percent mature oocytes obtained between groups after controlling for age, antral follicle count, and total days of stimulation. The overall rate of no retrieval of oocytes after trigger was low (2.6%). Fertilization, implantation, clinical pregnancy, and live-birth rates were similar in the two groups. No patients developed ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). The similar post-GnRHa trigger hormone profiles and mature oocyte yield support the routine use of GnRHa trigger to prevent OHSS in women with PCOS. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Retrieval options study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval; (same as emplacement, variably slower depending on repository/canister condition).

  18. Developmental competence of oocytes after ICSI in the rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusser, K D; Mitalipov, S; Widmann, A; Gerami-Naini, B; Yeoman, R R; Wolf, D P

    2001-01-01

    Oocyte quantity and quality are critical to assisted reproductive technology (ART), yet few assessments beyond counting metaphase II (MII) oocytes exist. In this study, 30 +/- 2 oocytes per cycle were recovered from rhesus monkeys subjected to follicular stimulation with human gonadotrophins, of which 15 +/- 1 were MII. Oocyte quality was investigated by monitoring the developmental potential of oocytes subjected to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Despite uniform fertilization rates (71 +/- 4%), progression of embryos to blastocysts varied when expressed as a monthly average, from 20 to 85%, with lows from February to April and again in October, which could be attributed to developmental failure of a significant number of oocyte cohorts (14 of 55). Blastocyst rates, after elimination of failed cohorts, were uniform over time (59 +/- 4%). Neither culture conditions, the number of follicular stimulations, nor the individual sperm or oocyte donor were associated specifically with developmental failure, suggesting that intrinsic differences between stimulation cycles account for the observed variation in developmental potential. The in-vivo developmental competence of ICSI-produced embryos grown to blastocysts in vitro was also assessed. Two ongoing pregnancies and the birth of a normal female, 'Blastulina', represent landmarks in efforts to expand the use of ART in the rhesus monkey.

  19. Strategies to support human oocyte development in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telfer, Evelyn E; McLaughlin, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Many young cancer patients are now being given the option to store ovarian cortical biopsies before undergoing potentially damaging chemo- or radiotherapy. This tissue mainly contains large numbers of immature primordial follicles. Currently the only option to restore fertility using this tissue is by transplantation which may not be a viable option for all patients. Greater options to realise the potential of this tissue to restore fertility could be achieved by the development of in vitro systems that support oocyte development. The ability to develop human oocytes from the most immature stages of follicles (primordial) through to maturation and fertilisation in vitro would revolutionise fertility preservation practice. This has been achieved in mouse where in vitro grown (IVG) oocytes from primordial follicles have resulted in the production of live offspring. However, developing IVG systems to support complete development of human oocytes has been more difficult because of differences in scale of timing and size. Our lab has been working on a multi-step culture system to support growth and development of bo-vine and human oocytes from primordial through to fully grown, using fresh and cryopreserved ovarian cortical tissue. This review outlines the approaches being taken to obtain complete in vitro development of human oocytes and strategies for assessing the health and viability of IVG oocytes.

  20. Mitochondrial dynamics and their intracellular traffic in porcine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamochi, T; Hashimoto, S; Amo, A; Goto, H; Yamanaka, M; Inoue, M; Nakaoka, Y; Morimoto, Y

    2016-08-01

    Meiotic maturation of oocytes requires a variety of ATP-dependent reactions, such as germinal vesicle breakdown, spindle formation, and rearrangement of plasma membrane structure, which is required for fertilization. Mitochondria are accordingly expected be localized to subcellular sites of energy utilization. Although microtubule-dependent cellular traffic for mitochondria has been studied extensively in cultured neuronal (and some other somatic) cells, the molecular mechanism of their dynamics in mammalian oocytes at different stages of maturation remains obscure. The present work describes dynamic aspects of mitochondria in porcine oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage. After incubation of oocytes with MitoTracker Orange followed by centrifugation, mitochondria-enriched ooplasm was obtained using a glass needle and transferred into a recipient oocyte. The intracellular distribution of the fluorescent mitochondria was then observed over time using a laser scanning confocal microscopy equipped with an incubator. Kinetic analysis revealed that fluorescent mitochondria moved from central to subcortical areas of oocytes and were dispersed along plasma membranes. Such movement of mitochondria was inhibited by either cytochalasin B or cytochalasin D but not by colcemid, suggesting the involvement of microfilaments. This method of visualizing mitochondrial dynamics in live cells permits study of the pathophysiology of cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular traffic of mitochondria and associated energy metabolism during meiotic maturation of oocytes.

  1. Toxic trace metals and human oocytes during in vitro fertilization (IVF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Michael S.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Browne, Richard W.; Kim, Keewan; Coccaro, Gregory A.; Conti, Giulia C.; Narayan, Natasha; Fujimoto, Victor Y.

    2010-01-01

    Trace exposures to the toxic metals mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) may threaten human reproductive health. The aim of this study is to generate biologically-plausible hypotheses concerning associations between Hg, Cd, and Pb and in vitro fertilization (IVF) endpoints. For 15 female IVF patients, a multivariable log-binomial model suggests a 75% reduction in the probability for a retrieved oocyte to be in metaphase-II arrest for each μg/dL increase in blood Pb concentration (relative risk (RR) = 0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03–2.50, P = 0.240). For 15 male IVF partners, each μg/L increase in urine Cd concentration is associated with an 81% decrease in the probability for oocyte fertilization (RR = 0.19, 95% CI 0.03–1.35, P = 0.097). Because of the magnitude of the effects, these results warrant a comprehensive study with sufficient statistical power to further evaluate these hypotheses. PMID:20096775

  2. Gene expression profiles of single human mature oocytes in relation to age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl, M L; Andersen, Claus Yding; Bogstad, J

    2010-01-01

    The development competence of human oocytes declines with increasing age. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on gene expression profile in mature human oocytes.......The development competence of human oocytes declines with increasing age. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on gene expression profile in mature human oocytes....

  3. In vitro maturation and artificial activation of donkey oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gaoping; Wu, Kaifeng; Cui, Liang; Zhao, Lixia; Liu, Yiyi; Tan, Xiuwen; Zhou, Huanmin

    2011-09-01

    Three media were evaluated for their ability to support in vitro maturation of donkey (Equus asinus) oocytes and their development after parthenogenetic activation. The basal medium for Medium 1 (M1) and Medium 2 (M2) was M199 and DMEM/F12 respectively, whereas, Medium 3 (M3) consisted of equal parts (v/v) of M199 and DMEM/F12. All three media were supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal calf serum, 0.01 units/mL porcine FSH, 0.01 units/mL equine LH, 200 ng/mL insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-I), 10 μl/mL insulin-transferrin-selenium (ITS), 0.1 mg/mL taurine, 0.1 mg/mL L-cysteine, 0.05 mg/mL L-glutamine, 0.11 mg/mL sodium pyruvate, and 25 mg/mL gentamycin. There were no significant differences among the three maturation media for oocyte maturation. Maturation rate of donkey oocytes in M1 was 53% for compact (Cp) cumulus-oocyte complexes and 75% for expanded (Ex) cumulus-oocyte complexes; in M2 these were 55 and 77%, respectively; and in M3, 58 and 75%. The percentage of cleaved parthenotes and 4- or 8-cell embryos were not significantly different for oocytes matured in the various media (61 and 24% for M1; 66 and 32% for M2; and 67 and 33% for M3). Oocytes matured in M3 tended to yield a higher rate of advanced embryo development (morula) than oocytes matured in M1 (22 vs 9%; P = 0.07). In conclusion, donkey oocytes were matured and parthenogenetically activated in vitro, using methods similar to those used in the horse.

  4. MicroRNA Expression during Bovine Oocyte Maturation and Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham C. Gilchrist

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Successful fertilization and subsequent embryo development rely on complex molecular processes starting with the development of oocyte competence through maturation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that function as gene regulators in many biological systems, including the oocyte and embryo. In order to further explore the roles of miRNAs in oocyte maturation, we employed small RNA sequencing as a screening tool to identify and characterize miRNA populations present in pools of bovine germinal vesicle (GV oocytes, metaphase II (MII oocytes, and presumptive zygotes (PZ. Each stage contained a defined miRNA population, some of which showed stable expression while others showed progressive changes between stages that were subsequently confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Bta-miR-155, bta-miR-222, bta-miR-21, bta-let-7d, bta-let-7i, and bta-miR-190a were among the statistically significant differentially expressed miRNAs (p < 0.05. To determine whether changes in specific primary miRNA (pri-miRNA transcripts were responsible for the observed miRNA changes, we evaluated pri-miR-155, -222 and let-7d expression. Pri-miR-155 and -222 were not detected in GV oocytes but pri-miR-155 was present in MII oocytes, indicating transcription during maturation. In contrast, levels of pri-let-7d decreased during maturation, suggesting that the observed increase in let-7d expression was likely due to processing of the primary transcript. This study demonstrates that both dynamic and stable populations of miRNAs are present in bovine oocytes and zygotes and extend previous studies supporting the importance of the small RNA landscape in the maturing bovine oocyte and early embryo.

  5. Selective carboxyl methylation of structurally altered calmodulins in Xenopus oocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desrosiers, R.R.; Romanik, E.A.; O' Connor, C.M. (Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology, Shrewsbury, MA (USA))

    1990-12-05

    The eucaryotic protein carboxyl methyltransferase specifically modifies atypical D-aspartyl and L-isoaspartyl residues which are generated spontaneously as proteins age. The selectivity of the enzyme for altered proteins in intact cells was explored by co-injecting Xenopus laevis oocytes with S-adenosyl-L-(methyl-3H)methionine and structurally altered calmodulins generated during a 14-day preincubation in vitro. Control experiments indicated that the oocyte protein carboxyl methyltransferase was not saturated with endogenous substrates, since protein carboxyl methylation rates could be stimulated up to 8-fold by increasing concentrations of injected calmodulin. The oocyte protein carboxyl methyltransferase showed strong selectivities for bovine brain and bacterially synthesized calmodulins which had been preincubated in the presence of 1 mM EDTA relative to calmodulins which had been preincubated with 1 mM CaCl2. Radioactive methyl groups were incorporated into base-stable linkages with recombinant calmodulin as well as into carboxyl methyl esters following its microinjection into oocytes. This base-stable radioactivity most likely represents the trimethylation of lysine 115, a highly conserved post-translational modification which is present in bovine and Xenopus but not in bacterially synthesized calmodulin. Endogenous oocyte calmodulin incorporates radioactivity into both carboxyl methyl esters and into base-stable linkages following microinjection of oocytes with S-adenosyl-(methyl-3H)methionine alone. The rate of oocyte calmodulin carboxyl methylation in injected oocytes is calculated to be similar to that of lysine 115 trimethylation, suggesting that the rate of calmodulin carboxyl methylation is similar to that of calmodulin synthesis. At steady state, oocyte calmodulin contains approximately 0.0002 esters/mol of protein, which turn over rapidly.

  6. Wide crossing in lentil through embryo rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratini, Richard; Ruiz, Maria L

    2011-01-01

    Lentil seeds have provided an appreciated source of protein, carbohydrates and fibre to the diet of humans since the dawn of agriculture. Low amounts of variation have been detected in the cultivated lentil germplasm collections. Interspecific crosses allow for the introgression of important alleles of agricultural interest from wild species, such as the resistance or tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Interspecific crosses within the genus Lens generally abort and embryo rescue techniques are necessary to recover hybrids. The in vitro culture procedure to rescue interspecific hybrids of Lens consists of at least four different stages: (1) in ovulo embryo culture (2), embryo culture, (3) plantlet development and finally, (4) the gradual habituation to ex vitro conditions of the recovered interspecific hybrid plantlets. In this chapter, the approach to rescue interspecific hybrids in the genus Lens is outlined.

  7. Oocytes Polar Body Detection for Automatic Enucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Enucleation is a crucial step in cloning. In order to achieve automatic blind enucleation, we should detect the polar body of the oocyte automatically. The conventional polar body detection approaches have low success rate or low efficiency. We propose a polar body detection method based on machine learning in this paper. On one hand, the improved Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG algorithm is employed to extract features of polar body images, which will increase success rate. On the other hand, a position prediction method is put forward to narrow the search range of polar body, which will improve efficiency. Experiment results show that the success rate is 96% for various types of polar bodies. Furthermore, the method is applied to an enucleation experiment and improves the degree of automatic enucleation.

  8. Relationship between respiration rate and weight of loach oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozernyuk, N D; Zotin, A I

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that the constant k in the equation QO2 equals apk and the constant b in the equation qo2 equals aP-b change during the oogenesis of the loach. Hence, the growth of oocytes differs considerably from the growth of animals, where the constants k and b do not change with increase in weight. It is suggested that the relationship between the respiration rate and weight of the oocytes is due to the change in the amount of mitochondria in the oocytes.

  9. Survival of oocytes recovered from vitrified sheep ovarian tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-aghbari, A M; Menino, A R

    2002-05-15

    The objective of this work was to develop an effective vitrification technique for cryopreserving oocytes in sheep ovarian tissues. Ovaries were surgically recovered from 15 pubertal ewes and the ovarian cortex was cut into sections. Ovarian tissues were placed in equilibration medium consisting of 4% (v/v) ethylene glycol (EG) and 20% (v/v) FBS in TCM-199 on ice for 30 min and transferred to vitrification solution (35% EG, 5% polyvinylpyrrolidone, 0.4M trehalose and 20% FBS in TCM-199) for 5 min. Ovarian tissues were vitrified by dropping the tissue on the surface of a steel cube cooled by liquid nitrogen. Cumulus-enclosed oocyte complexes (COC) were also collected and vitrified following the procedure used for ovarian tissues. After 2-3 weeks of storage in liquid nitrogen, ovarian tissues and COC were thawed at 37 degrees C in 0.3M trehalose and COC in ovarian tissues were mechanically and enzymatically isolated. Vitrified COC and freshly collected COC were washed twice in maturation medium (TCM-199 supplemented with 0.255 mM pyruvate and 10% heat-treated estrus cow serum) and cultured in 50 microl drops of maturation medium under paraffin oil for 23-25h at 39 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO(2) in air. After culture, cumulus cells were removed by hyaluronidase treatment and vortexing and oocytes were fixed and stained. No significant differences were observed between vitrified oocytes, oocytes recovered from vitrified ovarian tissues and non-vitrified control oocytes in the percentage of oocytes with acceptable staining per total number of oocytes fixed or with visible chromatin per total number of oocytes with acceptable staining. However, fewer (P0.05) were observed due to treatment in the percentages of oocytes developing to metaphase II. These results demonstrate that sheep oocytes can be successfully cryopreserved by vitrification of ovarian tissues and exhibit in vitro maturation rates similar to that of vitrified and non-vitrified oocytes.

  10. "Rescue" regimens after Helicobacter pylori treatment failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier P Gisbert

    2008-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)infection is the main cause of gastritis,gastroduodenal ulcer disease,and gastric cancer.After more than 20 years of experience in Hpylori treatment,in my opinion,the ideal regimen to treat this infection is still to be found.Currently,apart from having to know first-line eradication regimens well,we must also be prepared to face lyeatment failures.Therefore,in designing a treatment strategy we should not focus on the results of primary therapy alone,but also on the final (overall) eradication rate.The choice of a "rescue" treatment depends on which treatment is used initially.If a clarithromycinbased regimen was used initially,a subsequent metronidazole-based treatment (quadruple therapy)may be used afterwards,and then a levofloxacinbased combination would be a third "rescue" option.Alternatively,it has recently been suggested that levofloxacin-based rescue therapy constitutes an encouraging second-line strategy,representing an alternative to quadruple therapy in patients with previous PPI-clarithromycin-amoxicillin failure,with the advantage of efficacy,simplicity and safety.In this case,a quadruple regimen may be reserved as a third-line rescue option.Finally,rifabutin-based rescue therapy constitutes an encouraging empirical fourthline strategy after multiple previous eradication failures with key antibiotics such as amoxicillin,clarithromycin,metronidazole,tetracycline,and levofloxacin.Even after two consecutive failures,several studies have demonstrated that H pylor/eradication can finally be achieved in almost all patients if several rescue therapies are consecutively given.Therefore,the attitude in H pylori eradication therapy failure,even after two or more unsuccessful attempts,should be to fight and not to surrender.

  11. Administration of visfatin during superovulation improves developmental competency of oocytes and fertility potential in aged female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoung-Hwa; Joo, Bo-Sun; Sun, Sheng-Ta; Park, Min-Jung; Son, Jung-Bin; Joo, Jong-Kil; Lee, Kyu-Sup

    2012-05-01

    To examine whether visfatin administration during superovulation improves ovarian response, developmental competence of oocytes, and fertility in aged female mice. Controlled experimental study. University hospital. Two groups of differently aged C57BL female mice (6-11 and 26-31 weeks). Female mice were coinjected intraperitoneally with 5 IU pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and visfatin of various doses (0-500 ng/mL), followed by 5 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection 48 hours later. Then the mice were immediately mated with an individual male. After 18 hours zygotes were cultured, and expression of ovarian visfatin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was examined. Potential pregnancies of visfatin-administered aged female mice were monitored for delivery of offspring. Number of zygotes retrieved, embryo developmental competency, fertility potential, ovarian visfatin and VEGF expression. Ovarian visfatin expression was significantly decreased in the aged mice group compared with the young. Visfatin administration significantly increased embryo developmental rate and ovarian visfatin and VEGF expressions in the aged mice. Visfatin-administered aged mice delivered significantly higher numbers of offspring than controls. This study suggests that visfatin administration during superovulation plays an important role in regulating oocyte quality and can improve oocyte quality and fertility of aged female mice. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of conspecific ampulla oviductal epithelial cells during in vitro maturation on oocyte developmental competence and maturation-promoting factor (MPF) activity in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashpour Davachi, Navid; Kohram, Hamid; Zare Shahneh, Ahmad; Zhandi, Mahdi; Goudarzi, Abbas; Fallahi, Roozbeh; Masoudi, Reza; Yousefi, Ali Reza; Bartlewski, Pawel M

    2017-01-15

    The acquisition of fertilization ability by oocytes is one of the prerequisites for successful in vitro embryo production. In the present study, we examined the influence of conspecific ampulla oviductal epithelial cells incubated with cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) throughout the IVM phase on the developmental competence and maturation-promoting factor (MPF) activity of sheep oocytes. There were six experimental groups in this study, namely four groups with and two groups without oviductal epithelial cells added to IVM media: adult COCs matured in vitro with the ampulla oviductal epithelial cells obtained from adult (AAE; G1) or prepubertal donors (prepubertal sheep ampulla oviductal epithelial cells [PAE]; G4), COCs obtained from prepubertal animals cocultured with AAE (G2) or PAE (G3), and adult (C1) and prepubertal sheep COCs (C2) matured without oviductal epithelial cells. Coincubation of oocytes retrieved from both adult and sexually immature donors with AAE (G1 and G2) resulted in significantly improved rates of metaphase-II (M-II) attainment (G1: 85.1 ± 2.0 and G2: 40.2 ± 1.3) and blastocyst formation (G1: 42.2 ± 1.1 and G2: 21.2 ± 1.0) as well as blastocyst development (total cell count; G1: 130.3 ± 7.8, G2: 70.2 ± 3.5) compared with their respective controls (C1: 94.3 ± 4.1 and C2: 49.7 ± 2.0). Prior to IVM, the activity of MPF was greater (P vitro embryo production efficiency. A significant increase in MPF activity following IVM of G2 oocytes could be responsible, at least partly, for the improved rate of blastocyst formation after IVF of prepubertal sheep oocytes. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Epigenetic modification of long interspersed elements-1 in cumulus cells of mature and immature oocytes from patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruksananonda, Kamthorn; Wasinarom, Artisa; Sereepapong, Wisan; Sirayapiwat, Porntip; Rattanatanyong, Prakasit; Mutirangura, Apiwat

    2016-06-01

    The long interspersed elements (LINE-1, L1s) are a group of genetic elements found in large numbers in the human genome that can translate into phenotype by controlling genes. Growing evidence supports the role of epigenetic in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the DNA methylation levels in LINE-1 in a tissue-specific manner using cumulus cells from patients with PCOS compared with normal controls. The study included 19 patients with PCOS and 22 control patients who were undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. After oocyte retrieval, cumulus cells were extracted. LINE-1 DNA methylation levels were analysed by bisulfite treatment, polymerase chain reaction, and restriction enzyme digestion. The Connection Up- and Down-Regulation Expression Analysis of Microarrays software package was used to compare the gene regulatory functions of intragenic LINE-1. The results showed higher LINE-1 DNA methylation levels in the cumulus cells of mature oocytes in PCOS patients, 79.14 (±2.66) vs. 75.40 (±4.92); p=0.004, but no difference in the methylation of cumulus cells in immature oocytes between PCOS and control patients, 70.33 (±4.79) vs. 67.79 (±5.17); p=0.155. However, LINE-1 DNA methylation levels were found to be higher in the cumulus cells of mature oocytes than in those of immature oocytes in both PCOS and control patients. These findings suggest that the epigenetic modification of LINE-1 DNA may play a role in regulating multiple gene expression that affects the pathophysiology and development of mature oocytes in PCOS.

  14. The Duty to Rescue and Investigators' Obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Douglas; Rulli, Tina

    We examine current applications of the moral duty to rescue to justify clinical investigators' duties of ancillary care and standard of care to subjects in resource-poor settings. These applications fail to explain why investigators possess obligations to research participants, in particular, and not to people in need, in general. Further, these applications fail to recognize the normative significance of the institutional role of the investigators. We offer a positive account of the duty to rescue for investigators as institutional agents, with duties to populations rather than merely individuals.

  15. Effect of oocyte selection, estradiol and antioxidant treatment on in vitro maturation of oocytes collected from prepubertal Boer goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W. Smith

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of improved procedures for in vitro maturation of oocytes collected from prepubertal goats has applications for in vitro embryo production and accompanying strategies for genetic improvement. The objective of described studies was to determine the effects of oocyte grade, in vitro maturation time, antioxidant supplementation and concentrations of estradiol in the maturation medium on in vitro maturation of oocytes harvested from 1-6 mm follicles present on the ovaries (obtained from an abattoir of 1-6 month-old prepubertal Boer goats. Rates of progression to metaphase II were greater for grade 1 oocytes (>3 compact layers of cumulus cells and evenly granulated cytoplasm than grade 2 oocytes (in vitro maturation in the presence of high concentrations of estradiol (10 and 100 mg/mL on progression to metaphase II was observed, and no effect was observed in response to 1 mg/mL estradiol treatment as compared with control. Results suggest that oocyte selection and beta-mercaptoethanol supplementation can positively influence progression to metaphase II of oocytes harvested from ovaries of prepubertal goats, whereas high concentrations of estradiol are inhibitory to in vitro maturation.

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is used to remove ... the foreign body. top of page What does the equipment look like? A variety of x-ray ...

  17. RETRIEVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Steinhoff

    1997-08-25

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) retrieval from the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. There are no quality assurance requirements or QA controls in this document. Retrieval under normal conditions is accomplished with the same fleet of equipment as is used for emplacement. Descriptions of equipment used for retrieval under normal conditions is found in Emplacement Equipment Descriptions, DI: BCAF00000-01717-5705-00002 (a document in progress). Equipment used for retrieval under abnormal conditions is addressed in this document and consists of the following: (1) Inclined Plane Hauler; (2) Bottom Lift Transporter; (3) Load Haul Dump (LHD) Loader; (4) Heavy Duty Forklift for Emplacement Drifts; (5) Covered Shuttle Car; (6) Multipurpose Vehicle; and (7) Scaler.

  18. Information retrieval system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, R. F.; Holcomb, J. E.; Kelroy, E. A.; Levine, D. A.; Mee, C., III

    1970-01-01

    Generalized information storage and retrieval system capable of generating and maintaining a file, gathering statistics, sorting output, and generating final reports for output is reviewed. File generation and file maintenance programs written for the system are general purpose routines.

  19. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ... Anesthesia Safety X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Videos related to Foreign Body Retrieval ...

  20. Content Based Video Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Patel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Content based video retrieval is an approach for facilitating the searching and browsing of large image collections over World Wide Web. In this approach, video analysis is conducted on low level visual properties extracted from video frame. We believed that in order to create an effective video retrieval system, visual perception must be taken into account. We conjectured that a technique which employs multiple features for indexing and retrieval would be more effective in the discrimination and search tasks of videos. In order to validate this claim, content based indexing and retrieval systems were implemented using color histogram, various texture features and other approaches. Videos were stored in Oracle 9i Database and a user study measured correctness of response.

  1. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is used to remove ... the foreign body. top of page What does the equipment look like? A variety of x-ray ...

  2. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... surrounding tissues. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is ... air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. Common equipment for identifying and removing foreign bodies from ...

  3. Medical Rescue of China International Search & Rescue Team (CISAR) in Nepal Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiong; Yang, Zhen; Lv, Qi; Liu, Hai-Feng; Ding, Hui; Yu, Meng-Yang; Zeng, Xi-Huan; Wang, Xin; Fan, Hao-Jun

    2016-05-18

    On April 25, 2015, a massive 8.1-magnitude earthquake struck Nepal at 2:11 pm (Beijing time). The 68-member-strong China International Search & Rescue Team (CISAR) left for Nepal at 6 am, April 26, to help with relief work. The CISAR was the first foreign team to rescue a survivor who was trapped beneath the rubble in the Gongabu area after the earthquake. On May 8, the team fulfilled the search-and-rescue mission and returned to Beijing. During the 2 weeks of rescue work, the team treated more than 3700 victims and cleared approximately 430 buildings. In this rescue mission, 10 experienced medical officers (including nine doctors and a nurse) from the General Hospital of Chinese People's Armed Police Force (PAP) comprised the medical team of CISAR. In this report, we focus on the medical rescues by CISAR and discuss the characteristics of the medical rescue in Nepal. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 3).

  4. Mouse Oocytes Enable LH-Induced Maturation of the Cumulus-Oocyte Complex via Promoting EGF Receptor-Dependent Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, You-Qiang; Sugiura, Koji; Li, Qinglei; Wigglesworth, Karen; Matzuk, Martin M.; Eppig, John J.

    2010-01-01

    LH triggers the maturation of the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC), which is followed by ovulation. These ovarian follicular responses to LH are mediated by epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factors produced by granulosa cells and require the participation of oocyte-derived paracrine factors. However, it is not clear how oocytes coordinate with the EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling to achieve COC maturation. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that oocytes promote the expression of EGFR by cumulus cells, thus enabling them to respond to the LH-induced EGF-like peptides. Egfr mRNA and protein expression were dramatically reduced in cumulus cells of mutant mice deficient in the production of the oocyte-derived paracrine factors growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15). Moreover, microsurgical removal of oocytes from wild-type COCs dramatically reduced expression of Egfr mRNA and protein, and these levels were restored by either coculture with oocytes or treatment with recombinant GDF9 or GDF9 plus recombinant BMP15. Blocking Sma- and Mad-related protein (SMAD)2/3 phosphorylation in vitro inhibited Egfr expression in wild-type COCs and in GDF9-treated wild-type cumulus cells, and conditional deletion of Smad2 and Smad3 genes in granulosa cells in vivo resulted in the reduction of Egfr mRNA in cumulus cells. These results indicate that oocytes promote expression of Egfr in cumulus cells, and a SMAD2/3-dependent pathway is involved in this process. At least two oocyte-derived growth factors, GDF9 and BMP15, are required for EGFR expression by cumulus cells. PMID:20382892

  5. Vitrification, in vitro fertilization, and development of Atg7 deficient mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Soyoung; Lee, Geun-Kyung; Shin, Hyejin; Suh, Chang Suk; Lim, Hyunjung Jade

    2016-03-01

    Autophagy contributes to the clearance and recycling of macromolecules and organelles in response to stress. We previously reported that vitrified mouse oocytes show acute increases in autophagy during warming. Herein, we investigate the potential role of Atg7 in oocyte vitrification by using an oocyte-specific deletion model of the Atg7 gene, a crucial upstream gene in the autophagic pathway. Oocyte-specific Atg7 deficient mice were generated by crossing Atg7 floxed mice and Zp3-Cre transgenic mice. The oocytes were vitrified-warmed and then subjected to in vitro fertilization and development. The rates of survival, fertilization, and development were assessed in the Atg7 deficient oocytes in comparison with the wildtype oocytes. Light chain 3 (LC3) immunofluorescence staining was performed to determine whether this method effectively evaluates the autophagy status of oocytes. The survival rate of vitrified-warmed Atg7(f/f) ;Zp3-Cre (Atg7(d/d) ) metaphase II (MII) oocytes was not significantly different from that of the wildtype (Atg7(f/f) ) oocytes. Fertilization and development in the Atg7(d/d) oocytes were significantly lower than the Atg7(f/f) oocytes, comparable to the Atg5(d/d) oocytes previously described. Notably, the developmental rate improved slightly in vitrified-warmed Atg7(d/d) MII oocytes when compared to fresh Atg7(d/d) oocytes. LC3 immunofluorescence staining showed that this method can be reliably used to assess autophagic activation in oocytes. We confirmed that the LC3-positive signal is nearly absent in Atg7(d/d) oocytes. While autophagy is induced during the warming process after vitrification of MII oocytes, the Atg7 gene is not essential for survival of vitrified-warmed oocytes. Thus, induction of autophagy during warming of vitrified MII oocytes seems to be a natural response to manage cold or other cellular stresses.

  6. Evaluating personal information retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Liadh; Bunbury, Paul; Jones, Gareth J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of personal search over an individual’s personal information space on the desktop or elsewhere is problematic for reasons relating both to the personal and private nature of the data and the associated personal information needs of collection owners. Indeed challenges associated with evaluation in this space are recognised as one of the key factors hindering the development of research in personal information retrieval. We present the “personal information retrieval evaluatio...

  7. Oocyte Degeneration Associated with Follicle Cells in Female Mactra chinensis (Bivalvia: Mactridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Han; Chung, Ee-Yung; Lee, Ki-Young

    2014-12-01

    Ultrastructural studies of oocyte degeneration in the oocyte, and the functions of follicle cells during oocyte degeneration are described to clarify the reproductive mechanism on oocyte degeneration of Mactra chinensis using cytological methods. Commonly, the follicle cells are attached to the oocyte. Follicle cells play an important role in oocyte degeneration. In particular, the functions of follicle cells during oocyte degeneration are associated with phagocytosis and the intracellular digestion of products. In this study, morphologically similar degenerated phagosomes (various lysosomes), which were observed in the degenerated oocytes, appeared in the follicle cells. After the spawning of the oocytes, the follicle cells were involved in oocyte degeneration through phagocytosis by phagolysosomes. Therefore, it can be assumed that follicle cells reabsorb phagosomes from degenerated oocytes. In this study, the presence of lipid granules, which occurred from degenerating yolk granules, gradually increased in degenerating oocytes. The function of follicle cells can accumulate reserves of lipid granules and glycogen in the cytoplasm, which can be employed by the vitellogenic oocyte. Based on observations of follicle cells attached to degenerating oocytes after spawning, the follicle cells of this species are involved in the lysosomal induction of oocyte degeneration for the reabsorption of phagosomes (phagolysosomes) in the cytoplasm for nutrient storage, as seen in other bivalves.

  8. Detection of vitellogenin incorporation into zebrafish oocytes by FITC fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoi Hayato

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large volumes of lymph can be collected from the eye-sacs of bubble-eye goldfish. We attempted to induce vitellogenin (Vtg in the eye-sac lymph of bubble-eye goldfish and develop a method for visualizing Vtg incorporation by zebrafish oocytes using FITC-labeling. Methods Estrogen efficiently induced Vtg in the eye-sac lymph of goldfish. After FITC-labeled Vtg was prepared, it was injected into mature female zebrafish. Results Incorporation of FITC-labeled Vtg by zebrafish oocytes was detected in in vivo and in vitro experiments. The embryos obtained from zebrafish females injected with FITC-labeled Vtg emitted FITC fluorescence from the yolk sac and developed normally. Conclusion This method for achieving Vtg incorporation by zebrafish oocytes could be useful in experiments related to the development and endocrinology of zebrafish oocytes.

  9. Vitrification of Bovine Oocytes by Open Pulled Straw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shi-en; ZENG Shen-ming; WU Tong-yi; MENG Qing-gang; ZHANG Zhong-cheng; CHEN Yong-fu

    2002-01-01

    Bovine oocytes cultured in vitro for 6 hours or 22 hours were cryopreserved in different vitrification solutions (EFS40, EFS50, EDFS30 or EDFS40) by the two-step method with OPS (open pulled straw).The best results were achieved by using EDFS30 to cryopreserve the oocytes either for in vitro fertilization or for chemical activation. The blastocyst rates were 12% and 17% in 6 hour and 22 hour cultures respectively following in vitro fertilization. If frozen-thawed oocytes were continued in culture up to 24 hours, and were activated by chemicals, the blastocyst rates were 22% and 24% in 6-hour and 22-hour groups respectively.There were no statistical differences between frozen and fresh oocytes (P > 0.05).

  10. Cryopreservation of Oocytes and Embryos in Human Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konc J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation has become an integral component of assisted reproductive technology. The ability to cryopreserve, thaw, and establish pregnancies with supernumerary preimplantation embryos has become an important tool in fertility treatment. Human oocyte cryopreservation has practical application in preserving fertility for individuals prior to cancer treatments. While the efficiency of oocyte and embryo freezing technology has increased over time, there is still room for improvement, since even under ideal circumstances the clinical pregnancy rate from frozen embryo transfer is approximately two-thirds of that from the fresh transfer of embryos. Thus, studies connected with cryopreservation of human oocytes and embryos are very important to the expansion of effective clinical services. This review gives a summary of the theoretical and technical aspects of oocyte and embryo cryopreservation.

  11. Coordinated action in a heterogeneous rescue team

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Alnajar; H. Nijhuis; A. Visser

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new approach to make use of a heterogeneous robot team for the RoboCup Rescue League Virtual Robot competition. We will demonstrate coordinated action between a flying and a ground robot. The flying robot is used for fast exploration and allows the operator to find the pl

  12. Minimizing extinction risk through genetic rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waite, T. A.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the genetic rescue hypothesis, immigrants can improve population persistence through their genetic contribution alone. We investigate the potential for such rescue using small, inbred laboratory populations of the bean beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus. We ask how many migrants per generation (MPG are needed to minimize the genetic component of extinction risk. During Phase 1, population size was made to fluctuate between 6 and 60 (for 10 generations. During this phase, we manipulated the number of MPG, replacing 0, 1, 3, or 5 females every generation with immigrant females. During Phase 2, we simply set an upper limit on population size (.10. Compared with the 0-MPG treatment, the other treatments were equivalently effective at improving reproductive success and reducing extinction risk. A single MPG was sufficient for genetic rescue, apparently because effective migration rate was inflated dramatically during generations when population size was small. An analysis of quasi-extinction suggests that replicate populations in the 1-MPG treatment benefited from initial purging of inbreeding depression. Populations in this treatment performed so well apparently because they received the dual benefit of purging followed by genetic infusion. Our results suggest the need for further evaluation of alternative schemes for genetic rescue.

  13. Combat Search and Rescue in Desert Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    65 HH-3–equipped 71st SOS located at Davis-Monthan AFB, Ari- zona . This was a first-class unit, which had traditionally trained hard to include...briefed that if they were near the water when hit, they were to go “feet wet ” to vastly increase the odds of a successful rescue. The reason was

  14. Emergency Medical Rescue in a Radiation Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briesmeister, L.; Ellington, Y.; Hollis, R.; Kunzman, J.; McNaughton, M.; Ramsey, G.; Somers, B.; Turner, A.; Finn, J.

    1999-09-14

    Previous experience with emergency medical rescues in the presence of radiation or contamination indicates that the training provided to emergency responders is not always appropriate. A new course developed at Los Alamos includes specific procedures for emergency response in a variety of radiological conditions.

  15. Coordinated action in a heterogeneous rescue team

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alnajar, F.; Nijhuis, H.; Visser, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new approach to make use of a heterogeneous robot team for the RoboCup Rescue League Virtual Robot competition. We will demonstrate coordinated action between a flying and a ground robot. The flying robot is used for fast exploration and allows the operator to find the pl

  16. Rescuing Dogs in the Frederick Community | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many Frederick National Lab employees have a favorite cause to which they volunteer a significant amount of time. For Dianna Kelly, IT program manager/scientific program analyst, Office of Scientific Operations, and Courtney Kennedy, associate technical project manager, Business Enterprise Systems, that cause is dog rescue.

  17. REM sleep rescues learning from interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Elizabeth A; Duggan, Katherine A; Mednick, Sara C

    2015-07-01

    Classical human memory studies investigating the acquisition of temporally-linked events have found that the memories for two events will interfere with each other and cause forgetting (i.e., interference; Wixted, 2004). Importantly, sleep helps consolidate memories and protect them from subsequent interference (Ellenbogen, Hulbert, Stickgold, Dinges, & Thompson-Schill, 2006). We asked whether sleep can also repair memories that have already been damaged by interference. Using a perceptual learning paradigm, we induced interference either before or after a consolidation period. We varied brain states during consolidation by comparing active wake, quiet wake, and naps with either non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM), or both NREM and REM sleep. When interference occurred after consolidation, sleep and wake both produced learning. However, interference prior to consolidation impaired memory, with retroactive interference showing more disruption than proactive interference. Sleep rescued learning damaged by interference. Critically, only naps that contained REM sleep were able to rescue learning that was highly disrupted by retroactive interference. Furthermore, the magnitude of rescued learning was correlated with the amount of REM sleep. We demonstrate the first evidence of a process by which the brain can rescue and consolidate memories damaged by interference, and that this process requires REM sleep. We explain these results within a theoretical model that considers how interference during encoding interacts with consolidation processes to predict which memories are retained or lost.

  18. EVA crewperson overboard - Simplified rescue aid (SIRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, H. T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses potential roles for extravehicular activity (EVA) in space logistics and the possibilities for a crewperson to become inadvertently detached from the work site. Factors which could cause the detachment will be presented and a rescue technique described. Finally, implications to the design and implementation of space logistics will be portrayed relative to minimizing or eliminating the adrift EVA crewperson possibility.

  19. RASD1 Knockdown Results in Failure of Oocyte Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Youngeun Lee; Kyeoung-Hwa Kim; Hyemin Yoon; Ok-Hee Lee; Eunyoung Kim; Miseon Park; Hoon Jang; Kwonho Hong; Hyuk Song; Jung Jae Ko; Woo Sik Lee; Kyung-Ah Lee; Eun Mi Chang; Youngsok Choi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ras dexamethasone-induced protein (RASD1) is a member of Ras superfamily of small GTPases. RASD1 regulates various signaling pathways involved in iron homeostasis, growth hormone secretion, and circadian rhythm. However, RASD1 function in oocyte remains unknown. Methods: Using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, RASD1 expression in mouse ovary and RASD1 role in oocyte maturation-related gene expression, spindle formation, and chromosome ali...

  20. Kinetochore microtubule establishment is defective in oocytes from aged mice

    OpenAIRE

    Shomper, Maria; Lappa, Christina; FitzHarris, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Errors in chromosome segregation in mammalian oocytes increase in number with advancing maternal age, and are a major cause of pregnancy loss. Why chromosome segregation errors are more common in oocytes from older females remains poorly understood. In mitosis, accurate chromosome segregation is enabled by attachment of kinetochores to microtubules from appropriate spindle poles, and erroneous attachments increase the likelihood of mis-segregation. Whether attachment errors are responsible fo...

  1. In vivo induction of oocyte maturation and ovulation in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshinobu Tokumoto

    Full Text Available The maturation of fish oocytes is a well-characterized system induced by progestins via non-genomic actions. In a previous study, we demonstrated that diethylstilbestrol (DES, a non-steroidal estrogen, induces fish oocyte maturation via the membrane progestin receptor (mPR. Here, we attempted to evaluate the effect of DES as an environmental endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC upon fish oocyte maturation using live zebrafish. DES triggered oocyte maturation within several hours in vivo when administrated directly into the surrounding water. The natural teleost maturation-inducing hormone, 17alpha, 20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20beta-DHP also induced oocyte maturation in vivo. Steroids such as testosterone, progesterone or 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone were also effective in vivo. Further studies indicated that externally applied 17,20beta-DHP even induced ovulation. In contrast to 17,20beta -DHP, DES induced maturation but not ovulation. Theoretically this assay system provides a means to distinguish pathways involved in the induction of ovulation, which are known to be induced by genomic actions from the pathway normally involved in the induction of oocyte maturation, a typical non-genomic action-dependent pathway. In summary, we have demonstrated the effect of EDCs on fish oocyte maturation in vivo. To address the effects, we have explored a conceptually new approach to distinguish between the genomic and non-genomic actions induced by steroids. The assay can be applied to screens of progestin-like effects upon oocyte maturation and ovulation for small molecules of pharmacological agents or EDCs.

  2. Investigation of DNA repair in human oocytes and preimplantation embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroudi, S.

    2010-01-01

    DNA repair genes are expressed in mammalian embryos and in human germinal vesicles, however, little is known about DNA repair in human preimplantation embryos. This project had three aims: 1) to produce a DNA repair profile of human MII oocytes and blastocysts using expression arrays and identify repair pathways that may be active before and after embryonic genome activation; 2) to design an in vitro functional assay that targeted mismatch repair and which could be applied to human oocytes...

  3. Frequency of aneuploidy related to age in porcine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornak, Miroslav; Jeseta, Michal; Musilova, Petra; Pavlok, Antonin; Kubelka, Michal; Motlik, Jan; Rubes, Jiri; Anger, Martin

    2011-04-27

    It is generally accepted that mammalian oocytes are frequently suffering from chromosome segregation errors during meiosis I, which have severe consequences, including pregnancy loss, developmental disorders and mental retardation. In a search for physiologically more relevant model than rodent oocytes to study this phenomenon, we have employed comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), combined with whole genome amplification (WGA), to study the frequency of aneuploidy in porcine oocytes, including rare cells obtained from aged animals. Using this method, we were able to analyze segregation pattern of each individual chromosome during meiosis I. In contrast to the previous reports where conventional methods, such as chromosome spreads or FISH, were used to estimate frequency of aneuploidy, our results presented here show, that the frequency of this phenomenon was overestimated in porcine oocytes. Surprisingly, despite the results from human and mouse showing an increase in the frequency of aneuploidy with advanced maternal age, our results obtained by the most accurate method currently available for scoring the aneuploidy in oocytes indicated no increase in the frequency of aneuploidy even in oocytes from animals, whose age was close to the life expectancy of the breed.

  4. Resveratrol protects mouse oocytes from methylglyoxal-induced oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; He, Xiao-Qin; Huang, Xin; Ding, Lu; Xu, Lin; Shen, Yu-Ting; Zhang, Fei; Zhu, Mao-Bi; Xu, Bai-Hui; Qi, Zhong-Quan; Wang, Hai-Long

    2013-01-01

    Methylglyoxal, a reactive dicarbonyl compound, is mainly formed from glycolysis. Methylglyoxal can lead to the dysfunction of mitochondria, the depletion of cellular anti-oxidation enzymes and the formation of advanced glycation ends. Previous studies showed that the accumulation of methylglyoxal and advanced glycation ends can impair the oocyte maturation and reduce the oocyte quality in aged and diabetic females. In this study, we showed that resveratrol, a kind of phytoalexin found in the skin of grapes, red wine and other botanical extracts, can alleviate the adverse effects caused by methylglyoxal, such as inhibition of oocyte maturation and disruption of spindle assembly. Besides, methylglyoxal-treated oocytes displayed more DNA double strands breaks and this can also be decreased by treatment of resveratrol. Further investigation of these processes revealed that methylglyoxal may affect the oocyte quality by resulting in excessive reactive oxygen species production, aberrant mitochondrial distribution and high level lipid peroxidation, and resveratrol can block these cytotoxic changes. Collectively, our results showed that resveratrol can protect the oocytes from methylglyoxal-induced cytotoxicity and this was mainly through the correction of the abnormity of cellular reactive oxygen species metabolism.

  5. Presence and integration of HBV DNA in mouse oocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Hua Huang; Qing-Jian Zhang; Qing-Dong Xie; Li-Ping Zeng; Xi-Fan Zeng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Hepatitis B is a worldwide public health problem. To explore the feasibility of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vertical transmission via oocytes, the presence and integration of HBV DNA in mouse oocytes were studied. METHODS: Genomic DNA was isolated and metaphases were prepared, respectively from mouse oocytes cocultured with pBR322-HBV DNA plasmids. PCR, Southern blot, dot hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to explore the existence and integration of HBV DNA in oocytes.RESULTS: PCR detected positive bands in the tested samples, and then Southern blot revealed clear hybridization signals in PCR products. Final washing solutions were collected for dot hybridization and no signal for HBV DNA was observed, which excluded the possibility that contamination of washing solutions gave rise to positive results of PCR and Southern blot. FISH demonstrated that 36 of 1 000 metaphases presented positive signals. CONCLUSION: HBV DNA sequences are able to pass through the zona and oolemma to enter into oocytes and tointegrate into their chromosomes. HBV DNA sequences might be brought into embryo via oocytes as vectors when they are fertilized with normal spermatozoa.

  6. Frequency of aneuploidy related to age in porcine oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Hornak

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that mammalian oocytes are frequently suffering from chromosome segregation errors during meiosis I, which have severe consequences, including pregnancy loss, developmental disorders and mental retardation. In a search for physiologically more relevant model than rodent oocytes to study this phenomenon, we have employed comparative genomic hybridization (CGH, combined with whole genome amplification (WGA, to study the frequency of aneuploidy in porcine oocytes, including rare cells obtained from aged animals. Using this method, we were able to analyze segregation pattern of each individual chromosome during meiosis I. In contrast to the previous reports where conventional methods, such as chromosome spreads or FISH, were used to estimate frequency of aneuploidy, our results presented here show, that the frequency of this phenomenon was overestimated in porcine oocytes. Surprisingly, despite the results from human and mouse showing an increase in the frequency of aneuploidy with advanced maternal age, our results obtained by the most accurate method currently available for scoring the aneuploidy in oocytes indicated no increase in the frequency of aneuploidy even in oocytes from animals, whose age was close to the life expectancy of the breed.

  7. Improvement of an electrical activation protocol for porcine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Telfer, Evelyn E; Fletcher, Judy; Springbett, Anthea; Dobrinsky, John R; De Sousa, Paul A; Wilmut, Ian

    2002-03-01

    Factors influencing pig oocyte activation by electrical stimulation were evaluated by their effect on the development of parthenogenetic embryos to the blastocyst stage to establish an effective activation protocol for pig nuclear transfer. This evaluation included 1) a comparison of the effect of epidermal growth factor and amino acids in maturation medium, 2) an investigation of interactions among oocyte age, applied voltage field strength, electrical pulse number, and pulse duration, and 3) a karyotype analysis of the parthenogenetic blastocysts yielded by an optimized protocol based on an in vitro system of oocyte maturation and embryo culture. In the first study, addition of amino acids in maturation medium was beneficial for the developmental competence of activated oocytes. In the second study, the developmental response of activated oocytes was dependent on interactions between oocyte age at activation and applied voltage field strength, voltage field strength and pulse number, and pulse number and duration. The formation of parthenogenetic blastocysts was optimal when activation was at 44 h of maturation using three 80-microsec consecutive pulses of 1.0 kV/cm DC. Approximately 84% of parthenogenetic blastocysts yielded by this protocol were diploid, implying a potential for further in vivo development.

  8. Reorganization of cytoskeletal proteins of mouse oocytes mediated by integrins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Limin; ZHANG Lei; HE Yaping; ZHANG Jinhu; ZHENG Jie; HE Yanfang; ZHENG Yu; ZHANG Jie; ZHANG Li

    2004-01-01

    To study whether integrins on cell membrane ligate with intracellular cytoskeletal proteins and mediate their reorganization in egg activation, female mice were used for superovulation. The zona-free oocytes were incubated separately with specific ligand of integrins,an active RGD peptide, in vitro for certain period of time. RGE peptide and mouse capacitated sperm were used as controls. Freshly ovulated oocytes and those treated with different factors were immunostained with FITC-labeled anti-actin antibody, then detected with confocal microscope. The results demonstrated that freshly ovulated mouse oocytes, oocytes incubated for 2 h in vitro and those treated with control RGE peptide for 15 min showed hardly visible fluorescene or only thin fluorescence in plasma membrane region. Oocytes coincubated with sperms for 15 min and those treated with active RGD peptide for 10 min, 30 min and 2 hours respectively had strong and thick fluorescence in the plasma membrane and cortical region of oocytes, and some of them showed asymmetrically fluorescent distribution. It is proved that integrins on membrane are ligated directly with cytoskeletal protein. Integrins binding with their ligands regulate reorganization of cytoskelal protein, which may be involved in transmembrane signaling in egg activation.

  9. Reorganization of cytoskeletal proteins of mouse oocytes mediated by integrins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE; Limin; ZHANG; Lei; HE; Yaping; ZHANG; Jinhu; ZHENG; Ji

    2004-01-01

    To study whether integrins on cell membrane ligate with intracellular cytoskeletal proteins and mediate their reorganization in egg activation, female mice were used for superovulation. The zona-free oocytes were incubated separately with specific ligand of integrins,an active RGD peptide, in vitro for certain period of time. RGE peptide and mouse capacitated sperm were used as controls. Freshly ovulated oocytes and those treated with different factors were immunostained with FITC-labeled anti-actin antibody, then detected with confocal microscope. The results demonstrated that freshly ovulated mouse oocytes, oocytes incubated for 2 h in vitro and those treated with control RGE peptide for 15 min showed hardly visible fluorescene or only thin fluorescence in plasma membrane region. Oocytes coincubated with sperms for 15 min and those treated with active RGD peptide for 10 min, 30 min and 2 hours respectively had strong and thick fluorescence in the plasma membrane and cortical region of oocytes, and some of them showed asymmetrically fluorescent distribution. It is proved that integrins on membrane are ligated directly with cytoskeletal protein. Integrins binding with their ligands regulate reorganization of cytoskelal protein, which may be involved in transmembrane signaling in egg activation.

  10. Txndc9 Is Required for Meiotic Maturation of Mouse Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanhua Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Txndc9 (thioredoxin domain containing protein 9 has been shown to be involved in mammalian mitosis; however, its function in mammalian oocyte meiosis remains unclear. In this study, we initially found that Txndc9 is expressed during meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes and higher expression of Txndc9 mRNA and protein occurred in germinal vesicle (GV stage. By using confocal scanning, we observed that Txndc9 localized at both nucleus and cytoplasm, especially at spindle microtubules. Specific depletion of Txndc9 by siRNA in mouse oocyte resulted in decreasing the rate of first polar body extrusion and increasing abnormal spindle assemble. Moreover, knockdown of Txndc9 in germinal vesicle (GV stage oocytes led to higher level of reactive oxygen species (ROS and lower level of antioxidant glutathione (GSH as compared with control oocytes, which indicated that Txndc9 may be involved in mediating the redox balance. In summary, our results demonstrated that Txndc9 is crucial for mouse oocyte maturation by regulating spindle assembly, polar body extrusion, and redox status.

  11. Non-meiotic chromosome instability in human immature oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daina, Gemma; Ramos, Laia; Rius, Mariona; Obradors, Albert; Del Rey, Javier; Giralt, Magda; Campillo, Mercedes; Velilla, Esther; Pujol, Aïda; Martinez-Pasarell, Olga; Benet, Jordi; Navarro, Joaquima

    2014-02-01

    Aneuploidy has been a major issue in human gametes and is closely related to fertility problems, as it is known to be present in cleavage stage embryos and gestational losses. Pre-meiotic chromosome abnormalities in women have been previously described. The aim of this study is to assess the whole-chromosome complement in immature oocytes to find those abnormalities caused by mitotic instability. For this purpose, a total of 157 oocytes at the germinal vesicle or metaphase I stage, and discarded from IVF cycles, were analysed by CGH. Fifty-six women, between 18 and 45 years old (mean 32.5 years), including 32 IVF patients (25-45 years of age) and 24 IVF oocyte donors (18-33 years of age), were included in the study. A total of 25/157 (15.9%) of the oocytes analysed, obtained from three IVF clinics, contained chromosome abnormalities, including both aneuploidy (24/157) and structural aberrations (9/157). Independently of the maternal age, the incidence of abnormal oocytes which originated before meiosis is 15.9%, and these imbalances were found in 33.9% of the females studied. This work sheds light on the relevance of mitotic instability responsible for the generation of the abnormalities present in human oocytes.

  12. Search and Rescue Plan: Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan outlines search and rescue protocols for staff at Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge. The primary concern of a search and rescue policy is the protection...

  13. Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge : Search and Rescue Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge Search and Rescue plan outlines the SAR objectives to carry out or assist in search and rescue on Chautauqua NWR and...

  14. Human oocytes. Error-prone chromosome-mediated spindle assembly favors chromosome segregation defects in human oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubcová, Zuzana; Blayney, Martyn; Elder, Kay; Schuh, Melina

    2015-06-05

    Aneuploidy in human eggs is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and several genetic disorders such as Down syndrome. Most aneuploidy results from chromosome segregation errors during the meiotic divisions of an oocyte, the egg's progenitor cell. The basis for particularly error-prone chromosome segregation in human oocytes is not known. We analyzed meiosis in more than 100 live human oocytes and identified an error-prone chromosome-mediated spindle assembly mechanism as a major contributor to chromosome segregation defects. Human oocytes assembled a meiotic spindle independently of either centrosomes or other microtubule organizing centers. Instead, spindle assembly was mediated by chromosomes and the small guanosine triphosphatase Ran in a process requiring ~16 hours. This unusually long spindle assembly period was marked by intrinsic spindle instability and abnormal kinetochore-microtubule attachments, which favor chromosome segregation errors and provide a possible explanation for high rates of aneuploidy in human eggs.

  15. Anatomy of a hostage rescue: what makes hostage rescue operations successful?

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Carlos M.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis develops a theory to determine the best execution time to conduct a hostage rescue attempt. It does so by explaining the phenomenon of a hostage crisis biorhythm and proposing four principles essential for success. The principles of hostage rescue operations presented in this thesis and used in the biorhythm model-surprise, intelligence, operator's skill, and deception-are derived from looking at numerous planning models fr...

  16. Zwint-1 is required for spindle assembly checkpoint function and kinetochore-microtubule attachment during oocyte meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo Seo, Dong; Yeop You, Seung; Chung, Woo-Jae; Cho, Dong-Hyung; Kim, Jae-Sung; Su Oh, Jeong

    2015-10-21

    The key step for faithful chromosome segregation during meiosis is kinetochore assembly. Defects in this process result in aneuploidy, leading to miscarriages, infertility and various birth defects. However, the roles of kinetochores in homologous chromosome segregation during meiosis are ill-defined. Here we found that Zwint-1 is required for homologous chromosome segregation during meiosis. Knockdown of Zwint-1 accelerated the first meiosis by abrogating the kinetochore recruitment of Mad2, leading to chromosome misalignment and a high incidence of aneuploidy. Although Zwint-1 knockdown did not affect Aurora C kinase activity, the meiotic defects following Zwint-1 knockdown were similar to those observed with ZM447439 treatment. Importantly, the chromosome misalignment following Aurora C kinase inhibition was not restored after removing the inhibitor in Zwint-1-knockdown oocytes, whereas the defect was rescued after the inhibitor washout in the control oocytes. These results suggest that Aurora C kinase-mediated correction of erroneous kinetochore-microtubule attachment is primarily regulated by Zwint-1. Our results provide the first evidence that Zwint-1 is required to correct erroneous kinetochore-microtubule attachment and regulate spindle checkpoint function during meiosis.

  17. 30 CFR 49.2 - Availability of mine rescue teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.2 Section... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.2 Availability of mine rescue teams. (a) Except where alternative... teams which are available at all times when miners are underground; or (2) Enter into an arrangement...

  18. 29 CFR 553.215 - Ambulance and rescue service employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambulance and rescue service employees. 553.215 Section 553... Protection and Law Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Exemption Requirements § 553.215 Ambulance and rescue service employees. (a) Ambulance and rescue service employees of a public agency other than a fire...

  19. Oocyte development and fecundity type of the Brazilian Snapper Lutjanus alexandrei Moura & Lindeman, 2007 (Perciformes: Lutjanidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, C A F; Oliveira, P G V; Oliveira, C H B; Hazin, F H V; Travassos, P

    2016-02-01

    Lutjanid species exhibit multiple spawning behaviour during an extended spawning season in warm months, asynchronous oocyte development and indeterminate fecundity. Although early studies have contributed to knowledge of the reproductive cycle of many species within the group, they have not considered aspects about the number of cortical alveoli oocyte stage throughout maturity phases along spawning season. The latter aspect is also considered very important to confirm indeterminate fecundity hypothesis. In the present study, were analyzed 154 Brazilian snapper Lutjanus alexandrei female gonads obtained from artisanal fisheries in Pernambuco State (Brazil) between October 2010 and March 2011. Were measured oocyte size frequency distribution for maturity phases (developing, spawning capable and actively spawning), and oocyte development stage (unyolked oocytes, cortical alveoli, primary, secondary and tertiary vitellogenic oocytes and hydrated oocytes), and also the oocyte stage frequency during spawning season. The frequency of cortical alveoli oocyte stage was constantly found in the spawning period (>37%), showing slight variation throughout maturity phases. The absence of gap in the oocyte size frequency distribution between primary and secondary oocyte growth stages during spawning season is a strong indicator of continuous oocyte recruitment from reserve stocks. In addition, co-occurrence of tertiary vitellogenic oocytes, hydrated oocytes, post-ovulatory follicles and yellow-brown bodies in the histological sections of ovaries reinforce indeterminate fecundity hypothesis.

  20. Interactive Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces the research area of interactive information retrieval (IIR) from a historical point of view. Further, the focus here is on evaluation, because much research in IR deals with IR evaluation methodology due to the core research interest in IR performance, system interaction...... and satisfaction with retrieved information. In order to position IIR evaluation, the Cranfield model and the series of tests that led to the Cranfield model are outlined. Three iconic user-oriented studies and projects that all have contributed to how IIR is perceived and understood today are presented......: The MEDLARS test, the Book House fiction retrieval system, and the OKAPI project. On this basis the call for alternative IIR evaluation approaches motivated by the three revolutions (the cognitive, the relevance, and the interactive revolutions) put forward by Robertson & Hancock-Beaulieu (1992) is presented...

  1. Quantum Enhanced Phase Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Liberman, Liat; Poem, Eilon; Silberberg, Yaron

    2015-01-01

    The retrieval of phases from intensity measurements is a key process in many fields in science, from optical microscopy to x-ray crystallography. Here we study phase retrieval of a one-dimensional multi-phase object that is illuminated by quantum states of light. We generalize the iterative Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm to photon correlation measurements on the output plane, rather than the standard intensity measurements. We report a numerical comparison of classical and quantum phase retrieval of a small one-dimensional object of discrete phases from its far-field diffraction. While the classical algorithm was ambiguous and often converged to wrong solutions, quantum light produced a unique reconstruction with smaller errors and faster convergence. We attribute these improvements to a larger Hilbert space that constrains the algorithm.

  2. Information Retrieval Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation has always played a major role in information retrieval, with the early pioneers such as Cyril Cleverdon and Gerard Salton laying the foundations for most of the evaluation methodologies in use today. The retrieval community has been extremely fortunate to have such a well-grounded evaluation paradigm during a period when most of the human language technologies were just developing. This lecture has the goal of explaining where these evaluation methodologies came from and how they have continued to adapt to the vastly changed environment in the search engine world today. The lecture

  3. Introduction to information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Christopher D; Schütze, Hinrich

    2008-01-01

    Class-tested and coherent, this textbook teaches classical and web information retrieval, including web search and the related areas of text classification and text clustering from basic concepts. It gives an up-to-date treatment of all aspects of the design and implementation of systems for gathering, indexing, and searching documents; methods for evaluating systems; and an introduction to the use of machine learning methods on text collections. All the important ideas are explained using examples and figures, making it perfect for introductory courses in information retrieval for advanced un

  4. Kinetochore microtubule establishment is defective in oocytes from aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomper, Maria; Lappa, Christina; FitzHarris, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Errors in chromosome segregation in mammalian oocytes increase in number with advancing maternal age, and are a major cause of pregnancy loss. Why chromosome segregation errors are more common in oocytes from older females remains poorly understood. In mitosis, accurate chromosome segregation is enabled by attachment of kinetochores to microtubules from appropriate spindle poles, and erroneous attachments increase the likelihood of mis-segregation. Whether attachment errors are responsible for age-related oocyte aneuploidy is unknown. Here we report that oocytes from naturally aged mice exhibit substantially increased chromosome misalignment, and fewer kinetochore pairs that make stable end-on attachments to the appropriate spindle poles compared with younger oocytes. The profile of mis-attachments exhibited is consistent with the types of chromosome segregation error observed in aged oocytes. Loss of chromosome cohesion, which is a feature of oocytes from older females, causes altered kinetochore geometry in meiosis-I. However, this has only a minor impact upon MT attachment, indicating that cohesion loss is not the primary cause of aneuploidy in meiosis-I. In meiosis-II, on the other hand, age-related cohesion loss plays a direct role in errors, since prematurely individualized sister chromatids misalign and misattach to spindle MTs. Thus, whereas cohesion loss leading to precocious sister chromatid separation is a direct cause of errors in meiosis-II, cohesion loss plays a more minor role in the etiology of aneuploidy in meiosis-I. Our data introduce altered MT-kinetochore interactions as a lesion that explains aneuploidy in meiosis-I in older females.

  5. Marine Search, Rescue and Emergency Preparedness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    System - David L. Neasham, District Ranger Lahonton State Recreation Area: same as above, AbiqLu Dam. COE - Lymor E. Reynolds , Res. Supt. Cochita Lake... Jessie York, 501 Broad, Sheffield, Al. Day phone: 383-0524 COORDINATOR: Fred Mauldin, Cherokee Rescue Squad, Cherokee, Al. 359-4991 HOSPITAL! Colbert Co...Village 1, Sheffield, Ala. 35660 383-4464 1 SHERIFF: Colbert County Sheriff or Lauderdale County Sheriff CORONOR: Jessie York, Sheffield, Ala. 35660

  6. Practical Online Retrieval Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radlinski, F.; Hofmann, K.

    2013-01-01

    Online evaluation allows the assessment of information retrieval (IR) techniques based on how real users respond to them. Because this technique is directly based on observed user behavior, it is a promising alternative to traditional offline evaluation, which is based on manual relevance assessment

  7. Aspects of Sentence Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    1999. [4] Allan, James, Carbonell, Jaime , Doddington, George, Yamron, Jonathan, and Yang, Yiming. Topic detection and tracking pilot study final report... Sabine . Using grammatical relations, answer frequencies and the world wide web for TREC question answering. In Proceedings of the Tenth Text Retrieval

  8. The Knowledge Retrieval Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    AbstractPrevious discussions of knowledge transfer within multinational corporations tended tofocus on the process as an isolated phenomenon and on the factors that impede the process.Less attention has been given to how the individual knowledge worker retrieves or identifies,and then decodes...

  9. Information Retrieval Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Göker, Ayse; Davies, John

    2009-01-01

    Many applications that handle information on the internet would be completely inadequate without the support of information retrieval technology. How would we find information on the world wide web if there were no web search engines? How would we manage our email without spam filtering? Much of the

  10. Information Retrieval Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Göker, Ayse; Davies, John

    2009-01-01

    Many applications that handle information on the internet would be completely inadequate without the support of information retrieval technology. How would we find information on the world wide web if there were no web search engines? How would we manage our email without spam filtering? Much of the

  11. Music Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, J. Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Identifies MIR (Music Information Retrieval) computer system problems, historic influences, current state-of-the-art, and future MIR solutions through an examination of the multidisciplinary approach to MIR. Highlights include pitch; temporal factors; harmonics; tone; editorial, textual, and bibliographic facets; multicultural factors; locating…

  12. Practical Online Retrieval Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radlinski, F.; Hofmann, K.

    2013-01-01

    Online evaluation allows the assessment of information retrieval (IR) techniques based on how real users respond to them. Because this technique is directly based on observed user behavior, it is a promising alternative to traditional offline evaluation, which is based on manual relevance

  13. Adaptive MGS Phase Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basinger, Scott A.; Bikkannavar, Siddarayappa; Cohen, David; Green, Joseph J.; Lou, John; Ohara, Catherine; Redding, David; Shi, Fang

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive MGS Phase Retrieval software uses the Modified Gerchberg-Saxton (MGS) algorithm, an image-based sensing method that can turn any focal plane science instrument into a wavefront sensor, avoiding the need to use external metrology equipment. Knowledge of the wavefront enables intelligent control of active optical systems.

  14. Visual indexing and retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadamin Erfanmanesh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This book includes a preface, a table of contents, six informative chapters and expansive references. In the preface, the editors of the book claim that with the advent of social networks, vast amount of visual information is available for end-users. Therefore, they need innovative and fruitful methods for content understanding, retrieval and classification.

  15. Relational Database and Retrieval

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    soil is very difiicult to retrieve hence, modification and update of soil data become ... has a strong genetic bias, in that classification of a given soil was dependent to a .... calculus. For example, there are operations such as: i. Selection ii. Projection iii.“ Intersection ..... Conceptual Chustering, In Machine learning: An- Artificial.

  16. Big Data Cognition for City Emergency Rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Chen, Yongxin; Wang, Weisheng

    2016-11-01

    There are many kinds of data produced in the city daily life, which operates as an elementary component of the citizen life support system. The city unexpected incidents occurs in a seemingly unpredictable patterns. With the Big Data analysis the emergency rescue can be carried out efficiently. In this paper, the Big Data cognition for city emergency rescue is studied from four perspectives. From the data volume perspective, the spatial data analysis technology is divided into two parts, the indoor data and the outdoor data. From the data velocity perspective, the big data is collected from the eyes in the sky and objects on-the-ground networks, together with demographic data. From the data variety analysis perspective, the population distribution data, the socio-economic data and model estimates are included. From the data value mining perspective, the crime model estimates are studied. In the end, the application in the big public venues emergency rescue is introduced, which is located in Urumqi, Xinjiang, China.

  17. Investigation of the Compton Rescue technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, Alexander W.; Williams, Christopher S.; Burggraf, Larry W.; Kowash, Benjamin R.

    2015-05-15

    This paper summarizes an investigation of a process to improve the efficiency of position-sensitive gamma-radiation measurements from thin, planar semiconductor detectors. The method entails the use of a second, more efficient coaxial bulk detector placed behind a position-sensitive planar detector to collect Compton scattered photons that escape the volume of the position-sensitive detector. The technique is termed Compton rescue. The investigation consisted of two phases. First, a Monte-Carlo simulation was conducted to test feasibility of employing the technique. The simulation predicted the increase in detection efficiency by directly counting the number of photons added to the data set by Compton rescue and comparing to the number detected without the use of the technique. The simulation indicated that the technique could improve detection efficiency by approximately doubling the number of full-energy photons detected. The technique was tested in a laboratory setting using a coaxial semiconductor detector in coincidence with a thin, planar position-sensitive semiconductor detector. An efficiency improvement of approximately 20% was measured. The effect of Compton rescue data on the energy resolution of the position-sensitive detector was also determined.

  18. Mural granulosa cell gene expression associated with oocyte developmental competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Jin-Yi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian follicle development is a complex process. Paracrine interactions between somatic and germ cells are critical for normal follicular development and oocyte maturation. Studies have suggested that the health and function of the granulosa and cumulus cells may be reflective of the health status of the enclosed oocyte. The objective of the present study is to assess, using an in vivo immature rat model, gene expression profile in granulosa cells, which may be linked to the developmental competence of the oocyte. We hypothesized that expression of specific genes in granulosa cells may be correlated with the developmental competence of the oocyte. Methods Immature rats were injected with eCG and 24 h thereafter with anti-eCG antibody to induce follicular atresia or with pre-immune serum to stimulate follicle development. A high percentage (30-50%, normal developmental competence, NDC of oocytes from eCG/pre-immune serum group developed to term after embryo transfer compared to those from eCG/anti-eCG (0%, poor developmental competence, PDC. Gene expression profiles of mural granulosa cells from the above oocyte-collected follicles were assessed by Affymetrix rat whole genome array. Results The result showed that twelve genes were up-regulated, while one gene was down-regulated more than 1.5 folds in the NDC group compared with those in the PDC group. Gene ontology classification showed that the up-regulated genes included lysyl oxidase (Lox and nerve growth factor receptor associated protein 1 (Ngfrap1, which are important in the regulation of protein-lysine 6-oxidase activity, and in apoptosis induction, respectively. The down-regulated genes included glycoprotein-4-beta galactosyltransferase 2 (Ggbt2, which is involved in the regulation of extracellular matrix organization and biogenesis. Conclusions The data in the present study demonstrate a close association between specific gene expression in mural granulosa cells and

  19. Ovarian ageing: the role of mitochondria in oocytes and follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Panloup, Pascale; Boucret, Lisa; Chao de la Barca, Juan-Manuel; Desquiret-Dumas, Valérie; Ferré-L'Hotellier, Véronique; Morinière, Catherine; Descamps, Philippe; Procaccio, Vincent; Reynier, Pascal

    2016-11-01

    There is a great inter-individual variability of ovarian ageing, and almost 20% of patients consulting for infertility show signs of premature ovarian ageing. This feature, taken together with delayed childbearing in modern society, leads to the emergence of age-related ovarian dysfunction concomitantly with the desire for pregnancy. Assisted reproductive technology is frequently inefficacious in cases of ovarian ageing, thus raising the economic, medical and societal costs of the procedures. Ovarian ageing is characterized by quantitative and qualitative alteration of the ovarian oocyte reserve. Mitochondria play a central role in follicular atresia and could be the main target of the ooplasmic factors determining oocyte quality adversely affected by ageing. Indeed, the oocyte is the richest cell of the body in mitochondria and depends largely on these organelles to acquire competence for fertilization and early embryonic development. Moreover, the oocyte ensures the uniparental transmission and stability of the mitochondrial genome across the generations. This review focuses on the role played by mitochondria in ovarian ageing and on the possible consequences over the generations. PubMed was used to search the MEDLINE database for peer-reviewed original articles and reviews concerning mitochondria and ovarian ageing, in animal and human species. Searches were performed using keywords belonging to three groups: 'mitochondria' or 'mitochondrial DNA'; 'ovarian reserve', 'oocyte', 'ovary' or 'cumulus cells'; and 'ageing' or 'ovarian ageing'. These keywords were combined with other search phrases relevant to the topic. References from these articles were used to obtain additional articles. There is a close relationship, in mammalian models and humans, between mitochondria and the decline of oocyte quality with ageing. Qualitatively, ageing-related mitochondrial (mt) DNA instability, which leads to the accumulation of mtDNA mutations in the oocyte, plays a key role in

  20. In vitro developmental competence of bovine oocytes: Effect of corpus luteum and follicle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami Shabankareh, Hamed; Shahsavari, Mohammad Hamed; Hajarian, Hadi; Moghaddam, Gholamali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies reported many discrepancies about the effects of corpus luteum (CL) and ovarian follicle size on the developmental competence of oocytes. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CL and different size of follicle on the developmental potential of bovine oocytes. Materials and Methods: After ovarian classification based on presence or absence of CL, sample follicles were placed in three groups according to their diameter; small (S; 3–6 mm), medium (M; 6–9 mm), and large (L; 10–20 mm). Collected oocytes in each group were subjected to the in vitro embryo production processes. Results: Results showed that, the percentages of blastocyst obtained from oocytes originating from small and medium follicles of ovaries bearing a CL (CL+S-oocytes and CL+M-oocytes, respectively) were lower (p<0.001) than those of small and medium follicles of ovaries not bearing a CL (CL-S-oocytes and CL-M-oocytes, respectively) (30.8% and 33.6% vs. 36.9% and 38.7% respectively). Although, the percentages of blastocyst obtained from CL-M-oocytes and CL-L-oocytes were greater (p< 0.001) than those of CL+S-oocytes and CL+M-oocytes. There were no significant differences in the percentages of blastocyst formation between controls (C-oocytes), CL-S-oocytes and CL+L-oocytes. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the negative effect of CL on the developmental competence of bovine oocyte depends on the follicle size. Therefore, oocytes originating from large grown follicles were not influenced by negative effects of CL as much as those originating from small and medium follicles did. PMID:26644789

  1. Time-Lapse Dynamics of the Mouse Oocyte Chromatin Organisation during Meiotic Resumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Belli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the mammalian oocyte, distinct patterns of centromeres and pericentromeric heterochromatin localisation correlate with the gamete’s developmental competence. Mouse antral oocytes display two main types of chromatin organisation: SN oocytes, with a ring of Hoechst-positive chromatin surrounding the nucleolus, and NSN oocytes lacking this ring. When matured to MII and fertilised, only SN oocytes develop beyond the 2-cell, and reach full term. To give detailed information on the dynamics of the SN or NSN chromatin during meiosis resumption, we performed a 9 hr time-lapse observation. The main significant differences recorded are: (1 reduction of the nuclear area only in SN oocytes; (2 ~17 min delay of GVBD in NSN oocytes; (3 chromatin condensation, after GVBD, in SN oocytes; (4 formation of 4-5 CHCs in SN oocytes; (5 increase of the perivitelline space, ~57 min later in NSN oocytes; (6 formation of a rosette-like disposition of CHCs, ~84 min later in SN oocytes; (7 appearance of the MI plate ~40 min later in NSN oocytes. Overall, we described a pathway of transition from the GV to the MII stage that is punctuated of discrete recordable events showing their specificity and occurring with different time kinetics in the two types of oocytes.

  2. Time-Lapse Dynamics of the Mouse Oocyte Chromatin Organisation during Meiotic Resumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redi, Carlo Alberto; Zuccotti, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    In the mammalian oocyte, distinct patterns of centromeres and pericentromeric heterochromatin localisation correlate with the gamete's developmental competence. Mouse antral oocytes display two main types of chromatin organisation: SN oocytes, with a ring of Hoechst-positive chromatin surrounding the nucleolus, and NSN oocytes lacking this ring. When matured to MII and fertilised, only SN oocytes develop beyond the 2-cell, and reach full term. To give detailed information on the dynamics of the SN or NSN chromatin during meiosis resumption, we performed a 9 hr time-lapse observation. The main significant differences recorded are: (1) reduction of the nuclear area only in SN oocytes; (2) ~17 min delay of GVBD in NSN oocytes; (3) chromatin condensation, after GVBD, in SN oocytes; (4) formation of 4-5 CHCs in SN oocytes; (5) increase of the perivitelline space, ~57 min later in NSN oocytes; (6) formation of a rosette-like disposition of CHCs, ~84 min later in SN oocytes; (7) appearance of the MI plate ~40 min later in NSN oocytes. Overall, we described a pathway of transition from the GV to the MII stage that is punctuated of discrete recordable events showing their specificity and occurring with different time kinetics in the two types of oocytes. PMID:24864231

  3. Changes of spontaneous parthenogenetic activation and development potential of golden hamster oocytes during the aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Han; Wang, Ce; Guan, Jiyu; Wang, Lingyan; Li, Ziyi

    2015-01-01

    The golden hamster is an excellent animal experimental model for oocyte research. The hamster oocytes are very useful in clinical examination of human spermatozoan activity. Non-fertile oocytes can lead to time-dependent processes of aging, which will affect the results of human spermatozoa examination. As a consequence there is a need to investigate the aging and anti-aging processes of golden hamster oocytes. In order to study the aging processes and parthenogenetic activation of golden hamster oocytes, in vivo oocytes, oocytes cultured with or without cumulus cells, and oocytes treated with Trichostatin A (TSA) or caffeine were collected and investigated. We found that: (1) spontaneous parthenogenetic activation, developmental potential (cleavage rate), and zona pellucida (ZP) hardening undergo age-dependent changes in in vivo, in vitro, and after TSA or caffeine treatment; (2) in vivo, oocytes became spontaneously parthenogenetic 25 h post-hCG treatment; (3) in vitro, cumulus cells did not significantly increase the parthenogenetic activation rate of cultured hamster oocytes; and (4) TSA or caffeine could delay spontaneous oocyte parthenogenetic activation and the aging processes by at least 5h, but also accelerated the hardening of the ZP. These results define the conditions for the aging and anti-aging processes in golden hamster oocytes. TSA and caffeine play roles in controlling spontaneous activation, which could facilitate the storage and use of golden hamster oocytes for studying processes relevant to human reproduction.

  4. Transcriptomic features of Pecten maximus oocyte quality and maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Massimo; Huvet, Arnaud; Corporeau, Charlotte; Suquet, Marc; Planas, Josep V.; Moreira, Rebeca; Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatriz; Patarnello, Tomaso; Bargelloni, Luca

    2017-01-01

    The king scallop Pecten maximus is a high valuable species of great interest in Europe for both fishery and aquaculture. Notably, there has been an increased investment to produce seed for enhancement programmes of wild scallop populations. However, hatchery production is a relatively new industry and it is still underdeveloped. Major hurdles are spawning control and gamete quality. In the present study, a total of 14 scallops were sampled in the bay of Brest (Brittany, France) to compare transcriptomic profiles of mature oocytes collected by spawning induction or by stripping. To reach such a goal, a microarray analysis was performed by using a custom 8x60K oligonucleotide microarray representing 45,488 unique scallop contigs. First we identified genes that were differentially expressed depending on oocyte quality, estimated as the potential to produce D-larvae. Secondly, we investigated the transcriptional features of both stripped and spawned oocytes. Genes coding for proteins involved in cytoskeletal dynamics, serine/threonine kinases signalling pathway, mRNA processing, response to DNA damage, apoptosis and cell-cycle appeared to be of crucial importance for both oocyte maturation and developmental competence. This study allowed us to dramatically increase the knowledge about transcriptional features of oocyte quality and maturation, as well as to propose for the first time putative molecular markers to solve a major bottleneck in scallop aquaculture. PMID:28253290

  5. Attitudes and intention to donate oocytes for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purewal, Satvinder; van den Akker, Olga

    2010-03-01

    In 2007, the Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority permitted oocyte donation for research through voluntary donation or within an oocyte share model. The aims of this study were to investigate volunteer (nonpatient) women's attitudes and intentions to donate using components of the Theory of Planned Behavior and their attitudes toward parenthood through structural equation modeling. Questionnaires. Online. A total of 253 nonpatient women. Attitudes towards oocyte donation for research and reasons for parenthood scale. Of the 253 respondents, 94 were potential donors, 98 were possible donors, and 61 were non-donors. Most potential donors (68%) reported no preference towards donating their oocytes for research or an infertile couple. Structural equation modeling revealed that age (beta = -.03) and components of the TPB (beta = .16) had a statistically significant direct effect on intentions to donate for research. Attitudes toward parenthood was not linked to intentions to donate for research. There appears to be a strong altruistic motive along with the theoretical underpinnings of positive attitudes, feeling supported, and accepting the consequences of oocyte donation for research, suggesting these have the potential to inform recruitment practices and tailor clinical services. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Kif4 Is Essential for Mouse Oocyte Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camlin, Nicole J; McLaughlin, Eileen A; Holt, Janet E

    2017-01-01

    Progression through the meiotic cell cycle must be strictly regulated in oocytes to generate viable embryos and offspring. During mitosis, the kinesin motor protein Kif4 is indispensable for chromosome condensation and separation, midzone formation and cytokinesis. Additionally, the bioactivity of Kif4 is dependent on phosphorylation via Aurora Kinase B and Cdk1, which regulate Kif4 function throughout mitosis. Here, we examine the role of Kif4 in mammalian oocyte meiosis. Kif4 localized in the cytoplasm throughout meiosis I and II, but was also observed to have a dynamic subcellular distribution, associating with both microtubules and kinetochores at different stages of development. Co-localization and proximity ligation assays revealed that the kinetochore proteins, CENP-C and Ndc80, are potential Kif4 interacting proteins. Functional analysis of Kif4 in oocytes via antisense knock-down demonstrated that this protein was not essential for meiosis I completion. However, Kif4 depleted oocytes displayed enlarged polar bodies and abnormal metaphase II spindles, indicating an essential role for this protein for correct asymmetric cell division in meiosis I. Further investigation of the phosphoregulation of meiotic Kif4 revealed that Aurora Kinase and Cdk activity is critical for Kif4 kinetochore localization and interaction with Ndc80 and CENP-C. Finally, Kif4 protein but not gene expression was found to be upregulated with age, suggesting a role for this protein in the decline of oocyte quality with age.

  7. Translational regulation of MOS messenger RNA in pig oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yanfeng; Newman, Barbara; Moor, Robert

    2005-11-01

    The temporal and spatial translation control of stored mRNA in oocytes is regulated by elements in their 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR). The MOS 3'-UTR in pig oocytes is both heterogeneous (180, 480, or 530 nucleotides), and it contains multiple U-rich elements and extensive A-rich sequences (CA13CA5CA5CA6). We have examined the role of these potential regulatory elements by fusing wild-type or mutant MOS 3'-UTRs to luciferase mRNA and then injecting these chimeric transcripts into oocytes. We draw six main conclusions. First, the length of the MOS 3'-UTR tightly controls the level of translation of luciferase during oocyte maturation. Second, two U-rich (U5A) elements and the hexanucleotide signal (AAUAAA) are required for translation. Third, mutations, duplications, or relocations of the A-rich sequence reduce or block translation. Fourth, the relative importance of the A-rich and U-rich elements in controlling the level of translation differs. Fifth, none of our MOS 3'-UTR manipulations relieved translational repression before germinal vesicle breakdown. Sixth, all the MOS mRNA variants underwent polyadenylation during maturation. Whereas mutations to the hexanucleotide signal block both polyadenylation and translation, mutations to either the A-rich sequence or the U-rich elements block translation without fully blocking polyadenylation. We conclude that MOS mRNA translation in pig oocytes is subject to a more extensive series of controls than that in lower vertebrates.

  8. Factors influencing the biochemical markers for predicting mammalian oocyte quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola, Safiriyu Idowu; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The need for accurate selection of the best oocytes for in vitro fertilization protocols and thus, production of embryos has driven the search for oocyte quality markers from morphological criteria to biochemical parameters. Current studies are focused on the biochemical constituents of the follicular fluid and gene expression profiling of the cumulus cells. These parameters are, however, affected by factors that must be considered before making a judgment of the oocyte's quality. These includes factors such as the type of hormonal stimulation protocol, age of oocyte donor and heat stress on the donor, all of which have been reported to influence the concentrations of many hormones, apolipoproteins, metabolites, fatty acids and growth factors in the follicular fluid and the expression of several genes in the cumulus cells. Another important point to note is species variation in the response to these extraneous influences, which thus calls for species targeted investigations. As reports are still scanty and investigations assumed to be very keen, we employed this review paper to bring attention of researchers and clinicians to those factors that may come to bear on the outcome of their investigations on oocyte and embryo quality.

  9. The Effects of Progesterone on Oocyte Maturation and Embryo Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Zavareh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oocyte maturation and embryo development are controlled by intra-ovarian factors suchas steroid hormones. Progesterone (P4 exists in the follicular fluid that contributes tonormal mammalian ovarian function and has several critical functions during embryodevelopment and implantation, including endometrial receptivity, embryonic survivalduring gestation and transformation of the endometrial stromal cells to decidual cells.It is well known that the physiological effects of P4 during the pre-implantation stages ofsome mammal’s embryos are mediated by P4 receptors and their gene expression is determined.The effects of P4 on oocytes and embryo development have been assessed bysome investigations, with contradictory results. P4, a dominant steroid in follicular fluidat approximately 18 hours after the luteinizing hormone (LH surge may have a criticalrole in maturation of oocytes at the germinal stage. However, it has been shown that differentconcentrations of P4 could not improve in vitro maturation rates of germinal vesicles(GV in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs and cumulus denuded oocytes (CDOs.Culture media supplemented with P4 significantly improved mouse embryo development.In addition, an in vivo experimental design has shown high blastocyst survival andimplantation rates in P4-treated mice.In this review we explain some of the findings that pertain to the effects of P4 onoocyte maturation and embryo development both in vitro and in vivo.

  10. PTK2b function during fertilization of the mouse oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinping; McGinnis, Lynda K; Carlton, Carol; Beggs, Hilary E; Kinsey, William H

    2014-08-01

    Fertilization triggers rapid changes in intracellular free calcium that serve to activate multiple signaling events critical to the initiation of successful development. Among the pathways downstream of the fertilization-induced calcium transient is the calcium-calmodulin dependent protein tyrosine kinase PTK2b or PYK2 kinase. PTK2b plays an important role in fertilization of the zebrafish oocyte and the objective of the present study was to establish whether PTK2b also functions in mammalian fertilization. PTK2b was activated during the first few hours after fertilization of the mouse oocyte during the period when anaphase resumption was underway and prior to the pronuclear stage. Suppression of PTK2b kinase activity in oocytes blocked sperm incorporation and egg activation although sperm-oocyte binding was not affected. Oocytes that failed to incorporate sperm after inhibitor treatment showed no evidence of a calcium transient and no evidence of anaphase resumption suggesting that egg activation did not occur. The results indicate that PTK2b functions during the sperm-egg fusion process or during the physical incorporation of sperm into the egg cytoplasm and is therefore critical for successful development. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Kif4 Is Essential for Mouse Oocyte Meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camlin, Nicole J.; McLaughlin, Eileen A.; Holt, Janet E.

    2017-01-01

    Progression through the meiotic cell cycle must be strictly regulated in oocytes to generate viable embryos and offspring. During mitosis, the kinesin motor protein Kif4 is indispensable for chromosome condensation and separation, midzone formation and cytokinesis. Additionally, the bioactivity of Kif4 is dependent on phosphorylation via Aurora Kinase B and Cdk1, which regulate Kif4 function throughout mitosis. Here, we examine the role of Kif4 in mammalian oocyte meiosis. Kif4 localized in the cytoplasm throughout meiosis I and II, but was also observed to have a dynamic subcellular distribution, associating with both microtubules and kinetochores at different stages of development. Co-localization and proximity ligation assays revealed that the kinetochore proteins, CENP-C and Ndc80, are potential Kif4 interacting proteins. Functional analysis of Kif4 in oocytes via antisense knock-down demonstrated that this protein was not essential for meiosis I completion. However, Kif4 depleted oocytes displayed enlarged polar bodies and abnormal metaphase II spindles, indicating an essential role for this protein for correct asymmetric cell division in meiosis I. Further investigation of the phosphoregulation of meiotic Kif4 revealed that Aurora Kinase and Cdk activity is critical for Kif4 kinetochore localization and interaction with Ndc80 and CENP-C. Finally, Kif4 protein but not gene expression was found to be upregulated with age, suggesting a role for this protein in the decline of oocyte quality with age. PMID:28125646

  12. Avalanche Survival After Rescue With the RECCO Rescue System: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasegger, Katharina; Strapazzon, Giacomo; Procter, Emily; Brugger, Hermann; Soteras, Inigo

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of survival of a completely buried avalanche victim after being located with the radar-based RECCO Rescue System. In the winter of 2015, 2 off-piste skiers were completely buried in an avalanche near the secured ski area in Baqueira Beret, Spain. The first victim was located with the RECCO Rescue System in less than 35 minutes and was alive and conscious at extrication. This system emits radio waves and requires a specific reflector. It is a portable device that is used by more than 600 rescue organizations worldwide, especially in secured ski areas. The device should be brought to the avalanche site together with electronic avalanche transceivers, a probing team, and avalanche dogs. In the hands of experienced professionals, the device may allow rapid location of victims not carrying an electronic avalanche transceiver. Although it is not the first successful extrication of a victim with the RECCO Rescue System, it is the first case published in the medical literature and is intended to encourage data collection and to increase our understanding of the effectiveness of this device in avalanche rescue.

  13. Impact of GnRH analogues on oocyte/embryo quality and embryo development in in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigó János

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the clinical outcomes of ovarian stimulation with either GnRH-agonist or GnRH-antagonist analogues for in vitro fertilization (IVF being well analysed, the effect of analogues on oocyte/embryo quality and embryo development is still not known in detail. The aim of this case-control study was to compare the efficacy of a multiple-dose GnRH antagonist protocol with that of the GnRH agonist long protocol with a view to oocyte and embryo quality, embryo development and IVF treatment outcome. Methods Between October 2001 and December 2008, 100 patients were stimulated with human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG and GnRH antagonist in their first treatment cycle for IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. One hundred combined GnRH agonist + HMG (long protocol cycles were matched to the GnRH antagonist + HMG cycles by age, BMI, baseline FSH levels and by cause of infertility. We determined the number and quality of retrieved oocytes, the rate of early-cleavage embryos, the morphology and development of embryos, as well as clinical pregnancy rates. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon's matched pairs rank sum test and McNemar's chi-square test. P Results The rate of cytoplasmic abnormalities in retrieved oocytes was significantly higher with the use of GnRH antagonist than in GnRH agonist cycles (62.1% vs. 49.9%; P Conclusion Antagonist seemed to influence favourably some parameters of early embryo development dynamics, while other morphological parameters seemed not to be altered according to GnRH analogue used for ovarian stimulation in IVF cycles.

  14. ICSI treatment of severe male infertility can achieve prospective embryo quality compared with IVF of fertile donor sperm on sibling oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Fen Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Azoospermia, cryptozoospermia and necrospermia can markedly decrease the ability of males to achieve pregnancy in fertile females. However, patients with these severe conditions still have the option to be treated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI to become biological fathers. This study analyzed the fertilization ability and the developmental viabilities of the derived embryos after ICSI treatment of the sperm from these patients compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF treatment of the proven-fertile donor sperm on sibling oocytes as a control. On the day of oocyte retrieval, the number of sperm suitable for ICSI collected from two ejaculates or testicular sperm extraction was lower than the oocytes, and therefore, excess sibling oocytes were treated by IVF with donor sperm. From 72 couples (73 cycles, 1117 metaphase II oocytes were divided into 512 for ICSI and 605 for IVF. Compared with the control, husbands′ sperm produced a lower fertilization rate in nonobstructive azoospermia (65.4% vs 83.2%; P< 0.001, crytozoospermia (68.8% vs 75.5%; P< 0.05 and necrospermia (65.0% vs 85.2%; P< 0.05. The zygotes derived in nonobstructive azoospermia had a lower cleavage rate (96.4% vs 99.4%; P< 0.05, but the rate of resultant good-quality embryos was not different. Analysis of the rates of cleaved and good-quality embryos in crytozoospermia and necrospermia did not exhibit a significant difference from the control. In conclusion, although the sperm from severe male infertility reduced the fertilization ability, the derived embryos had potential developmental viabilities that might be predictive for the expected clinical outcomes.

  15. ICSI treatment of severe male infertility can achieve prospective embryo quality compared with IVF of fertile donor sperm on sibling oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ju-Fen; Chen, Xiao-Bao; Zhao, Lei-Wen; Gao, Min-Zhi; Peng, Jie; Qu, Xian-Qin; Shi, Hui-Juan; Jin, Xing-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Azoospermia, cryptozoospermia and necrospermia can markedly decrease the ability of males to achieve pregnancy in fertile females. However, patients with these severe conditions still have the option to be treated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to become biological fathers. This study analyzed the fertilization ability and the developmental viabilities of the derived embryos after ICSI treatment of the sperm from these patients compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment of the proven-fertile donor sperm on sibling oocytes as a control. On the day of oocyte retrieval, the number of sperm suitable for ICSI collected from two ejaculates or testicular sperm extraction was lower than the oocytes, and therefore, excess sibling oocytes were treated by IVF with donor sperm. From 72 couples (73 cycles), 1117 metaphase II oocytes were divided into 512 for ICSI and 605 for IVF. Compared with the control, husbands' sperm produced a lower fertilization rate in nonobstructive azoospermia (65.4% vs 83.2%; P< 0.001), crytozoospermia (68.8% vs 75.5%; P< 0.05) and necrospermia (65.0% vs 85.2%; P< 0.05). The zygotes derived in nonobstructive azoospermia had a lower cleavage rate (96.4% vs 99.4%; P< 0.05), but the rate of resultant good-quality embryos was not different. Analysis of the rates of cleaved and good-quality embryos in crytozoospermia and necrospermia did not exhibit a significant difference from the control. In conclusion, although the sperm from severe male infertility reduced the fertilization ability, the derived embryos had potential developmental viabilities that might be predictive for the expected clinical outcomes.

  16. Follicular fluid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate is a credible marker of oocyte maturity and pregnancy outcome in conventional in vitro fertilization cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natachandra M Chimote

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate if the level of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s in follicular fluid (FF influences the competence of oocytes to fertilize, develop to the blastocyst stage, and produce a viable pregnancy in conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles. Settings and Design: Prospective study of age-matched, nonpolycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS women undergoing antagonist stimulation protocol involving conventional insemination and day 5 blastocyst transfer. Materials and Methods: FF levels of DHEA-s and E2 were measured by a radio-immuno-assay method using diagnostic kits. Fertilization rate, embryo development to the blastocyst stage and live birth rate were main outcome measures. Cycles were divided into pregnant/nonpregnant groups and also into low/medium/high FF DHEA-s groups. Statistical analysis was done by GraphPad Prism V software. Results: FF DHEA-s levels were significantly higher in pregnant (n = 111 compared to nonpregnant (n = 381 group (1599 ± 77.45 vs. 1372 ± 40.47 ng/ml; P = 0.01. High (n = 134 FF DHEA-s group had significantly higher percentage of metaphase II (MII oocytes (91.5 vs. 85.54 vs. 79.44%, P < 0.0001, fertilization rate (78.86 vs. 74.16 vs. 71.26%, P < 0.0001, cleavage rate (83.67 vs. 69.1 vs. 66.17%, P = 0.0002, blastocyst formation rate (37.15 vs. 33.01 vs. 26.95%, P < 0.0001, and live birth rate (29.85 vs. 22.22 vs. 14.78%, P = 0.017 compared to medium (n = 243 and low (n = 115 FF DHEA-s groups, respectively despite comparable number of oocytes retrieved and number of blastocysts transferred. FF DHEA-s levels correlated significantly with the attainment of MII oocytes (Pearson r = 0.41 and fertilization rates (Pearson r = 0.35. Conclusion: FF DHEA-s level influences the oocyte maturation process and is predictive of fertilization, embryo development to the blastocyst stage and live birth rates in non-PCOS women undergoing conventional IVF cycles.

  17. High-throughput optofluidic system for the laser microsurgery of oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Shi, Linda Z.; Zhu, Qingyuan; Alliegro, Mark C.; Berns, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    This study combines microfluidics with optical microablation in a microscopy system that allows for high-throughput manipulation of oocytes, automated media exchange, and long-term oocyte observation. The microfluidic component of the system transports oocytes from an inlet port into multiple flow channels. Within each channel, oocytes are confined against a microfluidic barrier using a steady fluid flow provided by an external computer-controlled syringe pump. This allows for easy media replacement without disturbing the oocyte location. The microfluidic and optical-laser microbeam ablation capabilities of the system were validated using surf clam (Spisula solidissima) oocytes that were immobilized in order to permit ablation of the 5 μm diameter nucleolinus within the oocyte nucleolus. Oocytes were the followed and assayed for polar body ejection.

  18. Obstetric and neonatal outcome after oocyte donation in 106 women with Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagman, Anna; Loft, Anne; Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt

    2013-01-01

    What are the obstetric and neonatal outcomes of deliveries after oocyte donation (OD) in women with Turner syndrome (TS)?......What are the obstetric and neonatal outcomes of deliveries after oocyte donation (OD) in women with Turner syndrome (TS)?...

  19. Reinterpretation of evidence advanced for neo-oogenesis in mammals, in terms of a finite oocyte reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarianni, Elena

    2011-01-06

    The central tenet of ovarian biology, that the oocyte reserve in adult female mammals is finite, has been challenged over recent years by proponents of neo-oogenesis, who claim that germline stem cells exist in the ovarian surface epithelium or the bone marrow. Currently opinion is divided over these claims, and further scrutiny of the evidence advanced in support of the neo-oogenesis hypothesis is warranted - especially in view of the enormous implications for female fertility and health. This article contributes arguments against the hypothesis, providing alternative explanations for key observations, based on published data. Specifically, DNA synthesis in germ cells in the postnatal mouse ovary is attributed to mitochondrial genome replication, and to DNA repair in oocytes lagging in meiotic progression. Lines purported to consist of germline stem cells are identified as ovarian epithelium or as oogonia, from which cultures have been derived previously. Effects of ovotoxic treatments are found to negate claims for the existence of germline stem cells. And arguments are presented for the misidentification of ovarian somatic cells as de novo oocytes. These clarifications, if correct, undermine the concept that germline stem cells supplement the oocyte quota in the postnatal ovary; and instead comply with the theory of a fixed, unregenerated reserve. It is proposed that acceptance of the neo-oogenesis hypothesis is erroneous, and may effectively impede research in areas of ovarian biology. To illustrate, a novel explanation that is consistent with orthodox theory is provided for the observed restoration of fertility in chemotherapy-treated female mice following bone marrow transplantation, otherwise interpreted by proponents of neo-oogenesis as involving stimulation of endogenous germline stem cells. Instead, it is proposed that the chemotherapeutic regimens induce autoimmunity to ovarian antigens, and that the haematopoietic chimaerism produced by bone marrow

  20. A new approach for the oocyte genotoxicity assay: adaptation of comet assay on mouse cumulus-oocyte complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, F; Perrin, J; Auffan, M; Tassistro, V; Orsière, T; Courbiere, B

    2015-07-01

    Conventional genotoxicity tests are technically difficult to apply to oocytes, and results obtained on somatic cells cannot be extrapolated to gametes. We have previously described a comet assay (original-CA) on denuded mouse oocytes, but, in vivo, oocytes are not isolated from their surrounding follicular cells. Our objective was to develop a comet assay on cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC-CA) for a more physiological approach to study the genotoxicity of environmental factors on oocytes. For COC-CA, whole COC were exposed directly to exogenous agents after ovulation and removal from oviducts. Three conditions were studied: a negative control group, and two positive control groups, one of which was exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the other group was incubated with cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs). With both tests, DNA damage was significant in the presence of both H2O2 and CeO2 NPs compared with the negative control. COC-CA offers an interesting tool for assaying the genotoxicity of environmental agents towards germinal cells. Furthermore, COC-CA is less time-consuming and simplifies the protocol of the original-CA, because COC-CA is easier to perform without the washing-out procedure.

  1. Bidirectional communication between oocytes and ovarian follicular somatic cells is required for meiotic arrest of mammalian oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigglesworth, Karen; Lee, Kyung-Bon; O’Brien, Marilyn J.; Peng, Jia; Matzuk, Martin M.; Eppig, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Coordinated regulation of oocyte and ovarian follicular development is essential for fertility. In particular, the progression of meiosis, a germ cell-specific cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes from diploid to haploid, must be arrested until just before ovulation. Follicular somatic cells are well-known to impose this arrest, which is essential for oocyte–follicle developmental synchrony. Follicular somatic cells sustain meiotic arrest via the natriuretic peptide C/natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPPC/NPR2) system, and possibly also via high levels of the purine hypoxanthine in the follicular fluid. Upon activation by the ligand NPPC, NPR2, the predominant guanylyl cyclase in follicular somatic cells, produces cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which maintains meiotic arrest after transfer to the oocyte via gap junctions. Here we report that both the NPPC/NPR2 system and hypoxanthine require the activity of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), the rate-limiting enzyme required for the production of guanylyl metabolites and cGMP. Furthermore, oocyte-derived paracrine factors, particularly the growth differentiation factor 9–bone morphogenetic protein 15 heterodimer, promote expression of Impdh and Npr2 and elevate cGMP levels in cumulus cells. Thus, although the somatic compartment of ovarian follicles plays an essential role in the maintenance of oocyte meiotic arrest, as has been known for many years, this function of the somatic cells is surprisingly regulated by signals from the oocyte itself. PMID:23980176

  2. Translation in the mammalian oocyte in space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susor, Andrej; Jansova, Denisa; Anger, Martin; Kubelka, Michal

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of oocyte development in mammals is the dependence on the translation and utilization of stored RNA and proteins rather than the de novo transcription of genes in order to sustain meiotic progression and early embryo development. In the absence of transcription, the completion of meiosis and early embryo development in mammals relies significantly on maternally synthesized RNAs. Post-transcriptional control of gene expression at the translational level has emerged as an important cellular function in normal development. Therefore, the regulation of gene expression in oocytes is controlled almost exclusively at the level of mRNA and protein stabilization and protein synthesis. This current review is focused on the recently emerged findings on RNA distribution related to the temporal and spatial translational control of the meiotic progression of the mammalian oocyte.

  3. Cryopreservation of Mammalian Oocyte for Conservation of Animal Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R. Prentice

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The preservation of the female portion of livestock genetics has become an international priority; however, in situ conservation strategies are extremely expensive. Therefore, efforts are increasingly focusing on the development of a reliable cryopreservation method for oocytes, in order to establish ova banks. Slow freezing, a common method for cryopreservation of oocytes, causes osmotic shock (solution effect and intracellular ice crystallization leading to cell damage. Vitrification is an alternative method for cryopreservation in which cells are exposed to a higher concentration of cryoprotectants and frozen with an ultra rapid freezing velocity, resulting in an ice crystal free, solid glass-like structure. Presently, vitrification is a popular method for cryopreservation of embryos. However, vitrification of oocytes is still challenging due to their complex structure and sensitivity to chilling.

  4. Cryopreservation of embryos and oocytes in human assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konc, János; Kanyó, Katalin; Kriston, Rita; Somoskői, Bence; Cseh, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    Both sperm and embryo cryopreservation have become routine procedures in human assisted reproduction and oocyte cryopreservation is being introduced into clinical practice and is getting more and more widely used. Embryo cryopreservation has decreased the number of fresh embryo transfers and maximized the effectiveness of the IVF cycle. The data shows that women who had transfers of fresh and frozen embryos obtained 8% additional births by using their cryopreserved embryos. Oocyte cryopreservation offers more advantages compared to embryo freezing, such as fertility preservation in women at risk of losing fertility due to oncological treatment or chronic disease, egg donation, and postponing childbirth, and eliminates religious and/or other ethical, legal, and moral concerns of embryo freezing. In this review, the basic principles, methodology, and practical experiences as well as safety and other aspects concerning slow cooling and ultrarapid cooling (vitrification) of human embryos and oocytes are summarized.

  5. Oocyte Maturation and Development [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Hélène Verlhac

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sexual reproduction is essential for many organisms to propagate themselves. It requires the formation of haploid female and male gametes: oocytes and sperms. These specialized cells are generated through meiosis, a particular type of cell division that produces cells with recombined genomes that differ from their parental origin. In this review, we highlight the end process of female meiosis, the divisions per se, and how they can give rise to a functional female gamete preparing itself for the ensuing zygotic development. In particular, we discuss why such an essential process in the propagation of species is so poorly controlled, producing a strong percentage of abnormal female gametes in the end. Eventually, we examine aspects related to the lack of centrosomes in female oocytes, the asymmetry in size of the mammalian oocyte upon division, and in mammals the direct consequences of these long-lived cells in the ovary.

  6. Cryopreservation of Mammalian oocyte for conservation of animal genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Jennifer R; Anzar, Muhammad

    2010-09-21

    The preservation of the female portion of livestock genetics has become an international priority; however, in situ conservation strategies are extremely expensive. Therefore, efforts are increasingly focusing on the development of a reliable cryopreservation method for oocytes, in order to establish ova banks. Slow freezing, a common method for cryopreservation of oocytes, causes osmotic shock (solution effect) and intracellular ice crystallization leading to cell damage. Vitrification is an alternative method for cryopreservation in which cells are exposed to a higher concentration of cryoprotectants and frozen with an ultra rapid freezing velocity, resulting in an ice crystal free, solid glass-like structure. Presently, vitrification is a popular method for cryopreservation of embryos. However, vitrification of oocytes is still challenging due to their complex structure and sensitivity to chilling.

  7. Hormonal Regulation of Oocyte Development and Maturation of Amphioxus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方永强; 赵维信; 林秋明

    1994-01-01

    Using the electron microscopic technique and radioimmunoassay,the hormonal regulationof the oocyte development and maturation of the amphioxus has been investigated.The results indicate thatthe exogenous GnRH-A can stimulate the oocyte development and maturation as well as the spawning of theamphioxus.It has further been revealed by radioimmunoassay that GnRH-A can increase the content of sexsteroid hormone,especially,estradiol-17β,by 1—3 times.The increase of estradiol-17β coordinates withthe synthesis of oocyte into yolk substance.The results further justify that the hormonal regulation in theoocyte development and maturation of amphioxus is similar to that of vertebrates.This is of great theoreticalsignificance for reproduetive endocrine physiology of amphioxus.

  8. Cryopreservation of Embryos and Oocytes in Human Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Konc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both sperm and embryo cryopreservation have become routine procedures in human assisted reproduction and oocyte cryopreservation is being introduced into clinical practice and is getting more and more widely used. Embryo cryopreservation has decreased the number of fresh embryo transfers and maximized the effectiveness of the IVF cycle. The data shows that women who had transfers of fresh and frozen embryos obtained 8% additional births by using their cryopreserved embryos. Oocyte cryopreservation offers more advantages compared to embryo freezing, such as fertility preservation in women at risk of losing fertility due to oncological treatment or chronic disease, egg donation, and postponing childbirth, and eliminates religious and/or other ethical, legal, and moral concerns of embryo freezing. In this review, the basic principles, methodology, and practical experiences as well as safety and other aspects concerning slow cooling and ultrarapid cooling (vitrification of human embryos and oocytes are summarized.

  9. Roles of MAP kinase signaling pathway in oocyte meiosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is a family of Ser/Thr protein kinases expressed widely in eukaryotic cells. MAPK is activated by a cascade of protein kinase phosphorylation and plays pivotal roles in regulating meiosis process in oocytes. As an important physical substrate of MAPK, p90rsk mediates numerous MAPK functions. MAPK was activated at G2/M transition during meiosis. Its activity reached the peak at MⅠ stage and maintained at this level until the time before the pronuclear formation after fertilization. There is complex interplay between MAPK and MPF in the meiosis regulation. Furthermore, other intracellular signal transducers, such as cAMP, protein kinase C and protein phosphotase, ect., also regulated the activity of MAPK at different stages during meiosis in oocytes. In the present article, the roles of MAPK signaling pathway in oocyte meiosis are reviewed and discussed.

  10. Live imaging of GFP-labeled proteins in Drosophila oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrywka, Nancy Jo

    2013-03-29

    The Drosophila oocyte has been established as a versatile system for investigating fundamental questions such as cytoskeletal function, cell organization, and organelle structure and function. The availability of various GFP-tagged proteins means that many cellular processes can be monitored in living cells over the course of minutes or hours, and using this technique, processes such as RNP transport, epithelial morphogenesis, and tissue remodeling have been described in great detail in Drosophila oocytes. The ability to perform video imaging combined with a rich repertoire of mutants allows an enormous variety of genes and processes to be examined in incredible detail. One such example is the process of ooplasmic streaming, which initiates at mid-oogenesis. This vigorous movement of cytoplasmic vesicles is microtubule and kinesin-dependent and provides a useful system for investigating cytoskeleton function at these stages. Here I present a protocol for time lapse imaging of living oocytes using virtually any confocal microscopy setup.

  11. Regulation of ALF promoter activity in Xenopus oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this report we evaluate the use of Xenopus laevis oocytes as a matched germ cell system for characterizing the organization and transcriptional activity of a germ cell-specific X. laevis promoter. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The promoter from the ALF transcription factor gene was cloned from X. laevis genomic DNA using a PCR-based genomic walking approach. The endogenous ALF gene was characterized by RACE and RT-PCR for transcription start site usage, and by sodium bisulfite sequencing to determine its methylation status in somatic and oocyte tissues. Homology between the X. laevis ALF promoter sequence and those from human, chimpanzee, macaque, mouse, rat, cow, pig, horse, dog, chicken and X. tropicalis was relatively low, making it difficult to use such comparisons to identify putative regulatory elements. However, microinjected promoter constructs were very active in oocytes and the minimal promoter could be narrowed by PCR-mediated deletion to a region as short as 63 base pairs. Additional experiments using a series of site-specific promoter mutants identified two cis-elements within the 63 base pair minimal promoter that were critical for activity. Both elements (A and B were specifically recognized by proteins present in crude oocyte extracts based on oligonucleotide competition assays. The activity of promoter constructs in oocytes and in transfected somatic Xenopus XLK-WG kidney epithelial cells was quite different, indicating that the two cell types are not functionally equivalent and are not interchangeable as assay systems. CONCLUSIONS: Overall the results provide the first detailed characterization of the organization of a germ cell-specific Xenopus promoter and demonstrate the feasibility of using immature frog oocytes as an assay system for dissecting the biochemistry of germ cell gene regulation.

  12. Aflatoxin B1 is toxic to porcine oocyte maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Qiao-Chu; Han, Jun; Xiong, Bo; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2015-07-01

    As a toxic secondary metabolite of Aspergillus species, Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a major food and feed contaminant in tropical and sub-tropical regions with high temperature and humidity. It has been reported to be toxic to the female reproductive system in laboratory and domestic animals. In the present study, the influence of acute exposure to AFB1 (10 and 50 μM, 44h) on porcine oocyte maturation and its possible mechanism were investigated. The maturation rates of oocytes decreased significantly in the presence of 50 μM of AFB1. Cell cycle analysis showed that most oocytes were arrested at germinal vesicle breakdown or meosis I stage. However, actin assembly, spindle structure and chromosome alignment were not disrupted after exposure to 50 μM AFB1. Further study showed that DNA methylation levels increased in treated oocytes (50 μM). Histone methylation levels were also analysed after treatment (50 μM): H3K27me3 and H3K4me2 levels decreased, whereas H3K9me3 level increased, indicating that epigenetic modification was affected. AFB1 treatment (50 μM) also induced oxidative stress and further led to autophagy, as shown by accumulation of reactive oxygen species, up-regulated LC3 protein expression and increased mRNA levels of ATG3, ATG5 and ATG7. Annexin V-FITC staining assay revealed that AFB1 treatment (50 μM) resulted in oocyte early apoptosis, which was confirmed by increased Bak, Bax, Bcl-xl mRNA levels. Collectively, our results suggest that AFB1 disrupts porcine oocyte maturation through changing epigenetic modifications as well as inducing oxidative stress, excessive autophagy and apoptosis.

  13. Cholesterol depletion disorganizes oocyte membrane rafts altering mouse fertilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgelina Buschiazzo

    Full Text Available Drastic membrane reorganization occurs when mammalian sperm binds to and fuses with the oocyte membrane. Two oocyte protein families are essential for fertilization, tetraspanins and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins. The firsts are associated to tetraspanin-enriched microdomains and the seconds to lipid rafts. Here we report membrane raft involvement in mouse fertilization assessed by cholesterol modulation using methyl-β-cyclodextrin. Cholesterol removal induced: (1 a decrease of the fertilization rate and index; and (2 a delay in the extrusion of the second polar body. Cholesterol repletion recovered the fertilization ability of cholesterol-depleted oocytes, indicating reversibility of these effects. In vivo time-lapse analyses using fluorescent cholesterol permitted to identify the time-point at which the probe is mainly located at the plasma membrane enabling the estimation of the extent of the cholesterol depletion. We confirmed that the mouse oocyte is rich in rafts according to the presence of the raft marker lipid, ganglioside GM1 on the membrane of living oocytes and we identified the coexistence of two types of microdomains, planar rafts and caveolae-like structures, by terms of two differential rafts markers, flotillin-2 and caveolin-1, respectively. Moreover, this is the first report that shows characteristic caveolae-like invaginations in the mouse oocyte identified by electron microscopy. Raft disruption by cholesterol depletion disturbed the subcellular localization of the signal molecule c-Src and the inhibition of Src kinase proteins prevented second polar body extrusion, consistent with a role of Src-related kinases in fertilization via signaling complexes. Our data highlight the functional importance of intact membrane rafts for mouse fertilization and its dependence on cholesterol.

  14. A Visual Information Retrieval Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of visualization for information retrieval, that transforms unseen internal semantic representation of a document collection into visible geometric displays, focuses on DARE (Distance Angle Retrieval Environment). Highlights include expression of information need; interpretation and manipulation of information retrieval models; ranking…

  15. Introduction to information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Christopher D; Schütze, Hinrich

    2008-01-01

    Class-tested and coherent, this textbook teaches classical and web information retrieval, including web search and the related areas of text classification and text clustering from basic concepts. It gives an up-to-date treatment of all aspects of the design and implementation of systems for gathering, indexing, and searching documents; methods for evaluating systems; and an introduction to the use of machine learning methods on text collections. All the important ideas are explained using examples and figures, making it perfect for introductory courses in information retrieval for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in computer science. Based on feedback from extensive classroom experience, the book has been carefully structured in order to make teaching more natural and effective. Slides and additional exercises (with solutions for lecturers) are also available through the book's supporting website to help course instructors prepare their lectures.

  16. Interactive Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces the research area of interactive information retrieval (IIR) from a historical point of view. Further, the focus here is on evaluation, because much research in IR deals with IR evaluation methodology due to the core research interest in IR performance, system interaction...... and satisfaction with retrieved information. In order to position IIR evaluation, the Cranfield model and the series of tests that led to the Cranfield model are outlined. Three iconic user-oriented studies and projects that all have contributed to how IIR is perceived and understood today are presented....... As a response to this call the ‘IIR evaluation model’ by Borlund (e.g., 2003a) is introduced. The objective of the IIR evaluation model is to facilitate IIR evaluation as close as possible to actual information searching and IR processes, though still in a relatively controlled evaluation environment, in which...

  17. Practical quantum retrieval games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Karasamanis, Markos; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2016-06-01

    Complex cryptographic protocols are often constructed from simpler building blocks. In order to advance quantum cryptography, it is important to study practical building blocks that can be used to develop new protocols. An example is quantum retrieval games (QRGs), which have broad applicability and have already been used to construct quantum money schemes. In this work, we introduce a general construction of quantum retrieval games based on the hidden matching problem and show how they can be implemented in practice using available technology. More precisely, we provide a general method to construct (1-out-of-k ) QRGs, proving that their cheating probabilities decrease exponentially in k . In particular, we define QRGs based on coherent states of light, which can be implemented even in the presence of experimental imperfections. Our results constitute a tool in the arsenal of the practical quantum cryptographer.

  18. Interactive Information Retrieval:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia

    This presentation addresses methodological issues of interactive information retrieval (IIR) evaluation in terms of what it entails to study users' use and interaction with IR systems, as well as their satisfaction with retrieved information. In particular, the presentation focuses on test design......, and it takes a look into the toolbox of IIR test design with reference to data collection methods and test procedure. It calls for careful and well-planned studies to qualify the knowledgebase generated as a result of the conducted IIR studies. The presentation further reflects on the need for an updated...... IIR from the perspective of search dedication and task load in order to also include everyday life information seeking? With this presentation, the IIR community is invited to an exchange of ideas and is encouraged to engage in collaborations with the solving of these (and other) issues to our joint...

  19. Influence of co-culture with denuded oocytes during in vitro maturation on fertilization and developmental competence of cumulus-enclosed porcine oocytes in a defined system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appeltant, Ruth; Somfai, Tamás; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Maes, Dominiek; Van Soom, Ann

    2016-04-01

    Co-culture of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) with denuded oocytes (DOs) during in vitro maturation (IVM) was reported to improve the developmental competence of oocytes via oocyte-secreted factors in cattle. The aim of the present study was to investigate if addition of DOs during IVM can improve in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC) results for oocytes in a defined in vitro production system in pigs. The maturation medium was porcine oocyte medium supplemented with gonadotropins, dbcAMP and β-mercaptoethanol. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were matured without DOs or with DOs in different ratios (9 COC, 9 COC+16 DO and 9 COC+36 DO). Consequently; oocytes were subjected to IVF as intact COCs or after denudation to examine if DO addition during IVM would affect cumulus or oocyte properties. After fertilization, penetration and normal fertilization rates of zygotes were not different between all tested groups irrespective of denudation before IVF. When zygotes were cultured for 6 days, no difference could be observed between all treatment groups in cleavage rate, blastocyst rate and cell number per blastocyst. In conclusion, irrespective of the ratio, co-culture with DOs during IVM did not improve fertilization parameters and embryo development of cumulus-enclosed porcine oocytes in a defined system.

  20. 卵子发育障碍原发性不孕姐妹2例%Primary Infertility for Oocyte Developmental Disorders of Two Sister-cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛石龙; 张学红

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To report two sister-cases of primary infertility for oocyte developmental disorders. Methods: A retrospective clinical study was performed to analyze two sister-cases of oocyte developmental disorders. Results: Two sister-cases underwent outpatient ovulation induction by conventional GnRHa protocol. There were only cumulus granulosa cell clusters without oocytes through microscopic examination on retrieval day. Oocytes were also not obtained by remedial hCG treatment. Thus oocyte dys-plasia could be diagnosed. Subsequently it was acquired that their grandparents were cousin consanguineous marriages. Younger sister-patient with donor oocyte cycle surgery got successful pregnancy of intrauterine single fetal. Conclusion: The family and medical history should be asked in detail for IVF treatment. Donor scheme for oocyte developmental disorders is a feasible and effective option.%目的:报道2例IVF治疗中卵子发育障碍原发性不孕姐妹患者.方法:对本院收治的2例卵子发育障碍原发性不孕患者姐妹进行回顾性总结与分析.结果:均采用常规GnRHa长方案促排卵,取卵日卵泡穿刺镜检仅见卵丘颗粒细胞团,均未见到卵子,补救性hCG治疗亦未取得卵子,诊断为卵子发育异常.追问病史得知其祖父母为表兄妹近亲婚配.患者(妹妹)行受卵治疗,宫内单胎成功妊娠.结论:门诊IVF治疗建病历时应详细询问患者家族史,供卵方案是目前IVF治疗卵子发育障碍原发性不孕较常用且有效的方法.

  1. Automated Medical Literature Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hawking

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The constantly growing publication rate of medical research articles puts increasing pressure on medical specialists who need to be aware of the recent developments in their field. The currently used literature retrieval systems allow researchers to find specific papers; however the search task is still repetitive and time-consuming. Aims In this paper we describe a system that retrieves medical publications by automatically generating queries based on data from an electronic patient record. This allows the doctor to focus on medical issues and provide an improved service to the patient, with higher confidence that it is underpinned by current research. Method Our research prototype automatically generates query terms based on the patient record and adds weight factors for each term. Currently the patient’s age is taken into account with a fuzzy logic derived weight, and terms describing blood-related anomalies are derived from recent blood test results. Conditionally selected homonyms are used for query expansion. The query retrieves matching records from a local index of PubMed publications and displays results in descending relevance for the given patient. Recent publications are clearly highlighted for instant recognition by the researcher. Results Nine medical specialists from the Royal Adelaide Hospital evaluated the system and submitted pre-trial and post-trial questionnaires. Throughout the study we received positive feedback as doctors felt the support provided by the prototype was useful, and which they would like to use in their daily routine. Conclusion By supporting the time-consuming task of query formulation and iterative modification as well as by presenting the search results in order of relevance for the specific patient, literature retrieval becomes part of the daily workflow of busy professionals.

  2. Acentrosomal spindle assembly and chromosome segregation during oocyte meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Julien; Desai, Arshad

    2012-05-01

    The ability to reproduce relies in most eukaryotes on specialized cells called gametes. Gametes are formed by the process of meiosis in which, after a single round of replication, two successive cell divisions reduce the ploidy of the genome. Fusion of gametes at fertilization reconstitutes diploidy. In most animal species, chromosome segregation during female meiosis occurs on spindles assembled in the absence of the major microtubule-organizing center, the centrosome. In mammals, oocyte meiosis is error prone and underlies most birth aneuploidies. Here, we review recent work on acentrosomal spindle formation and chromosome alignment/separation during oocyte meiosis in different animal models.

  3. Artificial intelligence techniques for embryo and oocyte classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Claudio; Nanni, Loris; Lumini, Alessandra; Pappalardo, Sebastiana

    2013-01-01

    One of the most relevant aspects in assisted reproduction technology is the possibility of characterizing and identifying the most viable oocytes or embryos. In most cases, embryologists select them by visual examination and their evaluation is totally subjective. Recently, due to the rapid growth in the capacity to extract texture descriptors from a given image, a growing interest has been shown in the use of artificial intelligence methods for embryo or oocyte scoring/selection in IVF programmes. This work concentrates the efforts on the possible prediction of the quality of embryos and oocytes in order to improve the performance of assisted reproduction technology, starting from their images. The artificial intelligence system proposed in this work is based on a set of Levenberg-Marquardt neural networks trained using textural descriptors (the local binary patterns). The proposed system was tested on two data sets of 269 oocytes and 269 corresponding embryos from 104 women and compared with other machine learning methods already proposed in the past for similar classification problems. Although the results are only preliminary, they show an interesting classification performance. This technique may be of particular interest in those countries where legislation restricts embryo selection. One of the most relevant aspects in assisted reproduction technology is the possibility of characterizing and identifying the most viable oocytes or embryos. In most cases, embryologists select them by visual examination and their evaluation is totally subjective. Recently, due to the rapid growth in our capacity to extract texture descriptors from a given image, a growing interest has been shown in the use of artificial intelligence methods for embryo or oocyte scoring/selection in IVF programmes. In this work, we concentrate our efforts on the possible prediction of the quality of embryos and oocytes in order to improve the performance of assisted reproduction technology

  4. Effect of stage of follicular growth during superovulation on developmental competence of bovine oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humblot, P; Holm, Peter; Lonergan, P

    2005-01-01

    measured as blastocyst rates (57.6 after in vitro production while no differences were found between oocytes recovered earlier at the first three time points (39.3-41.5. We conclude that oocytes recovered late in the preovulatory period are more developmentally competent than oocytes recovered at the pre...

  5. The signaling pathways by which the Fas/FasL system accelerates oocyte aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang; Lin, Fei-Hu; Zhang, Jie; Lin, Juan; Li, Hong; Li, You-Wei; Tan, Xiu-Wen; Tan, Jing-He

    2016-02-01

    In spite of great efforts, the mechanisms for postovulatory oocyte aging are not fully understood. Although our previous work showed that the FasL/Fas signaling facilitated oocyte aging, the intra-oocyte signaling pathways are unknown. Furthermore, the mechanisms by which oxidative stress facilitates oocyte aging and the causal relationship between Ca2+ rises and caspase-3 activation and between the cell cycle and apoptosis during oocyte aging need detailed investigations. Our aim was to address these issues by studying the intra-oocyte signaling pathways for Fas/FasL to accelerate oocyte aging. The results indicated that sFasL released by cumulus cells activated Fas on the oocyte by increasing reactive oxygen species via activating NADPH oxidase. The activated Fas triggered Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum by activating phospholipase C-γ pathway and cytochrome c pathway. The cytoplasmic Ca2+ rises activated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and caspase-3. While activated CaMKII increased oocyte susceptibility to activation by inactivating maturation-promoting factor (MPF) through cyclin B degradation, the activated caspase-3 facilitated further Ca2+releasing that activates more caspase-3 leading to oocyte fragmentation. Furthermore, caspase-3 activation and fragmentation were prevented in oocytes with a high MPF activity, suggesting that an oocyte must be in interphase to undergo apoptosis.

  6. Effect of stage of follicular growth during superovulation on developmental competence of bovine oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humblot, P; Holm, P; Lonergan, P;

    2005-01-01

    measured as blastocyst rates (57.6 after in vitro production while no differences were found between oocytes recovered earlier at the first three time points (39.3-41.5. We conclude that oocytes recovered late in the preovulatory period are more developmentally competent than oocytes recovered at the pre...

  7. Fertilization and embryo quality of mature oocytes with specific morphological abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Eun Jeong; Ahn, Hyojeong; Lee, Jang Mi; Jee, Byung Chul; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-12-01

    To investigate fertilization and embryo quality of dysmorphic mature oocytes with specific morphological abnormalities obtained from intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The fertilization rate (FR) and embryo quality were compared among 58 dysmorphic and 42 normal form oocytes (control 1) obtained from 35 consecutive ICSI cycles, each of which yielded at least one dysmorphic mature oocyte, performed over a period of 5 years. The FR and embryo quality of 441 normal form oocytes from another 119 ICSI cycles that did not involve dysmorphic oocytes served as control 2. Dysmorphic oocytes were classified as having a dark cytoplasm, cytoplasmic granularity, cytoplasmic vacuoles, refractile bodies in the cytoplasm, smooth endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm, an oval shape, an abnormal zona pellucida, a large perivitelline space, debris in the perivitelline space, or an abnormal polar body (PB). The overall FR was significantly lower in dysmorphic oocytes than in normal form oocytes in both the control 1 and control 2 groups. However, embryo quality in the dysmorphic oocyte group and the normal form oocyte groups at day 3 was similar. The FR and embryo quality were similar in the oocyte groups with a single abnormality and multiple abnormalities. Specific abnormalities related with a higher percentage of top-quality embryos were dark cytoplasm (66.7%), abnormal PB (50%), and cytoplasmic vacuoles (25%). The fertilization potential of dysmorphic oocytes in our study was lower, but their subsequent embryonic development and embryo quality was relatively good. We were able to define several specific abnormalities related with good or poor embryo quality.

  8. Corona cell RNA sequencing from individual oocytes revealed transcripts and pathways linked to euploid oocyte competence and live birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Jason C; Patton, Alyssa L; McCallie, Blair R; Griffin, Darren K; Schoolcraft, William B; Katz-Jaffe, Mandy G

    2016-05-01

    Corona cells surround the oocyte and maintain a close relationship through transzonal processes and gap junctions, and may be used to assess oocyte competence. In this study, the corona cell transcriptome of individual cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) was investigated. Isolated corona cells were collected from COCs that developed into euploid blastocysts and were transferred in a subsequent frozen embryo transfer. Ten corona cell samples underwent RNA-sequencing to generate unique gene expression profiles. Live birth was compared with negative implantation after the transfer of a euploid blastocyst using bioinformatics and statistical analysis. Individual corona cell samples produced a mean of 21.2 million sequence reads, and 307 differentially expressed transcrpits (P corona cell transcriptome was successfully generated using RNA-sequencing. Key genes and signalling pathways were identified in association with implantation outcome after the transfer of a euploid blastocyst in a frozen embryo transfer. These data could provide novel biomarkers for the non-invasive assessment of embryo viability.

  9. Delaying the initiation of progesterone supplementation until the day of fertilization does not compromise cycle outcome in patients receiving donated oocytes: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribá, María-José; Bellver, José; Bosch, Ernesto; Sánchez, María; Pellicer, Antonio; Remohí, José

    2006-07-01

    To determine whether the initiation of P supplementation as artificial luteal phase support (day -1, day 0, or day +1 of egg donation) in extensive programs of ovum donation influences cycle cancellation, pregnancy outcome, and implantation rate in day 3 embryo transfers. Prospective randomized trial. Oocyte donation program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad, Valencia, Spain. Three hundred recipients with normal ovarian function, absence of uterine anomalies, and undergoing their first egg donation were recruited between September 2003 and September 2004. A computer-based randomization divided the recipients into three groups when hCG was administered to their matched donors. The first group (group A) started P supplementation the day before oocyte retrieval; the second group (group B) started P supplementation on the day of the oocyte retrieval; and the third group (group C) started P supplementation 1 day after the egg retrieval once fertilization was confirmed. Implantation, pregnancy, and ongoing pregnancy rates were the primary outcome measures considered. The secondary outcome measure was the cancellation rate, especially due to fertilization failure. Global cancellation rate and cancellation rate due to fertilization failure were significantly higher in group A (12.4% and 8.2%, respectively) than in group C (3.3% and 0%, respectively). Reproductive outcome was similar in all the groups except for a higher biochemical pregnancy rate in group A (12.9%) than in groups B (6.6%) and C (2.3%). Initiation of P on day +1 of embryo development decreases cancellation rates of day 3 embryo transfers in extensive programs of ovum donation without any deleterious effect on pregnancy outcome or implantation rate.

  10. Monitoring Snow Using Geostationary Satellite Retrievals During the SAAWSO Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Robert M.; Gultepe, Ismail; Kuligowski, Robert J.; Heidinger, Andrew K.

    2016-09-01

    The SAAWSO (Satellite Applications for Arctic Weather and SAR (Search And Rescue) Operations) field programs were conducted by Environment Canada near St. Johns, NL and Goose Bay, NL in the winters of 2012-13 and 2013-14, respectively. The goals of these programs were to validate satellite-based nowcasting products, including snow amount, wind intensity, and cloud physical parameters (e.g., cloud cover), over northern latitudes with potential applications to Search And Rescue (SAR) operations. Ground-based in situ sensors and remote sensing platforms were used to measure microphysical properties of precipitation, clouds and fog, radiation, temperature, moisture and wind profiles. Multi-spectral infrared observations obtained from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-13 provided estimates of cloud top temperature and height, phase (water, ice), hydrometer size, extinction, optical depth, and horizontal wind patterns at 15 min intervals. In this work, a technique developed for identifying clouds capable of producing high snowfall rates and incorporating wind information from the satellite observations is described. The cloud top physical properties retrieved from operational satellite observations are validated using measurements obtained from the ground-based in situ and remote sensing platforms collected during two precipitation events: a blizzard heavy snow storm case and a moderate snow event. The retrieved snow precipitation rates are found to be comparable to those of ground-based platform measurements in the heavy snow event.

  11. The egg-sharing model for human therapeutic cloning research: managing donor selection criteria, the proportion of shared oocytes allocated to research, and amount of financial subsidy given to the donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Boon Chin; Tong, Guo Qing; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in human therapeutic cloning made by Hwang and colleagues have opened up new avenues of therapy for various human diseases. However, the major bottleneck of this new technology is the severe shortage of human donor oocytes. Egg-sharing in return for subsidized fertility treatment has been suggested as an ethically justifiable and practical solution to overcome the shortage of donor oocytes for therapeutic cloning. Because the utilization of shared oocytes in therapeutic cloning research does not result in any therapeutic benefit to a second party, this would necessitate a different management strategy compared to their use for the assisted conception of infertile women who are unable to produce any oocytes of their own. It is proposed that the pool of prospective egg-sharers in therapeutic cloning research be limited only to younger women (below 30 years of age) with indications for either male partner sub-fertility or tubal blockage. With regards to the proportion of the shared gametes being allocated to research, a threshold number of retrieved oocytes should be set that if not exceeded, would result in the patient being automatically removed from the egg-sharing scheme. Any excess supernumerary oocyte above this threshold number can be contributed to science, and allocation should be done in a randomized manner. Perhaps, a total of 10 retrieved oocytes from the patient may be considered a suitable threshold, since the chances of conception are unlikely to be impaired. With regards to the amount of subsidy being given to the patient, it is suggested that the proportion of financial subsidy should be equal to the proportion of the patient's oocytes being allocated to research. No doubt, the promise of future therapeutic benefit may be offered to the patient instead of financial subsidy. However, this is ethically controversial because therapeutic cloning has not yet been demonstrated to be a viable model of clinical therapy and any promises made to

  12. The fertilization ability and developmental competence of bovine oocytes grown in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita, Miho; Ueda, Mayuko; Miyano, Takashi

    2016-08-25

    In vitro growth culture systems for oocytes are being developed in several mammalian species. In these growth culture systems, in vitro grown oocytes usually have lower blastocyst formation than in vivo grown oocytes after in vitro fertilization. Furthermore, there have been a few reports that investigated the fertilization ability of in vitro grown oocytes in large animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the fertilization process and developmental competence of bovine oocytes grown in vitro. Oocyte-granulosa cell complexes collected from bovine early antral follicles (0.4-0.7 mm in diameter) were cultured for growth with 17β-estradiol and androstenedione for 14 days and matured in vitro. These oocytes were then inseminated for 6 or 12 h, and further cultured for development up to 8 days in vitro. After growth culture, oocytes grew from 95 µm to around 120 µm and acquired maturation competence (79%). Although fertilization rates of in vitro grown oocytes were low after 6 h of insemination, 34% of in vitro grown oocytes fertilized normally after 12 h of insemination, having two polar bodies and two pronuclei with a sperm tail, and 22% of these oocytes developed into blastocysts after 8 days of culture. The fertilization and blastocyst formation rates were similar to those of in vivo grown oocytes. In addition, blastocyst cell numbers were also similar between in vitro and in vivo grown oocytes. In conclusion, in vitro grown bovine oocytes are similar to in vivo grown oocytes in fertilization ability and can develop into blastocysts.

  13. The Pain and the Gain of Rescuing Historic Science Data: The Nimbus Data Rescue Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaher, D. W.; Campbell, G. G.

    2015-12-01

    While technology of our satellite systems have greatly improved the quality of observations over the past 50 years, it is the legacy of the first global coverage environment satellites, the Nimbus systems launched by NASA in the mid-1960s, that marks the beginning of a unique perspective from space. Such early data can extend our climate record and provide important context in longer-term climate changes. Unfortunately, the Nimbus data nearly disappeared before its value was recognized and attempts to recover the data were undertaken. While the Nimbus data was never truly lost, it was in a form that could not be read and was not organized in a way that could be accessed with modern computer systems. The rescue and recovery of the Nimbus data began in 2007 with an initiative by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Without the Goddard efforts, the early Nimbus data might be forever dark. The Nimbus Rescue Project has just completed processing and archival of the Nimbus 4 visible and infrared observations from 1970 and 1971. This adds to our rescue efforts from Nimbus 1, 2 and 3 for 1964, 1966 and 1969. The procedures to recover the Nimbus data, from both film and tape, could be used by other data rescue projects, however the algorithms presented will tend to be Nimbus specific. The compositing of the mapped minimum brightness over weekly intervals resulted in never before seen views of the Polar Regions, such as a visible light view of the Antarctic ice extent from October 1970 (Figure 1). The Nimbus data recovery and reprocessing into modern formats was important, however it was the utility of the data as a part of the satellite climate record that made it valuable. Data rescue projects are often both difficult and time consuming but the data they bring back to the science community makes these efforts worthwhile.

  14. Leadership lessons from the Chilean mine rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Faaiza; Edmondson, Amy C; Leonard, Herman B

    2013-01-01

    Three years ago, when a cave-in at the San José mine in Chile trapped 33 men under 700,000 metric tons of rock, experts estimated the probability of getting them out alive at less than 1%. Yet, after spending a record 69 days underground, all 33 were hoisted up to safety. The inspiring story of their rescue is a case study in how to lead in situations where the stakes, risk, and uncertainty are incredibly high and time pressure is intense. Today executives often find themselves in similar straits. When they do, many feel torn. Should they be directive, taking charge and commanding action? Or should they be empowering, enabling innovation and experimentation? As the successful example of André Sougarret, the chief of the mine rescue operation, shows, the answer is yes--to both. The choice is a false dichotomy. Implementing this dual approach involves three key tasks. Each has directive and enabling components. The first task is envisioning, which requires instilling both realism and hope. The second task is enrolling, which means setting clear boundaries for who is on and off the team, but inviting in helpful collaborators. The third task is engaging--leading disciplined execution while encouraging innovation and experimentation. The authors of this article describe how Sougarret ably juggled all of these tasks, orchestrating the efforts of hundreds of people from different organizations, areas of expertise, and countries in an extraordinary mission that overcame impossible odds.

  15. Effects of thioglycolic acid on parthenogenetic activation of Xenopus oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoran Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Existing in Permanent-wave solutions (PWS, thioglycolic acid (TGA is widely used in hairdressing industry for its contribution to hair styling. However, the toxicity of TGA, especially its reproductive toxicity, gradually calls the attention of more and more researchers. METHOD: In this work, xenopus oocytes were pretreated with different concentration of TGA, and then activated by calcium ionophore A23187. During culture, the oocytes activation rates were taken note at different time after adding calcium ionophore A23187. At the end of the culture period, the nuclear status was detected under confocal microscope. In addition, some other samples were collected for Western-Blotting analysis. RESULT: TGA significantly inhibited the oocytes activation rate and pronuclear formation. It may be resulted from the inhibition of the degradation of p-ERK1, Mos and CyclinB2. CONCLUSION: TGA inhibits in vitro parthenogenetic activation of xenopus oocytes with inhibited the degradation of proteins involved in mitogenic-activated protein kinase (MAPK and maturation-promoting factor (MPF pathways.

  16. Ecdysteroids and oocyte development in the black fly Simulium vittatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagedorn Henry H

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oocyte development was studied in the autogenous black fly, Simulium vittatum (Diptera, Nematocera, a vector of Onchocerca volvulus, the causative agent of onchocerciasis. Results Oocyte growth was nearly linear between adult eclosion and was complete by 72 hours at 21°C. The oocyte became opaque at 14 hours after eclosion indicating the initiation of protein yolk deposition. The accumulation of vitellogenin was measured using SDS-PAGE. The density of the yolk protein bands at about 200 and 65 kDa increased during the first and second days after eclosion. The amount of protein in the 200 kDa band of vitellogenin, determined using densitometry, rapidly increased between 12 and 25 hours after eclosion. Ecdysteroid levels were measured using a competitive ELISA. Ecdysteroid levels increased rapidly and subsequently declined during the first day after eclosion. Conclusion These data show a correlation between the appearance of vitellogenin in the oocyte, and the rise in ecdysteroids. A possible relationship to molting of the nematode, Onchocerca volvulus, is discussed.

  17. High hydrostatic pressure treatment of porcine oocytes induces parthenogenetic activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Lin; Pribenszky, Csaba; Molnár, Miklós

    2010-01-01

    An innovative technique called high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment has recently been reported to improve the cryosurvival of gametes and embryos in certain mammalian species, including the mouse, pig, and cattle. In the present study the parthenogenetic activation (PA) of pig oocytes caused...

  18. Pharmaceutical Options for Triggering of Final Oocyte Maturation in ART

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Juan Carlos; Humaidan, Peter; Bernabéu, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Since the pioneering days of in vitro fertilization, hCG has been the gold standard to induce final follicular maturation. We herein reviewed different pharmaceutical options for triggering of final oocyte maturation in ART. The new upcoming agent seems to be GnRHa with its potential advantages o...

  19. Intra-follicular interactions affecting mammalian oocyte maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, H.T.A.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear oocyte maturation is defined as reinitiation and progression of the first meiotic division and subsequently formation of the methaphase II (MII) plate. Concomitantly with nuclear maturation, cytoplasmic maturation which is essential for proper fertilization and early embryo development is co

  20. [Progress in proteomics of mammalian oocyte and early embryo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingsheng; Xu, Ping; Shi, Deshun; Li, Xiangping

    2014-07-01

    The development of female germ cell is the cornerstone for animal reproduction. Mammalian oocyte and early embryo have many distinct phenomena and mechanisms during their growth and development, involving series dynamic changes of protein synthesis/degradation and phosphorylation. Research on the regulatory mechanism of oocyte division, maturation, and developmental principle of pre-implantation embryo is an important topic in the field of animal developmental biology. Proteomics using all of proteins expressed by a cell or tissue as research object, systematically identify, quantify and study the function of all these proteins. With the rapid development of protein separation and identification technology, proteomics provide some new methods and the research contents on fields of oogenesis, differentiation, maturation and quality control, such as protein quantification, modification, location and interaction important information which other omics technology can not provide. These information will contribute to uncover the molecular mechanisms of mammalian oocyte maturation and embryonic development. And it is great significant for improving the culture system of oocyte in vitro maturation, the efficiency of embryo production in vitro, somatic cell clone and transgenic animal production.

  1. Successful cryopreservation of buffalo ovaries using in situ oocyte cryopreservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Mohammed Abd-Allah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available To improve the efficiency and efficacy of cryopreservation of ovaries, we developed a new method termed in situ oocyte (ISO cryopreservation. ISO cryopreservation is a multistep procedure that involves aspiration of follicular fluid and then perfusion of antral follicles and diffusion of whole buffalo ovaries with cryoprotectant agent (CPA, rapid cooling, storage, thawing and, finally, dilution and removal of the CPA with return to physiological environment. Our study compared ISO cryo ovaries with cryo-diffused ovaries. We systematically examined the effects of ISO cryo and diffuse cryo on ovaries by morphological examination and with viability tests. The percentages of morphologically normal and viable follicular oocytes from ISO cryo were significantly higher than those that resulted from the cryo-diffused method (p<0.01. The quality of follicular oocytes from ISO cryo ovaries appeared better than that achieved from cryo-diffused ovaries. In conclusion, this study shows that ISO cryo is highly efficient for cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue.

  2. Thermostability of sperm nuclei assessed by microinjection into hamster oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclei isolated from spermatozoa of various species (golden hamster, mouse, human, rooster, and the fish tilapia) were heated at 60 degrees-125 degrees C for 20-120 min and then microinjected into hamster oocytes to determine whether they could decondense and develop into pronucl...

  3. Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria) oocytes' contact plate structure and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adonin, Leonid S; Shaposhnikova, Tatyana G; Podgornaya, Olga

    2012-01-01

    One of the A. aurita medusa main mesoglea polypeptides, mesoglein, has been described previously. Mesoglein belongs to ZP-domain protein family and therefore we focused on A.aurita oogenesis. Antibodies against mesoglein (AB RA47) stain the plate in the place where germinal epithelium contacts oocyte on the paraffin sections. According to its position, we named the structure found the "contact plate". Our main instrument was AB against mesoglein. ZP-domain occupies about half of the whole amino acid sequence of the mesoglein. Immunoblot after SDS-PAGE and AU-PAGE reveals two charged and high M(r) bands among the female gonad germinal epithelium polypeptides. One of the gonads' polypeptides M(r) corresponds to that of mesogleal cells, the other ones' M(r) is higher. The morphological description of contact plate formation is the subject of the current work. Two types of AB RA47 positive granules were observed during progressive oogenesis stages. Granules form the contact plate in mature oocyte. Contact plate of A.aurita oocyte marks its animal pole and resembles Zona Pellucida by the following features: (1) it attracts spermatozoids; (2) the material of the contact plate is synthesized by oocyte and stored in granules; (3) these granules and the contact plate itself contain ZP domain protein(s); (4) contact plate is an extracellular structure made up of fiber bundles similar to those of conventional Zona Pellucida.

  4. Chromatin structure and ATRX function in mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente, Rabindranath; Baumann, Claudia; Viveiros, Maria M

    2012-01-01

    Differentiation of chromatin structure and function during oogenesis is essential to confer the mammalian oocyte with meiotic and developmental potential. Errors in chromosome segregation during female meiosis and subsequent transmission of an abnormal chromosome complement (aneuploidy) to the early conceptus are one of the leading causes of pregnancy loss in women. The chromatin remodeling protein ATRX (α-thalassemia mental retardation X-linked) has recently emerged as a critical factor involved in heterochromatin formation at mammalian centromeres during meiosis. In mammalian oocytes, ATRX binds to centromeric heterochromatin domains where it is required for accurate chromosome segregation. Loss of ATRX function induces abnormal meiotic chromosome morphology, reduces histone H3 phosphorylation, and promotes a high incidence of aneuploidy associated with severely reduced fertility. The presence of centromeric breaks during the transition to the first mitosis in the early embryo indicates that the role of ATRX in chromosome segregation is mediated through an epigenetic mechanism involving the maintenance of chromatin modifications associated with pericentric heterochromatin (PCH) formation and chromosome condensation. This is consistent with the existence of a potential molecular link between centromeric and PCH in the epigenetic control of centromere function and maintenance of chromosome stability in mammalian oocytes. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms of ATRX function during meiosis will have important clinical implications towards uncovering the epigenetic factors contributing to the onset of aneuploidy in the human oocyte.

  5. GGPP-Mediated Protein Geranylgeranylation in Oocyte Is Essential for the Establishment of Oocyte-Granulosa Cell Communication and Primary-Secondary Follicle Transition in Mouse Ovary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Folliculogenesis is a progressive and highly regulated process, which is essential to provide ova for later reproductive life, requires the bidirectional communication between the oocyte and granulosa cells. This physical connection-mediated communication conveys not only the signals from the oocyte to granulosa cells that regulate their proliferation but also metabolites from the granulosa cells to the oocyte for biosynthesis. However, the underlying mechanism of establishing this communication is largely unknown. Here, we report that oocyte geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP, a metabolic intermediate involved in protein geranylgeranylation, is required to establish the oocyte-granulosa cell communication. GGPP and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (Ggpps levels in oocytes increased during early follicular development. The selective depletion of GGPP in mouse oocytes impaired the proliferation of granulosa cells, primary-secondary follicle transition and female fertility. Mechanistically, GGPP depletion inhibited Rho GTPase geranylgeranylation and its GTPase activity, which was responsible for the accumulation of cell junction proteins in the oocyte cytoplasm and the failure to maintain physical connection between oocyte and granulosa cells. GGPP ablation also blocked Rab27a geranylgeranylation, which might account for the impaired secretion of oocyte materials such as Gdf9. Moreover, GGPP administration restored the defects in oocyte-granulosa cell contact, granulosa cell proliferation and primary-secondary follicle transition in Ggpps depletion mice. Our study provides the evidence that GGPP-mediated protein geranylgeranylation contributes to the establishment of oocyte-granulosa cell communication and then regulates the primary-secondary follicle transition, a key phase of folliculogenesis essential for female reproductive function.

  6. Chromosome Cohesion Established by Rec8-Cohesin in Fetal Oocytes Is Maintained without Detectable Turnover in Oocytes Arrested for Months in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Sabrina; Borsos, Máté; Szydlowska, Anna; Godwin, Jonathan; Williams, Suzannah A; Cohen, Paula E; Hirota, Takayuki; Saitou, Mitinori; Tachibana-Konwalski, Kikuë

    2016-03-07

    Sister chromatid cohesion mediated by the cohesin complex is essential for chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis [1]. Rec8-containing cohesin, bound to Smc3/Smc1α or Smc3/Smc1β, maintains bivalent cohesion in mammalian meiosis [2-6]. In females, meiotic DNA replication and recombination occur in fetal oocytes. After birth, oocytes arrest at the prolonged dictyate stage until recruited to grow into mature oocytes that divide at ovulation. How cohesion is maintained in arrested oocytes remains a pivotal question relevant to maternal age-related aneuploidy. Hypothetically, cohesin turnover regenerates cohesion in oocytes. Evidence for post-replicative cohesion establishment mechanism exists, in yeast and invertebrates [7, 8]. In mouse fetal oocytes, cohesin loading factor Nipbl/Scc2 localizes to chromosome axes during recombination [9, 10]. Alternatively, cohesion is maintained without turnover. Consistent with this, cohesion maintenance does not require Smc1β transcription, but unlike Rec8, Smc1β is not required for establishing bivalent cohesion [11, 12]. Rec8 maintains cohesion without turnover during weeks of oocyte growth [3]. Whether the same applies to months or decades of arrest is unknown. Here, we test whether Rec8 activated in arrested mouse oocytes builds cohesion revealed by TEV cleavage and live-cell imaging. Rec8 establishes cohesion when activated during DNA replication in fetal oocytes using tamoxifen-inducible Cre. In contrast, no new cohesion is detected when Rec8 is activated in arrested oocytes by tamoxifen despite cohesin synthesis. We conclude that cohesion established in fetal oocytes is maintained for months without detectable turnover in dictyate-arrested oocytes. This implies that women's fertility depends on the longevity of cohesin proteins that established cohesion in utero.

  7. A Western Blot Protocol for Detection of Proteins Heterologously Expressed in Xenopus laevis Oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Morten Egevang; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2016-01-01

    Oocytes of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, are often used for expression and biochemical characterization of transporter proteins as the oocytes are particularly suitable for uptake assays and electrophysiological recordings. Assessment of the expression level of expressed transporters at the individual oocyte level is often desirable when comparing properties of wild type and mutant transporters. However, a large content of yolk platelets in the oocyte cytoplasm makes this a challenging task. Here we report a method for fast and easy, semiquantitative Western blot analysis of proteins heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

  8. Effect of corpus luteum: quality and recovery rate of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes

    OpenAIRE

    SAHOO, Lakshman; Singla, Suresh K.

    2013-01-01

    Recovery rate and quality of oocytes were investigated from abattoir collected ovaries with and without corpora lutea (CL). The oocytes were categorized into four grades: grade-A, grade-B, grade-C, and grade-D based on the presence of the cumulus cells complex around the oocytes. The number of oocytes per ovary were 1.7 ±0.1 and 1.5 ±0.1, obtained from ovaries without CL and with CL, respectively. Recovery rate of different grades of oocytes from ovaries with CL and without CL were almost ide...

  9. Information, conservation and retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Norberg, E. [National Swedish Archives, Stockholm (Sweden); Torbacke, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History; Jensen, M. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: `Active preservation - otherwise no achieves`; `The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue`; and, `Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories`.

  10. Compressive Shift Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Henrik; Eldar, Yonina C.; Yang, Allen Y.; Sastry, S. Shankar

    2014-08-01

    The classical shift retrieval problem considers two signals in vector form that are related by a shift. The problem is of great importance in many applications and is typically solved by maximizing the cross-correlation between the two signals. Inspired by compressive sensing, in this paper, we seek to estimate the shift directly from compressed signals. We show that under certain conditions, the shift can be recovered using fewer samples and less computation compared to the classical setup. Of particular interest is shift estimation from Fourier coefficients. We show that under rather mild conditions only one Fourier coefficient suffices to recover the true shift.

  11. Changing Information Retrieval Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of smartphones and the accompanying profusion of mobile data services have had a profound effect on individuals' lives. One of the most influential service categories is location-based services (LBS). Based on insights from behavioural decision-making, a conceptual framework is d...... on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....

  12. Music retrieval in ICOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterle, Lutz; Fischer, Stephan; Rimac, Ivica; Steinmetz, Ralf

    1999-08-01

    In this paper we describe music retrieval in ICOR, a project of Darmstadt TU. It is the goal of ICOR to find new interfaces to support applications of music video and music CDs. Although the project consists of audio and video analysis we concentrate on a description of the audio algorithms in this paper. We describe our MPEG-7 like data structure to store meta information for music pieces and explain which algorithms we use to analyze the content of music pieces automatically. We currently use an applause detection to distinguish live music from studio recordings, a genre classifier to distinguish pieces with beats form classical music, and a singer recognition.

  13. Multimedia Information Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Rueger, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    At its very core multimedia information retrieval means the process of searching for and finding multimedia documents; the corresponding research field is concerned with building the best possible multimedia search engines. The intriguing bit here is that the query itself can be a multimedia excerpt: For example, when you walk around in an unknown place and stumble across an interesting landmark, would it not be great if you could just take a picture with your mobile phone and send it to a service that finds a similar picture in a database and tells you more about the building -- and about its

  14. Towards Better Retrievals in Content -Based Image Retrieval System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vaibhava

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available -This paper presents a Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR System called DEICBIR-2. The system retrieves images similar to a given query image by searching in the provided image database.Standard MPEG-7 image descriptors are used to find the relevant images which are similar to thegiven query image. Direct use of the MPEG-7 descriptors for creating the image database and retrieval on the basis of nearest neighbor does not yield accurate retrievals. To further improve the retrieval results, B-splines are used for ensuring smooth and continuous edges of the images in the edge-based descriptors. Relevance feedback is also implemented with user intervention. These additional features improve the retrieval performance of DEICBIR-2 significantly. Computational performance on a set of query images is presented and the performance of the proposed system is much superior to the performance of DEICBIR[9] on the same database and on the same set of query images.

  15. Does oocyte banking for anticipated gamete exhaustion influence future relational and reproductive choices? A follow-up of bankers and non-bankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, D; Maes, E; Polyzos, N P; Verheyen, G; Tournaye, H; Nekkebroeck, J

    2015-02-01

    What is the nature of the relational status, reproductive choices and possible regret of a pioneer cohort of women that either considered or actually performed oocyte banking for anticipated gamete exhaustion (AGE)? Only half of the women who banked oocytes anticipate using them in the future but the experience with oocyte banking is overwhelmingly positive, with the majority of AGE bankers preferring to have it performed at a younger age. Most women who choose to cryopreserve oocytes for the prevention of age-related fertility decline are single and are hoping to buy time in their search for a suitable partner. The question of why some candidates actually embark on such treatment while others eventually prefer not to freeze remains unclear. There are no follow-up data available either on post-freezing changes in relational status, or on attitude towards the undergone treatment and the reproductive outcome. A retrospective cohort study was performed with 140 women who visited the outpatient clinic between 2009 and 2011. All women (mean age 36.7 ± SD 2.62) considered oocyte preservation for age-related infertility. At least 1 year after their initial visit (range 12-45 months), women were contacted by phone to participate in a standardized questionnaire developed to evaluate their actual relational and reproductive situation, their attitude towards banking and future reproductive plan. Eighty-six women (61.4%) completed at least one cryopreservation cycle. The non-bankers included 54 women who either preferred no treatment (n = 51) or attempted stimulation but cancelled because of poor response (n = 3). The response rate among bankers was 75.4% (65/86) while 55.8% (29/52) of the non-bankers were reached for interview. Among bankers, 50.8% of women think they will use the oocytes at some point, while 29.2% indicated that they currently consider the use of frozen oocytes less likely than anticipated at time of oocyte retrieval. However, although 95.4% would decide to

  16. Detection of condensin I and II in maturing pig oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisková, Lucie; Susor, Andrej; Pivonková, Katerina; Sasková, Adéla; Karabínová, Pavla; Kubelka, Michal

    2010-01-01

    The multiprotein complexes known as condensins (I and II) are major players in chromosome dynamics in mitotic and meiotic cells. Here, we report for the first time the detection of different condensin subunits from both complexes in mammalian oocytes. Using immunoblotting analysis we examined expression levels of condensin subunits during meiotic maturation of porcine oocytes. The expression of the core subunit structural maintenance of chromosomes 2 (SMC2), identical in both condensin complexes, did not change significantly during maturation. Similarly, there was no significant change in the expression of the chromosome associated protein (CAP)-H and CAP-H2 subunits, components of condensin I and II, respectively. Conversely, the expression profiles of CAP-G, CAP-D2 (condensin I) and CAP-D3 (condensin II) were more interesting. At least two isoforms of the CAP-D2 subunit were detected, along with three isoforms of the CAP-D3 and CAP-G subunits. We suggest that this diverse migration of subunit isoforms is due to post-translational modification. Earlier, it was reported that non-SMC proteins are phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase 1. In the present study, we analysed the phosphorylation status of the three subunits in oocyte extracts using alkaline phosphatase treatment and we found that at least the fastest migrating form of CAP-D3 was likely to be phosphorylated in maturing porcine oocytes. In addition, the localisation of CAP-H and CAP-H2 subunits was examined using immunofluorescence staining with specific antibodies, as well as following microinjection of their enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged mRNA into germinal vesicle-stage oocytes. CAP-H was found in the cytoplasm, whereas CAP-H2 was localised within the nucleus.

  17. Aurora kinase A controls meiosis I progression in mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saskova, Adela; Solc, Petr; Baran, Vladimir; Kubelka, Michal; Schultz, Richard M; Motlik, Jan

    2008-08-01

    Aurora kinase A (AURKA), which is a centrosome-localized serine/threonine kinase crucial for cell cycle control, is critically involved in centrosome maturation and spindle assembly in somatic cells. Active T288 phosphorylated AURKA localizes to the centrosome in the late G(2) and also spreads to the minus ends of mitotic spindle microtubules. AURKA activates centrosomal CDC25B and recruits cyclin B1 to centrosomes. We report here functions for AURKA in meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes, which is a model system to study the G(2) to M transition. Whereas AURKA is present throughout the entire GV-stage oocyte with a clear accumulation on microtubule organizing centers (MTOC), active AURKA becomes entirely localized to MTOCs shortly before germinal vesicle breakdown. In contrast to somatic cells in which active AURKA is present at the centrosomes and minus ends of microtubules, active AURKA is mainly located on MTOCs at metaphase I (MI) in oocytes. Inhibitor studies using Roscovitine (CDK1 inhibitor), LY-294002 (PI3K inhibitor) and SH-6 (PKB inhibitor) reveal that activation of AURKA localized on MTOCs is independent on PI3K-PKB and CDK1 signaling pathways and MOTC amplification is observed in roscovitine- and SH-6-treated oocytes that fail to undergo nuclear envelope breakdown. Moreover, microinjection of Aurka mRNA into GV-stage oocytes cultured in 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine (IBMX)-containing medium to prevent maturation also results in MOTC amplification in the absence of CDK1 activation. Overexpression of AURKA also leads to formation of an abnormal MI spindle, whereas RNAi-mediated reduction of AURKA interferes with resumption of meiosis and spindle assembly. Results of these experiments indicate that AURKA is a critical MTOC-associated component involved in resumption of meiosis, MTOC multiplication, proper spindle formation and the metaphase I-metaphase II transition.

  18. Epigenetic reprogramming of breast cancer cells with oocyte extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Rajendra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is a disease characterised by both genetic and epigenetic alterations. Epigenetic silencing of tumour suppressor genes is an early event in breast carcinogenesis and reversion of gene silencing by epigenetic reprogramming can provide clues to the mechanisms responsible for tumour initiation and progression. In this study we apply the reprogramming capacity of oocytes to cancer cells in order to study breast oncogenesis. Results We show that breast cancer cells can be directly reprogrammed by amphibian oocyte extracts. The reprogramming effect, after six hours of treatment, in the absence of DNA replication, includes DNA demethylation and removal of repressive histone marks at the promoters of tumour suppressor genes; also, expression of the silenced genes is re-activated in response to treatment. This activity is specific to oocytes as it is not elicited by extracts from ovulated eggs, and is present at very limited levels in extracts from mouse embryonic stem cells. Epigenetic reprogramming in oocyte extracts results in reduction of cancer cell growth under anchorage independent conditions and a reduction in tumour growth in mouse xenografts. Conclusions This study presents a new method to investigate tumour reversion by epigenetic reprogramming. After testing extracts from different sources, we found that axolotl oocyte extracts possess superior reprogramming ability, which reverses epigenetic silencing of tumour suppressor genes and tumorigenicity of breast cancer cells in a mouse xenograft model. Therefore this system can be extremely valuable for dissecting the mechanisms involved in tumour suppressor gene silencing and identifying molecular activities capable of arresting tumour growth. These applications can ultimately shed light on the contribution of epigenetic alterations in breast cancer and advance the development of epigenetic therapies.

  19. Aurora B regulates spindle bipolarity in meiosis in vertebrate oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hua; Ma, Chunqi; Zhang, Xuan; Li, Ruizhen; Miller, Ann L; Bement, William M; Liu, X Johné

    2012-07-15

    Aurora B (Aur-B) plays multiple roles in mitosis, of which the best known are to ensure bi-orientation of sister chromatids by destabilizing incorrectly attached kinetochore microtubules and to participate in cytokinesis. Studies in Xenopus egg extracts, however, have indicated that Aur-B and the chromosome passenger complex play an important role in stabilizing chromosome-associated spindle microtubules. Aur-B stabilizes spindle microtubules in the egg extracts by inhibiting the catastrophe kinesin MCAK. Whether or not Aur-B plays a similar role in intact oocytes remains unknown. Here we have employed a dominant-negative Aur-B mutant (Aur-B122R, in which the ATP-binding lysine(122) is replaced with arginine) to investigate the function of Aur-B in spindle assembly in Xenopus oocytes undergoing meiosis. Overexpression of Aur-B122R results in short bipolar spindles or monopolar spindles, with higher concentrations of Aur-B122R producing mostly the latter. Simultaneous inhibition of MCAK translation in oocytes overexpressing Aur-B122R results in suppression of monopolar phenotype, suggesting that Aur-B regulates spindle bipolarity by inhibiting MCAK. Furthermore, recombinant MCAK-4A protein, which lacks all four Aur-B phosphoryaltion sites and is therefore insensitive to Aur-B inhibition but not wild-type MCAK, recapitulated the monopolar phenotype in the oocytes. These results suggest that in vertebrate oocytes that lack centrosomes, one major function of Aur-B is to stabilize chromosome-associated spindle microtubules to ensure spindle bipolarity.

  20. Cryoprotectants up-regulate expression of mouse oocyte AQP7, which facilitates water diffusion during cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ya-Jing; Xiong, Yun; Ding, Guo-Lian; Zhang, Dan; Meng, Ye; Huang, He-Feng; Sheng, Jian-Zhong

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the effects of cryoprotectants on the expression of AQP7 in oocytes. Experimental animal study. University-based research laboratory. Adult female C57BL/6J mice. In metaphase II (MII) oocytes obtained from adult female C57BL/6J mice and from donations by fertile women, the mouse oocytes were treated with human tubal fluid medium containing 8% ethylene glycol (EG), 9.5% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and 0.5 M sucrose, respectively; 293T cells transfected with GFP-hAQP7 expression vector were treated with the same solutions. AQP7 expression in oocytes examined by reverse-transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence, changes in the volume of mouse oocytes treated with different solutions calculated to determine their permeability to water, and survival rates of vitrified oocytes. AQP7 is expressed in human and mouse oocytes. Cryoprotectants, including EG, DMSO, and sucrose, up-regulated AQP7 expression in mouse oocytes and 293T cells transfected with GFP-hAQP7 expression vector. Compared with other cryoprotectants, DMSO stimulated higher expression of AQP7, and this was associated with faster cell volume recovery and lower survival rates of vitrified oocytes. DMSO up-regulates AQP7 expression in mouse oocytes more than EG. This may facilitate water diffusion and reduce the time for oocytes to reach osmotic balance with the cryoprotectant solution during cryopreservation. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Checkpoint for DNA integrity at the first mitosis after oocyte activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Trimarchi, James R; Smith, Peter J S; Keefe, David L

    2002-06-01

    Activation of oocytes, arrested at the meiosis II (MII) in mammals, initiates meiotic release, mitotic divisions, and development. Unlike most somatic cell types, MII arrested female germ cells lack an efficient DNA integrity checkpoint control. Here we present evidence showing a unique checkpoint for DNA integrity at first mitosis after oocyte activation. Mouse oocytes carrying intact DNA cleaved normally after meiotic release, whereas 50% of oocytes harboring damaged DNA manifested cytofragmentation, a morphological hallmark of apoptosis. If not activated, DNA-damaged MII oocytes did not show apoptotic fragmentation. Further, activated, enucleated oocytes or enucleated fertilized oocytes also underwent cytofragmentation, implicating cytoplasmic coordination of the fragmentation process, independent of the nucleus. Depolymerization of either actin filaments or microtubules induced no cytofragmentation, but inhibited fragmentation upon oocyte activation. During the process of fragmentation, microtubule networks formed, then microtubule asters congregated at discrete locations, around which fragmented cellular bodies formed. Mitotic spindles, however, were not formed inactivated oocytes with damaged or absent DNA; in contrast, normal mitotic spindles were formed in activated oocytes with intact DNA. These results demonstrate that damaged DNA or absence of DNA leads to cytofragmentation after oocyte activation. Further, we found a mechanism of cytoskeletal involvement in the process of cytofragmentation. In addition, possible implication of the present findings in somatic cell cloning and human clinical embryology is discussed.

  2. CD81 and CD9 work independently as extracellular components upon fusion of sperm and oocyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Ohnami

    2012-05-01

    When a sperm and oocyte unite into one cell upon fertilization, membranous fusion between the sperm and oocyte occurs. In mice, Izumo1 and a tetraspanin molecule CD9 are required for sperm-oocyte fusion as one of the oocyte factors, and another tetraspanin molecule CD81 is also thought to involve in this process. Since these two tetraspanins often form a complex upon cell-cell interaction, it is probable that such a complex is also formed in sperm-oocyte interaction; however, this possibility is still under debate among researchers. Here we assessed this problem using mouse oocytes. Immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated that both CD9 and CD81 were widely distributed outside the oocyte cell membrane, but these molecules were separate, forming bilayers, confirmed by immunobiochemical analysis. Electron-microscopic analysis revealed the presence of CD9- or CD81-incorporated extracellular structures in those bilayers. Finally, microinjection of in vitro-synthesized RNA showed that CD9 reversed a fusion defect in CD81-deficient oocytes in addition to CD9-deficient oocytes, but CD81 failed in both oocytes. These results suggest that both CD9 and CD81 independently work upon sperm-oocyte fusion as extracellular components.

  3. Role of animal pole protuberance and microtubules during meiosis in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zhenguo; Chang, Yaqing; Sun, Huiling; Yu, Jiaping

    2010-05-01

    Fully grown oocytes of Apostichopus japonicus have a cytoplasmic protuberance where the oocyte attaches to the follicle. The protuberance and the oolamina located on the opposite side of the oocyte indicate the animal-vegetal axis. Two pre-meiotic centrosomes are anchored to the protuberance by microtubules between centrosomes and protuberance. After meiosis reinitiation induced by DTT solution, the germinal vesicle (GV) migrates towards the protuberance. The GV breaks down after it migrates to the oocyte membrane on the protuberance side. The protuberance then contracts back into the oocyte and the first polar body extrudes from the site of the former protuberance. The second polar body forms beneath the first. Thus the oocyte protuberance indicates the presumptive animal pole well before maturation of the oocyte.

  4. Mitochondria Synthesize Melatonin to Ameliorate Its Function and Improve Mice Oocyte's Quality under in Vitro Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Changjiu; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Yang, Minghui; Li, Yu; Tian, Xiuzhi; Ma, Teng; Tao, Jingli; Zhu, Kuanfeng; Song, Yukun; Ji, Pengyun; Liu, Guoshi

    2016-06-14

    The physiology of oocyte in vitro maturation remains elusive. Generally, the oocytes have a very low maturation rate under in vitro conditions. In the current study, we found that melatonin promotes the maturation of oocytes in which mitochondria play a pivotal role. It was identified that; (1) mitochondria are the major sites for melatonin synthesis in oocytes and they synthesize large amounts of melatonin during their maturation; (2) melatonin improves mitochondrial function by increased mtDNA copy, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and mitochondrial distribution and ATP production in oocytes; (3) the meiotic spindle assembly is enhanced; (4) melatonin reduces ROS production and inhibits 8-oxodG formation, thereby protecting potential DNA mutation from oxidative damage. As a result, melatonin improves the quality of oocytes, significantly accelerates the developmental ability of IVF embryo. The results provide novel knowledge on the physiology of oocyte's maturation, especially under in vitro conditions.

  5. An ideal oocyte activation protocol and embryo culture conditions for somatic cell nuclear transfer using sheep oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hiren; Chougule, Shruti; Chohan, Parul; Shah, Naval; Bhartiya, Deepa

    2014-10-01

    Pluripotent stem cells are possibly the best candidates for regenerative medicine, and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is one of the viable options to make patient-specific embryonic stem cells. Till date efficacy of SCNT embryos is very low and requires further improvement like ideal oocyte activation and in vitro culture system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate ideal oocyte activation using different stimulation protocols and to study the effect of cumulus co-culture conditions on embryo development. Results demonstrate that between electric stimulation and chemical stimulation using calcium ionomycin and ionophore, best oocyte activation was obtained using calcium ionomycin (5 microM for 5 min) which resulted in 83% cleavage followed by 7% of early blastocyst which further increased to 15% when a cumulus bed was also introduced during embryo culture. Sequential modified Charles Rosenkrans 2 (mCR2) medium was used for embryo culture in which glucose levels were increased from 1 mM to 5 mM from Day 3 onwards. SCNT using cumulus cells as donor somatic cell, calcium ionomycin to activate the reconstructed oocyte and embryo culture on a cumulus bed in sequential mCR2 medium, resulted in the development of 6% embryos to early blastocyst stage. Such technological advances will make SCNT a viable option to make patient-specific pluripotent stem cell lines in near future.

  6. Roles of trifluoperazine and verapamil in the oocyte maturation and cumulus expansion of bovine cumulus—oocyte complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunQingyuan; FengHuailiang; 等

    1994-01-01

    Bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes were cultured in the maturation medium containing 4 different concentrations of verapamil and trifluoperazine to testify the necessity of extracellular Ca2+ and Ca2+-calmodulin complex for the resumption and completion of meiosis as well as cumulus expansion.Ultrastructure of the treated oocytes was also observed to investigate the cytoplasm maturation.The results showed that verapamil didn't influence the cumulus expansion,meiosis resumption and completion and cytoplasm maturation significantly.TFP inhibited cumulus expansion in a dose-dependent manner.25um trifluoperazine significantly inhibited the GVBD and maturation (P<0.01),wherease 1um TFP had no effect,Both oocytes and cumulus cells treated with 25um TFP severely degenerated.Our observtions suggest that the resumption and completion of meiosis and cumulus expansion are Ca2+-CaM dependent and blocking membrane Ca2+ channel does not influence oocyte germinal vesicle breakdown,nuclear and cytoplasm maturation significantly in cattle.

  7. Effect of Hyaluronan on Developmental Competence and Quality of Oocytes and Obtained Blastocysts from In Vitro Maturation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Opiela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of hyaluronan (HA during IVM on meiotic maturation, embryonic development, and the quality of oocytes, granulosa cells (GC, and obtained blastocysts. COCs were matured in vitro in control medium and medium with additional 0.035% or 0.07% of exogenous HA. The meiotic maturity did not differ between the analysed groups. The best rate and the highest quality of obtained blastocysts were observed when 0.07% HA was used. A highly significant difference (P<0.001 was noted in the mean number of apoptotic nuclei per blastocyst and in the DCI between the 0.07% HA and the control blastocysts (P<0.01. Our results suggest that addition of 0.035% HA and 0.07% HA to oocyte maturation media does not affect oocyte nuclear maturation and DNA fragmentation. However, the addition of 0.07% HA during IVM decreases the level of blastocysts DNA fragmentation. Finally, our results suggest that it may be risky to increase the HA concentration during IVM above 0.07% as we found significantly higher Bax mRNA expression levels in GC cultured with 0.07% HA. The final concentration of HA being supplemented to oocyte maturation media is critical for the success of the IVP procedure.

  8. Winter hibernation and UCHL1-p34cdc2 association in toad oocyte maturation competence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Kuang

    Full Text Available Currently, it is believed that toad oocyte maturation is dependent on the physiological conditions of winter hibernation. Previous antibody-blocking experiments have demonstrated that toad ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (tUCHL1 is necessary for germinal vesicle breakdown during toad oocyte maturation. In this paper, we first supply evidence that tUCHL1 is highly evolutionarily conserved. Then, we exclude protein availability and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase enzyme activity as factors in the response of oocytes to winter hibernation. In the context of MPF (maturation promoting factor controlling oocyte maturation and to further understand the role of UCHL1 in oocyte maturation, we performed adsorption and co-immunoprecipitation experiments using toad oocyte protein extracts and determined that tUCHL1 is associated with MPF in toad oocytes. Recombinant tUCHL1 absorbed p34(cdc2, a component of MPF, in obviously larger quantities from mature oocytes than from immature oocytes, and p13(suc1 was isolated from tUCHL1 with a dependence on the ATP regeneration system, suggesting that still other functions may be involved in their association that require phosphorylation. In oocytes from hibernation-interrupted toads, the p34(cdc2 protein level was significantly lower than in oocytes from toads in artificial hibernation, providing an explanation for the different quantities isolated by recombinant tUCHL1 pull-down and, more importantly, identifying a mechanism involved in the toad oocyte's dependence on a low environmental temperature during winter hibernation. Therefore, in toads, tUCHL1 binds p34(cdc2 and plays a role in oocyte maturation. However, neither tUCHL1 nor cyclin B1 respond to low temperatures to facilitate oocyte maturation competence during winter hibernation.

  9. EM-21 Retrieval Knowledge Center: Waste Retrieval Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellinger, Andrew P.; Rinker, Michael W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Minichan, Richard L.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Martin, Bruce A.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Saldivar, Eloy; Mullen, O Dennis; Chapman, Noel F.; Wells, Beric E.; Gibbons, Peter W.

    2009-04-10

    EM-21 is the Waste Processing Division of the Office of Engineering and Technology, within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). In August of 2008, EM-21 began an initiative to develop a Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) to provide the DOE, high level waste retrieval operators, and technology developers with centralized and focused location to share knowledge and expertise that will be used to address retrieval challenges across the DOE complex. The RKC is also designed to facilitate information sharing across the DOE Waste Site Complex through workshops, and a searchable database of waste retrieval technology information. The database may be used to research effective technology approaches for specific retrieval tasks and to take advantage of the lessons learned from previous operations. It is also expected to be effective for remaining current with state-of-the-art of retrieval technologies and ongoing development within the DOE Complex. To encourage collaboration of DOE sites with waste retrieval issues, the RKC team is co-led by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Two RKC workshops were held in the Fall of 2008. The purpose of these workshops was to define top level waste retrieval functional areas, exchange lessons learned, and develop a path forward to support a strategic business plan focused on technology needs for retrieval. The primary participants involved in these workshops included retrieval personnel and laboratory staff that are associated with Hanford and Savannah River Sites since the majority of remaining DOE waste tanks are located at these sites. This report summarizes and documents the results of the initial RKC workshops. Technology challenges identified from these workshops and presented here are expected to be a key component to defining future RKC-directed tasks designed to facilitate tank waste retrieval solutions.

  10. Emotional Reactions of Rescue Workers Following a Tornado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCammon, Susan L.; And Others

    Rescue and medical workers may be at risk for negative emotional experience following intervention efforts in disaster situations. To examine this possibility, 120 rescue and hospital personnel responded to a survey of their emotional reactions and coping behaviors 3 months after a devastating tornado. Twenty-eight subjects had been involved in…

  11. Evaluating The RoboCup 2009 Virtual Robot Rescue Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balakirsky, S.; Carpin, S.; Visser, A.

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 RoboCup Competitions took place in Graz Austria in July of 2009. The Virtual Robot Rescue Competition included 11 competitors from 10 different countries. The main objective of this competition is to utilize teams of robots to perform an urban search and rescue (USAR) mission over both indo

  12. Evacuation, escape and rescue west of Shetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, P.; Moran, K.C.

    1998-01-01

    This report has been prepared by WS Atkins Science and Technology on behalf of the Offshore Safety Division of the Health and Safety Executive. It concerns a study into the availability and operability of a range of production platform evacuation and rescue methods which are likely to be used in new field developments in the West of Shetland basin. The research involves an examination of the key factors influencing emergency response arrangements for the West of Shetland sea area. It includes a review of the types of facility envisaged and manning levels, the type of emergency support available to each facility, the availability of helicopters and SAR services. The research also provides comparisons, where appropriate, with both current practice and environmental limitations in the North Sea. (author)

  13. Rescue from replication stress during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkos, Michalis; Naim, Valeria

    2017-04-03

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer and a common feature of human disorders, characterized by growth defects, neurodegeneration, cancer predisposition, and aging. Recent evidence has shown that DNA replication stress is a major driver of genomic instability and tumorigenesis. Cells can undergo mitosis with under-replicated DNA or unresolved DNA structures, and specific pathways are dedicated to resolving these structures during mitosis, suggesting that mitotic rescue from replication stress (MRRS) is a key process influencing genome stability and cellular homeostasis. Deregulation of MRRS following oncogene activation or loss-of-function of caretaker genes may be the cause of chromosomal aberrations that promote cancer initiation and progression. In this review, we discuss the causes and consequences of replication stress, focusing on its persistence in mitosis as well as the mechanisms and factors involved in its resolution, and the potential impact of incomplete replication or aberrant MRRS on tumorigenesis, aging and disease.

  14. Teleautonomous Control on Rescue Robot Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Kuswadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Robot application in disaster area can help responder team to save victims. In order to finish task, robot must have flexible movement mechanism so it can pass through uncluttered area. Passive linkage can be used on robot chassis so it can give robot flexibility. On physical experiments, robot is succeeded to move through gravels and 5 cm obstacle. Rescue robot also has specialized control needs. Robot must able to be controlled remotely. It also must have ability to move autonomously. Teleautonomous control method is combination between those methods. It can be concluded from experiments that on teleoperation mode, operator must get used to see environment through robot’s camera. While on autonomous mode, robot is succeeded to avoid obstacle and search target based on sensor reading and controller program. On teleautonomous mode, robot can change control mode by using bluetooth communication for data transfer, so robot control will be more flexible.

  15. Advanced Topics in Information Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Melucci, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Information retrieval is the science concerned with the effective and efficient retrieval of documents starting from their semantic content. It is employed to fulfill some information need from a large number of digital documents. Given the ever-growing amount of documents available and the heterogeneous data structures used for storage, information retrieval has recently faced and tackled novel applications. In this book, Melucci and Baeza-Yates present a wide-spectrum illustration of recent research results in advanced areas related to information retrieval. Readers will find chapters on e.g

  16. Bibliometric-enhanced Information Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Mayr, Philipp; Larsen, Birger; Schaer, Philipp; Mutschke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Bibliometric techniques are not yet widely used to enhance retrieval processes in digital libraries, although they offer value-added effects for users. In this workshop we will explore how statistical modelling of scholarship, such as Bradfordizing or network analysis of coauthorship network, can improve re-trieval services for specific communities, as well as for large, cross-domain col-lections. This workshop aims to raise awareness of the missing link between in-formation retrieval (IR) and bibliometrics/scientometrics and to create a common ground for the incorporation of bibliometric-enhanced services into retrieval at the digital library interface.

  17. Characterization of the effects of metformin on porcine oocyte meiosis and on AMP-activated protein kinase activation in oocytes and cumulus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau-Goeseels, Sylvie; Magyara, Nora; Collignon, Coralie

    2014-05-01

    The adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activators 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) and metformin (MET) inhibit resumption of meiosis in porcine cumulus-enclosed oocytes. The objective of this study was to characterize the inhibitory effect of MET on porcine oocyte meiosis by: (1) determining the effects of an AMPK inhibitor and of inhibitors of signalling pathways involved in MET-induced AMPK activation in other cell types on MET-mediated meiotic arrest in porcine cumulus-enclosed oocytes; (2) determining whether MET and AICAR treatments lead to increased activation of porcine oocyte and/or cumulus cell AMPK as measured by phosphorylation of its substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase; and (3) determining the effects of inhibition of the AMPK kinase, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK), and Ca2+ chelation on oocyte meiotic maturation and AMPK activation in porcine oocytes and cumulus cells. The AMPK inhibitor compound C (CC; 1 μM) did not reverse the inhibitory effect of AICAR (1 mM) and MET (2 mM) on porcine oocyte meiosis. Additionally, CC had a significant inhibitory effect on its own. eNOS, c-Src and PI-3 kinase pathway inhibitors did not reverse the effect of metformin on porcine oocyte meiosis. The level of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation in oocytes and cumulus cells did not change in response to culture in the presence of MET, AICAR, CC, the CaMKK inhibitor STO-609 or the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM for 3 h, but STO-609 increased the percentage of porcine cumulus-enclosed oocytes (CEO) that remained at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage after 24 h of culture. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect of MET and AICAR on porcine oocyte meiosis was probably not mediated through activation of AMPK.

  18. Mechanisms by which a lack of germinal vesicle (GV) material causes oocyte meiotic defects: a study using oocytes manipulated to replace GV with primary spermatocyte nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Cui, Wei; Li, Qing; Wang, Tian-Yang; Sui, Hong-Shu; Wang, Jun-Zuo; Luo, Ming-Jiu; Tan, Jing-He

    2013-10-01

    Oocytes with germinal vesicles (GVs) replaced with somatic nuclei exhibit meiotic abnormalities. Although this suggests an exclusive role for GV material in meiosis, mechanisms by which a lack of GV material causes meiotic defects are unknown. Knowledge of these mechanisms will help us to understand meiotic control, nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions, and cellular reprogramming. This study showed that although oocytes with prometaphase I chromosomes replaced with primary spermatocyte nuclei (PSN) did not, oocytes with GV replaced with PSN (PSG oocytes) did display meiotic defects. Among the defects, insufficient chromosome condensation with chromosome bridges was associated with spindle abnormalities. Abnormal spindle migration, cortical nonpolarization, and the aberrant spindle caused randomly positioning of cleavage furrows, leading to large first polar bodies (PB1) and unequal allocation of chromosomes and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) between oocyte and PB1. Spindle assembly checkpoint was activated but did not stop the incorrect division. The unequal MAPK allocation resulted in differences in pronuclear formation and PB1 degeneration; oocytes receiving more MAPK were more capable of forming pronuclear rudiments, whereas PB1 receiving more MAPK degenerated sooner than those that received less. Because none of the PSG oocytes or the enucleated GV oocytes injected with sperm heads showed cortical polarization in spite of chromosome localization close to the oolemma and because the PSG oocytes receiving more MAPK could form only pronuclear rudiments and not normal pronuclei, we suggest that the GV material plays essential roles in polarization and pronuclear formation on top of those played by chromosomes or MAPK. In conclusion, using PSG oocytes as models, this study has revealed the primary pathways by which a lack of GV material cause meiotic defects, laying a foundation for future research on the role of GV material in oocyte meiotic control.

  19. Disaster Rescue Simulation based on Complex Adaptive Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Jiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Disaster rescue is one of the key measures of disaster reduction. The rescue process is a complex process with the characteristics of large scale, complicate structure, non-linear. It is hard to describe and analyze them with traditional methods. Based on complex adaptive theory, this paper analyzes the complex adaptation of the rescue process from seven features: aggregation, nonlinearity, mobility, diversity, tagging, internal model and building block. With the support of Repast platform, an agent-based model including rescue agents and victim agents was proposed. Moreover, two simulations with different parameters are employed to examine the feasibility of the model. As a result, the proposed model has been shown that it is efficient in dealing with the disaster rescue simulation and can provide the reference for making decisions.

  20. CICERO, RETRIEVING THE HONORABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Frank

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From Marcus Tullius Cicero’s philosophical writings, the author first draws out a modest network of ideas that informs his understanding of what it means to be a good man (vir bonus. Then, he finds in Cicero the idea of a befitting mutuality among four distinctively human capacities: a faculty for inquiry into and love for truth manifest in words and actions (reason; a disposition for the recognition of and attraction to things of worth beyond selfinterest (the honorable; an acute sense of one own spheres of responsibility along with facility for speaking and acting appropriately within them (appropriate action, and fostering and extending the bonds of mutual personal relations grounded in justice and benevolence (society. Against the background of deep commitments in modernity to hedonism and autonomous individualism, the author proposes a retrieval of the virtue of the honorable as an attractive alternative.

  1. Intelligent Information Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Kurtz, M J; Accomazzi, A; Grant, C; Henneken, E; Murray, S S; Kurtz, Michael J.; Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn; Henneken, Edwin; Murray, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    Since it was first announced at ADASS 2 the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics System Abstract Service (ADS) has played a central role in the information seeking behavior of astronomers. Central to the ability of the ADS to act as a search and discovery tool is its role as metadata agregator. Over the past 13 years the ADS has introduced many new techniques to facilitate information retrieval, broadly defined. We discuss some of these developments; with particular attention to how the ADS might inta754-1.pseract with the virtual observatory, and to the new myADS-arXiv customized open access virtual journal. The ADS is at http://ads.harvard.edu

  2. Expression and localization of aquaporin 1b during oocyte development in the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsubara Hajime

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underling hydration during oocyte maturation, we characterized the structure of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica novel-water selective aquaporin 1 (AQP1b that thought to be involved in oocyte hydration. The aqp1b cDNA encodes a 263 amino acid protein that includes the six potential transmembrane domains and two Asn-Pro-Ala motifs. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed transcription of Japanese eel aqp1b in ovary and testis but not in the other tissues. In situ hybridization studies with the eel aqp1b cRNA probe revealed intense eel aqp1b signal in the oocytes at the perinucleolus stage and the signals became faint during the process of oocyte development. Light microscopic immunocytochemical analysis of ovary revealed that the Japanese eel AQP1b was expressed in the cytoplasm around the yolk globules which were located in the peripheral region of oocytes during the primary yolk globule stage; thereafter, the immunoreactivity was observed throughout the cytoplasm of oocyte as vitellogenesis progressed. The immunoreactivity became localized around the large membrane-limited yolk masses which were formed by the fusion of yolk globules during the oocyte maturation phase. These results together indicate that AQP1b, which is synthesized in the oocyte during the process of oocyte growth, is essential for mediating water uptake into eel oocytes.

  3. Developmental potential of prepubertal mouse oocytes is compromised due mainly to their impaired synthesis of glutathione.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Zhong Jiao

    Full Text Available Although oocytes from prepubertal animals are found less competent than oocytes from adults, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Using the mouse oocyte model, this paper has tested the hypothesis that the developmental potential of prepubertal oocytes is compromised due mainly to their impaired potential for glutathione synthesis. Oocytes from prepubertal and adult mice, primed with or without eCG, were matured in vitro and assessed for glutathione synthesis potential, oxidative stress, Ca(2+ reserves, fertilization and in vitro development potential. In unprimed mice, abilities for glutathione synthesis, activation, male pronuclear formation, blastocyst formation, cortical granule migration and polyspermic block were all compromised significantly in prepubertal compared to adult oocytes. Cysteamine and cystine supplementation to maturation medium significantly promoted oocyte glutathione synthesis and blastocyst development but difference due to maternal age remained. Whereas reactive oxygen species (ROS levels increased, Ca(2+ storage decreased significantly in prepubertal oocytes. Levels of both catalytic and modifier subunits of the γ-glutamylcysteine ligase were significantly lower in prepubertal than in adult oocytes. Maternal eCG priming improved all the parameters and eliminated the age difference. Together, the results have confirmed our hypothesis by showing that prepubertal oocytes have a decreased ability to synthesize glutathione leading to an impaired potential to reduce ROS and to form male pronuclei and blastocysts. The resulting oxidative stress decreases the intracellular Ca(2+ store resulting in impaired activation at fertilization, and damages the microfilament network, which affects cortical granule redistribution leading to polyspermy.

  4. Vitrification of Human Germinal Vesicle Oocytes: before or after In Vitro Maturation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasapi, Evangelia; Asimakopoulos, Byron; Chatzimeletiou, Katerina; Petousis, Stamatios; Panagiotidis, Yannis; Prapas, Nikos; Nikolettos, Nikos

    2017-01-01

    The use of immature oocytes derived from stimulated cycles could be of great importance, particularly for urgent fertility preservation cases. The current study aimed to determine whether in vitro maturation (IVM) was more successful before or after vitrification of these oocytes. This prospective study was performed in a private in vitro fertilization (IVF) center. We collected 318 germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes from 104 stimulated oocyte donation cycles. Oocytes were divided into two groups according to whether vitrification was applied at the GV stage (group 1) or in vitro matured to the metaphase II (MII) stage and then vitrified (group 2). In the control group (group 3), oocytes were in vitro matured without vitrification. In all three groups, we assessed survival rate after warming, maturation rate, and MII-spindle/chromosome configurations. The chi-square test was used to compare rates between the three groups. Statistical significance was defined at Pvitro before (50.0%) or after (41.2%) vitrification. However, a higher incidence of normal spindle/chromosome configurations existed in the in vitro matured oocytes which were not subjected to vitrification (fresh oocytes, 77.9%). In stimulated cycles, vitrification of in vitro matured MII oocytes rather than GV oocytes seems to be more efficient. This approach needs to be verified in nonstimulated fertility preservation cases.

  5. Use of Rat Estrus Serum for in Vitro Maturation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Rafati

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Superovulation produces complications in some patients, so invitro maturation of oocytes is used to decrease or eliminate these complications and improve IVF. Moreover, IVM is used for different aspects of reproductive researches. Slaughterhouse ovaries are the main source of oocytes for IVM and IVF studies. Different media has been introduced and experimented for in vitro maturation of oocytes. Animal's serum at estrus stage contains different hormones and proteins which are essential for oocyte maturation. The aim of this study was to compare three culture media for in vitro maturation (IVM of bovine oocytes; 1(controlTCM-199, 2HCG and follicular fluid (FF and 3 antibiotic. Methods: Rat estrus serum (RSS or fetal bovine serum (FBS was added to control medium. Total of 1789 compact cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs were aspirated from ovaries of slaughtered animals. Oocytes were randomly cultured in mentioned media and incubated in 38.5◦c, 5% CO2 and 95% humidity for 24 hours. The maturation of oocytes was judged according to cumulus cell expansion or randomly orcein stained oocytes and observation of polar bodies. Results: The results showed that maturation rate was significantly higher in second and third group (90.2%, 78.7% as compared to the control group (p<0.001. There was no significant difference between second and third groups (90.2 % vs. 86.6%. Conclusion: RSS is as effective as FBS for IVM of bovine oocytes and can be used as an alternative.

  6. Nuclear replacement of in vitro-matured porcine oocytes by a serial centrifugation and fusion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maedomari, N; Kikuchi, K; Nagai, T; Fahrudin, M; Kaneko, H; Noguchi, J; Nakai, M; Ozawa, M; Somfai, T; Nguyen, L V; Ito, J; Kashiwazaki, N

    2010-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to establish a method for nuclear replacement in metaphase-II (M-II) stage porcine oocytes. Karyoplasts containing M-II chromosomes (K) and cytoplasts without chromosomes (C) were produced from in vitro-matured oocytes by a serial centrifugation method. The oocytes were then reconstructed by fusion of one karyoplast with 1, 2, 3 or 4 cytoplasts (K + 1C, K + 2C, K + 3C and K + 4C, respectively). Reconstructed oocytes, karyoplasts without fusion of any cytoplast (K) and zona-free M-II oocytes (control) were used for experiments. The rates of female pronucleus formation after parthenogenetic activation in all groups of reconstructed oocytes (58.2-77.4%) were not different from those of the K and control groups (58.2% and 66.0%, respectively). In vitro fertilization was carried out to assay the fertilization ability and subsequent embryonic development of the reconstructed oocytes. The cytoplast : karyoplast ratio did not affect the fertilization status (penetration and male pronuclear formation rates) of the oocytes. A significantly high monospermy rate was found in K oocytes (p fusion (Centri-Fusion) is an effective method for producing M-II chromosome transferred oocytes with normal fertilization ability and in vitro development. It is suggested that the number of cytoplasts fused with a karyoplast plays a critical role in embryonic development.

  7. Effects of cryopreservation on meiotic spindles of oocytes and its dynamics after thawing: clinical implications in oocyte freezing--a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S U; Lien, Y R; Chao, K H; Ho, H N; Yang, Y S; Lee, T Y

    2003-04-28

    Embryo freezing has been a successful practice, but oocyte cryopreservation formerly achieved poorer results. This was mainly due to low rates of survival, fertilization, and development. The major dissimilarities for oocytes to embryos are the character of the plasma membrane, the presence of cortical granules, at the metaphase of meiosis II with the spindle system. In addition, the oocytes must be fertilized by sperm at the appropriate time. To improve the survival rate, a refined slow freezing method with increased sucrose concentration would dehydrate oocytes more sufficiently. Vitrification is another approach to prevent ice crystal formation. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection is used to overcome possible zona hardening from the release of cortical granules. The microtubules of meiotic spindles are vulnerable to the thermal changes and would depolymerize. Cryopreserved oocytes exhibited serious disturbances of the microtubules immediately after thawing. Fertilization of oocytes with disorganized spindles could lead to chromosomal aneuploidy, digyny, and arrest of cleavage. After incubation, the microtubules would repolymerize in a time-dependent way. Normal fertilization and development of cryopreserved oocytes improved after appropriate incubation and timing of insemination, compatible with recovery of the spindles. With the improvement of survival, fertilization, and cleavage, oocyte cryopreservation would gain an imperative role.

  8. Rex Rabbit Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer with In Vitro-Matured Oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Wang, Huili; Lu, Jinhua; Miao, Yiliang; Cao, Xinyan; Zhang, Ling; Wu, Xiaoqing; Wu, Fengrui; Ding, Biao; Wang, Rong; Luo, Mingjiu; Li, Wenyong; Tan, Jinghe

    2016-06-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) requires large numbers of matured oocytes. In vitro-matured (IVM) oocytes have been used in SCNT in many animals. We investigated the use of IVM oocytes in Rex rabbit SCNT using Rex rabbit ovaries obtained from a local abattoir. The meiotic ability of oocytes isolated from follicles of different diameters was studied. Rex rabbit SCNT was optimized for denucleation, activation, and donor cell synchronization. Rex rabbit oocytes grew to the largest diameter (110 μm) when the follicle diameter was 1.0 mm. Oocytes isolated from 0.7-mm follicles acquired maturation ability. More than 90% of these oocytes matured after IVC for 18 h. The developmental potential of oocytes isolated from >1-mm follicles was greater than that of oocytes isolated from 0.7- to 1.0-mm follicles. The highest activation rates for IVM Rex rabbit oocytes were seen after treatment with 2.5 μM ionomycin for 5 min followed by 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) and 5 μg/mL cycloheximide (CHX) for 1 h. Ionomycin induced the chromatin of IVM oocytes to protrude from the oocyte surface, promoting denucleation. Fetal fibroblast cells (FFCs) and cumulus cells (CCs) were more suitable for Rex rabbit SCNT than skin fibroblast cells (SFCs) (blastocyst rate was 35.6 ± 2.2% and 38.0 ± 6.0% vs. 19.7 ± 3.1%). The best fusion condition was a 2DC interval for 1 sec, 1.6 kV/cm voltages, and 40 μsec duration in 0.28 M mannitol. In conclusion, the in vitro maturation of Rex rabbit oocytes and SCNT procedures were studied systematically and optimized in this study.

  9. Messenger RNAs in metaphase II oocytes correlate with successful embryo development to the blastocyst stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biase, Fernando Henrique; Everts, Robin Edward; Oliveira, Rosane; Santos-Biase, Weruska Karyna Freitas; Fonseca Merighe, Giovana Krempel; Smith, Lawrence Charles; Martelli, Lúcia; Lewin, Harris; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira

    2014-02-01

    The mRNAs accumulated in oocytes provide support for embryo development until embryo genomic activation. We hypothesized that the maternal mRNA stock present in bovine oocytes is associated with embryo development until the blastocyst stage. To test our hypothesis, we analyzed the transcriptome of the oocyte and correlated the results with the embryo development. Our goal was to identify genes expressed in the oocyte that correlate with its ability to develop to the blastocyst stage. A fraction of oocyte cytoplasm was biopsied using micro-aspiration and stored for further expression analysis. Oocytes were activated chemically, cultured individually and classified according to their capacity to develop in vitro to the blastocyst stage. Microarray analysis was performed on mRNA extracted from the oocyte cytoplasm fractions and correlated with its ability to develop to the blastocyst stage (good quality oocyte) or arrest at the 8-16-cell stage (bad quality oocyte). The expression of 4320 annotated genes was detected in the fractions of cytoplasm that had been collected from oocytes matured in vitro. Gene ontology classification revealed that enriched gene expression of genes was associated with certain biological processes: 'RNA processing', 'translation' and 'mRNA metabolic process'. Genes that are important to the molecular functions of 'RNA binding' and 'translation factor activity, RNA binding' were also enriched in oocytes. We identified 29 genes with differential expression between the two groups of oocytes compared (good versus bad quality). The content of mRNAs expressed in metaphase II oocytes influences the activation of the embryonic genome and enables further develop to the blastocyst stage.

  10. Model of the Search and Rescue operations in Republic of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Svetislav ŠoŁkic; Jovica Curčic; Ljubinko Karapetrovic

    2015-01-01

    The IAMSAR Manual contains practical guidelines for the organisation of maritime and aeronautical SAR, mission coordination, operations of search and rescue units (SRUs) and provision of SAR-related training. RCC (rescue coordination center) - a unit responsible for promoting efficient organization of search and rescue operations within a search and rescue region. Rescue Coordination Centre (RCC) means a designated coordination centre that acts as the national Search and Rescue Region's coord...

  11. Intelligent Information Retrieval: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauch, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the application of artificial intelligence to online information retrieval systems and describes several systems: (1) CANSEARCH, from MEDLINE; (2) Intelligent Interface for Information Retrieval (I3R); (3) Gausch's Query Reformulation; (4) Environmental Pollution Expert (EP-X); (5) PLEXUS (gardening); and (6) SCISOR (corporate…

  12. Text Retrieval on a Microcomputer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Richard; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents description of the Generalized Automatic Text Organization and Retrieval system (GATOR), a database system that indexes and retrieves information from machine-readable texts such as interviews and case histories. Qualitative and quantitative analyses are discussed, and integrating GATOR with standard statistical packages is described.…

  13. Indexing Depth and Retrieval Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, Barbara J.

    1972-01-01

    There are six major studies of the effect of indexing depth on retrieval performance. They differ in purpose, methodology, measures, indexing language, field of study, and data base--nevertheless, all have found depth of indexing to have the same effect upon information retrieval. (13 references) (Author/NH)

  14. A Computerized Reference Retrieval System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harline, N. La Var

    An automated retrieval system for reference works was constructed as a prototype in order to illustrate the capabilities and potentialities of future retrieval systems. More than 170 biographical works were indexed and stored in a computer disk to form a biographical data base, and a computer program was written to match patron queries. Consistent…

  15. Passage Retrieval: A Probabilistic Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melucci, Massimo

    1998-01-01

    Presents a probabilistic technique to retrieve passages from texts having a large size or heterogeneous semantic content. Results of experiments comparing the probabilistic technique to one based on a text segmentation algorithm revealed that the passage size affects passage retrieval performance; text organization and query generality may have an…

  16. Information retrieval in cultural heritage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, M.; Kamps, J.; de Keijzer, V.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the opportunities and challenges of applying modern information retrieval techniques to the cultural heritage domain. Although the field of information retrieval is closely associated with computer science, it originally emerged from library science — also one of the main disc

  17. Contextual Bandits for Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, K.; Whiteson, S.; de Rijke, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we give an overview of and outlook on research at the intersection of information retrieval (IR) and contextual bandit problems. A critical problem in information retrieval is online learning to rank, where a search engine strives to improve the quality of the ranked result lists it

  18. The envelopes of amphibian oocytes: physiological modifications in Bufo arenarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Mercedes

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A characterization of the Amphibian Bufo arenarum oocyte envelope is presented. It was made in different functional conditions of the oocyte: 1 when it has been released into the coelomic cavity during ovulation (surrounded by the coelomic envelope, (CE, 2 after it has passed through the oviduct and is deposed (surrounded by the viteline envelope, (VE, and 3 after oocyte activation (surrounded by the fertilization envelope, (FE. The characterization was made by SDS-PAGE followed by staining for protein and glycoproteins. Labeled lectins were used to identify glycosidic residues both in separated components on nitrocellulose membranes or in intact oocytes and embryos. Proteolytic properties of the content of the cortical granules were also analyzed. After SDS-PAGE of CE and VE, a different protein pattern was observed. This is probably due to the activity of a protease present in the pars recta of the oviduct. Comparison of the SDS-PAGE pattern of VE and FE showed a different mobility for one of the glycoproteins, gp75. VE and FE proved to have different sugar residues in their oligosaccharide chains. Mannose residues are only present in gp120 of the three envelopes. N-acetyl-galactosamine residues are present in all of the components, except for gp69 in the FE. Galactose residues are present mainly in gp120 of FE. Lectin-binding assays indicate the presence of glucosamine, galactose and N-acetyl galactosamine residues and the absence (or non-availability of N-acetyl-glucosamine or fucose residues on the envelopes surface. The cortical granule product (CGP shows proteolytic activity on gp75 of the VE.

  19. Effect of guaianolides in the meiosis reinitiation of amphibian oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Martínez, J; Sánchez-Toranzo, G; Chaín, F; Catalán, C A N; Bühler, M I

    2017-02-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) are a large and structurally diverse group of plant metabolites generally found in the Asteraceae family. STLs exhibit a wide spectrum of biological activities and it is generally accepted that their major mechanism of action is the alkylation of the thiol groups of biological molecules. The guaianolides is one of various groups of STLs. Anti-tumour and anti-migraine effects, an allergenic agent, an inhibitor of smooth muscle cells and of meristematic cell proliferation are only a few of the most commonly reported activities of STLs. In amphibians, fully grown ovarian oocytes are arrested at the beginning of meiosis I. Under stimulus with progesterone, this meiotic arrest is released and meiosis progresses to metaphase II, a process known as oocyte maturation. There are previous records of the inhibitory effect of dehydroleucodin (DhL), a guaianolide lactone, on the progression of meiosis. It has been also shown that DhL and its 11,13-dihydroderivative (2H-DhL; a mixture of epimers at C-11) act as blockers of the resumption of meiosis in fully grown ovarian oocytes from the amphibian Rhinella arenarum (formerly classified as Bufo arenarum). The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of four closely related guaianolides, i.e., DhL, achillin, desacetoxymatricarin and estafietin as possible inhibitors of meiosis in oocytes of amphibians in vitro and discuss some structure-activity relationships. It was found that the inhibitory effect on meiosis resumption is greater when the lactone has two potentially reactive centres, either a α,β-α',β'-diunsaturated cyclopentanone moiety or an epoxide group plus an exo-methylene-γ-lactone function.

  20. Acentrosomal Spindle Assembly & Chromosome Segregation During Oocyte Meiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Dumont, Julien; Desai, Arshad

    2012-01-01

    The ability to reproduce relies in most eukaryotes on specialized cells called gametes. Gametes are formed by the process of meiosis in which, after a single round of replication, two successive cell divisions reduce the ploidy of the genome. Fusion of gametes at fertilization reconstitutes diploidy. In most animal species, chromosome segregation during female meiosis occurs on spindles assembled in the absence of the major microtubule-organizing center, the centrosome. In mammals, oocyte mei...

  1. Multiple requirements of PLK1 during mouse oocyte maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Solc

    Full Text Available Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1 orchestrates multiple events of cell division. Although PLK1 function has been intensively studied in centriole-containing and rapidly cycling somatic cells, much less is known about its function in the meiotic divisions of mammalian oocytes, which arrest for a long period of time in prophase before meiotic resumption and lack centrioles for spindle assembly. Here, using specific small molecule inhibition combined with live mouse oocyte imaging, we comprehensively characterize meiotic PLK1's functions. We show that PLK1 becomes activated at meiotic resumption on microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs and later at kinetochores. PLK1 is required for efficient meiotic resumption by promoting nuclear envelope breakdown. PLK1 is also needed to recruit centrosomal proteins to acentriolar MTOCs to promote normal spindle formation, as well as for stable kinetochore-microtubule attachment. Consequently, PLK1 inhibition leads to metaphase I arrest with misaligned chromosomes activating the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC. Unlike in mitosis, the metaphase I arrest is not bypassed by the inactivation of the SAC. We show that PLK1 is required for the full activation of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C by promoting the degradation of the APC/C inhibitor EMI1 and is therefore essential for entry into anaphase I. Moreover, our data suggest that PLK1 is required for proper chromosome segregation and the maintenance of chromosome condensation during the meiosis I-II transition, independently of the APC/C. Thus, our results define the meiotic roles of PLK1 in oocytes and reveal interesting differential requirements of PLK1 between mitosis and oocyte meiosis in mammals.

  2. Calcium and actin in the saga of awakening oocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santella, Luigia, E-mail: santella@szn.it; Limatola, Nunzia; Chun, Jong T.

    2015-04-24

    The interaction of the spermatozoon with the egg at fertilization remains one of the most fascinating mysteries of life. Much of our scientific knowledge on fertilization comes from studies on sea urchin and starfish, which provide plenty of gametes. Large and transparent, these eggs have served as excellent model systems for studying egg activation and embryo development in seawater, a plain natural medium. Starfish oocytes allow the study of the cortical, cytoplasmic and nuclear changes during the meiotic maturation process, which can also be triggered in vitro by hormonal stimulation. These morphological and biochemical changes ensure successful fertilization of the eggs at the first metaphase. On the other hand, sea urchin eggs are fertilized after the completion of meiosis, and are particularly suitable for the study of sperm–egg interaction, early events of egg activation, and embryonic development, as a large number of mature eggs can be fertilized synchronously. Starfish and sea urchin eggs undergo abrupt changes in the cytoskeleton and ion fluxes in response to the fertilizing spermatozoon. The plasma membrane and cortex of an egg thus represent “excitable media” that quickly respond to the stimulus with the Ca{sup 2+} swings and structural changes. In this article, we review some of the key findings on the rapid dynamic rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton in the oocyte/egg cortex upon hormonal or sperm stimulation and their roles in the modulation of the Ca{sup 2+} signals and in the control of monospermic fertilization. - Highlights: • Besides microtubules, microfilaments may anchor the nucleus to oocyte surface. • The cortical Ca{sup 2+} flash and wave at fertilization mirror electrical membrane change. • Artificial egg activation lacks microvilli extension in the perivitelline space. • Calcium is necessary but not sufficient for cortical granules exocytosis. • Actin cytoskeleton modulates Ca{sup 2+} release at oocyte maturation

  3. Ontology-based Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Styltsvig, Henrik Bulskov

    of concept similarity in query evaluation is discussed. A semantic expansion approach that incorporates concept similarity is introduced and a generalized fuzzy set retrieval model that applies expansion during query evaluation is presented. While not commonly used in present information retrieval systems......In this thesis, we will present methods for introducing ontologies in information retrieval. The main hypothesis is that the inclusion of conceptual knowledge such as ontologies in the information retrieval process can contribute to the solution of major problems currently found in information...... retrieval. This utilization of ontologies has a number of challenges. Our focus is on the use of similarity measures derived from the knowledge about relations between concepts in ontologies, the recognition of semantic information in texts and the mapping of this knowledge into the ontologies in use...

  4. Metadata for Content-Based Image Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Sterca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an image retrieval technique that combines content based image retrieval with pre-computed metadata-based image retrieval. The resulting system will have the advantages of both approaches: the speed/efficiency of metadata-based image retrieval and the accuracy/power of content-based image retrieval.

  5. Sohlh2 affects differentiation of KIT positive oocytes and spermatogonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Shuichi; Miyazaki, Tatsushi; Miyazaki, Satsuki; Yoshimura, Takuji; Yamamoto, Mayu; Tashiro, Fumi; Yamato, Eiji; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi

    2009-01-01

    The differentiation programs of spermatogenesis and oogenesis are largely independent. In the early stages, however, the mechanisms partly overlap. Here we demonstrated that a germ-cell-specific basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor gene, Sohlh2, is required for early spermatogenesis and oogenesis. SOHLH2 was expressed in mouse spermatogonia from the undifferentiated stage through differentiation and in primordial-to-primary oocytes. Sohlh2-null mice, produced by gene targeting, showed both male and female sterility, owing to the disrupted differentiation of mature (KIT(+)) spermatogonia and oocytes. The Sohlh2-null mice also showed the downregulation of genes involved in spermatogenesis and oogenesis, including the Sohlh1 gene, which is essential for these processes. Furthermore, we showed that SOHLH2 and SOHLH1 could form heterodimers. These observations suggested that SOHLH2 might coordinate with SOHLH1 to control spermatogonial and oocyte genes, including Sohlh1, to promote the differentiation of KIT(+) germ cells in vivo. This study lays the foundation for further dissection of the bHLH network that regulates early spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

  6. Parthenogenetic activation of rhesus monkey oocytes and reconstructed embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitalipov, S M; Nusser, K D; Wolf, D P

    2001-07-01

    This study determines the efficiency of sequential calcium treatments (electroporation or ionomycin) combined with protein synthesis (cycloheximide) or phosphorylation inhibitors (6-dimethylaminopurine) or the specific maturation promoting factor (MPF) inhibitor, roscovitine, in inducing artificial activation and development of rhesus macaque parthenotes or nuclear transfer embryos. Exposure of oocytes arrested at metaphase II (MII) to ionomycin followed by 6-dimethylaminopurine or to electroporation followed by cycloheximide and cytochalasin B induced pronuclear formation and development to the blastocyst stage at a rate similar to control embryos produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Parthenotes did not complete meiosis or extrude a second polar body, consistent with their presumed diploid status. In contrast, oocytes treated sequentially with ionomycin and roscovitine extruded the second polar body and formed a pronucleus at a rate higher than that observed in controls. Following reconstruction by nuclear transfer, activation with ionomycin/6-dimethylaminopurine resulted in embryos that contained a single pronucleus and no polar bodies. All nuclear transfer embryos activated with ionomycin/roscovitine contained one large pronucleus. However, a third of these embryos emitted one or two polar bodies, clearly containing chromatin material. In summary, we have identified simple yet effective methods of oocyte or cytoplast activation in the monkey, ionomycin/6-dimethylaminopurine, electroporation/cycloheximide/cytochalasin B, and ionomycin/roscovitine, which are applicable to parthenote or nuclear transfer embryo production.

  7. Targeting oocyte maturation to improve fertility in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X Johné

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive aging is an increasingly pressing problem facing women in modern society, due to delay in child bearing. According to Statistics Canada, 52% of all Canadian births in 2011 were by women aged 30 years and older, up from 24% in 1981 ( http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/91-209-x/2013001/article/11784-eng.htm ). Women older than 35 years of age experience significantly increased risks of infertility, miscarriage and congenital birth defects, mostly due to poor quality of the eggs. Increasingly sophisticated, and often invasive, assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) have helped millions of women to achieve reproductive success. However, by and large, ARTs do not address the fundamental issue of reproductive aging in women: age-related decline in egg quality. More importantly, ARTs are not, and will never be, the main solution for the general population. Here, I attempt to review the scientific literature on age-related egg quality decline, based mostly on studies in mice and in humans. Emphasis is given to the brief period of time called oocyte maturation, which occurs just prior to ovulation. The rationale for this emphasis is that oocyte maturation represents a critical window where unfavorable ovarian conditions in older females contribute significantly to the decline of egg quality, and that science-based intervention during oocyte maturation represents the best chance of improving egg quality in older women. Finally, I summarize our own work in recent years on peri-ovulatory putrescine supplementation as a possible remedy for reproductive aging.

  8. Diploid oocyte formation and tetraploid embryo development induced by cytochalasin B in bovine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Chunling; Liu, Hui; Liu, Ying; Wu, Xia; Cheng, Lei; Bou, Shorgan; Li, Guang-Peng

    2011-02-01

    Tetraploid embryos are a useful model for postimplantation development of polyploidy cells, and tetraploid cells are an advantage in studies for chimeras yielding offspring completely derived from embryo stem cells or induced pluripotent cells. This study was designed to investigate the effects of cytochalasin B (CB) on bovine oocyte meiosis, and to induce the formation of diploid oocytes and tetraploid embryos. The results showed that: (1) incubation of oocytes in CB at ≥2.0 μg/mL concentrations for 24 h significantly decreased oocyte maturation and the matured oocytes' haploid composition. Over 50% of the CB-treated oocytes did not expel PB1 (non-PB1), and most of the non-PB1 oocytes contained 2n (60) chromosomes. (2) Pretreatment of oocytes with CB at concentrations of 7.5 and 15 μg/mL for 10 h significantly decreased oocyte maturation. Posttreatment of oocytes with CB resulted in most of the oocytes containing 2n chromosomes. (3) The parthenogenetic blastocysts (25-28%) derived from the non-PB1 oocytes of posttreatment group was significantly higher than that from pretreatment, whole period treatment, and the control oocytes (12-16%). (4) Cytogenetic analysis of the embryos derived from CB-treated non-PB1 oocytes resulted in 74% of the one-cell stage embryos being 4n = 120 chromosomes, 82% of two-cell stage embryos contained 4n chromosomes in each blastomere, and 75% of the blastocysts were tetraploidy (4n = 120). (6) The stopped uncleaved one-cell embryos showed an amazing phenomenon of over 15% of them containing extra chromosomes, which suggested multiple DNA duplication occurred within 40 h after activation. In conclusion, CB inhibits PB1 extrusion, disfigures spindle structure, decreases oocyte maturation, and results in formation of diploid (2n or 4c) oocytes. The diploid oocytes resulted in a higher development of tetraploid embryos, which would be a unique approach for the production of tetraploid embryos in bovine.

  9. Integrating data rescue into the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Ciara; Ciaran, Broderick; Mary, Curley; Conor, Daly; Catriona, Duffy; Thorne, Peter; Treanor, Mairead; Walsh, Seamus; Murphy, Conor

    2017-04-01

    The availability of long-term observational data at fine time scales (e.g. daily or sub-daily) is paramount to examining changes in the magnitude, duration, intensity, and frequency of extreme events and to assess whether or not the likelihood of recent events has changed throughout the historical record. The capacity to extend current observational data holdings is, however, largely dependent on the resources available to carry out the digitisation and transcription process. This paper presents an ambitious research led teaching experiment in which undergraduate students engaged in a substantial data rescue effort to transcribe over 1 million daily rainfall values and associated metadata across Ireland for the period 1860-1939. The aim of the project was first, to motivate students by engaging them in a practical exercise whereby their contribution has considerable value to research, second, to expose students to the basic processes involved in climate data rescue, and third, to examine the potential for students to produce accurate and reliable observational data. Students were provided with digital images of annual rainfall sheets recovered from the national archives together with templates used by Met Éireann in transcribing the data. Using video and text supports, together with an online discussion forum for additional support, students double keyed more than 1400 station years of rainfall data. The assessment process was linked to creating a correct data series whereby differences in double keyed sheets were identified and a master (correct) series created by teaching staff. Three hundred station years of data previously transcribed by Met Éireann was used as a benchmark against which students showed that they were as accurate as the professionals in the process. The success of the students makes a major contribution to understanding the historic climate variability of Ireland, a sentinel location on the western margins of Europe. Given the large volumes of

  10. Physical capacity of rescue personnel in the mining industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunt Andrew P

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mining industry has one of the highest occupational rates of serious injury and fatality. Mine staff involved with rescue operations are often required to respond to physically challenging situations. This paper describes the physical attributes of mining rescue personnel. Methods 91 rescue personnel (34 ± 8.6 yrs, 1.79 ± 0.07 m, 90 ± 15.0 kg participating in the Queensland Mines Rescue Challenge completed a series of health-related and rescue-related fitness tasks. Health-related tasks comprised measurements of aerobic capacity (VO2max, abdominal endurance, abdominal strength, flexibility, lower back strength, leg strength, elbow flexion strength, shoulder strength, lower back endurance, and leg endurance. Rescue-related tasks comprised an incremental carry (IC, coal shovel (CS, and a hose drag (HD, completed in this order. Results Cardiovascular (VO2max and muscular endurance was average or below average compared with the general population. Isometric strength did not decline with age. The rescue-related tasks were all extremely demanding with heart rate responses averaging greater than 88% of age predicted maximal heart rates. Heart rate recovery responses were more discriminating than heart rates recorded during the tasks, indicating the hose drag as the most physically demanding of the tasks. Conclusion Relying on actual rescues or mining related work to provide adequate training is generally insufficient to maintain, let alone increase, physical fitness. It is therefore recommended that standards of required physical fitness be developed and mines rescue personnel undergo regularly training (and assessment in order to maintain these standards.

  11. EFFECT OF CYSTEAMINE ON THE RATE OF IN VITRO MATURATION OF OOCYTES IN TWO MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohammadi-Rousheh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Rate of in vitro maturation of oocytes is one of the challenges of assisted reproductive techniques. In this study we investigated the effects of supplementation of cysteamine on the rate of in vitro maturation of oocytes in two different media. Germinal vesicle oocytes were collected from mouse ovary and cultured in two media (TCM199 and MEME with 0, 50, 100, 200, 500 µM/ml cysteamine. Number of germinal vesicle breakdowns and metaphase II oocytes were recorded. The results showed that the rate of in vitro maturation in 100 µM/ml cysteamine was significantly higher compared to control (P < 0.05. Evaluation of two media in this study showed that TCM199 improved the rate of in vitro maturation and oocyte maturation better than MEME; however, this difference was not statistically significant. These findings indicate that TCM199 as compared to MEME was better in rate of in vitro maturation of oocytes.

  12. Effect of the meiotic inhibitor cilostamide on resumption of meiosis and cytoskeletal distribution in buffalo oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Yang; Lou, Juan; Yang, Xiao-Gan; Lu, Yang-Qing; Lu, Sheng-Sheng; Lu, Ke-Huan

    2016-11-01

    Improving the quality of in vitro maturated buffalo oocytes is essential for embryo production. We report here the effects on microtubules and microfilaments in oocytes and embryo development that result from treating buffalo oocytes with the phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) inhibitor cilostamide. Addition of 20μM or 50μM cilostamide for 24h during in vitro maturation showed no differences in the percentage of oocytes arrested at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage. When 20μM cilostamide was added to the pre-maturation culture for 6h, 12h or 24h and continued for another 24h without cilostamide, oocytes resumed meiosis, but with significantly lower (P0.05). In summary, cilostamide reversibly arrested the resumption of meiosis without any adverse impact on the dynamic changes in microtubules and microfilaments in buffalo oocytes and their in vitro developmental capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dual-function vector for protein expression in both mammalian cells and Xenopus laevis oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Thomas; Grunnet, M; Angelo, K;

    2002-01-01

    will often engage both oocytes and mammalian cells. Efficient expression of a protein in both systems have thus far only been possible by subcloning the cDNA into two different vectors because several different molecular requirements should be fulfilled to obtain a high protein level in both mammalian cells...... and oocytes. To address this problem, we have constructed a plasmid vector, pXOOM, that can function as a template for expression in both oocytes and mammalian cells. By including all the necessary RNA stability elements for oocyte expression in a standard mammalian expression vector, we have obtained a dual......-function vector capable of supporting protein production in both Xenopus oocytes and CHO-K1 cells at an expression level equivalent to the levels obtained with vectors optimized for either oocyte or mammalian expression. Our functional studies have been performed with hERGI, KCNQ4, and Kv1.3 potassium channels....

  14. Biotin-deficient diet induces chromosome misalignment and spindle defects in mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Ai; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Increased abnormal oocytes due to meiotic chromosome misalignment and spindle defects lead to elevated rates of infertility, miscarriage, and trisomic conceptions. Here, we investigated the effect of biotin deficiency on oocyte quality. Three-week-old female ICR mice were fed a biotin-deficient or control diet (0, 0.004 g biotin/kg diet) for 21 days. On day 22, these mouse oocytes were analyzed by immunofluorescence. Due to biotin, undernutrition increased the frequency of abnormal oocytes (the biotin deficient vs. control: 40 vs. 16%). Next, the remaining mice in the biotin-deficient group were fed a control or biotin-deficient diet from day 22 to 42. Although biotin nutritional status in the recovery group was restored, the frequency of abnormal oocytes in the recovery group was still higher than that in the control group (48 vs. 18%). Our results indicate that steady, sufficient biotin intake is required for the production of high-quality oocytes in mice.

  15. The ultrastructural aspects of vitellogenesis or oocyte secondary growth in Serrasalmus spilopleura (Teleostei, Characiformes, Serrasalminae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, A C D; Quagio-Grassiotto, I

    2002-04-01

    Oocyte secondary growth in S. spiloleura corresponds to the period in which different vesicular structures are formed, including the cortical alveoli and the yolk granules. The oocytes with cortical alveolus formation show vesicular structures with filamentous content in the cortical cytoplasmic region, which are the cortical alveolus precursors. In these oocytes, electron-dense vesicles of heterogenous content are dispersed in the inner cytoplasmic region and their nuclei are irregular, showing many nucleoli of different sizes. The oocytes in vitellogenesis are filled with many vesicles. The cortical alveolus precursors are in the peripheral region, and electron-dense granules are seen near to the nucleus. These fuse and form yolk granules. The oocytes in vitellogenesis show a very irregular nucleus that has nucleoli of different sizes. In the oocytes in final vitellogenesis, the yolk granules are scattered throughout the cytoplasm, displacing the cortical alveoli toward cell periphery. The nucleus is similar to the other stages.

  16. Observations Regardin Oocyte in Vitro Maturation after Recovery from Slaughter House Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu Carabă

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The oocytes viability must be taken as an important selection parameter for successful in vitro cultivation. The ovaries were collected from the slaughterhouse and maintained at 4°C for 7 days. Fallowing cumulus -oocytes complexes recovery the viability was tested using two staining methods. For the first experiment we used 27 cumulus - oocytes complexes, stained with Neutral red and for the second experiment we used 11 cumulus - oocytes complexes stained with Trypan blue. Fallowing staining with Neutral red 23 cumulus - oocytes complexes were assessed as viable (were stained in red – enzymatic activity within the cells and for the Trypan blue staining 11 cumulus - oocytes complexes were assessed as viable (remained unstained – integers cellular membranes.

  17. Revisiting oocyte–somatic cell interactions: in search of novel intrafollicular predictors and regulators of oocyte developmental competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinglei; McKenzie, Laurie J.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2008-01-01

    Prediction and improvement of oocyte competence are two critical issues in assisted reproductive technology to improve infertility therapy. The lack of reliable and objective predictors of oocyte developmental competence for oocyte/embryo selection during in vitro fertilization hampers the effectiveness of this technology. Likewise, the low pregnancy rate resulting from in vitro maturation of human oocytes represents a major obstacle for its clinical application. Oocyte competence is progressively acquired during follicular development, and the oocyte plays a dominant role in regulating granulosa cell functions and maintaining the microenvironment appropriate for the development of its competence. Hence, granulosa cell functions are reflective of oocyte competence, and molecular markers of granulosa cells are potentially reliable predictors of oocyte quality. With the advent of the functional genomics era, the transcriptome of granulosa cells has been extensively characterized. Experimental data supporting granulosa cell markers as predictors of oocyte competence are now emerging in both animal models and humans. Future efforts should focus on integrating granulosa cell genetic markers as parameters for oocyte/embryo selection. Moreover, novel in vitro evidence highlights the effectiveness of exogenous oocyte-secreted factors in promoting oocyte developmental competence in animal models. The challenge in evaluating the effect of oocyte-secreted factors on oocyte quality in a clinical setting is to standardize the various preparations of these recombinant proteins and decipher their complex interactions/cooperativity within the germline-somatic cell regulatory loop. PMID:18996952

  18. Medical rescue of naval combat:challenge and future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Jin; Li-Jun Hou; Xiao-Bing Fu

    2015-01-01

    There has been no large-scale naval combat in the last 30 years. With the rapid development of battleships, weapons manufacturing and electronic technology, naval combat will present some new characteristics. Additionally, naval combat is facing unprecedented challenges. In this paper, we discuss the topic of medical rescue at sea: what chal-lenges we face and what we could do. The contents discussed in this paper contain battlefield self-aid buddy care, clinical skills, organized health services, medical training and future medical research programs. We also discuss the characteristics of modern naval combat, medical rescue challenges, medical treatment highlights and future develop-ments of medical rescue at sea.

  19. Genetic rescue: a safe or risky bet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Donald M

    2015-06-01

    Small and isolated populations face threats from genetic drift and inbreeding. To rescue populations from these threats, conservation biologists can augment gene flow into small populations to increase variation and reduce inbreeding depression. Spectacular success stories include greater prairie chickens in Illinois (Westermeier et al. ), adders in Sweden (Madsen et al. ) and panthers in Florida (Johnson et al. ). However, we also know that performing such crosses risks introducing genes that may be poorly adapted to local conditions or genetic backgrounds. A classic example of such 'outbreeding depression' occurred when different subspecies of ibex from Turkey and the Sinai were introduced to assist recovery of an ibex population in Czechoslovakia (Templeton ). Despite being fertile, the hybrids birthed calves too early, causing the whole population to disappear. In the face of uncertainty, conservation biologists have tended to respect genetic identity, shying away from routinely crossing populations. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Frankham () compiles empirical data from experimental studies to assess the costs and benefits of between-population crosses (Fig. ). Crosses screened to exclude those involving highly divergent populations or distinct habitats show large heterosis with few apparent risks of outbreeding depression. This leads Frankham to advocate for using assisted gene flow more widely. But do the studies analysed in this meta-analysis adequately test for latent outcrossing depression?

  20. Computer Security: DNS to the rescue!

    CERN Document Server

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2016-01-01

    Why you should be grateful to the Domain Name System at CERN.   Incidents involving so-called “drive-by” infections and “ransomware” are on the rise. Whilst an up-to-date and fully patched operating system is essential; whilst running anti-virus software with current virus signature files is a must; whilst “stop --- think --- don’t click” surely helps, we can still go one step further in better protecting your computers: DNS to the rescue. The DNS, short for Domain Name System, translates the web address you want to visit (like “http://cern.ch”) to a machine-readable format (the IP address, here: “188.184.9.234”). For years, we have automatically monitored the DNS translation requests made by your favourite web browser (actually by your operating system, but that doesn’t matter here), and we have automatically informed you if your computer tried to access a website known to hos...

  1. p27(Kip1) negatively regulates the activation of murine primordial oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirashima, Yumiko; Moniruzzaman, Mohammad; Miyano, Takashi

    2011-04-01

    In mice, small oocytes (primordial oocytes) are enclosed within flattened granulosa cells to form primordial follicles around birth. A small number of primordial oocytes enter the growth phase, whereas others are quiescent. The mechanism regulating this selection of primordial oocytes is not well understood. The objective of the present study was to understand the role of p27(Kip1), which regulates cell cycle progression in somatic cells, in the growth initiation of primordial oocytes in neonatal mice. We studied the localization of p27(Kip1) in 0-, 3-, 5-, 7- and 21-day-old mouse ovaries by immunohistochemistry. Ovaries from 3-day-old mice were treated with p27(Kip1) siRNAs (small interfering RNAs), and knockdown of p27(Kip1) was determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Ovaries treated with siRNAs were organ-cultured for 6 days, and oocyte growth was estimated histologically. Expression of p27(Kip1) was undetectable in the primordial oocytes of newborn mice. In the 3-day-old ovaries (n=3), p27(Kip1) was demonstrated in the nucleus of 36 ± 6% primordial oocytes. The percentage of p27(Kip1)-positive primordial oocytes increased to 72 ± 8 (n=3), 85 ± 7 (n=3) and 93 ± 5 (n=3) in the 5-, 7- and 21-day-old mouse ovaries, respectively. After knockdown of the p27(Kip1) protein by siRNAs, a higher proportion of oocytes entered the growth phase in cultured ovaries than those in the control. These results suggest that p27(Kip1) negatively regulates primordial oocyte growth and that knockdown of p27(Kip1) leads primordial oocytes to enter the growth phase in vitro.

  2. Proteomics-based systems biology modeling of bovine germinal vesicle stage oocyte and cumulus cell interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divyaswetha Peddinti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oocytes are the female gametes which establish the program of life after fertilization. Interactions between oocyte and the surrounding cumulus cells at germinal vesicle (GV stage are considered essential for proper maturation or 'programming' of oocytes, which is crucial for normal fertilization and embryonic development. However, despite its importance, little is known about the molecular events and pathways involved in this bidirectional communication. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used differential detergent fractionation multidimensional protein identification technology (DDF-Mud PIT on bovine GV oocyte and cumulus cells and identified 811 and 1247 proteins in GV oocyte and cumulus cells, respectively; 371 proteins were significantly differentially expressed between each cell type. Systems biology modeling, which included Gene Ontology (GO and canonical genetic pathway analysis, showed that cumulus cells have higher expression of proteins involved in cell communication, generation of precursor metabolites and energy, as well as transport than GV oocytes. Our data also suggests a hypothesis that oocytes may depend on the presence of cumulus cells to generate specific cellular signals to coordinate their growth and maturation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Systems biology modeling of bovine oocytes and cumulus cells in the context of GO and protein interaction networks identified the signaling pathways associated with the proteins involved in cell-to-cell signaling biological process that may have implications in oocyte competence and maturation. This first comprehensive systems biology modeling of bovine oocytes and cumulus cell proteomes not only provides a foundation for signaling and cell physiology at the GV stage of oocyte development, but are also valuable for comparative studies of other stages of oocyte development at the molecular level.

  3. Grading of Mammalian Cumulus Oocyte Complexes using Machine Learning for in Vitro Embryo Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Sudarshan, Viswanath P; Weiser, Tobias; Chintala, Phalgun; Mandal, Subhamoy; Dutta, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    Visual observation of Cumulus Oocyte Complexes provides only limited information about its functional competence, whereas the molecular evaluations methods are cumbersome or costly. Image analysis of mammalian oocytes can provide attractive alternative to address this challenge. However, it is complex, given the huge number of oocytes under inspection and the subjective nature of the features inspected for identification. Supervised machine learning methods like random forest with annotations...

  4. Vitrification affects nuclear maturation and gene expression of immature human oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Shahedi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitrification of oocytes is a fast-freezing technique, which may affect the quality of the human oocyte, and consequently affects the embryo development, pregnancy and birth. The aim of the current study was to investigate the consequence of in-vitro vitrification on maturation status of immature human oocytes, additionally, expression levels of stress, and apoptosis related genes. Materials and Methods: The total of 213 human immature oocytes which routinely discarded from assisted reproduction clinics were collected and divided into two groups including: (I fresh germinal vesicle (GV oocytes (n=106 (matured in-vitro  (fIVM , and  (II GV oocytes (n=107 that initially vitrified, then matured in  in-vitro (vIVM. After 36 hours of incubation, the oocytes were evaluated for nuclear maturation and expression level of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1, stress related genes (Sod1 and Hsp70, and apoptotic related genes (Bax and Bcl-2 by quantitative Real-Time PCR. Results: Oocyte maturation rates were reduced in vIVM compared to fIVM oocytes (P=0.001. The expression of stress (Sod1 and Hsp70, and apoptotic-related genes (Bax and Bcl-2 in vIVM were significantly higher compared to the fIVM group. Additionally, pro-apoptotic gene up-regulated 4.3 times more than anti-apoptotic gene in vIVM oocyte. However, DNMT1 gene expression was reduced in vIVM oocyte (P = 0.047. Conclusions: The low survival rate of vitrified In-vitro matured GV oocytes could definitely be explained by the alterations of their gene expression profile. 

  5. Vitrification of human germinal vesicle oocytes; before or after in vitro maturation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Kasapi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The use of immature oocytes derived from stimulated cycles could be of great importance, particularly for urgent fertility preservation cases. The current study aimed to determine whether in vitro maturation (IVM was more successful before or after vitrification of these oocytes. Materials and Methods This prospective study was performed in a private in vitro fertilization (IVF center. We collected 318 germinal vesicle (GV oocytes from 104 stimulated oocyte donation cycles. Oocytes were divided into two groups according to whether vitrification was applied at the GV stage (group 1 or in vitro matured to the metaphase II (MII stage and then vitrified (group 2. In the control group (group 3, oocytes were in vitro matured without vitrification. In all three groups, we assessed survival rate after warming, maturation rate, and MII-spindle/chromosome configurations. The chi-square test was used to compare rates between the three groups. Statistical significance was defined at P<0.05 and we used Bonferroni criterion to assess statistical significance regarding the various pairs of groups. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17.0 was used to perform statistical analysis. Results There was no significant difference in the survival rate after vitrification and warming of GV (93.5% and MII oocytes (90.8%. A significantly higher maturation rate occurred when IVM was performed before vitrification (82.9% compared to after vitrification (51%. There was no significant difference in the incidence of normal spindle/ chromosome configurations among warmed oocytes matured in vitro before (50.0% or after (41.2% vitrification. However, a higher incidence of normal spindle/chromosome configurations existed in the in vitro matured oocytes which were not subjected to vitrification (fresh oocytes, 77.9%. Conclusion In stimulated cycles, vitrification of in vitro matured MII oocytes rather than GV oocytes seems to be more efficient. This

  6. VHA-19 is essential in Caenorhabditis elegans oocytes for embryogenesis and is involved in trafficking in oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Alison J; Johnson, Nicholas M; Behm, Carolyn A

    2012-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop new drugs against parasitic nematodes, which are a significant burden on human health and agriculture. Information about the function of essential nematode-specific genes provides insight to key nematode-specific processes that could be targeted with drugs. We have characterized the function of a novel, nematode-specific Caenorhabditis elegans protein, VHA-19, and show that VHA-19 is essential in the germline and, specifically, the oocytes, for the completion of embryogenesis. VHA-19 is also involved in trafficking the oocyte receptor RME-2 to the oocyte plasma membrane and is essential for osmoregulation in the embryo, probably because VHA-19 is required for proper eggshell formation via exocytosis of cortical granules or other essential components of the eggshell. VHA-19 may also have a role in cytokinesis, either directly or as an indirect effect of its role in osmoregulation. Critically, VHA-19 is expressed in the excretory cell in both larvae and adults, suggesting that it may have a role in osmoregulation in C. elegans more generally, probably in trafficking or secretion pathways. This is the first time a role for VHA-19 has been described.

  7. Melatonin delivery by nanocapsules during in vitro bovine oocyte maturation decreased the reactive oxygen species of oocytes and embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remião, Mariana Härter; Lucas, Caroline Gomes; Domingues, William Borges; Silveira, Tony; Barther, Nathaniele Nebel; Komninou, Eliza Rossi; Basso, Andrea Cristina; Jornada, Denise Soledade; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Junior, Antonio Sérgio Varela; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling; Campos, Vinicius Farias; Guterres, Silvia Stanisçuaski; Collares, Tiago

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a promising approach to increase the advantageous properties of melatonin through its encapsulation into lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC) was examined. Oocytes were treated during in vitro maturation with non-encapsulated melatonin (Mel), melatonin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (Mel-LNC), and unloaded LNC. Cytotoxicity, meiotic maturation rate, development to the blastocyst stage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione levels, mean cell number and apoptotic cell/blastocyst, and mRNA quantification were evaluated. Both Mel and Mel-LNC enhanced in vitro embryo production, however, Mel-LNC proved to be more effective at decreasing ROS levels and the apoptotic cell number/blastocyst, increasing the cleavage and blastocyst rates, up-regulating the GPX1 and SOD2 genes, and down-regulating the CASP3 and BAX genes. Mel-LNC could penetrate into oocytes and remain inside the cells until they reach the blastocyst stage. In conclusion, when melatonin was encapsulated in LNC and applied during in vitro oocyte maturation, some quality aspects of the blastocysts were improved.

  8. VHA-19 is essential in Caenorhabditis elegans oocytes for embryogenesis and is involved in trafficking in oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J Knight

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to develop new drugs against parasitic nematodes, which are a significant burden on human health and agriculture. Information about the function of essential nematode-specific genes provides insight to key nematode-specific processes that could be targeted with drugs. We have characterized the function of a novel, nematode-specific Caenorhabditis elegans protein, VHA-19, and show that VHA-19 is essential in the germline and, specifically, the oocytes, for the completion of embryogenesis. VHA-19 is also involved in trafficking the oocyte receptor RME-2 to the oocyte plasma membrane and is essential for osmoregulation in the embryo, probably because VHA-19 is required for proper eggshell formation via exocytosis of cortical granules or other essential components of the eggshell. VHA-19 may also have a role in cytokinesis, either directly or as an indirect effect of its role in osmoregulation. Critically, VHA-19 is expressed in the excretory cell in both larvae and adults, suggesting that it may have a role in osmoregulation in C. elegans more generally, probably in trafficking or secretion pathways. This is the first time a role for VHA-19 has been described.

  9. INIS: manual for online retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiele, J.; Kurtev, I.; Ruckenbauer, E.; Stanik, Z.; Varecka, F.; Schmid, H.

    1984-03-01

    This manual is addressed to users participating in the INIS Online Service available at the IAEA in Vienna. The retrieval system used at the IAEA is IBM/STAIRS (Storage and Information Retrieval System), installed on an IBM mainframe computer operating under OS/MVS and the TP monitor CICS. STAIRS is a multipurpose software package which enables the user to carry out retrieval on suitably structured textual and/or numerical data files in both interactive (i.e. online) and batch modes. In addition to the actual retrieval modules, the system also includes a number of auxiliary facilities which assist in the preparation and management of search files, help the users in printing the document references retrieved and in saving formulated queries for later execution or SDI processing, etc. Because of certain modifications and extensions made by the IAEA, the retrieval dialogue will be slightly different from the standard STAIRS. The present manual describes the INIS/STAIRS database and the IAEA/STAIRS retrieval language.

  10. Identification of some unknown transcripts from SSH cDNA library of buffalo follicular oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, S K; Kumar, P; Roy, B; Verma, A; Pandey, H P; Singh, D; De, S; Datta, T K

    2013-03-01

    A buffalo oocyte-specific subtracted cDNA library was constructed to identify exclusively or preferentially oocyte-expressed genes. The library represented an enriched population of transcripts obtained from oocytes of diverse ovarian follicular origin and at different stages of in vitro maturation. A total of 1173 high-quality sequences of oocyte-specific genes were clustered into 645 unique sequences, out of which 65.76% were represented as singlets and 34.26% as contig expressed sequence tags (ESTs; clusters). Analysis of sequences revealed that 498 of these sequences were identified as a known sequence in mammalian species including buffalo, 103 as uncharacterized ESTs and 44 unknown sequences including 1 novel EST, so far not reported in any species. Gene ontology annotation classified these sequences into functional categories of cellular events and biological processes associated with oocyte competence. Expression status of the isolated unknown ESTs confirmed that many of these are expressed in oocytes exclusively and in others preferentially, some in excess of 80-fold greater in comparison with a variety of somatic tissues. The isolated novel EST was detected to be expressed exclusively in oocytes and testicular cells only. To our knowledge, this is the first report giving a detailed transcriptome account of oocyte-expressed genes in buffalo. This study will provide important information on the physiological control of oocyte development, as well as many questions yet to be addressed on the reproductive process of buffalo.

  11. Casein kinase G may be the target of spermine during progesterone-induced oocyte maturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIRUNSHENG; JIAKETSO

    1993-01-01

    Casein kinase G (CKG) with more than 2500-fold enrichraent was purified from Bufo bufo gargarizans ovaries. The catalytic activity of the enzyme was found to be associated with its 42 kD subunit, and its 26 kD subunit was found to be the major tsrget for the enzyme autophos phorylation. Each fuU-grown oocyte contained 1.9 units of CKG corresponding to an intracellular concentration of 93 nM. After injecting an amount of 0,38 units of the enzyme into the oocyte, approximately 50% of the progesterone-induoed maturation was inhibited. The inhibitory effect was enhanced in oocytes pretreated with spermine, which was consistent with the results that the enzyme was activated in vitro in the presence of spermine, The MPF-induced oocyte maturation was delayed and even prohibited in the kinase-microinjected oocytes. A 55 kD oocyte protein was identified as an suhstrate of CKG both in vivo and in vitro, and the enhancement of the 55 kD protein phosphory[ation was associated with kinase inhibition on maturation and on protein synthesis in kinase-microinjected oocytes. As the endogenous spermine level decreased in the course of progesteroneinduced oocyte maturation. 55 kD protein was dephosphorylated, Heparin, a specific inhibitor of CKG, potentiated the progesterone-induced oocyte maturation. Altogether the experimental reSults indicated Strongly that CKG may be the physiological target of spermine.

  12. Restoration of normal embryogenesis by mitochondrial supplementation in pig oocytes exhibiting mitochondrial DNA deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnone, Gael L M; Tsai, Te-Sha; Makanji, Yogeshwar; Matthews, Pamela; Gould, Jodee; Bonkowski, Michael S; Elgass, Kirstin D; Wong, Ashley S A; Wu, Lindsay E; McKenzie, Matthew; Sinclair, David A; St John, Justin C

    2016-03-18

    An increasing number of women fail to achieve pregnancy due to either failed fertilization or embryo arrest during preimplantation development. This often results from decreased oocyte quality. Indeed, reduced mitochondrial DNA copy number (mitochondrial DNA deficiency) may disrupt oocyte quality in some women. To overcome mitochondrial DNA deficiency, whilst maintaining genetic identity, we supplemented pig oocytes selected for mitochondrial DNA deficiency, reduced cytoplasmic maturation and lower developmental competence, with autologous populations of mitochondrial isolate at fertilization. Supplementation increased development to blastocyst, the final stage of preimplantation development, and promoted mitochondrial DNA replication prior to embryonic genome activation in mitochondrial DNA deficient oocytes but not in oocytes with normal levels of mitochondrial DNA. Blastocysts exhibited transcriptome profiles more closely resembling those of blastocysts from developmentally competent oocytes. Furthermore, mitochondrial supplementation reduced gene expression patterns associated with metabolic disorders that were identified in blastocysts from mitochondrial DNA deficient oocytes. These results demonstrate the importance of the oocyte's mitochondrial DNA investment in fertilization outcome and subsequent embryo development to mitochondrial DNA deficient oocytes.

  13. Effect of Acrylamide on Oocyte Nuclear Maturation and Cumulus Cells Apoptosis in Mouse In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuzhen; Jiang, Ligang; Zhong, Tao; Kong, Shuhui; Zheng, Rongbin; Kong, Fengyun; Zhang, Cong; Zhang, Lei; An, Liguo

    2015-01-01

    Acrylamide (ACR) is a chemical compound with severe neurotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity. Recent studies showed that ACR impairs the function of reproductive organs, e.g., epididymis and testes. In vitro maturation of mouse oocyte is a sensitive assay to identify potential chemical hazard to female fertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adverse effects of ACR on the nuclear maturation and cumulus cells apoptosis of mouse oocytes in vitro. Cumulus–oocyte complexes were incubated in a maturation medium containing 0, 5, 10 and 20 μM of ACR. Chromosome alignment and spindle morphology of oocytes was determined by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Our results showed that oocytes exposed to different doses of ACR in vitro were associated with a significant decrease of oocyte maturation, significant increase of chromosome misalignment rate, occurrence of abnormal spindle configurations, and the inhibition of oocyte parthenogenetic activation. Furthermore, apoptosis of cumulus cells was determined by TUNEL and CASPASE-3 assay. Results showed that apoptosis in cumulus cells was enhanced and the expression of CASPASE-3 was increased after cumulus–oocyte complexes were exposed to ACR. Therefore, ACR may affect the nuclear maturation of oocytes via the apoptosis of cumulus cells in vitro. PMID:26275143

  14. Possible participation of mitochondria in lipid yolk formation in oocytes of paddlefish and sturgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelazowska, Monika; Kilarski, Wincenty

    2009-03-01

    The ovary of paddlefish and sturgeons (Acipenseriformes) is composed of discrete units: the ovarian nests and ovarian follicles. The ovarian nests comprise oogonia and numerous early dictyotene oocytes surrounded by somatic prefollicular cells. Each ovarian follicle consists of a spherical oocyte and a layer of follicular cells situated on a thick basal lamina, encompassed by thecal cells. The cytoplasm of previtellogenic oocytes is differentiated into two distinct zones: the homogeneous and granular zones. The homogeneous cytoplasm is organelle-free, whereas the granular cytoplasm contains numerous organelles, including mitochondria and lipid droplets. We have analyzed the cytoplasm of early dictyotene and previtellogenic oocytes ultrastructurally and histologically. In the cytoplasm of early dictyotene oocytes, two morphologically different types of mitochondria can be distinguished: (1) with well-developed cristae and (2) with distorted and f