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Sample records for ontogenesis

  1. THE ONTOGENESIS OF SPEECH DEVELOPMENT

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    T. E. Braudo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to acquaint the specialists, working with children having developmental disorders, with age-related norms for speech development. Many well-known linguists and psychologists studied speech ontogenesis (logogenesis. Speech is a higher mental function, which integrates many functional systems. Speech development in infants during the first months after birth is ensured by the innate hearing and emerging ability to fix the gaze on the face of an adult. Innate emotional reactions are also being developed during this period, turning into nonverbal forms of communication. At about 6 months a baby starts to pronounce some syllables; at 7–9 months – repeats various sounds combinations, pronounced by adults. At 10–11 months a baby begins to react on the words, referred to him/her. The first words usually appear at an age of 1 year; this is the start of the stage of active speech development. At this time it is acceptable, if a child confuses or rearranges sounds, distorts or misses them. By the age of 1.5 years a child begins to understand abstract explanations of adults. Significant vocabulary enlargement occurs between 2 and 3 years; grammatical structures of the language are being formed during this period (a child starts to use phrases and sentences. Preschool age (3–7 y. o. is characterized by incorrect, but steadily improving pronunciation of sounds and phonemic perception. The vocabulary increases; abstract speech and retelling are being formed. Children over 7 y. o. continue to improve grammar, writing and reading skills. The described stages may not have strict age boundaries, as soon as they are dependent not only on environment, but also on the child’s mental constitution, heredity and character.

  2. DYNAMICS OF INTERHEMISPHERIC RELATIONSHIPS IN EARLY ONTOGENESIS

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    E.M. Berdichevskaia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying cerebral hemispheric interaction and the principles of their coordination allow to understand the central adaptational and compensatory mechanisms in the early developmental process of children. Objectification of the level of motor function development in children in early ontogenesis, its relationship with the profile of interhemispheric organization of the brain, and its dynamics with age is highly relevant today. With the participation of 260 practically healthy children, including 74 children age 3 to 4 years and 186 age 6 to 7 years, we studied intra- and interhemispheric relations in the motor domain using the test of finger synkinesis in the early stages of childhood. Results showed that the amount of finger synkineses, and consequently the level of integration of intra- and interhemispheric relations in the brain of the child, depended on the child’s age. Besides, the magnitude, character, positive and negative dynamics of synkineses in the process of adaptation to school depend on the lateral phenotype.

  3. Postnatal ontogenesis of molecular clock in mouse striatum.

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    Cai, Yanning; Liu, Shu; Li, Ning; Xu, Shengli; Zhang, Yanli; Chan, Piu

    2009-04-01

    Striatum is an important brain area whose function is related to motor, emotion and motivation. Interestingly, biological and physiological circadian rhythms have been found in the striatum extensively, suggesting molecular clock machinery works efficiently therein. However, the striatal expression profiles of clock genes have not been characterized systematically. In addition, little is known about when the expression rhythms start during postnatal ontogenesis. In the present study, 24 h mRNA oscillations of 6 principle clock genes (Bmal1, Clock, Npas2, Cry1, Per1 and Rev-erb alpha) were examined in mouse striatum, at early postnatal stage (postnatal day 3), pre-weaning stage (postnatal day 14) and in adult (postnatal day 60). At P3, no daily oscillation was found for all clock genes. At P14, a significant time effect was identified only for Rev-erb alpha and Npas2. At P60, the daily oscillations of these clock genes were at least borderline significant, with peak time at Circadian time (CT) 01 for Bmal1, Clock, Npas2 and Cry1; at CT 13 for Per1; and at CT 07 for Rev-erb alpha. In addition, the overall mean mRNA levels of these clock genes also underwent a dynamic change postnatally. For Bmal1, Clock, Npas2, Per1 and Rev-erb alpha, the expression level increased throughout the postnatal ontogenesis from P3, P14 to P60. For Cry1, however, the abundance at P3 and P60 were similar while that at P14 was much lower. In conclusion, the striatal molecular clock machinery, although works efficiently in adult, develops gradually after birth in mice.

  4. The ontogenesis of narrative: from moving to meaning

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    Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T.; Trevarthen, Colwyn

    2015-01-01

    Narrative, the creation of imaginative projects and experiences displayed in expressions of movement and voice, is how human cooperative understanding grows. Human understanding places the character and qualities of objects and events of interest within stories that portray intentions, feelings, and ambitions, and how one cares about them. Understanding the development of narrative is therefore essential for understanding the development of human intelligence, but its early origins are obscure. We identify the origins of narrative in the innate sensorimotor intelligence of a hypermobile human body and trace the ontogenesis of narrative form from its earliest expression in movement. Intelligent planning, with self-awareness, is evident in the gestures and motor expressions of the mid-gestation fetus. After birth, single intentions become serially organized into projects with increasingly ambitious distal goals and social meaning. The infant imitates others’ actions in shared tasks, learns conventional cultural practices, and adapts his own inventions, then names topics of interest. Through every stage, in simple intentions of fetal movement, in social imitations of the neonate, in early proto-conversations and collaborative play of infants and talk of children and adults, the narrative form of creative agency with it four-part structure of ‘introduction,’ ‘development,’ ‘climax,’ and ‘resolution’ is present. We conclude that shared rituals of culture and practical techniques develop from a fundamental psycho-motor structure with its basic, vital impulses for action and generative process of thought-in-action that express an integrated, imaginative, and sociable Self. This basic structure is evident before birth and invariant in form throughout life. Serial organization of single, non-verbal actions into complex projects of expressive and explorative sense-making become conventional meanings and explanations with propositional narrative power

  5. VARIANT OF PERIODIZATION OF BIOLOGICALLY SIMILAR STAGES OF HUMAN AND RAT’S ONTOGENESIS

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    O.A.Gelashvily

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried outgrowing individuals of white laboratory outbred rats. Proportional age ratio of investigated objects and age periods of human was made. Carrying out morphological research on animals with subsequent transferring these data on human purposely to realize the analysis of features of body systems' formation during prenatal and postnatal periods of ontogenesis is obviously possible.

  6. The features of the initial stages of ontogenesis of different Primula L. species

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    Tatyana R. Chrynova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of scientific research of morphometric indices of the genus Primula L. included in tothe Botanical Garden (UNN collections were discussed. The research was conducted in the laboratory conditions, the aim was to identify the characteristics of different species and samples of different origin on the initial stages of ontogenesis.

  7. The Ontogenesis of Social Representation of Justice: Personal Conceptualization and Social Constraints

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    Barreiro, Alicia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relations between the ontogenesis of social representations (SR of justice and the individual's conceptualization activity. A study was carried out with 216 children and adolescents from Buenos Aires, Argentina, aged between 6 and 17 years old, with different socioeconomic backgrounds. The instrument used for data collection was an interview, in search for participants' narratives about justice in their everyday life. In the responses of the interviewees three representations of justice could be distinguished: utilitarian, retributive and distributive. Approximately from 9-10 years old onward, these basic representations become intertwined with each other by a dialectical movement of integration and differentiation, which is an expression of a developmental process. It is concluded that the conceptualization process, within the ontogenesis of SR of justice, implies the construction of novelties under social and cognitive constraints that enable the construction of specific meanings about this social object an disable other possible meanings.

  8. Early intervention: from conception until to the 6 years (contributes of the filogenesis, sociogenesis and ontogenesis)

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Ana Cristina Lavandeira

    2008-01-01

    The human being is constituted partially by a biological heritage transmited by the genes and a cultural heritage transmited through the interaction with others in the diferent contexts in with he/she’s inserted. The individual development(embryogenesis and ontogenesis) is based upon the biological inheritance (filogenesis) and the cultural inheritance (sociogenesis). It is a complex and lifelong process, held by the direct exposure to the environment factors and through the mediatization of ...

  9. Morphological study of human heart and placenta in the first trimester of prenatal period of ontogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Ogly L.V.

    2008-01-01

    Probability of abnormal development is high in certain periods when the increased sensitiveness of embryo and fetus takes place. Influence of damaging factors as maternal infection and, consequently, fetal infection is a reason of abnormal development. Morphological characteristics of heart and placenta were studied during the first trimester of prenatal period of ontogenesis. 17 embryos, fetuses and placenta of 4-12 weeks were used. Abortions were made according to medical statements or mate...

  10. Genetic determinants of the physical status of human beings at different stages of ontogenesis.

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    Romanenko V.A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the structure of physical states at different stages of ontogenesis and the role of genetic factors in these transformations. It is proved that in the process of aging there are changes in physical conditions. Firstly, towards the dominance of aerobic capacity, and secondly - the speed-strength and coordination training. A survey of 125 women aged 20-25 years found that between the individual extrovert and the parameters of their physical status, there are ambiguous dependence which determine constitutional peculiarities, somatotype and cardio-respiratory system. For a typical introverted women increased body weight and power characteristics, combined with lack of capacity oxygen-transport system.

  11. Ontogenesis of the alveolar walls of the tooth germ according to orthopantomography

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    Okushko M.R.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify changes of the configuration and size of the walls of the alveolar stages of ontogenesis. Materials and Methods. Orthopantomograms studied 196 children aged 5 to 12 years. We used visual and morphometric methods. Results. The data on the three diameters of the dental alveoli (proximal, middle and distal has been presented, under which subsequently the main stages of age transformation have been highlighted. Conclusion. Transformation of the alveolar walls radiologically determined and its advancing character in relation to the macroprocesses in the germ tooth have made it possible to consider alveolus as one of the leading biological tools of odontogenesis.

  12. Ontogenesis in narrative therapy: a linguistic-semiotic examination of client change.

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    Muntigl, Peter

    2004-03-01

    In this article I investigate how the narrative therapy process facilitates client change. The kind of change that I focus on is linguistic-semiotic; that is, how clients develop their meaning potential through language. What I will demonstrate is how an examination of the linguistic-semiotic level provides new insights into narrative therapy's role in endowing clients with the semiotic materials to make new meanings. An examination of six conjoint sessions involving a narrative therapist with one couple revealed that client change or ontogenesis is composed of three semiotic phases. In the first phase of ontogenesis clients display a beginning semiotic repertoire by formulating "extreme case" descriptions of self and other's behaviors. In the second phase clients are scaffolded by therapist's questions and reformulations into construing events as problems and problems as the agents of negative behaviors. In the final phase clients display a development in their semiotic potential. Clients are able to eliminate problems and construe themselves as agents without prior therapist scaffolding. Therefore, in the latter stages of the narrative process clients are able to deploy meanings that have been generated throughout therapy, in order to produce narratives of self agency and self control.

  13. The impact of environment on ontogenesis variations in Ruggieria and Chrysocythere (Ostracoda).

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    Bertholon, L; Carbonel, P

    1992-01-01

    The ontogenetic development of Ruggieria lekkii, Ruggieria triangulata, Ruggieria martinsoni and Chrysocythere ornata (Ostracoda) was investigated on two different continental shelves (Congo and Senegal). For one species, the ontogenetic trajectories obtained through length and height of valves differed considerably in distinct areas. In the first case, trajectories showing well-separated development stages and slight intraspecific variability in length and height were seen. In the second, trajectories showing valves which are difficult to relate to one stage or another and a high intraspecific variability were noted. In the latter, the uncertainties in the determination of the development stages were resolved by using a statistical method. Furthermore, this allowed for the comparison of the variations in ontogenesis (augmentation or reduction in the development), in relation to abiotic (detrital supply and upwelling processes) and biotic ecological factors (faunal density and interspecific competition). Comparisons were also made with ornamental variations observed on Chrysocythere ornata, which are directly linked with bioprecipitation (environmental) conditions. This comparison highlights the role played by abiotic and trophic factors on the developmental variations of ostracods in some continental shelves areas. This work shows that ontogenetic variations depend either on biotic or abiotic factors. They can act in different ways on distinct species and one can be predominant in a particular biota. Once the architectural characters have appeared, their variations no more depend on ontogenetic development. The study of ontogenesis reveals the adaptation capacities of one species in an environment with variable conditions.

  14. Growth and the energy budget of flat oyster (Ostrea edulis in early ontogenesis

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    N. A. Sitnik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Regularities of growth and dynamics of balance constituents of the energy budget of the flat oyster larvae in development are investigated. It is shown, that the linear growth in early ontogenesis is described by the exponential equation with high accuracy. Parameters of the functions connecting length, height and weight of larvae are defined. The quantitative characteristic of the energy balance elements of oysters larvae is given. It is shown, that during development from a veliger stage to a pediveliger the energy expenditures for growth, metabolism and nutriment assimilation increase more than 10 times. Net efficiency of larvae growth (coefficient К2 varies within 61.6–62.8 % during development, and the magnitude of a specific daily ration of oyster larvae equals 32–35 % of the energy equivalent of body weight.

  15. Early intervention: from conception until to the 6 years (contributes of the filogenesis, sociogenesis and ontogenesis

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    Ana Cristina Lavandeira Simões

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The human being is constituted partially by a biological heritage transmited by the genes and a cultural heritage transmited through the interaction with others in the diferent contexts in with he/she’s inserted. The individual development(embryogenesis and ontogenesis is based upon the biological inheritance (filogenesis and the cultural inheritance (sociogenesis. It is a complex and lifelong process, held by the direct exposure to the environment factors and through the mediatization of the involvement by the more experient beings towards the less experient being in a diversity of contexts conveyed by the society. The study of our species and our historical past are fundamental for the understanding of man and the current society.

  16. Cognitive process development in primary school age children with different types of ontogenesis. Course of correction

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    Maksimenko M.You.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sufficient level of mental development of the child, formation of the emotional sphere, voluntary activities and socio-psychological skills are the main indicators of child readiness for schooling. It appears to be important to use the neuropsychological approach in diagnostic and correctional work. Correction of disturbed elements in higher mental functions performed to facilitate learning of educational material by children of primary school age with different types of ontogenesis, which makes it possible to increase adaptive capacity, the stress-resistance of children, and to ensure success in social relations. Presented program has been tested on primary school children with combined disorders of cognitive and emotional-personal spheres, studying in the system of inclusion in school №1321 «Kovcheg» of Moscow city.

  17. Ontogenesis of the attachment ability in the bug Coreus marginatus (Heteroptera, Insecta).

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    Gorb, Stanislav N; Gorb, Elena V

    2004-08-01

    Each tarsus of Coreus marginatus L. (Coreidae) bears a pair of smooth flexible pulvilli adapted for attachment to relatively smooth surfaces, such as their host plant Rumex crispus L. (Polygonaceae). This account quantifies insect attachment abilities on smooth surfaces at various stages of ontogenesis. Friction (shear) force (FF) of adults and juvenile insects was measured by the use of a computer controlled centrifugal force tester equipped with a fibre optical sensor. Pad area, body size and body mass were determined individually for each experimental insect. Light microscopy revealed no difference in pulvilli area between different leg pairs. Pulvilli area demonstrated a stronger increase with increasing linear dimensions, as predicted by scaling laws. Since friction coefficient (relationship between FF and body weight) (FC) was always higher than 1, it was concluded that adhesion has strongly contributed to the measured friction. The frictional properties of pulvilli do not change during ontogenesis. Thus, only the growth of pulvilli and, therefore, the increased contact area, contribute to the increasing attachment ability in insects at later larval stages. Due to different scaling of the body mass and area of attachment organs, smaller insects attach relatively more strongly. Both FF and FC were higher in experiments in which higher angular acceleration (AC) was applied. Lateral tenacity determined individually for experimental insects and pooled for all animals and accelerations is 0.097 N m(-2). These data led us to suggest that viscosity of the pad secretion and/or visco-elastic properties of the foam-like material of pulvilli play an important role in the attachment ability of insects.

  18. DYNAMICS OF K +, NA +, CA2 + IONS IN RICE PLANTS (Oryza sativa L. IN ONTOGENESIS UNDER SOIL SALINITY

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    Tkacheva M. S.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of vegetation experiment at soil artificial chloride salinization the dynamics of accumulation and distribution of sodium, potassium and calcium in organs of rice plants (Oryza sativa L. have been studied, as well as their correlation with tissue hydration in ontogenesis. The significant restriction of salinization ions transport and accumulation, particularly sodium, in the actively functioning upper leaves and panicles has been observed. Whereas the content of calcium and potassium in the experimental and control plants differed slightly

  19. Morphology of representatives of the tribe Coronilleae (Adans. Boiss. (Fabaceae from Ukrainian flora on early stages of ontogenesis

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    Nataliia I. Karpenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The comparative investigations of the morphological peculiarities in 15 species of Coronilleae (Adans. Boiss. tribe (Fabaceae at early stages of their ontogenesis were carried out. The morphological descriptions of the young plants of all species studied were presented. The appropriateness of some taxonomic changes was shown, in particular the placement of Coronilla emeroides Boiss. et Sprun. into the genus Hippocrepis L. and Coronilla varia L., С. cretica L., C. elegans Panč. into the genus Securigera DC.

  20. [Morphofunctional and biochemical properties of erythrocytes in early postnatal ontogenesis in rats in norm and after prenatal stress].

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    Golubeva, E K; Nazarov, S B; Tomilova, I K

    2011-07-01

    Morphofunctional and biochemical properties of erythrocyte membrane were investigated in early postnatal ontogenesis in rats in norm and after prenatal immobilization stress. The transient decrease of erythrocyte membranes stability was revealed in the control rats. The ability to erythrocyte transformation and the concentration of lipid peroxidation products are increased. It has been shown by an increase of percentage discocytes and lower lipid peroxidation level that the erythrocyte membrane of the rats after prenatal stress is more stable.

  1. FEATURES OF DEVELOPMENT OF SOME ORGANS OF AIRBREATHING CATFISH (CLARIIDAE IN EARLY ONTOGENESIS

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    A. V. Pirog

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Airbreathing catfish (CLARIIDAE - is one of the most promising specie of artificial breeding. However, for the reproduction of this specie it is required to conduct appropriate studies. In particular, it is necessary to review the features of morphogenesis during early ontogeny of this type of fish. We investigated prelarvae of airbreathing catfish (CLARIIBAE in 2,3 and 4 days of life. In the embryos, the spinal cord was formed on the 2nd day of life. At this stage, organs of vision were sufficiently developed. On the 4th day, we found hyaline cartilage at the base of the gill arch, arcs were covered with gill filaments; we also discovered fully formed mesonephros, renal corpuscles, renal tubules and intratubular liquid in the kidneys. The heart of the embryo consisted of atrium and voluminous ventricle.Methods. The research of development of airbreathing catfish in early ontogenesis has been carried out on the basis of "RENTOP Agro-5" Ltd. under the conditions of RAS in the Krasnodar region in the spring – summer period of years 2013-14. For morphological analysis we used serial histological sections on prelarvae of 40 airbreathing catfish at age 2, 3 and 4 days developing normally and atypically. The research combines some complex biological methods: ichthyologic, histological, physiological. Materials for the research were handled with the methods of classical histology. Viewing and imaging of the sections were made using Mikmed 6 microscope with a digital camera for imaging and computer analysis.Results. The finding of the study has been the analysis of the morphological structure of airbreathing catfish during early ontogeny, which can contribute to improving the biotechnology of breeding of airbreathing catfish under RAS.Main conclusions. First, in the early ontogenesis of airbreathing catfish we have discovered heterochrony in the development of basic systems: rapidly developing central nervous system and the digestive system

  2. Novel insights into the bovine polled phenotype and horn ontogenesis in Bovidae.

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    Aurélie Allais-Bonnet

    Full Text Available Despite massive research efforts, the molecular etiology of bovine polledness and the developmental pathways involved in horn ontogenesis are still poorly understood. In a recent article, we provided evidence for the existence of at least two different alleles at the Polled locus and identified candidate mutations for each of them. None of these mutations was located in known coding or regulatory regions, thus adding to the complexity of understanding the molecular basis of polledness. We confirm previous results here and exhaustively identify the causative mutation for the Celtic allele (PC and four candidate mutations for the Friesian allele (PF. We describe a previously unreported eyelash-and-eyelid phenotype associated with regular polledness, and present unique histological and gene expression data on bovine horn bud differentiation in fetuses affected by three different horn defect syndromes, as well as in wild-type controls. We propose the ectopic expression of a lincRNA in PC/p horn buds as a probable cause of horn bud agenesis. In addition, we provide evidence for an involvement of OLIG2, FOXL2 and RXFP2 in horn bud differentiation, and draw a first link between bovine, ovine and caprine Polled loci. Our results represent a first and important step in understanding the genetic pathways and key process involved in horn bud differentiation in Bovidae.

  3. Molecular cloning and ontogenesis expression of fatty acid transport protein-1 in yellow-feathered broilers.

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    Song, Yuzhen; Feng, Jiaying; Zhou, Lihua; Shu, Gang; Zhu, Xiaotong; Gao, Ping; Zhang, Yongliang; Jiang, Qingyan

    2008-06-01

    Fatty acid transport protein-1 (FATP-1) is one of the important transporter proteins involved in fatty acid transmembrane transport and fat deposition. To study the relationship between FATP-1 mRNA expression and fat deposition, chicken (Gallus gallus) FATP-1 sequence was first cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Tissue samples of chest muscle, leg muscle, subcutaneous fat, and abdominal fat were collected from six male and six female broilers each, at 22 days, 29 days, and 42 days, respectively. The tissue specificity and ontogenesis expression pattern of the FATP-1 mRNA of yellow-feathered broilers was studied by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the fat deposition laws in different tissues were also compared. A 2,488 bp cDNA sequence of chicken FATP-1 was cloned by RACE (GenBank accession no. DQ352834), including 547 bp 3' end untranslated region (URT) and 1,941 bp open reading frame (ORF). Chicken FATP-1 encoded 646 amino acid residues, which shared 83.9% and 83.0% identity with those of human and rat, respectively. The results of quantitative PCR demonstrated a constant FATP-1 mRNA expression level in the chest muscle and subcutaneous fat of both male and female broilers at three stages, whereas the expression level of the FATP-1 mRNA in the leg muscle at 42 days was significantly higher than that at 22 days or 29 days. In the abdominal fat of male broilers, the gene expression significantly increased with age, whereas the female broilers showed a dramatic downregulation of FATP-1 expression in abdominal fat at 42 days. This suggested a typical tissue- and gender-specific expression pattern of chicken FATP-1, mediating the specific process of fatty acid transport or utilization in muscle and adipose tissues.

  4. Ontogenesis and nutritive value of warm-season perennial bunch grasses

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    Robert D. Ziehr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dynamics of nutritive values in warm-season perennial bunch grasses with change in ontogenesis is essential to managing their use as forage for livestock or cellulosic bioenergy feedstock. Accumulated growth (not previously harvested of Alamo lowland and accession 9065018 upland switch grass (Panicum virgatum, Lometa Indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans, Earl big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii, San Marcos eastern gama grass (Tripsacum dactyloides and Haskell sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula , all native to the southern Great Plains of North America, as well as Selection 75 Klein grass (Panicum coloratum, originating in southern Africa but selected in North America, was harvested every 28 d for 3 yr, commencing 1 yr after establishment. Growth stage, crude protein (CP and in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD over 48 h were evaluated at each date. Some entries, such as Haskell, San Marcos and Selection 75, initiated reproductive growth earlier in the growing season and had higher nutritive value [up to 119 g CP/kg dry matter (DM and 630 g IVDMD/kg DM] at seed set than those reproducing later in the season. Nutritive value of San Marcos and Selection 75 responded to autumn rainfall with resurging nutritive value (over 100 g CP/kg DM and over 600 g IVDMD/kg DM, whereas others did not. These nuances in nutritive value may be useful in manipulating species composition and season of utilization for grazing bunch grasses, especially when incorporated into opportunistic harvests of bioenergy feedstock. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  5. The Ontogenesis of Narrative: From Purposeful Movements to Shared Meaning-Making

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    Jonathan T. Delafield-Butt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Narrative, the creation of imaginative projects and experiences displayed in expressions of movement and voice, is how human cooperative understanding grows. Human understanding places the character and qualities of objects and events of interest within stories that portray intentions, feelings, and ambitions, and how one cares about them. Understanding the development of narrative is therefore essential for understanding the development of human intelligence, but its early origins are obscure. We identify the origins of narrative in the innate sensorimotor intelligence of a hypermobile human body and trace the ontogenesis of narrative form from its earliest expression in movement. Intelligent planning, with self-awareness, is evident in the gestures and motor expressions of the mid-gestation foetus. After birth, single intentions become serially organised into projects with increasingly ambitious distal goals and social meaning. The infant imitates others’ actions in shared tasks, learns conventional cultural practices, and adapts his own inventions, then names topics of interest. Through every stage, in simple intentions of foetal movement, in social imitations of the neonate, in early proto-conversations and collaborative play of infants and talk of children and adults, the narrative form of creative agency with it four-part structure of ‘introduction’, ‘development’, ‘climax’ and ‘resolution’ is present. We conclude that shared rituals of culture and practical techniques develop from a fundamental psycho-motor structure with its basic, vital impulses for action and generative process of thought-in-action that express an integrated, imaginative and sociable Self. This basic structure is evident before birth and invariant in form throughout life. Serial organisation of single, non-verbal actions into complex projects of expressive and explorative sense-making become conventional meanings and explanations with propositional

  6. Molecular cloning and ontogenesis expression of fatty acid transport protein-1 in yellow-feathered broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuzhen Song; Jiaying Feng; Lihua Zhou; Gang Shu; Xiaotong Zhu; Ping Gao; Yongliang Zhang; Qingyan Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Fatty acid transport protein-1 (FATP-1) is one of the important transporter proteins involved in fatty acid transmembrane transport and fat deposition. To study the relationship between FATP-1 mRNA expression and fat deposition, chicken (Gallus gallus) FATP-1 sequence was first cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Tissue samples of chest muscle, leg muscle, subcutaneous fat, and abdominal fat were collected from six male and six female broilers each, at 22 days, 29 days, and 42 days, respectively. The tissue specificity and ontogenesis expression pattern of the FATP-1 mRNA of yellow-feathered broilers was studied by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the fat deposition laws in different tissues were also compared. A 2,488 bp cDNA sequence of chicken FATP-1 was cloned by RACE (GenBank accession no. DQ352834), including 547 bp 3' end untranslated region (URT) and 1,941 bp open reading frame (ORF). Chicken FATP-1 encoded 646 amino acid residues, which shared 83.9% and 83.0% identity with those of human and rat, respectively. The results of quantitative PCR demonstrated a constant FATP-1 mRNA expression level in the chest muscle and subcutaneous fat of both male and female broilers at three stages, whereas the expression level of the FATP-1 mRNA in the leg muscle at 42 days was significantly higher than that at 22 days or 29 days. In the abdominal fat of male broilers, the gene expression significantly increased with age, whereas the female broilers showed a dramatic downregulation of FATP-1 expression in abdominal fat at 42 days. This suggested a typical tissue-and gender-specific expression pattern of chicken FATP-1, mediating the specific process of fatty acid transport or utilization in muscle and adipose tissues.

  7. Ontogenesis and nutritive value of warm-season perennial bunch grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Ziehr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dynamics of nutritive values in warm-season perennial bunch grasses with change in ontogenesis is essential to managing their use as forage for livestock or cellulosic bioenergy feedstock. Accumulated growth (not previously harvested of Alamo lowland and accession 9065018 upland switch grass (Panicum virgatum, Lometa Indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans, Earl big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii, San Marcos eastern gama grass (Tripsacum dactyloides and Haskell sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula , all native to the southern Great Plains of North America, as well as Selection 75 Klein grass (Panicum coloratum, originating in southern Africa but selected in North America, was harvested every 28 d for 3 yr, commencing 1 yr after establishment. Growth stage, crude protein (CP and in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD over 48 h were evaluated at each date. Some entries, such as Haskell, San Marcos and Selection 75, initiated reproductive growth earlier in the growing season and had higher nutritive value [up to 119 g CP/kg dry matter (DM and 630 g IVDMD/kg DM] at seed set than those reproducing later in the season. Nutritive value of San Marcos and Selection 75 responded to autumn rainfall with resurging nutritive value (over 100 g CP/kg DM and over 600 g IVDMD/kg DM, whereas others did not. These nuances in nutritive value may be useful in manipulating species composition and season of utilization for grazing bunch grasses, especially when incorporated into opportunistic harvests of bioenergy feedstock. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  8. The development of the orbital fasciae and cellular tissue spaces at an early stage of human ontogenesis

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    Shkrobanets A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the orbital fasciae and cellular tissue spaces during the embryonic and prefetal periods of ontogenesis has been studied by means of the morphological research methods. It has been established that the said structures develop from the mesenchyme, surrounding the eyeballs germ and optic nerve. The forming of the cellular tissue spaces proceed simultaneously with the development of the orbital walls and the musculo-fascial complex of the oculomotor muscles and roughly takes shape by the end of the 10-th week. In the course of this period certain contents of the spaces and a topographical arrangement of their components were formed.

  9. THE EFFECT OF UNFAVOURABLE FACTORS ON PERUVATE KINASE ACTIVITY IN BRAIN CORTEX OF WHITE RATS IN POSTNATAL ONTOGENESIS

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    L. M. Guseynova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of unionizated electromagnetic radiation (EMI of different intensity and hypoxia on pyruvate kinase activity (PK; EC 2.7.1.40 in the tissues of right and left hemispheres of white rats has been studied during postnatal ontogenesis. The highest hyperactivity of PK was revealed in the left hemisphere of brain cortex both in the control animals and after the influence of extremal environmental factors. It was stated that hypoxia induces higher changes in the dynamics of changes in the dynamics of changes in the PK-activity in the tissues of brain cortex than EMI, which leads to changes in energy supply of brain. The changes in the PK-activity are supposed to be caused by involving decay products and activation of biosynthetic processes into energy supply of cells.

  10. [Effect of a model of the H-component of a typical magnetic storm on early ontogenesis in Daphnia magna Straus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, V V; Zotov, O D; Osipova, E A; Znobishcheva, A V; Demtsun, N A

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a model of the H-component of a typical magnetic storm on the early ontogenesis of Daphnia magna Straus at 21 and 23 degrees C has been studied. It was shown based on the rates of the early ontogenesis that the effects of the model magnetic storm from the sudden onset of the storm to its end differ from the effects of the model magnetic storm from the recovery phase to the end of the storm. The effects of the model magnetic storm depended on temperature. The action of the model magnetic storm from the sudden onset of the storm to its end led to changes in the body length in the first progeny broods.

  11. PRENATAL HYPOXIA IN DIFFERENT PERIODS OF EMBRYOGENESIS DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTS CELL MIGRATION, NEURONAL PLASTICITY AND RAT BEHAVIOR IN POSTNATAL ONTOGENESIS

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    Dmitrii S Vasilev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term effects of prenatal hypoxia on embryonic days E14 or E18 on the number, type and localization of cortical neurons, density of labile synaptopodin-positive dendritic spines and parietal cortex-dependent behavioral tasks were examined in the postnatal ontogenesis of rats. An injection of 5’ethynyl-2’deoxyuridine to pregnant rats was used to label neurons generated on E14 or E18 in the fetuses. In control rat pups a majority of cells labeled on E14 were localized in the lower cortical layers V-VI while the cells labeled on E18 were mainly found in the superficial cortical layers II-III. It was shown that hypoxia both on E14 and E18 results in disruption of neuroblast generation and migration but affects different cell populations. In rat pups subjected to hypoxia on E14, the total number of labeled cells in the parietal cortex was decreased while the number of labeled neurons scattered within the superficial cortical layers was increased. In rat pups subjected to hypoxia on E18, the total number of labeled cells in the parietal cortex was also decreased but the number of scattered labeled neurons was higher in the lower cortical layers. It can be suggested that prenatal hypoxia both on E14 and E18 causes a disruption in neuroblast migration but with a different outcome. Only in rats subjected to hypoxia on E14 did we observe a reduction in the total number of pyramidal cortical neurons and the density of labile synaptopodin-positive dendritic spines in the molecular cortical layer during the first month after birth which affected development of the cortical functions. As a result, rats subjected to hypoxia on E14, but not on E18, had impaired development of the whisker-placing reaction and reduced ability to learn reaching by a forepaw. The data obtained suggest that hypoxia on E14 in the period of generation of the cells, which later differentiate into the pyramidal cortical neurons of the V-VI layers and form cortical minicolumns

  12. The enkephalinergic nervous system and its immunomodulation on the developing immune system during the ontogenesis of oyster Crassostrea gigas.

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    Liu, Zhaoqun; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Lingling; Song, Xiaorui; Chen, Hao; Wang, Weilin; Liu, Rui; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Hao; Song, Linsheng

    2015-08-01

    Enkephalinergic neuroendocrine-immune regulatory system is one of the most important neuroendocrine-immune systems in both vertebrates and invertebrates for its significant role in the immune regulation. In the present study, the early onset of enkephalinergic nervous system and its immunomodulation on the developing immune system during the ontogenesis of oyster Crassostrea gigas were investigated to illustrate the function of neural regulation on the innate immune system in oyster larvae. [Met(5)]-enkephalin (Met-ENK) was firstly observed on the marginal of the dorsal half of D-hinged larvae. Six immune-related molecules, including four PRRs (CgCTL-1, CgCTL-2, CgCTL-4, CgNatterin-3) and two immune effectors (CgTNF-1 and CgEcSOD) were detected in the early developmental stages of trochophore, D-hinged and umbo larvae of oyster. After incubated with [Met(5)]-enkephalin, the mRNA expression level of all the PRRs changed significantly (p nervous system of oyster was firstly appeared in D-hinged larvae, while the primitive immune defense system existed in the region of prototroch in trochophore larvae and developed maturely after D-hinged larvae. The developing immune system could be regulated by the neurotransmitter [Met(5)]-enkephalin released by the neuroendocrine system in oyster C. gigas.

  13. Morphology and ontogenesis of Psilotrichides hawaiiensis nov. gen., nov. spec. and molecular phylogeny of the Psilotrichidae (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, Domingo; Stoeck, Thorsten; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    The Psilotrichidae are a family of middle-sized hypotrichs with unique morphological and ontogenetic features (e.g. the oral primordium develops in a deep pouch) that, however, did not provide a definite phylogenetic signal. Thus, we studied the 18S rRNA gene of Urospinula succisa (Müller 1786) Esteban et al., 2001 as well as the morphology and ontogenesis of Psilotrichides hawaiiensis, a new genus and species from an ephemeral swamp on Oahu Island, Hawaii. The molecular data classify the psilotrichids into the oxytrichids but without clear branching position. A brief revision, using the structure of the oral apparatus, the location of the contractile vacuole, and three ontogenetic features, showed four distinct genera: Psilotricha Stein, 1859; Urospinula Corliss, 1960; Hemiholosticha Gelei, 1954; and Psilotrichides nov. gen., which differs from the confamilials mainly by the obliquely oriented buccal cavity and the shape of the undulating membranes as well as by a distinct ridge along the right buccal margin. The pyriform species, P. hawaiiensis, is about 65 × 45 μm in size and is easily recognized by the table tennis racket-shaped appearance due to the elongated last cirrus of the left marginal row. Refined diagnoses are provided for the family Psilotrichidae Bütschli, 1889 and the genera contained.

  14. [Laryngotracheitis, recurrent laryngotracheitis and asthma in children: features of ontogenesis and feeding in the first months of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislawczuk, Larisa; Dnistrianska, Аntonina

    Objective of research was to study features of ontogenesis and feeding in the first months of life in children with laryngotracheitis (LT), recurrent laryngotracheitis (RLT) and asthma. Questionnaire-based survey was performed to collect data on anamnesis of 1004 children aged 6-14 years (575 children with a history of LT, 60 children with asthma, and 369 children of control group) pertaining to preeclampsia in mothers, history of birth asphyxia, preterm birth and feeding during the first months of life in children. Children with LT were divided into two groups: 458 children with 1-3 episodes of LT and 117 children with RLT (4 or more episodes of LT). The frequency of preeclampsia among mothers of children with RLT exceeded the corresponding frequency among mothers of children with 1-3 episodes of LT and children of control group in 2.1 and 2.8 times, respectively. The frequency of birth asphyxia or preterm birth among children with RLT exceeded the corresponding frequency among children with 1-3 episodes of LT and children of control group by a factor of 2. The frequency of breastfeeding initiation after 24 hours of birth among children with asthma or RLT exceeded the corresponding frequency among children with 1-3 episodes of LT (in 1.4 and 1.5 times, respectively) and among children of control group (in 2.4 and 2.6 times, respectively). The frequency of preeclampsia in mothers, birth asphyxia, preterm birth and late initiation of breastfeeding among children with RLT exceeded the corresponding frequency among children with 1-3 episodes of LT and children of control group. There was no significant difference between the frequency of preeclampsia in mothers, birth asphyxia, initiation of breastfeeding among children with RLT and children with asthma. Formula feeding in the first months of life was equally often observed among children with LT, RLT and asthma and significantly exceeded the corresponding percentage among children in control group.

  15. THE STIMULATING EFFECT OF LASER RED LIGHT, FAR RED LIGHT AND SODIUM CARBONATE AT THE INITIAL STAGES OF BARLEY ONTOGENESIS

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    G. P. Dudin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Modern ecological state of the environment and human unhealthy diet cause many diseases. A healthy diet is the one that contains adequate amounts of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, macronutrients and micronutrients. Photosynthesis i. e. the process by which plants produce organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water, is the source of life, the source of evolution and proliferation of life forms on the Earth. Thus, the juice made from sprouted barley provides physiologically active chlorophyll, macronutrients and micronutrients, vitamins А, В2 , В3 , В5 , В6 , В8 , Е and К. It is well known that light from a red laser with a wavelength of 638.2 nm has a stimulating action on the germination energy, germination ability and productivity of seeds, and on the crop yields. Therefore, this research is of primary importance today. The research result produced a sharp decline in plant vigor and germinating capacity of barley when soaking in 1n sodium carbonate solution, as well as changes in the ratio of potassium-sodium balance in plants. Thus at lower concentrations of sodium carbonate and 0.1 n sodium increasing of pigment content in barley is observed on the seventh day. The red laser light has a similar stimulating action: the chlorophyll content of barley plants increased after the red laser treatment of barley seeds. However, the chlorophyll contents were depressed when the seeds were exposed to far red light with wavelengths of 754±10 nm. Using these factors, one can manage the content of chlorophyll and sodium-potassium balance in the initial stages of barley ontogenesis in the technology of barley juice or the powder for a healthy and proper human diet.

  16. ON THE PROBLEM OF SPATIAL DEMOGRAPHIC STRUCTURE AND ONTOGENESIS OF HALOCNEMUM STROBILACEUM [(PALL. BIEB.] IN THE REPUBLIC OF KALMYKIA

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    V. G. Lazareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research is to study coenopopulations of Halocnemum strobilaceum on soft salt marshes of the lake "Cagan USN" (Yashkul district, Republic of Kalmykia.Materials and methods. The article presents data on the ontogeny, demographic and spatial structure of H. strobilaceum for practical and theoretical use due to the degradation of pastures and secondary salinity in the water reclamation. Research on coenopopulations of Halocnemum has been carried out according to the methods of studying spatial and demographic structure of the plant phytocenoses (1950, plant collection and herbarization (1977, and making sites of 3x3 meters.Results. Research has allowed us to identify 6 age phases of H. strobilaceum: p, im, v, g1, g2-g3, svg, s, and the ontogenetic state: p - 5%, im - 5%, v - 5%, g1 - 35 %, g2-g3 - 35%, svg - 5%, s - 10%. During the research of coenopopulations of Halocnemum strobilaceum we have revealed the polyvariance ontomorphogenesis phenomenon, which is manifested in the transition of individuals from senile (s age condition, in particular, to senile-virginal-generative (svg. In addition, at this stage, we have observed new shoots, habitually similar to vegetative, able to bloom the following year (the state svg. The analysis of ontogenesis of individuals of Halocnemum strobilaceum has showed the predominance of young (g1 and middle-aged (g2-g3 generative phase.Conclusion. Thus, a temporary rejuvenation of Halocnemum strobilaceum communities at the lake of "Cagan USN" is considered by us as the occurrence of certain adaptations to the effects of different natural and anthropogenic factors. This ability of Halocnemum strobilaceum to quickly restore spatial demographic structure of its coenopopulations indicates the high ecological and biological potential of this kind of dominant on the soft salt marshes.

  17. [Temperature control of the crossing-over frequency in Drosophila melanogaster. Effect of infra- and super-optimal shock temperatures in early ontogenesis on the recombination frequency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grushko, T A; Korochkina, S E; Klimenko, V V

    1991-10-01

    Effect of temperature shock treatments (0 and 37 degrees C) in early ontogenesis on recombination frequency was studied in two strains of Drosophila X1 and X2. Recombination frequency under treatment with temperature of 0 degrees C and 37 degrees C (shock treatment), as well as at 14 degrees C and 29 degrees C nonshock treatment was found to be dependent on strain genotype, the chromosomal segments under consideration, developmental stage and the age of individuals analysed. Shock treatments usually increase recombination frequency, whereas nonshock treatments lead to unstable and variable recombination frequencies. A concept of ontogenic homeostasis of recombination has been introduced. It is assumed that the effect of temperature treatments on recombination frequency is indirect--i.e. physiologically mediated.

  18. Pelagostrobilidium neptuni (Montagnes and Taylor, 1994) and Strombidium biarmatum nov. spec. (Ciliophora, Oligotrichea): phylogenetic position inferred from morphology, ontogenesis, and gene sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatha, Sabine; Strüder-Kypke, Michaela C.; Beran, Alfred; Lynn, Denis H.

    2010-01-01

    Morphological data from life, protargol impregnation, and scanning electron microscopy were combined with genetic data not only to describe the marine plankton ciliates Pelagostrobilidium neptuni (Montagnes and Taylor, 1994) Petz, Song, and Wilbert, 1995 and Strombidium biarmatum nov. spec., but also to elucidate their phylogenetic relationships. Additionally, the ontogenesis of P. neptuni was studied and the diagnosis of the genus Pelagostrobilidium was improved due to further data from the newly affiliated species P. epacrum (Lynn and Montagnes, 1988) nov. comb. (basionym: Strobilidium epacrum Lynn and Montagnes, 1988). The phylogenetic analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes matched the morphologic and ontogenetic assigning of P. neptuni to the choreotrichid family Strobilidiidae. The considerable genetic distance of d = 0.074 between P. neptuni and Strobilidium caudatum corroborated the morphological differences and thus the maintenance of the genus Pelagostrobilidium. Strombidium biarmatum nov. spec. is a typical member of the genus, except for the two types of extrusomes (“trichites”): ~12 × 0.5 μm, needle-shaped ones attached anterior to the girdle kinety and ~6 × 0.5 μm, rod-shaped ones at the distal end of the intermembranellar ridges. Its flask-shaped resting cysts have several strong spines. In accordance with the morphologic data, S. biarmatum is placed within the order Oligotrichida by gene sequence analysis. The great genetic distances within the oligotrichids support the diversity found in morphologic and ontogenetic studies. PMID:22427721

  19. 小鼠纹状体时钟基因表达的生后发育%Postnatal ontogenesis of moleular clock genes in mouse striatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左晓虹; 蔡彦宁; 李宁; 刘姝; 张燕莉; 陈彪

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the mRNA expression profiles of clock genes in mouse striatum during postnatal ontogenesis. Methods C57 BL/6J male mice were grouped with development stages:early postnatal stage (postnatal day 3),pre-weaning stage (postnatal day 14) and adult (postnatal day 60). Animals were transferred into constant darkness for 24 hours and sacrificed at 6 h intervals beginning at 09:00 h local time (01 HALO=Hours after Light Onset). The striatum were dissected out. 24h mRNA oscillations of 5 principle clock genes (Bmal1,Clock,Cry1,Per1 and Rev-erbα) were examined using real time PCR. Results At P3,no daily oscillation was found for all clock genes. At P14,a significant time effect was identified only for Rev-erb α (P=0.027),with peak value at 19 to 01 HALO. At P60,the daily oscillations of these clock genes were at least borderline significant (Bmal1:P=0.004,Clock:P=0.004,Per1:P=0.004,Rev-erbα:P=0.004),with peak time at 01 HALO for Bmal1,Clock and Cry1; at 13 HALO for Per1; and at 07 HALO for Rev-erbα. In addition,the overall mean mRNA levels of these clock genes also underwent a dynamic change postnatally. For Bmal1,Clock,Per1 and Rev-erbα,the expression level increased throughout the postnatal ontogenesis from P3,P14 to P60. For Cry1,however,the abundance at P3 and P60 were similar while that at P14 was much lower. Conclusion The striatal molecular clock machinery,although works efficiently in adult,develops gradually after birth in mice.%目的 研究小鼠纹状体中时钟基因表达的生后发育.方法 选新生早期(P3)、断奶前期(P14)和成年(P60)小鼠,光照1h[01 Hour-After-Light-On (HALO)=09:00]起取纹状体,连续24h取材,取材时间间隔6h.实时定量RT-PCR检测时钟基因Bmal1,Clock,Cry1,Per1和Rev-erbα Mrna水平.结果 P3组中,5种时钟基因表达均无明显波动;P14组仅有Rev-erb αmRNA表达随时间变化(P=0.027),表达高峰在19-01HALO;而P60组,各基因表达均表现明显波动[Bmal1(P=0.004)

  20. Ontogenesis of mammals in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazenko, O. G. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This report is an English translation of a Russian report prepared by a group of authors from the USSR, Bulgaria, Hungary, the GDR, Poland, Czechoslovakia, France, and the USA. It presents results of the first microgravity experiment on mammalian embryology performed during the flight of the biosatellite Cosmos-1514 and in ground-based simulation studies. An overview is provided of the data available about the role of gravity in animal growth and development, and future studies into this problem are discussed. A new introduction has been provided for the English version.

  1. Bulgakov's sophiology as philosopheme: non-ontology and ontogenesis A sofiologia de Bulgakov como filosofema: não-ontologia e ontogênese

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    Myroslav Feodosijeviè Hryschko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The text examines Sergej Nikolajeviè Bulgakov's description of the philosopheme as thoroughly "immanent" (viz., the immanence of man qua being, such that ontology in Bulgakov becomes a conceptual analogue for immanence and the corollary that such immanence necessarily excludes the problematic of the "creation of the world." Because of this resolute immanence and the notion that the creation of the world in the form of creatio ex nihilo requires a non-immanent or non-ontological thought and concept, the problematic for Bulgakov is approached only by a theologeme. Appropriating this argument as material for a cursory philosopheme, the text attempts to transform Bulgakov's theologeme into a philosopheme through an elision of God and dogma that overdetermines the theologeme. This philosopheme (nascent within Bulgakov's work itself, in both his hesitation to the overdetermination of immanence and the commitment to the problem of creation would be a thoroughly non-ontological philosopheme, one that allows for the treatment of the problematic of "creation" or singular ontogenesis, yet with the corollary that this philosopheme must rely on an "ontological zero" Such a philosopheme qua ontologically empty formula nevertheless remains ontologically significant insofar as it is to evince the limit of ontology, in the ontological zero's non-relationality to ontology.O texto examina a descrição do filosofema de Sergej Nikolajeviè Bulgakov como completamente "imanente" [a saber, a imanência do homem qua ser, de modo que a ontologia em Bulgakov torna-se um análogo conceitual da imanência] e o corolário de que tal imanência necessariamente exclui a problemática da "criação do mundo". Em razão dessa imanência resoluta e da noção de que a criação do mundo na forma de creatio ex nihilo requer um pensamento e um conceito não-imanentes ou não-ontológicos, a problemática da "criação do mundo" para Bulgakov é abordada somente por um teologema

  2. Ontogenesis of the Gut Microbiota Composition in Healthy, Full-Term, Vaginally Born and Breast-Fed Infants over the First 3 Years of Life: A Quantitative Bird’s-Eye View

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    Ravinder Nagpal

    2017-07-01

    microbiota configuration and hence underpins the importance of considering not only the gestational age, birth, and feeding modes, and ethnic/geographical background but also other potential outstanding factors when investigating the elements shaping the early microbiota development. In summary, the data demonstrate a quantitative bird’s-eye view of the ontogenesis of early-life gut microbiota in typically natural and healthy milieus and should be informative and facilitative for future studies exploring various aspects of the human gut microbiota.

  3. Ontogenesis of the Gut Microbiota Composition in Healthy, Full-Term, Vaginally Born and Breast-Fed Infants over the First 3 Years of Life: A Quantitative Bird's-Eye View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Ravinder; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Takuya; Nomoto, Koji; Kawashima, Kazunari; Nagata, Satoru; Yamashiro, Yuichiro

    2017-01-01

    configuration and hence underpins the importance of considering not only the gestational age, birth, and feeding modes, and ethnic/geographical background but also other potential outstanding factors when investigating the elements shaping the early microbiota development. In summary, the data demonstrate a quantitative bird's-eye view of the ontogenesis of early-life gut microbiota in typically natural and healthy milieus and should be informative and facilitative for future studies exploring various aspects of the human gut microbiota.

  4. Ontogenesis of testicular function in humans.

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    GaĂŤlle Angenard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The two major functions of the testis, steroidogenesis and gametogenesis, take place during fetal life. These two functions have been extensively studied in rodents and adult humans. However, their onset during fetal life is poorly documented in humans. In the first part of this work we presented both our experimental data and some data of literature concerning the development of the human fetal testis. In the second part of this article, using the organ culture system we previously developed, we have investigated the regulations or perturbations of fetal testis development both in rodent and human models. Our findings provide important insight into the potential role of exposure to environmental pollutants (physical factors, in particular ionizing radiation, cadmium and endocrine disruptors such as phthalates during fetal testicular development and their potential deleterious effects on male fertility in adulthood. Our results highlight the specificity of the human model compared with rodent models.

  5. Ontogenesis of the sperm whale brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelschläger, H H; Kemp, B

    1998-09-21

    The development of the sperm whale brain (Physeter macrocephalus) was investigated in 12 embryos and early fetuses to obtain a better understanding of the morphological and physiological adaptations in this most exotic cetacean concerning locomotion, deep diving, and orientation. In male adult sperm whales, the average absolute brain mass and the relative size of the telencephalic hemisphere are the largest within the mammalia, whereas the ratio of the brain mass to the total body mass is one of the smallest. In the early sperm whale fetus, the rostral part of the olfactory system (olfactory nerves and bulbs) is lost, whereas the nervus terminalis seems to persist. Several components of the limbic system show signs of regression (hippocampus, fornix, mamillary body). In contrast, some components of the auditory system (trapezoid body, inferior colliculus) show marked enlargement in the early fetal period, thereby reflecting their dominant position in the adult. The cerebellum and pons grow slower than in most smaller toothed whales. The pyramidal tract develops poorly (reduction of the limbs), whereas marked growth of the striatum and inferior olive may be related to the animal's locomotion via trunk and tail. In the early fetal period, the trigeminal, vestibulocochlear, and facial nerves are the dominant cranial nerves (besides the vagus nerve). Whereas the number of axons in the vestibulocochlear nerve is high in adult, toothed whales and their diameters are considerable, the trigeminal nerve of the sperm whale may be the thickest of all cranial nerves and has the largest number of axons (innervation of the huge forehead region). A similar situation seems to exist for the facial nerve: It innervates the blowhole musculature that surrounds the very large spermaceti organ and melon (generation and emission of sonar clicks).

  6. Anatomia comparada das folhas de espécies de Peperomia (Piperaceae: I. Ontogênese do tecido aqüífero e dos estômatos Comparative leaf anatomy of Peperomia (Piperaceae: I. Ontogenesis of the aquiferous tissue and the stomata

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    Nathieli Keila Takemori

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A maioria das espécies de Peperomia apresenta tecido que reserva água na face adaxial de suas folhas. Esse tecido pode variar em espessura, determinando maior ou menor suculência à folha. A fim de se determinar a origem de estruturas anatômicas relevantes ao grupo, o presente trabalho descreveu o desenvolvimento do tecido especializado na reserva de água, bem como a ontogênese dos estômatos de P. catharinae Miquel, P. emarginella (Sw. C.DC., P. quadrifolia (L. Kunth e P. rotundifolia (L. Kunth. Para tanto, foram observadas folhas jovens do ápice caulinar e do primeiro nó subseqüente, em secções transversais e paradérmicas. As técnicas utilizadas foram as usuais para microscopia fotônica. Todas as espécies apresentaram tecido especializado na reserva de água, originado de divisões periclinais das células protodérmicas. A ontogênese estomática é mesoperígena, dando origem a estômatos anisocíticos, tetracíticos e estaurocíticos.Most species of Peperomia presents a water reservoir tissue on the adaxial surface of the leaf. This tissue can vary in thickness determining more or less succulence to the leaf. On purpose of determining the origin of important anatomic structures for this group, the present work describes the development of the water reservoir specialized tissue, as well as the stomata ontogenesis for P. catharinae Miquel, P. emarginella (Sw. C.DC., P. quadrifolia (L. Kunth and P. rotundifolia (L. Kunth. Young leaves from the stem apex and the first node were observed in cross and paradermic sections. The techniques were the usual for light microscopy. All the species presented the water reservoir specialized tissue originated from periclinal divisions of protodermal cells. The stomata ontogenesis is mesoperigenous and it gives rise to anisocytic, tetracytic and staurocytic stomata.

  7. Early ontogenesis of the angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare Schultze, 1823 (Cichlidae

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    Agata Korzelecka-Orkisz

    Full Text Available This study describes the egg membrane structures of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare, morpho-physiological changes during angelfish embryogenesis from activation to hatching under optimal conditions (28°C; pH 6.8, the developing larvae and fry, the effect of alkaline pH on the early developmental stages of the species, the relationship between food item size and fry survival. Egg membranes (thin, transparent, 1.67-2.18 µm thick are covered by a sticky substance. The amber-coloured angelfish eggs were oval in shape, with average diameters of 1.436 and 1.171 mm, i.e., a mean volume of 1.033 ± 0.095 mm³. The survival rate of embryos and larvae kept in water with an elevated, slightly alkaline pH was very low: as few as 2% of the embryos survived, while in the batch kept in optimal water conditions very few eggs died. The first larvae hatched after 1288 h of embryonic development. The newly hatched larvae measured on average 2.60 ± 0.093 mm and had large (0.64 ± 0.077 mm³ yolk sacs. They attached themselves to the substrate with a secretion of thin, viscous threads, which was released from glands situated on the top of the head. The glands vanished on day 5. The 1-day-old larvae showed the first pigment cells on the body and the eyes of the 2-day-olds were already fully pigmented. Between day 4 and 5 of larval life, the larvae began feeding on live food. The 23-day-old fry looked like a miniature versions of the adults. Mortality of the angelfish larvae during their first days after hatching was higher in those fed brine shrimp (Artemia salina nauplii than those fed protozoans and rotifers.

  8. Rhetorical intentionality attribution: its ontogenesis in ordinary conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaiuto, M; Fasulo, A

    1997-12-01

    This paper addresses the assumption that the epistemological dichotomy between reality and its construction is an everyday rhetorical tool children and adults use in their explanations and arguments. Within a discursive psychology perspective, the phenomenon of attribution of rhetorical intentionality (AIR) is theoretically defined developing the notion of prepackaged interest attribution technique (Edwards & Potter, 1992). AIR consists in an explanation of others' discursive moves in terms of a rhetorical-argumentative activity; that is, in terms of a deliberate attempt aimed at construing and presenting reality as a function of the speaker's point of view, perspective and interests, in order to affect the listeners mental state (belief, knowledge, intention) or action. Theoretical links are made to the theory of mind paradigm in the study of intentionality attribution, particularly to the form of life approach which defines intentionality attribution in terms of language games. On this basis, the present study examines the structures and functions of AIR used by children and their parents in everyday conversation. Qualitative discourse analysis of transcripts of 22 dinner conversations from eight Italian families shows explicit and implicit AIR in children from three and a half to seven years of age. Moreover, parents attribute rhetorical intentionality to their children, contributing to their social construction as rhetorical speakers. AIR is used as a rhetorical strategy within disputes and argumentative contexts, often achieving topic closure. Results are discussed with reference to the ontological status of intentionalist talk.

  9. [Antioxidant system in the darkling beetle (Tenebrio molitor) in ontogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulevskiĭ, A K; Grishchenkova, E A; Relina, L I

    2006-01-01

    The level of antioxidant protection and lipid peroxidation (LP) intensity in the darkling beetle Tenebrio molitor on different developmental stages were assessed. Each stage was shown to be characterized by its own peculiarities of prooxidant-antioxidant balance. Thus, maximal intensity of oxidative processes estimated by LP intermediate product (diene conjugates and ketodiens) accumulation is attributable to pupae, and minimal intensity--to the 3rd-5th instar larvae. Superoxide dismutase activity increases gradually during the life cycle. A decline in catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities occurred on the stage of pupae. CAT activity in imago was equal to the larva values, and GR activity in imago even exceeded the larva values. At the same time GR activity in T. molitor was detected only at 37 degrees C under our experimental conditions. No statistically significant changes in glutathione reduced content were observed in the insects during the life cycle.

  10. Early ontogenesis of the angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare Schultze, 1823 (Cichlidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Korzelecka-Orkisz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the egg membrane structures of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare, morpho-physiological changes during angelfish embryogenesis from activation to hatching under optimal conditions (28°C; pH 6.8, the developing larvae and fry, the effect of alkaline pH on the early developmental stages of the species, the relationship between food item size and fry survival. Egg membranes (thin, transparent, 1.67-2.18 µm thick are covered by a sticky substance. The amber-coloured angelfish eggs were oval in shape, with average diameters of 1.436 and 1.171 mm, i.e., a mean volume of 1.033 ± 0.095 mm³. The survival rate of embryos and larvae kept in water with an elevated, slightly alkaline pH was very low: as few as 2% of the embryos survived, while in the batch kept in optimal water conditions very few eggs died. The first larvae hatched after 1288 h of embryonic development. The newly hatched larvae measured on average 2.60 ± 0.093 mm and had large (0.64 ± 0.077 mm³ yolk sacs. They attached themselves to the substrate with a secretion of thin, viscous threads, which was released from glands situated on the top of the head. The glands vanished on day 5. The 1-day-old larvae showed the first pigment cells on the body and the eyes of the 2-day-olds were already fully pigmented. Between day 4 and 5 of larval life, the larvae began feeding on live food. The 23-day-old fry looked like a miniature versions of the adults. Mortality of the angelfish larvae during their first days after hatching was higher in those fed brine shrimp (Artemia salina nauplii than those fed protozoans and rotifers.En este trabajo se ha descrito la estructura de las túnicas ovulares del escalar o pez ángel (Pterophyllum scalare, las modificaciones morfo-fisiológicas que transcurren durante la embriogénesis del escalar desde el momento de activización para el desove en condiciones ambientales óptimas (28ºC y pH 6,8 y, se han caracterizado las larvas y los alevines desarrollándose. Adicionalmente, se ha estudiado el efecto del pH básico del agua sobre los primeros estadios de desarrollo y la dependencia entre la cantidad de alimento y la supervivencia de los alevines. Las túnicas ovulares del escalar son finas (1,67-2,18 mm, transparentes, cubiertas de una sustancia viscosa. Los huevos de color ámbar tienen forma ovalada de diámetros medios 1,436 y 1,171 mm y de un volumen medio de 1,033 ± 0,095mm³. El porcentaje de supervivencia de embriones y de larvas en agua con pH aumentado, ligeramente básico, fue muy bajo, ya que sólo el 2% de los embriones sobrevivió, mientras que en agua de parámetros óptimos sólo algunos huevos palidecieron. Las larvas recién salidas del huevo medían 2,60 ± 0,093 mm por término medio y poseían grandes (0,64 ± 0,077 mm³ sacos vitelinos. Se han adherido al substrato mediante una secreción en forma de filamentos finos y viscosos. Esta secreción se ha desprendido de las glándulas ubicadas en la cumbre de la cabeza. Las glándulas desaparecieron al 5º día de vida de las larvas. Las larvas de un día poseían ya las primeras células pigmentarias en el cuerpo, los ojos de las larvas de dos días estaban pigmentadas plenamente. Entre el 4º y 5º día de vida las larvas empezaron a tomar alimento. Las larvas de 23 días se parecían a una versión miniaturizada de los adultos. La mortalidad de las larvas del escalar alimentadas durante los primeros días a partir del desove con larvas de artemia salina (Artemia salina fue mayor que la de las alimentadas con protozoarios y rotíferos.

  11. Ontogenesis of agonistic vocalizations in the cichlid fish Metriaclima zebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Frédéric; Scaion, Delphine; Beauchaud, Marilyn; Attia, Joël; Mathevon, Nicolas

    2012-08-01

    While acoustic communication has been described in adults of various fish species, our knowledge about the ontogeny of fish sound production is limited. In adults, sound signals are known to be involved during aggressive interactions. However, aggressive behaviour may appear early in the life of fishes due to the possible competition for food and space. If acoustic signals are used to send information to competitors, sounds are likely to play a role during interactions between juvenile fish as well. The apparition and evolution of sound production were monitored in a group of juveniles of the cichlid fish Metriaclima zebra from hatching to 4 months of age. In addition, the link between vocalizations and agonistic behaviour was studied during dyadic interactions at three different ages. Sounds production appeared to be present early in the development of this fish and increased along with the number of aggressive behaviours. Recorded sounds consisted, in juveniles, in isolated pulses showing a decrease in frequency and duration as the fish grew. In adults, sounds became bursts of pulses but the transition from isolated to repetitive pulses was not observed. These results are compared to the existing literature on sound production ontogeny in fishes.

  12. Ontogenesis of the Potamogeton flower and fruitlet in SEM research

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    Cezary Toma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological development of fruitlets representing the four sections of the genus Potamogeton was investigated. Evident morphological differences in the course of the development of fruitlets between the species studied were found. They concern: a size, shape and outline of carpels and fruitlets, b individual rate of fruitlet development, c angle arrangement of the fruitlets, and d structure of the basal and the apical parts of the fruitlets. Acropetal initiating of the floral primordia was found, as well as the fact that the fruitlet surfaces are very variable and thus useless for taxonomical purposes.

  13. The family and the ontogenesis of human life: An appraisal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of auto-transcendence still baffles philosophers and scholars of ... role of the family, in a man's journey on earth beginning from his origins through his ... fundamental features of man, namely: Facticity, existentiality and falleness.

  14. Proteomic analysis during ontogenesis of secondary xylem in maritime pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés, Marcelo; Le Provost, Grégoire; Lalanne, Céline; Claverol, Stéphane; Barré, Aurélien; Plomion, Christophe; Herrera, Raul

    2014-11-01

    Secondary xylem (wood) is formed through an intricate biological process that results in a highly variable final product. Studies have focused on understanding the molecular events for wood formation in conifers. In this process environmental, ontogenic and genetic factors influence variation in wood characteristics, including anatomical, chemical and physical properties. The main objective of this study was to analyse the ageing (ontogenic) effect on protein accumulation in wood-forming tissues along a cambial age (CA) gradient, ranging from juvenile wood (JW) sampled at the top of the tree, to mature wood (MW) sampled at the bottom of the tree. A total of 62 proteins whose accumulation varied by at least 1.5-fold according to CA were selected and identified by ESI-MS/MS; 30 of these were more abundant in MW and 32 were more abundant in JW. Consistent with earlier findings, our results show that JW is a tissue characterized by a high energy demand with the accumulation of gene products involved in energy, protein fate and cellular transport, while proteins identified in MW (heat shock response, oxygen and radical detoxification, and the S-adenosyl methionine cycle) support the idea that this tissue undergoes extended cell-wall thickening and a delay of programmed cell death.

  15. Ontogenesis and Adaptability of Mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Different Varieties of Cotton%不同类型棉花品种对扶桑绵粉蚧个体发育特征及其适应性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新宁; 崔旭红; 陈玲; 黄伟峰; 郑丹; 商晗武

    2012-01-01

    The ontogenesis of the cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis feeding on six varieties of transgenic or non-trans-genic Bt cotton was investigated. Correlations between the development and reproduction of Ph. solenopsis and the amounts of soluble sugar, soluble protein and gossypol in cotton were also analyzed. The results showed that the cotton mealybug could complete its life cycle on both transgenic and non-transgenic cotton plants, but there were significant differences among the six cotton varieties in the development time, fecundity, and mortality of Ph. solenopsis. Variety CCRI 41 was the best for cotton mealybug, which had the best fecundity, longevity, net reproductive rate (Ro), intrinsic rate of increase (rm), and finite rate of increase (X.) and the lowest doubling time (DT) on this strain. In contrast, CCRI 59 was the most unsuitable variety for cotton mealybug, which had the lowest fecundity, longevity, Ro, rm, and X and the highest mortality and DT on this cultivar. There was a positive correlation between gossypol content offender leaves and the duration of 2nd instar nymphs and negative correlations between gossypol content of both tender and mature leaves and adult longevity and fecundity, which implied that gossypol slowed the growth and development of Ph. solenopsis and inhibited both reproduction and survival of the mealybug.%研究了转基因、非转基因等6个不同棉花品种以及棉叶中可溶性糖、可溶性蛋白、棉酚含量对扶桑绵粉蚧生长发育、繁殖特性的影响,结果表明:扶桑绵粉蚧在各品种棉花上都能危害,且在发育历期、产卵量和存活率等方面均存在明显差异.中棉所41上扶桑绵粉蚧产卵量、寿命、净增殖率R0、内禀增长率rm与周期增长率λ数值最大,种群加倍时间DT值最小,为该虫最适宜棉花品种;而中棉所59上产卵量、寿命、R0、rm、λ值最小,死亡率与DT值最大,为该虫最不适宜品种.嫩叶棉酚含量与2龄若

  16. PARP-I and p53 expression in Sertoli cell during rat ontogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Taherian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly ADP-ribose polymerase-I (PARP-I, a nuclear I I 3-kDa Zinc-finger protein, catalyze poly ADP-ribosilation reactions and is involved in many physiological and pathological conditions such as cell differentation and proliferation, transcriptional events, carcinogenesis and apoptosis. Sertoli cells are essential for reproduction, providing germ cells with nutrients and hormonal signals. Poly ADP-ribosylation has been well studied during sperm cell maturation but the role of such reactions at the Sertoli cell level remains unknown. In the present work we analyzed the expression of PARP-I during the postnatal differentiation of Sertoli cells isolated from rat testis. We compared PART-I expression with that of p53, whose activity is modulated by poly ADP-ribosylation. Quantitative RT-PCR technique was employed. Our data demonstrate for the first time PART-I expression in rat Sertoli cell both in the neonatal and peripubertal period. p53 expression pattern was found opposite to that of PART-I, suggesting that PART-I is possibility in charge for protecting the developing Sertoli cells when the activity of p53 lowers.

  17. [Fetal pain and intrauterine analgesia/anesthesia: neuroanatomy, ontogenesis and physiology of pain perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deli, Tamás; Szeverényi, Péter

    2010-03-14

    The human fetus can suffer several presumably painful interventions perinatally and even before, during its intrauterine life. In recent years, a scientific dispute has expanded, concerning the existence of fetal pain and the need for its relief, and a heated social, political, religious, moral and philosophical debate has arisen, focusing mainly on the suffering experienced by the fetus during artificial abortion. We review the medical scientific knowledge regarding fetal pain in the literature. The definition of pain and the neuroanatomical structures participating in subjective pain perception, followed by the development of the latter in the course of ontogeny is presented. The objective indicators of intrauterine stress response (such as fetal neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, reflex and behavioral reactions) evoked by noxious stimuli are discussed.

  18. [External proprioceptors of locust locomotor organs and their changes during early larval ontogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, T V; Severina, I Iu

    2009-01-01

    This work studies topography and structure of such important insect external proprioceptors as campaniform sensillae (CS). These mechanoreceptors are essential components of insect posture and locomotion regulation and participate in control of various forms of insect motor behavior (walking, jump, flight). There are traced their quantitative changes as well as differences in distribution of groups of these leg receptors at consecutive stages (from the 1st to the 4th) of ontogenetic development of larva of the locust Locusta migratoria L. The presence of groups of CS in proximal parts of extremities has been noted as early as in the 1st instar larvae. The CS groups in the wing pads were revealed only in the 4th instar larvae. The presented data allow connecting changes in structure and distribution of these proprioceptors on central generators of the locomotion rhythms.

  19. Expression of Pigment Cell-Specific Genes in the Ontogenesis of the Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Ageenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the polyketide compounds, the naphthoquinone pigment echinochrome, is synthesized in sea urchin pigment cells. We analyzed polyketide synthase (pks and sulfotransferase (sult gene expression in embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius from various stages of development and in specific tissues of the adults. We observed the highest level of expression of the pks and sult genes at the gastrula stage. In unfertilized eggs, only trace amounts of the pks and sult transcripts were detected, whereas no transcripts of these genes were observed in spermatozoids. The addition of shikimic acid, a precursor of naphthoquinone pigments, to zygotes and embryos increased the expression of the pks and sult genes. Our findings, including the development of specific conditions to promote pigment cell differentiation of embryonic sea urchin cells in culture, represent a definitive study on the molecular signaling pathways that are involved in the biosynthesis of pigments during sea urchin development.

  20. Ontogenesis of NADPH-diaphorase positive neurons in guinea pig neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao eLiu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In mammalian cerebrum there exist two distinct types of interneurons expressing nitric oxide synthase (NOS. Type I neurons are large in size and exhibit heavy nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d histochemical reaction, while type II cells are small with light NADPH-d reactivity. The time of origin of these cortical neurons relative to corticogenesis remains largely unclear among mammals. Here we explored this issue in guinea pigs using cell birth-dating and double-labeling methods. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU pulse-chasing (2 doses at 50 mg/kg, 12 hours apart was given to time-pregnant mothers, followed by quantification of NADPH-d/BrdU colocalization in the parietal and temporal neocortex in offspring at postnatal day 0 (P0, P30 and P60. Type I neurons were partially colabeled with BrdU at P0, P30 and P60 following pulse-chasing at embryonic day 21 (E21, E28 and E35, varied from 2% to 11.3% of total population of these neurons for the three time groups. Type II neurons were partially colabeled for BrdU following pulse-chasing at E21, E28, E35 and E42 at P0 (8.6%-16.5% of total population for individual time groups. At P60, type II neurons were found to co-express BrdU (4.8%-11.3% of total population for individual time groups following pulse-chasing at E21, E28, E35, E42, E49, E56 and E60/61. These results indicate that in guinea pigs type I neurons are generated during early corticogenesis, whereas type II cells are produced over a wide prenatal time window persisting until birth. The data also suggest that type II nitrinergic neurons may undergo a period of development/differentiation, for over one month, before being NADPH-d reactive.

  1. Ontogenesis of illness. Ontogenia de la enfermedad. Ontogenia da doença.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Sampaio Azambuja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to demonstrate the development of the concept of disease according to the current theory of Autopoiesis proposed by Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela from Chile. Structural determination, structural coupling, conduct, speech, mind and emotions will be expanded as a living unit of the individual and its going-to-be. Along with this discussion, we show how the understanding of the disease can be related to this concept. Finally, we concluded that any disease, to in accordance to the theory of Autopoiesis, has to be understood as a process linked to the individual life, as a whole unit. Furthermore, in this context, the disease can only be distinguished by a careful observer as one and indissoluble process, inside an event that happens in the speech of the subject, who has his own experience of the disease.

  2. Exposing Piaget's scheme: Empirical evidence for the ontogenesis of coordination in learning a mathematical concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamson, Dor; Shayan, Shakila; Bakker, Arthur; Van Der Schaaf, Marieke F.

    2016-01-01

    The combination of two methodological resources-natural-user interfaces (NUI) and multimodal learning analytics (MMLA)-is creating opportunities for educational researchers to empirically evaluate seminal models for the hypothetical emergence of concepts from situated sensorimotor activity. 76

  3. Ecological-biological Aspects of Stipa krylovii Roshev Adaptation at the Initial Stages of Ontogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Chistyakova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Xerophytic cereal Stipa krylovii Roshev is interesting as a relic with extensive capabilities to adapt to severe climatic conditions of Eastern Zabaikal’ye, which allows it to occupy a vast areal. The species under study is characterized by distinctive ecological-biological peculiarities, which are underpinned by not only distribution, but historical establishment of the species. The primary goal of the research was to study ecological-biological peculiarities of adaptation of wild cereal Stipa krylovii to the habitat in Eastern Zabaikal’ye. According to the observations, Stipa krylovii is characterized by late development rate coinciding with the period of optimal heat and moisture availability. Seed embryos have a well-developed scutellum, distinct structures and well differentiated embryo axis. The studies identified no lateral or secondary roots in the cereal. In nature, seeds of S. krylovii are characterized by profound organic peace period, which persists in the course of sprouting under optimal conditions. Peace period of S. krylovii caryopses is likely to be due to the presence of sprouting inhibitors and is overcome in moist autumn period. Seed viability was determined under various soil moisture parameters up to its complete water capacity; the impact of moisture content on seed sprouting rate was studied. The results of the tests on caryopses sprouting with various moisture content demonstrated that at minimum moisture content (10% S. krylovii forms epidermal hairs on coleorhiza; 30% of soil water content is enough for growth activation, viability and sprouting rate of this cereal, which is due to its xerophytic nature. This morphological peculiarity is likely to ensure in nature sprouting of these species in early spring, when soil contain minimum water. Intensity of the initial growth was determined by a number of parameters: rate of change in linear growth of trunk and root parts of the embryo, growth of dry substance of plantlets and roots (4-th and 6-th days of sprouting. Thus, characteristic morphological peculiarities in cereal structure play a certain role in adapting sprouting seeds to moisture deficit; so embryos of the species may be supposed to have their morphological mechanisms of regulating moisture absorption. Study of individual embryo parts demonstrates potential ecological-biological abilities of embryos to sprout with lack and excess of moisture.

  4. OPTIMUM, CRITICAL AND THRESHOLD VALUES FOR WATER OXYGENATION FOR MULLETS (MUGILIDAE AND FLATFISHES (PLEURONECTIDAE IN ONTOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shekk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the optimum, critical, and threshold values of water oxygenation for embryos, larvae and fingerlings of mullets and flatfishes under different temperature conditions. Methodology. Oxygen consumption was studied in chronic experiments with «interrupted flow» method with automatic fixation of dissolved oxygen in water with the aid of an oxygen sensor and automatic, continuous recording of the obtained results. «Critical» (Pcrit., and the «threshold» (Pthr. oxygen tension in the water have been determined. Findings. Under optimum conditions, the normal embryogenesis of mullets and flatfish to the gastrulation stage, provided 90–130% oxygen saturation. The critical content was 80–85%, the threshold – 65–70% of the saturation. At the stage of «movable embryo» depending on water temperature and fish species, the optimum range of water oxygenation was within 70‒127.1%. The most tolerant to oxygen deficiency was flounder Platichthys luscus (Pcrit – 25.4–27,5; Pthr. – 20.5–22.5%, the least resistant to hypoxia was striped mullet Mugil серhalus (Pcrit. – 50–60; Pthr. – 35–40%. The limits of the critical and threshold concentration of dissolved oxygen directly depended on the temperature and salinity, at which embryogenesis occurred. An increase in water temperature and salinity resulted in an increase in critical and threshold values for oxygen tension embryos. Mullet and flatfish fingerlings in all stages of development had a high tolerance to hypoxia, which increased as they grew. They were resistant to the oversaturation of water with oxygen. The most demanding for the oxygen regime are larvae and fingerlings of striped mullet and Liza aurata. Hypoxia tolerance of Psetta maeoticus (Psetta maeoticus and flounder at all stages of development is very high. The fingerlings of these species can endure reduction of the dissolved oxygen in water to 2.10 and 1.65 mgO2/dm3 respectively for a long time without visible effects. Originality. For the first time, we experimentally established the optimum, critical and threshold values for water oxygenation for embryos, larvae and juveniles of striped mullet, golden mullet, haarder, flounder and Black Sea turbot. Practical value. The obtained data can be used for the optimization of culture conditions and commodity cultivation of mullets and flatfishes.

  5. The eye of Drosophila as a model system for studying intracellular signaling in ontogenesis and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katanaev, V L; Kryuchkov, M V

    2011-12-01

    Many human diseases are caused by malfunction of basic types of cellular activity such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cell polarization, and migration. In turn, these processes are associated with different routes of intracellular signal transduction. A number of model systems have been designed to study normal and abnormal cellular and molecular processes associated with pathogenesis. The developing eye of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of these systems. The sequential development of compound eyes of this insect makes it possible to model human neurodegenerative diseases and mechanisms of carcinogenesis. In this paper we overview the program of the eye development in Drosophila, with emphasis on intracellular signaling pathways that regulate this complex process. We discuss in detail the roles of the Notch, Hedgehog, TGFβ, Wnt, and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways in Drosophila eye development and human pathology. We also briefly describe the modern methods of experimentation with this model organism to analyze the function of human pathogenic proteins.

  6. Dopaminergic Neurons Controlling Anterior Pituitary Functions: Anatomy and Ontogenesis in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Romain; Affaticati, Pierre; Bureau, Charlotte; Colin, Ingrid; Demarque, Michaël; Dufour, Sylvie; Vernier, Philippe; Yamamoto, Kei; Pasqualini, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) neurons located in the preoptico-hypothalamic region of the brain exert a major neuroendocrine control on reproduction, growth, and homeostasis by regulating the secretion of anterior pituitary (or adenohypophysis) hormones. Here, using a retrograde tract tracing experiment, we identified the neurons playing this role in the zebrafish. The DA cells projecting directly to the anterior pituitary are localized in the most anteroventral part of the preoptic area, and we named them preoptico-hypophyseal DA (POHDA) neurons. During development, these neurons do not appear before 72 hours postfertilization (hpf) and are the last dopaminergic cell group to differentiate. We found that the number of neurons in this cell population continues to increase throughout life proportionally to the growth of the fish. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation analysis suggested that this increase is due to continuous neurogenesis and not due to a phenotypic change in already-existing neurons. Finally, expression profiles of several genes (foxg1a, dlx2a, and nr4a2a/b) were different in the POHDA compared with the adjacent suprachiasmatic DA neurons, suggesting that POHDA neurons develop as a distinct DA cell population in the preoptic area. This study offers some insights into the regional identity of the preoptic area and provides the first bases for future functional genetic studies on the development of DA neurons controlling anterior pituitary functions.

  7. Pericarp ontogenesis with emphasis on the dispersal apparatus of three weed species of Faboideae (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Trzeciak-Limeira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the efficient dispersal is one among other features that amplify the invasion potential of a plant. Knowledge of the ontogeny, morphology and fruit dispersal of species is indispensable for weed control in crops. To identify the pericarp structures involved in the fragmentation and dehiscence processes and other features related to dispersal, we studied the pericarp development of Aeschynomene evenia Wright, Desmodium incanum (Sw. DC. and Vigna luteola (Jacq. Benth. (Fabaceae-Faboideae, all of which are considered weeds in certain situations. For light and scanning electron microscopy studies, we fixed and processed buds, flowers and fruits, according to usual methods, at different stages of development. We observed that the sclerenchymatous endocarp is essential for dehiscence in legumes, as well as for fragmentation in loments. We also found that the presence of hook-shaped trichomes, sclereid nests in the mesocarp, septum, hypodermis and the formation of false septa are essential to the diaspore dispersal of the species studied.

  8. OPTIMUM, CRITICAL AND THRESHOLD VALUES FOR WATER OXYGENATION FOR MULLETS (MUGILIDAE) AND FLATFISHES (PLEURONECTIDAE) IN ONTOGENESIS

    OpenAIRE

    P. Shekk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the optimum, critical, and threshold values of water oxygenation for embryos, larvae and fingerlings of mullets and flatfishes under different temperature conditions. Methodology. Oxygen consumption was studied in chronic experiments with «interrupted flow» method with automatic fixation of dissolved oxygen in water with the aid of an oxygen sensor and automatic, continuous recording of the obtained results. «Critical» (Pcrit.), and the «threshold» (Pthr.) oxygen ten...

  9. Toxicity of quantum dots and cadmium to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss in early ontogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živilė Cibulskaitė

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate toxic effects of CdSe/ZnS-COOH quantum dots (QD and cadmium (Cd on biological parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhychus mykiss in its early stages of development (embryos and larvae. It was found that short-term (24-, 96-hour exposure to sublethal concentrations of QD and Cd increased mortality of embryos and larvae, disturbed function of the cardio-respiratory system (gill ventilation frequency, heart rate and affected behavioural responses (individuals making nests in rainbow trout larvae. The results indicated that toxic effects of QD and Cd on rainbow trout larvae depended on the type of chemical substance, affected stage of development and exposure duration. Comparative studies of the effects of QD and Cd on rainbow trout in early stages of development showed that larvae were more sensitive to Cd and QD as compared to embryos. It was suggested that the chorion envelopes of eggs surround and protect the embryo from QD and Cd. Cadmium was more toxic to larvae than QD. Longer exposure (96-hour of QD and Cd induced more remarkable changes in test-parameters. This original study requires more investigations evaluating the mechanism of toxicity of QD to fish.

  10. [Graphic registration of grooming behavior and its parameters in rat ontogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepekhina, L M; Voskresenskiĭ, V O

    1991-10-01

    Ontogenic development of grooming behaviour (washing, scratching, lacking, shake down) by using precise graphic recording was studied. For this reason actograph with crystal pickup and electroencephalograph were used. A rhythmic phase of grooming behaviour is formed gradually, reaching the adult level up to the period in 16-17 days.

  11. Development of the glandular epithelium of the bovine parotid gland during ontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrückner, A; Fink, C; Kressin, M

    2003-06-01

    The development of the parotid gland was examined in 36 bovine embryos and foetuses with a crown-rump-length (CRL) from 28 up to 1000 mm by light, transmission electron microscopical and actin-immunohistochemical methods. The anlage of the parotid gland in an embryo with 28 mm CRL can be found at the lateral angle of the primitive oral cavity as a local thickening of the epithelium. During the second month, the differentiation of primary ducts and endbuds starts and a lumen develops in the primary ducts. At the end of the second month a lumen appears in the terminal endbuds. In the immature endpiece cells first secretory granules can be seen from a CRL of 240 mm. In the third month differentiation between intra- and inter-lobular ducts is possible. Immature myoepithelial cells present as a basal layer of flattened cells between the epithelial cells and the basement membrane at the end of the second month. During further development they increase in number, become more flattened and form long cellular processes. At the end of the fourth month isolated actin filament bundles are formed, which were also detected by an antibody against smooth muscle actin. The actin filaments condense continuously until they fill the cell processes completely at the end of foetal development.

  12. Hes4 controls proliferative properties of neural stem cells during retinal ontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yakoubi, Warif; Borday, Caroline; Hamdache, Johanna; Parain, Karine; Tran, Hong Thi; Vleminckx, Kris; Perron, Muriel; Locker, Morgane

    2012-12-01

    The retina of fish and amphibian contains genuine neural stem cells located at the most peripheral edge of the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ). However, their cell-of-origin as well as the mechanisms that sustain their maintenance during development are presently unknown. We identified Hes4 (previously named XHairy2), a gene encoding a bHLH-O transcriptional repressor, as a stem cell-specific marker of the Xenopus CMZ that is positively regulated by the canonical Wnt pathway and negatively by Hedgehog signaling. We found that during retinogenesis, Hes4 labels a small territory, located first at the pigmented epithelium (RPE)/neural retina (NR) border and later in the retinal margin, that likely gives rise to adult retinal stem cells. We next addressed whether Hes4 might impart this cell subpopulation with retinal stem cell features: inhibited RPE or NR differentiation programs, continuous proliferation, and slow cell cycle speed. We could indeed show that Hes4 overexpression cell autonomously prevents retinal precursor cells from commitment toward retinal fates and maintains them in a proliferative state. Besides, our data highlight for the first time that Hes4 may also constitute a crucial regulator of cell cycle kinetics. Hes4 gain of function indeed significantly slows down cell division, mainly through the lengthening of G1 phase. As a whole, we propose that Hes4 maintains particular stemness features in a cellular cohort dedicated to constitute the adult retinal stem cell pool, by keeping it in an undifferentiated and slowly proliferative state along embryonic retinogenesis.

  13. The thorax morphology of Epiophlebia (Insecta: Odonata) nymphs – including remarks on ontogenesis and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büsse, Sebastian; Helmker, Benjamin; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The species of Epiophlebia are unique among the recent Odonata in showing a mixture of morphological characters of dragonflies (Anisoptera) and damselflies (Zygoptera). The status of the four described extant species of Epiophlebia is disputable from a genetic as well as from a morphological point of view. Here we present an analysis of the thoracic musculature of different nymphal instars of Epiophlebia laidlawi and Epiophlebia superstes to elucidate their morphology and ontogenetic development. In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia. This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate. It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota. In total, our results indicate that Epiophlebia has the most ancestral thoracic morphology among Odonata. PMID:26246088

  14. Mapping Commercial Web 2.0 Worlds: Towards a New Critical Ontogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Werbin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available At the 2007 International Communication Association Conference, Web 2.0 was highlighted as an emergent topic of research with a keynote panel entitled 'What's so Significant about Social Networking? Web 2.0 and its Critical Potentials'. One of the thought-provoking moments during the panel was the juxtaposition of two very different and at first, contradictory theoretical approaches to the relationships between Web 2.0 and user-generated content. While Henry Jenkins focused on the democratic potential of online participatory culture as enabling new modes of knowledge production, Titziana Terranova argued for a post-Marxist perspective on Web 2.0 as a site of cultural colonization and expansion of new forms of capitalization on culture, affect and knowledge. The juxtaposition of these two very different critical approaches did not simply rehash the old divide between cultural theory, particularly active audience theory, and post-Marxist critical theory; rather, this debate over Web 2.0 suggested new possibilities for the synthesis and continued development of both sets of critiques. In other words, the event reinforced our belief that corporate colonization arguments do not provide an entirely adequate model for understanding Web 2.0. After all, commercial Web 2.0 spaces such as Facebook, YouTube and MySpace are important sites of cultural exchange and political discussion, in part because they almost entirely rely on user-generated content to exist.

  15. The thorax morphology of Epiophlebia (Insecta: Odonata) nymphs--including remarks on ontogenesis and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büsse, Sebastian; Helmker, Benjamin; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas

    2015-08-06

    The species of Epiophlebia are unique among the recent Odonata in showing a mixture of morphological characters of dragonflies (Anisoptera) and damselflies (Zygoptera). The status of the four described extant species of Epiophlebia is disputable from a genetic as well as from a morphological point of view. Here we present an analysis of the thoracic musculature of different nymphal instars of Epiophlebia laidlawi and Epiophlebia superstes to elucidate their morphology and ontogenetic development. In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia. This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate. It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota. In total, our results indicate that Epiophlebia has the most ancestral thoracic morphology among Odonata.

  16. Exposing Piaget's scheme: Empirical evidence for the ontogenesis of coordination in learning a mathematical concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamson, Dor; Shayan, Shakila; Bakker, Arthur; Van Der Schaaf, Marieke F.

    2016-01-01

    The combination of two methodological resources-natural-user interfaces (NUI) and multimodal learning analytics (MMLA)-is creating opportunities for educational researchers to empirically evaluate seminal models for the hypothetical emergence of concepts from situated sensorimotor activity. 76 parti

  17. [Volutionary reorganizations of ontogenesis in related frog species of the family Myobatrachidae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnitskiĭ, A G

    2010-01-01

    Literary data on the comparative embryology of Australian endemic frogs of the family Myobatrachidae have been considered. Six main types of development have been recognized, the important criteria for which are egg size, the site of embryo and tadpole development (in water or on land), the character of larval nutrition (exotrophic or endotrophic), the occurrence of direct development, brooding, etc. An attention has been also paid to the character of the early cleavage process in the embryos of various species. The peculiarities of ontogeny in Myobatrachidae are compared with those in representatives of other families in the order Anura. The perspectives of some further embryological studies of this Australian frog family have been outlined.

  18. Differential patterns of myosin Va expression during the ontogenesis of the rat hippocampus

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    L.S. Brinn

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Myosin Va is an actin-based, processive molecular motor protein highly enriched in the nervous tissue of vertebrates. It has been associated with processes of cellular motility, which include organelle transport and neurite outgrowth. The in vivo expression of myosin Va protein in the developing nervous system of mammals has not yet been reported. We describe here the immunolocalization of myosin Va in the developing rat hippocampus. Coronal sections of the embryonic and postnatal rat hippocampus were probed with an affinity-purified, polyclonal anti-myosin Va antibody. Myosin Va was localized in the cytoplasm of granule cells in the dentate gyrus and of pyramidal cells in Ammon's horn formation. Myosin Va expression changed during development, being higher in differentiating rather than already differentiated granule and pyramidal cells. Some of these cells presented a typical migratory profile, while others resembled neurons that were in the process of differentiation. Myosin Va was also transiently expressed in fibers present in the fimbria. Myosin Va was not detected in germinative matrices of the hippocampus proper or of the dentate gyrus. In conclusion, myosin Va expression in both granule and pyramidal cells showed both position and time dependency during hippocampal development, indicating that this motor protein is under developmental regulation.

  19. Ontogenesis and Dysontogenesis of the Gut Microbiota in Young Children: a Trigger Mechanism of Child Health Disorders

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    I. A. Belyaeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the studies of the formation and development of the gut microflora (microbiota in children and its pathogenetic role. The stages of colonization of the infant’s intestine and the interaction mechanisms between the child’s and mother’s microbiotasare described. The relationship between the formation dynamics of the child's microbiota and the nature of feeding is shown; a sanogenetic role of breastfeeding in relation to the infant’s microflora is noted. The connection of qualitative and quantitative microbiotacharacteristics with delayed risks of development of metabolic and allergic diseases is described. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the effect of antibiotics on the formation of microbiota, including in preterm infants. The article describes current approaches to the correction of the gut microbiota disorders with probiotic preparations and substantiates the methods for choosing probiotics. One of these preparations is a probiotic registered in Russia and containing B. lactis BB-12 and S. thermophilus, which is successfully used to correct dysbiosis in newborn infants, including in preterm infants.

  20. Hypothermic Preconditioning Reverses Tau Ontogenesis in Human Cortical Neurons and is Mimicked by Protein Phosphatase 2A Inhibition

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    Nina M. Rzechorzek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothermia is potently neuroprotective, but the molecular basis of this effect remains obscure. Changes in neuronal tau protein are of interest, since tau becomes hyperphosphorylated in injury-resistant, hypothermic brains. Noting inter-species differences in tau isoforms, we have used functional cortical neurons differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells (hCNs to interrogate tau modulation during hypothermic preconditioning at clinically-relevant temperatures. Key tau developmental transitions (phosphorylation status and splicing shift are recapitulated during hCN differentiation and subsequently reversed by mild (32 °C to moderate (28 °C cooling — conditions which reduce oxidative and excitotoxic stress-mediated injury in hCNs. Blocking a major tau kinase decreases hCN tau phosphorylation and abrogates hypothermic neuroprotection, whilst inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A mimics cooling-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and protects normothermic hCNs from oxidative stress. These findings indicate a possible role for phospho-tau in hypothermic preconditioning, and suggest that cooling drives human tau towards an earlier ontogenic phenotype whilst increasing neuronal resilience to common neurotoxic insults. This work provides a critical step forward in understanding how we might exploit the neuroprotective benefits of cooling without cooling patients.

  1. Ontogenesis of presynaptic GABAB receptor-mediated inhibition in the CA3 region of the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillard, O; McLean, H A; Ben-Ari, Y; Gaïarsa, J L

    1998-03-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid-B(GABAB) receptor-dependent and -independent components of paired-pulse depression (PPD) were investigated in the rat CA3 hippocampal region. Intracellular and whole cell recordings of CA3 pyramidal neurons were performed on hippocampal slices obtained from neonatal (5-7 day old) and adult (27-34 day old) rats. Electrical stimulation in the hilus evoked monosynaptic GABAA postsynaptic currents (eIPSCs) isolated in the presence of the ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX, 10 microM) and D(-)2-amino-5-phosphovaleric acid (-AP5, 50 microM) with 2(triethylamino)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl) acetamine (QX314) filled electrodes. In adult CA3 pyramidal neurons, when a pair of identical stimuli was applied at interstimulus intervals (ISIs) ranging from 50 to 1,500 ms the amplitude of the second eIPSC was depressed when compared with the first eIPSC. This paired-pulse depression (PPD) was partially blocked by P-3-aminoprophyl -P-diethoxymethylphosphoric acid (CGP35348, 0.5 mM), a selective GABAB receptor antagonist. In neonates, PPD was restricted to ISIs shorter than 200 ms and was not affected by CGP35348. The GABAB receptor agonist baclofen reduced the amplitude of eIPSCs in a dose-dependent manner with the same efficiency in both adults and neonates. Increasing the probability of transmitter release with high Ca2+ (4 mM)/low Mg2+ (0.3 mM) external solution revealed PPD in neonatal CA3 pyramidal neurons that was 1) partially prevented by CGP35348, 2) independent of the membrane holding potential of the recorded cell, and 3) not resulting from a change in the reversal potential of GABAA eIPSCs. In adults the GABA uptake blocker tiagabine (20 microM) increased the duration of eIPSCs and the magnitude of GABAB receptor-dependent PPD. In neonates, tiagabine also increased duration of eIPSCs but to a lesser extent than in adult and did not reveal a GABAB receptor-dependent PPD. These results demonstrate that although GABAB receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms of presynaptic inhibition are present onGABAergic terminals and functional, they do not operate at the level of monosynaptic GABAergic synaptic transmission at early stages of development. Absence of presynaptic autoinhibition of GABA release seems to be due to the small amount of transmitter that can access presynaptic regulatory sites.

  2. Ontogenesis of embryonic porcine ventral mesencephalon in the perspective of its potential use as a xenograft in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, GJ; Hogenesch, RI; Sprengers, MES; Staal, MJ

    1997-01-01

    Human fetal neural dopaminergic tissue can be transplanted and can ameliorate neurological deficiencies in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Donor tissue from other species has been used experimentally for several years in animal experiments and is now being considered an attractive

  3. [Specific growth rate and the rate of energy metabolism in the ontogenesis of axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum (Amphibia: Ambystomatidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirova, I G; Kleĭmenov, S Iu; Alekseeva, T A; Radzinskaia, L I

    2003-01-01

    Concordant changes in the rate of energy metabolism and specific growth rate of axolotls have been revealed. Several periods of ontogeny are distinguished, which differ in the ratio of energy metabolism to body weight and, therefore, are described by different allometric equations. It is suggested that the specific growth rate of an animal determines the type of dependence of energy metabolism on body weight.

  4. A high protein diet during pregnancy affects hepatic gene expression of energy sensing pathways along ontogenesis in a porcine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oster

    Full Text Available In rodent models and in humans the impact of gestational diets on the offspring's phenotype was shown experimentally and epidemiologically. The underlying programming of fetal development was shown to be associated with an increased risk of degenerative diseases in adulthood, including the metabolic syndrome. There are clues that diet-dependent modifications of the metabolism during fetal life can persist until adulthood. This leads to the hypothesis that the offspring's transcriptomes show short-term and long-term changes depending on the maternal diet. To this end pregnant German landrace gilts were fed either a high protein diet (HP, 30% CP or an adequate protein diet (AP, 12% CP throughout pregnancy. Hepatic transcriptome profiles of the offspring were analyzed at prenatal (94 dpc and postnatal stages (1, 28, 188 dpn. Depending on the gestational dietary exposure, mRNA expression levels of genes related to energy metabolism, N-metabolism, growth factor signaling pathways, lipid metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism and stress/immune response were affected either in a short-term or in a long-term manner. Gene expression profiles at fetal stage 94 dpc were almost unchanged between the diets. The gestational HP diet affected the hepatic expression profiles at prenatal and postnatal stages. The effects encompassed a modulation of the genome in terms of an altered responsiveness of energy and nutrient sensing pathways. Differential expression of genes related to energy production and nutrient utilization contribute to the maintenance of development and growth performance within physiological norms, however the modulation of these pathways may be accompanied by a predisposition for metabolic disturbances up to adult stages.

  5. Morphology, ontogenesis, and molecular phylogeny of an Indian population of Cyrtohymena (Cyrtohymenides) shii, including remarks on the subgenus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasbir; Kamra, Komal; Sapra, Gulshan Rai

    2013-05-01

    The freshwater ciliate Cyrtohymena (Cyrtohymenides) shii (Shi et al., 1997) Shao et al., 2012 (Hypotricha, Oxytrichidae), isolated from Barsey Rhododendron Sanctuary of The Eastern Himalayas, is slightly flexible, measures about 150 μm × 50 μm in life and possesses citrine cortical granules randomly distributed singly and in small clusters. Cells of our Indian population have five or six dorsal kineties arising from multiple fragmentation of the third dorsal anlage. The subgenus Cyrtohymenides includes species with multiple dorsal kinety fragmentation namely C. (C.) aspoecki (type species), C. (C.) australis, and the present species. Ventral morphogenesis of the genus Cyrtohymena has been reported only for the type species C. muscorum. Notable features of the Indian population include formation of frontal anlagen from four parental cirri, two more parental cirri possibly contribute to these anlagen later, and the formation of primary primordia which later split transversely to form two sets, one for each daughter cell. 18S rDNA sequence of the Indian population matches with those of two populations of C. citrina; it also clusters with Afrokeronopsis aurea, a neokeronopsid, with which it interestingly shares some morphological features, supporting the CEUU hypothesis.

  6. Layer-by-layer analysis of the components of thalamocortical responses of the sensorimotor cortex in the rabbit during ontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimko, I A

    1992-01-01

    The complex dynamics of the changes in the spatial-temporal disposition of the heterocomponent thalamocortical responses (TCR) when traversing the sensorimotor cortex (SMC), are governed by the characteristics of the electrogenesis of each of the components of the TCR, the age of the animal, and the frequency of stimulation of the ventroposterolateral (VPL) nucleus of the thalamus. At the same time, the transformation of the electrical profile of the second positive component (PC-2) of the TCR during traversal of the SMC may suggest the algebraic summation in this component of the bioelectrical processes of several sources of generation (of the inverted and noninverted PC-2). The characteristics of the ontogenetic dynamics of the profiles of the biological fields of the third negative component (NC-3) of the TCR which were found may be the result of age-related stages of development and of a change in the embryonal mechanisms of electrogenesis to the definitive mechanisms in the presence of outwardly similar negativities.

  7. Ontogenesis of gonadal aromatase gene expression in atlantic silverside (Menidia menidia) populations with genetic and temperature-dependent sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Tara A; Picha, Matthew E; Won, Eugene T; Borski, Russell J; McElroy, Anne E; Conover, David O

    2010-08-01

    Cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom), an enzyme that converts testosterone to 17beta-estradiol, is an important mediator of sex determination in teleosts with genetic sex determination (GSD) and temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). We compared the ontogenetic expression of P450arom in two populations of Atlantic silversides, Menidia menidia, which exhibit TSD (South Carolina) or GSD (Nova Scotia, Canada) using quantitative, real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Embryos and newly hatched larvae were reared at an intermediate sex ratio-producing temperature (21 degrees C), and older larvae and juveniles were reared at temperatures that feminize (15 degrees C) and masculinize (28 degrees C) to assess the temperature response of P450arom during development. Before sex determination, embryos and newly-hatched larvae displayed negligible P450arom expression, indicating minimal upregulation of this gene before sex determination. Gene expression increased in both populations during sex differentiation. Nova Scotia fish with GSD exhibited presumptive male- and female-like expression levels during early sex differentiation that were not influenced by temperature. South Carolina fish displayed low levels of expression at 28 degrees C with significantly heightened expression in some individuals at 15 degrees C, indicating that P450arom is temperature sensitive in the population with TSD. Populations also differed in the timing and maximal levels of P450arom expression, with fish from Nova Scotia exhibiting both the highest and earliest increase in expression in presumptive females. Our results support the hypothesis that P450arom is involved in female sex differentiation in this species, but is only responsive to temperature in M. menidia populations that exhibit TSD.

  8. Morphologic and Genetic Variability in the Marine Planktonic Ciliate Laboea strobila Lohmann, 1908 (Ciliophora, Oligotrichia), with Notes on its Ontogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    AGATHA, SABINE; STRÜDER-KYPKE, MICHAELA C.; BERAN, ALFRED

    2010-01-01

    Laboea strobila Lohmann, 1908 is a conspicuous oligotrich ciliate in the marine plankton. In order to compare different populations, the morphology of specimens from the Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, and Irish Sea was investigated using live observation, protargol impregnation, and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, the PCR-amplified products of the SSrRNA gene from a monoclonal culture of L. strobila from the Mediterranean Sea were sequenced and aligned with sequences of other oligotrichs, including a population of L. strobila from the Atlantic coast of the USA. Finally, the data from the ecological literature were summarized and the cultivation methods were described. The SSrRNA gene sequences of the two distantly located L. strobila populations from the North Atlantic are identical. Likewise, the morphometrics of most populations so far investigated after protargol impregnation (i.e. from the North Atlantic) do not show obvious differences. In all computed phylogenetic trees, L. strobila groups with Strombidium species, forming a monophyletic taxon corresponding to the subclass Oligotrichia. These results are corroborated by the ontogenetic comparison. Since no type species was fixed for Laboea Lohmann, 1908, L. strobila was designated in the present paper. PMID:15218695

  9. The features of the human mesenteric lymph node histogenesis in the first half of the prenatal period of ontogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Dub

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the important meanings are given to the role of mesenteric lymph node as a peripheral immune organ in the formation of local and general immune reactions. Features of the mesenteric lymph nodes morphogenesis are not well understood due to the different functions of these organs [1, 2]. There is still no consensus on the initial stages of the mesenteric lymph nodes. Many authors attribute the histogenesis of lymph nodes with the development of the mesenteric lymph vessels [3, 8]. In other studies determinant role of these is given to blood vessels [5, 6,7]. The discrepancy of views on the mesenteric lymph nodes early morphogenesis as well as a certain deficiency of works devoted to this problem require a comprehensive research of the mesenteric lymph nodes development with using of modern methods. The purpose: To study the features of human mesenteric lymph node development in the first half of the prenatal period of ontogeny. Materials and Methods: 19 mesentery of the human embryos and fetuses in 8-20 weeks of fetal development were investigated. Total film preparations and histological sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, resorcin-fuchsin by Weigert. Morphometric studies were carried out by S.B. Stefanov (1988. The research results: It was established that cells of the fibroblastic differon and cleft-like elements of vascular network are revealed in 8-9 weeks of fetal development in the loose connective tissue of the human small intestine, collagen and elastic fibers. Since the end of the 10th week clearly visible blood vessels appear in the loose connective tissue of the mesentery, among them the units of the arterial and venous channels are found. Under the upper sheet of the mesothelium the large gaps are determined, which are the germs of the mesentery lymphatic network. In 10-11 week of the human embryogenesis the first zones of the hematopoietic cells emigration from blood vessels are registered in the points of blood and lymph vessels contacts eviction. The clusters without any borders are formed in these places of migration. In the 13th week most clusters grow due to the ongoing process of hematopoietic cells emigration. Increasing clusters grow into the lumen of the primary lymphatic vessel. A closed system of the lymphatic circulation is formed. The amount of myelopoetic cells decreases gradually and the number of lymphoid cells, mainly medium and small lymphocytes, increases. Stromal cells are differentiated into reticulocytes. Lymph protocapillaries transform into the sinuses system of the future medulla. In the 14-15 weeks the quantity of lymph node germs in the mesentery continues to increase, there are sporadic macrophages. The formation of a capsule from collagen fibers of the lymphatic vessels adventitia and mesentery connective tissue is observed in the majority of lymph node germs. Endothelial cells of post-capillary venules thicken in the 16-17 week of fetal development. The amount of hemopoietic cells decreases. Dense clusters of lymphoid cells around the blood capillary glomeruli form the beginnings of the lymphoid follicles. To the 20th week the content of lymphoid cells continues to increase, the majority of lymphocytes are found in the lymph node parenchyma and in the venules lumen. Cortex and medulla are visualized clearly. CONCLUSIONS: 1. The development of the human mesenteric lymph node is directly associated primarily with the development of the mesentery blood vessels. 2. We may identify the following stages in the histogenesis of the mesenteric lymph node in the first half of the prenatal period of the ontogeny: formation and differentiation of the structural units of the mesentery vascular network (8-10 week of fetal development; forming of hemo- and lymphopoietic cells clusters – lymph node germs (11-12 weeks, differentiation of the lymph node germs structures and reduce of the myelopoiesis (13-14 weeks, differentiation of structural zones of the mesenteric lymph node germs lymph (from the 15 weeks of fetal development.

  10. Prenatal methylmercury exposure hampers glutathione antioxidant system ontogenesis and causes long-lasting oxidative stress in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringari, James; Nunes, Adriana K C; Franco, Jeferson L; Bohrer, Denise; Garcia, Solange C; Dafre, Alcir L; Milatovic, Dejan; Souza, Diogo O; Rocha, João B T; Aschner, Michael; Farina, Marcelo

    2008-02-15

    During the perinatal period, the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely sensitive to metals, including methylmercury (MeHg). Although the mechanism(s) associated with MeHg-induced developmental neurotoxicity remains obscure, several studies point to the glutathione (GSH) antioxidant system as an important molecular target for this toxicant. To extend our recent findings of MeHg-induced GSH dyshomeostasis, the present study was designed to assess the developmental profile of the GSH antioxidant system in the mouse brain during the early postnatal period after in utero exposure to MeHg. Pregnant mice were exposed to different doses of MeHg (1, 3 and 10 mg/l, diluted in drinking water, ad libitum) during the gestational period. After delivery, pups were killed at different time points - postnatal days (PND) 1, 11 and 21 - and the whole brain was used for determining biochemical parameters related to the antioxidant GSH system, as well as mercury content and the levels of F(2)-isoprostane. In control animals, cerebral GSH levels significantly increased over time during the early postnatal period; gestational exposure to MeHg caused a dose-dependent inhibition of this developmental event. Cerebral glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities significantly increased over time during the early postnatal period in control animals; gestational MeHg exposure induced a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on both developmental phenomena. These adverse effects of prenatal MeHg exposure were corroborated by marked increases in cerebral F(2)-isoprostanes levels at all time points. Significant negative correlations were found between F(2)-isoprostanes and GSH, as well as between F(2)-isoprostanes and GPx activity, suggesting that MeHg-induced disruption of the GSH system maturation is related to MeHg-induced increased lipid peroxidation in the pup brain. In utero MeHg exposure also caused a dose-dependent increase in the cerebral levels of mercury at birth. Even though the cerebral mercury concentration decreased to nearly basal levels at postnatal day 21, GSH levels, GPx and GR activities remained decreased in MeHg-exposed mice, indicating that prenatal exposure to MeHg affects the cerebral GSH antioxidant systems by inducing biochemical alterations that endure even when mercury tissue levels decrease and become indistinguishable from those noted in pups born to control dams. This study is the first to show that prenatal exposure to MeHg disrupts the postnatal development of the glutathione antioxidant system in the mouse brain, pointing to an additional molecular mechanism by which MeHg induces pro-oxidative damage in the developing CNS. Moreover, our experimental observation corroborates previous reports on the permanent functional deficits observed after prenatal MeHg exposure.

  11. Alterations in pharmacological sensitivity of GABAergic but not dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems during ontogenesis in dystonic mutant hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, A; Löscher, W

    1993-01-26

    Attacks of sustained dystonia of the limbs and trunk can be initiated by handling or mild environmental stimuli (e.g. new cage) in mutant (gene symbol dtsz) Syrian golden hamsters. The severity of the dystonic syndrome in these mutant hamsters is age-dependent, with a peak at weaning (21 days of age) and a second peak at about 30-40 days of age. Spontaneous remission occurs at an age of about 70 days. The syndrome in hamsters is thus similar to transient paroxysmal dystonia in children. In the present experiments, it was examined whether dystonic hamsters exhibit age-dependent differences in susceptibility to drugs which affect GABA (gamma-aminobutyrate)ergic, glutamatergic or dopaminergic functions. After acute administration, the GABA-elevating drug aminooxyacetic acid was significantly less potent in attenuating the severity of dystonic attacks at 21 days than at 31 days of age. Similar but less marked age-dependent differences in antidystonic activity were found for phenobarbital and diazepam. In contrast to these GABAmimetic drugs, the NMDA receptor antagonist CGP 37849 (DL-[E]-2-amino-4-methyl-5-phosphono-3-pentenoic acid) or the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol had about the same antidystonic potency at both 21 and 31 days of age. Chronic treatment of dystonic hamsters with aminooxyacetic acid, starting at 21 days of age, did not alter the time course or the severity of dystonia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Multiple benzodiazepine receptors in the ovine brain: ontogenesis, properties, and distribution of /sup 3/H-diazepam binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villiger, J.W.; Taylor, K.M.; Gluckman, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    Benzodiazepine receptors in the ovine frontal cortex were present at 56 days gestation and developed slowly until 96 days when the number increased rapidly, reaching adult levels by 120 days gestation. Scatchard analysis of 3H-diazepam specifically bound to cortical membranes suggested high (KD approximately equal to 2.0 nM) and low (KD approximately equal to 20.0 nM) affinity benzodiazepine receptors at all stages of development. Whereas the affinity of these receptors for 3H-diazepam did not alter during development, the number of both high and low affinity receptors increased significantly between 56 and 120 days gestation. The number of low affinity receptors were higher in late gestation and early neonatal life than in adulthood. The functional state of these receptors as determined by sensitivity to GABA did not alter during development. However, in the adult, nitrazepam, flunitrazepam, midazolam, and 1-methylisoguanosine were more potent in displacing 3H-diazepam at the low affinity than the high affinity receptor, whereas chlordiazepoxide and diazepam had greater potency at the high affinity binding site. Development of the benzodiazepine receptor in the majority of other brain regions studied occurred primarily after 68 days gestation, as was the case in frontal cortex. In contrast, hindbrain and midbrain benzodiazepine receptors had reached adult levels by 68 days gestation.

  13. Ontogenesis of embryonic porcine ventral mesencephalon in the perspective of its potential use as a xenograft in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, GJ; Hogenesch, RI; Sprengers, MES; Staal, MJ

    1997-01-01

    Human fetal neural dopaminergic tissue can be transplanted and can ameliorate neurological deficiencies in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Donor tissue from other species has been used experimentally for several years in animal experiments and is now being considered an attractive alternativ

  14. Life Cycle, Morphology, Ontogenesis, and Phylogeny of Bromeliothrix metopoides nov. gen., nov. spec., a Peculiar Ciliate (Protista, Colpodea) from Tank Bromeliads (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foissner, Wilhelm

    2010-11-15

    Bromeliothrix metopoides was discovered in tank bromeliads from Central and South America. Pure cultures could be established in various media stimulating growth of its food, i.e. bacteria and heterotrophic flagellates of the genus Polytomella. The new ciliate was investigated in the light- and scanning electron microscope, with various silver impregnation techniques, and with molecular methods, using the small-subunit rDNA. The morphology and its changes during the life cycle are documented by 167 figures and a detailed morphometry. Bromeliothrix metopoides is about 27-55 × 22-36 μm in size and has a complex life cycle with Metopus-shaped, bacteriophagous theronts and trophonts (microstomes) and obovate, flagellate-feeding macrostomes having a large, triangular oral apparatus. The thin-walled resting cysts of the theronts and trophonts are uniquely ellipsoidal, while the thick-walled cyst of the macrostome morph is globular. Reproduction occurs in freely motile condition either by binary fission or polytomy, producing a unique, motile "division chain" composed of four globular offspring, of which the central ones are connected by a curious, plug-like holdfast. Division is associated with a complete reorganization of the parental oral and somatic infraciliature. Stomatogenesis is merotelokinetal as in other members of the order Colpodida. The right polykinetid is generated by the rightmost postoral kinety, while the left polykinetid is produced by the two left postoral kineties and five left side kineties. The division in freely motile condition resembles the Exocolpodidae Foissner et al., 2002, to which Bromeliothrix is tentatively assigned, differing from Exocolpoda mainly by the formation of a macrostome morph and a division chain. Bromeliothrix has a ciliary and silverline pattern typical for members of the family Colpodidae. This matches the molecular classification which, however, hardly reflects the outstanding division and life cycle, suggesting some decoupling of morphological and molecular evolution. The specific morphological and ontogenetic traits of Bromeliothrix are interpreted as adaptations to the highly competitive habitat, favouring r-selected life strategies. Bromeliothrix metopoides is widespread in various tank bromeliads and can be easily cultivated in a wide variety of limnetic and terrestrial media. Thus, it remains obscure why this ciliate is restricted to tank bromeliads, i.e. did not occur in about 2,000 soil and freshwater samples investigated globally, including some 100 samples from Central and South America.

  15. [Effect of change in levels of motor activity and innervation on basic and secondary rhythms of rat heart rate and respiration in ontogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursian, A V; Dmitrieva, L E; Sizonov, V A

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the heart basic rhythm, its rhythmical variations on periodograms, and level of spontaneos motor activity were studied on offspring of white rats from newborn to 3-week age at transition from the state of active wakefulness to narcosis as well as under conditions of blockade of M-cholinoreceptors with atropine. It is shown that the endogenous rhythmical activity can be regulated not only by a change in frequency of basic rhythms, but also by action on all parameters and properties of their rhythmical variations and secondary rhythms. The changes in power of the heart secondary rhythms exceed considerably the frequency oscillations of basic rhythms during blockade of cholinergic innervation or a change in the motor activity level that affects both the basic rhythm circulation and respiration and their variations--secondary rhythms. The atropine blockade of M-cholinoreceptors at the studied ages changes the heart beating rhythm within the limits of 10% of bradicardia in newborns to tachycardia in the 3-week old animals. At the same time, power of the cardiac rhythm secondary oscillations changes several times. These data indicate that the cholinergic mechanisms play the key role in formation of the secondary rhythms and their correlation with motor activity.

  16. [Substrates and possible mechanisms of pineal gland moon-sensory function in context of redusome hypothesis of aging and control of biological time in ontogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, S V

    2008-01-01

    As a result of comparison of the normative factors on human pineal gland volume (8 age groups, n=411) with similar factors obtained in the days of the moon phase extremes (n=49) the following phenomena have been determined. As a rule all the moon phase extremes, in particular the new moon, are accompanied by an appreciable reduce of pineal gland volume, a sort of systole. These changes depend on the age factor. The results of the research advance indirect arguments for the redusome hypothesis of aging.

  17. Effect of Osmotic Stress in Early Stages of Ontogenesis on Root Respiration, Growth, Sugar Content, and Cell Injury in Maize Seedlings Differing in Drought Sensitivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Cultivars of maize (Zea mays L.) with different sensitivity to drought were exposed to 0.3 mol/L sorbitol (-1.4 MPa water potential) for 24 h. Exposure to water deficiency significantly reduced the growth of both shoots (coleoptile and hypocotyl) and roots. Shoot growth was inhibited more than the growth of roots.Osmotic stress enhanced accumulation of soluble sugars. Electrolyte leakage, a cell injury index, was slightly increased after 0.3 mol/L sorbitol. Respiration was measured in the presence and absence of 2,6-dichloro-phenol indophenol. 2,6-Dichloro-phenol indophenol did not influence respiration rates, because statistically equal results were observed under both conditions. Total respiration (VT) decreased after osmoticum treatment. There were no significant differences in the VT among the cultivars analysed.The decrease in vT was caused by a decline in the activities and capacities of both cytochrome (Vcyt, Vcyt) and alternative pathway (valt, valt) of respiration. A high residual respiration (vres) was observed, up to 27% of total uninhibited respiration. The result of uncoupler use clearly indicated that coupling was maintained after 24 h of osmotic stress. The recovery of the respiration rate was comparable with that of non-stressed control rates. According to these observations, no possible mitochondrial damage is expected. Water deficiency did not induce a stimulation of the alternative oxidase, so we assume that the stimulation of the alternative pathway is not related to drought stress resistance; rather, the function of the alternative pathway is to balance carbon metabolism and electron transport in a response to a changing environment.

  18. 银杏垂乳个体发生及系统学意义%Ontogenesis and Systematics Implications of Ginkgo biloba Chichi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢世岩; 张倩; 付兆军; 刘莉娟; 刘晓静; 辛红; 吴岐奎

    2013-01-01

    垂乳银杏是银杏家族中的一特异种质,银杏垂乳分根生、干生和枝生垂乳.中国现有垂乳银杏348株,分布在19个省(市),日本有43株.垂乳银杏与性别无关,但以300年以上古树居多.银杏垂乳呈圆锥状,外皮粗糙,并且垂直向下生长.这些垂乳生长到地面时可以产生根系和叶片.垂乳在树体上可以单一出现,也可以几个聚生.垂乳的顶部没有顶端分生组织,只出现形成层、次生木质部和韧皮部.从距垂乳顶端1cm处纵断面显示它的管胞具有许多取向,从距其顶端7 cm处取的断面显示,管胞接近正常的形成层取向.银杏垂乳发生机制通常有生长素说、愈伤或不定芽说、环境诱变说、病变或衰老说、子叶芽说.银杏垂乳也许对该物种的生长、发育及营养繁殖、野生性及长寿命具有重要的生态学和系统学意义.%Chichied ginkgo is a distinctive germplasm in ginkgo family.Ginkgo biloba chichi is divided into rooted chichi,stemmed chichi and branched chichi.There are 348 chichied ginkgo trees in China distributed in 19 provinces,and there are 43 plants in Japan.Chichied ginkgoes have no relations with gender but the most of chichied ginkgoes are older than 300 years.Chichi is coniform shaped with rough bark and grows vertically downward.These chichies can produce roots and leaves when they have grown down to the ground.Chichi on the tree can be a single appearance or a few aggregate.The tip of chichi has no apical meristem and only has cambium,secondary xylem and phloem.The median longitudinal sections exhibited various orientations of the tracheids at 1 cm from the tip of chichi.However,the sections revealed that tracheid orientation changed from being very variable in the centre to a more normal orientation as the cambium's at 7 cm from the tip.There are many theories on the chichi occurrence mechanisms,including Auxin theory,callus or adventitious bud theory,environmental mutagenesis theory,pathology or senility theory and cotyledon bud theory.Ginkgo biloba chichi probably has important ecology and systematics implications to the growth,development,vegetative propagation,wildness and long-lived of Ginkgo biloba.

  19. A low protein diet during pregnancy provokes a lasting shift of hepatic expression of genes related to cell cycle throughout ontogenesis in a porcine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oster Michael

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rodent models and in humans the impact of gestational diets on the offspring's phenotype was shown experimentally and epidemiologically. Adverse environmental conditions during fetal development provoke an intrauterine adaptive response termed 'fetal programming', which may lead to both persistently biased responsiveness to extrinsic factors and permanent consequences for the organismal phenotype. This leads to the hypothesis that the offspring's transcriptome exhibits short-term and long-term changes, depending on the maternal diet. In order to contribute to a comprehensive inventory of genes and functional networks that are targets of nutritional programming initiated during fetal life, we applied whole-genome microarrays for expression profiling in a longitudinal experimental design covering prenatal, perinatal, juvenile, and adult ontogenetic stages in a porcine model. Pregnant sows were fed either a gestational low protein diet (LP, 6% CP or an adequate protein diet (AP, 12% CP. All offspring was nursed by foster sows receiving standard diets. After weaning, all offspring was fed standard diets ad libitum. Results Analyses of the hepatic gene expression of the offspring at prenatal (94 dies post conceptionem, dpc and postnatal stages (1, 28, 188 dies post natum, dpn included comparisons between dietary groups within stages as well as comparisons between ontogenetic stages within diets to separate diet-specific transcriptional changes and maturation processes. We observed differential expression of genes related to lipid metabolism (e.g. Fatty acid metabolism, Biosynthesis of steroids, Synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, FA elongation in mitochondria, Bile acid synthesis and cell cycle regulation (e.g. Mitotic roles of PLK, G1/S checkpoint regulation, G2/M DNA damage checkpoint regulation. Notably, at stage 1 dpn no regulation of a distinct pathway was found in LP offspring. Conclusions The transcriptomic modulations point to persistent functional demand on the liver towards cell proliferation in the LP group but not in the AP group at identical nutritional conditions during postnatal life due to divergent 'programming' of the genome. Together with the observation that the offspring of both groups did not differ in body weight but in body composition and fat content, the data indicate that the activity of various genes led to diverse partitioning of nutrients among peripheral and visceral organs and tissues.

  20. Ontogênese, anatomia e ultra-estrutura dos nectários extraflorais de Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae Ontogenesis, anatomy, and ultrastructure of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae extrafloral nectaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élder Antônio Sousa Paiva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne apresenta nectários extraflorais (NEFs, os quais são descritos pela primeira vez no gênero. Neste trabalho foram estudadas a distribuição, ontogênese, estrutura e ultra-estrutura dos nectários extraflorais (NEFs. Amostras de folhas em várias fases de desenvolvimento foram coletadas, fixadas e processadas para estudos em microscopia de luz e eletrônica de transmissão e varredura, segundo técnicas convencionais. Testes histoquímicos foram empregados para determinar a natureza química da secreção. Os NEFs estão distribuídos por todo o limbo, sendo mais concentrados nos terços basal e médio de cada folíolo. Estes nectários são embutidos no mesofilo, apresentam tecido secretor envolvido por uma endoderme e são vascularizados por xilema e floema. A atividade secretora dos NEFs é limitada à fase juvenil da folha. Nas folhas mais velhas, os NEFs tornam-se não funcionais. O tecido secretor dos NEFs é formado a partir da protoderme, enquanto a endoderme tem origem no meristema fundamental. No tecido secretor de nectários funcionais as células apresentam citoplasma denso, núcleo volumoso, mitocôndrias, plastídios com sistema de membranas pouco desenvolvido, gotas de óleo dispersas no citosol, dictiossomos e segmentos de retículo endoplasmático liso. A secreção é liberada por meio de rupturas cuticulares e apresenta polissacarídeos e lipídios.Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne, known as "jatobá-do-cerrado" has extrafloral nectaries (EFNs, which are reported for the first time in Hymenaea genus. In this research the origin, distribution, structure, and ultrastructure of the EFNs were studied. Samples of leaflets at different developmental stages were collected, fixed and processed by standard methods for analyses at light and electronic microscopes; histochemical tests were employed to determine the nature of secretion products. EFNs are distributed all over leaf blade, more concentrated on the basal and medial thirds of each leaflet. These nectaries are embedded in the mesophyll, show secretory tissue surrounded by an endodermis, and are vascularized by xylem and phloem. EFN secretory activity was exclusively observed in young leaves. The protoderm origins the EFN secretory tissue, the ground meristem originates the endodermis and the procambium originates the vascular tissues. Secretory cells of functional EFNs showed dense cytoplasm, large nucleus, mitochondria, plastids with a poorly developed membrane system, oil drops scattered in the cytosol, dictyosome, and smooth endoplasmic reticulum segments. Secretion was released by cuticle rupture and contains polysaccharides and lipids.

  1. ONTOGENESIS OF TUZOIA BISPINOSA (ARTHROPODA) FROM THE MIDDLE CAMBRIAN KAILI BIOTA, GUIZHOU, CHINA%贵州中寒武世凯里生物群双刺吐卓虫(Tuzoia bispinose)个体发育的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚路; 彭进; 傅晓平; 赵元龙

    2009-01-01

    大型双瓣壳节肢动物是凯里生物群中重要组成部分,其中吐卓虫属(Tuzoia)最为常见,化石标本达200多件.吐卓虫常见于全球早、中寒武世地层,地理分布广泛,在地层对比和古环境研究中具有重要意义.文章运用数理统计和对比研究的方法,详细检测130多块双刺吐卓虫(Tuzoia bispinosa Yuan and Zhao,1999)化石标本,发现明显可分为幼年期、青年期和成年期3个不同的生长发育阶段.文中探讨双刺吐卓虫的个体发育,确认先前建立的凯里生物群中Tuzoia的2个种:Tuzoia bispinose和T.magna,应为Tuzoia bispinose一种.

  2. The hygienic hypothesis and transformations in etiological knowledge: from causal ontology to ontogenesis of the body A hipótese higiênica e transformações etiológicas: da ontologia causal à ontogênese do corpo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Czeresnia

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to systematize the principal recent research results pertaining to the so-called hygienic hypothesis, which establishes an etiological link between the increasing incidence of allergic diseases and the decreasing incidence of infectious diseases in the industrialized countries of the Western world. The author contends that the current debate on the hygienic hypothesis indicates significant transformations in the understanding of disease etiology, perhaps even as important as the transformations in the 19th century during the process leading to the constitution of modern medicine and the identification of infectious disease causal agents.O objetivo deste artigo é de sistematizar os principais achados de pesquisa em relação à chamada hipótese higiênica, que estabelece um elo etiológico entre o aumento de incidência de doenças alérgicas e a incidência decrescente de doenças infecciosas nos países industrializados do Ocidente. O autor afirma que o debate atual sobre a hipótese higiênica revela transformações significativas na compreensão da etiologia das doenças, talvez tão importantes quanto as mudanças no século XIX que levaram à constituição da medicina moderna e à identificação dos agentes causais das doenças infecciosas.

  3. Развитие детского творчества в онтогенезе и дизонтогенезе development of child creativity in ontogenesis and dysontogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    ЖУРАВЛЕВА ЖАННА ИГОРЕВНА

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of child creativity in typically developing preschoolers and their peers with different variants of dysontogenesis. The article shows that researchers consider the development of creativity and imagination of preschool children through game-based activity and productive creativity. However, they disagree on the issue of relationship between the child’s training and creativity.One variant puts forward the necessity to give the child full freedom of creative a...

  4. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    related disorders of the thyroid that may occur during rearing. ... parameters of the thyroid gland from selected sections under a light microscope with × 40 ...... Ontogenesis of hypothalamic-pituitary –thyroid function function and metabolism in.

  5. Роль водного стресса в формировании микросклероциев Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. В тканях сои

    OpenAIRE

    Саенко, Г.; Зеленцов, С.; Пивень, В.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown, that in favorable conditions for development of the disease excitant the fungus M. phaseolina gets into a plant at the earliest stages of its development, without cells destruction. Caused by water deficiency increase of concentration of soybean cellular juice at any stage of ontogenesis defines development of a physiological drought for pathogen mycelium. Osmotrophic malnutrition of pathogen at any ontogenesis stage of soybean causes fungus microsclerotium formation in mycelium ...

  6. Development of olfactory epithelium and associated structures in the green iguana, Iguana iguana—light and scanning electron microscopic study

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Sapoznikov; Petr Cizek; Frantisek Tichy

    2016-01-01

    The ontogenesis of the nasal cavity has been described in many mammalian species. The situation is different with reptiles, despite the fact that they have become relatively common as pets. In this study we focused on the ontogenesis of the olfactory epithelium, as well as other types of epithelia in the nasal cavity of pre-hatched green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Collection of samples began from day 67 of incubation and continued every four days until hatching. Microscopic examination revealed...

  7. [Modern evolutional developmental biology: mechanical and molecular genetic or phenotypic approaches?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorob'eva, É I

    2010-01-01

    Heightened interest in the evolutionary problems of developmental biology in the 1980s was due to the success of molecular genetics and disappointment in the synthetic theory of evolution, where the chapters of embryology and developmental biology seem to have been left out. Modern evo-devo, which turned out to be antipodean to the methodology of the synthetic theory of evolution, propagandized in the development of evolutionary problems only the mechanical and molecular genetic approach to the evolution of ontogenesis, based on cellular and intercellular interactions. The phonotypical approach to the evaluation of evolutionary occurrences in ontogenesis, which aids in the joining of the genetic and epigenetic levels of research, the theory of natural selection, the nomogenetic conception, and the problem of the wholeness of the organism in onto- and phylogenesis may be against this. The phenotypic approach to ontogenesis is methodologically the most perspective for evolutionary developmental biology.

  8. Development of olfactory epithelium and associated structures in the green iguana, Iguana iguana—light and scanning electron microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sapoznikov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ontogenesis of the nasal cavity has been described in many mammalian species. The situation is different with reptiles, despite the fact that they have become relatively common as pets. In this study we focused on the ontogenesis of the olfactory epithelium, as well as other types of epithelia in the nasal cavity of pre-hatched green iguanas (Iguana iguana. Collection of samples began from day 67 of incubation and continued every four days until hatching. Microscopic examination revealed that significant morphological changes in the nasal cavity began approximately at day 91 of ontogenesis. Approximately at this same stage, the nasal cavity epithelium began to differentiate. The cavity was divided into two compartments by a cartilaginous disc. The ventral compartment bulged rostrally and eventually opened up into the external environment. Three clearly demarcated areas of epithelium in the nasal cavity were visible at day 107.

  9. Pancreatic regeneration: basic research and gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Kenji; Mizuguchi, Toru; Shigenori, Ota; Ishii, Masayuki; Nishidate, Toshihiko; Ueki, Tomomi; Meguro, Makoto; Kimura, Yasutoshi; Tanimizu, Naoki; Ichinohe, Norihisa; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Kojima, Takashi; Mitaka, Toshihiro; Sato, Noriyuki; Sawada, Norimasa; Hirata, Koichi

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic regeneration (PR) is an interesting phenomenon that could provide clues as to how the control of diabetes mellitus might be achieved. Due to the different regenerative abilities of the pancreas and liver, the molecular mechanism responsible for PR is largely unknown. In this review, we describe five representative murine models of PR and thirteen humoral mitogens that stimulate β-cell proliferation. We also describe pancreatic ontogenesis, including the molecular transcriptional differences between α-cells and β-cells. Furthermore, we review 14 murine models which carry defects in genes related to key transcription factors for pancreatic ontogenesis to gain further insight into pancreatic development.

  10. Influence of pregnancy course peculiarities on formation of fetal testicles

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The review gives some of morphological, metrical, hormonal and biochemical parameters of antenatal ontogenesis of fetus testicles and newborns depending on pregnancy pathology and childbirth. Comparative analysis was carried out. Risk factors of development of morphological changes in fetus testicles and newborns from mothers with normal and pathological course of pregnancy were presented.

  11. The evolution of colour in Lepidoptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piepers, M.C.

    1900-01-01

    At the Zoological Congress at Cambridge I imparted, especially for the exclusively English speaking and reading entomological public, some notions on this biological phenomenon, the existence of which I think to have discovered by studying the ontogenesis of caterpillars of Sphingidae, and also in t

  12. Motor Cognition and Its Role in the Phylogeny and Ontogeny of Action Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallese, Vittorio; Rochat, Magali; Cossu, Giuseppe; Sinigaglia, Corrado

    2009-01-01

    Social life rests in large part on the capacity to understand the intentions behind the behavior of others. What are the origins of this capacity? How is one to construe its development in ontogenesis? By assuming that action understanding can be explained only in terms of the ability to read the minds of others--that is, to represent mental…

  13. The evolution of colour in Lepidoptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piepers, M.C.

    1900-01-01

    At the Zoological Congress at Cambridge I imparted, especially for the exclusively English speaking and reading entomological public, some notions on this biological phenomenon, the existence of which I think to have discovered by studying the ontogenesis of caterpillars of Sphingidae, and also in t

  14. The changes of glutation reductase activity in maize seedlings under heavy metals and herbicide frontjere influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Bilchuk

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In modelling experiment joint action of heavy metal ions (lead, cadmium and cloroacetanilide herbicide frontjere on glutationreductase activity in maize seedlings at initial stages of ontogenesis was investigated. The increasing of enzyme activity in a sprouting grain at herbicide and ions of lead and cadmium presence and variation of enzyme activity in seedlings were established at joint action of toxicants.

  15. Hypnosis and Human Development: Interpersonal Influence of Intrapersonal Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Brian

    1998-01-01

    Examines the relationship between hypnosis and human development. Defines hypnosis within a communications framework, and identifies essential features of hypnosis in the communicative exchanges of the first months of life; this forces a reconsideration of the understanding of the ontogenesis of hypnosis. Identifies four key features of hypnosis,…

  16. Motor Cognition and Its Role in the Phylogeny and Ontogeny of Action Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallese, Vittorio; Rochat, Magali; Cossu, Giuseppe; Sinigaglia, Corrado

    2009-01-01

    Social life rests in large part on the capacity to understand the intentions behind the behavior of others. What are the origins of this capacity? How is one to construe its development in ontogenesis? By assuming that action understanding can be explained only in terms of the ability to read the minds of others--that is, to represent mental…

  17. Direct effect of acaricides on pathogen loads and gene expression levels of honey bee Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of using miticides to control varroa mites has long been a concern to the beekeeping industry due to unintended negative impacts on honey bee health. Irregular ontogenesis, immune defense suppression, impairment of normal behavior are some of the described symptoms for the use of pestici...

  18. The Kosmos-1129 biosatellite. [experiments in biological effects of space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    A number of experiments, designed by participating specialists from several countries, are described. The experiments included studies in biorhythm, stress, body parts, behavior, ontogenesis, and gravitational preference. The biological subjects of the experiments were retrieved immediately after the landing of the satellite and examined in a field laboratory.

  19. Morphological, ontogenetic and molecular characterization of Scutellospora reticulata (Glomeromycota)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Souza, F.A.; Declerck, S.; Smit, E.; Kowalchuk, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Scutellospora reticulata (CNPAB11) was characterized using morphological, ontogenetic and molecular approaches. Spore ontogenesis was studied using Ri T-DNA transformed carrot roots and observations were compared with those published for eight other, pot-cultur

  20. Nonlinear Epigenetic Variance: Review and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Kees-Jan; Ploeger, Annemie; Raijmakers, Maartje E. J.; Dolan, Conor V.; van Der Maas, Han L. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present a review of empirical evidence that suggests that a substantial portion of phenotypic variance is due to nonlinear (epigenetic) processes during ontogenesis. The role of such processes as a source of phenotypic variance in human behaviour genetic studies is not fully appreciated. In addition to our review, we present simulation studies…

  1. Body Structure and Physical Self-Concept in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsakai, Annamaria; Karkus, Zsolt; Utczas, Katinka; Bodzsar, Eva B.

    2017-01-01

    In adolescence, the complexity of human ontogenesis embraces biological growth and maturation as well as mental, affective, and cognitive progress, and adaptation to the requirements of society. To accept our morphological constellation as part of our gender may prove a problem even to a child of average rate of maturation. The main purposes of…

  2. On the Status of Logic in Piaget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginensi, Luc

    2004-01-01

    This article analyses the way in which Piaget links the analogy between the child and the primitive with a theory of the history of the sciences, that is, it analyses Piaget's version of Haeckel's principle in which ontogenesis recapitulates phylogenesis. From this analysis, we reconstitute the operations through which Piaget forms and expresses…

  3. Unlocking variability: inherent variation and developmental traits of garlic plants originated from sexual reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shemesh, E.; Scholten, O.E.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Kamenetsky, R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent collections of fertile garlic (Allium sativum) accessions from Central Asia allow a detailed study of seedling developments and the evaluation of inherent variations. We hereby provide a comprehensive account of the ontogenesis of a population of garlic seedlings and their vegetative and repr

  4. Hypnosis and Human Development: Interpersonal Influence of Intrapersonal Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Brian

    1998-01-01

    Examines the relationship between hypnosis and human development. Defines hypnosis within a communications framework, and identifies essential features of hypnosis in the communicative exchanges of the first months of life; this forces a reconsideration of the understanding of the ontogenesis of hypnosis. Identifies four key features of hypnosis,…

  5. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SUPER OVULATION IN BOTH LACTATING COWS AND REJECTED, SECURITY OF CALVES-TWINS Сравнительный анализ эффективности суперовуляции у лактирующих и выбракованных коров, сохранность телят-двоен

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorobyev D. N.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the development of embryotransplantation and obtaining single and twin calves use of hormonal preparations FSH-Super and follotropin to provoke donors to super ovulation of folliculogenesis and embryos survival which were transplanted intocontralateral and ipsilateral uterine horn. Parameters of single and twin calves-transplantators’ growing in ontogenesis are also considered

  6. The niche of envy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintanilla, Laura; Jensen de López, Kristine M.

    2013-01-01

    to capture and understand the complex and self-conscious emotion of envy as unfolded within social relationships and cultural settings. One of our main interests concerns how children come to understand envy in ontogenesis. Accordingly, we review existing theoretical approaches to understanding envy...... and introduce preliminary data about children’s understanding of envy. This paper consists of three sections. In the first section, we define envy by introducing the conditions and components that form part of it. We emphasize the fact that envy is a complex and embodied emotion, which embraces a triadic......-cultural, psychological, and anthropological research. Finally, in the third section, we introduce a cross-cultural and developmental view of how envy is embodied. We briefly address and offer a critique of Klein’s psychoanalytic view and present recent results from our cross-cultural studies of the ontogenesis...

  7. O sorriso humano: aspectos universais, inatos e os determinantes culturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Maria Leal Fernandes Mendes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of emotions and emotional face expressions has provoked increasing interest in contemporary researchers. Understanding the mechanisms of production, regulation and perception of the emotions, as well as of ontogenesis of the emotional expressions, has been considered central for the comprehension of infant development, in its cognitive, affective and social aspects. However, many questions related to the origins of these expressions still remain as subjects of controversies. Thus, babies' facial expressions of emotion are an important object of inquiry, including the ontogenesis of the smile. The aim of this work is to argue for a socio-cultural and evolutionary perspective for the study of the human smile, based on the discussion of literature on its innate and acquired aspects and its phylogenetic origins, enabling the formularization of hypotheses to be submitted to empirical test.

  8. O sorriso humano: aspectos universais, inatos e os determinantes culturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Maria Leal Fernandes Mendes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of emotions and emotional face expressions has provoked increasing interest in contemporary researchers. Understanding the mechanisms of production, regulation and perception of the emotions, as well as of ontogenesis of the emotional expressions, has been considered central for the comprehension of infant development, in its cognitive, affective and social aspects. However, many questions related to the origins of these expressions still remain as subjects of controversies. Thus, babies' facial expressions of emotion are an important object of inquiry, including the ontogenesis of the smile. The aim of this work is to argue for a socio-cultural and evolutionary perspective for the study of the human smile, based on the discussion of literature on its innate and acquired aspects and its phylogenetic origins, enabling the formularization of hypotheses to be submitted to empirical test.

  9. Biomorphological features of Serratula coronata L. (Asteraceae introduced in ZHNAEU`s Botanical Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna V. Ivashchenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarities of growth, evolution and morphology of Serratula coronata L. were determined under introduction in conditions of Botanical Garden of Zhytomyr National Agroecological University that belongs to Polissya region of Ukraine. The results of investigation of S. coronata ex situ are presented for the next periods of ontogenesis: latent, pregenerative and partly generative. The features of the 6 age states of individuals are specified: achen dormant, sprouts, juvenile, immature, young generative, middle-aged generative. During the first year of life the seeds of S. coronata were passing the pregenerative period of ontogenesis. In the second year the plants got into generative period achieving middleaged generative state in the third year of growth. Plants of S. coronata formed vegetative and generative organs, as well as viable seeds and that confirms sufficient species adaptation in conditions of the described region.

  10. Psychogenetic studies of speech and language abilities: The short review and studying prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernov D.N.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the basic results of psychogenetic researches of speech and language are stated. It is revealed that factors of shared environment, alongside with genetic influences play a considerable role in formation of specific features of speech and language; their role is considerable in early ontogenesis. Later contribution of shared environment in an explanation of individual distinctions in speech and lan-guage development falls and the role of factors of heredity increases. It is observed considerable onto-genesis stability of speech and language abilities that is provided with stability of genetic and shared envi-ronmental influences. A certain moderate role in change a genotype-environmental of parities can play medical and biologic (prematurity and social (socioeconomic and educational status of parents, degree of orderliness of the house environment factors. Theoretical and practical consequences of the re-searches are discussed.

  11. [Develpment of sleep stages in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geib, Lorena Teresinha Consalter

    2007-01-01

    With the perspective of describing some aspects of the ontogenesis and organization of the sleep stages during the first year of life, a literature review was carried out to assess the physiological and behavioral alterations controlled by changes occurring during sleep at this developmental stage. In addition, based on the sleep preceding theory the stages of differentiation, classification and time organization of sleep stages are presented, aiming at the favorable management of environmental events that affect the organization of infant sleep.

  12. Changes in the species composition of the rhizosphere and phyllosphere of sugar beet under the impact of biological preparations based on endophytic bacteria and their metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusenkova, L. I.; Il'yasova, E. Yu.; Lastochkina, O. V.; Maksimov, I. V.; Leonova, S. A.

    2016-10-01

    The species structure of the mycobiota in the rhizosphere and phyllosphere of sugar beet in ontogenesis was studied. The treatment of the plants with biopreparations based on endophytic bacteria and their metabolites (Phytosporin-M, Vitaplan, and Albit) were shown to create conditions for the colonization of the plant rhizosphere and phyllosphere by bacteria-antagonists displacing phytopathogenic microorganisms and stimulating plant growth, which induces the transformation of the microbial cenosis.

  13. Ontogenetic variation in chemical and physical characteristics of adaxial apple leaf surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringe, Katja; Schumacher, Christina F A; Schmitz-Eiberger, Michaela; Steiner, Ulrike; Oerke, Erich-Christian

    2006-01-01

    The reaction of plants to environmental factors often varies with developmental stage. It was hypothesized, that also the cuticle, the outer surface layer of plants is modified during ontogenesis. Apple plantlets, cv. Golden Delicious, were grown under controlled conditions avoiding biotic and abiotic stress factors. The cuticular wax surface of adaxial apple leaves was analyzed for its chemical composition as well as for its micromorphology and hydrophobicity just after unfolding of leaves ending in the seventh leaf insertion. The outer surface of apple leaves was formed by a thin amorphous layer of epicuticular waxes. Epidermal cells of young leaves exhibited a distinctive curvature of the periclinal cell walls resulting in an undulated surface of the cuticle including pronounced lamellae, with the highest density at the centre of cells. As epidermal cells expanded during ontogenesis, the upper surface showed only minor surface sculpturing and a decrease in lamellae. With increasing leaf age the hydrophobicity of adaxial leaf side decreased significantly indicated by a decrease in contact angle. Extracted from plants, the amount of apolar cuticular wax per area unit ranged from only 0.9 microgcm(-2) for the oldest studied leaf to 1.5 microgcm(-2) for the youngest studied leaf. Differences in the total amount of cuticular waxes per leaf were not significant for older leaves. For young leaves, triterpenes (ursolic acid and oleanolic acid), esters and alcohols were the main wax components. During ontogenesis, the proportion of triterpenes in total mass of apolar waxes decreased from 32% (leaf 1) to 13% (leaf 7); absolute amounts decreased by more than 50%. The proportion of wax alcohols and esters, and alkanes to a lesser degree, increased with leaf age, whereas the proportion of acids decreased. The epicuticular wax layer also contained alpha-tocopherol described for the first time to be present also in the epicuticular wax. The modifications in the chemical

  14. [Thermodynamic theory of biological evolution and aging. Experimental verification of the theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyshev, G P

    2000-01-01

    Experimental data confirming original thermodynamic theory of biological evolution and aging are presented. Biological evolution (phylogenesis) and ontogenesis can be easily described within the frames of equilibrium hierarchical thermodynamics on the basis of temporal hierarchies law and the second principle of thermodynamics. The theory explains many facts and suggests new practical proposals in medical and biological science, particularly, in dietology, gerontology, and geriatrics. Application of the temporal hierarchies model to studying living nature offers horizonless possibilities for its understanding.

  15. THE NURSE'S ROLE IN THE REALIZATION OF THE «SONATAL» SYSTEM — MEDICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL PEDAGOGIC MANAGEMENT OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT BEFORE AND AFTER BIRTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Lazarev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Much work aimed at the development and health improvement of children is now being done at all levels of children's healthcare and education. One of the essential organizational issues in solving this problem is the provision of interconnection between specialists, children and parents. A modern nurse may play a system administrator role managing processes of continuous monitoring of child's development and health improvement on all children's ontogenesis stages starting from prenatal age. 

  16. Human Development V: Biochemistry Unable to Explain the Emergence of Biological Form (Morphogenesis) and Therefore a New Principle as Source of Biological Information is Needed

    OpenAIRE

    Søren Ventegodt; Tyge Dahl Hermansen; Trine Flensborg-Madsen; Maj Lyck Nielsen; Birgitte Clausen; Joav Merrick

    2006-01-01

    Today's biomedicine builds on the conviction that biochemistry can explain the creation of the body, its anatomy and physiology. Unfortunately there are still deep mysteries strangely “fighting back” when we try to define and understand the organism and its creation in the ontogenesis as emerging from biochemistry. In analysing this from a theoretical perspective using a mathematical model focusing on the noise in complex chemical systems we argue that evolving biological structure cannot in ...

  17. Mathematical modeling of the growth and development of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis on artificial substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasechkina, E. F.; Kazankova, I. I.

    2014-11-01

    A mathematical model simulating the growth and development of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam. on artificial substrates has been constructed. The model is based on experimental data and contains mathematical descriptions of the filtration, respiration, excretion, spawning, and growth of an individual during its ontogenesis from the moment it attaches to a solid substrate to the attainment of a marketable size. The test computations have been compared to the available observation data for mussel farms.

  18. [Direct development in the tailed amphibians (salamanders), its origin and evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, S V

    2008-01-01

    Biphasic life circle including water larvae and terrestrial adults is the primitive character for recent amphibians. Respectively, the larval development type (sensu Zakhvatkin, 1975) is also primitive for them. However, many amphibians possess direct development, in which the most part of ontogenesis takes place in the egg, and a miniature copy of the adult adapted to the terrestrial mode of life comes into the world. Transition from the larval type to the direct one occurs several times independently in Apoda, Urodela, and Anura. Pathways and mechanisms of formation of the direct type, its evolutionary tendencies, and ontogenetic prerequisites of that transition are studied in the plethodontid urodelans herewith in details. It is observed that the entire process of initial formation and subsequent specialization of the direct type involves: 1) progressing displacement of ontogenesis into embryogenesis and loss of larval characters, 2) desynchronization of initially metamorphic transformations and processes with their progressive lost, 3) acceleration of the beginning of functional activity of the thyroid gland, and 4) subsiding of the role of thyroid hormones in the ontogenesis regulation. Transition to the direct development type involves similar kinds of ontogenetic transformations and regulations in both Anura and Urodela despite of their independent evolution. Respectively, mechanisms of that transition are universal for the amphibians. The ontogenetic prerequisites of that transition are shown to be either significant dissociability of the larval and adult stages of ontogenesis (in anurans and plethodontid urodelans), or absence of the extreme larval specializations and respective sharp differences between larvae and adults (in extant Apoda and extinct labyrinthodonts and seymouriamorphs).

  19. Life Span and Resiliency Theory: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Alexa Smith-Osborne

    2007-01-01

    Theories of life span development describe human growth and change over the life cycle (Robbins, Chatterjee, & Canda, 2006). Major types of developmental theories include biological, psychodynamic, behavioral, and social learning, cognitive, moral, and spiritual, and those influenced by systems, empowerment, and conflict theory. Life span development theories commonly focus on ontogenesis and sequential mastery of skills, tasks, and abilities. Social work scholars have pointed out that a limi...

  20. The serine/threonine kinase 33 is present and expressed in palaeognath birds but has become a unitary pseudogene in neognaths about 100 million years ago

    OpenAIRE

    Lautwein, Tobias; Lerch, Steffen; Schäfer, Daniel; Schmidt, Erwin R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Serine/threonine kinase 33 (STK33) has been shown to be conserved across all major vertebrate classes including reptiles, mammals, amphibians and fish, suggesting its importance within vertebrates. It has been shown to phosphorylate vimentin and might play a role in spermatogenesis and organ ontogenesis. In this study we analyzed the genomic locus and expression of stk33 in the class Aves, using a combination of large scale next generation sequencing data analysis and traditional P...

  1. [Role of phytochrome in organ formation processes in Cucumis sativus L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysoeva, M I; Marovskaia, E F

    2013-01-01

    The role of phytochrome B in the organogenesis process in the apical and axillary shoot meristems during early ontogenesis stages in cucumber Cucumis sativus L. at photoperiods (day/night) 10/14, 16/8 h, and continuous light in comparison with wild type plants and phytochrome B-deficient mutant (lh-mutant) was investigated. In mutant phytochrome B, deficiency caused inhibition of initiation of leaves both in the leading shoot and off-shoots and increased the number of flower buds (IV stage of organogenesis). With continuous light, the number of off-shoots and flowers during stage IV of organogenesis in wild-type plants increased twofold in comparison with the mutant. Short-term temperature drops did not induce floral ontogenesis in mutants but increased the number of off-shoots in both experimental variants during a long photoperiod and continuous light situations. We propose that phytochrome B, by increasing the compactness of chromatin, may facilitate coordination of ontogenesis processes with changing environmental conditions.

  2. Human Development V: Biochemistry Unable to Explain the Emergence of Biological Form (Morphogenesis and Therefore a New Principle as Source of Biological Information is Needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's biomedicine builds on the conviction that biochemistry can explain the creation of the body, its anatomy and physiology. Unfortunately there are still deep mysteries strangely “fighting back” when we try to define and understand the organism and its creation in the ontogenesis as emerging from biochemistry. In analysing this from a theoretical perspective using a mathematical model focusing on the noise in complex chemical systems we argue that evolving biological structure cannot in principle be a product of chemistry. In this paper we go through the chemical gradient model and argue that this is not able to explain the ontogenesis. We discuss the used gradients as information carriers in chemical self-organizing systems and argue that by use of the “Turing structures” we are only able to modelling the mostly simple biological systems. The bio-chemical model is only able to model simple organization but not to explain the complexity of biological phenomena. We conclude that we seemingly have presented a formal proof (a NO-GO theorem that the self-organizing chemical systems that are using chemical gradients are not able to explain complex biological matters as the ontogenesis. We need a fundamentally new, information-carrying principle to understand biological information and biological order.

  3. The Role of L.S. Vygotsky's Ideas in the Development of Social Cognition Paradigm in Modern Psychology: A Review of Foreign Research and Discussion on Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Kholmogorova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The author reflects on the reasons for the increased interest of modern foreign social cognition researchers in L.S. Vygotsky's cultural-historical theory in the light of the existing methodological contradictions and recent empirical data. The paper analyzes the main ideas and concepts of cultural-historical theory that were incorporated in research by Vygotsky's foreign followers, including such prominent experts in the field of social cognition as M. Tomasello and Ch. Fernyhough. It describes the conceptual apparatus and models of development of social cognition in phylo-, anthropo- and ontogenesis proposed by these researchers basing on the ideas of cultural-historical approach. The author especially stresses the importance of the idea of the dialogical nature of human thinking as the foundation for social cognition development in ontogenesis. Also reviewed are the mechanisms underlying the emergence of dialogical thinking from egocentric speech that are described in Ch. Fernyhough's model of social cognition development in ontogenesis. The paper concludes with an analysis of the concepts of cultural-historical theory and its current developments by Russian researchers that are of high heuristic potential for the future development of the paradigm of social cognition

  4. Developmental changes of nasal and oral calls in the goitred gazelle Gazella subgutturosa, a nonhuman mammal with a sexually dimorphic and descended larynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremova, Kseniya O.; Volodin, Ilya A.; Volodina, Elena V.; Frey, Roland; Lapshina, Ekaterina N.; Soldatova, Natalia V.

    2011-11-01

    In goitred gazelles ( Gazella subgutturosa), sexual dimorphism of larynx size and position is reminiscent of the case in humans, suggesting shared features of vocal ontogenesis in both species. This study investigates the ontogeny of nasal and oral calls in 23 (10 male and 13 female) individually identified goitred gazelles from shortly after birth up to adolescence. The fundamental frequency (f0) and formants were measured as the acoustic correlates of the developing sexual dimorphism. Settings for LPC analysis of formants were based on anatomical dissections of 5 specimens. Along ontogenesis, compared to females, male f0 was consistently lower both in oral and nasal calls and male formants were lower in oral calls, whereas the first two formants of nasal calls did not differ between sexes. In goitred gazelles, significant sex differences in f0 and formants appeared as early as the second week of life, while in humans they emerge only before puberty. This result suggests different pathways of vocal ontogenesis in the goitred gazelles and in humans.

  5. The Effect of Pre-sowing Seed Treatment with Metal Nanoparticles on the Formation of the Defensive Reaction of Wheat Seedlings Infected with the Eyespot Causal Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyuta, Olga; Belava, Viktoriya; Fomaidi, Svitlana; Kalinichenko, Olena; Volkogon, Mykola; Taran, Nataliya

    2016-02-01

    The paper presents research data of lipid peroxidation and lectin activity in wheat seedlings at seed treatment with solution of metal nanoparticles (Zn, Ag, Fe, Mn, Cu) and sole solution of copper nanoparticles under the high pathogen infection background of Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides (Fron) Deighton (synonym: Oculimacula yallundae (Wallwork & Sponer) Crous & W. Gams). It was shown that investigated nonionic colloidal solutions of biogenic metals have the antioxidant effect through the inhibition of the synthesis of lipid peroxidation products. The increase of lectin activity levels during the early plants ontogenesis stages was observed in wheat seedlings infected with pathogen pre-treated with the mixture of metal nanoparticles.

  6. Systemic Cognition: Human Artifice in Life and Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen; Vallée-Tourangeau, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    on both biological and cultural principles. On this systemic view, skills embody beliefs, roles and social practices. Since people rely on interactivity or sense-saturated coordination, action also re-enacts cultural history. Bidirectional dynamics connect embodiment to non-local regularities. Thinking...... and learning arise as dynamics in one time-scale are co-regulated by dynamics in other scales. For example, in ontogenesis, interactivity prompts a child to strategic use of second-order language. By linking cultural scales to inter-bodily dynamics, circumstances are coloured by resources that serve in using...

  7. Smart Multiple Access Topologi Employing Intelligent Physical Layer for addressing the Mobile Node

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanyal, Rajarshi

    2014-01-01

    management model. The factors that will drive the ontogenesis of next generation mobile networks are namely the evolution of the mobile devices and ever incremental demand for data traffic triggered by the proliferation of smart phones and the dongles. Apprehending an exponential growth in numbers......The objective of this research is to propose an architectural alternative to 4G/5G on the basis of apprehending the various pain points related to the state of the art and to solve them by eventually realising a new mobile network framework, a new multiple access methodology and a smart mobility...

  8. Changes in Nitrogen Status of Soybean Under Influence of Symbiotically Fixed and Bound Nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    GADIMOV, A.G.; SAFARALIEV, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The contribution of different nitrogen sources (nitrate 15 N-NO 3 and symbiotic N-N 2 ) to the nitrogen status of soybean in ontogenesis was studied. Nitrate was assimilated effectively during the vegetative growth, whereas later on the nitrogen-fixation by root nodules became the basic source of nitrogen. The applying of a low dose of nitrate (22.2 mg N/plant) increased the total nitrogen content in the plant and did not depress the nitrogen fixation. Distribution of the symbiotic and nitrat...

  9. [The organizational characteristics of the APUD system in mammalian lungs at different stages of ontogeny].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinova, S A

    1991-02-01

    The organization peculiarities of APUD-system in the lungs of rabbits, rats and guinea pigs has been studied. The endocrine system in the lungs of rabbits in pre- and postnatal ontogenesis is presented by the adipocytes and neuroepithelial bodies (NEB) containing a considerable number of monoamines. The number of argyrophil adipocytes and NEBs in the lungs of 21 and more day-old adult rats seem to be less than in fetuses and newborns. Monoamines are not revealed in the endocrine rat lung structures by means of the glyoxylic acid. In the lungs of guinea pigs the single argyrophil adipocytes and NEBs are determined in the gestation period.

  10. [Evolution of the pelvis and hip throughout history: from primates to modern man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapègue, F; Jirari, M; Sethoum, S; Faruch, M; Barcelo, C; Moskovitch, G; Ponsot, A; Rabat, M-C; Labarre, D; Vial, J; Chiavassa, H; Baunin, C; Railhac, J-J; Sans, N

    2011-06-01

    The evolution to a bipedal mode of locomotion was accompanied by a verticalization of the spine and a modification in the shape of the pelvis: horizontal curvature and sagittal rotation. Phylogenesis meets ontogenesis: flat bones in fetuses similar to the monkey, australopithecus features at birth and "human-like" features by 7 or 8years of age. These anatomical modifications explain the characteristics of human bipedalism: stable, economical, with hip and knee extension in the standing position with little lateral motion. Some pathologies induce a regression to a more archaic mode of bipedal locomotion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS and Éditions françaises de radiologie. All rights reserved.

  11. Expression of Contractile Protein Isoforms in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Page A. W.

    1996-01-01

    The general objective of this experiment is to determine the effect of space flight parameters, including microgravity, on ontogenesis and embryogenesis of Japanese quail. Nine U.S. and two Russian investigators are cooperating in this study. Specific objectives of the participating scientists include assessing the gross and microscopic morphological and histological development of the embryo, as well as the temporal and spacial development of specific cells, tissues, and organs. Temporally regulated production of specific proteins is also being investigated. Our objective is to determine the effects of microgravity on developmentally programmed expression of Troponin T and I isoforms known to regulate cardiac and skeletal muscle contraction.

  12. [Morphological characteristics of the lymphoid tissues in the newborn children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminova, G G; Grigorenko, D E; Rusina, A K; Erofeeva, L M

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative analysis and statistical processing of thymus, trachea, duodenum ileum, coecum and appendix in newborns demonstrated that by the moment of birth peripheral immunogenesis organs were not equally formed due to peculiarities of their function in postnatal ontogenesis. Lymphoid nodules were absent in tracheal mucosa and adjacent lymph nodes showed loss of lymphoid noules aswell. However intensive formation of lymphoid structures took place in the walls of the gut, especially large intestine. The appendix, lymphoid tissue of which was not, in fact, developed at all, made an exception.

  13. [Ecological-anthropological aspects of individual morphotype variability of children in Tyumen north].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhvavyĭ, N F; Koĭnosov, P G; Orlov, S A; Koĭnosov, A P

    2011-01-01

    The complex study of the physical development of boys and girls aged 11-18 years of native and newly come population of Khanty-Mansiysk-Ugra Autonomous Region was performed. It was found that the native population had higher mass of fat component in all the age groups as compared to that of the newly come population. The data obtained reflect the regional peculiarities of the growth processes of the children of native and newly come population. These data help to reveal the mechanisms providing adaptive character of development at the pubertal stage the ontogenesis.

  14. Prenatal nicotine alters vigilance states and AchR gene expression in the neonatal rat: implications for SIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, M G; Srere, H; Ledezma, C; O'Hara, B; Heller, H C

    2001-04-01

    Maternal smoking is a major risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The mechanisms by which cigarette smoke predisposes infants to SIDS are not known. We examined the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on sleep/wake ontogenesis and central cholinergic receptor gene expression in the neonatal rat. Prenatal nicotine exposure transiently increased sleep continuity and accelerated sleep/wake ontogeny in the neonatal rat. Prenatal nicotine also upregulated nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor mRNAs in brain regions involved in regulating vigilance states. These findings suggest that the nicotine contained in cigarette smoke may predispose human infants to SIDS by interfering with the normal maturation of sleep and wake.

  15. Effect of sodium fluoride on phytase activity during germination of Pisum sativum L. seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauskrecht, I.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of fluoride ion, in concentrations varying from 0 to 4 mM F/sup -/, on phytase activity in the course of germination of Pisum sativum L. seeds and in the course of incubation in vitro are reported. The fluoride ion in 1 mM concentration cause a significant 80% decrease of the phytase activity in the incubation medium and a 24% decrease in the course of germination. The inhibition of phytase, as well as its synthesis, by fluoride ion during germination may influence the metabolism of phosphorus at the initial stage of ontogenesis.

  16. [The orbitotemporal region in the cranium of Chelydra serpentina Linnaeus (Chelonia) and Lacerta sicula Rafinesque (Lacertilia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieppel, O

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of the ontogenesis of the chondrocranium gives the following homologies in the skull of Lacerta and Chelydra: (see article). It is shown that the extracranial position of the cavum epiptericum in Lacerta corresponds to the stage of maximal development of the chondrocranium in Chelydra. But further development brings about a dermal sidewall in the orbitotemporal region, b,ilt up by descending parietal flanges which incorporate the epipterygoid. This not only allows the pila antotica to degenerate but also incorporates the cavum in the cranial cavity.

  17. Phenomenon of Psychological Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena T. Sokolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the controversial issues of formation and functioning of psy¬chological defense mechanisms in ontogenesis and in personality disorders as they are represented in classical and contemporary psychoanalysis, in cognitivism and communication theory. The paper emphasizes the role of cognitive organi¬zation (style, sign-symbolic mediation, representative system of object relations and attachments in individual typological variability of the level organization of ciency of personal and social adaptation, in maturity and mental health of personality

  18. [Correlation between the output and composition of essential oil and the level of salicylic acid in mint plants at different ontogenetic stages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelepova, O V; Kondrat'eva, V V; Voronkova, T V; Olekhnovich, L S

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic changes in the content of acetylsalicylic acid and the output and qualitative composition of essential oil have been studied in mint plants (Mentha spicata L. and cultivar Medichka) during their ontogenesis with allowance for changes in weather conditions. Ontogenetic changes in the level of acetylsalicylic acid in leaf tissues are found to be similar in both cv. Medichka and M. spicata. In the case of cv. Medichka, this change is connected with the dynamics of the production and the qualitative composition of essential oil; in the case of M. spicata, this connection is less expressed. The role of acetylsalicylic acid and essential oil in plant adaptation to the environment is discussed.

  19. Systemic Cognition: Human Artifice in Life and Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen; Vallée-Tourangeau, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    and learning arise as dynamics in one time-scale are co-regulated by dynamics in other scales. For example, in ontogenesis, interactivity prompts a child to strategic use of second-order language. By linking cultural scales to inter-bodily dynamics, circumstances are coloured by resources that serve in using...... thus emerges in a temporal trajectory of action that takes place within a space populated by people and objects. Utterances, thoughts and deeds all draw on physical, biological and cultural constraints. Even plans are shaped as first-order activity is shaped by second-order structures. Intentions...

  20. Extracellular matrix molecules play diverse roles in the growth and guidance of central nervous system axons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Pires-Neto

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Axon growth and guidance represent complex biological processes in which probably intervene diverse sets of molecular cues that allow for the appropriate wiring of the central nervous system (CNS. The extracellular matrix (ECM represents a major contributor of molecular signals either diffusible or membrane-bound that may regulate different stages of neural development. Some of the brain ECM molecules form tridimensional structures (tunnels and boundaries that appear during time- and space-regulated events, possibly playing relevant roles in the control of axon elongation and pathfinding. This short review focuses mainly on the recognized roles played by proteoglycans, laminin, fibronectin and tenascin in axonal development during ontogenesis.

  1. The Functional Genetics of Handedness and Language Lateralization: Insights from Gene Ontology, Pathway and Disease Association Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Judith; Lor, Stephanie; Klose, Rena; Güntürkün, Onur; Ocklenburg, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Handedness and language lateralization are partially determined by genetic influences. It has been estimated that at least 40 (and potentially more) possibly interacting genes may influence the ontogenesis of hemispheric asymmetries. Recently, it has been suggested that analyzing the genetics of hemispheric asymmetries on the level of gene ontology sets, rather than at the level of individual genes, might be more informative for understanding the underlying functional cascades. Here, we performed gene ontology, pathway and disease association analyses on genes that have previously been associated with handedness and language lateralization. Significant gene ontology sets for handedness were anatomical structure development, pattern specification (especially asymmetry formation) and biological regulation. Pathway analysis highlighted the importance of the TGF-beta signaling pathway for handedness ontogenesis. Significant gene ontology sets for language lateralization were responses to different stimuli, nervous system development, transport, signaling, and biological regulation. Despite the fact that some authors assume that handedness and language lateralization share a common ontogenetic basis, gene ontology sets barely overlap between phenotypes. Compared to genes involved in handedness, which mostly contribute to structural development, genes involved in language lateralization rather contribute to activity-dependent cognitive processes. Disease association analysis revealed associations of genes involved in handedness with diseases affecting the whole body, while genes involved in language lateralization were specifically engaged in mental and neurological diseases. These findings further support the idea that handedness and language lateralization are ontogenetically independent, complex phenotypes.

  2. The murine decorin. Complete cDNA cloning, genomic organization, chromosomal assignment, and expression during organogenesis and tissue differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholzen, T; Solursh, M; Suzuki, S; Reiter, R; Morgan, J L; Buchberg, A M; Siracusa, L D; Iozzo, R V

    1994-11-11

    Decorin, a proteoglycan known to interact with collagen and growth factors, may play key roles during ontogenesis, tissue remodeling, and cancer. We have deciphered the complete protein sequence of the murine decorin by cDNA cloning, elucidated its gene structure and chromosomal location, and investigated its expression in the developing embryo. The decorin protein and the gene were highly conserved vis à vis the human counterpart; however, the murine gene lacked a leader exon, exon Ib, which was found only in the human. Using interspecific backcrossing, we assigned the gene to chromosome 10 just proximally to the Steel gene locus. In situ hybridization studies of developing mouse embryos showed a distinct pattern of expression with a progressive increase of decorin mRNA during ontogenesis. At early stages (day 11 postconception), decorin was detectable only in the floor plate region. Subsequently (days 13-16 postconception), decorin expression was especially prominent in the meninges and mesothelial linings of pericardium, pleura, and coelomic cavity, as well as in the dermis and subepithelial layers of the intestine and urinary bladder. In contrast, the major parenchymal organs were only weakly positive for decorin mRNA. These findings suggest that decorin may play a role in epithelial/mesenchymal interactions during organ development and shaping.

  3. Dynamic genetic architecture of metabolic syndrome attributes in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda, Ondrej; Liska, Frantisek; Krenova, Drahomira; Kazdova, Ludmila; Sedova, Lucie; Zima, Tomas; Peng, Junzheng; Pelinkova, Kveta; Tremblay, Johanne; Hamet, Pavel; Kren, Vladimir

    2005-04-14

    The polydactylous rat strain (PD/Cub) is a highly inbred (F > 90) genetic model of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic architecture of the metabolic derangements found in the PD/Cub strain and to assess its dynamics in time and in response to diet and medication. We derived a PD/Cub x BN/Cub (Brown Norway) F2 intercross population of 149 male rats and performed metabolic profiling and genotyping and multiple levels of genetic linkage and statistical analyses at five different stages of ontogenesis and after high-sucrose diet feeding and dexamethasone administration challenges. The interval mapping analysis of 83 metabolic and morphometric traits revealed over 50 regions genomewide with significant or suggestive linkage to one or more of the traits in the segregating PD/Cub x BN/Cub population. The multiple interval mapping showed that, in addition to "single" quantitative train loci, there are more than 30 pairs of loci across the whole genome significantly influencing the variation of particular traits in an epistatic fashion. This study represents the first whole genome analysis of metabolic syndrome in the PD/Cub model and reveals several new loci previously not connected to the genetics of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. In addition, it attempts to present the concept of "dynamic genetic architecture" of metabolic syndrome attributes, evidenced by shifts in the genetic determination of syndrome features during ontogenesis and during adaptation to the dietary and pharmacological influences.

  4. Dry matter and energy partitioning in plants under climatic stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolhar-Nordenkampf, H.R.; Postl, W.F.; Meister, M.H.; Ledl, D.; Nemeth, K. [Univ. of Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Plant Physiology; Ludlow, M.M. [CSIRO, Brisbane (Australia). Div. of Tropical Crops and Pastures

    1996-12-31

    During ontogenesis plants distribute assimilates quite differently among their organs depending on the environmental conditions. In case of high sink capacity energetically cheap storing compounds such as carbohydrates and/or organic acids are formed, whereas during periods with low demand proteins and lipids may be accumulated. Besides ontogenesis, drought and increased CO{sub 2} are able to modify sink capacity and by this transients in the partitioning pattern of carbon are induced. Plants, well adapted to several dry seasons during the year are able to allocate carbon predominantly to below ground organs. During this period many leaves become senescent. In any case stems and remaining green leaves will loose dry matter and energy. With 80% of plants under investigation CO{sub 2} enrichment was shown to induce an enforced allocation of carbon to below ground organs. Roots and Rhizomes, beets and tubers act as a sink for the additionally fixed carbon. It was demonstrated that sink capacity is controlling photosynthetic activity. With respect to agricultural production, to ecosystems and to single plants, climatic change will modify productivity and plants distribution pattern as a consequence of quite different metabolic changes. These responses are depending on the effect of natural and anthropogenic stress factors on the use of enhanced CO{sub 2} and on the allocation of additionally formed assimilates.

  5. Rhizophagus irregularis as an elicitor of rosmarinic acid and antioxidant production by transformed roots of Ocimum basilicum in an in vitro co-culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shivani; Conlan, Xavier A; Cahill, David M; Adholeya, Alok

    2016-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association formed between plant roots and soil borne fungi that alter and at times improve the production of secondary metabolites. Detailed information is available on mycorrhizal development and its influence on plants grown under various edapho-climatic conditions, however, very little is known about their influence on transformed roots that are rich reserves of secondary metabolites. This raises the question of how mycorrhizal colonization progresses in transformed roots grown in vitro and whether the mycorrhizal fungus presence influences the production of secondary metabolites. To fully understand mycorrhizal ontogenesis and its effect on root morphology, root biomass, total phenolics, rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and antioxidant production under in vitro conditions, a co-culture was developed between three Agrobacterium rhizogenes-derived, elite-transformed root lines of Ocimum basilicum and Rhizophagus irregularis. We found that mycorrhizal ontogenesis in transformed roots was similar to mycorrhizal roots obtained from an in planta system. Mycorrhizal establishment was also found to be transformed root line-specific. Colonization of transformed roots increased the concentration of rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and antioxidant production while no effect was observed on root morphological traits and biomass. Enhancement of total phenolics and rosmarinic acid in the three mycorrhizal transformed root lines was found to be transformed root line-specific and age dependent. We reveal the potential of R. irregularis as a biotic elicitor in vitro and propose its incorporation into commercial in vitro secondary metabolite production via transformed roots.

  6. Effect of auxin on xylem tracheids differentiation in decapitated stems of Pinus silvestris L. and its interaction with some vitamins and growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Wodzicki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of several vitamins and substances known as important agents in regulation of cell metabolism upon secondary xylem differentiation were studied in interaction with auxin (IAA as applied in lanoline to decapitated stems of 5-year-old Pinus silvestris trees in early and late-summer. Tested substances were: gibberellic acid, kinetin, nicotinic acid, thiamine, pyridoxine, calcium panthotenate, choline chloride, riboflavin, inositol, ascorbic acid, vitamin, A (alcohol, vitamin A (ester, saponin. None of the effects of these substances appeared significant enough to indicate the involvement in the seasonal variation of the response of cambium or differentiating tracheids to auxin. However, several effects, especially those of inositol, vitamin A and pyridoxine upon cambial xylem production and further stages of tracheid differentiation were observed. Auxin (IAA affected cambial activity and subsequent differentiation of tracheids during the earliest stages of cell ontogenesis. At these stages auxin treatment induced quantitative expression of the developmental processes involving radial growth and secondary wall formation by tracheids. In this respect, auxin did not affect cells advanced in differentiation, however, it proved to be an essential factor in the completion of the full cycle of tracheid ontogenesis.

  7. Human development IV: The Living Cell has Information-Directed Self-Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, restricted to describe the ontogenesis of the cell, we discuss the processing of DNA through RNA to proteins and argue that this process is not able to transfer the information necessary to organize the proteins in the cell, but only to transfer the information necessary to form the shape of the proteins. We shortly describe the structure of the information carrying field recruited by the cells that we think is responsible for building the organelles and other cellular structures. We use the cells superior control of its cytoskeleton as an example of how the cell is using an informational field giving the positional information guiding all the local chemical processes behind the cell movement. We describe the information-directed self-organization in cells and argue that this can explain the ontogenesis of the cell. We also suggest the existence of an undiscovered phenomenon behind the information transmitting cell interactions. We conclude that during evolution the cell has developed into an information-guided self-organizing structure. The mystery we want to solve is: what is the mechanical cause and nature of biological information?

  8. Development of the Endocrine Pancreas in the Beagle Dog: From Fetal to Adult Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricout-Neveu, Emilie; Pechberty, Severine; Reynaud, Karine; Maenhoudt, Cindy; José Lecomte, Marie; Ravassard, Philippe; Czernichow, Paul

    2017-03-14

    Our objectives were to describe, in Beagle dogs, the ontogenesis of beta (insulin-producing) and alpha (glucagon-producing) cells from fetal to early postnatal life and adulthood. In addition, to have some insight into interspecies comparison, Beagle dog pancreases were compared to pancreases from a Labrador and Chow Chow. At midgestation, the epithelium was dense, beta cells scarce, and alpha cells numerous and concentrated in the center of the pancreatic bud. From 36 to 45 days post conception (pc), beta cell numbers increased and the epithelium expanded and branched out. At 55 days pc, large beta cell aggregates were seen. At weaning, the islets were similar to those in adults, with limited alpha cells intermingled with numerous beta cells. Quantification of the Alpha to Beta cells ratio has shown a gradual increase of beta cells proportion throughout development. Similar findings were obtained in the 2 other breeds. In conclusion, in the fetal Beagle dog beta cells emerge from the pancreatic bud at midgestation, but the endocrine structure is mature only in early postnatal life. The ontogenesis of the endocrine pancreas demonstrated in dogs resembles that reported in rats and mice. In contrast, human beta cells appear earlier, at the beginning of the second trimester of gestation. Our study provides a detailed morphological description of pancreatic development in dogs but supplies no information on alpha- or beta-cell function during fetal life. The morphological data reported here provide a foundation for building physiological studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Study of the embryogenesis of Dunhevedia crassa King, 1853 (Cladocera: Chydoridae and a comparison of embryonic instar durations in different cladocerans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Kotov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the embryonic development of a common tropical cladoceran Dunhevedia crassa King, 1853 (Anomopoda:Chydoridae and compare the durations of embryonic instars and growth during embryogenesis in small-sized chydorids and other cladocerans. The sequence of events in the embryogenesis of Dunhevedia females was studied by means of in vitro observation in the laboratory at 28.5°C. We found that the general pattern of the sequence of events in chydorid embryogenesis is similar to that in other anomopods. However, the relative durations of the embryonic instars I and II+III are markedly short, while that of instar IV is long (delayed when compared with other cladocerans. The observed pattern of ontogenesis in chydorids may therefore be apomorphic within the cladocerans and could reflect a neotenic evolution. Another peculiar trait of Dunhevedia is the very small increase of the size of the embryo during embryogenesis, which is correlated with a very large size of the egg relative to the mother. Therefore, our study revealed some peculiarities in the ontogenesis of small-sized chydorids, which could be a result of family-specific evolution.

  10. "Great Ideas" in Russian Psychology: Personality Impact on Psychophysiological Functions and Causal Approach to Self- determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Mironenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian psychology has brought into the world science at least two great ideas: the conditioned reflex (Pavlov and the zone of proximal development (Vygotsky. These concepts were formulated before “iron curtain” fell. Since then Russian science dropped out from the view of western colleagues for decades. Now it is challenged to re-join international mainstream. Are we in a position to contribute?A key concept for Russian psychology is personality impact on psycho-physiological functions and causal approach to self-determination. The concept of selfdetermination appeared in Western theories in 1980-es and since then it has been developed in the context of teleological humanitarian approach. In Russian science the concept of self-determination dates back to 1934, when it was defined by Rubinstein as “sub’ekt”. Self-determination of ontogenesis of psycho physiological functions resulting from confluence of ontogenesis and social development was explicated by Russian scientists whose theoretical reasoning and empirical results are compared to Western counterparts.

  11. [Human lung connective tissue in postnatal ontogeny].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimtsev, A A; Nikolaev, V G

    1993-01-01

    Changes of the connective tissue structures, appearing during all postnatal ontogenesis stages were studied in 147 human lung specimens of different age groups (from newborns up to 82-year-olds). Qualitative and quantitative composition of connective tissue structures changes with the age which leads to the lateral aggregation of the fibers and growth of the general mass of the connective tissue. Heterochronia of the age variability manifestations in different regions of the lung framework was demonstrated. The original age transformations of connective tissue structures are characteristic for the basal lung regions. With the exception of perivasal connective tissue, similar changes in the region of the lung apexes appear 3-5 years later. This gives an opportunity to distinguish three anatomic zones in the lungs in an apico-basal direction, characterising the local nature of the age changes manifestations.

  12. [An analysis of the prevalence of isolated dental anomalies and of those associated with hereditary syndromes: a model for evaluating the genetic control of the dentition characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, T

    1993-06-01

    Tooth ontogenesis, morphogenesis, and eruption are under a multifactorial (genetic, epigenetic, environmental) control. The aim of this study has been a genetic appraisal of tooth developmental characteristics by means of the prevalence and patterns of association of tooth anomalies in a large sample of hereditary syndromes. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A sample of 169 hereditary syndromes exhibiting tooth abnormalities was collected from the literature: original articles were controlled in order to achieve uniformity of judgement about the definition of the dental defects. Tooth anomalies were classified according to anatomoclinical criteria: number (hypodontia/hyperdontia), shape, position, structure (enamel/dentin/cementum), size (micro-/macrodontism), eruption (precocious/delayed including unerupted teeth). Prevalence data were calculated for: 1) modes of syndrome inheritance; 2) syndromes exhibiting a single dental anomaly vs. syndromes exhibiting associated tooth abnormalities; 3) different types of tooth abnormalities; 4) isolated and associated tooth abnormalities.

  13. The growth of language: Universal Grammar, experience, and principles of computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Charles; Crain, Stephen; Berwick, Robert C; Chomsky, Noam; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2017-01-07

    Human infants develop language remarkably rapidly and without overt instruction. We argue that the distinctive ontogenesis of child language arises from the interplay of three factors: domain-specific principles of language (Universal Grammar), external experience, and properties of non-linguistic domains of cognition including general learning mechanisms and principles of efficient computation. We review developmental evidence that children make use of hierarchically composed structures ('Merge') from the earliest stages and at all levels of linguistic organization. At the same time, longitudinal trajectories of development show sensitivity to the quantity of specific patterns in the input, which suggests the use of probabilistic processes as well as inductive learning mechanisms that are suitable for the psychological constraints on language acquisition. By considering the place of language in human biology and evolution, we propose an approach that integrates principles from Universal Grammar and constraints from other domains of cognition. We outline some initial results of this approach as well as challenges for future research.

  14. Stability and Variability in Aesthetic Experience: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Beudt, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Based on psychophysics’ pragmatic dualism, we trace the cognitive neuroscience of stability and variability in aesthetic experience. With regard to different domains of aesthetic processing, we touch upon the relevance of cognitive schemata for aesthetic preference. Attitudes and preferences are explored in detail. Evolutionary constraints on attitude formation or schema generation are elucidated, just as the often seemingly arbitrary influences of social, societal, and cultural nature are. A particular focus is put on the concept of critical periods during an individual’s ontogenesis. The latter contrasting with changes of high frequency, such as fashion influences. Taken together, these analyses document the state of the art in the field and, potentially, highlight avenues for future research. PMID:28223955

  15. Dopamine drives Drosophila sechellia adaptation to its toxic host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavista-Llanos, Sofía; Svatoš, Aleš; Kai, Marco; Riemensperger, Thomas; Birman, Serge; Stensmyr, Marcus C; Hansson, Bill S

    2014-12-09

    Many insect species are host-obligate specialists. The evolutionary mechanism driving the adaptation of a species to a toxic host is, however, intriguing. We analyzed the tight association of Drosophila sechellia to its sole host, the fruit of Morinda citrifolia, which is toxic to other members of the melanogaster species group. Molecular polymorphisms in the dopamine regulatory protein Catsup cause infertility in D. sechellia due to maternal arrest of oogenesis. In its natural host, the fruit compensates for the impaired maternal dopamine metabolism with the precursor l-DOPA, resuming oogenesis and stimulating egg production. l-DOPA present in morinda additionally increases the size of D. sechellia eggs, what in turn enhances early fitness. We argue that the need of l-DOPA for successful reproduction has driven D. sechellia to become an M. citrifolia obligate specialist. This study illustrates how an insect's dopaminergic system can sustain ecological adaptations by modulating ontogenesis and development.

  16. [Somatotype of women of the Stavropol region with mammary gland pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butova, O A; Eremin, V A; Seĭfulina, G V

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the somatotypic characteristics of women living in Stavropol region, both healthy persons and patients with mammary cancer. 105 women of second period of mature age and of eldery age were examined. For somatotype assessment the scheme of V.P. Chtetzov et al. (1979) was used. Age peculiarities of morphological typing were demonstrated that revealed the dominance of athletic type in mature age and mesoplastic type in the elderly one. The analysis of anthropometric parameters of women with oncological pathology in the indicated periods of ontogenesis has demonstrated a predominance of a mesomorphic vector in shaping their somatotype. The marker signs possessing the greatest informative value in mammary cancer patients of a second period of mature age were the low values of thickness of brachial and breast adipose folds. These signs are suggested as criteria for the formation of groups of risk.

  17. [Archaeology of childhood. Psychoanalytic conditions for realizing childhood daydreams exemplified by Heinrich Schliemann].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaus, R J

    1992-11-01

    The biographical value of Heinrich Schliemann's memories of his childhood has always been disrupted. Following W.G. Niederland, the author characterises the famous archaeologist's powers of recall as instances of hypermnesia and not as retrospective constructs. In addition he shows that ontogenetically the conditions governing the realisation of infant ambitions are bound up with original experiences of happiness, traumatic losses without destruction of psychic substance, attempts at reparation and the preservation of the balance between the reality principle and the pleasure principle. A further factor shown to be involved is the dialectic tension between eros and thanatos. With reference to Freud's concept of the archaic heritage, the phylogenetic conditions and their links with ontogenesis are then identified with a view to elucidating why Schliemann, whose childhood ambition it was to excavate Troy, was later able to realise this boyhood dream.

  18. NITRIC OXIDE AND ENDOTHELIN-1 IN CHILDREN WITH DIGESTIVE DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Panova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The important part in the group of biological compounds, participating in the regulation of the functions of the gastro-intestinal tract, is assigned to endothelial factors because of their impact on the majority of physiological and pathophysiological processes of the digestive system. The article provides information about physiological role of nitric oxide and endothelin-1 and presents a review of scientific data on the participation of nitric oxide and endothelin-1 in the pathogenesis of many digestive system diseases, emphasizing chronic inflammatory disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The authors accentuate the importance of endothelium endocrine function research in children with esophagogastroduodenal disorders at the beginning of puberty, which is the critical period of ontogenesis.

  19. [Elevation of proinflammatory cytokines level at early age as the risk factor of neurological and mental pathology development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubarev, O E; Klimenko, V M

    2011-10-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines Interleukin-1, Interleukin-6 (IL-1, IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), the key mediators of neuroimmune interactions, are the common pathogenic part of various kinds of the perinatal pathology leading to severe neurological and mental diseases. In the review, features of expression of the proinflammatory cytokines and their receptors in the brain at early age under normal and pathological conditions, their influence on processes of maturing of the CNS cells are described, the data of experimental and clinical researches of disturbances of the mental functions arising in adults owing to elevation of the IL-1, IL-6 levels and TNFalpha in early ontogenesis are cited. The role of the cytokines in pathogenesis of schizophrenia, a syndrome of attention deficiency, autism and a Parkinsonism is discussed.

  20. Preliminary results of scientific research on biosatellite KOSMOS-1129

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    The first physiological study aimed at deeper examination mechanisms of weightlessness and adaptation/readaptation is described. It dealt with metabolism, support motor changes and nonspecific changes connected with stress reaction. Wistar rats were used in a triple setup: flight/vivarium/biosatellite mockup. Animal condition was assessed on motor activity and body temperature. Extensive tables show weight, blood and enzyme analysis, etc. Animals groups were labeled: stress, behavior, body composition, biorhythm, ontogenesis. The second or biological study dealt with tumorous carrot tissues but humidity control was defective: some indices are reported such as cell membrane permeability, tissue respiration, etc. It also was concerned with a fowl embryogenetic experiment (Japanese quail) but mechanical effects on landing reduced its success. The third study, on radiation dosimetry, presents a little tabulated data but chiefly gives lists of satellite detector units of different kinds and from different countries.

  1. Allomorphic development: A major postulate of Vygotskian theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Jovan N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article stresses the importance of Vygotsky’s postulates on evolution and history for understanding his developmental theory, focusing especially on his thesis on the clear-cut replacement of evolution by history. That thesis shaped the general theoretical plane consisting of several opposing and almost mutually exclusive pairs of solutions, such as biology - culture, individual - collective, animal - human, evolution - history etc. Such general solutions offer too narrow a framework for elaborating a theory of ontogenesis. This is the background on which the true meaning of the postulate of allomorphic development is presented, along with an analysis of several more specific related theses. The article ends with a critical review of Vygotsky’s general postulates, pointing out to the ideological dimension of his developmental psychology.

  2. Formulation and analysis of the normativity problem in ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Nurmukhametov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We perform a theoretical analysis of the nature and essence of person normativity on the basis of philosophical, psychological and socio-psychological research on regulatory issues. We analyzeapproaches to the issue of normativity within psychology and related disciplines in the ontogenetic context. We reveal features of behavioral manifestations of a person’s normativity in the process of ontogenesis from early childhood through adolescence. We analyze the structure of the normativity during adolescence, which includes three levels: cognitive, emotional and behavioral. It is emphasized that the provision of normative adolescent behavior formation is key to their understanding, perception, emotional response and adequate solutions ofnormative tasks. We draw the conclusion that "normativity" isa personality characteristic that reflects the process of development of social norms and serving as a necessary condition for the existence of personality in ontogeny.

  3. Floral organogenesis of Delavaya toxocarpa (Sapindaceae; Sapindales)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Min CAO; Nian-He XIA

    2009-01-01

    The floral organogenesis and development of Delavaya toxocarpa Franch. (Sapindaceae) were studied under scanning electron microscope and light microscope to determine its systematic position within Sapindaceae. Flowers arise in terminal thyrses. The sepal primordia initiate in a spiral (2/5) sequence, which are not synchronous. The five petal primordia initiate almost synchronously and alternate with sepal primordia. Eight stamens initiate almost simultaneously and their differentiation precedes that of the petals. The last formed petal and one stamen initiate from a common primordium. Mature stamens curve inwards and cover the ovary in bud. The gynoecium begins as a hemispheric primordium on which two carpellary lobes arise simultaneously. Later in development a single gynocium is formed with two locules and two ovules per locule. Floral morphology suggests a closer affinity with Sapindaceae, although certain features of floral ontogenesis are similar to those observed in certain members of the former Hippocastanaceae, such as Handeliodendron.

  4. Specifics of psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbyněk Janečka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ontogenesis of the psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children has its own specifics. Visual defect is influenced by many things. In the period from birth to two years of age occur in children, significant changes in cognitive, psychomotor and social development. Compared with the normal sighted population go the development of congenital blind children in all these areas slower. Visual deprivation also influenced on development of body posture. More important is whether the development proceeds in stages that correspond to the development of normal vision child. If development proceeds in the right direction is the temporal aspect criterion rather orientation. For blind children is also important to strengthen the ability to correctly identify their own body through somatognosy. Stereognosy in turn determines the degree of contact with the outer world and focus it in relation to the physical schema.

  5. A comparative study of prenatal development in the olfactory bulb, neocortex and hippocampal region of the precocial mouse Acomys cahirinus and rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunjes, P C

    1989-09-01

    Unlike the remainder of the rodent subfamily Muridae, Acomys cahirinus (the 'spiny' mouse) is born in a precocial state after a long (39 day) gestation. In this paper, the development of the olfactory bulb, neocortex and hippocampal formation of Acomys from prenatal days 14-34 was examined and the rate of maturation compared with that of its cousin, the laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus). At the earliest stages examined, Acomys was approximately 2 days less mature than the same post-conception aged rat. The difference between the two species increased: Acomys at 28 days postconception resembled the 22-day rat. By the end of gestation, Acomys and the rat were in a relatively similar developmental state. Therefore, Acomys exhibits a quite different timetable of early maturation which includes a protracted period of relatively slow growth during mid-gestation. As such, it offers many benefits as a subject for studies of both early ontogenesis and the mechanisms which result in species differences.

  6. The evolution of moral dispositions in the human species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, D L

    2000-04-01

    Kohlberg's model of moral development is viewed from the perspective of evolutionary biology. Moral judgments defining Kohlberg's stages of moral development are seen as manifestations of structures evolved to uphold systems of cooperation. Game theory research on adaptive strategies of cooperation supports the conclusion that humans inherit dispositions to uphold the systems of cooperation implicit in the first three stages in Kohlberg's sequence, but not the systems of cooperation implicit in the highest stages. The empirical evidence on real-life morality is more consistent with a biological model of ontogenesis than is the model espoused by Kohlbergians. Although people occasionally make moral judgments in their everyday lives to reveal their solutions to moral dilemmas, as Kohlberg's model assumes, they more often make moral decisions that advance their adaptive interests.

  7. Predictive Capabilities of Neurobehavioral Diagnostics in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramova, Oxana

    2016-05-01

    Modern world experiences annual increase in the number of children born with neurological problems, which in the future may stipulate the development of their neurobehavioral and neuropsychological aberrations. Specific functional features of a child's brain development depend on many factors, but there is a strong need for early clinical and psychological identification of a child's development with a view to elaborate preventive measures, which are often more effective than the treatment or correction of dysfunction, already complicated by compensatory bonds. One should note that despite a high interest in the possibility of predicting the future development of the child in the early ontogenesis, few studies have so far been devoted to the search for indicators that could be meaningful for neuropsychology, neurology, and educational, special, and clinical psychology.

  8. In silico Evolutionary Developmental Neurobiology and the Origin of Natural Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szathmáry, Eörs; Szathmáry, Zoltán; Ittzés, Péter; Orbaán, Geroő; Zachár, István; Huszár, Ferenc; Fedor, Anna; Varga, Máté; Számadó, Szabolcs

    It is justified to assume that part of our genetic endowment contributes to our language skills, yet it is impossible to tell at this moment exactly how genes affect the language faculty. We complement experimental biological studies by an in silico approach in that we simulate the evolution of neuronal networks under selection for language-related skills. At the heart of this project is the Evolutionary Neurogenetic Algorithm (ENGA) that is deliberately biomimetic. The design of the system was inspired by important biological phenomena such as brain ontogenesis, neuron morphologies, and indirect genetic encoding. Neuronal networks were selected and were allowed to reproduce as a function of their performance in the given task. The selected neuronal networks in all scenarios were able to solve the communication problem they had to face. The most striking feature of the model is that it works with highly indirect genetic encoding--just as brains do.

  9. Place and Role of Metaphors and Analogies in the Complex Thought and Conceptual Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Primorac

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is on the role of complex thought in the development of thought and scientific knowledge. According to Vigotsky, the complex thought is the first phase in the ontogenesis and phylogenesis of human thought. It is in this sense pre-conceptual. Also, according to Vigotsky, the complex thought has its internal genesis which begins with associative complexes and ends in pseudo-concepts. Complex also an explanatory role in scientific thought. Complex thought ppears on all levels and stages of the development of scientific knowledge. Metaphors may appear in the complex thought as a dominant mode of thought or in the conceptual structure as the auxiliary in the explanation. Analogies present a certain structuration of the complex thought, which contributes to the creation of conceptual structure. The place of analogy is thus between a complex thought and conceptual thought.

  10. [Dynamics of duration and frequency characteristics the vowels over the first seven years of life of children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    On Russian material we traced dynamics of the acoustic characteristics of vowels and vowel sounds of the words 115 children aged 3 months to 7 years. There was a significant reduction in the duration and frequency values of the pitch vowels to 7 years of age children. We are the first to show that to 7 years relevant forms for Russian language sign the stressed vowel--long duration of the stressed vowel compared to unstressed vowel. Articulation of vowels is not fully formed. Data presented in this paper on the dynamics of the duration and frequency characteristics of vowels, on the one hand confirm the general laws of formation acoustic aspects of speech in ontogenesis. On the other--are original, as they reflect the assimilation of child articulations implemented in the Russian language.

  11. Series, Telenovelas and Soaps: Tragedy in the Living Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Panjeta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this work is to establish the inherent features of the serial genres in television that emerged from literature and discuss their importance and impact on the spectatorship. The rise and development of the serial genres will be discussed along with the growing influence on the society and individuals. How much do the genres of telenovelas and series differ in the context of cultural nuances and what is the genesis of the human urgency in retelling the melodramatic and tragic narratives? Enormous popularity deriving from these stories is reflected in the prime time broadcasting by Croatian, Serbian and Bosnian TV stations since 2002. The essay will explain the ontogenesis of the popularity, reflections and influences on societies and cultures, and features of this hybrid and changing genre of telenovelas and the most recent infatuation with Turkish serials in the TV region of West Balkans.

  12. Return to the hematopoietic stem cell origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor M Samokhvalov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying embryonic hematopoiesis is complicated by diversity of its locations in the constantly changing anatomy and by the mobility of blood cell precursors. Embryonic hematopoietic progenitors are identified in traditional in vivo and in vitro cell potential assays. Profound epigenetic plasticity of mammalian embryonic cells combined with significant inductive capacity of the potential assays suggest that our understanding of hematopoietic ontogenesis is substantially distorted. Non-invasive in vivo cell tracing methodology offers a better insight into complex processes of blood cell specification. In contrast to the widely accepted view based on the cell potential assays, the genetic tracing approach identified the yolk sac as the source of adult hematopoietic stem cell lineage. Realistic knowledge of the blood origin is critical for safe and efficient recapitulation of hematopoietic development in culture.

  13. Enhancing the viability of carp larvae by probiotic preparation BPS-44 under the herbicide roundup influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Barbukho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different concentrations of the herbicide roundup (active ingredient – izopropilamine salt of glyphosate, 480 g/l on survival of the carp larvae (Cyprinus carpio L. and the compensation of the adverse effects by probiotic BPS-44 are studied. Roundup (concentrations from 0.01 to 80 mg/dm3 makes negative effect on the carp larvae. Primary herbicide stress in prenatal period of ontogenesis leads to some increase of larvae viability only in minimal concentration – 0.001 mg/dm3, in all other cases it leads to considerable increase of the larvae mortality. The preparation BPS-44 enhances the viability of carp larvae under conditions of medium toxic stress of the herbicide (0.02–0.80 mg/dm3.

  14. Photosynthesis intensity of poic plants of left bank Ukraine’s Forest–steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Orlova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of photosynthesis is studied in species of 20 families of Magnoliophyta (Angiospermae. It is revealed that in general, dicotyledons have a higher rate in comparison with the monocotyledonous plant by 10.0 %. The average values with limits from 3.6 to 39.3 mg СО2/dm2 per year are given. The studied species are classified by the ability to assimilate СО2. The rate dependence on a biomorph and hygromorph is determined. It is stressed that rhizome species have sufficient and high values of that rate. The dynamics of values during ontogenesis and impact of weather conditions on them are shown.

  15. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF PYRETHRUM PARTHENIUM (L. SMITH. INTRODUCED IN THE WESTERN FOREST-STEPPE OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Gurs'ka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the growth and development of four varieties of Pyrethrum parthenium (L. Smith., introduced  in edaphic-climatic conditions of Western Steppes of Ukraine were studied. The duration of plant growth  on the field was 150-165 days, the flowering period was 80-90 days. The ecological and biological characteristics of this species (soil indifference, heliophile and thermophyte features were described. It is showed that plants were successfully vegetated and fruited in this edaphic-climatic  zone and were remained high decorative quality throughout the vegetative period. Keywords: Pyrethrum parthenium (L. Smith., vegetative period, ontogenesis, phenological phases, edaphic-climatic  conditions.

  16. Interferon-induced antiviral resistance. A mathematical model of regulation of Mx1 protein induction and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhan, S I; Belova, O E

    1999-06-07

    Influenza A virus and various single-stranded RNA viruses have been reported to be blocked by IFN-stimulated Mx protein. Here we present a mathematical model of regulation of mouse Mx1 protein induction and action under influenza infection. Parameter estimates are derived from published experimental data. Numerical solutions of the model equations completely correspond to experimental data. The model is used to analyse the role of virus- and interferon-mediated expression of Mx1 in maintenance of antiviral state. The study suggests that virus- and IFN-induced Mx1 proteins act on different stages of intracellular ontogenesis of influenza virus and these actions result in different efficacy of cell protection. The model demonstrates that the synergistic action of inteferon and virus in regulation of Mx1 gene expression is the important factor of antiviral resistance. The results of simulation permit to assume that the active form of Mx1 protein is trimer.

  17. The Generative Development of Traditional and Self-Completing (Restricted Branching Cultivars of White Lupin (Lupinus Albus L., Yellow Lupin (L.Luteus L. and Narrow-Lafed Lupin (L. Angustifolius L. Grown under Different Phytotron Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frankowski Kamil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the number of flowers and pods set, as well as reducing the intensity of their abortion, is of crucial importance for the yielding of leguminous plants. This study examined the effects of the type of soil used and mineral fertilization applied on the generative development of the traditional and self-completing (restricted branching cultivars of white lupin (Lupinus albus L., yellow lupin (L. luteus L. and narrow-lafed lupin (L. angustifolius L. cultivated under controlled phytotron conditions. Experiments carried out under such conditions allow for the elimination of variable environmental factors affecting the course of plant ontogenesis in field cultivation, and enable unambiguous interpretation of the biochemical and molecular influence of a selected factor on the physiological process studied. For the first time, the influence of different cultivation factors on generative development of traditional and selfcompleting (restricted branching cultivars of lupins under phytotrone was examined.

  18. Motor function recovery of people of mature years after stroke by means of physical rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khristova T.E.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of applying the complex technology of physical rehabilitation are described for patients with cerebral ischemic stroke during the phase of in-patient rehabilitation. The experiment involved 36 male patients aged 45-50 years. The rehabilitation program included treatment by changing position, complex of therapeutic gymnastics (based on sanogenetic approach to the problem of motor function recovery in accordance with the stages of postnatal ontogenesis, magnetic therapy, thermotherapy of large joints of the affected extremities. Findings show that the use of the mentioned methods of treatment leads to increase of the range of motion in the hip and shoulder joints: passive of 15-20%, and active of 10-30%, muscle strength of 10-30%, improvement of motor activity indices (scale of Bobaht and quality of life (scale of Barthel.

  19. In search of principles for a Theory of Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Giuseppe; Montevil, Mael; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M

    2015-12-01

    Lacking an operational theory to explain the organization and behaviour of matter in unicellular and multicellular organisms hinders progress in biology. Such a theory should address life cycles from ontogenesis to death. This theory would complement the theory of evolution that addresses phylogenesis, and would posit theoretical extensions to accepted physical principles and default states in order to grasp the living state of matter and define proper biological observables. Thus, we favour adopting the default state implicit in Darwin's theory, namely, cell proliferation with variation plus motility, and a framing principle, namely, life phenomena manifest themselves as non-identical iterations of morphogenetic processes. From this perspective, organisms become a consequence of the inherent variability generated by proliferation, motility and self-organization. Morphogenesis would then be the result of the default state plus physical constraints, like gravity, and those present in living organisms, like muscular tension.

  20. Mental Development of Children with Non-epileptic Paroxysmal States in Medical History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turovskaya N.G.,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The author studied mental functions disorders in children with a history of paroxysmal states of various etiologies and compared mental development disorder patterns in patients with epileptic and non-epileptic paroxysms. Study sample were 107 children, aged 6 to 10 years. The study used experimental psychological and neuropsychological techniques. According to the empirical study results, non-epileptic paroxysms unlike epileptic much less combined with a number of mental functions disorders and intelligence in general. However, non-epileptic paroxysmal states as well as epileptic seizure associated with increasing activity exhaustion and abnormal function of the motor analyzer (dynamic and kinesthetic dyspraxia. Visual memory disorders and modal-nonspecific memory disorders have more pronounced importance in the mental ontogenesis structure in children with convulsive paroxysms compared to children with cerebral pathology without paroxysms history

  1. The Transition from Animal to Linguistic Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Harry

    Darwin's theory predicts that linguistic behavior gradually evolved out of animal forms of communication (signaling). However, this prediction is confronted by the conceptual problem that there is an essential difference between signaling and linguistic behavior: using words is a normative practice. It is argued that we can resolve this problem if we (1) note that language evolution is the outcome of an evolutionary transition, and (2) observe that the use of words evolves during ontogenesis out of babbling. It is discussed that language evolved as the result of an expansion of the vocalizing powers of our ancestors. This involved an increase in the volitional control of our speech apparatus (leading to the ability to produce new combinations of vowels and consonants), but also the evolution of socially guided learning. It resulted in unique human abilities, namely doing things with words and later reasoning and giving reasons.

  2. Intent, Future, Anticipation: A Semiotic, Transdisciplinary Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeckenhoff, Hellmut

    2008-10-01

    Encouraged e.g. by chaos theory and (bio-)semiotics science is trying to attempt a deeper understanding of life. The paradigms of physics alone prove not sufficient to explain f. ex. evolution or phylogenesis and ontogenesis. In complement, research on life systems reassesses paradigmatic models not only for living systems and not only on the strict biological level. The ontological as well as the epistemological base of science in toto is to be reconsidered. Science itself proves a historical and cultural phenomenon and can be seen as shaped by evolution and semiosis. -Living systems are signified by purpose, intent and, necessarily, by the faculty to anticipate e.g. the cyclic changes of their environment. To understand the concepts behind a proposal is developed towards a model set constituting a transdisciplinary approach. It rests e.g. on concepts of systems, evolution, complexity and semiodynamics.

  3. [Biological experiments on "Kosmos-1887"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpatov, A M; I'lin, E A; Antipov, V V; Tairbekov, M G

    1989-01-01

    In the 13-ray space flight on Kosmos-1887 various experiments in the field of cell biology, genetics, biorhythm, developmental biology and regeneration were performed using bacteria, protozoa, plants, worms, insects, fish and amphibia. Paramecia showed enhanced cell proliferation, spheroidization and diminished protein content. Experiments on fruit-flies, newt oocytes and primate lymphocytes confirmed involvement of the cell genetic apparatus in responses to microgravity. Beetles exhibited a reduction of the length of the spontaneous period of freely running circadian rhythms. Carausius morosus developed latent changes in early embryogenesis which manifested at later stages of ontogenesis. Exposure to microgravity did not prevent recovery of injured tissues; moreover their regeneration may be accelerated after recovery. Biology research programs in future biosatellite flights are discussed.

  4. Preliminary results of scientific research on biosatellite Kosmos-1129

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The first physiological study aimed at deeper examination mechanisms of weightlessness and adaptation/readaptation is described. It dealt with metabolism, support motor changes and nonspecific changes connected with stress reaction. Wistar rats were used in a triple setup: flight/vivarium/biosatellite mockup. Animal condition was assessed on motor activity and body temperature. Extensive tables show weight, blood and enzyme analysis, etc. Animals groups were labeled: stress, behavior, body composition, biorhythm, ontogenesis. The second or biological study dealt with tumorous carrot tissues but humidity control was defective: some indices are reported such as cell membrane permeability, tissue respiration, etc. It also was concerned with a fowl embryogenetic experiment (Japanese quail) but mechanical effects on landing reduced its success. The third study, on radiation dosimetry, presents a little tabulated data but chiefly gives lists of satellite detector units of different kinds and from different countries.

  5. An alternative pluripotent state confers interspecies chimaeric competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Okamura, Daiji; Li, Mo; Suzuki, Keiichiro; Luo, Chongyuan; Ma, Li; He, Yupeng; Li, Zhongwei; Benner, Chris; Tamura, Isao; Krause, Marie N.; Nery, Joseph R.; Du, Tingting; Zhang, Zhuzhu; Hishida, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Yuta; Aizawa, Emi; Kim, Na Young; Lajara, Jeronimo; Guillen, Pedro; Campistol, Josep M.; Esteban, Concepcion Rodriguez; Ross, Pablo J.; Saghatelian, Alan; Ren, Bing; Ecker, Joseph R.; Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua

    2017-01-01

    Pluripotency, the ability to generate any cell type of the body, is an evanescent attribute of embryonic cells. Transitory pluripotent cells can be captured at different time points during embryogenesis and maintained as embryonic stem cells or epiblast stem cells in culture. Since ontogenesis is a dynamic process in both space and time, it seems counterintuitive that these two temporal states represent the full spectrum of organismal pluripotency. Here we show that by modulating culture parameters, a stem-cell type with unique spatial characteristics and distinct molecular and functional features, designated as region-selective pluripotent stem cells (rsPSCs), can be efficiently obtained from mouse embryos and primate pluripotent stem cells, including humans. The ease of culturing and editing the genome of human rsPSCs offers advantages for regenerative medicine applications. The unique ability of human rsPSCs to generate post-implantation interspecies chimaeric embryos may facilitate our understanding of early human development and evolution. PMID:25945737

  6. Najfrekventovanejšie konotáty pojmu smrti u mladých dospelých (The most frequent connotations of the death concept in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slávka Démuthová

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Death and dying belong to less frequent topics of research even in psychology. It is an area which is very closely connected with intense emotions and building an individual attitude towards one’s own end of existence together with coping with consequences of acceptance of such unavoidable fact is the whole-life process. Constructing the contents of the death concept changes during ontogenesis and at the same time is influenced by many (cultural, religious as well as those coming from personal experience factors. The core of the pilot study is the contentual analysis of the death concept connotations in young adults together with an identification of key questions for further exploration.

  7. The Most Frequent Connotations of the Concept of Death in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slávka Démuthová

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Death and dying belong to less frequent topics of research even in psychology. It is an area which is very closely connected with intense emotions and building an individual attitude towards one’s own end of existence together with coping with consequences of acceptance of such an unavoidable fact which is the whole-life process. Constructing the contents of the death concept changes during ontogenesis and at the same time is influenced by many (cultural, religious as well as those coming from personal experience factors. The core of the pilot study is the contentual analysis of the death concept connotations in young adults together with an identification of key questions for further exploration.

  8. A pact with the embryo: Viktor Hamburger, holistic and mechanistic philosophy in the development of neuroembryology, 1927-1955.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Garland E

    2004-01-01

    Viktor Hamburger was a developmental biologist interested in the ontogenesis of hte vertebrate nervous system. A student of Hans Spemann at Freiburg in the 1920s, Hamburger picked up a holistic view of the embryo that precluded him from treating it in a reductionist way; at the same time, he was committed to a materialist and analytical approach that eschewed any form of vitalism or metaphysics. This paper explores how Hamburger walked this thin line between mechanistic reductionism and metaphysical vitalism in light of his work on the factors influencing growth of neurons into limb buds, and the discovery of nerve growth factor, work carried out with Rita Levi-Montalcini and Stanley Cohen.

  9. Die vakwetenskaplike en wysgerige betekenis van Stoker se konfrontasie met die ‘moderne desendensieleer’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. M. Strauss

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1926 Stoker wrote an article dealing with the modern biological theory of descent. This contribution endeavours to investigate those arguments and insights which are still valid today. With reference to Von Uexkiill Stoker first of all correctly emphasizes that the Darwinistic theory of descent does not belong within the domain of biology as a special science - it is nothing but a part of philosophy that should be treated within a philosophy of nature. In various contexts Stoker also points out that similarities also presuppose differences something consistently overlooked by Darwinism. The shortcomings in the ‘biogenetic basic law' of Haeckel - which claims that ontogenesis is a recapitulation of phylogenesis as well as of the neglected issue of constancy are lifted out. Stoker in fa d advances a remarkably balanced perspective on the relationship between constancy and dynamics.

  10. Executive functions in early childhood: interrelations and structural development of inhibition, set-shifting and working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Stievano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to examine the interrelations of executive function (EF tasks with general cognitive ability and linguistic level in preschool children. The analyses of the correlation between EF sub-domains, particularly inhibition and set-shifting, have been studied to comprehend the ontogenesis of EFs. Task analysis has allowed us to identify which EF sub-domains are prevalent in each task, with particular attention to inhibition and set-shifting definitions. The sample was composed of 40 typically developing children from 48 to 69 months old (M=58 months, SD=5.02; 28 boys and 12 girls. The results give some insight into the development of executive functions, their utility in clinical assessment and indication.

  11. The niche of envy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintanilla, Laura; Jensen de López, Kristine M.

    2013-01-01

    Envy is the religion of the mediocre. It comforts them, it responds to the worries that gnaw at them and finally it rots their souls, allowing them to justify their meanings and their greed until they believe these to be virtues.—Carlos Ruiz Zafón “The niche of envy” is a cross-disciplinary attempt...... to capture and understand the complex and self-conscious emotion of envy as unfolded within social relationships and cultural settings. One of our main interests concerns how children come to understand envy in ontogenesis. Accordingly, we review existing theoretical approaches to understanding envy...... and introduce preliminary data about children’s understanding of envy. This paper consists of three sections. In the first section, we define envy by introducing the conditions and components that form part of it. We emphasize the fact that envy is a complex and embodied emotion, which embraces a triadic...

  12. The efficacy of 30% FENBENDAZOLE anthelmintic paste in cyathostominosis in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Badea

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Horse cyathostominosis is a large intestine helminthosis caused by parasites belonging to the family Strongylidae, subfamily Cyathostominae. The cyathostomins (small strongyles represent a challenge for the parasitologists and animal owners due to the different ontogenesis, the high number of parasite species and their ability to develop anthelmintic resistance. The faeces were examined by flotation (Willis method and the infestation level was determined by McMaster method in day 0, 7 and 14 post treatments. The product Vanbendazol (30% fenbendazole had a 97.7% efficacy in the treated horses from Şofronea, Arad County, using the Faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT. Also were performed Presidente and Borgsteede relations and the anthelmintic efficacy was 98.2% for the both relations.

  13. Circadian and developmental regulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor 1 mRNA splice variants and N-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor 3 subunit expression within the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendová, Z; Sumová, A; Mikkelsen, Jens D.

    2009-01-01

    The circadian rhythms of mammals are generated by the circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Its intrinsic period is entrained to a 24 h cycle by external cues, mainly by light. Light impinging on the SCN at night causes either advancing or delaying phase...... shifts of the circadian clock. N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) are the main glutamate receptors mediating the effect of light on the molecular clockwork in the SCN. They are composed of multiple subunits, each with specific characteristics whose mutual interactions strongly determine properties...... of the receptor. In the brain, the distribution of NMDAR subunits depends on the region and developmental stage. Here, we report the circadian expression of the NMDAR1 subunit in the adult rat SCN and depict its splice variants that may constitute the functional receptor channel in the SCN. During ontogenesis...

  14. Role of Genetic and Environmental Factors in the Development of Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudina T.O.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a review of studies on factors influencing empathy development in early childhood and on conditions promoting manifestation of empathy in children later in life. The outcomes of several studies shed light on the character of empathic response at early stages of child development, particularly in infancy and toddlerhood. This review covers research on the role of biological factors and mechanisms in empathy development (for instance, features of temperament and neuronal bases, as well as research on the relationship between genetic and environmental factors in the development of empathy in ontogenesis. Another part of the paper describes studies on the role of social conditions in the development of empathy in childhood: it focuses primarily on family relations and, in particular, on the mother/child relationship. The paper concludes with several suggestions concerning further research of the specified problem.

  15. In search of principles for a Theory of Organisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Giuseppe Longo; Maël Montévil; Carlos Sonnenschein; Ana M Soto

    2015-12-01

    Lacking an operational theory to explain the organization and behaviour of matter in unicellular and multicellular organisms hinders progress in biology. Such a theory should address life cycles from ontogenesis to death. This theory would complement the theory of evolution that addresses phylogenesis, and would posit the oretical extensions to accepted physical principles and default states in order to grasp the living state of matter and define proper biological observables. Thus, we fanout adopting the default state implicit in Darwins theory, namely, cell proliferation with variation plus motility, and a framing principle, namely, life phenomena manifest themselves as non-identical iterations of morphogenetic processes. From this perspective, organisms become a consequence of the inherent variability generated by proliferation, motility and self-organization. Morphogenesis would then be the result of the default state plus physical constraints, like gravity, and those present in living organisms, like muscular tension.

  16. Textbook of neuromodulation principles, methods and clinical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Knotkova, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, it was thought that the adult brain is modifiable only during early stages of ontogenesis. However, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies now indicate that the mature human brain is, under certain conditions, capable of substantial neuroplastic changes. Neuroplasticity reflects the ability of the human brain to alter the pattern of neural activation in response to previous experience, and recent findings indicate that the effects of experience can lead to both structural as well as functional reorganization. It has been shown that pathological neuroplastic changes can be reverted/normalized and that the modulation of the neuroplastic changes can be paralleled by improvement of the patient's status. However, there is a gap between the potential of neuromodulation, technical progress and actual preparedness of medical personnel to provide this type of treatment. A prevalent opinion among medical professionals indicates that training programs and educational materials in neuromodulatory ...

  17. Oxidation Stress is Adaptative Reaction Inductor of Winter Wheat Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batsmanova Ludmila

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide impact upon the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, development of lipid peroxidation processes (LP, photosynthetic pigment content and productivity in conditions of field experiment were studied for winter wheat varieties of different ecotypes, namely Stolychna, Polisska 90 – forest-steppe, and Scala-steppe. It was found that hydrogen peroxide action for 24 h induced LP activity, whereas antioxidative enzyme activity dropped at two varieties. Exception was the Stolychna plants that showed decrease in all indexes studied after treatment. In the next phase of ontogenesis (flowering, however, SOD activity increased both in the plants of Polisska 90 and Scala, while CAT and LP activities were close to control in all plants. The data suggest that treatment by hydrogen peroxide stimulated the formation of general unspecific resistance of plants and increased the grain productivity of winter wheat varieties studied.

  18. Socioemotional, Personality, and Biological Development: Illustrations from a Multilevel Developmental Psychopathology Perspective on Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante

    2016-01-01

    Developmental theories can be affirmed, challenged, and augmented by incorporating knowledge about atypical ontogenesis. Investigations of the biological, socioemotional, and personality development in individuals with high-risk conditions and psychopathological disorders can provide an entrée into the study of system organization, disorganization, and reorganization. This article examines child maltreatment to illustrate the benefit that can be derived from the study of individuals subjected to nonnormative caregiving experiences. Relative to an average expectable environment, which consists of a species-specific range of environmental conditions that support adaptive development among genetically normal individuals, maltreating families fail to provide many of the experiences that are required for normal development. Principles gleaned from the field of developmental psychopathology provide a framework for understanding multilevel functioning in normality and pathology. Knowledge of normative developmental processes provides the impetus to design and implement randomized control trial (RCT) interventions that can promote resilient functioning in maltreated children.

  19. Excitation energy distribution between two photosystems in Porphyra yezoensis and its sig-nificance in photosynthesisevolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Comparative investigation on energy distribution between twophotosystems were carried out in the sporo- phytes and gametophytes of Porphyra yezoensis. By perfor- ming 77 K fluorescence spectra, we suggested that there probably existed a pathway for energy transfer from PSⅡ to PSⅠ to redistribute the absorbed energy in gametophytes, while no such a way or at minor level in sporophytes. Electron transfer inhibitor DCMU blocked the energy transfer from PSⅡ to PSⅠ in gametophytes, but no obvious effects on sporophytes. These indicated that excitation energy dis-tribution between two photosystems in gametophytes was more cooperative than that in sporophytes. These data in ontogenesis reflected the evolution process of photosynthetic organisms and supported the hypothesis of independent evolution of each photosystem.

  20. [The composition of lipids and lipid peroxidation in the pancreas of quails exposed to nitrates and correction by the amaranth's seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekhmistrenko, S I; Ponomarenko, N V

    2013-01-01

    Researches of features of lipid composition, functioning of the system of antioxidant defense, maintenance of lipid peroxidation products in the quail's pancreas on the early postnatal ontogenesis stages are conducted for actions of nitrates and feeding with amaranth's seeds in mixed fodder. The arrival of nitrates in the organism of quails results in the decline of general lipids maintenance and nonetherified fat acids in the pancreas. Using of amaranth's seeds in mixed fodder on the background of the nitrate loading results in the increase of activity of the enzimes system of antioxidant defence, the growth of general lipid level in the quail's pancreas. Thus in correlation with separate classes of lipid maintenance of cholesterol goes down for certain, whereas the maintenance of triacylglycerols and ethers of cholesterol rises. The results obtained in the researches show the ability of amaranth's seeds to avert oxidative stress in quail's pancreas under nitrates influence.

  1. Structural and ultrastructural study of Capsicum annuum leaves after treatment with Uncaria tomentosa bark extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of an Uncaria tomentosa extract on the development of Capsicum plants grown in green-house conditions was examined. The effect of the treatment was investigated with microscopic techniques (light and electron microscope in leaves from three levels of control plants and plants after treatment with the extract added to the soil in doses of 0.4 and 16 mg/ml (200 ml per pot/plant. In control leaves, changes typical of the subsequent phases of normal development were observed: nuclear chromatin became slightly condensed, plastoglobuli of chloroplasts increased in number and size, intragranal thylakoids were somewhat dilatated. In addition to such commonly occurring changes, some symptoms typical of pepper were observed in the ontogenesis of the examined plant: an increased number of spherical electron-dense deposits in vacuoles, an increased number of peroxisomes, the occurrence of numerous paracrystalline structures in chloroplasts of mature leaves, and, starting in mature leaves, expulsion of plastoglobuli from chloroplasts. After the treatment, most of those changes, leading to ageing, occurred much earlier and were more distinct. Chloroplasts, already in the youngest examined leaves, showed dilatation of intergranal thylakoids, which intensified with aging of the leaves and degradation of grana in the oldest leaves. Starch grains decreased in size and number and plastoglobuli became large. Vesiculation of ground cytoplasm in all leaves was stronger than in the control. No paracrystalline structures in chloroplasts or expulsion of plastoglobuli were observed. Another unusual phenomenon was the disappearance of spherical electron-dense deposits in the central vacuoles of cells. Those observations suggested that U. tomentosa extract enhanced the natural ontogenesis of Capsicum annuum leaves, by accelerating and enhancing the typical characteristics of ageing, and, additionally, it changed the structure and physiology of cells.

  2. Theories of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, H J; Howell, R W

    1971-03-01

    Prior to the advent of generative grammar, theoretical approaches to language development relied heavily upon the concepts ofdifferential reinforcement andimitation. Current studies of linguistic acquisition are largely dominated by the hypothesis that the child constructs his language on the basis of a primitive grammar which gradually evolves into a more complex grammar. This approach presupposes that the investigator does not impose his own grammatical rules on the utterances of the child; that the sound system of the child and the rules he employs to form sentences are to be described in their own terms, independently of the model provided by the adult linguistic community; and that there is a series of steps or stages through which the child passes on his way toward mastery of the adult grammar in his linguistic environment. This paper attempts to trace the development of human vocalization through prelinguistic stages to the development of what can be clearly recognized as language behavior, and then progresses to transitional phases in which the language of the child begins to approximate that of the adult model. In the view of the authors, the most challenging problems which confront theories of linguistic acquisition arise in seeking to account for structure of sound sequences, in the rules that enable the speaker to go from meaning to sound and which enable the listener to go from sound to meaning. The principal area of concern for the investigator, according to the authors, is the discovery of those rules at various stages of the learning process. The paper concludes with a return to the question of what constitutes an adequate theory of language ontogenesis. It is suggested that such a theory will have to be keyed to theories of cognitive development and will have to include and go beyond a theory which accounts for adult language competence and performance, since these represent only the terminal stage of linguistic ontogenesis.

  3. Ernst Haeckel's ontogenetic recapitulation: irritation and incentive from 1866 to our time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Klaus

    2002-11-01

    Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) must count among the most widely known biologists of his time. His monographs on radiolarian skeletons, sponges and medusae immediately became standard works, owing partly to lavish illustrations that later on culminated in his "Art Forms in Nature", which markedly influenced the "art nouveau" of the early 20th century. Haeckel's main impact, however, came from his numerous popular books that were crucial in transferring Darwin's ideas to continental Europe. Haeckel's main addition was his claim that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny. It was partly founded on pre-Darwinian observations by J.F. Meckel and K.E. v. Baer who noticed that vertebrate embryos of different species resemble each other more strongly during early ontogenesis than later on. Wishing to illustrate this clearly, Haeckel clandestinely generalized some figures showing early embryos of animals and Man. This "fraud" provided ammunition for his many adversaries, most of whom felt provoked by his antireligious campaigns. The resulting controversies continued well into the 20th century but then subsided. Quite recently, however, they have flared up again, perhaps in connection with progress in molecular embryology that revealed an amazing evolutionary conservation of genes and their cooperation in signal transduction chains. The scientific publications that triggered this flare, and a selection of "Letters to the Editor" in both international science magazines and the German popular press, serve here to show that Haeckel's idea of recapitulation, while having proven its heuristic value, is still causing considerable irritation. This results from the widespread intuition that the marvels of ontogenesis and other biological phenomena must reflect some "intelligent design" rather than Darwinian evolution.

  4. Life cycle and regeneration niches of herbaceous plants in forest communities

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    S. A. Dubrovnaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The criterion for steady state species in the community is the possibility of a complete turnover generation. Ontogenetic structure of Fragaria vesca and Trientalis europaea cenopopulations in phytocenoses of different seral stages of forest community depended on the ecological-coenotic conditions. Cenopopulations of species with a high frequency of individuals of generative period were formed on disturbed forest communities, however, Frsagaria vesca and Trientalis europaea seedlings in disturbed forest areas were not present. For these species, regeneration niches or microbioloby were the optimal conditions for seed germination and successful completion of the initial stages of ontogenesis, dedicated to the cenopopulations of phytocenoses climax serial stages. In holistic forest communities, species showed strategy type of patients. This allowed the species to be kept on a previously developed site. Invasive-regressive ontogenetic structure of Frsagaria vesca and Trientalis europaea cenopopulations was formed in climax stages of forest communities. However, this type of ontogenetically structure of cenopopulations reflected the survival of seedlings of species in the community, but did not represent, the tenuous state of the population. The stages of the life cycle of Fragaria vesca and Trientalis europaea were confined to different cenopopulations, where they developed the necessary conditions for the flow of the hotel stages of ontogenesis. A set of populations, within which is carried out the full turnover of the generation of Frsagaria vesca and Trientalis europaea, formed a correct idea about the status of the species in the community. In terms of a mosaic of phytocenosis cenopopulation of Platanthera bifolia was presented cenopopulations loci. The development of plants within loci differed. A variety of factors in heterogeneous pine forest determined by the separation in space of the processes of formation of seeds and survival of

  5. An “Elbum” for Elya: Given Names in the Linguistic Mind of a Child

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    Tatyana A. Gridina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the trends of exploration by a child of their own given name seen as an important factor of the development of linguistic capacity in ontogenesis. The author analyzes the perception of the personal name (both in its full and short forms as determined by the mental dominants of preschoolers’ and school-age children’s linguistic mind and reveals the specificity of the nominative function of the name, its communicative and linguo-cultural features in children’s speech. The author points out the incapacity of a child, at early stages of development, to detach a given name from its concrete bearer, the use of a name as a deictic means of auto-identification, the inseparability of a name from the original scene of communication, the individual character of the emotional and evaluative components of its meaning as well as the tendency to adjust the name to a particular situation and to use the name as a motivated sign. The author focuses on the mechanisms of phonetic identification which contribute to the formation of individual phonosemantic features of the name and the false etymological convergences which clarify the internal form of anthroponyms, including the convergences that have a deliberate characterizing function and manifest children’s liking for onomastic play. The article establishes stable correlations between that kind of transformations of a name and the traditions of children’s folklore. In the linguistic mind of a child any proper name acquires a specific psychological substance and specific functions on each stage of ontogenesis, the transition zone between proper and appellative names being flexible and filling anthroponyms with concrete connotative meanings. The name helps children to become aware of their own uniqueness and to realize the sense of interpersonal relations reflected in names motivations.

  6. Changes of the lingual epithelium in Ambystoma mexicanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wistuba, J; Clemen, G

    1998-12-01

    Changes in the lingual epithelium during ontogenesis and after induced metamorphosis in Ambystoma mexicanum are described as observed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The epithelium of the tongue is always multilayered in the larva as well as in the adult. It consists of a stratum germinativum with little differentiated basal cells and a stratum superficiale (superficial layer) with specialized superficial cells and goblet cells. Usually, there are more than two layers because of a stratum intermedium consisting of replacement cells. The apical cell membrane of the superficial cells is perforated by fine pores. Its most typical feature are microridges. Maturing superficial cells possess microvilli. Goblet cells occur in early larvae primarily in the centre of the tongue. They spread throughout the dorsal face of the tongue as their numbers increase during ontogenesis. The small apices of the goblet cells are intercalated in the wedges between the superficial cells. Leydig cells are not found on the larval tongue but on that of adults. Due to metamorphosis, the epithelium of the tongue changes. It is furrowed in its anterior part. The furrows house the openings of the lingual glands. The surface is further modulated by ridges which are densely coated by microvilli and which bear the taste buds. The villi of the tongue which lack extrusion pores show cilia and microvilli but lack microridges. The Leydig cells disappear during metamorphosis. In addition to the two types of goblet cells found in different regions of the glandular tubules, goblet cells occur in the caudal part. They secrete directly into the cavity of the mouth. The posterior part is characterised by a dense coat of cilia.

  7. [Indicators of growth and development of boys from the community of Tuzla].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzihalilović, Jasminka; Hadziselimović, Rifat; Mesalić, Saćira; Hamidović, Hajrija; Hadziavdić, Vesna; Adrović, Avdul

    2002-01-01

    Properties of growth and development of male children and youth were analyzed by the appropriate sample analysis, which involved total of 1.321 domiciles and refugees, on the researched region. This study included 9 successive school "generations", which were presented by chronologically ordered growths ranged from 10.5 to 19.5 years of age. They were analyzed concerning 6 standard and anthrophometrical properties. The analysis of the data gained its primarily based on the scientific elaboration of the noticed situation in the researched part of population in broader sense after one unnatural and extremely unfavourable period in growth and developing process for large majority of mentioned population. The aims of this study were: the analysis and definition of the principle indicators of growth and development of male children and youths in the Tuzla municipality, then 16 years accelerational trend in course of this period of the ontogenesis as well as the differences between domiciles and refugees. Though bad (war) living conditions had negative effects on ontogenesis of tested children and youths, it was established that growth and development of male children and youth in the region tested was going harmoniously and in limits of average European standards. It still seems that bad living conditions caused a temporary lagging behind in the growth and development, so in some growth categories (from 11 to 15 years) mean value increase could be noticed (for one number of tasted parameters) compared to the sample from 1980 year. Refugees presence caused something less mean values for most indicators. Sixteen year's acceleration trend for the most parameters was established in puberty when it was very clearly visible.

  8. Human Development VI: Supracellular Morphogenesis. The Origin of Biological and Cellular Order

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    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Uninterrupted morphogenesis shows the informational potentials of biological organisms. Experimentally disturbed morphogenesis shows the compensational dynamics of the biological informational system, which is the rich informational redundancy. In this paper, we use these data to describe morphogenesis in terms of the development of supracellular levels of the organism, and we define complex epigenesis and supracellular differentiation. We review the phenomena of regeneration and induction of Hydra and amphibians, and the higher animal’s informational needs for developing their complex nervous systems. We argue, also building on the NO-GO theorem for ontogenesis as chemistry, that the traditional chemical explanations of high-level informational events in ontogenesis, such as transmutation, regeneration, and induction, are insufficient. We analyze the informational dynamics of three embryonic compensatory reactions to different types of disturbances: (1 transmutations of the imaginal discs of insects, (2 regeneration after removal of embryonic tissue, and (3 embryonic induction, where two tissues that normally are separated experimentally are made to influence each other. We describe morphogenesis as a complex bifurcation, and the resulting morphological levels of the organism as organized in a fractal manner and supported by positional information. We suggest that some kind of real nonchemical phenomenon must be taking form in living organisms as an information-carrying dynamic fractal field, causing morhogenesis and supporting the organism’s morphology through time. We argue that only such a phenomenon that provides information-directed self-organization to the organism is able to explain the observed dynamic distribution of biological information through morphogenesis and the organism's ability to rejuvenate and heal.

  9. Ontogenetically-regulated male sterility in tissue culture - induced and spontaneous sorghum mutants

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    Elkonin L.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Variability of male fertility expression in the AS-1 line, a somaclonal variant obtained from tissue culture of CMS-plant, and in the progeny of revenant '124-1' obtained from fertile tiller, which developed on CMS-plant transferred from the field to the greenhouse, was investigated. Both revertants were characterized by similar expression of male fertility during plant ontogenesis: the panicle on the main tiller was almost completely sterile whereas formation of fertile pollen grains and seed set were observed on the panicles of the shoot tillers. A clear basipetal gradient of male fertility was manifested on all panicles: the base had significantly higher per cent of fertile pollen grains in comparison with the middle part, while in the top the anthers were either absent or had few sterile pollen grains. Such an ontogenetically-regulated restoration of male fertility was controlled by nuclear genes and could be transferred through the pollen in crosses with progenitor CMS-line. Growing of AS-1 plants in the growth chambers simultaneously under a long (16/8 and a short (12/12 daylength conditions demonstrated that differences of fertility level in different tillers was not caused by change of photoperiod during plant ontogenesis and functioning of photoperiod-sensitive fertility restoring gene. Whereas, the ontogenetically-regulated expression of male fertility in both revenants was temperature-dependent and was clearly manifested under relatively cool conditions during 2-week period before the beginning of anthesis of the first panicle (average daily temperature 21°C. The increase of the average daily temperature by 2-3 С resulted in sharp increase of male fertility level. Possibility of using AS-1 line in a new "two-line system" of hybrid seed production, which require only two lines (sterile mutant and fertility restorer, is discussed.

  10. Cellular Mechanisms of Gravitropic Response in Higher Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Sergei; Smolikova, Galina; Pozhvanov, Gregory; Suslov, Dmitry

    The evolutionary success of land plants in adaptation to the vectorial environmental factors was based mainly on the development of polarity systems. In result, normal plant ontogenesis is based on the positional information. Polarity is a tool by which the developing plant organs and tissues are mapped and the specific three-dimensional structure of the organism is created. It is due to their polar organization plants are able to orient themselves relative to the gravity vector and different vectorial cues, and to respond adequately to various stimuli. Gravitation is one of the most important polarized environmental factor that guides the development of plant organisms in space. Every plant can "estimate" its position relative to the gravity vector and correct it, if necessary, by means of polarized growth. The direction and the magnitude of gravitational stimulus are constant during the whole plant ontogenesis. The key plant response to the action of gravity is gravitropism, i.e. the directed growth of organs with respect to the gravity vector. This response is a very convenient model to study the mechanisms of plant orientation in space. The present report is focused on the main cellular mechanisms responsible for graviropic bending in higher plants. These mechanisms and structures include electric polarization of plant cells, Ca ({2+) }gradients, cytoskeleton, G-proteins, phosphoinositides and the machinery responsible for asymmetric auxin distribution. Those mechanisms tightly interact demonstrating some hierarchy and multiple feedbacks. The Ca (2+) gradients provide the primary physiological basis of polarity in plant cells. Calcium ions influence on the bioelectric potentials, the organization of actin cytoskeleton, the activity of Ca (2+) -binding proteins and Ca (2+) -dependent protein kinases. Protein kinases modulate transcription factors activity thereby regulating the gene expression and switching the developmental programs. Actin cytoskeleton affects

  11. Intestinal Microbiota in Premature Children — the Modern State of the Problem (Literature Analysis

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    I. A. Belyaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of intestinal microbiota influencing the health of early aged children has become especially relevant over the past few years. On one hand, this is due to the significant worsening of the human environment ecology, on the other — due to the high prevalence of digestive disorders in children, especially premature ones. The introduction of modern high-informative molecular-genetic research methods (PCR-amplification with gene sequenation made it possible to reveal the primary stage of human colonization by bacteria even at the stage of fetal ontogenesis and to thoroughly decode the microbiota structure in newborns and first-year babies. It is established, that the mothers microbiota has a direct effect on the quantity and quality of the child’s microbiota. The mother’s microbiota depends not only on her possessing inflammatory, but also metabolic diseases (obesity. There is also a direct correlation between the children’s microbiota and the wway they were born (microbiota is better in cases of natural birth, and these differences are prevalent after a number of months after birth. One of the main factors affecting microbiota after birth from the very first day is nutrition. Most studies earnestly confirm the role of breastfeeding in contributing to an optimal microbiocenosis in the child. Antibacterial therapy, being received by either the mother or the child has a negative effect on the colonization of the intestines by symbiont microbes. The negative impacts on the micro flora are especially significant for premature children especially those born with a very low and extremely low body mass. The ontogenesis of these children is most severed by malicious factors (infections followed by the necessity of a massive antibacterial therapy, hypoxia, surgical birth, forced artificial feeding in connection with a general immaturity, including not yet fully-fledged body defense systems. Directive microbiota correction in premature

  12. Emergence, development, and maturity of the gonad of two species of chitons "sea cockroach" (Mollusca: Polyplacophora through the early life stages.

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    Omar Hernando Avila-Poveda

    Full Text Available This study describes and recognises, using histological and microscopical examinations on a morphometrical basis, several gonad traits through the early life stages of Chiton articulatus and C. albolineatus. Gonadal ontogenesis, gonad development stages, sexual differentiation, onset of the first sexual maturity, and growth sequences or "early life stages" were determined. In addition, allometry between lengths and body weight pooled for both sexes per each chiton were calculated using equation Y = aX(b . A total of 125 chitons (4≤TL≤40 mm, in total length "TL" were used. All allometric relations showed a strong positive correlation (r, close to 1, with b-values above three, indicating an isometric growth. Gonadal ontogenesis and gonad development stages were categorised into three periods ("Pw" without gonad, "Pe" gonad emergence, and "Pf" gonadal sac formed and four stages ("S0" gametocytogenesis, "S1" gametogenesis, "S2" mature, and "S3" spawning, respectively. Compound digital images were attained for each process. Periods and stages are overlapped among them and between species, with the following overall confidence intervals in TL: Pw 6.13-14.32 mm, Pe 10.32-16.93 mm, Pf 12.99-25.01 mm, S0 16.08-24.34 mm (females and 19.51-26.60 mm (males, S1 27.15-35.63 mm (females and 23.45-32.27 mm (males, S2 24.48-40.24 mm (females and 25.45-32.87 mm (males. Sexual differentiation (in S0 of both chitons occurs first as a female then as a male; although, males reach the onset of the first sexual maturity earlier than females, thus for C. articulatus males at 17 mm and females at 32 mm, and for C. albolineatus males at 23.5 mm and females at 28 mm, all in TL. Four early life stages (i.e., subjuvenile, juvenile, subadult, and adult are described and proposed to distinguish growth sequences. Our results may be useful to diverse disciplines, from developmental biology to fisheries management.

  13. Boundaries of intergrowths between mineral individuals: A zone of secondary mineral formation in aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodskaya, R. L.; Bil'Skaya, I. V.; Lyakhnitskaya, V. D.; Markovsky, B. A.; Sidorov, E. G.

    2007-12-01

    Intergrowth boundaries between mineral individuals in dunite of the Gal’moenan massif in Koryakia was studied in terms of crystal morphology, crystal optics, and ontogenesis. The results obtained allowed us to trace the staged formation of olivine and chromite and four generations of these minerals. Micro-and nanotopography of boundary surfaces between intergrown mineral individuals of different generations was examined with optic, electron, and atomic force microscopes. The boundaries between mineral individuals of different generations are distinguished by their microsculpture for both olivine and chromite grains. Both minerals demonstrate a compositional trend toward refinement from older to younger generations. The decrease in the iron mole fraction in olivine and chromite is accompanied by the crystallization of magnetite along weakened zones in olivine of the first generation and as outer rims around the chromite grains of the second generation observable under optic and electronic microscopes. The subsequent refinement of chromite results in the release of PGE from its lattice, as established by atomic power microscopy. The newly formed PGM are localized at the boundaries between mineral individuals and, thus, mark a special stage in the ontogenetic evolution of mineral aggregates. Further recrystallization is expressed in the spatial redistribution of grain boundaries and the formation of monomineralic intergrowth boundaries, i.e., the glomerogranular structure of rock and substructures of PGM, chromite, and olivine grains as intermediate types of organization of the granular assemblies in the form of reticulate, chain, and cellular structures and substructures of aggregates.

  14. Advances in understanding hypopituitarism [version 1; referees: 2 approved

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    Mareike R. Stieg

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of hypopituitarism has increased over the last three years. This review provides an overview of the most important recent findings. Most of the recent research in hypopituitarism has focused on genetics. New diagnostic techniques like next-generation sequencing have led to the description of different genetic mutations causative for congenital dysfunction of the pituitary gland while new molecular mechanisms underlying pituitary ontogenesis have also been described. Furthermore, hypopituitarism may occur because of an impairment of the distinctive vascularization of the pituitary gland, especially by disruption of the long vessel connection between the hypothalamus and the pituitary. Controversial findings have been published on post-traumatic hypopituitarism. Moreover, autoimmunity has been discussed in recent years as a possible reason for hypopituitarism. With the use of new drugs such as ipilimumab, hypopituitarism as a side effect of pharmaceuticals has come into focus. Besides new findings on the pathomechanism of hypopituitarism, there are new diagnostic tools in development, such as new growth hormone stimulants that are currently being tested in clinical trials. Moreover, cortisol measurement in scalp hair is a promising tool for monitoring cortisol levels over time.

  15. Advances in understanding hypopituitarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieg, Mareike R.; Renner, Ulrich; Stalla, Günter K.; Kopczak, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of hypopituitarism has increased over the last three years. This review provides an overview of the most important recent findings. Most of the recent research in hypopituitarism has focused on genetics. New diagnostic techniques like next-generation sequencing have led to the description of different genetic mutations causative for congenital dysfunction of the pituitary gland while new molecular mechanisms underlying pituitary ontogenesis have also been described. Furthermore, hypopituitarism may occur because of an impairment of the distinctive vascularization of the pituitary gland, especially by disruption of the long vessel connection between the hypothalamus and the pituitary. Controversial findings have been published on post-traumatic hypopituitarism. Moreover, autoimmunity has been discussed in recent years as a possible reason for hypopituitarism. With the use of new drugs such as ipilimumab, hypopituitarism as a side effect of pharmaceuticals has come into focus. Besides new findings on the pathomechanism of hypopituitarism, there are new diagnostic tools in development, such as new growth hormone stimulants that are currently being tested in clinical trials. Moreover, cortisol measurement in scalp hair is a promising tool for monitoring cortisol levels over time. PMID:28299199

  16. Developmentalism: An Obscure but Pervasive Restriction

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    J. E. Stone

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite continuing criticism of public education, experimentally demonstrated and field tested teaching methods have been ignored, rejected, and abandoned. Instead of a stable consensus regarding best teaching practices, there seems only an unending succession of innovations. A longstanding educational doctrine appears to underlie this anomalous state of affairs. Termed developmentalism, it presumes "natural" ontogenesis to be optimal and it requires experimentally demonstrated teaching practices to overcome a presumption that they interfere with an optimal developmental trajectory. It also discourages teachers and parents from asserting themselves with children. Instead of effective interventions, it seeks the preservation of a postulated natural perfection. Developmentalism's rich history is expressed in a literature extending over 400 years. Its notable exponents include Jean Jacques Rousseau, John Dewey, and Jean Piaget; and its most recent expressions include "developmentally appropriate practice" and "constructivism." In the years during which it gained ascendance, developmentalism served as a basis for rejecting harsh and inhumane teaching methods. Today it impedes efforts to hold schools accountable for student academic achievement.

  17. [Morphometric parameters of nutria kidney structures in postnatal ontogeny].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannikov, S P; Kivochlo, A N; Krivoruchko, A Iu

    2014-01-01

    Data on the morphometric parameters of the renal corpuscle, renal tubules, and collecting ducts of male and female nutrias in postnatal ontogenesis were obtained. It was found that the area of the renal corpuscle, glomerulus, the cavity and lumen of the capsule, and the proximal tubule diameter in the right and left kidney of female and male nutrias in the first year of life increase. The distal tubule diameter also increases; however, the dynamics of its changes becomes sinuous after 4.5 months. The collecting duct diameter varies depending on gender, age, and renal topography. The nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio in the cells of proximal and distal tubules and collecting ducts changes in a sinuous manner and depends on the gender and age of nutrias. The minimum mean value of the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio was found in the proximal tubule cells in the left kidney of 12-month-old female nutrias (0.162 ± 0.002), and the maximum value was found in the distal tubule cells in the left kidney of newborn male nutrias (0.435 ± 0.007).

  18. Design of potentially active ligands for SH2 domains by molecular modeling methods

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    Hurmach V. V.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Search for new chemical structures possessing specific biological activity is a complex problem that needs the use of the latest achievements of molecular modeling technologies. It is well known that SH2 domains play a major role in ontogenesis as intermediaries of specific protein-protein interactions. Aim. Developing an algorithm to investigate the properties of SH2 domain binding, search for new potential active compounds for the whole SH2 domains class. Methods. In this paper, we utilize a complex of computer modeling methods to create a generic set of potentially active compounds targeting universally at the whole class of SH2 domains. A cluster analysis of all available three-dimensional structures of SH2 domains was performed and general pharmacophore models were formulated. The models were used for virtual screening of collection of drug-like compounds provided by Enamine Ltd. Results. The design technique for library of potentially active compounds for SH2 domains class was proposed. Conclusions. The original algorithm of SH2 domains research with molecular docking method was developed. Using our algorithm, the active compounds for SH2 domains were found.

  19. Effects of perinatal exposure to diazepam on the development of sexual behavior and neuroendocrine functions in male rats.

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    Arif Siddiqui

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Developmental exposure with diazepam when coinciding with the ontogenesis of its receptors may be crucial for the induction of long-term functional disturbances in the rat brain. To investigate the possibility of intervention in the sexually dimorphic behavior of reproduction and the under lying morphological and hormonal basis the time-mated female rats were treated with 2.5 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, i.p.(n = 6-8 separately. Treatment was continued from gestation day 15 till delivery and further continued to neonates 5 days, postnatally. Control group (n= 5-8 given saline also followed the same treatment protocol. Sexual behavior in the male offspring at adulthood born to diazepam-exposed rats was enhanced, both in dose-dependent and time-dependent manner (p<0.01. Accordingly plasma LH and testosterone concentration both in plasma and testis was also influenced. Compared to controls treated animals also showed complete abolition of spermatogenesis and drastically reduced testicular steroidogenesis. Our findings, thus support the hypothesis that like psychoactive drugs benzodiazepines sedatives that crosses the blood brain barrier during the critical period of brain sexual differentiation offer serious risk of abnormal post-pubertal reproductive functions in the male rat.

  20. Scanning electron microscopy investigations regarding Adonis vernalis L. flower morphology

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    Irina Neta GOSTIN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The floral morphology of Adonis vernalis L. was observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM. The investigations are important to clarify some taxonomical problems and also could provide useful diagnostic elements for the identification of this medicinal plant in powdered materials. All floral organs are initiated spirally and centripetally and develop centripetally. The petals (8-12 are shorter than the sepals (5-6 in early developmental stages. The petals are disposed on spiral (with 3-4 whorls. The stamens (numerous are unbranched and reach maturity centripetally; they are free of the perianth. The anther walls consisting of a single layer epidermis in the anther wall surrounding the sporagenous tissue, one row of endothecium, two to four rows of middle layer and one row of tapetum layer. In the anther walls, the tapetal cells, by glandular type, persist later in ontogenesis. Pollen grains are tricolpate with echinate surface. The gynoecium is multiple, apocarpous with distinct carpels. The carpels are ascidiate from the beginning. At the base of each carpel, numerousness short, unicellular, trichomes are present. The stigma differentiates as two crests along the ventral slit of the ovary. Each carpel contains a single ovule inside the ovary cavity. The mature ovule is anatropous, with two integuments. It is almost parallel to the funicle.

  1. NADP-malate Dehydrogenase Isoforms of Wheat Leaves under Drought: Their Localization, and Some physicochemical and Kinetic Properties

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    H.G. Babayev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in sub-cellular localization, isoenzyme spectrum and kinetic characteristics of NADP-malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH, EC 1.1.1.82 in Triticum durum Desf. genotypes with contrasting drought tolerance have been studied. In chloroplast and cytosol fractions of mesophyll cells of wheat flag leaves 70-75% and 25-30% of the total NADP-MDH activity were found to be localized, respectively. Three isoforms of NADP-MDH with molecular weights of 66, 74 and 86 kDa were revealed in the chloroplast fraction, whereas in the cytosolic fraction molecular weights of the isoenzymes were found to be 42, 66 and 74 kDa. Drought caused the formation of a new 90 kDa isoform of the enzyme in the chloroplast fraction in anthesis phase of ontogenesis. In the drought-tolerant genotype the appearance of the new isoform in the chloroplast fraction was accompanied by a more rapid increase in Km and Vmax contrary to the chloroplast fraction of the drought-sensitive genotype manifesting a slight decrease in these parameters, suggesting one of the adaptive traits in forming drought tolerance in C3 plants.

  2. The regulation and function of fibroblast growth factor 8 and its function during gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuron development

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    Wilson CJ Chung

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, numerous studies solidified the hypothesis that fibroblast growth factor (FGF signaling regulates neuroendocrine progenitor cell proliferation, fate-specification, and cell survival, and therefore is critical for the regulation and maintenance of homeostasis of the body. One important example that underscores the involvement of FGF signaling during neuroendocrine cell development is gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neuron ontogenesis. Indeed, transgenic mice with reduced olfactory placode (OP Fgf8 expression do not have GnRH neurons. This observation indicates the requirement of FGF8 signaling for the emergence of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neuronal system in the embryonic OP, the putative birth place of GnRH neurons. Mammalian reproductive success depends on the presence of GnRH neurons to stimulate gonadotropin secretion from the anterior pituitary, which activates gonadal steroidogenesis and gametogenesis. Together, these observations are critical for understanding the function of GnRH neurons and their control of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis to maintain fertility. Taken together, these studies illustrate that GnRH neuron emergence, and hence HPG-function is vulnerable to genomic and molecular signals that abnormally modify Fgf8 expression in the developing mouse OP. In this short review, we focus on research that is aimed at unraveling how androgen, all-trans retinoic acid and epigenetic modifies control mouse OP Fgf8 transcription in the context of GnRH neuronal development, and mammalian reproductive success.

  3. Concept of neural genoarchitecture and its genomic fundament.

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    Luis ePuelles

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent concept of neural genoarchitecture (or genoarchitectonics is examined from several angles, aiming to clarify the rationale for this new approach in causal and descriptive neuroanatomy. Gene expression patterns can be used as topographic stains revealing architectonic borders that may clarify, dispute or complicate existing brain anatomical subdivisions based on other methods, while increasing our understanding of how they arise in ontogenesis and evolution. A section of the text deals with differential regulation of gene expression in an ontogenetic causal network, attending to the structure of the genome and the functional peculiarities of enhancer and repressor regulatory regions that modulate gene transcription. The emergence of regionally characteristic sets of active transcription factors represents a critical concept, molecular identity, which can be applied to discrete brain territories and neuronal populations. Gene regulation is tied to positional effects, that is, topologically invariant domains of gene expression and natural boundaries, which can be correlated with anatomic ones. The large-scale stability of these patterns among vertebrates underpins molecularly the structural brain Bauplan, and is the fundament of field homology. The study of genoarchitectonic boundaries is presented as a crucial objective of modern neuroanatomic research. At most brain regions, new neuronal populations are being detected thanks to their differential genoarchitectonic features.

  4. Expression of muscle-specific myosin heavy chain and myosin light chain 1 in the electric tissue of Electrophorus electricus (L.) in comparison with other vertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres Sá, L; Menezes, M A; dos Santos Mermelstein, C

    2001-08-01

    Myosin light and heavy chains from skeletal and cardiac muscles and from the electric organ of Electrophorus electricus (L.) were characterised using biochemical and immunological methods, and compared with myosin extracted from avian, reptilian, and mammalian skeletal and cardiac muscles. The results indicate that the electric tissue has a myosin light chain 1 (LC1) and a muscle-specific myosin heavy chain. We also show that monoclonal antibody F109-12A8 (against LC1 and LC2) recognizes LC1 of myosin from human skeletal and cardiac muscles as well as those of rabbit, lizard, chick, and electric eel. However, only cardiac muscles from humans and rabbits have LC2, which is recognized by antibody F109-16F4. The data presented confirm the muscle origin of the electric tissue of E. electricus. This electric tissue has a profile of LC1 protein expression that resembles the myosin from cardiac muscle of the eel more than that from eel skeletal muscle. This work raises an interesting question about the ontogenesis and differentiation of the electric tissue of E. electricus. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Lead concentration in blood of school children from copper mining area and the level of somatic development at birth

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    Teresa Sławińska-Ochla

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to assess the relations between lead intoxication in children at younger school age and the level of somatic development at birth. Materials and Methods. The research includes 717 children and adolescents 7–15 years old from LegnickoGłogowski copper mining region, which live in the vincity of „Głogów”, „Legnica” copper industrial plants and flotation tank reservoir „Żelazny most”. The analysis contained measures such as birth height, birth weight, Apgar score points, and blood lead level in 2007 and 2008. The whole blood lead level (Pb-B was indicated using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS with electrothermic atomization by certified The Foundation for Children From The Copper Basin laboratory. Results.Rural childrenwere noted forsignificantly higher blood lead levelsthan urban peers. Also boysin comparison to girls had higher blood lead levels. Regardless of gender and place of residence there were no significant correlation between blood lead level and body mass at birth. Conclusion. The biological state of the organism at the moment of birth has no connection with the susceptibility to absorption of lead in the later phases of ontogenesis: the earlier school age and adlescence.

  6. Folding into being: early embryology and the epistemology of rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmann, Janina

    2015-03-01

    Historians have often described embryology and concepts of development in the period around 1800 in terms of "temporalization" or "dynamization". This paper, in contrast, argues that a central epistemological category in the period was "rhythm", which played a major role in the establishment of the emerging discipline of biology. I show that Caspar Friedrich Wolff's epigenetic theory of development was based on a rhythmical notion, namely the hypothesis that organic development occurs as a series of ordered rhythmical repetitions and variations. Presenting Christian Heinrich Pander's and Karl Ernst von Baer's theory of germ layers, I argue that Pander and Baer regarded folding as an organizing principle of ontogenesis, and that the principle's explanatory power stems from their understanding of folding as a rhythmical figuration. In a brief discussion of the notion of rhythm in contemporary music theory, I identify an underlying physiological epistemology in the new musical concept of rhythm around 1800. The paper closes with a more general discussion of the relationship between the rhythmic episteme, conceptions of life, and aesthetic theory at the end of the eighteenth century.

  7. Anticipatory dynamics of biological systems: from molecular quantum states to evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igamberdiev, Abir U.

    2015-08-01

    Living systems possess anticipatory behaviour that is based on the flexibility of internal models generated by the system's embedded description. The idea was suggested by Aristotle and is explicitly introduced to theoretical biology by Rosen. The possibility of holding the embedded internal model is grounded in the principle of stable non-equilibrium (Bauer). From the quantum mechanical view, this principle aims to minimize energy dissipation in expense of long relaxation times. The ideas of stable non-equilibrium were developed by Liberman who viewed living systems as subdivided into the quantum regulator and the molecular computer supporting coherence of the regulator's internal quantum state. The computational power of the cell molecular computer is based on the possibility of molecular rearrangements according to molecular addresses. In evolution, the anticipatory strategies are realized both as a precession of phylogenesis by ontogenesis (Berg) and as the anticipatory search of genetic fixation of adaptive changes that incorporates them into the internal model of genetic system. We discuss how the fundamental ideas of anticipation can be introduced into the basic foundations of theoretical biology.

  8. ARTISTIC AND SCIENTIFIC CREATION PROCESS MANAGEMENT

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    Ioan Tudor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural creation is not ex nihilo, but a conversion of old “material” into a new form or a re-signifying, or a new combination of preexisting elements. Art, as well as science, has been characterized as acts of dominating and transforming nature. In art, the process is real and in science it is virtual. This process is characterized by an efficient management of the means of expression which must be subordinated to the message that the piece of art wants to transmit and the scientist exploits facts in order to make them significant as support, expression and exemplification of the laws of nature. There is also an ontogenesis of management: individual evolution which takes place by virtue of a program, thanks to devices with self-regulating capabilities. This aspect may be particularly interesting for cyberneticists. In contemporary civilization the transfer of certain aspects of the creation process to automated machines implies programming, algorithms. Man is an algorithmic being.

  9. 秦岭主要林区白粉菌分类研究初报%Preliminary Study on Taxonomy of Powdery Mildews in Qinling Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白露超; 曹支敏; 代拴法; 姚三中

    2012-01-01

    依据国际新的白粉菌分类系统,采用传统形态学分类与无性型个体发育及其超微结构相结合的方法,对采自秦岭主要林区的白粉菌进行了分类鉴定.共鉴定出白粉菌5族、9属、61种,并列出了白粉菌名录,涉及森林植物36科、72属、112种,其中1种为白粉菌的寄主新纪录.%Based on the new classification system of Erysiphales, a total of 5 tribes, 9 genera, 61 species of powdery mildew from Qinling Mountains were identified) classified by traditional morphology, the ontogenesis and the ul-trastructures of conidia. A checklist was provided Thirty six families, 72 genera, 112 species, in which 1 species (Duchesnea indica) is new record of powdery mildew, of host plants and their geographical distributions were reported in the checklist pertain to 61 species of powdery mildew.

  10. Physiological study of the effects of SO/sup 2/ pollution, phenylmercuric acetate sprays, and parasitic infection on stomatal behavior and aging in barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majernik, O.

    1971-01-01

    Experiments were performed on first leaves of barley which were at different stages of ontogenesis. Two varieties with different susceptibilities to Erysiphe graminis were studied. A reduction in stomatal aperture in light was found both after application of 10/sup -3.5/ M phenylmercuric acetate (PMA), and during infection with E. graminis. On the other hand, the stomata remained partially open in darkness compared with the complete closure in the controls. By comparison, toxic levels of SO/sub 2/ caused a general stimulation of opening in light, shown by increased rate of opening, higher maximum opening, and slower closure in darkness. On older leaves the stimulatory effects of SO/sub 2/ were smaller. Responses to SO/sub 2/ pollution differed in these two varieties selected for powdery mildew resistance. All the three agents studied affected the course of stomatal behavior in a manner potentially detrimental to the plant. Changes in stomatal behavior can affect many different physiological processes and this may have been one factor behind the premature aging and death that was observed in all the treated leaves. 32 references, 9 figures.

  11. FUNDAMENTAL IMMUNOBIOLOGY OF PRO-INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES AND MIF

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    A. P. Suslov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental immunobiology of proinflammatory cytokines and MIFThere are a lot of similarity as well as differences when we compare cytokines with MIF according their biological properties. MIF characteristics are unique structure, organs and tissues ubiquity, extremely wide variety of functions (proinflammatory cytokine, enzyme, hormone, ability to be induced by glucocorticoid hormones and affects as their immunosuppressive effects antagonist. MIF exists in preformed condition in lymphocytes, macrophages and endothelium cells. It secrets by these cells and operates as a mobilizing defense system factor in the first minutes of foreign invasion. MIF exhibits the properties of super-ligand binding with many biologically important molecules. This factor carries out the functions that are important for cell activation, proliferation and death, using a variety of intracellular signaling pathways. Some of MIF homologues exists in plants and bacteria earlier than innate and adaptive immune systems appears in evolution. In ontogenesis MIF appears at the stage of firsts cell divisions. MIF has a lot of functions, variety of ligand bindings, many effector pathways, it appears early in ontogeny and phylogeny. MIF takes part into protective reactions at any levels – from cell up to whole organism. All these MIF features taking together into account make it possible to possess it as a particular type of cytokine – eocytokine (from Greek word “eo” – early. It is assumed that MIF may function as some kind of cells and organisms "natural stability" key factor.

  12. XII Elkonin Readings

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    Bugrimenko E.A.,

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces the reader the main content of report presented at the XII Elkonin Readings (4th March, 2016. Elkonin Readings takes place each 2 years in Psychological Institute, Russian Academy of education. This year they are focused on the problem of “Mediation and development”. Speakers from different institutions presented their approaches to solving these problems. The theoretical foundation of the new understanding of the relationship of functional genesis and ontogenesis, buildings mediation activities, proximal development areas have been disclosed in the articles of V.V. Rubtsov, D.B. Elkonin, P.G. Nezhnov. The new conditions for mediation were created on the basis of the different materials (games, reading, and spatial image of “self” according to an experimental practice of teaching and correction of self- development. Developing of creative ways of mediation were mentioned in the articles of L.I. Elkoninov, E.O. Smirnov, E.A. Abdulaeva, E.A. Bugrimenko, N.U. Mangutov, that meet actual problems for modern children.

  13. [Problems in admitting and eliminating children from sports training schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, M; Korbelár, P

    1989-06-01

    The physical and mental load of children enlisted in the system of preparation for top sports is great. It is therefore essential to ensure very careful health care and also very strict criteria for enlistment of children to avoid pathological adaptation to the sports load. Specialized sports training of 14-18 hours per week may, in case of incorrect compensating activity, be the basis for the development of secondary changes. In the selection it is important to adhere to criteria pertaining to health, performance, function and development and to evaluate them in relation to the character of the sports discipline and preparation for attaining top performance. Based on six years' experience, it is possible to indicate for the purpose of orientation the risks of different sports for the locomotor system during ontogenesis. Cooperation of orthopaedists and specialists in sports medicine is the prerequisite of restricting possible negative sequelae of local and general overburdening. The conclusion must be always the synthesis of all examinations and conclusions must not be drawn from a single examination. The authors draw attention to mistakes in the evaluation by specialists as a result of lacking knowledge as regards the loading of the organism by training in these schools.

  14. ROS-mediated abiotic stress-induced programmed cell death in plants

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    Veselin ePetrov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available During the course of their ontogenesis, plants are continuously exposed to a large variety of abiotic stress factors which can damage tissues and jeopardize the survival of the organism unless properly countered. While animals can simply escape and thus evade stressors, plants as sessile organisms have developed complex strategies to withstand them. When the intensity of a detrimental factor is high, one of the defense programs employed by plants is the induction of programmed cell death (PCD. This is an active, genetically controlled process which is initiated to isolate and remove damaged tissues thereby ensuring the survival of the organism. The mechanism of PCD induction usually includes an increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS which are utilized as mediators of the stress signal. Abiotic stress-induced PCD is not only a process of fundamental biological importance, but also of considerable interest to agricultural practice as it has the potential to significantly influence crop yield. Therefore, numerous scientific enterprises have focused on elucidating the mechanisms leading to and controlling PCD in response to adverse conditions in plants. This knowledge may help to develop novel strategies to obtain more resilient crop varieties with improved tolerance and enhanced productivity. The aim of the present review is to summarize the recent advances in research on ROS-induced PCD related to abiotic stress and the role of the organelles in the process.

  15. Crescimento relativo em Uca leptodactyla Rathbun (Crustacea Decapoda Ocypodidae Relative growth in the fiddler crab Uca leptodactyla Rathbun (Crustacea Decapoda Ocypodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setuko Masunari

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Relative growth of the male major chela and female abdome was studied in a population of the fiddler crab Uca leptodactyla Rathbun, 1898 from Itapoá, Santa Catarina coast, southern Brazil. Major chela length (CMQ was measured from 191 males, and abdomen width (LAB from 128 females. Carapace width (LC was the reference dimension for both sexes, which ranged from 3.9 to 11.5 mm for males, and from 3.15 to 10.65 mm for females. Males grew bigger than females. Relationship between CMQ and LC showed a transition point at 8.35 mm LC in males, and between LA and LC at 7.10 mm LC in females. Growth was allometrically positive in the early ontogenesis and isometric after the puberal molting for both sexes. Regressions between LC and CMQ in males read as: logCMQ = -0,854536 + 2,19. logLC for empirical points at left of critical point and logCMQ = 0,063047 + 1,24. logLC for those at right. In females, this relation was logLAB = -0,603590 + 1,30. logLC and logLAB = -0,361464 + 1,07. logLC, respectively. These body dimensions were connected with reproductive activity of this species.

  16. Modulation of GABAergic Transmission in Development and Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Investigating Physiology and Pathology to Gain Therapeutic Perspectives

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    Gabriele eDeidda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available During mammalian ontogenesis, the neurotransmitter GABA is a fundamental regulator of neuronal networks. In neuronal development, GABAergic signaling regulates neural proliferation, migration, differentiation, and neuronal-network wiring. In the adult, GABA orchestrates the activity of different neuronal cell-types largely interconnected, by powerfully modulating synaptic activity. GABA exerts these functions by binding to chloride-permeable ionotropic GABAA receptors and metabotropic GABAB receptors. According to its functional importance during development, GABA is implicated in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism, Fragile X, Rett syndrome, Down syndrome, schizophrenia, Tourette's syndrome and neurofibromatosis.The strength and polarity of GABAergic transmission is continuously modulated during physiological, but also pathological conditions. For GABAergic transmission through GABAA receptors, strength regulation is achieved by different mechanisms such as modulation of GABAA receptors themselves, variation of intracellular chloride concentration, and alteration in GABA metabolism. In the never-ending effort to find possible treatments for GABA-related neurological diseases, of great importance would be modulating GABAergic transmission in a safe and possibly physiological way, without the dangers of either silencing network activity or causing epileptic seizures. In this review, we will discuss the different ways to modulate GABAergic transmission normally at work both during physiological and pathological conditions. Our aim is to highlight new research perspectives for therapeutic treatments that reinstate natural and physiological brain functions in neuro-pathological conditions.

  17. Is this a brain which I see before me? Modeling human neural development with pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ikuo K; Vanderhaeghen, Pierre

    2015-09-15

    The human brain is arguably the most complex structure among living organisms. However, the specific mechanisms leading to this complexity remain incompletely understood, primarily because of the poor experimental accessibility of the human embryonic brain. Over recent years, technologies based on pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have been developed to generate neural cells of various types. While the translational potential of PSC technologies for disease modeling and/or cell replacement therapies is usually put forward as a rationale for their utility, they are also opening novel windows for direct observation and experimentation of the basic mechanisms of human brain development. PSC-based studies have revealed that a number of cardinal features of neural ontogenesis are remarkably conserved in human models, which can be studied in a reductionist fashion. They have also revealed species-specific features, which constitute attractive lines of investigation to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of the human brain, and its link with evolution. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Maturation of the inhibitory response of growth hormone secretion to ether stress in postnatal rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strbák, V; Jurcovicová, J; Vigas, M

    1985-05-01

    To study the maturation of inhibitory influences on growth hormone (GH) secretion the effect of ether stress on plasma GH levels was studied during postnatal ontogenesis in female rats. Ether stress did not affect plasma GH levels in 1-day-old pups. A distinct decrease of plasma GH was found in 3- and 9-day-old pups, and the response was prevented by treatment of 3-day-old animals with somatostatin antiserum. No effect of ether stress on plasma GH was noted in 12-, 15-, 18- and 21-day-old rats. Treatment of intact 12-day-old pups with the somatostatin antiserum increased plasma GH level under basal conditions. The inhibitory effect of ether stress on plasma GH was noted again at the age 30 days and in adult animals. It is concluded that the hypothalamus of 3-day-old rats is able to release enough somatostatin to inhibit GH secretion after stress. At the period 12-18 days a phase of pituitary refractoriness was noted: ether stress as well as TRH injection (our previous observation) fail to affect plasma GH in female pups, probably due to high somatostatin secretion under basal conditions and (or) low capacity of pituitary to release GH. It is suggested that regulation of GH secretion is not mature until after the 21st day of life.

  19. Molecular and functional characterization of GAD67-expressing, newborn granule cells in mouse dentate gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, Carolina; Irinopoulou, Theano; Cauli, Bruno; Poncer, Jean Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Dentate gyrus granule cells (GCs) have been suggested to synthesize both GABA and glutamate immediately after birth and under pathological conditions in the adult. Expression of the GABA synthesizing enzyme GAD67 by GCs during the first few weeks of postnatal development may then allow for transient GABA synthesis and synaptic release from these cells. Here, using the GAD67-EGFP transgenic strain G42, we explored the phenotype of GAD67-expressing GCs in the mouse dentate gyrus. We report a transient, GAD67-driven EGFP expression in differentiating GCs throughout ontogenesis. EGFP expression correlates with the expression of GAD and molecular markers of GABA release and uptake in 2–4 weeks post-mitotic GCs. These rather immature cells are able to fire action potentials (APs) and are synaptically integrated in the hippocampal network. Yet they show physiological properties that differentiate them from mature GCs. Finally, GAD67-expressing GCs express a specific complement of GABAA receptor subunits as well as distinctive features of synaptic and tonic GABA signaling. Our results reveal that GAD67 expression in dentate gyrus GCs is a transient marker of late differentiation that persists throughout life and the G42 strain may be used to visualize newborn GCs at a specific, well-defined differentiation stage. PMID:23565079

  20. Life Span and Resiliency Theory: A Critical Review

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    Alexa Smith-Osborne

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Theories of life span development describe human growth and change over the life cycle (Robbins, Chatterjee, & Canda, 2006. Major types of developmental theories include biological, psychodynamic, behavioral, and social learning, cognitive, moral, and spiritual, and those influenced by systems, empowerment, and conflict theory. Life span development theories commonly focus on ontogenesis and sequential mastery of skills, tasks, and abilities. Social work scholars have pointed out that a limitation of life span and other developmental theory is lack of attention to resilience (Greene, 2007; Robbins et al., 1998. The concept of resilience was developed to “describe relative resistance to psychosocial risk experiences” (Rutter, 1999b, p. 119. Longitudinal studies focused on typical and atypical child development informed theory formulation in developmental psychopathology (Garmezy & Rutter, 1983; Luthar, Cichetti,& Becker, 2000 and in an evolving resilience model (Richardson, 2002; Werner & Smith, 1992. Research on resilience has found a positive relationship between a number of individual traits and contextual variables and resistance to a variety of risk factors among children and adolescents. More recently, resilience research has examined the operation of these same factors in the young adult, middle-age, and elder life stages. This article examines the historical and conceptual progression of the two developmental theories—life span and resiliency—and discusses their application to social work practice and education in human behavior in the social environment.

  1. [Genetics of hydatidiform moles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackertz, M

    1983-07-01

    Newer genetic investigations show that the complete or classical hydatidiform mole has in over 90% of the cases a diploid female set of chromosomes which is exclusively of paternal origin. The 23 X sperm genom is doubled and the nucleus of the ovocyte is degenerated. In contradistinction the nucleus of the ovocyte persists in partial moles. The normal ontogenesis is also disturbed by a preponderance of paternal genetic material. By melting of 2 instead of 1 paternal germ cell (Dispermia) the genom of partial moles is to 1/3 of maternal and to 2/3 of paternal origin. The triploid set of chromosomes shows usually 69xxy. Whereas the potential of malignancy of partial moles is low a choriocarcinoma results from 2 to 10% of the complete moles. Responsible maybe recessive hereditary mutations of growth controlling genes, which are present in complete moles in a homozygote form due to the doubling of a single paternal set of chromosomes. Total absence of the growth controlling loci of these genes maternally permits an unhibited expression of the growth controlling paternal genes.

  2. Dynamics of display of power capabilities for girls 4-13 years of central region of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voropay S. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of display of power capabilities of different muscular groups for girls in ontogenesis is considered. More than 1000 girls of preschool and school establishments were inspected (age 4-13 years. There were taken types of tests in basis of battery of tests: dynamometry of prepotent hand; bending and unbending of hands in support, lying on the floor; hang on arcuated hands; raising of trunk in grey for 1 minute; broad jump and upwards from a place. It is set that speed-power potential of muscles of lower extremities is most expressed shows a tendency to growth for girls 4-7 years. Thus there is an increase speed-power to potential scope from 18% to 67,4% annually. It is set that the most favorable period of display of power endurance of muscles of humeral belt was observed from 6 to 9 years. A general tendency was thus saved to the increase from a year to the year of power potential from 35,5% to 40,6%.

  3. Effect of ethylene producer ethrel and antioxidant ionol (BHT) on the proteolytic apparatus in coleoptiles of wheat seedlings during apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoreyeva, L I; Aleksandrushkina, N I; Dunaevsky, Ya E; Belozersky, M A; Vanyushin, B F

    2003-04-01

    It was established that total proteolytic activity in etiolated wheat seedlings changes in ontogenesis in cycles: peaks of proteolytic activity correspond to the 3rd, 5th, and 8th days of seedling growth, respectively. The maximum of proteolytic activity preceded the maximum of nuclease activity, which may be due to activation of nucleases by proteolytic enzymes. According to inhibitory analysis the cysteine and serine proteases play the main role in apoptosis in wheat coleoptiles. Growing of seedlings in the presence of ethrel stimulated apoptosis in the coleoptile, and it increased (almost 6-fold) the proteolytic activity in its cells. On the other hand, the antioxidant ionol (BHT) suppressed the induction of proteases, particularly at the second stage of coleoptile development, and it slowed down the increase in the nuclease activity after 6th day of the seedling life. It is suggested that phytohormones and antioxidants participate in regulation of apoptosis in the ageing coleoptile, directly or indirectly effecting the proteolytic apparatus in the coleoptile cells.

  4. Evaluation of knee joint proprioception and balance of young female volleyball players: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Neşe; Bianco, Antonino; Patti, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Ersöz, Gülfem

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The main purpose of our study was the evaluation of the effects of long-term volleyball practice on knee joint proprioception and balance of young female athletes. [Subjects and Methods] An observational case-control study was performed. The study enrolled 19 female volleyball players in the experimental group and 19 sedentary counterparts as controls. A Biodex balance system and dynamometer were used for the evaluations. The paired t-test was used to determine the significance of differences between the performance of athletes and controls. [Results] The knee proprioception analysis showed a significant difference at 60° joint position in active and passive tests. A similar trend, but without significance, was found for the 20° joint position. In the postural stability tests both groups showed similar results with no significant differences between them. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the results indicate a significant influence on joint proprioception is elicited by long-term exposure to a team sport like volleyball. However, the postural stability indexes showed similar trends in both groups, highlighting the analogous ontogenesis of the subjects investigated and the low influence of volleyball practice on postural stability.

  5. Multiple symbiont acquisition strategies as an adaptive mechanism in the coral Stylophora pistillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byler, Kristen A; Carmi-Veal, Maya; Fine, Maoz; Goulet, Tamar L

    2013-01-01

    In obligate symbioses, the host's survival relies on the successful acquisition and maintenance of symbionts. Symbionts can either be transferred from parent to offspring via direct inheritance (vertical transmission) or acquired anew each generation from the environment (horizontal transmission). With vertical symbiont transmission, progeny benefit by not having to search for their obligate symbionts, and, with symbiont inheritance, a mechanism exists for perpetuating advantageous symbionts. But, if the progeny encounter an environment that differs from that of their parent, they may be disadvantaged if the inherited symbionts prove suboptimal. Conversely, while in horizontal symbiont acquisition host survival hinges on an unpredictable symbiont source, an individual host may acquire genetically diverse symbionts well suited to any given environment. In horizontal acquisition, however, a potentially advantageous symbiont will not be transmitted to subsequent generations. Adaptation in obligate symbioses may require mechanisms for both novel symbiont acquisition and symbiont inheritance. Using denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR, we identified the dinoflagellate symbionts (genus Symbiodinium) hosted by the Red Sea coral Stylophora pistillata throughout its ontogenesis and over depth. We present evidence that S. pistillata juvenile colonies may utilize both vertical and horizontal symbiont acquisition strategies. By releasing progeny with maternally derived symbionts, that are also capable of subsequent horizontal symbiont acquisition, coral colonies may acquire physiologically advantageous novel symbionts that are then perpetuated via vertical transmission to subsequent generations. With symbiont inheritance, natural selection can act upon the symbiotic variability, providing a mechanism for coral adaptation.

  6. The elucidation of stress memory inheritance in Brassica rapa plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilichak, Andriy; Ilnytskyy, Yaroslav; Wóycicki, Rafal; Kepeshchuk, Nina; Fogen, Dawson; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Plants are able to maintain the memory of stress exposure throughout their ontogenesis and faithfully propagate it into the next generation. Recent evidence argues for the epigenetic nature of this phenomenon. Small RNAs (smRNAs) are one of the vital epigenetic factors because they can both affect gene expression at the place of their generation and maintain non-cell-autonomous gene regulation. Here, we have made an attempt to decipher the contribution of smRNAs to the heat-shock-induced transgenerational inheritance in Brassica rapa plants using sequencing technology. To do this, we have generated comprehensive profiles of a transcriptome and a small RNAome (smRNAome) from somatic and reproductive tissues of stressed plants and their untreated progeny. We have demonstrated that the highest tissue-specific alterations in the transcriptome and smRNAome profile are detected in tissues that were not directly exposed to stress, namely, in the endosperm and pollen. Importantly, we have revealed that the progeny of stressed plants exhibit the highest fluctuations at the smRNAome level but not at the transcriptome level. Additionally, we have uncovered the existence of heat-inducible and transgenerationally transmitted tRNA-derived small RNA fragments in plants. Finally, we suggest that miR168 and braAGO1 are involved in the stress-induced transgenerational inheritance in plants.

  7. THE ELUCIDATION OF STRESS MEMORY INHERITANCE IN BRASSICA RAPA PLANTS

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    Andriy eBilichak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are able to maintain the memory of stress exposure throughout their ontogenesis and faithfully propagate it into the next generation. Recent evidence argues for the epigenetic nature of this phenomenon. Small RNAs (smRNAs are one of the vital epigenetic factors because they can both affect gene expression at the place of their generation and maintain non-cell-autonomous gene regulation. Here, we have made an attempt to decipher the contribution of smRNAs to the heat-shock-induced transgenerational inheritance in Brassica rapa plants using sequencing technology. To do this, we have generated comprehensive profiles of a transcriptome and a small RNAome (smRNAome from somatic and reproductive tissues of stressed plants and their untreated progeny. We have demonstrated that the highest tissue-specific alterations in the transcriptome and smRNAome profile are detected in tissues that were not directly exposed to stress, namely, in the endosperm and pollen. Importantly, we have revealed that the progeny of stressed plants exhibit the highest fluctuations at the smRNAome level but not at the transcriptome level. Additionally, we have uncovered the existence of heat-inducible and transgenerationally transmitted tRNA-derived small RNA fragments in plants. Finally, we suggest that miR168 and braAGO1 are involved in the stress-induced transgenerational inheritance in plants.

  8. Significance of Cultural-Historical Theory of Psychological Development of L.S. Vygotsky for the Development of Modern Models of Social Cognition and Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholmogorova A.B.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article acknowledges the situation of methodical crisis in modern research of social cognition related to the domination of reductive approaches that ignore the uniqueness of human psyche. Heuristicity of concepts of cultural-historical theory of psychological development of L.S. Vygotsky, which serves to overcome the apparent inconsistencies is substantiated. Models of social cognition based on the principles of cultural-historical psychology are described, those being the model of social cognition within phylogenesis of M. Tomasello, and the model of social cognition within ontogenesis of C. Fernyhough. Current situation in the area of mental health is reviewed from the standpoint of cultural-historical psychology, its specifics reflected in the increased burden on reflexive functions, that is, skills lying within the sphere of social cognition is substantiated. Modern psychotherapeutic apparatus directed to compensate social cognition deficits due to various psychiatric disorders is reviewed. The assumption that adolescense is sensitive period for the development of higher forms of social cognition is made, and a summary of researches supporting this assertion is presented. Main contradictions of modern-day maturing are enunciated. To conclude the presented theoretical analysis, a comprehensive multiple-factor model of social cognition is presented based on concepts of cultural-historical theory of L.S. Vygotsky.

  9. The assessment of physiology parameters of willow plants as a criterion for selection of prospective clones

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    Rodzkin Aleh I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy production based on short rotation coppice willow plantations (SRC is an effective direction both for economic and environment profit. The yield of willow wood can amount to 10-15 tons per hectare of dry biomass per year and the cost of thus obtained energy is lower in comparison with other energy crops. In order to achieve high yield and profitability, the use of special willow clones is necessary. Species most often used in selection for biomass production are shrub type willows: Salix viminalis, Salix dasyclados and Salix schwerini, while the clones tested in this paper were also of tree species Salix alba. The productivity and some physiology characteristics of Serbian selection clones of Salix alba (Bačka, Volmianka and Drina and Swedish selection clone Jorr (Salix viminalis were investigated in greenhouses and in field conditions. As the result of testing three clones of Salix alba - Bačka, Volmianka and Drina, having special preferences and adaptability to different environmental conditions, these were included in State register of Republic of Belarus in 2013. In our experiment it was also satisfactory that specific properties of willows (intensity of transpiration and photosynthesis, water use efficiency and others, were conserved both in greenhouses and in field conditions. This factor gives opportunity to select prospective clones of willows at an early stage of ontogenesis for further testing.

  10. Applications of self-organizing maps for ecomorphological investigations through early ontogeny of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Tommaso; Scardi, Michele; Cataudella, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new graphical approach to the analysis of multi-temporal morphological and ecological data concerning the life history of fish, which can typically serves models in ecomorphological investigations because they often undergo significant ontogenetic changes. These changes can be very complex and difficult to describe, so that visualization, abstraction and interpretation of the underlying relationships are often impeded. Therefore, classic ecomorphological analyses of covariation between morphology and ecology, performed by means of multivariate techniques, may result in non-exhaustive models. The Self Organizing map (SOM) is a new, effective approach for pursuing this aim. In this paper, lateral outlines of larval stages of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus) were recorded and broken down using by means of Elliptic Fourier Analysis (EFA). Gut contents of the same specimens were also collected and analyzed. Then, shape and trophic habits data were examined by SOM, which allows both a powerful visualization of shape changes and an easy comparison with trophic habit data, via their superimposition onto the trained SOM. Thus, the SOM provides a direct visual approach for matching morphological and ecological changes during fish ontogenesis. This method could be used as a tool to extract and investigate relationships between shape and other sinecological or environmental variables, which cannot be taken into account simultaneously using conventional statistical methods.

  11. Applications of self-organizing maps for ecomorphological investigations through early ontogeny of fish.

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    Tommaso Russo

    Full Text Available We propose a new graphical approach to the analysis of multi-temporal morphological and ecological data concerning the life history of fish, which can typically serves models in ecomorphological investigations because they often undergo significant ontogenetic changes. These changes can be very complex and difficult to describe, so that visualization, abstraction and interpretation of the underlying relationships are often impeded. Therefore, classic ecomorphological analyses of covariation between morphology and ecology, performed by means of multivariate techniques, may result in non-exhaustive models. The Self Organizing map (SOM is a new, effective approach for pursuing this aim. In this paper, lateral outlines of larval stages of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata and dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus were recorded and broken down using by means of Elliptic Fourier Analysis (EFA. Gut contents of the same specimens were also collected and analyzed. Then, shape and trophic habits data were examined by SOM, which allows both a powerful visualization of shape changes and an easy comparison with trophic habit data, via their superimposition onto the trained SOM. Thus, the SOM provides a direct visual approach for matching morphological and ecological changes during fish ontogenesis. This method could be used as a tool to extract and investigate relationships between shape and other sinecological or environmental variables, which cannot be taken into account simultaneously using conventional statistical methods.

  12. Exposure to Brefeldin A promotes initiation of meiosis in murine female germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lian-Jun; Chen, Bo; Feng, Xin-Lei; Ma, Hua-Gang; Sun, Li-Lan; Feng, Yan-Min; Liang, Gui-Jin; Cheng, Shun-Feng; Li, Lan; Shen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, ontogenesis starts from a fusion of spermatozoon and oocyte, which are produced by reductive nuclear division of a diploid germ cell in a specialised but complex biological process known as meiosis. However, little is known about the mechanism of meiotic initiation in germ cells, although many factors may be responsible for meiosis both in male and female gonads. In this study, 11.5 days post coitum (dpc) female fetal mouse genital ridges were cultured in vitro with exposure to Brefeldin A (BFA) for 6h, and the changes in meiosis were detected. Synaptonemal-complex analysis implied that BFA played a positive role in meiosis initiation and this hypothesis was confirmed by quantitative PCR of meiosis-specific genes: stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8) and deleted in a zoospermia-like (DAZL). At the same time, mRNA expression of retinoic acid synthetase (Raldh2) and retinoic acid (RA) receptors increased in female gonads with in vitro exposure to BFA. Transplanting genital ridges treated with BFA into the kidney capsule of immunodeficient mice demonstrated that the development capacity of female germ cells was normal, while formation of primordial follicles was seen to be a result of accelerated meiosis after exposure to BFA. In conclusion, the study indicated that BFA stimulated meiosis initiation partly by RA signalling and then promoted the development of follicles.

  13. Motivation, emotion, and their inhibitory control mirrored in brain oscillations.

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    Knyazev, Gennady G

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies suggest brain oscillations as a mechanism for cerebral integration. Such integration can exist across a number of functional domains, with different frequency rhythms associated with each domain. Here, evidence is summarized which shows that delta oscillations depend on activity of motivational systems and participate in salience detection. Theta oscillations are involved in memory and emotional regulation. Alpha oscillations participate in inhibitory processes which contribute to a variety of cognitive operations such as attention and memory. The importance of inhibitory functions associated with alpha oscillations increases during the course of evolution. In ontogenesis, these functions develop later and may be more sensitive to a variety of detrimental environmental influences. In a number of developmental stages and pathological conditions, a deficient alpha and/or increased slow-wave activity are associated with cognitive deficits and a lack of inhibitory control. It is shown that slow-wave and alpha oscillations are reciprocally related to each other. This reciprocal relationship may reflect an inhibitory control over motivational and emotional drives which is implemented by the prefrontal cortex.

  14. The epithelium of the tongue of Ambystoma mexicanum. Ultrastructural and histochemical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wistuba, J; Opolka, A; Clemen, G

    1999-12-01

    The distribution pattern of taste buds and goblet cells and histochemical and ultrastructural aspects of the tongue epithelium of Ambystoma mexicanum are here described. This study is also concerned with the developmental stages and origins of the epithelial cells. Pavement cells and goblet cells of the stratum superficiale are replaced by basal cells of the stratum germinativum in larvae and neotenous adults. The pavement cells of the larvae are characterized by a marginal layer of mucin grana. Decompaction of the mucins occurs immediately before extrusion in the adult. The larval goblet cell type (type I), which is also present in the adult, contains unfused grana of irregular shape. At the tip of the tongue, a further type (type II) of goblet cells is found. In the type II cells the intracellular secretory grana fuse to a single homogeneous mass. Leydig cells of the tongue epithelium are discerned by light microscopy first in the semi-adult, apparently correlated with partial metamorphosis. In the course of ontogenesis and induced metamorphosis the secretion changes to neutral glycoconjugates. The mucins of the pavement cells change first followed by those of the goblet cells. The glands of the secondary tongue show a dorso-ventral pattern of varying secretory qualities. Taste buds are found at the anterior margin of the tongue and along the base of the gill clasps in the early larva. They are already distributed all over the tongue at the end of the early larval phase.

  15. Revisiting Gender Identities and Education: Notes for a Social Psychology of Resistant Identities in Modern Cultures

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    Howarth, C.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I offer a review and a reflection on Gender Identities and Education: The Impact of Starting School (Lloyd and Duveen, 1992 as a means of examining the detail and insights of Gerard Duveen’s contribution to the study of identity. What this study highlights is the contextual, imposed, inter-subjective and collaborative nature of identity, the relationship between re-presentation, culture and identity, and the dynamic, resistant and transformative character of identity production. I give detailed empirical examples of the genesis of representations of gender and gendered identities through a discussion of the interconnections between microgenesis, ontogenesis and sociogenesis. This leads onto a consideration of representations ‘that other’ more generally and the importance of including the social and material within the methodology of identity projects. As such, I argue, we can see the work of Duveen and his colleagues as valuable for a theory and a method of research of resistant identities in modern cultures, and thereby develop a social psychology properly equipped to research current social relations, and properly engaged with contemporary experiences of identity.

  16. Rhythms of EEG and cognitive processes

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    Novikova S.I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of cognitive processes is regarded to be more effective if it combines a psychological approach with a neurophysiological one. This approach makes it possible to come closer to understanding of the basic mechanisms of different cognitive processes, to describe the patterns of forming these mechanisms in ontogenesis, to investigate the origin of cognitive impairments, and to develop intervention techniques. The promising way of investigating the mechanisms of cognitive functions is the electroencephalography (EEG. This is a non-invasive, safe, and relatively cheap method of research of the functional condition of the brain. The characteristics of EEG rhythms, recorded with different cognitive loads, reflect the processes of functional modulation of neural network activity of the cortex, which serves the neurophysiologic basis for attention, memory and other cognitive processes. The article provides an overview of works containing the analysis of the alpha and theta rhythms’ dynamics in various states of wakefulness. It also introduces the substantiation of methodology of functional regulatory approach to the interpretation of behaviors of EEG rhythms.

  17. ENGINEERING SUPPORT PARADIGM OF SUBJECT-ORIENTED CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

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    Kharitonov V. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the basic antilogy, which is attributed to forming an engineering support paradigm of new technologies related to the subject-oriented control in the noosphere, between the demand for an automatical creative thinking of a control subject and the vigilance of society to possible adverse effects of its subjective activities. It is stated that the noosphere, which showed miracles of automation and cybernation, covers all types of human activities, excluding above original positions, which they barely touched. Uppermost it is related to the central economics problem (economy management – the choice. The problem how to build an engineering support paradigm of subject-oriented control technologies is analyzed; it is based on the known subject-oriented control concept supplemented by concept-based models of the intuition mechanism, which assume its modeling based on formal systems with the purpose to automate control subjects mental activity. From the standpoint of Schopenhauer’s cognitive theory, a research method is developed to investigate evolution and becoming of a particular human category – engineers, which are responsible for the steady development of noosphere of Vernadsky. As a basis, a dynamic phylogenesis model of engineer’s figure was taken, including ready and effective vectors with parameters (education, intellect, skills and (prevision, choice, emergence, respectively. The results of ontogenesis modeling are given – regularities in future engineers’ preparation as a platform for quantization and convolution of its levels based on modern mathematical methods, including those for support engineers of subjectoriented control technologies

  18. Morpho-histological and ultra architectural changes during early development of endangered golden mahseer Tor putitora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, D; Das, R; Akhtar, M S; Ciji, A; Sharma, N K; Singh, A K

    2016-10-01

    Ultrastructural and histological changes in the embryonic and larval surface during ontogenesis of the endangered golden mahseer Tor putitora is studied here for the first time. Embryonic development was completed 91-92 h after fertilization at an ambient temperature of 23° ± 1° C (mean ± s.d.). The gastrula stage was characterized by presence of the Kupffer's vesicle, notochord, ectoderm and endoderm cells. Primordial germ cells were clearly identifiable from c. 55 h post-fertilization at the organogenesis stage. Mean total length of newly hatched larvae was 7·0 ± 0·5 mm. Scanning electron microscopy of newly hatched larvae demonstrated vitelline arteries, microridged epithelial cells and mucous gland openings over much of the body surface. Eye, oral cavity, pharyngeal arches, heart, intestinal loop, prosencephalon, cephalic vesicle and nasal epithelium were clearly distinguished in 3 day old hatched individuals. In 6 day old individuals, caudal-fin rays and internal organs were evident. The dorsal fin became prominent at this stage and larvae began swimming at the surface. The reserved yolk material was totally absorbed 8-11 days after hatching and larvae began feeding exogenously. Tor putitora exhibited a longer early developmental period than other cyprinids reared at similar temperatures. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. Active immunization against leptin fails to affect reproduction and exerts only marginal effects on glucose metabolism in young female goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerwein, H; Heintges, U; Bruhns, S C; Hennies, M; Gertler, A

    2006-08-01

    Approximately 150 days before expected breeding time, 12 female goats (3 months of age) were actively immunized against ovine leptin. Booster injections were given throughout the following year. Control animals (n = 6) were sham-immunized. After the first observed oestrus, a buck was introduced and goats were mated. Blood samples were collected twice weekly and frequent blood sampling series were performed on days -15, 76, 153 and 286 relative to the first immunization. Nine of the immunized goats developed titres within 3 months and had elevated serum concentrations of leptin compared with controls (p 0.05) between the two groups. During the hyperglycaemic clamp there was a trend (p < 0.15) towards increased insulin concentrations in immunized animals whereas glucose infusion rates were not different between the groups. This indicates decreased insulin sensitivity in immunized goats. Our study describes the ontogenesis of serum concentrations of leptin during growth, puberty and first pregnancy and parturition for the caprine species. The effects of the immunization were not detectable or only marginal and the approach aimed at therefore not effective to investigate leptin action in detail.

  20. Vulnerability of Purkinje Cells Generated from Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 6 Patient-Derived iPSCs

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    Yoshihito Ishida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6 is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. SCA6 is caused by CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in CACNA1A, which encodes Cav2.1, α1A subunit of P/Q-type calcium channel. However, the pathogenic mechanism and effective therapeutic treatments are still unknown. Here, we have succeeded in generating differentiated Purkinje cells that carry patient genes by combining disease-specific iPSCs and self-organizing culture technologies. Patient-derived Purkinje cells exhibit increased levels of full-length Cav2.1 protein but decreased levels of its C-terminal fragment and downregulation of the transcriptional targets TAF1 and BTG1. We further demonstrate that SCA6 Purkinje cells exhibit thyroid hormone depletion-dependent degeneration, which can be suppressed by two compounds, thyroid releasing hormone and Riluzole. Thus, we have constructed an in vitro disease model recapitulating both ontogenesis and pathogenesis. This model may be useful for pathogenic investigation and drug screening.

  1. Direct effect of acaricides on pathogen loads and gene expression levels in honey bees Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncristiani, Humberto; Underwood, Robyn; Schwarz, Ryan; Evans, Jay D; Pettis, Jeffery; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis

    2012-05-01

    The effect of using acaricides to control varroa mites has long been a concern to the beekeeping industry due to unintended negative impacts on honey bee health. Irregular ontogenesis, suppression of immune defenses, and impairment of normal behavior have been linked to pesticide use. External stressors, including parasites and the pathogens they vector, can confound studies on the effects of pesticides on the metabolism of honey bees. This is the case of Varroa destructor, a mite that negatively affects honey bee health on many levels, from direct parasitism, which diminishes honey bee productivity, to vectoring and/or activating other pathogens, including many viruses. Here we present a gene expression profile comprising genes acting on diverse metabolic levels (detoxification, immunity, and development) in a honey bee population that lacks the influence of varroa mites. We present data for hives treated with five different acaricides; Apiguard (thymol), Apistan (tau-fluvalinate), Checkmite (coumaphos), Miteaway (formic acid) and ApiVar (amitraz). The results indicate that thymol, coumaphos and formic acid are able to alter some metabolic responses. These include detoxification gene expression pathways, components of the immune system responsible for cellular response and the c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, and developmental genes. These could potentially interfere with the health of individual honey bees and entire colonies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cancer/testis antigens and gametogenesis: a review and "brain-storming" session

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    Erenpreisa Jekaterina

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genes expressed both in normal testis and in malignancies (Cancer/ Testis associated genes – CTA have become the most extensively studied antigen group in the field of tumour immunology. Despite this, many fundamentally important questions remain unanswered: what is the connection between germ-cell specific genes and tumours? Is the expression of these genes yet another proof for the importance of genome destabilisation in the process of tumorigenesis?, or maybe activation of these genes is not quite random but instead related to some programme giving tumours a survival advantage? This review collates most of the recent information available about CTAs expression, function, and regulation. The data suggests a programme related to ontogenesis, mostly to gametogenesis. In the "brain-storming" part, facts in conflict with the hypothesis of random CTA gene activation are discussed. We propose a programme borrowed from organisms phylogenetically much older than humans, which existed before the differentiation of sexes. It is a programme that has served as a life cycle with prominent ploidy changes, and from which, as we know, the germ-cell ploidy cycle – meiosis – has evolved. Further work may show whether this hypothesis can lead to a novel anti-tumour strategy.

  3. Plant reproduction systems in microgravity: experimental data and hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyum, E. L.

    Elucidation of the possibilities for higher plants to realize complete ontogenesis, from seed to seed, and to propagate by seeds in microgravity, is a fundamental task of space biology connected with the working of the CELSS program. At present, there are results of only 6 spaceflight experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana, an ephemeral plant which will flower and fruit in orbit. Morphogenesis of generative organs occurs normally in microgravity, but unlike the ground control, buds and flowers mainly contain sterile elements of the androecium and gynoecium which degenerate at different stages of development in microgravity. Cytological peculiarities of male and female sterility in microgravity are similar to those occurring naturally during sexual differentiation. Many of the seed formed in microgravity are: 1) nutritional deficiency, 2) insufficient light, 3) intensification of the influence of the above-mentioned factors by microgravity, 4) disturbances of a hormonal nature, and 5) the absence of pollination and fertilization. Possible ways for testing these hypotheses and obtaining viable seeds in microgravity are discussed.

  4. How Tissue Mechanical Properties Affect Enteric Neural Crest Cell Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, N R; Gazguez, E; Bidault, L; Guilbert, T; Vias, C; Vian, E; Watanabe, Y; Muller, L; Germain, S; Bondurand, N; Dufour, S; Fleury, V

    2016-02-18

    Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a population of multipotent cells that migrate extensively during vertebrate development. Alterations to neural crest ontogenesis cause several diseases, including cancers and congenital defects, such as Hirschprung disease, which results from incomplete colonization of the colon by enteric NCCs (ENCCs). We investigated the influence of the stiffness and structure of the environment on ENCC migration in vitro and during colonization of the gastrointestinal tract in chicken and mouse embryos. We showed using tensile stretching and atomic force microscopy (AFM) that the mesenchyme of the gut was initially soft but gradually stiffened during the period of ENCC colonization. Second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy revealed that this stiffening was associated with a gradual organization and enrichment of collagen fibers in the developing gut. Ex-vivo 2D cell migration assays showed that ENCCs migrated on substrates with very low levels of stiffness. In 3D collagen gels, the speed of the ENCC migratory front decreased with increasing gel stiffness, whereas no correlation was found between porosity and ENCC migration behavior. Metalloprotease inhibition experiments showed that ENCCs actively degraded collagen in order to progress. These results shed light on the role of the mechanical properties of tissues in ENCC migration during development.

  5. Monoclonal Antibody 16D10 to the C-Terminal Domain of the Feto-Acinar Pancreatic Protein Binds to Membrane of Human Pancreatic Tumoral SOJ-6 Cells and Inhibits the Growth of Tumor Xenografts1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panicot-Dubois, Laurence; Aubert, Muriel; Franceschi, Cécile; Mas, Eric; Silvy, Françoise; Crotte, Christian; Bernard, Jean-Paul; Lombardo, Dominique; Sadoulet, Marie-Odile

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Feto-acinar pancreatic protein (FAPP) characterized by mAbJ28 reactivity is a specific component associated with ontogenesis and behaves as an oncodevelopment-associated antigen. We attempted to determine whether pancreatic tumoral SOJ-6 cells are expressed at their surface FAPP antigens and to examine if specific antibodies directed against these FAPP epitopes could decrease the growth of pancreatic tumors in a mice model. For this purpose, we used specific antibodies against either the whole FAPP, the O-glycosylated C-terminal domain, or the N-terminal domain of the protein. Our results indicate that SOJ-6 cells expressed at their surface a 32-kDa peptide corresponding to the C-terminal domain of the FAPP. Furthermore, we show, by using endoproteinase Lys-C or geldanamycin, a drug able to impair the FAPP secretion, that this 32-kDa peptide expressed on the SOJ-6 cell surface comes from the degradation of the FAPP. Finally, an in vivo prospective study using a preventative tumor model in nude mice indicates that targeting this peptide by the use of mAb16D10 inhibits the growth of SOJ-6 xenografts. The specificity of mAb16D10 for pancreatic tumors and the possibility to obtain recombinant structures of mucin-like peptides recognized by mAb16D10 and mAbJ28 are promising tools in immunologic approaches to cure pancreatic cancers. PMID:15720797

  6. Taste-dependent sociophobia: when food and company do not mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitton, Matthieu J; Klin, Yael; Dudai, Yadin

    2008-08-22

    Using a combination of the paradigm of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and of the paradigm of social interactions, we report here that in the rat, eating while anxious may result in long-term alterations in social behavior. In the conventional CTA, the subject learns to associate a tastant (the conditioned stimulus, CS) with delayed toxicosis (an unconditioned stimulus, UCS) to yield taste aversion (the conditioned response, CR). However, the association of taste with delayed negative internal states that could generate CRs that are different from taste aversion should not be neglected. Such associations may contribute to the ontogenesis, reinforcement and symptoms of some types of taste- and food-related disorders. We have recently reported that a delayed anxiety-like state, induced by the anxiogenic drug meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), can specifically associate with taste to produce CTA. We now show that a similar protocol results in a marked lingering impairment in social interactions in response to the conditioned taste. This is hence a learned situation in which food and company do not mix well.

  7. Visuomotor adaptation changes stereoscopic depth perception and tactile discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volcic, Robert; Fantoni, Carlo; Caudek, Corrado; Assad, John A; Domini, Fulvio

    2013-10-23

    Perceptual judgments of relative depth from binocular disparity are systematically distorted in humans, despite in principle having access to reliable 3D information. Interestingly, these distortions vanish at a natural grasping distance, as if perceived stereo depth is contingent on a specific reference distance for depth-disparity scaling that corresponds to the length of our arm. Here we show that the brain's representation of the arm indeed powerfully modulates depth perception, and that this internal calibration can be quickly updated. We used a classic visuomotor adaptation task in which subjects execute reaching movements with the visual feedback of their reaching finger displaced farther in depth, as if they had a longer arm. After adaptation, 3D perception changed dramatically, and became accurate at the "new" natural grasping distance, the updated disparity scaling reference distance. We further tested whether the rapid adaptive changes were restricted to the visual modality or were characteristic of sensory systems in general. Remarkably, we found an improvement in tactile discrimination consistent with a magnified internal image of the arm. This suggests that the brain integrates sensory signals with information about arm length, and quickly adapts to an artificially updated body structure. These adaptive processes are most likely a relic of the mechanisms needed to optimally correct for changes in size and shape of the body during ontogenesis.

  8. Transcriptional regulation of metal transport genes and mineral nutrition during acclimatization to cadmium and zinc in the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges population).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Hendrik; Kochian, Leon V

    2010-01-01

    We investigated changes in mineral nutrient uptake and cellular expression levels for metal transporter genes in the cadmium (Cd)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens during whole plant and leaf ontogenesis under different long-term treatments with Zn and Cd. Quantitative mRNA in situ hybridization (QISH) revealed that transporter gene expression changes not only dependent on metal nutrition/toxicity, but even more so during plant and leaf development. The main mRNA abundances found were: ZNT1, mature leaves of young plants; ZNT5, young leaves of young plants; MTP1 (= ZTP1 = ZAT), young leaves of both young and mature plants. Surprisingly different cellular expression patterns were found for ZNT1 and ZNT5, both belonging to the ZIP family of transition metal transporters: ZNT1, photosynthetic mesophyll and bundle sheath cells; ZNT5, nonphotosynthetic epidermal metal storage cells and bundle sheath cells. Thus, ZNT1 may function in micronutrient nutrition while ZNT5 may be involved in metal storage associated with hyperaccumulation. Cadmium inhibited the uptake of Zn, iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn), probably by competing for transporters or by interfering with the regulation of transporter gene expression. Cadmium-induced changes in cellular expression for ZNT1, ZNT5 and MTP1 could also be part of plant acclimatization to Cd toxicity. Defence against Cd toxicity involved enhanced uptake of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca) and sulphur (S).

  9. Anergy in self-directed B lymphocytes: A statistical mechanics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Del Ferraro, Gino; Guerra, Francesco; Tantari, Daniele

    2015-06-21

    Self-directed lymphocytes may evade clonal deletion at ontogenesis but still remain harmless due to a mechanism called clonal anergy. For B-lymphocytes, two major explanations for anergy developed over the last decades: according to Varela theory, anergy stems from a proper orchestration of the whole B-repertoire, such that self-reactive clones, due to intensive feed-back from other clones, display strong inertia when mounting a response. Conversely, according to the model of cognate response, self-reacting cells are not stimulated by helper lymphocytes and the absence of such signaling yields anergy. Through statistical mechanics we show that helpers do not prompt activation of a sub-group of B-cells: remarkably, the latter are just those broadly interacting in the idiotypic network. Hence Varela theory can finally be reabsorbed into the prevailing framework of the cognate response model. Further, we show how the B-repertoire architecture may emerge, where highly connected clones are self-directed as a natural consequence of ontogenetic learning.

  10. Problems of social and communicative competence in preschoolers and junior schoolchildren with difficulties in social interaction

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    Gavrilushkina O.P.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the review of foreign and national investigations concerning genesis and specificity of interactions in children with difficulties in social contacts at early stages of ontogenesis. The following aspects of the problem were regarded: specificity of social interaction in children with autism spectrum disorder and mental retardation; peculiarities of child social interaction as depending on ethnic and gender attributes; factors determining the quality of interaction and social interaction in various age groups; the role of early support in normalizing the further child development; positive dynamics of interaction in conditions of inclusive education and so on.The reviewed studies stress the most significant reasons for low level of social interaction: decrease in need for social interaction, isolation (deprivation, lack of socio-communicative skills, difficulties in utilizing symbolic means, unfavorable situation of development, etc. It is shown that in case of specially structured educational environment it is possible to achieve positive dynamics in development of social and communicative competences in children with difficulties in social interaction.

  11. Assessment of ghrelin, GHS-R, GH, and neurohormones in human fetal pituitary glands and central nervous system: an immunohistochemical study.

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    Monika Obara-Moszynska

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was evaluation of expression of ghrelin and GHS-R1a receptor in somatotrops and in neuronal cells of brain tissue in the process of human fetal ontogenesis. Relations were also looked for between GHRH and SS in the pituitary and in the CNS neurones of the studied fetuses. The study was based on 8 pituitaries and 8 brains from fetuses in different periods of intrauterine life. The immunocytochemical technique was used. The presence of ghrelin, GHS-R was shown in the glandular part of the pituitary and CNS during the whole period of intrauterine life. Neurohormones in the stalk of the pituitary were found in fetuses from the 32nd week of pregnancy whereas in the CNS neurones these hormones could be detected throughout the whole period of intrauterine life. The results obtained suggest that stimulation of GH secretion by ghrelin is independent of the feedback concentration and these two hormones act like signals of metabolic balance. GH release by ghrelin in fetal life is independent of somatostatin. The hypothalamic-pituitary axis which regulates pulsatile GH release from the pituitary matures functionally in the third trimester of pregnancy independent of the previous anatomical differentiation.

  12. Insulin-producing cells derived from human embryonic stem cells: comparison of definitive endoderm- and nestin-positive progenitor-based differentiation strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wei

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs are pluripotent and capable of undergoing multilineage differentiation into highly specialized cells including pancreatic islet cells. Thus, they represent a novel alternative source for targeted therapies and regenerative medicine for diabetes. Significant progress has been made in differentiating hESCs toward pancreatic lineages. One approach is based on the similarities of pancreatic β cell and neuroepithelial development. Nestin-positive cells are selected as pancreatic β cell precursors and further differentiated to secrete insulin. The other approach is based on our knowledge of developmental biology in which the differentiation protocol sequentially reproduces the individual steps that are known in normal β cell ontogenesis during fetal pancreatic development. In the present study, the hESC cell line PKU1.1 was induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells (IPCs using both protocols. The differentiation process was dynamically investigated and the similarities and differences between both strategies were explored. Our results show that IPCs can be successfully induced with both differentiation strategies. The resulting IPCs from both protocols shared many similar features with pancreatic islet cells, but not mature, functional β cells. However, these differently-derived IPC cell types displayed specific morphologies and different expression levels of pancreatic islet development-related markers. These data not only broaden our outlook on hESC differentiation into IPCs, but also extend the full potential of these processes for regenerative medicine in diabetes.

  13. Testing predictions of the programmed and stochastic theories of aging: comparison of variation in age at death, menopause, and sexual maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilova, N S; Gavrilov, L A; Severin, F F; Skulachev, V P

    2012-07-01

    One of the arguments against aging being programmed is the assumption that variation in the timing of aging-related outcomes is much higher compared to variation in timing of the events programmed by ontogenesis. The main objective of this study was to test the validity of this argument. To this aim, we compared absolute variability (standard deviation) and relative variability (coefficient of variation) for parameters that are known to be determined by the developmental program (age at sexual maturity) with variability of characteristics related to aging (ages at menopause and death). We used information on the ages at sexual maturation (menarche) and menopause from the nationally representative survey of the adult population of the United States (MIDUS) as well as published data for 14 countries. We found that coefficients of variation are in the range of 8-13% for age at menarche, 7-11% for age at menopause, and 16-21% for age at death. Thus, the relative variability for the age at death is only twice higher than for the age at menarche, while the relative variability for the age at menopause is almost the same as for the age at menarche.

  14. [Environmental and genetic variables related with alterations in language acquisition in early childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriano-Gutierrez, A; Colomer-Revuelta, J; Sanjuan, J; Carot-Sierra, J M

    2017-01-01

    A great deal of research has addressed problems in the correct acquisition of language, but with few overall conclusions. The reasons for this lie in the individual variability, the existence of different measures for assessing language and the fact that a complex network of genetic and environmental factors are involved in its development. To review the environmental and genetic variables that have been studied to date, in order to gain a better under-standing of the causes of specific language impairment and create new evidence that can help in the development of screening systems for the early detection of these disorders. The environmental variables related with poorer early child language development include male gender, low level of education of the mother, familial history of problems with language or psychiatric problems, perinatal problems and health problems in early childhood. Bilingualism seems to be a protective factor. Temperament and language are related. Within the genetic factors there are several specific genes associated with language, two of which have a greater influence on its physiological acquisition: FOXP2 and CNTNAP2. The other genes that are most related with specific language disorders are ATP2C2, CMIP, ROBO2, ZNF277 and NOP9. The key to comprehending the development of specific language disorders lies in reaching an understanding of the true role played by genes in the ontogenesis, in the regulation of the different developmental processes, and how this role is modulated by the environment.

  15. NEW GENOTYPES AND TECHNOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF WINTER TRITICALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Z.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to conduct basic screening of new lines and cultivars of winter hexaploid triticale by the technological and molecular genetics indicators. Molecular and genetic research conducted by polymerase chain reaction allelic variants of gene loci Wx-A1, Wx-B1, and quality parameters of grain, flour and bread – on technological markers. The new cultivars and lines of winter hexaploid triticale of Nosivka Breeding and Research Station of Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat by technological indicators of grain, flour and bread quality were studied. According to representative criteria’s the most promising genotypes, which are the main products in terms Forest-Steppe ecotypes’ and a high-quality raw materials for bakeries and bioethanol were identified. Molecular and genetic identifications of allelic variants of genes loci Wx-A1, Wx-B1 triticale, which in the early stages of ontogenesis to predict targeted uses genotypes were conducted. The first among a series of triticale cultivars and lines Forest-Steppe ecotypes and biotypes with nonfunctional b gene allele WxA1, which defines a high content of amylopectin of starch, an important release for more ethanol was identified. It was found that technological characteristics of grain, flour and bread of new cultivars and lines of winter triticale meet the modern requirements production dietetic food and bioenergy products is important and relevant in the context of food security of Ukraine.

  16. Main results of biological experiments on Russian orbital stations and its contribution in future life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.

    Biological experiments in a field of space biology have been started before the first satellite flight. These experiments were devoted to an estimation of space radiation factors on living organisms and carried out in mountains. The systematic biological experiments in space have been started in 1971 with orbital station Salyut. In total more than 1000 experiments have been installed in space flights: fundamental investigations (panspermia theory, gravity biology, complex factors of space environment on biological objects) and applications focused on future biological life support systems. The investigations were directed to some tasks: influence of complex factors of space flight on living organisms at different stages of the evolution scale; investigations of proteins and DNA, cell, tissue, organism and assembled organisms under space flight factors with separation of individual factors, for example, microgravity and space radiation. The aim was to understand the organism reactions on different levels, to get complete ontogenesis cycle in space flight and to find adaption ability of organisms to extreme factors of the space flight. In course of investigations, the unique experimental equipment for orbital biological experiments has been designed; new methods for organism protection against the negative factors of space flight were found; developed new biotechnological products and processes; developed recommendations for space station interior with biological objects for psychological comfort of crew. The results showed a possibility and ways to include different organisms into biotechnological life support systems for future space stations and interplanet spaceships.

  17. On the Problem of Will and Self-Regulation in Cultural-Historical Psychology

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    E.O. Smirnova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to differentiate between the concepts of 'will' and 'selfregulation'. Basing on literature research the author presumes that here we deal with two qualitatively different and specific processes: one of them centers around the awareness of an individual's actions, while at the core of the other lies the impulse to act, i.e. motivation. Thus the author sets forth a hypothesis that will and selfregulation have very different psychological content and different lines of development in ontogenesis. Following L.S. Vygotsky, the author considers selfregulation as the ability to control oneself (one's inner and outer activity with the help of culturally provided means of organizing behavior. Stages of selfregulation development are therefore shaped by the level of the individual's awareness of his/her activity and by the means employed for its organization. Will, as it has been interpreted over the course of history, is considered as the urge towards active actions, as the powerfulness and persistence of one's wishes and desires (volitions. From this perspective the development of will way be described as the formation of persistent motivation in a child, as the emergence of his/her own desires. The paper reveals the relationship between impulse and awareness in various forms of child activities suggesting that, however specific, will and selfregulation are one in their genesis. The final part discusses issues in modern childhood related to the development of will and selfregulation

  18. Congenital inferior vena cava anomalies: a review of findings at multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Catherine; Trad, Clovis Simao [Central de Diagnostico Ribeirao Preto (CEDIRP), SP (Brazil); Trad, Henrique Simao, E-mail: hstrad@terra.com.br [Central de Diagnostico Ribeirao Preto (CEDIRP), SP (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo (HC-FMRPUSP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas; Mendonca, Silvana Machado [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Inferior vena cava anomalies are rare, occurring in up to 8.7% of the population, as left renal vein anomalies are considered. The inferior vena cava develops from the sixth to the eighth gestational weeks, originating from three paired embryonic veins, namely the subcardinal, supracardinal and postcardinal veins. This complex ontogenesis of the inferior vena cava, with multiple anastomoses between the pairs of embryonic veins, leads to a number of anatomic variations in the venous return from the abdomen and lower limbs. Some of such variations have significant clinical and surgical implications related to other cardiovascular anomalies and in some cases associated with venous thrombosis of lower limbs, particularly in young adults. The authors reviewed images of ten patients with inferior vena cava anomalies, three of them with deep venous thrombosis. The authors highlight the major findings of inferior vena cava anomalies at multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, correlating them the embryonic development and demonstrating the main alternative pathways for venous drainage. The knowledge on the inferior vena cava anomalies is critical in the assessment of abdominal images to avoid misdiagnosis and to indicate the possibility of associated anomalies, besides clinical and surgical implications. (author)

  19. [Development of the habenulointerpeduncular tract in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepukov, A A; Makarenko, I G

    2013-01-01

    Development of the habenulointerpeduncular tract has been carried out on fixed brain preparations obtained from 21 day rat embryos and from neonatal animals on the 0 and 9 days of postnatal development by diffusion oflipophilic fluorescent carbocyanine dye DiI (1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate) through neuron membranes. The marker was introduced into the nuclei of the habenula, the interpeduncular nucleus, and into the area of raphe nuclei. Neurons and fibers that contained Dil were identified on vibratome sections by fluorescent and confocal microscopy. we have found that reciprocal links between the lateral habenula nucleus and raphe nuclei are formed in the prenatal period by stage E21. Raphe nuclei innervating neurons were located in dorso- and ventrocaudal parts of the lateral habenula nucleus. Projections of the medial habenula nucleus onto interpeduncular nucleus were found only in the postnatal P2 period. Neurons that provide a source of these projections form characteristic assemblies inside the medial habenula nucleus. Therefore, the present study for the first time describes heterogenic formation of different projection systems that are involved in the habenulointerpeduncular tract of rats at perinatal ontogenesis.

  20. Male gametophyte development and function in angiosperms: a general concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafidh, Said; Fíla, Jan; Honys, David

    2016-06-01

    Overview of pollen development. Male gametophyte development of angiosperms is a complex process that requires coordinated activity of different cell types and tissues of both gametophytic and sporophytic origin and the appropriate specific gene expression. Pollen ontogeny is also an excellent model for the dissection of cellular networks that control cell growth, polarity, cellular differentiation and cell signaling. This article describes two sequential phases of angiosperm pollen ontogenesis-developmental phase leading to the formation of mature pollen grains, and a functional or progamic phase, beginning with the impact of the grains on the stigma surface and ending at double fertilization. Here we present an overview of important cellular processes in pollen development and explosive pollen tube growth stressing the importance of reserves accumulation and mobilization and also the mutual activation of pollen tube and pistil tissues, pollen tube guidance and the communication between male and female gametophytes. We further describe the recent advances in regulatory mechanisms involved such as posttranscriptional regulation (including mass transcript storage) and posttranslational modifications to modulate protein function, intracellular metabolic signaling, ionic gradients such as Ca(2+) and H(+) ions, cell wall synthesis, protein secretion and intercellular signaling within the reproductive tissues.

  1. Chlorophyll b in angiosperms: Functions in photosynthesis, signaling and ontogenetic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhovskaja, O V; Tyutereva, E V

    2015-09-15

    Chlorophyll b (Chlb) is an antenna chlorophyll. The binding of Chlb by antenna proteins is crucial for the correct assembly of the antenna complexes in thylakoid membranes. Since the levels of the proteins of major and minor antenna are affected to different extents by Chlb binding, the availability of Chlb influences the composition and the size of antenna complexes which in turn determine the supramolecular organization of the thylakoid membranes in grana. Therefore, Chlb synthesis levels have a major impact on lateral mobility and diffusion of membrane molecules, and thus affect not only light harvesting and thermal energy dissipation processes, but also linear electron transport and repair processes in grana. Furthermore, in angiosperms Chlb synthesis affects plant functions beyond chloroplasts. First, the stability of pigment-protein complexes in the antennae, which depends on Chlb, is an important factor in the regulation of plant ontogenesis, and Chlb levels were recently shown to influence plant ontogenetic signaling. Second, the amounts of minor antenna proteins in chloroplasts, which depend on the availability of Chlb, were recently shown to affect ABA levels and signaling in plants. These mechanisms can be examined in mutants where Chlb synthesis is reduced or abolished. The dramatic effects caused by the lack of Chlb on plant productivity are interpreted in this review in light of the pleiotropic effects on photosynthesis and signaling, and the potential to manipulate Chlb biosynthesis for the improvement of crop production is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Common immunophenotypic features of submandibular salivary glands and thymus in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dožić Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Submandibular salivary gland is a part of the neuro-immune-endocrine system. It contains biological factors which regulate a number of functions in the body including the modulation of thymus function. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate immunophenotypic characteristics of submandibular salivary glands of rats during ontogenesis, using the panels of monoclonal antibodies and to compare with the phenotypic characteristics of epithelial components of the thymus. Methods. Submandibular salivary glands and thymus were obtained from 1, 30 and 60 days old male AO (Albino, Oxford rats. Streptavidin-biotin peroxidase method was used for staining. Results. Immunohistochemical analysis of rat submandibular salivary glands showed phenotypic heterogeneity of particular components of this gland during the postnatal development. We demonstrated that rat submandibular salivary glands share common antigens with rat thymic epithelial cells, but the observed phenotypic similarity between the individual regions was considered much more significant. Our data showed that the phenotypic similarity between duct epithelial cells and subcapsular epithelial cells and most medullary cells, whereas cortical epithelial cells are phenotypically similar to acinar cells. Conclusion. This immunohistological study showed phenotypic complexity of the submandibular salivary gland and similarity to the thymus that opens new perspectives in studying phenotypic similarities between this gland and lymphatic organs.

  3. 维果茨基的语言与思维观%An Investigation on Language & Thought by Vygotsky

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李葆卫; 王孟娟

    2014-01-01

    维果茨基,20世纪卓越的心理学家,着重研究思维和语言、儿童语言学习与发展的关系。本文评介了维果茨基如何从实验数据出发,厘清了语言与思维的关系:语言和思维有不同的遗传根源,只是在特定的发生学发展阶段语言和思维才相互汇合,从此这两种功能互相影响共同发展;最后,指出维果茨基的时代局限性。%Vygotsky, an excellent psychologist of the 20th century, mainly explores the relationship between language and thought, interaction and engagement in child learner. Then what is the relation between language and thought? According to Vygotsky, Ontogenetically, thought and language have different roots, merging only at certain moment in ontogenesis, after which the two functions develop together under reciprocal influence. This paper aims to introduce how Vygotsky’s conclusion was drawn and points his limits historically.

  4. The development of coronary vascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Олександрівна Яковець

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Set the terms of occurrence and morphological markers of coronary vessels in the embryonic period of human ontogenesis.Material and methods. To realize the aim of our work the embryos of human heart from 5 th to 8 th week of prenatal development period were investigated in the amount of 60. The obtained specimens were evaluated by immunohistochemical study. For this purpose, the original monoclonal antibodies have been used, such as transcription factor Prox-1, cell proliferation marker Ki-67, an endothelial marker CD-34 and smooth-muscle actin (α-SMA. To identify the reaction the solution of chromogen 3-diaminobenzidine tetrachloride was applied, which is manifested in a rich brown color in the sensitive cells of the cardiac wall.Conclusions: The morphological specialization of vascular links of coronary system in the embryonic period has a natural sequence - acquisition of venous properties at first and parallel differentiation of arterial structures. After arteriovenous determination the next phase begins – lymphatic specialization of venous endothelial cells with the formation of lymphatic links of coronary vascular system

  5. [Evolutionary histology and the theory of evolution (on the 100th anniversary of the birth of Academician A. A. Zavarzin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoian, E N

    1986-02-01

    Darwin's theory did not touch upon the problem of evolution of tissues. An attempt made by Heckel to explain phylogeny of tissues, basing on principles of selection and divergence, failed. It was not at once understood that evolution of separate levels of organization possessed certain specificity. The theory of parallelism, suggested by A. A. Zavarzin, stated the notion on specific regularities in evolution of tissues. Having analysed the correlation between the theory of evolution and evolutional histology, A. A. Zavarzin demonstrated that darwinism developed predominantly at the theory of speciation. This approach is correct for the period of the new evolutionary synthesis, too. The synthetic theory of evolution does not take into consideration evolution of tissues. A. A. Zavarzin's theory contributed to reorganization of methodology of the evolutional biology. The historical method was enriched by a certain principle on specific regularities of evolution for each level of organization in the alive. Simultaneously, the genesis of the parallelism theory discovered that correct explanation of the regularities in evolution of tissues is possible only under conditions that the evolution of histostructures can be inserted into the evolution of ontogenesis and species.

  6. A scanning electron microscopy study of the embryonic development of Pycnogonum litorale (Arthropoda, Pycnogonida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machner, Jakob; Scholtz, Gerhard

    2010-11-01

    The phylogenetic position of the enigmatic Pycnogonida (sea spiders) is still controversial. This is in part due to a lack of detailed data about the morphology and ontogenesis of this, in many aspects, aberrant group. In particular, studies on the embryonic development of pycnogonids are rare and in part contradictory. Here, we present the first embryological study of a pycnogonid species using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We describe the late embryogenesis of Pycnogonum litorale from the first visible appendage anlagen to the hatchling in 11 embryonic stages. The three pairs of appendage anlagen gain in length by growth, as well as by extension of furrows into the embryo. The opening of the stomodaeum is located far in front of the anlagen of the chelifores and has a Y-shaped lumen from the onset. During further embryogenesis, the position of the mouth shifts ventrally, until it is located between the chelifores. The proboscis anlage grows out as a circumoral wall-like structure, which is initially more pronounced ventrally. Hypotheses about the evolution of the proboscis by fusion of originally separated components are critically discussed, because the proboscis anlage of P. litorale shows no indications of a composite nature. In particular, a participation of post-cheliforal elements in proboscis formation is rejected by our data. Further, no preoral structure and no stage in proboscis formation was found, which could plausibly be homologized with the labrum of othereuarthropods. Thus, our study supports the assumption of a complete lack of a labrum in Pycnogonida.

  7. Modern View on Microbiocenosis, Immune Response and Factors Influencing on Their Formation. Fundamental and Applied Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Bogdanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review of current literature summarizes results of scientific studies on the structure of the intestinal microbiota both of adults and infants. It is shown, that all intestinal microbiota of an adult consists of 395 phylogenetically isolated groups of microorganisms, among them 244 are absolutely new. Based on the RNA-sequencing of genes the most common among Caucasians enterotypes were detected. It was demonstrated, that specific structure of intestinal microbiota of an adult individual is unique and stable and that genetic background of the macroorganism is a base of intestinal microbiome formation. The article covers the issues of special characteristics of microbiocenosis development at the early stages of ontogenesis. It is emphasized, that prevalence of «infantile» species of bifidobacteria in the structure of intestinal microbiota of breast-fed infants is due to the presence of certain nutritive substances in the milk: oligosaccharides of the breast milk, which are natural prebiotics. The authors give criteria for including the nutrients into the group of prebiotics and show new experimental and clinical data on influence of prebiotics on different levels of immunological defense system.Key words: intestinal microbiota, enterotypes, prebiotics, oligosaccharides, inulin, immune response.

  8. COMBINED DETECTION OF CYCLIN D1, P27 AND DNA CONTENT IN ESOPHAGEAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ping; YIN Yuan-qin; WANG Xiao-hua

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expressions of cyclin D1 and p27 and DNA content in esophageal cancer and adjacent normal tissues, and to discuss the relationship between them. Methods: The cyclinD1 and p27 were detected by immunohistochemical staining; DNA content was measured by flow cytometry. Results: The positive expression rates of cyclinD1 and p27 in cancer were 45.8% and 33.3% respectively, the DNA content in the positive group of cyclinD1 was higher than that in the negative group of cyclinD1(1.54(0.21 versus 1.08(0.43, P<0.05), while the DNA content and SPF (S-phase fraction) in the positive group of p27 were lower than those in the negative group (1.10(0.19 and 5.56%(5.18% versus 1.66(0.28 and 19.78%(6.12%, P<0.05). Conclusion: The data show that the expression of cyclinD1 and p27 are related to the ontogenesis and progression of esophageal cancer. The combined detection of cyclinD1, p27 and DNA content may be indicators of diagnosis and assessment of esophageal cancer.

  9. [Mutant gene expression in murine aggregation chimeras. 5. The ocular retardation and fidget genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindiakov, B N; Koniukhov, B V

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of ocular retardation (or) and fidget (fi) genes expression in 18 day old embryos, 10 and 20 day old or/or C/C----+/+ c/c and fi/fi or/or C/C----+/+ +/+ c/c mice has shown that genes or and fi are active in developing retina and suppress cell proliferation. Structural defects of retina and decrease in the eye size in the chimaeras, compared to the normal embryos, were observed already in the presence of 13-16% of mutant cells. As the fraction of mutant cells increased, the degree of eye disturbances increased as well. In the fi/fi or/or----+/+ +/+ chimaeras structural defects of retina and decrease in the eye size are more pronounced than in the or/or----+/+ chimaeras, due to the synergetical effect of both mutant genes in the fi/fi or/or cell clones. In the ontogenesis of the or/or----+/+ chimaeras the development of the retinal photoreceptor layer is normalized due to the substitution of mutant cells for actively proliferating normal cells. No metabolic cooperation between the mutant and normal cells was observed in the developing retina of chimaeras.

  10. Modulation of Pleurodeles waltl DNA polymerase mu expression by extreme conditions encountered during spaceflight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Schenten

    Full Text Available DNA polymerase µ is involved in DNA repair, V(DJ recombination and likely somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes. Our previous studies demonstrated that spaceflight conditions affect immunoglobulin gene expression and somatic hypermutation frequency. Consequently, we questioned whether Polμ expression could also be affected. To address this question, we characterized Polμ of the Iberian ribbed newt Pleurodeles waltl and exposed embryos of that species to spaceflight conditions or to environmental modifications corresponding to those encountered in the International Space Station. We noted a robust expression of Polμ mRNA during early ontogenesis and in the testis, suggesting that Polμ is involved in genomic stability. Full-length Polμ transcripts are 8-9 times more abundant in P. waltl than in humans and mice, thereby providing an explanation for the somatic hypermutation predilection of G and C bases in amphibians. Polμ transcription decreases after 10 days of development in space and radiation seem primarily involved in this down-regulation. However, space radiation, alone or in combination with a perturbation of the circadian rhythm, did not affect Polμ protein levels and did not induce protein oxidation, showing the limited impact of radiation encountered during a 10-day stay in the International Space Station.

  11. Nerve Growth Factor Increases mRNA Levels for the Prion Protein and the β -amyloid Protein Precursor in Developing Hamster Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, William C.; Neve, Rachael L.; Prusiner, Stanley B.; McKinley, Michael P.

    1988-12-01

    Deposition of amyloid filaments serves as a pathologic hallmark for some neurodegenerative disorders. The prion protein (PrP) is found in amyloid of animals with scrapie and humans with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; the β protein is present in amyloid deposits in Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome patients. These two proteins are derived from precursors that in the brain are expressed primarily in neurons and are membrane bound. We found that gene expression for PrP and the β -protein precursor (β -PP) is regulated in developing hamster brain. Specific brain regions showed distinct patterns of ontogenesis for PrP and β -PP mRNAs. The increases in PrP and β -PP mRNAs in developing basal forebrain coincided with an increase in choline acetyltransferase activity, raising the possibility that these markers might be coordinately controlled in cholinergic neurons and regulated by nerve growth factor (NGF). Injections of NGF into the brains of neonatal hamsters increased both PrP and β -PP mRNA levels. Increased PrP and β -PP mRNA levels induced by NGF were confined to regions that contain NGF-responsive cholinergic neurons and were accompanied by elevations in choline acetyltransferase. It remains to be established whether or not exogenous NGF acts to increase PrP and β -PP gene expression selectively in forebrain cholinergic neurons in the developing hamster and endogenous NGF regulates expression of these genes.

  12. Moderate alcohol exposure during early brain development increases stimulus-response habits in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Matthew O; Evans, Alexandra M-D; Brock, Alistair J; Combe, Fraser J; Teh, Muy-Teck; Brennan, Caroline H

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol during early central nervous system development has been shown variously to affect aspects of physiological and behavioural development. In extreme cases, this can extend to craniofacial defects, severe developmental delay and mental retardation. At more moderate levels, subtle differences in brain morphology and behaviour have been observed. One clear effect of developmental alcohol exposure is an increase in the propensity to develop alcoholism and other addictions. The mechanisms by which this occurs, however, are not currently understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult zebrafish chronically exposed to moderate levels of ethanol during early brain ontogenesis would show an increase in conditioned place preference for alcohol and an increased propensity towards habit formation, a key component of drug addiction in humans. We found support for both of these hypotheses and found that the exposed fish had changes in mRNA expression patterns for dopamine receptor, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and μ-opioid receptor encoding genes. Collectively, these data show an explicit link between the increased proclivity for addiction and addiction-related behaviour following exposure to ethanol during early brain development and alterations in the neural circuits underlying habit learning.

  13. Sensing and surviving hypoxia in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonz, Michael G; Buck, Leslie T; Perry, Steve F; Schwerte, Thorsten; Zaccone, Giacomo

    2016-02-01

    Surviving hypoxia is one of the most critical challenges faced by vertebrates. Most species have adapted to changing levels of oxygen in their environment with specialized organs that sense hypoxia, while only few have been uniquely adapted to survive prolonged periods of anoxia. The goal of this review is to present the most recent research on oxygen sensing, adaptation to hypoxia, and mechanisms of anoxia tolerance in nonmammalian vertebrates. We discuss the respiratory structures in fish, including the skin, gills, and air-breathing organs, and recent evidence for chemosensory neuroepithelial cells (NECs) in these tissues that initiate reflex responses to hypoxia. The use of the zebrafish as a genetic and developmental model has allowed observation of the ontogenesis of respiratory and chemosensory systems, demonstration of a putative intracellular O2 sensor in chemoreceptors that may initiate transduction of the hypoxia signal, and investigation into the effects of extreme hypoxia on cardiorespiratory development. Other organisms, such as goldfish and freshwater turtles, display a high degree of anoxia tolerance, and these models are revealing important adaptations at the cellular level, such as the regulation of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in defense of homeostasis in central neurons.

  14. Intermittent hypoxia stimulates formation of binuclear neurons in brain cortex- a role of cell fusion in neuroprotection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltsyn, Alexander A; Manukhina, Eugenia B; Goryacheva, Anna V; Downey, H Fred; Dubrovin, Ivan P; Komissarova, Svetlana V; Kubatiev, Aslan A

    2014-05-01

    Oligodendrocyte fusion with neurons in the brain cortex is a part of normal ontogenesis and is a possible means of neuroregeneration. Following such fusion, the oligodendrocyte nucleus undergoes neuron-specific reprogramming, resulting in the formation of binuclear neurons, which doubles the functional capability of the neuron. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the formation of binuclear neurons is involved in long-term adaptation of the brain to intermittent hypobaric hypoxia, which is known to be neuroprotective. Rats were adapted to hypoxia in an altitude chamber at a simulated altitude of 4000 m above sea level for 14 days (30 min increasing to 4 h, daily). One micrometer sections of the left motor cortex were analyzed by light microscopy. Phases of the fusion and reprogramming process were recorded, and the number of binuclear neurons was counted for all section areas containing pyramidal neurons of layers III-V. For the control group subjected to sham hypoxia, the density of binuclear neurons was 4.49 ± 0.32 mm(2). In the hypoxia-adapted group, this density increased to 5.71 ± 0.39 mm(2) (P neurons did not differ from the number observed in the control group. We suggest that the increased content of binuclear neurons may serve as a structural basis for the neuroprotective effects of the adaptation to hypoxia.

  15. Embryonic development of Pelteobagrus fulvidraco (Richardson, 1846)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Weimin; Khalid ABBAS; YAN Ansheng

    2006-01-01

    For production enhancement and procedure upgrade, the developmental phases of laboratory-reared eggs of catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco were investigated. Twenty mature females and 10 males were collected from Dadongmen wholesale fisheries market in Wuhan City on May 8, 2003. Zygotes were stripped from mature fish after hormone-induced ovulation, fertilized, and incubated through whole embryonic development. The fertilized eggs were stocked in density of 100 eggs/L in white square tanks of 10 L. Incubation water was dechlorinated tap water with continuous aeration. The tanks were lit directly with 60 W fluorescent bulbs with a 12 light: 12 dark photoperiod. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH were 29.0±0.5℃, 6.7±0.4 mg/L and 7.4±0.2, respectively. The results showed that the eggs of P. fulvidraco were yellow, sticky and contained much yolk. The mean diameter of fertilized eggs was 2.03 mm. At the water temperature of 29.0±0.5 ℃, the ontogenesis spent about33 h after fertilization.From fertilization to hatching, the embryonic development can be divided into 30-40 phases, which varies in the emphasis and direction of development. The detailed embryonic movement was also described.

  16. [Functional morphology of conjunctive tissue stroma of spleen in the age aspect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'fonsova, E V

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the data on the structural and functional changes of conjunctive tissue of the spleen in postnatal ontogenesis of a person. The study was performed on 125 cadaveric spleens of the people of both sexes, who died from traumas and diseases not causing pathologic changes in the spleen. Definition of ontogenetic phases and chronological confines of age periods was identified according to Bunak V. V. (1965). The measurement of linear dimensions and mass of organ, histological, histochemical study and morphometry were performed. According to factual evidence, at the age from birth to 4 years the content of lymphatic follicles increases against a background of decrease of conjunctive tissue component and red pulp in the area of spleen section. By 8 or 10 years the part of lymphoid tissue decreases, but the part of conjunctive tissue and red pulp increases. Ageing symptoms are revealed at the age of 18, the increase of volume of conjunctive tissue component and destruction of external elastic membrane of trabecular artery of spleen take place. The destruction of elastic and reticulin fibers of soft skeleton, reduction of cellular elements (cells, fibroblasts and fibrocytes) and conjunctive tissue stroma collagenization are observed at a mature and old age.

  17. Pharmacogenomics of Acetaminophen in Pediatric Populations: a Moving Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanqing eLiu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen (APAP is widely used as an over-the-counter fever reducer and pain reliever. However, the current therapeutic use of APAP is not optimal. The inter-patient variability in both efficacy and toxicity limits the use of this drug. This is particularly an issue in pediatric populations, where tools for predicting drug efficacy and developmental toxicity are not well established. Variability in toxicity between age groups may be accounted for by differences in metabolism, transport, and the genetics behind those differences. While pharmacogenomics has been revolutionizing the paradigm of pharmacotherapy for many drugs, its application in pediatric populations faces significant challenges including given the dynamic ontogenic changes in cellular and systems physiology. In this review we focused on the ontogenesis of the regulatory pathways involved in the disposition of APAP and on the variability between pediatric, adolescent, and adult patients. We also summarize important polymorphisms of the pharmacogenes associated with APAP metabolism. Pharmacogenetic studies in pediatric APAP treatment are also reviewed. We conclude that while a consensus in pharmacogenetic management of APAP in pediatric populations has not been achieved, a systems biology based strategy for comprehensively understanding the ontogenic regulatory pathway as well as the interaction between age and genetic variations are particularly necessary in order to address this question.

  18. Dynamics of phosphorus compounds in ripening and germinating cereal grains. Part I. Changes in phosphorus compounds content during ripening of wheat, barley and rye grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tłuczkiewicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of phosphorus compounds was followed in ripening wheat (Grana, barley (Kosmos and rye (Pancerne seeds. In the investigated ontogenesis period the content in the seeds of total and acid-soluble phosphorus doubled. The phosphorus of free phytin and phytin that bound with proteins increased to the end of maturation. In dormant seeds the contribution of phosphorus bound with phytin was 62-70 per cent of total P. As the seeds ripened, the content of inorganic and nucleotides-P decreased, while that of saccharides-P and their metabolites started to decrease from the moment of wax ripeness. Later RNA-P and DNA-P level decreased only slight.ly and that of lipids-P markedly. Phosphoproteid content diminished at the beginning of ripening and further remained at almost the same level. Wheat, barley and rye seed exhibited similar dynamics of metabolically active (nucleotides, saccharide-P esters and their metabolites, functional (nucleic acids and structural (phospholipids phosphorus compounds. Accumulation of storage forms (phytin of phosphorus was higher in wheat and successively lower in rye and barley.

  19. Congenital inferior vena cava anomalies: a review of findings at multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

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    Catherine Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Inferior vena cava anomalies are rare, occurring in up to 8.7% of the population, as left renal vein anomalies are considered. The inferior vena cava develops from the sixth to the eighth gestational weeks, originating from three paired embryonic veins, namely the subcardinal, supracardinal and postcardinal veins. This complex ontogenesis of the inferior vena cava, with multiple anastomoses between the pairs of embryonic veins, leads to a number of anatomic variations in the venous return from the abdomen and lower limbs. Some of such variations have significant clinical and surgical implications related to other cardiovascular anomalies and in some cases associated with venous thrombosis of lower limbs, particularly in young adults. The authors reviewed images of ten patients with inferior vena cava anomalies, three of them with deep venous thrombosis. The authors highlight the major findings of inferior vena cava anomalies at multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, correlating them the embryonic development and demonstrating the main alternative pathways for venous drainage. The knowledge on the inferior vena cava anomalies is critical in the assessment of abdominal images to avoid misdiagnosis and to indicate the possibility of associated anomalies, besides clinical and surgical implications.

  20. Selenoprotein T Deficiency Leads to Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities and Hyperactive Behavior in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castex, Matthieu T; Arabo, Arnaud; Bénard, Magalie; Roy, Vincent; Le Joncour, Vadim; Prévost, Gaëtan; Bonnet, Jean-Jacques; Anouar, Youssef; Falluel-Morel, Anthony

    2016-11-01

    Selenoprotein T (SelT) is a newly discovered thioredoxin-like protein, which is abundantly but transiently expressed in the neural lineage during brain ontogenesis. Because its physiological function in the brain remains unknown, we developed a conditional knockout mouse line (Nes-Cre/SelT(fl/fl)) in which SelT gene is specifically disrupted in nerve cells. At postnatal day 7 (P7), these mice exhibited reduced volume of different brain structures, including hippocampus, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex. This phenotype, which is observed early during the first postnatal week, culminated at P7 and was associated with increased loss of immature neurons but not glial cells, through apoptotic cell death. This phenomenon was accompanied by elevated levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species, which may explain the increased neuron demise and reduced brain structure volumes. At the second postnatal week, an increase in neurogenesis was observed in the cerebellum of Nes-Cre/SelT(fl/fl) mice, suggesting the occurrence of developmental compensatory mechanisms in the brain. In fact, the brain volume alterations observed at P7 were attenuated in adult mice. Nevertheless, SelT mutant mice exhibited a hyperactive behavior, suggesting that despite an apparent morphological compensation, SelT deficiency leads to cerebral malfunction in adulthood. Altogether, these results demonstrate that SelT exerts a neuroprotective role which is essential during brain development, and that its loss impairs mice behavior.

  1. [Oxygen-dependent energy deficit as related to the problems of ontogenetic development disorders and human sociobiological adaptation (theoretical and applied aspects)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyukhina, V A; Kataeva, G V; Korotkov, A D; Chernysheva, E M

    2015-01-01

    The review states and argues theoretical propositions on the pathogenetic role of pre- and perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in the formation of sustained oxygen-dependent energy deficit underlying in further ontogenesis the following neurobiological abnormalities: a) a decline in the level of health and compensatory-adaptive capacities of the organism, b) disorders of the psycho-speech development and adaptive behavior in children, c) early development of neuropsychic diseases, g) addition of other types of brain energy metabolism (including glucose metabolism) disorders in chronic polyetiologic diseases young and middle-aged individuals. We highlight and theoretically substantiate the integrated physiological parameters of the oxygen-dependent energy deficit types. We address the features of abnormalities in neuroreflectory and neurohumora regulatory mechanisms of the wakefulness level and its vegetative and hemodynamic provision in different types of energy deficit in children with DSMD, ADHD and school maladjustment. The use of the state-of-the-art neuroimaging techniques significantly increased the possibility of the disintegration of regulatory processes and cognitive functions in children with psycho-speech delays and in a wide range of chronic polyetiologic diseases.

  2. Hypoxia tolerance of common sole juveniles depends on dietary regime and temperature at the larval stage: evidence for environmental conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambonino-Infante, José L; Claireaux, Guy; Ernande, Bruno; Jolivet, Aurélie; Quazuguel, Patrick; Sévère, Armelle; Huelvan, Christine; Mazurais, David

    2013-05-07

    An individual's environmental history may have delayed effects on its physiology and life history at later stages in life because of irreversible plastic responses of early ontogenesis to environmental conditions. We chose a marine fish, the common sole, as a model species to study these effects, because it inhabits shallow marine areas highly exposed to environmental changes. We tested whether temperature and trophic conditions experienced during the larval stage had delayed effects on life-history traits and resistance to hypoxia at the juvenile stage. We thus examined the combined effect of global warming and hypoxia in coastal waters, which are potential stressors to many estuarine and coastal marine fishes. Elevated temperature and better trophic conditions had a positive effect on larval growth and developmental rates; warmer larval temperature had a delayed positive effect on body mass and resistance to hypoxia at the juvenile stage. The latter suggests a lower oxygen demand of individuals that had experienced elevated temperatures during larval stages. We hypothesize that an irreversible plastic response to temperature occurred during early ontogeny that allowed adaptive regulation of metabolic rates and/or oxygen demand with long-lasting effects. These results could deeply affect predictions about impacts of global warming and eutrophication on marine organisms.

  3. Gender-specific experiences of uncertainty of professional status in the period of maturity

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    Koltachuk E.V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article represents socio-psychological analysis of gender-specific experiences of uncertainty of professional status in the period of maturity. The authors describe the results of qualitative and quantitative data analysis of 112 people aged 33—39 years old, employed on full time and staying in a situation of threat of job loss or change of important parameters of their employment. On the basis of obtained results the authors make the conclusion about the existence of gender differences in the experiences of uncertainty of professional status in the period of maturity, which become apparent in the decreasing trends of the individual components of the experience of uncertainty from sample to sample, in the differences in the level of expression of these components, as well as in the differences in the configuration of the correlation relationship with different types of gender identity at this stage of ontogenesis. The article indicates the ordered impact of gender identity on the experience of professional status uncertainty in adult life, which is evident in a non-random trend of decreasing symptoms from sample to sample: passion, integral readiness for change and distraction decrease from masculine to feminine; from feminine to masculine — emotions and MITN decrease; from androgynous to feminine — avoidance decreases; from masculine to androgynous — frequency of problem-focused coping decreases.

  4. Age-dependent variations in potassium sensitivity of A-currents in rat hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, R; Eder, C; Ficker, E; Heinemann, U

    1997-09-01

    Hippocampal pyramidal neurons were either cultured from prenatal rats or acutely isolated from the brain of newborn and juvenile rats. The influence of lowering the concentration of the extracellular potassium concentration ([K+]o) on isolated fast transient outward K+ currents (I(A)) was studied in these neurons using the patch clamp technique in the whole cell configuration. With respect to the response of I(A) to lowering [K+]o, three types of cells were observed. The first subpopulation of neurons was characterized by a complete suppression of I(A) over the whole voltage range under potassium-free solutions (type A neurons). A second proportion of cells showed an increase of I(A) at test pulses below -0 mV and a decrease of I(A) at voltages above -0 mV (type B neurons). In a third group of neurons, amplitudes of I(A) increased at all potentials tested during omission of potassium ions from the extracellular superfusate (type C neurons). Whereas type A and type B neurons were preferentially found in freshly plated cultures and newborn rats, the majority of type C cells was detected in long-term cultures and in animals of older ages. Thus, hippocampal A-currents lose their sensitivity to extracellular potassium ions during early ontogenesis.

  5. Overview of MicroRNAs in Cardiac Hypertrophy, Fibrosis, and Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Liew, Oi Wah; Richards, Arthur Mark; Chen, Yei-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that play essential roles in modulating the gene expression in almost all biological events. In the past decade, the involvement of miRNAs in various cardiovascular disorders has been explored in numerous in vitro and in vivo studies. In this paper, studies focused upon the discovery of miRNAs, their target genes, and functionality are reviewed. The selected miRNAs discussed herein have regulatory effects on target gene expression as demonstrated by miRNA/3′ end untranslated region (3′UTR) interaction assay and/or gain/loss-of-function approaches. The listed miRNA entities are categorized according to the biological relevance of their target genes in relation to three cardiovascular pathologies, namely cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and apoptosis. Furthermore, comparison across 86 studies identified several candidate miRNAs that might be of particular importance in the ontogenesis of cardiovascular diseases as they modulate the expression of clusters of target genes involved in the progression of multiple adverse cardiovascular events. This review illustrates the involvement of miRNAs in diverse biological signaling pathways and provides an overview of current understanding of, and progress of research into, of the roles of miRNAs in cardiovascular health and disease. PMID:27213331

  6. Developmental expression of odorant-binding proteins and chemosensory proteins in the embryos of Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanxue; Zhang, Shangan; Zhang, Long; Zhao, Xingbo

    2009-06-01

    We have investigated the development of chemosensilla and the secretion of odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) in the embryo of Locusta migratoria manilensis. We first report the changes of each sensillum in embryo just preceding hatch in detail and show that different sensilla have different developmental processes. Trichogen cells are first involved in forming the structure of pegs, and then, after retraction, they start secreting OBPs and CSPs in the sensillar lymph. The synthesis of LmigOBP1 starts during the embryogenesis about 0.5 h preceding hatching, specifically in sensilla trichodea and basiconica of the antenna. LmigOBP2, instead, was only found in the outer sensillum lymph (oSl) of sensilla chaetica of the antenna, while we could not detect LmigOBP3 in any type of sensilla of the antenna. The ontogenesis of CSPs in the embryos is similar to that of OBPs. Expression of CSPI homolog in Locusta migratoria is detected using the antiserum raised against SgreCSPI. CSPI is specifically expressed in the outer sensillum lymph of sensilla chaetica of the antenna, and anti-LmigCSPII dose not label any sensilla of the embryos. These data indicate that in locusts, OBPs and CSPs follow different temporal expression patterns, and also that OBPs are expressed in different types of sensilla.

  7. Novel mutational mechanism in man: Expansion of trinucleotide repeats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilarioshkin, S.N.; Ivanova-Smolenskaya, I.A.; Markova, E.D. [Research Institute of Neurology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-11-01

    An analysis of a novel, recently discovered class of mutations in man - an expansion, i.e., an increase of the copy number of intragenic unstable trinucleotide repeats - is presented. The expansion of trinucleotide X chromosome syndrome (two separate variants of the disease - FRAXA and FRAXE), myotonic dystrophy, spinal and bulbar Kennedy`s amyotrophy, Huntington`s chorea, type 1 spinocerebellar ataxia, and dentatorubral-pallidolyusian atrophy. The discovery of triplet expansion allows a satisfactory explanation on the molecular level of a series of unusual clinical genetic phenomena, such as anticipation, the {open_quotes}paternal transmission{close_quotes} effect, the {open_quotes}Sherman paradox,{close_quotes} and others. The common properties and the distinctions of unstable trinucleotide mutations in the nosologic forms mentioned above are analyzed comprehensively. These features include the mechanism by which these mutations cause disease, the time of their appearance in ontogenesis, and various clinical genetic correlations. The evolutionary origin of this class of mutations and, in particular, the role of alleles with an {open_quotes}intermediate{close_quotes} triplet number, which are the persistent reservoir of mutations arising de novo in a population, are also discussed. The possible implication of unstable trinucleotide repeats for a series of other hereditary diseases, such as type 2, spinocerebellar ataxia, Machado-Joseph disease, hereditary spastic paraplegia, essential tremor, schizophrenia, and others, is also suggested. 108 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Change in biomass of symbiotic ants throughout the ontogeny of a myrmecophyte, Macaranga beccariana (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Chihiro; Okubo, Tadahiro; Yoneyama, Aogu; Nakamura, Masashi; Sakaguchi, Mari; Takahashi, Narumi; Okamoto, Mayumi; Tanaka-Oda, Ayumi; Kenzo, Tanaka; Ichie, Tomoaki; Itioka, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Macaranga myrmecophytes (ant-plants) provide their partner symbiotic ants (plant-ants) with food bodies as their main food, and they are protected by the plant-ants from herbivores. The amount of resource allocated to food bodies determines the plant-ant colony size and consequently determines the intensity of ant defense (anti-herbivore defense by plant-ants). As constraints in resource allocation change as plants grow, the plant-ant colony size is hypothesized to change with the ontogenesis of Macaranga myrmecophyte. To determine the ontogenetic change in the relative size of the plant-ant colony, we measured the dry weights of the whole plant-ant colony and all of the aboveground parts of trees at various ontogenetic stages for a myrmecophytic species (Macaranga beccariana) in a Bornean lowland tropical rain forest. Ant biomass increased as plant biomass increased. However, the rate of increase gradually declined, and the ant biomass appeared to reach a ceiling once trees began to branch. The ant/plant biomass ratio consistently decreased as plant biomass increased, with the rate of decrease gradually accelerating. We infer that the ontogenetic reduction in ant/plant biomass ratio is caused by an ontogenetic change in resource allocation to food rewards for ants related to the physiological changes accompanying the beginning of branching.

  9. [Development of primary visual cortex connections with the motion processing center: the role of visual environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkul'eva, N S; Mikhalkin, A A; Nikitina, N I; Makarov, F N

    2011-01-01

    Development of axonal connections between cat primary visual area 17 and visual motion processing center was studied to investigate cortico-cortical connection plasticity in ontogenesis as affected by an experimental modification of visual environment (flickering light stimulation). By using a retrograde axonal labeling by horseradish peroxidase, a distribution of initial neurons in area 17 that send afferent projections to PMLS (posterior medial part of lateral suprasylvian sulcus) was analyzed. Sixteen 5-week-old and 12-14-week-old kittens, than were reared in normal visual environment or were subjected to a flickering light of 15 Hz frequency, were examined. It was shown that session stimulation by flickering light led to an impairment of normal development of regular organization of the connections between these visual areas including the decrease of labeled surface area and labeled initial neuron density in area 17. The data obtained elucidate the structural bases of cortical mechanisms that underlie motion processing disturbances in kittens stimulated by a flickering light.

  10. Immunohistochemical structural pecularities of uterine tube of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection

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    Лариса Сергеевна Куприянова

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim - immunohistochemical detection of structural features of the uterine tubes of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection.Methods: anthropometric, macroscopic, organometric, histological, immunohistochemical, statistical.Object of research - the uterine tubes of antenatal dead fetuses. The control group consisted of 25 fetuses of healthy mothers; the comparison group is 15 fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection. Fetal infection confirmed by laboratory methods; the presence of TORCH infections, cytomegalovirus, herpes infection and chlamydial infection is determined.Results: indicators of weight and body length of the fetus of the comparison group were significantly reduced. Unidirectional changes are established in the definition of the mass and the length of the uterine tubes of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection. Massive growth of connective tissue in the mucosa, the mucous membrane and muscle membrane of wall of the uterine tube of fetus in the comparison group is shown by histological methods. Violation of collagen formation in the connective tissue in the uterine tubes of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection is found by immunohistochemistry method.Conclusions: The reduction of anthropometric and organometric indicators in fetuses of comparison group is shown. Sclerosis and atrophy, as well as violations of collagen-synthesizing function are predominated in the main structural components of the wall of the uterine tube of fetuses in the comparison group. The revealed changes in the future ontogenesis may lead to the development of primary infertility

  11. Human allogeneic AB0/Rh-identical umbilical cord blood cells in the treatment of juvenile patients with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Yury A; Tarakanov, Oleg P; Radaev, Sergey M; Dugina, Tamara N; Ryaskina, Svetlana S; Darevskaya, Anna N; Morozova, Yana V; Khachatryan, William A; Lebedev, Konstantin E; Zotova, Nelli S; Burkova, Anna S; Sukhikh, Gennady T; Smirnov, Vladimir N

    2015-07-01

    The term "cerebral palsy" (CP) encompasses many syndromes that emerge from brain damage at early stages of ontogenesis and manifest as the inability to retain a normal body position or perform controlled movements. Existing methods of CP treatment, including various rehabilitation strategies and surgical and pharmacological interventions, are mostly palliative, and there is no specific therapy focused on restoring injured brain function. During a post-registration clinical investigation, the safety and efficacy of intravenous infusion of allogeneic human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-unmatched umbilical cord blood (UCB) cells were studied in 80 pediatric patients with cerebral palsy and associated neurological complications. Patients received up to 6 intravenous infusions of AB0/Rh-identical, red blood cell-depleted UCB cells at an average dose of 250 × 10(6) viable cells per infusion. Patients were followed for 3-36 months, and multiple cell infusions did not cause any adverse effects. In contrast, in most patients who received four or more UCB cell infusions, positive dynamics related to significant improvements in neurological status and/or cognitive functions were observed. The results confirm that multiple intravenous infusions of allogeneic AB0/Rh-identical UCB cells may be a safe and effective procedure and could be included in treatment and rehabilitation programs for juvenile patients with cerebral palsy. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Atherosclerotic inflammatory reaction and microRNA%动脉粥样硬化炎症反应与microRNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁鑫

    2013-01-01

    动脉粥样硬化是一种慢性动脉炎症反应性疾病,其病因至今尚未完全阐明.microRNA参与调控动脉粥样硬化发生、发展过程中各个环节的炎性细胞的发育、分化及其功能的执行,对microRNA参与调控这些细胞的机制进行深入研究将有可能阐明microRNA在动脉粥样硬化发病过程中的意义和作用.%Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory artery disease,its pathogensis has not been completely demonstrated.MicroRNA modulates ontogenesis,differentiation and functional performance of inflammatory cells in every stage of atherosclerosis.Therefore,it is helpful for illustrating the significance and effects of microRNA in those inflammatory cells and the depth researches would be carried out the functions and mechanisms of microRNAs in atherosclerosis.

  13. Multiple symbiont acquisition strategies as an adaptive mechanism in the coral Stylophora pistillata.

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    Kristen A Byler

    Full Text Available In obligate symbioses, the host's survival relies on the successful acquisition and maintenance of symbionts. Symbionts can either be transferred from parent to offspring via direct inheritance (vertical transmission or acquired anew each generation from the environment (horizontal transmission. With vertical symbiont transmission, progeny benefit by not having to search for their obligate symbionts, and, with symbiont inheritance, a mechanism exists for perpetuating advantageous symbionts. But, if the progeny encounter an environment that differs from that of their parent, they may be disadvantaged if the inherited symbionts prove suboptimal. Conversely, while in horizontal symbiont acquisition host survival hinges on an unpredictable symbiont source, an individual host may acquire genetically diverse symbionts well suited to any given environment. In horizontal acquisition, however, a potentially advantageous symbiont will not be transmitted to subsequent generations. Adaptation in obligate symbioses may require mechanisms for both novel symbiont acquisition and symbiont inheritance. Using denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR, we identified the dinoflagellate symbionts (genus Symbiodinium hosted by the Red Sea coral Stylophora pistillata throughout its ontogenesis and over depth. We present evidence that S. pistillata juvenile colonies may utilize both vertical and horizontal symbiont acquisition strategies. By releasing progeny with maternally derived symbionts, that are also capable of subsequent horizontal symbiont acquisition, coral colonies may acquire physiologically advantageous novel symbionts that are then perpetuated via vertical transmission to subsequent generations. With symbiont inheritance, natural selection can act upon the symbiotic variability, providing a mechanism for coral adaptation.

  14. The bridge of iconicity: from a world of experience to the experience of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perniss, Pamela; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2014-09-19

    Iconicity, a resemblance between properties of linguistic form (both in spoken and signed languages) and meaning, has traditionally been considered to be a marginal, irrelevant phenomenon for our understanding of language processing, development and evolution. Rather, the arbitrary and symbolic nature of language has long been taken as a design feature of the human linguistic system. In this paper, we propose an alternative framework in which iconicity in face-to-face communication (spoken and signed) is a powerful vehicle for bridging between language and human sensori-motor experience, and, as such, iconicity provides a key to understanding language evolution, development and processing. In language evolution, iconicity might have played a key role in establishing displacement (the ability of language to refer beyond what is immediately present), which is core to what language does; in ontogenesis, iconicity might play a critical role in supporting referentiality (learning to map linguistic labels to objects, events, etc., in the world), which is core to vocabulary development. Finally, in language processing, iconicity could provide a mechanism to account for how language comes to be embodied (grounded in our sensory and motor systems), which is core to meaningful communication.

  15. Multi-level and hybrid modelling approaches for systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardini, R; Politano, G; Benso, A; Di Carlo, S

    2017-01-01

    During the last decades, high-throughput techniques allowed for the extraction of a huge amount of data from biological systems, unveiling more of their underling complexity. Biological systems encompass a wide range of space and time scales, functioning according to flexible hierarchies of mechanisms making an intertwined and dynamic interplay of regulations. This becomes particularly evident in processes such as ontogenesis, where regulative assets change according to process context and timing, making structural phenotype and architectural complexities emerge from a single cell, through local interactions. The information collected from biological systems are naturally organized according to the functional levels composing the system itself. In systems biology, biological information often comes from overlapping but different scientific domains, each one having its own way of representing phenomena under study. That is, the different parts of the system to be modelled may be described with different formalisms. For a model to have improved accuracy and capability for making a good knowledge base, it is good to comprise different system levels, suitably handling the relative formalisms. Models which are both multi-level and hybrid satisfy both these requirements, making a very useful tool in computational systems biology. This paper reviews some of the main contributions in this field.

  16. Problems of the Growing Personality Formation in the New Historical Stage of Scociety Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Feldshtein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper, based on the author’s report at the General Assembly of the State Academy of Sciences and Russian Academy of Education on 29 October 2013, raises the urgent problems of childhood and children’seducation, and outlines the main research trends of the Russian Academy of Education: identification of the social environment and specificities of personal growth, exploration of new principles, ways, conditions, opportunities and prospects of educational system renovation. In the era of uncertainty and transformed consciousness, the world perception and behavior psychology of the growing generation require the radical renewal of format and content of education and upbringing. The research demonstrates that the young generation, endowed with the new opportunities and abilities, considerably outstrips the previous generations. However, the children’s cognitive development, energy and active behavior are declining, and the emotional discomfort is rising. Many children are unwilling to learn as education can no longer provide the positive socialization. There is a large group of children with unfavorable, problematic psychic development in ontogenesis, as well as a number of contradictive psycho physiological phenomena that require extensive research and development of a fundamentally new educational concept.

  17. Ontogenetic shifts in functional morphology of dragonfly legs (Odonata: Anisoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipelt, Klaus Guido; Suhling, Frank; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2010-12-01

    Anisopteran leg functions change dramatically from the final larval stadium to the adult. Larvae use legs mainly for locomotion, walking, climbing, clinging, or burrowing. Adults use them for foraging and grasping mates, for perching, clinging to the vegetation, and for repelling rivals. In order to estimate the ontogenetic shift in the leg construction from the larva to the adult, this study quantitatively compared lengths of fore, mid, and hind legs and the relationships between three leg segments, femur, tibia, and tarsus, in larval and adult Anisoptera of the families Gomphidae, Aeshnidae, Cordulegastridae, Corduliidae, and Libellulidae, represented by two species each. We found that leg segment length ratio as well as ontogenetic shift in length ratios was different between families, but rather similar within the families. While little ontogenetic shift occurred in Aeshnidae, there were some modifications in Corduliidae and Libellulidae. The severest shift occurred in Gomphidae and Cordulegastridae, both having burrowing larvae. These two families form a cluster, which is in contrast to their taxonomic relationship within the Anisoptera. Cluster analysis implies that the function of larval legs is primarily responsible for grouping, whereas adult behavior or the taxonomic relationships do not explain the grouping. This result supports the previous hypothesis about the convergent functional shift of leg characters in the dragonfly ontogenesis.

  18. Macrophage plasticity and polarization: in vivo veritas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Antonio; Mantovani, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Diversity and plasticity are hallmarks of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage. In response to IFNs, Toll-like receptor engagement, or IL-4/IL-13 signaling, macrophages undergo M1 (classical) or M2 (alternative) activation, which represent extremes of a continuum in a universe of activation states. Progress has now been made in defining the signaling pathways, transcriptional networks, and epigenetic mechanisms underlying M1-M2 or M2-like polarized activation. Functional skewing of mononuclear phagocytes occurs in vivo under physiological conditions (e.g., ontogenesis and pregnancy) and in pathology (allergic and chronic inflammation, tissue repair, infection, and cancer). However, in selected preclinical and clinical conditions, coexistence of cells in different activation states and unique or mixed phenotypes have been observed, a reflection of dynamic changes and complex tissue-derived signals. The identification of mechanisms and molecules associated with macrophage plasticity and polarized activation provides a basis for macrophage-centered diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:22378047

  19. Sexual peculiarities of lymphoid formations in trachea and bronchi of individuals of different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.B. Shadlinsky

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to study the sexual peculiarities of lymphoid formations in trachea and bronchi of individuals of different age groups. The lymphoid apparatus of trachea and bronchi has been studied. taken from 58 humans of different age and both sexes, died or perished in accidents without pathologies of respiratory and immune systems was studied via microscopical methods. The trachea and bronchi principalis were fixated in 10% solution of formalin and in water Karnua. The longitudinal and transverse pieces were taken from cartilaginous and membranaceus walls of the upper, middle and lower one-third of the trachea and each bronchi principalis. These cuts 5-7 urn in thickness were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, azure-2-eosin, with hematoxylin-picrofucsin by Van-Gizon technique, with methyl green-pironin by Brashe technique (after fixation in water Karnua and reaction by Grymelius. The results of the research showed that during postnatal ontogenesis the sex related differences are observed in cell composition of the trachea and bronchi princiapalis' lymphoid structures. In adolescent, juvenile and 1-st mature period in females the percentage of small and big lymphocytes, cells with mitosis, plasma cells is more, but the percentage of medium lymphocytes and cells with degeneration is less than in males

  20. Enquiry into the Topology of Plasma Membrane-Localized PIN Auxin Transport Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodzyński, Tomasz; Vanneste, Steffen; Zwiewka, Marta; Pernisová, Markéta; Hejátko, Jan; Friml, Jiří

    2016-11-07

    Auxin directs plant ontogenesis via differential accumulation within tissues depending largely on the activity of PIN proteins that mediate auxin efflux from cells and its directional cell-to-cell transport. Regardless of the developmental importance of PINs, the structure of these transporters is poorly characterized. Here, we present experimental data concerning protein topology of plasma membrane-localized PINs. Utilizing approaches based on pH-dependent quenching of fluorescent reporters combined with immunolocalization techniques, we mapped the membrane topology of PINs and further cross-validated our results using available topology modeling software. We delineated the topology of PIN1 with two transmembrane (TM) bundles of five α-helices linked by a large intracellular loop and a C-terminus positioned outside the cytoplasm. Using constraints derived from our experimental data, we also provide an updated position of helical regions generating a verisimilitude model of PIN1. Since the canonical long PINs show a high degree of conservation in TM domains and auxin transport capacity has been demonstrated for Arabidopsis representatives of this group, this empirically enhanced topological model of PIN1 will be an important starting point for further studies on PIN structure-function relationships. In addition, we have established protocols that can be used to probe the topology of other plasma membrane proteins in plants.

  1. Cellular and molecular aspects of plant adaptation to microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyum, Elizabeth; Kozeko, Liudmyla

    2016-07-01

    Elucidation of the range and mechanisms of the biological effects of microgravity is one of the urgent fundamental tasks of space and gravitational biology. The absence of forbidding on plant growth and development in orbital flight allows studying different aspects of plant adaptation to this factor that is directly connected with development of the technologies of bioregenerative life-support systems. Microgravity belongs to the environmental factors which cause adaptive reactions at the cellular and molecular levels in the range of physiological responses in the framework of genetically determined program of ontogenesis. It is known that cells of a multicellular organism not only take part in reactions of the organism but also carry out processes that maintain their integrity. In light of these principles, the problem of identification of biochemical, physiological and structural patterns that can have adaptive significance at the cellular and molecular levels in real and simulated microgravity is considered. It is pointed that plant cell responses in microgravity and under clinorotation vary according to growth phase, physiological state, and taxonomic position of the object. At the same time, the responses have, to some degree, a similar character reflecting the changes in the cell organelle functional load. The maintenance of the plasmalemma fluidity at the certain level, an activation of both the antioxidant system and expression of HSP genes, especially HSP70, under increasing reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation intensity and alteration in protein homeostasis, are a strategic paradigm of rapid (primary) cell adaptation to microgravity. In this sense, biological membranes, especially plasmalemma, and their properties and functions may be considered as the most sensitive indicators of the influence of gravity or altered gravity on a cell. The plasmalemma lipid bilayer is a border between the cell internal content and environment, so it is a mediator

  2. Developing brain as an endocrine organ: a paradoxical reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugrumov, M V

    2010-06-01

    The maintaining of homeostasis in the organism in response to a variable environment is provided by the highly hierarchic neuroendocrine-immune system. The crucial component of this system is the hypothalamus providing the endocrine regulation of key peripheral organs, and the adenohypophysis. In this case, neuron-derived signaling molecules (SM) are delivered to the blood vessels in hypothalamic "neurohaemal organs" lacking the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the posterior lobe of the pituitary and the median eminence. The release of SM to the blood vessels in most other brain regions is prohibited by BBB. According to the conventional concept, the development of the neuroendocrine system in ontogenesis begins with the "maturation" of peripheral endocrine glands which first are self-governed and then operate under the adenohypophysial control. Meantime, the brain maturation is under the control of SM secreted by endocrine glands of the developing organism and coming from the placenta and maternal organism. The hypothalamus is involved in the neuroendocrine regulation only after its full maturation that is followed by the conversion of the opened-looped neuroendocrine system to the closed-looped system as in adulthood. Neurons of the developing brain begin to secrete SM shortly after their origin and long before the establishment of specific interneuronal relations providing initially autocrine and paracrine morphogenetic influence on differentiating target neurons. Taking into account that the brain lacks BBB over this ontogenetic period, we hypothesized that it operates as the multipotent endocrine gland secreting SM to the general circulation and thereby providing the endocrine regulation of peripheral organs and the brain. The term "multipotent" means that the spectrum of the brain-derived circulating SM and their occupancy at the periphery in the developing organism should greatly exceed those in adulthood. In order to test this hypothesis, gonadotropin

  3. Control of the collective migration of enteric neural crest cells by the Complement anaphylatoxin C3a and N-cadherin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broders-Bondon, Florence; Paul-Gilloteaux, Perrine; Gazquez, Elodie; Heysch, Julie; Piel, Matthieu; Mayor, Roberto; Lambris, John D; Dufour, Sylvie

    2016-06-01

    We analyzed the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing the adhesive and migratory behavior of enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs) during their collective migration within the developing mouse gut. We aimed to decipher the role of the complement anaphylatoxin C3a during this process, because this well-known immune system attractant has been implicated in cephalic NCC co-attraction, a process controlling directional migration. We used the conditional Ht-PA-cre transgenic mouse model allowing a specific ablation of the N-cadherin gene and the expression of a fluorescent reporter in migratory ENCCs without affecting the central nervous system. We performed time-lapse videomicroscopy of ENCCs from control and N-cadherin mutant gut explants cultured on fibronectin (FN) and micropatterned FN-stripes with C3a or C3aR antagonist, and studied cell migration behavior with the use of triangulation analysis to quantify cell dispersion. We performed ex vivo gut cultures with or without C3aR antagonist to determine the effect on ENCC behavior. Confocal microscopy was used to analyze the cell-matrix adhesion properties. We provide the first demonstration of the localization of the complement anaphylatoxin C3a and its receptor on ENCCs during their migration in the embryonic gut. C3aR receptor inhibition alters ENCC adhesion and migration, perturbing directionality and increasing cell dispersion both in vitro and ex vivo. N-cadherin-null ENCCs do not respond to C3a co-attraction. These findings indicate that C3a regulates cell migration in a N-cadherin-dependent process. Our results shed light on the role of C3a in regulating collective and directional cell migration, and in ganglia network organization during enteric nervous system ontogenesis. The detection of an immune system chemokine in ENCCs during ENS development may also shed light on new mechanisms for gastrointestinal disorders.

  4. Activation of the baboon fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis at midgestation by estrogen-induced changes in placental corticosteroid metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepe, G.J.; Waddell, B.J.; Albrecht, E.D. (Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk (USA))

    1990-12-01

    We have hypothesized that the change in placental cortisol (F)-cortisone (E) metabolism induced by estrogen late in gestation is important to activation of the baboon fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, culminating in the ontogenesis of de novo F secretion by the fetal adrenal. The present study tested this hypothesis in vivo by comparing the proportion of F in the fetus derived via maternal and fetal production on day 100 (n = 7; term = day 184) and day 165 (n = 4) in untreated baboons and on day 100 in baboons (n = 9) in which 50-mg pellets of androstenedione were implanted sc in the mother in increasing numbers (i.e. two on day 70, four on day 78, six on day 86, and eight on day 94) to increase placental estrogen production. Maternal, uterine, and umbilical venous samples were collected during constant maternal infusion (120 min) of (3H)F/(14C)E, endogenous and radiolabeled F/E content was determined, and corticosteroid dynamics were quantified. The MCR and peripheral interconversion of F and E as well as the production rate of F were unaltered in the mother. However, at midgestation, androstenedione increased (P less than 0.05) estrogen by 62% and altered transuterofeto placental F-E metabolism from preferential reduction of E to preferential oxidation of F, a pattern similar to that at term. In untreated baboons, on day 100 none of the F in the fetus was due to fetal production, whereas by day 165, 49 +/- 6% was of fetal origin. In animals treated with androstenedione at midgestation, 22 +/- 4% of fetal F was derived de novo within the fetus. Thus, production of F by the fetus was negligible on day 100, increased near term in association with an increase in transplacental oxidation of F to E, and was induced at midgestation in baboons in which placental F-E metabolism was altered by an increase in estrogen production.

  5. Timing and Duration of Drug Exposure Affects Outcomes of a Drug-Nutrient Interaction During Ontogeny

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    Jane Alcorn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Significant drug-nutrient interactions are possible when drugs and nutrients share the same absorption and disposition mechanisms. During postnatal development, the outcomes of drug-nutrient interactions may change with postnatal age since these processes undergo ontogenesis through the postnatal period. Our study investigated the dependence of a significant drug-nutrient interaction (cefepime-carnitine on the timing and duration of drug exposure relative to postnatal age. Rat pups were administered cefepime (5 mg/kg twice daily subcutaneously according to different dosing schedules (postnatal day 1-4, 1-8, 8-11, 8-20, or 1-20. Cefepime significantly reduced serum and heart L-carnitine levels in postnatal day 1-4, 1-8 and 8-11 groups and caused severe degenerative changes in ventricular myocardium in these groups. Cefepime also altered the ontogeny of several key L-carnitine homeostasis pathways. The qualitative and quantitative changes in levels of hepatic γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase mRNA and activity, hepatic trimethyllysine hydroxlase mRNA, intestinal organic cation/carnitine transporter (Octn mRNA, and renal Octn2 mRNA depended on when during postnatal development the cefepime exposure occurred and duration of exposure. Despite lower levels of heart L-carnitine in earlier postnatal groups, levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase mRNA and activity, heart Octn2 mRNA and ATP levels in all treatment groups remained unchanged with cefepime exposure. However, changes in other high energy phosphate substrates were noted and reductions in the phosphocreatine/ATP ratio were found in rat pups with normal serum L-carnitine levels. In summary, our data suggest a significant drug-nutrient transport interaction in developing neonates, the nature of which depends on the timing and duration of exposure relative to postnatal age.

  6. Body as First Space of Communication: The Tonic-Emotional Dialogue in the Beginning of Psychic Life

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    Rui Martins

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the early stages of ontogenesis, when thesupport for development relies upon the relational function of the mother–baby dyad, the child will organise the foundation of the Self. This process involves a physiological and emotional symbiosis, in a relation with predominance of a tonic-emotional dialogue. The presence or absence of the other, the dynamics of nearness/farness, the postural and gestural dynamics, the containment activities, rhythmic synchronicities and thermal contact, are essential supports to primary organization of the psyche. When these processes are inadequate, they can cause problems of individuation and affirmation of identity, linked to absences or deficiencies in the primary relationship between mother and baby. This perspective leads us to equate the importance of corporeality in the early processes of communication when they are mediated primarily by tonic-emotional processes of communication, imbued with affections, desires and emotions. These processes are essential to the organization of the internal processes that make up this pre-linguistic phase, based on the organization of body schema, ensuring a sense of identity and the possibility of individuation and differentiation from the maternal object. When there are disruptions in this evolutionary dynamics, psychomotor therapy is a privileged resource, providing a safe and container space in which through spontaneous and symbolic play, children learn to transform the feelings, acts and affections in thoughts, projects and words. A desired relationship, allows to experience new forms of expression and conflict resolution, improving emotional and behavioural regulation, and promoting mentoring capacity and executive functions (such as attention, working memory, planning and inhibition of impulses.

  7. Expression of the IGF and the aromatase/estrogen receptor systems in human adrenal tissues from early infancy to late puberty: implications for the development of adrenarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgorosky, Alicia; Baquedano, María Sonia; Guercio, Gabriela; Rivarola, Marco A

    2009-03-01

    Adrenarche is a process of postnatal sexual maturation occurring in higher primates, in which there is an increase in the secretion of adrenal androgens. It is the consequence of a process of postnatal organogenesis characterized by the development of a new zone in the adrenal cortex, the zona reticularis (ZR). The mechanism of this phenomenon remains poorly understood, suggesting that it might be a multifactorial event. A relationship between circulating IGF-I, insulin sensitivity, and adrenal androgens has been postulated. Boys and girls have different patterns of changes in insulin sensitivity at puberty, perhaps secondary to differences in the estrogen milieu. Estrogen effects may also play a role in premature adrenarche. Peripheral or local IGF-1 actions could regulate adrenal progenitor cell proliferation and migration. Since adrenal progenitor cells as well as IGF-I and the IGF-R1 are located in the outer zone of the adrenal cortex during childhood and adolescence, this peripheral cell layer, below the capsule, may contain undifferentiated progenitor cells. Therefore, the IGF-R1 signaling pathway might positively modulate the proliferation and migration of adrenal progenitor cell to stimulate the development of adrenal zones, including ZR. However, no evidence of a direct action of IGF-I on ZR was found. In addition, a role for estrogens in the ontogenesis of ZR is suggested by the presence of aromatase (CYP19) in the subcapsular zona glomerulosa and in the adrenal medulla. Estrogens produced locally could act on ZR by interacting with estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta), but not alpha, and membrane estrogen receptor GPR-30. An estradiol-induced increase in DHEA/cortisol ratio was indeed seen in cultures of adrenocortical cells from post-adrenarche adrenals. In summary, several lines of evidence point to the action of multiple factors, such as local adrenal maturational changes and peripheral metabolic signals, on postnatal human adrenal gland ZR formation.

  8. The programmed death phenomena, aging, and the Samurai law of biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulachev, V P

    2001-07-01

    Analysis of the programmed death phenomena from mitochondria (mitoptosis) to whole organisms (phenoptosis) clearly shows that suicide programs are inherent at various levels of organization of living systems. Such programs perform very important functions, purifying (i) cells from damaged (or unwanted for other reasons) organelles, (ii) tissues from unwanted cells, (iii) organisms from organs transiently appearing during ontogenesis, and (iv) communities of organisms from unwanted individuals. Defence against reactive oxygen species (ROS) is probably one of primary evolutionary functions of programmed death mechanisms. So far, it seems that ROS play a key role in the mito-, apo-, organo- and phenoptoses. Here a concept is described which tries to unite Weismann's concept of aging as an adaptive programmed death mechanism and the alternative point of view considering aging as an inevitable result of accumulation in an organism of occasional injuries. It is suggested that injury accumulation is monitored by special system sending a death signal to actuate a phenoptotic program when the number of injuries reaches some critical level. The system in question is organized in such a way that the lethal case appears to be a result of phenoptosis long before occasional injuries make the functioning of the organism impossible. This strategy is supposed to prevent the appearance of asocial monsters capable to ruining kin, community and entire population. These relationships are regarded as an example of the Samurai law of biology: 'It is better to die than to be wrong'. It is stressed that for humans these cruel regulations look like an atavism that should be overcome to prolong the human life span.

  9. Conserved hemopoietic transcription factor Cg-SCL delineates hematopoiesis of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaorui; Wang, Hao; Chen, Hao; Sun, Mingzhe; Liang, Zhongxiu; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng

    2016-04-01

    Hemocytes are the effective immunocytes in bivalves, which have been reported to be derived from stem-like cells in gill epithelium of oyster. In the present work, a conserved haematopoietic transcription factor Tal-1/Scl (Stem Cell Leukemia) was identified in Pacific oyster (Cg-SCL), and it was evolutionarily close to the orthologs in deuterostomes. Cg-SCL was highly distributed in the hemocytes as well as gill and mantle. The hemocyte specific genes Integrin, EcSOD and haematopoietic transcription factors GATA3, C-Myb, c-kit, were down-regulated when Cg-SCL was interfered by dsRNA. During the larval developmental stages, the mRNA transcripts of Cg-SCL gradually increased after fertilization and peaked at early trochophore larvae stage (10 hpf, hours post fertilization), then sharply decreased in late trochophore larvae stage (15 hpf) before resuming in umbo larvae (120 hpf). Whole-mount immunofluorescence assay further revealed that the immunoreactivity of Cg-SCL appeared in blastula larvae with two approximate symmetric spots, and this expression pattern lasted in gastrula larvae. By trochophore, the immunoreactivity formed a ring around the dorsal region and then separated into two remarkable spots at the dorsal side in D-veliger larvae. After bacterial challenge, the mRNA expression levels of Cg-SCL were significantly up-regulated in the D-veliger and umbo larvae, indicating the available hematopoietic regulation in oyster larvae. These results demonstrated that Cg-SCL could be used as haematopoietic specific marker to trace potential developmental events of hematopoiesis during ontogenesis of oyster, which occurred early in blastula stage and maintained until D-veliger larvae.

  10. The decreasing of corn root biomembrane penetration for acetochlor with vermicompost amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytnyk, Svitlana; Wiche, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    One of the topical environmental security issues is management and control of anthropogenic (artificially synthesized) chemical agents usage and utilization. Protection systems development against toxic effects of herbicides should be based on studies of biological indication mechanisms for identification of stressors effect in organisms. Lipid degradation is non-specific reaction to exogenous chemical agents effects. Therefore it is important to study responses of lipid components depending on the stressor type. We studied physiological and biochemical characteristics of lipid metabolism under action of herbicides of chloracetamide group. Corn at different stages of ontogenesis was used as testing object during model laboratory and microfield experiments. Cattle manure treated with earth worms Essenia Foetida was used as compost fertilizer to add to chain: chernozem (black soil) -corn system. It was found several acetochlor actions as following: -decreasing of sterols, phospholipids, phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines content; -increasing pool of available fatty acids and phosphatidic acids associated with intensification of hydrolysis processes; -lypase activity stimulation under effect of stressor in low concentrations; -lypase activity inhibition under effect of high stressor level; -decreasing of polyenoic free fatty acids indicating biomembrane degradation; -accumulation of phospholipids degradation products (phosphatidic acids); -decreasing of high-molecular compounds (phosphatidylcholin and phosphatidylinositol) concentrations; -change in the index of unsaturated and saturated free fatty acids ratio in biomembranes structure; It was established that incorporation of vermicompost in dose 0.4 kg/m2 in black soil lead to corn roots biomembrane restoration. It was fixed the decreasing roots biomembrane penetration for acetochlor in trial with vermicompost. Second compost substances antidote effect is the soil microorganism's activation

  11. [The biological clock in vertebrate embryogenesis as a mechanism of general control over the developmental organism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodilov, Iu N

    2010-01-01

    The problem of understanding the role of the time factor in embryogenesis is still at the conceptual stage. At the same time, a number of rhythmic processes described in the embryogenesis of animals point to the involvement of a biological clock in this period of ontogenesis. Most of them (biochemical, biophysical, cytological) have been identified during the process of cleavage and have a duration equal to that of a single cleavage division tau0. The current paper considers mainly the development of salmon fish embryos, which, in comparison with the widely used models (Danio rerio, Orysias latipes), have some extra advantages: they are about twice as big at similar stages and develop 30-40 times slower. The most pronounced and rhythmical process in vertebrates is somitogenesis. The work presents a series of fundamental facts in relation to the temporal and spatial aspects of somitogenesis: 1) the formation of each new somite occurs within a constant time tauS; 2) this time is controlled to a high degree of accuracy; 3) the size of new somites (l(S)) along the anterioposterior axis is constant; 4) the temporal factor, in contrast to the spatial, plays the primary role during morphogenesis of somites. The rhythms tau0 and taoS in different species are equal or are multiples of each other, an indication of their common origin. A high degree of synchronism in embryo development from the start of cleavage to the end ofsomitogenesis is revealed. This proves the existence of constant temporal control of their development during most of the period of embryogenesis. It is proposed that the endogenic rhythms under discussion are responsible for the coordination and integration of multilevel processes in embryogenesis, compensating for the lack of a formed nervous system during this period.

  12. Functional changes in digestive enzyme activities of meagre (Argyrosomus regius; Asso, 1801) during early ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzer, Cüneyt; Kamacı, H Okan; Çoban, Deniz; Yıldırım, Şükrü; Fırat, Kürşat; Saka, Şahin

    2013-08-01

    The ontogenesis of main pancreatic and intestinal enzymes was investigated in the recent promising Mediterranean candidate species of meagre, Argyrosomus regius, during larval development until 40 days after hatching (DAH). The green-water technique was carried out for larval rearing. Whole-body homogenates were used for enzymatic analysis in larvae younger than 15 DAH; after this date, older larvae were dissected into two segments as pancreatic and intestinal segment. Trypsin was detected as early as hatching and sharply increased concurrently with age and exogenous feeding 15 DAH, but constant decline was observed until the end of experiment. Amylase was determined at 2 DAH and sharply increased 10 DAH. Then, slight decreases were found between 10 and 15 DAH, and then slow alterations were continued until the end of the experiment. Lipase was firstly measured on day 3; then, sudden decline was observed between 20 and 25 DAH. After this date, slow fluctuations were maintained until the end of the experiment. Pepsin was firstly assayed 15 DAH related to gastric gland secretion and sharply increased 30 DAH. Then, it slowly varied until end of the experiment. Enzymes of brush border membranes, alkaline phosphatase and aminopeptidase N showed similar pattern on specific activities during the first 10 days. Thereafter, while specific activity of alkaline phosphatase slightly decreased 15 and fluctuated until 20 DAH, aminopeptidase N activity slowly increased 20 DAH. Then, activity of alkaline phosphatase and aminopeptidase N constantly increased 30 DAH, indicating maturation of the intestinal digestive process, and also, these activities continued to slowly increase until the end of the experiment. The specific activity of cytosolic peptidase, leucine-alanine peptidase, smoothly increased on day 8, then fluctuated until 15 DAH. After this date, in contrast to enzymes of brush border membranes, it sharply decreased 25 DAH and continued to gradually decline until the end

  13. Development of nNOS-positive neurons in the rat sensory ganglia after capsaicin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masliukov, Petr M; Moiseev, Konstantin Y; Korzina, Marina B; Porseva, Valentina V

    2015-08-27

    To gain a better understanding of the neuroplasticity of afferent neurons during postnatal ontogenesis, the distribution of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) immunoreactivity was studied in the nodose ganglion (NG) and Th2 and L4 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from vehicle-treated and capsaicin-treated female Wistar rats at different ages (10-day-old, 20-day-old, 30-day-old, and two-month-old). The percentage of nNOS-immunoreactive (IR) neurons decreased after capsaicin treatment in all studied ganglia in first 20 days of life, from 55.4% to 36.9% in the Th2 DRG, from 54.6% to 26.1% in the L4 DRG and from 37.1% to 15.0% in the NG. However, in the NG, the proportion of nNOS-IR neurons increased after day 20, from 11.8% to 23.9%. In the sensory ganglia of all studied rats, a high proportion of nNOS-IR neurons bound isolectin B4. Approximately 90% of the sensory nNOS-IR neurons bound to IB4 in the DRG and approximately 80% in the NG in capsaicin-treated and vehicle-treated rats. In 10-day-old rats, a large number of nNOS-IR neurons also expressed TrkA, and the proportion of nNOS(+)/TrkA(+) neurons was larger in the capsaicin-treated rats compared with the vehicle-treated animals. During development, the percentage of nNOS(+)/TrkA(+) cells decreased in the first month of life in both groups. The information provided here will also serve as a basis for future studies investigating mechanisms of sensory neuron development.

  14. SELECTION THE SOURCE OF FUCOIDAN AND OPTIMIZATION OF ITS ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Novikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of biotechnology fucose and fucooligosaccharides from vegetable raw materials is of particular interest, due to the wide range of biological activity fucose. The fucose is an important carbohydrate component of immunoglobulins and performs important functions in the biological processes of ontogenesis, cell differentiation as well as in the reproductive processes in vertebrates and in the formation of immunity. The fucose and its polymers have prebiotic effects, fucooligosaccharides have also exhibit antioxidant activity. One of the promising methods of obtaining fucose and fucooligosaccharides is an enzymatic hydrolysis of fucoidan vegetable raw materials. The most accessible and inexpensive plant raw materials to extract fucoidan are the brown algae. Literary analysis showed that the algae Fucus vesiculosis are characterized by the highest content of fucoidan, the chemical structure of which is a homopolymer of fucose with a predominance of 1,3 glycoside bonds. It was investigated the hydrolysis of fucoidan algae Fucus vesiculosis by immobilized enzyme preparation α-L-fucosidase for determine the optimal conditions of the enzymatic process. The efficiency of enzymatic degradation of fucoidan depends on several factors, the most important of which are the amount of the enzyme preparation, the pH of the reaction medium and the temperature at which the hydrolysis takes place, as well as its duration. Were determined the optimal process parameters of the enzymatic hydrolysis of fucoidan algal Fucus vesiculosis: the amount of the enzyme preparation of 6 U / g, the temperature 50 ° C, pH 7.0, the hydrolysis time 5 hours. Under these conditions, the degree of hydrolysis of fucoidan was 83-85%, which shows prospects of the enzymatic hydrolysis for obtaining of fucose from vegetable raw materials.

  15. Adrenal Disorders and the Paediatric Brain: Pathophysiological Considerations and Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Salpietro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various neurological and psychiatric manifestations have been recorded in children with adrenal disorders. Based on literature review and on personal case-studies and case-series we focused on the pathophysiological and clinical implications of glucocorticoid-related, mineralcorticoid-related, and catecholamine-related paediatric nervous system involvement. Childhood Cushing syndrome can be associated with long-lasting cognitive deficits and abnormal behaviour, even after resolution of the hypercortisolism. Exposure to excessive replacement of exogenous glucocorticoids in the paediatric age group (e.g., during treatments for adrenal insufficiency has been reported with neurological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI abnormalities (e.g., delayed myelination and brain atrophy due to potential corticosteroid-related myelin damage in the developing brain and the possible impairment of limbic system ontogenesis. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH, a disorder of unclear pathophysiology characterised by increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure, has been described in children with hypercortisolism, adrenal insufficiency, and hyperaldosteronism, reflecting the potential underlying involvement of the adrenal-brain axis in the regulation of CSF pressure homeostasis. Arterial hypertension caused by paediatric adenomas or tumours of the adrenal cortex or medulla has been associated with various hypertension-related neurological manifestations. The development and maturation of the central nervous system (CNS through childhood is tightly regulated by intrinsic, paracrine, endocrine, and external modulators, and perturbations in any of these factors, including those related to adrenal hormone imbalance, could result in consequences that affect the structure and function of the paediatric brain. Animal experiments and clinical studies demonstrated that the developing (i.e., paediatric CNS seems to be particularly vulnerable to alterations induced by

  16. Geochemical Peculiarities of the Distribution of Trace Elements in Caustobioliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punanova, Svetlana

    2016-04-01

    This research covers the latest data on the quantitative and qualitative contents of trace elements (TE) in naphtides. This work is based on the analysis and generalization of the large volume of scientific literature as well as on the author's analytical research covering oils and organic matter of rocks of different fascial composition and thermal maturity, collected from the wide range of depths in the fields of Volgo-Ural, Western Siberia, Timan-Pechiora, South Caspian, North Caucasian-Mangyshlak, and other oil and gas-bearing basins (OGB). Analysis of TE contents of oils, coals, oil-and-black shales - caustobioliths of the single genetic series - has been undertaken. The scientific and practical interest in the information on shale formations is connected with the prospects that they offer for extraction and industrial utilization of the trace elements. It is shown that the ontogenesis of naphtides is accompanied by the functional transformation of both the organic components (hydrocarbons) and non-organic components (various metal and non-metal compositions). Possible origins of accumulation of trace elements in oils were evaluated. Classification of oils of oil-and-gas bearing basins of different tectonic structure based on their physical and chemical properties as well as the contents and ratios of their "biogenesis" elements (V, Ni, Fe) were performed. It was shown that the differentiation of naphtides is due to lithophascial conditions of deposition of the original organic matter and also due to diagenic, cathagenic and hypergenic processes of the evolution of the hydrocarbons. The most significant redistribution in the concentrations of some of the metals occur during the hypergenic transformations of oils. Existence of oils with different metallogeny is related to the contents of the original organic matter and the processes of the transformation of hydrocarbon fluids during the course of geological development of the OGB.

  17. Ontogenetic Shape Change in the Chicken Brain: Implications for Paleontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Soichiro; Matsuda, Seiji; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Endo, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Paleontologists have investigated brain morphology of extinct birds with little information on post-hatching changes in avian brain morphology. Without the knowledge of ontogenesis, assessing brain morphology in fossil taxa could lead to misinterpretation of the phylogeny or neurosensory development of extinct species. Hence, it is imperative to determine how avian brain morphology changes during post-hatching growth. In this study, chicken brain shape was compared at various developmental stages using three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometric analysis and the growth rate of brain regions was evaluated to explore post-hatching morphological changes. Microscopic MRI (μMRI) was used to acquire in vivo data from living and post-mortem chicken brains. The telencephalon rotates caudoventrally during growth. This change in shape leads to a relative caudodorsal rotation of the cerebellum and myelencephalon. In addition, all brain regions elongate rostrocaudally and this leads to a more slender brain shape. The growth rates of each brain region were constant and the slopes from the growth formula were parallel. The dominant pattern of ontogenetic shape change corresponded with interspecific shape changes due to increasing brain size. That is, the interspecific and ontogenetic changes in brain shape due to increased size have similar patterns. Although the shape of the brain and each brain region changed considerably, the volume ratio of each brain region did not change. This suggests that the brain can change its shape after completing functional differentiation of the brain regions. Moreover, these results show that consideration of ontogenetic changes in brain shape is necessary for an accurate assessment of brain morphology in paleontological studies.

  18. Ameloblastin Peptides Modulates the Osteogenic Capacity of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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    Stakkestad, Øystein; Lyngstadaas, Ståle P.; Vondrasek, Jiri; Gordeladze, Jan O.; Reseland, Janne Elin

    2017-01-01

    During amelogenesis the extracellular enamel matrix protein AMBN is quickly processed into 17 kDa (N-terminus) and 23 kDa (C-terminus) fragments. In particular, alternatively spliced regions derived by exon 5/6 within the N-terminus region are known to be critical in biomineralization. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) also express and secrete AMBN, but it is unclear if this expression has effects on the hMSC themselves. If, as suggested from previous findings, AMBN act as a signaling molecule, such effects could influence hMSC growth and differentiation, as well as promoting the secretion of other signaling proteins like cytokines and chemokines. If AMBN is found to modulate stem cell behavior and fate, it will impact our understanding on how extracellular matrix molecules can have multiple roles during development ontogenesis, mineralization and healing of mesenchymal tissues. Here we show that synthetic peptides representing exon 5 promote hMSC proliferation. Interestingly, this effect is inhibited by the application of a 15 aa peptide representing the alternatively spliced start of exon 6. Both peptides also influence gene expression of RUNX2 and osteocalcin, and promote calcium deposition in cultures, indicating a positive influence on the osteogenic capacity of hMSC. We also show that the full-length AMBN-WT and N-terminus region enhance the secretion of RANTES, IP-10, and IL-8. In contrast, the AMBN C-terminus fragment and the exon 5 deleted AMBN (DelEx5) have no detectable effects on any of the parameters investigated. These findings suggest the signaling effect of AMBN is conveyed by processed products, whereas the effect on proliferation is differentially modulated through alternative splicing during gene expression. PMID:28223942

  19. Embryotoxicity of quantum dots in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss during hatching period

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    Nijolė Kazlauskienė

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on quantum dots (QD has become a major interdisciplinary area of science. Unique physic-chemical properties of QD significantly expanded areas of their application and increased the potential impact on hydrosystems. The objectives of complex study (using toxicological, physical, chemical methods were: to determine the toxicity of QD to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss during ontogenesis (embryos, larvae depending on the duration of exposure; to estimate QD stability; to investigate QD uptake routes, distribution, accumulation, localization in tissues and different organs of embryos and larvae. This study examined the toxic effects of CdSe/ZnS-COOH at sublethal concentration. Bioassay testing was carried out under controlled laboratory conditions. Short-term (24-, 96-hour and long-term toxicity tests (14-day on fish at early stages of development (starting from “eye-egg” embryos were performed under static conditions. Mortality, physiological parameters, blood circulatory system, development disorders, behavioural responses and growth parameters of larvae were investigated. The results indicated that toxic effects of QD to rainbow trout in early life stages of development depended on the duration of exposure. Long-term exposure of QD induced remarkable deleterious changes in various systems of the developing fish organism: increased mortality, alterations in cardio-respiratory system, disturbed behavioural responses, caused developmental disorders and adversely affected the growth of larvae. Using physical methods it was determined: QD stability, uptake routes, distribution, accumulation and localization in tissues as well as in different organs of embryos and larvae of rainbow trout. Fish toxicity tests results will help to understand ecotoxicity of nanoparticles and will be used as nanoparticle embryotoxicity model in humans and other organisms.

  20. Postural strategies and sensory integration: no turning point between childhood and adolescence.

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    Sophie Mallau

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the sensory integration to postural control in children and adolescents from 5 to 15 years of age. We adopted the working hypothesis that considerable body changes occurring during these periods may lead subjects to under-use the information provided by the proprioceptive pathway and over-use other sensory systems such as vision to control their orientation and stabilize their body. It was proposed to determine which maturational differences may exist between the sensory integration used by children and adolescents in order to test the hypothesis that adolescence may constitute a specific phase in the development of postural control. This hypothesis was tested by applying an original protocol of slow oscillations below the detection threshold of the vestibular canal system, which mainly serves to mediate proprioceptive information, to the platform on which the subjects were standing. We highlighted the process of acquiring an accurate sensory and anatomical reference frame for functional movement. We asked children and adolescents to maintain a vertical stance while slow sinusoidal oscillations in the frontal plane were applied to the support at 0.01 Hz (below the detection threshold of the semicircular canal system and at 0.06 Hz (above the detection threshold of the semicircular canal system with their eyes either open or closed. This developmental study provided evidence that there are mild differences in the quality of sensory integration relative to postural control in children and adolescents. The results reported here confirmed the predominance of vision and the gradual mastery of somatosensory integration in postural control during a large period of ontogenesis including childhood and adolescence. The youngest as well as the oldest subjects adopted similar qualitative damping and segmental stabilization strategies that gradually improved with age without reaching an adult's level. Lastly, sensory

  1. Evolutionary appearance of Von Economo’s Neurons in the mammalian cerebral cortex

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    Franco eCauda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Von Economo’s neurons (VENs are large, spindle-shaped projection neurons in layer V of the frontoinsular (FI cortex, and the anterior cingulate cortex. During human ontogenesis, the VENs can first be differentiated at late stages of gestation, and increase in number during the first eight postnatal months.VENs have been identified in humans, chimpanzee, bonobos, gorillas, orangutan and, more recently, in the macaque. Their distribution in great apes seems to correlate with human-like social cognitive abilities and self-awareness. VENs are also found in whales, in a number of different cetaceans, and in the elephant. This phylogenetic distribution may suggest a correlation among the VENs, brain size and the social brain. VENs may be involved in the pathogenesis of specific neurological and psychiatric diseases, such as autism, callosal agenesis and schizophrenia. VENs are selectively affected in a behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia in which empathy, social awareness and self-control are seriously compromised, thus associating VENs with the social brain.However, the presence of VENs has also been related to special functions such as mirror self-recognition. Areas containing VENs have been related to motor awareness or sense-of-knowing, discrimination between self and other, and between self and the external environment. Along this line, VENs have been related to the global Workspace architecture: in accordance the VENs have been correlated to emotional and interoceptive signals by providing fast connections (large axons = fast communication between salience-related insular and cingulate and other widely separated brain areas.Nevertheless, the lack of a characterization of their physiology and anatomical connectivity allowed only to infer their functional role based on their location and on the fMRI data. The recent finding of VENs in the anterior insula of the macaque opens the way to new insights and experimental investigatio

  2. The histochemical profile of the rat extensor digitorum longus muscle differentiates after birth and dedifferentiates in senescence

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    M Lehnert

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Age dependent motor unit dedifferentiation is a key component of impaired muscle function in advanced age. Here, we tested the hypothesis that rat muscle histochemical profile during the lifespan of an individual has an age-specific pattern since comprehensive longitudinal studies of muscle differentiation after birth and dedifferentiation in advanced age are scarce. Our results show that extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL is comprised only of two fiber types after birth, type slow-oxidative (SO and type SDH-intermediate (SDHINT, the latter being indicative for the presence of polyneuronal innervation. In contrast to the constantly growing crosssectional area of the muscle fibers, a dramatic decrease in SDH-INT proportion occurs between day 14 and 21 after birth resulting in a complete loss of fiber type SDH-INT at the age of 90 days (p<0.05. At the age of 270 days, the fiber type composition of rat EDL dedifferentiates as shown by the reappearance of the SDH-INT type with a further increase at the age of 540 days (p<0.05. These changes in histochemical fiber type spectra are brought about by fiber type conversion within the fast twich fibers. The findings of the present study provide further evidence that fiber type conversion is a basic mechanism leading to motor unit differentiation and dedifferentiation during ontogenesis. Fiber type conversion shows a distinct time specific pattern and is also characteristic for motor unit regeneration after peripheral nerve repair. Factors that influence fiber type conversion and thereby motor unit organization may provide a future therapeutic option to enhance the regenerative capacity of motor units.

  3. Non-syndromic congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: clinical presentation and genotype-phenotype relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brioude, Frédéric; Bouligand, Jérôme; Trabado, Séverine; Francou, Bruno; Salenave, Sylvie; Kamenicky, Peter; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Chanson, Philippe; Guiochon-Mantel, Anne; Young, Jacques

    2010-05-01

    Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) results from abnormal gonadotropin secretion, and it is characterized by impaired pubertal development. CHH is caused by defective GNRH release, or by a gonadotrope cell dysfunction in the pituitary. Identification of genetic abnormalities related to CHH has provided major insights into the pathways critical for the development, maturation, and function of the reproductive axis. Mutations in five genes have been found specifically in Kallmann's syndrome, a disorder in which CHH is related to abnormal GNRH neuron ontogenesis and is associated with anosmia or hyposmia. In combined pituitary hormone deficiency or in complex syndromic CHH in which gonadotropin deficiency is either incidental or only one aspect of a more complex endocrine disorder or a non-endocrine disorder, other mutations affecting GNRH and/or gonadotropin secretion have been reported. Often, the CHH phenotype is tightly linked to an isolated deficiency of gonadotropin secretion. These patients, who have no associated signs or hormone deficiencies independent of the deficiency in gonadotropin and sex steroids, have isolated CHH. In some familial cases, they are due to genetic alterations affecting GNRH secretion (mutations in GNRH1, GPR54/KISS1R and TAC3 and TACR3) or the GNRH sensitivity of the gonadotropic cells (GNRHR). A minority of patients with Kallmann's syndrome or a syndromic form of CHH may also appear to have isolated CHH, but close clinical, familial, and genetic studies can reorient the diagnosis, which is important for genetic counseling in the context of assisted reproductive medicine. This review focuses on published cases of isolated CHH, its clinical and endocrine features, genetic causes, and genotype-phenotype relationships.

  4. Taurocholate transport by brush-border membrane vesicles from the developing rabbit ileum: Structure/function relationships

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    Schwarz, S.M.; Watkins, J.B.; Ling, S.C. (New York Medical College, Valhalla (USA))

    1990-05-01

    To examine the ontogenesis of bile acid transport in the rabbit ileum, brush-border membrane vesicles (12- to 20-fold purified) were prepared from 14- to 49-day-old animals. Taurocholate uptake was characterized by the emergence of secondary active, Na(+)-dependent transport at the start of weaning (21 days). Transient intravesicular accumulation (overshoot) of taurocholate occurred at 5-10 s of incubation, and the overshoot maximum increased significantly from 21 days (349.2 +/- 22.4 nmol/mg protein) to 35 days (569.0 +/- 84.3 nmol/mg protein; p less than 0.001), without further increase at maturity (49 days, not equal to 607.6 +/- 136.7 nmol/mg protein). No significant taurocholate active uptake component was noted at 14 days; however, ileal vesicles from sucklings showed carrier-mediated, Na+ D-glucose cotransport. In greater than or equal to 35-day-old rabbits, osmolarity studies at 20 s of incubation showed that only approximately 12% of (14C)taurocholate uptake was secondary to bile acid-to-membrane binding. Conversely, at 20 min, greater than 95% of radiolabel incorporation represented solute bound to the external and/or internal membrane surface. Arrhenius plots establish brush-border membrane taurocholate uptake as an intrinsic, lipid-dependent process, with a slope discontinuity between 24 and 28 degrees C, similar to the membrane lipid thermotropic transition region. Steady-state fluorescence polarization studies (1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene) demonstrate a temporal association between the maturation of taurocholate uptake and age-related decreases in ileal brush-border membrane fluidity. These data indicate that maturation of bile acid secondary active transport in the rabbit ileum may be regulated, at least in part, by changes in brush-border membrane lipid dynamics.

  5. Ontogenetic Shape Change in the Chicken Brain: Implications for Paleontology.

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    Soichiro Kawabe

    Full Text Available Paleontologists have investigated brain morphology of extinct birds with little information on post-hatching changes in avian brain morphology. Without the knowledge of ontogenesis, assessing brain morphology in fossil taxa could lead to misinterpretation of the phylogeny or neurosensory development of extinct species. Hence, it is imperative to determine how avian brain morphology changes during post-hatching growth. In this study, chicken brain shape was compared at various developmental stages using three-dimensional (3D geometric morphometric analysis and the growth rate of brain regions was evaluated to explore post-hatching morphological changes. Microscopic MRI (μMRI was used to acquire in vivo data from living and post-mortem chicken brains. The telencephalon rotates caudoventrally during growth. This change in shape leads to a relative caudodorsal rotation of the cerebellum and myelencephalon. In addition, all brain regions elongate rostrocaudally and this leads to a more slender brain shape. The growth rates of each brain region were constant and the slopes from the growth formula were parallel. The dominant pattern of ontogenetic shape change corresponded with interspecific shape changes due to increasing brain size. That is, the interspecific and ontogenetic changes in brain shape due to increased size have similar patterns. Although the shape of the brain and each brain region changed considerably, the volume ratio of each brain region did not change. This suggests that the brain can change its shape after completing functional differentiation of the brain regions. Moreover, these results show that consideration of ontogenetic changes in brain shape is necessary for an accurate assessment of brain morphology in paleontological studies.

  6. Differential expression patterns of conserved miRNAs and isomiRs during Atlantic halibut development

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    Bizuayehu Teshome T

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs play a major role in animal ontogenesis. Size variants of miRNAs, isomiRs, are observed along with the main miRNA types, but their origin and possible biological role are uncovered yet. Developmental profiles of miRNAs have been reported in few fish species only and, to our knowledge, differential expressions of isomiRs have not yet been shown during fish development. Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus L., undergoes dramatic metamorphosis during early development from symmetrical pelagic larval stage to unsymmetrical flatfish. No data exist on role of miRNAs in halibut metamorphosis. Results miRNA profiling using SOLiD deep sequencing technology revealed a total of 199 conserved, one novel antisense, and one miRNA* mature form. Digital expression profiles of selected miRNAs were validated using reverse transcription quantitative PCR. We found developmental transition-specific miRNA expression. Expression of some miRNA* exceeded the guide strand miRNA. We revealed that nucleotide truncations and/or additions at the 3' end of mature miRNAs resulted in size variants showing differential expression patterns during the development in a number of miRNA families. We confirmed the presence of isomiRs by cloning and Sanger sequencing. Also, we found inverse relationship between expression levels of sense/antisense miRNAs during halibut development. Conclusion Developmental transitions during early development of Atlantic halibut are associated with expression of certain miRNA types. IsomiRs are abundant and often show differential expression during the development.

  7. Low light intensity effects on the growth, photosynthetic characteristics, antioxidant capacity, yield and quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at different growth stages in BLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; Fu, Yuming; Liu, Guanghui; Liu, Hong

    2014-06-01

    Minimizing energy consumption and maximizing crop productivity are major challenges to growing plants in Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS) for future long-term space mission. As a primary source of energy, light is one of the most important environmental factors for plant growth. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of low light intensity at different stages on growth, pigment composition, photosynthetic efficiency, biological production and antioxidant defence systems of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars during ontogenesis. Experiments were divided into 3 intensity-controlled stages according to growth period (a total of 65 days): seedling stage (first 20 days), heading and flowering stage (middle 30 days) and grain filling stage (last 15 days). Initial light condition of the control was 420 μmol m-2 s-1 and the light intensity increased with the growth of wheat plants. The light intensities of group I and II at the first stage and the last stage were adjusted to the half level of the control respectively. For group III, the first and the last stage were both adjusted to half level of the control. During the middle 30 days, all treatments were kept the same intensity. The results indicated that low-light treatment at seedling stage, biomass, nutritional contents, components of inedible biomass and healthy index (including peroxidase (POD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline content) of wheat plants have no significant difference to the control. Furthermore, unit kilojoule yield of group I reached 0.591 × 10-3 g/kJ and induced the highest energy efficiency. However, low-light treatment at grain filling stage affected the final production significantly.

  8. Erwinia amylovora affects the phenylpropanoid-flavonoid pathway in mature leaves of Pyrus communis cv. Conférence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancken, K; Holtappels, M; Schoofs, H; Deckers, T; Treutter, D; Valcke, R

    2013-11-01

    Flavonoids, which are synthesized by the phenylpropanoid-flavonoid pathway, not only contribute to fruit colour and photoprotection, they also may provide antimicrobial and structural components during interaction with micro-organisms. A possible response of this pathway was assessed in both mature and immature leaves of shoots of 2-year-old pear trees cv. Conférence, which were inoculated with the gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora strain SGB 225/12, were mock-inoculated or were left untreated. The phenylpropanoid-flavonoid pathway was analysed by histological studies, by gene expression using RT-qPCR and by HPLC analyses of the metabolites at different time intervals after infection. Transcription patterns of two key genes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and chalcone synthase (CHS) related to the phenylpropanoid-flavonoid pathway showed differences between control, mock-inoculated and E. amylovora-inoculated mature leaves, with the strongest reaction 48 h after inoculation. The impact of E. amylovora was also visualised in histological sections, and confirmed by HPLC, as epicatechin -which is produced via ANR- augmented 72 h after inoculation in infected leaf tissue. Besides the effect of treatments, ontogenesis-related differences were found as well. The increase of certain key genes, the rise in epicatechin and the visualisation in several histological sections in this study suggest a non-negligible impact on the phenylpropanoid-flavonoid pathway in Pyrus communis due to inoculation with E. amylovora. In this study, we propose a potential role of this pathway in defence mechanisms, providing a detailed analysis of the response of this system attributable to inoculation with E. amylovora.

  9. Embryonic and genetic manipulation in fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Fishes, the biggest and most diverse community in vertebrates are good experimental models for studies of cell and developmental biology by many favorable charac teristics. Nuclear transplantation in fish has been thor oughly studied in China since 1960s. Fish nuclei of em bryonic cells from different genera were transplanted into enucleated eggs generating nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrids of adults. Most importantly, nuclei of cultured goldfish kid ney cells had been reprogrammed in enucleated eggs to support embryogenesis and ontogenesis of a fertile fish. This was the first case of cloned fish with somatic cells. Based on the technique of microinjection, recombinant MThGH gene has been transferred into fish eggs and the first batch of transgenic fish were produced in 1984. The behavior of foreign gene was characterized and the onset of the foreign gene replication occurred between the blas tula to gastrula stages and random integration mainly oc curred at later stages of embryogenesis. This eventually led to the transgenlc mosaicism. The MThGH-transferred common carp enhanced growth rate by 2-4 times in the founder juveniles and doubled the body weight in the adults. The transgenic common carp were more efficient in utilizing dietary protein than the controls. An “all-fish” gene construct CAgcGH has been made by splicing the common carpβ-actin gene (CA) promoter onto the grass carp growth hormone gene (gcGH) coding sequence. The CAgcGH-transferred Yellow River Carp have also shown significantly fast-growth trait. Combination of techniques * Corresponding author, Fax: 0086-27-87876624 E-mail: zyzhu@ihb.ac.cn of fish cell culture, gene transformation with cultured cells and nuclear transplantation should be able to generate ho mogeneous strain of valuable transgenic fish to fulfil human requirement in 21st century.

  10. A 3.7 Mb deletion encompassing ZEB2 causes a novel polled and multisystemic syndrome in the progeny of a somatic mosaic bull.

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    Aurélien Capitan

    Full Text Available Polled and Multisystemic Syndrome (PMS is a novel developmental disorder occurring in the progeny of a single bull. Its clinical spectrum includes polledness (complete agenesis of horns, facial dysmorphism, growth delay, chronic diarrhea, premature ovarian failure, and variable neurological and cardiac anomalies. PMS is also characterized by a deviation of the sex-ratio, suggesting male lethality during pregnancy. Using Mendelian error mapping and whole-genome sequencing, we identified a 3.7 Mb deletion on the paternal bovine chromosome 2 encompassing ARHGAP15, GTDC1 and ZEB2 genes. We then produced control and affected 90-day old fetuses to characterize this syndrome by histological and expression analyses. Compared to wild type individuals, affected animals showed a decreased expression of the three deleted genes. Based on a comparison with human Mowat-Wilson syndrome, we suggest that deletion of ZEB2, is responsible for most of the effects of the mutation. Finally sperm-FISH, embryo genotyping and analysis of reproduction records confirmed somatic mosaicism in the founder bull and male-specific lethality during the first third of gestation. In conclusion, we identified a novel locus involved in bovid horn ontogenesis and suggest that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition plays a critical role in horn bud differentiation. We also provide new insights into the pathogenicity of ZEB2 loss of heterozygosity in bovine and humans and describe the first case of male-specific lethality associated with an autosomal locus in a non-murine mammalian species. This result sets PMS as a unique model to study sex-specific gene expression/regulation.

  11. [An outline on the phylogenetic history of metazoa aging phenomenon (to the study of creating a common metazoa aging theory)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boĭko, A G; Labas, Iu A; Gordeeva, A V

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of aging phenomenon in Metazoa was from the very beginning developing from potentially immortal forms to those more prone to aging. Potential immortality is an ancestral feature gradually lost in the course of evolution; at the same time aging and death resulting from aging are not obligatory but highly desirable property of existence of Metazoa with gamogenesis; this is a prerequisite of evolutionary progress as it facilitates species formation processes accelerating phylogenetic groups radiation and thus gives certain outlying evolutionary advantages, namely, accelerating the evolutionary process and the speed of substitution of one species by others. The main principle of aging phenomenon evolution is as follows: it's the substitution of internal factors of death of nonaging Metazoa with external ones programmed in genome. Aging mechanisms add up to limitation of repairing and regeneration capabilities of adult phenotype and/or by extermination of the whole pool of stem cells or its part only. Aging is a holistic process and it can't be drawn down to one of the known cellular processes which in their turn can't be the initial trigger of this process that is programmed in the genome in a vague form (there is no aging program as it is): if at some stage of ontogenesis the reparation mechanism disablement is genetically programmed then this is really the aging phenomenon programming. Mainly full or partial postmitotic design of an organism is programmed, and it is in its turn a factor securing the "harmfulness" of cellular mechanisms, decreasing the physiological potential of an organism with age. By this it increases the chances of mortality among Metazoa species. On the whole the presented material points to the fact that to develop a common aging theory of Metazoa we don't have to substantially replenish the database of biological science, but we need a new understanding of known facts, which determine the initial cognitive position.

  12. [On factors that effect the variability of central mechanisms of bilingualism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruchinina, O V; Gal'perina, E I; Kats, E É; Shepoval'nikov, A N

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the probable role of many factors that determine the individual variety of neurophysiological mechanisms, which provide the opportunity to learn and free use two or more languages. The formation of a speech functions is affected by both the general factors for bilinguals and monolinguals, as well as the specific characteristic of the situation of bilingualism. The general factors include genetic and environmental impact of explaining the diversity of individual options for the development of morphofunctional organization of speech functions. A bilinguals, obviously, have even more wide variance of the central maintenance of speech activity, due to the combination of different conditions that influence the language environment, which include the age of the second language acquisition, the language proficiency, linguistic closeness of the languages, the method of their acquisition, intensity of use and the scope of application of each of the languages. The influence of these factors can mediates in different ways by the individual characteristics of the bilingual's brain. Being exposed to two languages from the first days of life, the child uses for the development of speech skills of the unique features of the brain, which are available only in the initial stages of postnatal ontogenesis. In older age mastering a second language requires much more effort, when, as maturation, the brain acquires new additional possibilities, but permanently lose that special "bonus", which nature gives a small child only in the first months of life. Large individual variability patterns of activation of the cortex when verbal activity in late bilingual" compared with the "early", allows to assume, that the brain of "late bilingual", mastering a new language, forced to operate a large number of backup mechanisms, and this is reflected in the increase of variation in the cerebral processes, responsible for providing of speech functions. In addition, there is

  13. Embryotoxic and genotoxic effects of sewage effluents in zebrafish embryo using multiple endpoint testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, Sanja; Barišić, Josip; Višić, Hrvoje; Sauerborn Klobučar, Roberta; Topić Popović, Natalija; Strunjak-Perović, Ivančica; Čož-Rakovac, Rozelindra; Klobučar, Göran

    2017-05-15

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are often complex mixtures of various organic and inorganic substances. Quality control of wastewaters and sludges has been regulated with measuring several physico-chemical parameters and sometimes using biological methods with non-specific responses, while synergistic action mechanisms of contaminants in such complex mixtures is still unknown. Toxic effects of wastewaters within and downstream of the WWTP in City of Virovitica, Croatia, were tested on zebrafish Danio rerio using a set of biomarkers that enabled an insight in wastewaters toxic potential on embryos at the cellular, tissue and the whole organism level during an early ontogenesis (24 and 48 hpf). Exposure of embryos to the wastewater samples from WWTP Virovitica increased mortality and abnormality rate. Heart rate, spontaneous movements and pigmentation formation were also markedly affected. Biochemical markers confirmed the presence of MXR inhibitors in all tested wastewater samples, indicating the increase of pollutant accumulation in the cell/organism. Also, a tendency of DNA damage decrease measured with Comet assay was evident in wastewater samples downstream from WWTP although control levels were not reached in any environmental sample. Histopathological analysis showed that exposure to tested samples resulted in impaired muscle organization, notochord malformation and retardation in eye and brain development at embryos 48 hpf. Furthermore, semi-quantitative histopathology assessment indicated increased percentage of embryo defects in river water sampled several kilometers downstream from the WWTP, confirming toxic potential of WWTP effluents. Extension of the zebrafish embryotoxicity test (ZET) with biochemical and histopathological biomarkers could serve as a guiding principle in biomonitoring of wastewater contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative study of glucose transporters GLUT-2 and GLUT-5 in ostriches gastrointestinal tract

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    Piret Hussar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge about transport of sugars in animals and birds gastrointestinal tract is very important for science as carbohydrates are the main energy source of food. Since until now there is few information about the localization of glucose transporters - integral membrane proteins that mediate the transport of glucose and related substances across the cellular membranes - in birds gastrointestinal tract, the aim of the present study was to localize glucose transporters-2 and -5 (GLUT-2 and -5 in three parts of the ostriches gastrointestinal tract – proventriculus, duodenum and ileum - comparatively in ostrich chicken in their early ontogenesis period. Material from the superficial gland zone of the proventriculus, duodenum and terminal zone of the ileum were collected from eight female ostriches (Struthio camelus var. Domesticus: two chickens after hatching, three 7 and three 30-days old ostriches. The material was fixed with 10% formalin, embedded into paraffin, slices 7 μm thick were cut followed by immunohistochemical staining with polyclonal primary antibodies Rabbit anti-GLUT-2 and Rabbit anti-GLUT-5, carried out according to the manufacturers guidelines (IHC kit, Abcam, UK. The results showed that the staining for both antibodies was weaker in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract of ostriches after hatching compared to 7 and 30 days old ostriches showing that the gastrointestinal tract of ostriches immediately after hatching is not entirely capable of transportation of carbohydrates. The results of our study may indicate the possibility of a close relationship between feeding and the ability to transport sugars in the gastrointestinal tract.

  15. Widespread alterations in the synaptic proteome of the adolescent cerebral cortex following prenatal immune activation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Györffy, Balázs A; Gulyássy, Péter; Gellén, Barbara; Völgyi, Katalin; Madarasi, Dóra; Kis, Viktor; Ozohanics, Olivér; Papp, Ildikó; Kovács, Péter; Lubec, Gert; Dobolyi, Árpád; Kardos, József; Drahos, László; Juhász, Gábor; Kékesi, Katalin A

    2016-08-01

    An increasing number of studies have revealed associations between pre- and perinatal immune activation and the development of schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Accordingly, neuroimmune crosstalk has a considerably large impact on brain development during early ontogenesis. While a plethora of heterogeneous abnormalities have already been described in established maternal immune activation (MIA) rodent and primate animal models, which highly correlate to those found in human diseases, the underlying molecular background remains obscure. In the current study, we describe the long-term effects of MIA on the neocortical pre- and postsynaptic proteome of adolescent rat offspring in detail. Molecular differences were revealed in sub-synaptic fractions, which were first thoroughly characterized using independent methods. The widespread proteomic examination of cortical samples from offspring exposed to maternal lipopolysaccharide administration at embryonic day 13.5 was conducted via combinations of different gel-based proteomic techniques and tandem mass spectrometry. Our experimentally validated proteomic data revealed more pre- than postsynaptic protein level changes in the offspring. The results propose the relevance of altered synaptic vesicle recycling, cytoskeletal structure and energy metabolism in the presynaptic region in addition to alterations in vesicle trafficking, the cytoskeleton and signal transduction in the postsynaptic compartment in MIA offspring. Differing levels of the prominent signaling regulator molecule calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the postsynapse was validated and identified specifically in the prefrontal cortex. Finally, several potential common molecular regulators of these altered proteins, which are already known to be implicated in schizophrenia and ASD, were identified and assessed. In summary, unexpectedly widespread changes in the synaptic molecular machinery in MIA rats were demonstrated which

  16. Pleurodeles waltl, amphibian, Urodele, is a suitable biological model for embryological and physiological space experiments on a vertebrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualandris-Parisot, L.; Husson, D.; Foulquier, F.; Kan, P.; Davet, J.; Aimar, C.; Dournon, C.; Duprat, A. M.

    2001-01-01

    Pleurodeles waltl (amphibian, Urodele) is an appropriate biological model for space experiments on a vertebrate. One reason for interest in this animal concerns the study of the effects of absence of gravity on embryonic development. First, after mating (on Earth) the females retain live, functional sperm in their cloacum for up to 5 months, allowing normal in vivo fertilisation after hormonal stimulation. Second, their development is slow, which allows analyses of all the key stages of ontogenesis from the oocyte to swimming tailbud embryos or larvae. We have performed detailed studies and analyses of the effects of weightlessness on amphibian Pleurodeles embryos, fertilised and allowed to develop until the swimming larvae stage. These experiments were performed in space during three missions on the MIR-station: FERTILE I, FERTILE II and NEUROGENESIS respectively in 1996, 1998 and 1999. We show that in microgravity abnormalities appeared at specific stages of development compared to 1g-centrifuge control embryos and 1g-ground control embryos. In this report we describe abnormalities occurring in the central nervous system. These modifications occur during the neurulation process (delay in the closure of the neural tube and failure of closure of this tube in the cephalic area) and at the early tailbud stage (microcephaly observed in 40% of the microgravity-embryos). However, if acephalic and microcephalic embryos are not taken into account, these abnormalities did not disturb further morphological, biochemical and functional development and the embryos were able to regulate and a majority of normal hatching and swimming larvae were obtained in weightlessness with a developmental time-course equivalent to that of 1g-centrifuge control embryos (on the MIR station) and 1g-ground control embryos.

  17. Early Thymus Involution--Manifestation of an Aging Program or a Program of Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalyavkin, A V; Krut'ko, V N

    2015-12-01

    "I see no physical reason why it should not have been possible for life to construct ageless individuals", said Carl von Weizsacker in 1979 at the Conference on DNA. An obvious biological reason for senescence may be the action of a built-in aging program. Many gerontologists believe that early thymic involution is an argument in favor of the existence of such a program. On the other hand, this involution may be a result of the program of development rather than aging. According to the concepts of noninfectious immunology, the immune system of vertebrates is also designed for immune surveillance over initial tumor development and for tissue-specific regulation of cell proliferation both in ontogenesis and during physiological and reparative regeneration of organs and tissues. Natural anti-tissue autoantibodies are the main effectors of such regulation. Therefore, the number of inherited genes of the variable part of immunoglobulin (V-genes) is not less than the number of all proliferative-competent cell types (~100). For the same reason, the maximal rate of growth, which is usually observed in the prepubertal period, coincides with the maximal thymus index and the maximal number of immunoglobulin-secreting cells as well as the minimal force of mortality during ontogeny. Thus, the circa-pubertal beginning of thymic involution is probably caused by the programmed deceleration of the growth rate in ontogeny, and not by the early manifestation of an aging program. This approach allows us to understand the mechanism of the well-known antitumor effect of the regeneration process of the organ homologous to the tumor, and hence we can try to use it in practical oncology.

  18. Review of fish mucosal immunity research%鱼类粘膜免疫研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晓春; 谢明权; 黄玮; 李安兴

    2005-01-01

    Fish immunology has achieved great progress in recent years. While before 1990s, most researches focused on the fish systematic immunity, and the mucosal immunity of fish had not been given enough attention. Indeed, it has been shown that fish mucosal immunity plays an important role in disease defense. Fish mucosal immunity research has made some exciting progress in this decade. This review will focus on such progress: Constitution of mucosal-associated tissues and distribution of different immune cells, including T/B lymphocytes, granules, monocytes, macrophages, goblet cells, etc, in these sites have been well described with the development of some monoclonal antibody to these cells and associated techniques. Non-specific immune response mechanism of mucosal tissues reported these years, such as secretion of non-specific anti-bacteria and anti-fungi substances in mucus, the respiratory burst, enzyme activity of immune cells and so on, is believed important for fish disease defense. The specific immunity of mucosal tissues also attracts much interest and makes great achievement in antigen presenting, MHC genes, antibody producing and antibody secreting cells, comparison of serum and mucus immunoglobulin, relationships of immune response between different mucosal immune tissues. Whether mucosal immune system is independent of systematic immune system is another interesting question and causes great concern. In recent years, some evidences from phyletic evolution and ontogenesis show that mucosal immunity is prior to systematic immunity in evolution. Dynamics of antibody producing of mucosal tissues and serum in immersion or oral vaccines immunized fish also shows immune response can be elicited in mucosal tissues independent of systematic immune system. Some researchers also begin to pay attention to factors involved in mucosal immune regulations, for instance, neuromodulators and cytokines. The level of these factors changes in fish immune response process but

  19. Influence of different natural physical fields on biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashinsky, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    In space flight conditions gravity, magnetic, and electrical fields as well as ionizing radiation change both in size, and in direction. This causes disruptions in the conduct of some physical processes, chemical reactions, and metabolism in living organisms. In these conditions organisms of different phylogenetic level change their metabolic reactions undergo changes such as disturbances in ionic exchange both in lower and in higher plants, changes in cell morphology for example, gyrosity in Proteus ( Proteus vulgaris), spatial disorientation in coleoptiles of Wheat ( Triticum aestivum) and Pea ( Pisum sativum) seedlings, mutational changes in Crepis ( Crepis capillaris) and Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana) seedling. It has been found that even in the absence of gravity, gravireceptors determining spatial orientation in higher plants under terrestrial conditions are formed in the course of ontogenesis. Under weightlessness this system does not function and spatial orientation is determined by the light flux gradient or by the action of some other factors. Peculiarities of the formation of the gravireceptor apparatus in higher plants, amphibians, fish, and birds under space flight conditions have been observed. It has been found that the system in which responses were accompanied by phase transition have proven to be gravity-sensitive under microgravity conditions. Such reactions include also the process of photosynthesis which is the main energy production process in plants. In view of the established effects of microgravity and different natural physical fields on biological processes, it has been shown that these processes change due to the absence of initially rigid determination. The established biological effect of physical fields influence on biological processes in organisms is the starting point for elucidating the role of gravity and evolutionary development of various organisms on Earth.

  20. Reevaluation of cortical developmental patterns in Euplotes (s. l.), including a morphogenetic redescription of E. charon (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Euplotida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chen; Ma, Honggang; Gao, Shan; Khaled, Al-Rasheid A.; Song, Weibo

    2010-05-01

    We documented the pattern of cell development in Euplotes charon. The ontogenesis of this species was similar to many of its congeners, except for the formation of the caudal cirri. In E. Charon, a caudal cirrus is formed posterior to each of the rightmost two or three dorsal kinety anlage in the proter, and the second rightmost dorsal kinety in the opisthe. In addition, two caudal cirri are formed posterior to the rightmost dorsal kinety in the opisthe. This pattern of development represents a completely new type. Based on our evaluation, and in comparison with previous studies, we also conclude that the pattern of cell development is variable among species in the Euplotes genera. The variation is particularly evident during the formation of frontoventral and caudal cirri. Based on the segmentation pattern of frontal-midventral transverse cirral anlagen, cirri reduction, and migration of frontoventral cirri, we identified five types: the affinis-type, the eurystomus-type, the charon-type, the raikovi-type and orientalis-type. Euplotes (s. l.) can also be divided into three types based on the formation of caudal cirri: focardii-type, vannus-type and charon-type. Indeed, we conclude that the number (one or two) of marginal cirri should be given as much consideration as the genetic separation. Given this, we reassessed the validity of using genetic separation to classify the group. Generally, the morphogenetic data disagreed with the molecular data (SSrRNA gene sequences). Given these discrepancies, it is too early to draw conclusions on the systematic arrangement of this species-rich taxon.

  1. Tissue-specific differences in the spatial interposition of X-chromosome and 3R chromosome regions in the malaria mosquito Anopheles messeae Fall.

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    Gleb Artemov

    Full Text Available Spatial organization of a chromosome in a nucleus is very important in biology but many aspects of it are still generally unresolved. We focused on tissue-specific features of chromosome architecture in closely related malaria mosquitoes, which have essential inter-specific differences in polytene chromosome attachments in nurse cells. We showed that the region responsible for X-chromosome attachment interacts with nuclear lamina stronger in nurse cells, then in salivary glands cells in Anopheles messeae Fall. The inter-tissue differences were demonstrated more convincingly in an experiment of two distinct chromosomes interposition in the nucleus space of cells from four tissues. Microdissected DNA-probes from nurse cells X-chromosome (2BC and 3R chromosomes (32D attachment regions were hybridized with intact nuclei of nurse cells, salivary gland cells, follicle epithelium cells and imaginal disсs cells in 3D-FISH experiments. We showed that only salivary gland cells and follicle epithelium cells have no statistical differences in the interposition of 2BC and 32D. Generally, the X-chromosome and 3R chromosome are located closer to each other in cells of the somatic system in comparison with nurse cells on average. The imaginal disсs cell nuclei have an intermediate arrangement of chromosome interposition, similar to other somatic cells and nurse cells. In spite of species-specific chromosome attachments there are no differences in interposition of nurse cells chromosomes in An. messeae and An. atroparvus Thiel. Nurse cells have an unusual chromosome arrangement without a chromocenter, which could be due to the special mission of generative system cells in ontogenesis and evolution.

  2. A newly described bovine type 2 scurs syndrome segregates with a frame-shift mutation in TWIST1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Capitan

    Full Text Available The developmental pathways involved in horn development are complex and still poorly understood. Here we report the description of a new dominant inherited syndrome in the bovine Charolais breed that we have named type 2 scurs. Clinical examination revealed that, despite a strong phenotypic variability, all affected individuals show both horn abnormalities similar to classical scurs phenotype and skull interfrontal suture synostosis. Based on a genome-wide linkage analysis using Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip genotyping data from 57 half-sib and full-sib progeny, this locus was mapped to a 1.7 Mb interval on bovine chromosome 4. Within this region, the TWIST1 gene encoding a transcription factor was considered as a strong candidate gene since its haploinsufficiency is responsible for the human Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, characterized by skull coronal suture synostosis. Sequencing of the TWIST1 gene identified a c.148_157dup (p.A56RfsX87 frame-shift mutation predicted to completely inactivate this gene. Genotyping 17 scurred and 20 horned founders of our pedigree as well as 48 unrelated horned controls revealed a perfect association between this mutation and the type 2 scurs phenotype. Subsequent genotyping of 32 individuals born from heterozygous parents showed that homozygous mutated progeny are completely absent, which is consistent with the embryonic lethality reported in Drosophila and mouse suffering from TWIST1 complete insufficiency. Finally, data from previous studies on model species and a fine description of type 2 scurs symptoms allowed us to propose different mechanisms to explain the features of this syndrome. In conclusion, this first report on the identification of a potential causal mutation affecting horn development in cattle offers a unique opportunity to better understand horn ontogenesis.

  3. Transgenerational response to stress in plants and its application for breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilichak, Andriy; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2016-03-01

    A growing number of reports indicate that plants possess the ability to maintain a memory of stress exposure throughout their ontogenesis and even transmit it faithfully to the following generation. Some of the features of transgenerational memory include elevated genome instability, a higher tolerance to stress experienced by parents, and a cross-tolerance. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon are not clear, a likely contributing factor is the absence of full-scale reprogramming of the epigenetic landscape during gametogenesis; therefore, epigenetic marks can occasionally escape the reprogramming process and can be passed on to the progeny. To date, it is not entirely clear which part of the epigenetic landscape is more likely to escape the reprogramming events, and whether such a process is random or directed and sequence specific. The identification of specific epigenetic marks associated with specific stressors would allow generation of stress-tolerant plants through the recently discovered techniques for precision epigenome engineering. The engineered DNA-binding domains (e.g. ZF, TALE, and dCas9) fused to particular chromatin modifiers would make it possible to target epigenetic modifications to the selected loci, probably allowing stress tolerance to be achieved in the progeny. This approach, termed epigenetic breeding, along with other methods has great potential to be used for both the assessment of the propagation of epigenetic marks across generations and trait improvement in plants. In this communication, we provide a short overview of recent reports demonstrating a transgenerational response to stress in plants, and discuss the underlying potential molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon and its use for plant biotechnology applications.

  4. Oscarella lobularis (Homoscleromorpha, Porifera Regeneration: Epithelial Morphogenesis and Metaplasia.

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    Alexander V Ereskovsky

    Full Text Available Sponges are known to possess remarkable reconstitutive and regenerative abilities ranging from common wounding or body part regeneration to more impressive re-building of a functional body from dissociated cells. Among the four sponge classes, Homoscleromorpha is notably the only sponge group to possess morphologically distinct basement membrane and specialized cell-junctions, and is therefore considered to possess true epithelia. The consequence of this peculiar organization is the predominance of epithelial morphogenesis during ontogenesis of these sponges. In this work we reveal the underlying cellular mechanisms used during morphogenesis accompanying ectosome regeneration in the homoscleromorph sponge model: Oscarella lobularis. We identified three main sources of novel exopinacoderm during the processes of its regeneration and the restoration of functional peripheral parts of the aquiferous system in O. lobularis: (1 intact exopinacoderm surrounding the wound surface, (2 the endopinacoderm from peripheral exhalant and inhalant canals, and (3 the intact choanoderm found on the wound surface. The basic morphogenetic processes during regeneration are the spreading and fusion of epithelial sheets that merge into one continuous epithelium. Transdifferentiation of choanocytes into exopinacocytes is also present. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is absent during regeneration. Moreover, we cannot reveal any other morphologically distinct pluripotent cells. In Oscarella, neither blastema formation nor local dedifferentiation and proliferation have been detected, which is probably due to the high morphogenetic plasticity of the tissue. Regeneration in O. lobularis goes through cell transdifferentiation and through the processes, when lost body parts are replaced by the remodeling of the remaining tissue. Morphogenesis during ectosome regeneration in O. lobularis is correlated with its true epithelial organization. Knowledge of the morphological

  5. Variation of Bioactive Compounds in Hypericum perforatum Growing in Turkey During Its Phenological Cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cüneyt Cirak; Jolita Radusiěnё; Birsen (Sa(g)lam) Karabük; Valdimaras Janulis; Liudas Ivanauskas

    2007-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine phenologic and morphogenetic variation of hypericin, chlorogenic acid and flavonoids, as rutin, hyperoside, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, quercltrin, quercetin content of Hypericum perforatum L. growing in Turkey. Wild growing plants were harvested at vegetative, floral budding, full flowering,fresh fruiting and mature fruiting stages and dissected into stem, leaf and reproductive tissues and assayed for bioactive compounds by the High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Hyperlcin concentration ranged between 0 and 2.73 mg/g DW, chlorogenic acid 0.00-3.64 mg/g DW, rutin 0.00-3.36 mg/g DW, hyperoside 0.04-22.42 mg/g DW, quercitrin 0.03-3.45 mg/g DW and quercetin 0.04-1.02 mg/g DW depending on ontogenetic and morphogenetic sampling. Leaves were found to be superior to stems and reproductive parts with regard to phenolic accumulation for all compounds tested while flowers accumulated the highest levels of hypericin. Quercitrin,quercetin and hypericin content in all tissues increased with advancing of developmental stages and reached their highest level during flower ontogenesis. Similarly, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside and apigenin-7-O-glucoside content in different plant parts increased during plant development, however, the highest level was observed at different stages of plant phenology for each tissue. Chlorogenic acid was not detected in stems, leaves and reproductive parts in several stages of plant phenology and its variation during plant growth showed inconsistent manner. In contrast to the other compounds examined, rutin content of stems and leaves decreased with advancing of plant development and the highest level for both tissues was observed at the vegetative stage. However,content of the same compound in reproductive parts was the highest at mature fruiting. The present findings might be useful to obtain increased concentration of these natural compounds.

  6. Pure variation and organic stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanvallon, Jérôme

    2012-09-01

    The fundamental problem posed by Darwin distinguishes his theory from any transformism of the past as well as any evolutionism to come: since variation is inherent to the living, it is a question of explaining, not at all why the living varies, but instead why the living does not vary in all directions to the point of constituting a continuum of forms varying ad infinitum. What limits and stabilizes this intrinsically unlimited variation, allowing certain forms to subsist and multiply to the detriment of others, is natural selection. This double principle of intrinsic variation/extrinsic selection constitutes a vector for the unification of reality that underlies Jean-Jacques Kupiec's ontophylogenesis as well as Deleuze and Guattari's global philosophy of Nature. Therefore, everything would potentially tend to incessantly vary. The work of Kupiec and others identifies an intrinsic random variation within ontogenesis itself. For Deleuze and Guattari, it is nothing but the figure, already selected by the organic stratum, of a more fundamental or pure variation. But, in fact, nothing really varies incessantly: everything undergoes a selective pressure according to which nothing subsists as such except what manages to endure through invariance (physical stratum) or reproduction (organic stratum). Thus, organic stratification only retains from variation what ensures and augments this reproduction. In this sense, every organism stratifies, i.e. submits to its imperative of subsistence and reproduction, a body without organs that varies in itself and always tends to escape the organism, for better (intensifications of life) or worse (cancerous pathologies). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Inheritance of reversions to male fertility in male-sterile sorghum hybrids with 9E cytoplasm male sterility induced by environmental conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkonin, L A; Gerashchenkov, G A; Domanina, I V; Rozhnova, N A

    2015-03-01

    Heritable phenotypic alterations occurring during plant ontogenesis under the influence of environmental factors are among the most intriguing genetic phenomena. It was found that male-sterile sorghum hybrids in the 9E cytoplasm from the F1 and F2 generations, which were obtained by crossing CMS lines with different fertile lines grown in field conditions, were transferred to greenhouse produce fertile tillers. Lines created by the self-pollination of revertant tillers exhibit complete male fertility upon cultivation under various environments (in the field, Tdry plot,(y) Tirrigated plot(y)). In a number of test-crosses of revertants to CMS lines in the 9E cytoplasm, restoration of male fertility in F1 hybrids was found, indicating that revertants possess functional fertility-restoring genes. A high positive correlation was found between the fertility level of the test-cross hybrids and the hydrothermal coefficient (the ratio of the sum of precipitation to the sum of temperatures) during the booting stage and pollen maturation (r = 0.75...0.91; Pmale fertility are due to up-regulation of fertility-restoring genes by a high level of water availability. Comparative MSAP-analysis of DNA of male-sterile and male-fertile test-cross hybrids using HpaII/MspI restrictases and primers to polygalacturonase gene ADPG2, which is required for cell separation during reproductive development, and gene MYB46, the transcription factor regulating secondary wall biosynthesis, revealed differences in the number and the length of amplified fragments. Changes in the methylation of these genes in conditions of drought stress are apparently the reason for male sterility of sorghum hybrids in the 9E cytoplasm. These data demonstrate that methylation of nuclear genes in sterility-inducing cytoplasm may be one of mechanisms causing the CMS phenomenon.

  8. The effects of naris occlusion on mouse nasal turbinate development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, David M; Craven, Brent A; Seeger, Johannes; Weiler, Elke

    2014-06-15

    Unilateral naris occlusion, a standard method for causing odor deprivation, also alters airflow on both sides of the nasal cavity. We reasoned that manipulating airflow by occlusion could affect nasal turbinate development given the ubiquitous role of environmental stimuli in ontogenesis. To test this hypothesis, newborn mice received unilateral occlusion or sham surgery and were allowed to reach adulthood. Morphological measurements were then made of paraffin sections of the whole nasal cavity. Occlusion significantly affected the size, shape and position of turbinates. In particular, the nasoturbinate, the focus of our quantitative analysis, had a more delicate appearance on the occluded side relative to the open side. Occlusion also caused an increase in the width of the dorsal meatus within the non-occluded and occluded nasal fossae, compared with controls, and the position of most turbinates was altered. These results suggest that a mechanical stimulus from respiratory airflow is necessary for the normal morphological development of turbinates. To explore this idea, we estimated the mechanical forces on turbinates caused by airflow during normal respiration that would be absent as a result of occlusion. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were used to construct a three-dimensional model of the mouse nasal cavity that provided the input for a computational fluid dynamics simulation of nasal airflow. The simulation revealed maximum shear stress values for the walls of turbinates in the 1 Pa range, a magnitude that causes remodeling in other biological tissues. These observations raise the intriguing possibility that nasal turbinates develop partly under the control of respiratory mechanical forces.

  9. Онтогенез таволги обыкновенной (Filipendula vulgaris Moench) в различных сообществах на юге Тюменской области

    OpenAIRE

    Алексеева, Наталья; Федченко, Елена

    2006-01-01

    Изучены эколого-фитоценотическая приуроченность и особенности онтогенеза Filipendula vulgaris на юге Тюменской области на лугах и в березняках различной степени повреждения непарным шелкопрядом. Выявлены размерная и временная поливариантности онтогенеза.The peculiarities of the ontogenesis of Filipendula vulgaris were investigated in meadows and forest communities, witch were desturbed by Limantria dispar L. in the south of Tyumen region. Dimensional and temporal polyvariance of plant ontogen...

  10. Two-plane symmetry in the structural organization of man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolenko, A E

    2005-01-01

    Manifestations of symmetry in the human structural organization in ontogenesis and phylogenetic development are analysed. A concept of macrobiocrystalloid with inherent complex symmetry is proposed for the description of the human organism in its integrity. The symmetry can be characterized as two-plane radial (quadrilateral), where the planar symmetry is predominant while the layout of organs of radial symmetry is subordinated to it. Out of the two planes of symmetry (sagittal and horizontal), the sagittal plane is predominant: (a) the location of the organs is governed by two principles: in compliance with the symmetry planes and in compliance with the radial symmetry around cavities; (b) the location of the radial symmetry organs is also governed by the principle of two-plane symmetry; (c) out of the four antimeres of two-plane symmetry, two are paired while the other two have merged into one organ; (d) some organs which are antimeres relative to the horizontal plane are located at the cranial end of the organism (sensory organs, cerebrum-cerebellum, heart-spleen and others). The two-plane symmetry is formed by two mechanisms--(a) the impact of morphogenetic fields of the whole crystalloid organism during embriogenesis and (b) genetic mechanisms of the development of chromosomes having two-plane symmetry. When comparing mineral and biological entities we should consider not the whole immobile crystal but only the active superficial part of a growing or dissolving crystal, the interface between the crystal surface and the crystal-forming environment which directly controls crystal growth and adapts itself to it, as well as crystal feed stock expressed in the structure of concentration flows. The symmetry of the chromosome, of the embrion at the early stages of cell cleavage as well as of some organs and systems in their phylogenetic development is described.

  11. Expression of calcium-binding proteins and selected neuropeptides in the human, chimpanzee, and crab-eating macaque claustrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirone, Andrea; Castagna, Maura; Granato, Alberto; Peruffo, Antonella; Quilici, Francesca; Cavicchioli, Laura; Piano, Ilaria; Lenzi, Carla; Cozzi, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The claustrum is present in all mammalian species examined so far and its morphology, chemoarchitecture, physiology, phylogenesis and ontogenesis are still a matter of debate. Several morphologically distinct types of immunostained cells were described in different mammalian species. To date, a comparative study on the neurochemical organization of the human and non-human primates claustrum has not been fully described yet, partially due to technical reasons linked to the postmortem sampling interval. The present study analyze the localization and morphology of neurons expressing parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR), NPY, and somatostatin (SOM) in the claustrum of man (# 5), chimpanzee (# 1) and crab-eating monkey (# 3). Immunoreactivity for the used markers was observed in neuronal cell bodies and processes distributed throughout the anterior-posterior extent of human, chimpanzee and macaque claustrum. Both CR- and PV-immunoreactive (ir) neurons were mostly localized in the central and ventral region of the claustrum of the three species while SOM- and NPY-ir neurons seemed to be equally distributed throughout the ventral-dorsal extent. In the chimpanzee claustrum SOM-ir elements were not observed. No co-localization of PV with CR was found, thus suggesting the existence of two non-overlapping populations of PV and CR-ir interneurons. The expression of most proteins (CR, PV, NPY), was similar in all species. The only exception was the absence of SOM-ir elements in the claustrum of the chimpanzee, likely due to species specific variability. Our data suggest a possible common structural organization shared with the adjacent insular region, a further element that emphasizes a possible common ontogeny of the claustrum and the neocortex. PMID:24904320

  12. [Germ cells and post-natal development of testicular function: in vitro studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jégou, B; Le Magueresse, B; Pineau, C; Sharpe, R M

    1991-03-01

    Studies in recent years have clearly established that, in addition to the well known endocrine regulation by gonadotrophin hormones, spermatogenesis is under the modulatory control of a complex set of paracrine regulators. Whereas the role of Leydig cells (testosterone) and of Sertoli cells (nurce cells of germ cells) in spermatogenesis has focused most of the attention, until recently little was known about the contribution of germ cells in the spermatogenetic process. This was the aim of the present experiments. We have used, in vitro, 3 complementary approaches; 1) we measured the influence of the removal of germ cells contaminating Sertoli cell cultures by a hypotonic treatment; 2) in coculture, we examined to what extend isolated germ cells could affect Sertoli cell function; 3) we investigated the effects of germ cell conditioned media on Sertoli cell cultures. Our results indicate that germ cells are able to modulate Sertoli cell function in vitro. This germ cell influence varies according to: 1) the germ cell fraction tested (pachytene spermatocytes, early spermatids or cytoplast from elongated spermatids/residual bodies); 2) the parameter of Sertoli cell function studied (inhibition of oestradiol; stimulation of androgen-binding protein, transferrin...); 3) the age of the Sertoli cell donors; 4) the hormonal environment (+/- FSH). Furthermore we wave demonstrated that germ cell effects were partly at least mediated via proteinaceous factor(s) detected in germ cell spent media. Taking into account previous in vivo studies and these in vitro results, we have hypothesized that germ cells, in conjunction with hormones (LH, FSH, testosterone) play an important role in the ontogenesis of Sertoli cells and therefore in spermatogenesis.

  13. Human Development VII: A Spiral Fractal Model of Fine Structure of Physical Energy Could Explain Central Aspects of Biological Information, Biological Organization and Biological Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have made a draft of a physical fractal essence of the universe, a sketch of a new cosmology, which we believe to lay at the root of our new holistic biological paradigm. We present the fractal roomy spiraled structures and the energy-rich dancing “infinite strings” or lines of the universe that our hypothesis is based upon. The geometric language of this cosmology is symbolic and both pre-mathematical and pre-philosophical. The symbols are both text and figures, and using these we step by step explain the new model that at least to some extent is able to explain the complex informational system behind morphogenesis, ontogenesis, regeneration and healing. We suggest that it is from this highly dynamic spiraled structure that organization of cells, organs, and the wholeness of the human being including consciousness emerge. The model of ““dancing fractal spirals” carries many similarities to premodern cultures descriptions of the energy of the life and universe. Examples are the Native American shamanistic descriptions of their perception of energy and the old Indian Yogis descriptions of the life-energy within the body and outside. Similar ideas of energy and matter are found in the modern superstring theories. The model of the informational system of the organism gives new meaning to Bateson’s definition of information: “A difference that makes a difference”, and indicates how information-directed self-organization can exist on high structural levels in living organisms, giving birth to their subjectivity and consciousness.

  14. Development of Postural Control in Healthy Children: A Functional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Assaiante

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available From a set of experimental studies showing how intersegmental coordination develops during childhood in various posturokinetic tasks, we have established a repertoire of equilibrium strategies in the course of ontogenesis. The experimental data demonstrate that the first reference frame used for the organization of balance control during locomotion is the pelvis, especially in young children. Head stabilization during posturokinetic activities, particularly locomotion, constitutes a complex motor skill requiring a long time to develop during childhood. When studying the emergence of postural strategies, it is essential to distinguish between results that can be explained by biomechanical reasons strictly and those reflecting the maturation of the central nervous system (CNS. To address this problem, we have studied our young subjects in situations requiring various types of adaptation. The studies dealing with adaptation of postural strategies aimed at testing short and long-term adaptation capacity of the CNS during imposed transient external biomechanical constraints in healthy children, and during chronic internal constraints in children with skeletal pathologies. In addition to maintenance of balance, another function of posture is to ensure the orientation of a body segment. It appears that the control of orientation and the control of balance both require the trunk as an initial reference frame involving a development from egocentric to exocentric postural control. It is concluded that the first step for children consists in building a repertoire of postural strategies, and the second step consists in learning to select the most appropriate postural strategy, depending on the ability to anticipate the consequence of the movement in order to maintain balance control and the efficiency of the task.

  15. Macrophage Polarization in Metabolism and Metabolic Disease

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    Anna Meiliana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is now recognized as the main cause of the worldwide epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Obesity-associated chronic inflammation is a contributing key factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Numbers of studies have clearly demonstrated that the immune system and metabolism are highly integrated. CONTENT: Macrophages are an essential component of innate immunity and play a central role in inflammation and host defense. Moreover, these cells have homeostatic functions beyond defense, including tissue remodeling in ontogenesis and orchestration of metabolic functions. Diversity and plasticity are hallmarks of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage. In response to interferons (IFNs, toll-like receptor (TLR, or interleukin (IL-4/IL-13 signals, macrophages undergo M1 (classical or M2 (alternative activation. Progress has now been made in defining the signaling pathways, transcriptional networks, and epigenetic mechanisms underlying M1, M2 or M2-like polarized activation. SUMMARY: In response to various signals, macrophages may undergo classical M1 activation (stimulated by TLR ligands and IFN-γ or alternative M2 activation (stimulated by IL-4/IL-13; these states mirror the T helper (Th1–Th2 polarization of T cells. Pathology is frequently associated with dynamic changes in macrophage activation, with classically activated M1 cells implicate in initiating and sustaining inflammation, meanwhile M2 or M2-like activated cells associated with resolution or smoldering chronic inflammation. Identification of the mechanisms and molecules that are associated with macrophage plasticity and polarized activation provides a basis for macrophage centered diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. KEYWORDS: obesity, adipose tissue, inflammation, macrophage polarization.

  16. Human development I: twenty fundamental problems of biology, medicine, and neuro-psychology related to biological information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansen, Tyge Dahl; Ventegodt, Søren; Rald, Erik; Clausen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Maj Lyck; Merrick, Joav

    2006-07-06

    In a new series of papers, we address a number of unsolved problems in biology today. First of all, the unsolved enigma concerning how the differentiation from a single zygote to an adult individual happens has been object for severe research for decades. By uncovering a new holistic biological paradigm that introduces an energetic-informational interpretation of reality as a new way to experience biology, these papers will try to solve the problems connected with the events of biological ontogenesis involving a fractal hierarchy, from a single cell to the function of the human brain. The problems discussed are interpreted within the frames of a universe of roomy fractal structures containing energetic patterns that are able to deliver biological information. We think biological organization is guided by energetic changes on the level of quantum mechanics, interacting with the intention that again guides the energetic conformation of the fractal structures to gain disorders or healthiness. Furthermore, we introduce two new concepts: "metamorphous top down" evolution and "adult human metamorphosis". The first is a new evolutionary theory involving metamorphosis as a main concept of evolution. The last is tightly linked to the evolutionary principle and explains how human self-recovery is governed. Other subjects of special interest that we shall look deeper into are the immunological self-nonself discrimination, the structure and function of the human brain, the etiology and salutogenesis of mental and somatic diseases, and the structure of the consciousness of a human being. We shall criticize Szentagothai's model for the modulated structure of the human cerebral cortex and Jerne's theory of the immunological regulatory anti-idiotypic network.

  17. Evolution of a novel muscle design in sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea.

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    Alexander Ziegler

    Full Text Available The sea urchin (Echinodermata: Echinoidea masticatory apparatus, or Aristotle's lantern, is a complex structure composed of numerous hard and soft components. The lantern is powered by various paired and unpaired muscle groups. We describe how one set of these muscles, the lantern protractor muscles, has evolved a specialized morphology. This morphology is characterized by the formation of adaxially-facing lobes perpendicular to the main orientation of the muscle, giving the protractor a frilled aspect in horizontal section. Histological and ultrastructural analyses show that the microstructure of frilled muscles is largely identical to that of conventional, flat muscles. Measurements of muscle dimensions in equally-sized specimens demonstrate that the frilled muscle design, in comparison to that of the flat muscle type, considerably increases muscle volume as well as the muscle's surface directed towards the interradial cavity, a compartment of the peripharyngeal coelom. Scanning electron microscopical observations reveal that the insertions of frilled and flat protractor muscles result in characteristic muscle scars on the stereom, reflecting the shapes of individual muscles. Our comparative study of 49 derived "regular" echinoid species using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI shows that frilled protractor muscles are found only in taxa belonging to the families Toxopneustidae, Echinometridae, and Strongylocentrotidae. The onset of lobe formation during ontogenesis varies between species of these three families. Because frilled protractor muscles are best observed in situ, the application of a non-invasive imaging technique was crucial for the unequivocal identification of this morphological character on a large scale. Although it is currently possible only to speculate on the functional advantages which the frilled muscle morphology might confer, our study forms the anatomical and evolutionary framework for future analyses of this unusual

  18. Photosynthesis, photorespiration and productivity of wheat and soybean genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyev, Jalal A

    2012-07-01

    The results of the numerous measurements obtained during the last 40 years on gas exchange rate, photosynthetic carbon metabolism by exposition in ¹⁴CO₂ and activities of primary carbon fixation enzyme, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPC/O), in various wheat and soybean genotypes grown over a wide area in the field and contrasting in photosynthetic traits and productivity are presented in this article. It was established that high productive wheat genotypes (7-9 t ha⁻¹) with the optimal architectonics possess higher rate of CO₂ assimilation during the leaf ontogenesis. Along with the high rate of photosynthesis, high values of photorespiration are characteristic for the high productive genotypes. Genotypes with moderate (4-5 t ha⁻¹) and low (3 t ha⁻¹) grain yield are characterized by relatively low rates of both CO₂ assimilation and photorespiration. A value of photorespiration constitutes 28-35% of photosynthetic rate in contrasting genotypes. The activities of RuBPC and RuBPO were changing in a similar way in the course of the flag leaf and ear elements development. High productive genotypes are also characterized by a higher rate of biosynthesis and total value of glycine-serine and a higher photosynthetic rate. Therefore, contrary to conception arisen during many years on the wastefulness of photorespiration, taking into account the versatile investigations on different aspects of photorespiration, it was proved that photorespiration is one of the evolutionarily developed vital metabolic processes in plants and the attempts to reduce this process with the purpose of increasing the crop productivity are inconsistent.

  19. Behavioural consistency and life history of Rana dalmatina tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urszán, Tamás János; Török, János; Hettyey, Attila; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Herczeg, Gábor

    2015-05-01

    The focus of evolutionary behavioural ecologists has recently turned towards understanding the causes and consequences of behavioural consistency, manifesting either as animal personality (consistency in a single behaviour) or behavioural syndrome (consistency across more behaviours). Behavioural type (mean individual behaviour) has been linked to life-history strategies, leading to the emergence of the integrated pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) theory. Using Rana dalmatina tadpoles as models, we tested if behavioural consistency and POLS could be detected during the early ontogenesis of this amphibian. We targeted two ontogenetic stages and measured activity, exploration and risk-taking in a common garden experiment, assessing both individual behavioural type and intra-individual behavioural variation. We observed that activity was consistent in all tadpoles, exploration only became consistent with advancing age and risk-taking only became consistent in tadpoles that had been tested, and thus disturbed, earlier. Only previously tested tadpoles showed trends indicative of behavioural syndromes. We found an activity-age at metamorphosis POLS in the previously untested tadpoles irrespective of age. Relative growth rate correlated positively with the intra-individual variation of activity of the previously untested older tadpoles. In previously tested older tadpoles, intra-individual variation of exploration correlated negatively and intra-individual variation of risk-taking correlated positively with relative growth rate. We provide evidence for behavioural consistency and POLS in predator- and conspecific-naive tadpoles. Intra-individual behavioural variation was also correlated to life history, suggesting its relevance for the POLS theory. The strong effect of moderate disturbance related to standard behavioural testing on later behaviour draws attention to the pitfalls embedded in repeated testing.

  20. Developmental MicroRNA Expression Profiling of Murine Embryonic Orofacial Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Brock, Guy; Pihur, Vasyl; Webb, Cynthia; Pisano, M. Michele; Greene, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Orofacial development is a multifaceted process involving precise, spatio-temporal expression of a panoply of genes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), the largest family of noncoding RNAs involved in gene silencing, represent critical regulators of cell and tissue differentiation. MicroRNA gene expression profiling is an effective means of acquiring novel and valuable information regarding the expression and regulation of genes, under the control of miRNA, involved in mammalian orofacial development. METHODS To identify differentially expressed miRNAs during mammalian orofacial ontogenesis, miRNA expression profiles from gestation day (GD) -12, -13 and -14 murine orofacial tissue were compared utilizing miRXplore microarrays from Miltenyi Biotech. Quantitative real-time PCR was utilized for validation of gene expression changes. Cluster analysis of the microarray data was conducted with the clValid R package and the UPGMA clustering method. Functional relationships between selected miRNAs were investigated using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. RESULTS Expression of over 26% of the 588 murine miRNA genes examined was detected in murine orofacial tissues from GD-12–GD-14. Among these expressed genes, several clusters were seen to be developmentally regulated. Differential expression of miRNAs within such clusters were shown to target genes encoding proteins involved in cell proliferation, cell adhesion, differentiation, apoptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transformation, all processes critical for normal orofacial development. CONCLUSIONS Using miRNA microarray technology, unique gene expression signatures of hundreds of miRNAs in embryonic orofacial tissue were defined. Gene targeting and functional analysis revealed that the expression of numerous protein-encoding genes, crucial to normal orofacial ontogeny, may be regulated by specific miRNAs. PMID:20589883

  1. Growth and development of children with a special focus on sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danker-Hopfe, Heidi

    2011-12-01

    The first two decades of life are characterised complex biological processes involving growth and maturation as well as differentiation. The Central Nervous System (CNS) where among others internal and external stimuli are integrated and responses of the body are prepared starts to evolve quite early during ontogenesis. One of the complex behaviours, which are regulated by the brain, is the sleep-wake cycle. The discussion of age-related changes in sleep comprises changes at the physiological level (e.g. changes in the frequency and amplitude of EEG signal, as well as development and distribution of sleep stages), changes in the corresponding behaviour (e.g. changes in the absolute amount of sleep and its distribution in 24h perspective), and finally the subjective perception of sleep and sleep as a measure of well-being. Studies on the impact of a specific factor on sleep during childhood and adolescence have to consider chronological and biological age as well as sex as relevant biological parameters. Even when these factors are controlled for large interindividual differences persist, that is why prospective instead of cross-sectional approaches should be used whenever possible. Furthermore, it has to be distinguished between sleep assessed at the level of brain functioning (i.e. by polysomnography), which gives information on effects at the physiological level and at the level of self-assessment, which focuses on behaviour. Both, sleep at the subjective as well as at the objective level, can to a considerable degree be affected by life style factors, which hence have to be considered as potential confounders.

  2. [Andrological status of adolescents and its connection to anthropometric and hormonal descriptions in the students of technical college group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutov, Iu V; Seliatitskaia, V G; Epanchintseva, E A; Riabichenko, T I

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the interrelation of andrological status with anthropometric and hormonal descriptions for age-specific features discovery of male sexual system pathological states at technical college students. 147 adolescents aged 15-17 years old were examined. Only 41 of them were found to have no abnormalities in their genital system development; in 35 adolescents sexual development was delayed; and 97 adolescents were found to have various andrological diseases (varicocele, phimosis, gynecomastia, testicular asymmetry, etc.) or clinical signs for development of these diseases. In 26 adolescences delayed sexual development was combined with the andrological pathology. The normal andrological status was usually accompanied with the highest frequency of low values of anthropometric indicators and indices that reflect the influence of various hormonal systems on the bodily constitution, as well as expressed anthropometricheterogeneity. In adolescents with andrological pathology or clinical signs for its development, in all anthropometric parameters the higher values were seen more frequently than low values against the background of highest group anthropometric homogeneity. Summative anthropometric characteristics of the adolescents group with delayed sexual development were between those of the adolescents groups with normal andrological status and andrological pathology The number of correlational relationships of anthropometric and hormonal indicators with the levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosteronesulphate was the lowest in the group of adolescents with normal andrological status as compared to their peers with delayed sexual development and andrological pathology. Only in the group of adolescents with normal andrological status the correlation analysis of data showed physiological influence of sexual hormones on anthropometric indicators. Thus, lower influence of sexual system hormones during this ontogenesis stage

  3. TRIBE TRITICEAE L. AND THE BIOCENOTIC MECHANISMS OF ADAPTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Z. Moskalets

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The cultural species in the process ontogenesis and phylogenesis to favorable and unfavorable environmental conditions produce a number of biological mechanisms (molecular genetic, physiological, biochemical, morphological, biocenotic, plants identification behind them reflects the degree of their ecological of adaptability, plasticity and stability. Studying the and comparison of morphological parameters and relations with consort-species and representatives of tribe Triticeae allowed to find out what plants differently realize their life potential. Which are based on structural and functional features biocenotic mechanisms that manifested in adaptive properties. On example cultural cereal species shows that the basic mechanisms of adaptability are: mechanisms of functional sustainability, morphological tolerance and ontogenetic avoidance. The first group is associated with functional parameters forming and manifestation life potential of plants (accumulation protein, accumulation gluten, duration assimilatory ability flag leaf; erection leaves the upper tier; depth of node tillering; strength of the stem, ie the, low penchant to lodging; total tillering plants; synchronicity growth of main stem; the intensity fading ear after full ripeness. The second group includes mechanisms of morphological tolerance (hairiness of leaves, stems; wax-colored bloom; plaza of leaf; type of bush; density head; beardedness; glossy coating of leaf, culm; glaucous color of leaf, culm; placing spicate of scales near granule; plant height. To mechanisms of ontogenetic avoidance relating such as mismatch of pathogen, phytophage and plant; photoperiodic sensitivity; duration interphase periods in particular florification, ripening; duration of vegetation period; duration of primary dormancy (latent period; multivariation of synontоgenesis; photoperiodic sensitivity. Knowing the biocenotic mechanisms formation of adaptability cultural species discloses up new

  4. Oscarella lobularis (Homoscleromorpha, Porifera) Regeneration: Epithelial Morphogenesis and Metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ereskovsky, Alexander V; Borisenko, Ilya E; Lapébie, Pascal; Gazave, Eve; Tokina, Daria B; Borchiellini, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Sponges are known to possess remarkable reconstitutive and regenerative abilities ranging from common wounding or body part regeneration to more impressive re-building of a functional body from dissociated cells. Among the four sponge classes, Homoscleromorpha is notably the only sponge group to possess morphologically distinct basement membrane and specialized cell-junctions, and is therefore considered to possess true epithelia. The consequence of this peculiar organization is the predominance of epithelial morphogenesis during ontogenesis of these sponges. In this work we reveal the underlying cellular mechanisms used during morphogenesis accompanying ectosome regeneration in the homoscleromorph sponge model: Oscarella lobularis. We identified three main sources of novel exopinacoderm during the processes of its regeneration and the restoration of functional peripheral parts of the aquiferous system in O. lobularis: (1) intact exopinacoderm surrounding the wound surface, (2) the endopinacoderm from peripheral exhalant and inhalant canals, and (3) the intact choanoderm found on the wound surface. The basic morphogenetic processes during regeneration are the spreading and fusion of epithelial sheets that merge into one continuous epithelium. Transdifferentiation of choanocytes into exopinacocytes is also present. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is absent during regeneration. Moreover, we cannot reveal any other morphologically distinct pluripotent cells. In Oscarella, neither blastema formation nor local dedifferentiation and proliferation have been detected, which is probably due to the high morphogenetic plasticity of the tissue. Regeneration in O. lobularis goes through cell transdifferentiation and through the processes, when lost body parts are replaced by the remodeling of the remaining tissue. Morphogenesis during ectosome regeneration in O. lobularis is correlated with its true epithelial organization. Knowledge of the morphological basis of

  5. Daily rhythmicity of clock gene transcripts in atlantic cod fast skeletal muscle.

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    Carlo C Lazado

    Full Text Available The classical notion of a centralized clock that governs circadian rhythmicity has been challenged with the discovery of peripheral oscillators that enable organisms to cope with daily changes in their environment. The present study aimed to identify the molecular clock components in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua and to investigate their daily gene expression in fast skeletal muscle. Atlantic cod clock genes were closely related to their orthologs in teleosts and tetrapods. Synteny was conserved to varying degrees in the majority of the 18 clock genes examined. In particular, aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like 2 (arntl2, RAR-related orphan receptor A (rora and timeless (tim displayed high degrees of conservation. Expression profiling during the early ontogenesis revealed that some transcripts were maternally transferred, namely arntl2, cryptochrome 1b and 2 (cry1b and cry2, and period 2a and 2b (per2a and per2b. Most clock genes were ubiquitously expressed in various tissues, suggesting the possible existence of multiple peripheral clock systems in Atlantic cod. In particular, they were all detected in fast skeletal muscle, with the exception of neuronal PAS (Per-Arnt-Single-minded domain-containing protein (npas1 and rora. Rhythmicity analysis revealed 8 clock genes with daily rhythmic expression, namely arntl2, circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (clock, npas2, cry2, cry3 per2a, nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 (nr1d1, and nr1d2a. Transcript levels of the myogenic genes myogenic factor 5 (myf5 and muscleblind-like 1 (mbnl1 strongly correlated with clock gene expression. This is the first study to unravel the molecular components of peripheral clocks in Atlantic cod. Taken together, our data suggest that the putative clock system in fast skeletal muscle of Atlantic cod has regulatory implications on muscle physiology, particularly in the expression of genes related to myogenesis.

  6. Human development I: Twenty Fundamental Problems of Biology, Medicine, and Neuro-Psychology Related to Biological Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyge Dahl Hermansen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a new series of papers, we address a number of unsolved problems in biology today. First of all, the unsolved enigma concerning how the differentiation from a single zygote to an adult individual happens has been object for severe research for decades. By uncovering a new holistic biological paradigm that introduces an energetic-informational interpretation of reality as a new way to experience biology, these papers will try to solve the problems connected with the events of biological ontogenesis involving a fractal hierarchy, from a single cell to the function of the human brain. The problems discussed are interpreted within the frames of a universe of roomy fractal structures containing energetic patterns that are able to deliver biological information. We think biological organization is guided by energetic changes on the level of quantum mechanics, interacting with the intention that again guides the energetic conformation of the fractal structures to gain disorders or healthiness. Furthermore, we introduce two new concepts: “metamorphous top down” evolution and “adult human metamorphosis”. The first is a new evolutionary theory involving metamorphosis as a main concept of evolution. The last is tightly linked to the evolutionary principle and explains how human self-recovery is governed. Other subjects of special interest that we shall look deeper into are the immunological self-nonself discrimination, the structure and function of the human brain, the etiology and salutogenesis of mental and somatic diseases, and the structure of the consciousness of a human being. We shall criticize Szentagothai’s model for the modulated structure of the human cerebral cortex and Jerne’s theory of the immunological regulatory anti-idiotypic network.

  7. Expression of calcium-binding proteins and selected neuropeptides in the human, chimpanzee, and crab-eating macaque claustrum

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    Andrea ePirone

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The claustrum is present in all mammalian species examined so far and its morphology, chemoarchitecture, physiology, phylogenesis and ontogenesis are still a matter of debate. Several morphologically distinct types of immunostained cells were described in different mammalian species. To date, a comparative study on the neurochemical organization of the human and non-human primates claustrum has not been fully described yet, partially due to technical reasons linked to the postmortem sampling interval. The present study analyzes the localization and morphology of neurons expressing parvalbumin (PV, calretinin (CR, NPY, and somatostatin (SOM in the claustrum of man (# 5, chimpanzee (# 1 and crab-eating monkey (#3. Immunoreactivity for the used markers was observed in neuronal cell bodies and processes distributed throughout the anterior-posterior extent of human, chimpanzee and macaque claustrum. Both CR- and PV-immunoreactive (ir neurons were mostly localized in the central and ventral region of the claustrum of the three species while SOM- and NPY-ir neurons seemed to be equally distributed throughout the ventral-dorsal extent. In the chimpanzee claustrum SOM-ir elements were not observed. No co-localization of PV with CR was found, thus suggesting the existence of two non-overlapping populations of PV and CR-ir interneurons. The expression of most proteins (CR, PV, NPY, was similar in all species. The only exception was the absence of SOM-ir elements in the claustrum of the chimpanzee, likely due to species specific variability. Our data suggest a possible common structural organization shared with the adjacent insular region, a further element that emphasizes a possible common ontogeny of the claustrum and the neocortex.

  8. [A complex study of the movement biomechanics in patients with post-stroke hemiparesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvortsov, D V; Bulatova, M A; Kovrazhkina, E A; Suvorov, A Iu; Ivanova, G E; Skvortsova, V I

    2012-01-01

    The authors present results of a pilot study on biomechanics of non-cyclic movements of the human consequent verticalization in the ontogenesis of patients with post-stroke hemiparesis (10 patients in the acute stage of cerebral stroke) and 10 healthy volunteers without neurologic and orthopedic pathology. Some movements of therapeutic exercises Balance (a model of ontogenetic kinesitherapy) have been selected for the study. Cinematic parameters have been recorded using a system of motion 3D video analysis, a kinematic model was build in accordance to standard protocols. The skin (native and straightened) electromyogram (EMG) was recorded synchronously with kinematic data using 16-channel electromyography from the following pairs of muscles: mm. sternocleido-mastoideus, trapezius (горизонтальная порция), biceps brachii, triceps brachii, rectus femoris, adductor magnus. Major differences in the EMG picture between patients and controls were: 1) the EMG "monotony" with the involvement of multiple additional muscles in locomotions with the prevalence of the peculiar "tonic" muscle activity (low amplitudes without distinct peaks), stretching along the whole cycle of movement. In controls, EMG demonstrated variability and had mostly "phasic" character with distinct 1 or 2 peaks; 2) the asymmetry of EMG profile in symmetric movements. i.e. when performed simultaneously from the right and from the left sides. The latter feature may be considered as predictive because it was never found in healthy people. It allows to identify objectively weak muscles even in the absence of visible parethis during the routine neurological examination.

  9. USE OF FEED YEAST IN FEEDING OF STURGEON (ACIPENSERINAE SPECIES (REVIEW

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    M. Simon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources on the use of feed yeast preparations in feeding of sturgeon species (Acipenserinae. Findings. The review of scientific works demonstrated that feed yeast in the feeding of sturgeons have been used as a source of vitamins and complete protein, the nutritional value of which is significantly higher than in the proteins of plant origin and are similar to the proteins of animal origin. In addition, a unit of yeast protein mass is significantly lower than in the feeds of animal origin. Moreover, based on the content of B group vitamins, feed yeast produced from the grain-potato spent wash exceed fish meal and meat-and-bone meal. The article highlights the peculiarities of the technological process of the production of different feed yeast species, amino acid and fatty acid composition of their preparations, basic physical and chemical parameters of their composition. The examples of feed yeast formulas for sturgeon species based on feed yeast preparations are presented. It was shown that sturgeon species, especially on early stages of their ontogenesis, could effectively use the feed yeast nucleotides. Thus, the latters can be an effective substitute of live zooplanktonic organisms. While the production of some feed yeast preparations (paprin, eprin was stopped in 1990s due to a number of social-economic reasons, the works on the creation of their full analogues was continued later. Currently, the trends of the development of world aquaculture anticipates the return to the use of yeast in fish feeding. Therefore, the interest of the agrarians of Ukraine in yeast lately increased and their use in agricultural sector increased by 2-2.5 times. Practical value. The array of the summarized information will be important for scientists who study the peculiarities of feeding of sturgeon species, because the data about the use of yeast as sources of complete protein in fish feeds is important in a constant search for the

  10. The Study of the Chemical Composition of Essential Oils Mentha Piperita L. are Grown in Non-Chernozem Zone of Russia

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    L. SUSHKOVA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available By gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry has been investigated the composition of essential oils and the change in the ontogenesis and exogenous effects on the plant Mentha piperita L. drugs retardant type. With the introduction of oil crops from the southern regions to the more northern regions of the component composition of the essential oil practically does not change. There are only minor variations in the content of some terpenoids oils. Exogenous preharvest treatment plant growth regulators can in some cases deliberately influence the activity of various terpenoid biosynthesis and increase the content of the most valuable components of the essential oil.Content and composition of EM is largely determined by factors such as age and leaves of plants, as well as different climatic cal, soil and agronomic conditions. Processing plants different phytoregulators also affects the content and composition of oil. Biosynthesis of terpenoids polyenzyme performed in centers, the activity and the nature of which is determined primarily genetic characteristics of plants, in addition, the activity of certain enzymes of these centers is under the control of hormonal balance and changes in ontogeny, as well as under the influence of exogenous factors.It is shown that the formation of the maximum bioefficiency in ontogeny of aromatic plants, it is advisable to use a two-stage technology to grow them. Plants producing terpenoids of essential oils, the initial step is to create the conditions for the formation of the maximum yield of aboveground mass of plants, including the use of synthetic plant growth regulators. In the second stage "biosynthetic" upon the occurrence of the reproductive phase before harvesting plants, we recommend that inhibit the growth of phytoregulators retardant type. In this case, we observe stimulation accumulation in aboveground mass of secondary metabolites. Inhibition of growth in the preharvest period, aromatic plants

  11. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE FEEDING COMPETITION OF THE EUROPEAN PERCH PERCA FLUVIATILIS L. AND THE RUFFE GYMNOCEPHALUS CERNUUS (L. IN LAKE PIEDILUCO (UMBRIA, ITALY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LORENZONI M.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of European perch in Lake Piediluco has significantly dwindled in the last few years. The present study on diet overlap between perch and ruffe was prompted by the rapid expansion of the ruffe stock in the lake. This species was first found in the lake in 1996 and has since become one of the most abundant. The degree of diet overlap between the two species was analyzed by using data on the stomach contents of 275 European perch and 328 ruffe. Results are expressed as abundance (%N, occurrence (%S, weight percentage (%W and index of predominance (Ip. The diet overlap index (α was calculated by means of Schoener’s formula using the %W of each food item. As an estimate of the diet width of both species, we used Levins’ indexes of niche breadth (B and standardized measurement of niche breadth (BA. Both species are strictly carnivorous, feeding mainly on invertebrates: the most important diet components were dipterans and crustaceans, but the European perch also feeds on fish. In the perch, the Levins index was greater (B=4.332 than that calculated for the ruffe (B=2.262. During the ontogenesis of the European perch, there is a rather pronounced diet shift: dipterans form the largest portion of the diet at all ages, though in older perch fish-eating becomes increasingly evident. Benthic crustaceans tend to be consumed in greater quantities by the 3+ age-class, though they are also found in the stomachs of specimens of all ages. Ruffe, by contrast, do not display a pronounced ontogenetic diet shift. The index of diet overlap between the two species was rather high, the maximum α value being 0.853; values indicate a high degree of diet overlap in the younger ageclasses (1+, 2+ and 3+, with a greater differentiation between the diets of the two species emerging as the age of the perch increased. Our research also clarified some of the biological characteristics of the European perch in Lake Piediluco, namely, theoretical growth in

  12. Arabinogalactan proteins in plants

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    Ewa Szczuka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AGPs (arabinogalactan-proteins are the major constituent of arabic gum and have been used as emulsifiers and stabilizing agents. They are also one of the most abundant and heterogeneous class forming a large family of proteoglycans that sculpt the surface not only of plant but also of all eukaryotic cells. Undoubtedly, AGPs appear in numerous biological processes, playing diverse functions. Despite their abundance in nature and industrial utility, the in vivofunction(s of AGPs still remains unclear or even unknown. AGPs are commonly distributed in different plant organs and probably participate in all aspects of plant growth and development including reproduction (e.g. they are present in the stigma including stigma exudates, and in transmitting tissues in styles, pollen grains, and pollen tubes. The functions and evident involvement of AGPs in sexual plant reproduction in a few plant species as Actinidia deliciosa (A.Chev. C.F.Liang & A.R.Ferguson, Amaranthus hypochondriacus L., Catharanthus roseus (L. G.Don, Lolium perenneL. and Larix deciduaMill. are known from literature. The localization of two kinds of AGP epitopes, recognized by the JIM8 and JIM13 mAbs, in anatomically different ovules revealed some differences in spatial localization of these epitopes in ovules of monocots Galanthus nivalis L. and Galtonia candicans (Baker Decne. and dicots like Oenothera species and Sinapis albaL. A detailed study of the localization of AGPs in egg cells, zygotes, including the zygote division stage, and in two-celled proembryos in Nicotiana tabacumL. prompts consideration of the necessity of their presence in the very early steps of ontogenesis. The selective labeling obtained with AGP mAbs JIM8, JIM13, MAC207, and LM2 during Arabidopsis thaliana(L. Heynh. development suggests that some AGPs can be regarded as molecular markers for gametophytic cell differentiation. Moreover, the results show evident differences in the distribution of specific AGP

  13. The immunological capacity in the larvae of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaorui; Wang, Hao; Xin, Lusheng; Xu, Jiachao; Jia, Zhihao; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng

    2016-02-01

    As the immune system has not fully developed during early developmental stages, bivalve larvae are more susceptible for pathogens, which frequently leads to the significant mortality in hatcheries. In the present study, the development of immune system and its response against bacteria challenge were investigated in order to characterize the repertoire of immunological capacity of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas during the ontogenesis. The phagocytosis was firstly observed in the early D-veliger larvae (17 hpf), especially in their velum site, which indicated the appearance of functional hemocytes during early D-veliger larvae stage. The whole-mount immunofluorescence assay of three pattern recognition receptors (integrin β-1, caspase-3 and C-type lectin 3) and one immune effector gene (IL17-5) was performed in blastula, early D-veliger and umbo larvae, suggested that velum and digestive gland were the potential sites of immune system in the larvae. The lowest activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and hydrolytic enzyme (lysozyme), as well as descended expression levels of 12 immune genes at the transition between embryogenesis and planktonic, indicated that the larvae at hatching (9 hpf) were in hypo-immunity. While the ascending activities of enzymes and expression levels of seven immune genes during the trochophore stage (15 hpf) suggested the initiation of immune system. The steadily increasing trend of all the 12 candidate genes at the early umbo larvae (120 h) hinted that the immune system was well developed at this stage. After bacterial challenge, some immune recognition (TLR4) and immune effector (IL17-5 and defh2) genes were activated in blastula stage (4 hpf), and other immune genes were up regulated in D-veliger larvae, indicating that the zygotic immune system could respond earlier against the bacterial challenge during its development. These results indicated that the cellular and humoral immune components

  14. Secretion of immunomodulating neuropeptides (VIP, SP and nitric oxide synthase in porcine small intestine during postnatal development

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    A. Kovsca Janjatovic

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Immunohistological identification/localization of immunomodulating neuropeptides [vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP and substance P (SP] and enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS as well as histomorphometric analyses of kinetics of their release and development of respective nerve fibers density during postnatal ontogenesis of porcine intestinal mucosal immune system (IMIS, were performed in order to assess the role of these molecules involved in maturation of the IMIS. The kinetcs of reactions to VIP, SP and NOS were demonstrated in the samples of jejunum and ileum from conventionally reared pigs. The samples were obtained at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49 days of age and processed for immunohistological staining. The VIP+ reaction was prevalently visible in the epithelial layer, lamina propria and Lieberkühn crypts (Lc but also in the submucosa and lamina muscularis along blood and lymphatic vessels. The SP+ fibers were regularily distributed along enteric neurons in the muscular layer. The reaction to NOS was demonstrated in both mucosa and submucosa of ileum and jejunum and in the ileal Peyer's patches (PP. Intensity of the reaction was more pronounced in the epithelial layer and numerous NOS+ cells were observed around the Lc and inside the follicles of the PP. Also, we have noticed NOS+ blood vessels, particular neurons and nerve fibers in the submucosa and muscular layer of the small intestine. By analyzing quantitative patterns of SP+, VIP+ fibers and release of NOS we have concluded that intensity of their reactions gradually increases with age, except a short period of stagnation after weaning (at age of 28 days, reaching the highest values in the pigs aged between 42 and 49 days. The values obtained by Sperman rank order correlation test (rs between days of age of pigs and intensity of the reactions in their jejunum/ileum to VIP (rs=0.97/0.95, SP (rs=0.97/0.97 and NOS (rs=0.98/0.95, respectively, showed positive correlations (P<0

  15. Anatomical and ultrastructural aspects of leaf galls in Ficus microcarpa L.f. (Moraceae induced by Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal (Thysanoptera Aspectos anatômicos e ultra-estruturais de galhas foliares em Ficus microcarpa L.f. (Moraceae causadas por Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal (Thysanoptera

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    Silvana Cristina P. M. de Souza

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Several species of Ficus present leaf galls and the goal of this research is to study the structural alterations involved in the formation of leaf galls caused by Gynaikothrips ficorum on F. microcarpa, an ornamental plant. The galls of young and mature leaves were separated into two developmental stages based on the presence of lesions on leaf lamina and the degree of leaf folding. Swellings of the lamina were observed in young and mature leaves during gall development which coincided with the areas of cellular hypertrophy and tissue hyperplasia. Swellings were detected in a greater amount and more precociously on young leaves when compared to mature ones. In young leaves, the cecidogenetic responses were quicker and led to further structural differences because younger cells are not completely differentiated. Cell hypertrophy and tissue hyperplasia were striking processes involved in the ontogenesis of the studied gall, similar to other galls induced by thrips. Nevertheless, in spite of the numerous sites of feeding and the wide area of attack, F microcarpa galls can be considered rudimentary, since no new tissue differentiation was observed.Galhas foliares são comuns em diversas espécies de Ficus. O objetivo deste trabalho é estudar as alterações estruturais envolvidas na formação das galhas foliares induzidas por Gynaikothripsficorum (Thysanoptera em Ficus microcarpa, uma planta ornamental. As galhas de folhas jovens e maduras foram separadas em dois estádios de desenvolvimento, com base na presença de lesões e no grau de dobramento da lâmina. Durante o desenvolvimento da galha formam-se intumescimentos na lâmina tanto nas folhas jovens quanto nas maduras, os quais coincidem com as áreas de hipertrofia celular e hiperplasia dos tecidos. Estes intumescimentos foram detectados em maior quantidade e mais precocemente em folhas jovens, que, por possuirem células menos diferenciadas, mostraram respostas cecidogenéticas mais r

  16. L’ORALITÀ A SCUOLA, DA PLATONE AL PORTFOLIO EUROPEO DELLE LINGUE

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    Alberto A. Sobrero

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available L'oralità risulta primaria rispetto alla scrittura sia per quanto riguarda la razza umana (filogenesi sia per quanto riguarda lo sviluppo individuale (ontogenesi, tuttavia essa ha sempre goduto di minor prestigio della scrittura. Nella prima parte di questo articolo sono ricostruiti i diversi momenti in cui questa gerarchia è stata fondata e si è affermata stabilmente: dai contrasti epocali tra Socrate e  Platone da una parte e i Sofisti dall'altra all'affermazione della centralità della scrittura da parte di Aristotele e degli aristotelici; fino, poi, all'Illuminismo, in cui l'oralità veniva ormai identificata con l'inciviltà, la rozzezza e l'arretratezza, posizione che in qualche misura permane ancora oggi. Nella seconda parte dell'articolo si ricostruisce il graduale recupero del valore dell'oralità nell'insegnamento linguistico, attraverso un'analisi dei programmi scolastici italiani, dalla Legge Casati del 1859 ai Programmi della scuola media e di quella elementare rispettivamente del 1979 e del 1985, alle più recenti "Indicazioni Moratti e infine alle "Indicazioni Fioroni". In queste ultime si sottolinea la necessità di finalizzare l'insegnamento dell'oralità anche a scopi interculturali più ampi, prioritari nella società attuale, quali il rispetto e la promozione delle differenze linguistiche e culturali, lo sviluppo del plurilinguismo; la centralità e l'autonomia dell'apprendente.   Historically, the oral tradition has been more important than writing, both in human history (philogenesis and in individual, personal history (onthogenesis, but it has always had far less prestige. The first part of this paper surveys important moments in the formation and establishment of this hierarchy, starting from the fundamental contrast between the Sophists on the one hand, and Socrates and Plato from the other, to the centrality of Aristotle and Aristotelianism, up to the Age of Enlightenment and the identification between orality

  17. Desenvolvimento dos estados de sono na infância Desarrollo de los estados de sueño en la infancia Development of sleep stages in childhood

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    Lorena Teresinha Consalter Geib

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Na perspectiva de descrever alguns aspectos da ontogênese e da organização dos estados de sono no primeiro ano de vida, revisou-se na literatura as alterações fisiológicas e comportamentais controladas pelas mudanças que ocorrem durante o sono nessa etapa desenvolvimental. Além disso, com fundamentação na teoria precursora do sono, expõe-se as etapas da diferenciação, a classificação e a organização temporal dos estados de sono, com vistas ao manejo favorável dos eventos ambientais, que afetam a organização do sono infantil.Con la perspectiva de describir algunos aspectos de la ontogénesis y de la organización de los estados del sueño en el primer año de la vida, fueron revisadas, en la literatura, las alteraciones fisiológicas y comportamentales controladas por los cambios que ocurren durante el sueño en esta etapa del desenvolvimiento. Además de esto, fundamentándose en la teoría precursora del sueño, se exponen las etapas de la diferencia, de la clasificación y de la organización temporal de los estados del sueño, con vistas al manejo favorable de los eventos ambientales, que afectan la organización del sueño infantil.With the perspective of describing some aspects of the ontogenesis and organization of the sleep stages during the first year of life, a literature review was carried out to assess the physiological and behavioral alterations controlled by changes occurring during sleep at this developmental stage. In addition, based on the sleep preceding theory, the stages of differentiation, classification and time organization of sleep stages are presented, aiming at the favorable management of environmental events that affect the organization of infant sleep.

  18. Interfaces do corpo: integração da alteridade no conceito de doença Body interfaces: the integration of alterity into the concept of disease

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    Dina Czeresnia

    2007-03-01

    discourses on the relationship with microorganisms and their importance in the ontogenesis of the human body, and consequently, in the etiology of diseases.

  19. Heritable effect of plant water availability conditions on restoration of male fertility in the ‘9E’ CMS-inducing cytoplasm of sorghum

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    Lev Aleksandrovich Elkonin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Heritable changes of phenotype arising in plant ontogenesis by the influence of environmental factors belong to the most intriguing genetic phenomena. Studying restoration of male fertility in the ‘9E’ type of CMS-inducing cytoplasm of sorghum and related CMS-inducing cytoplasms, A4 and M35-1A, in some hybrid combinations, we found an unusual inheritance pattern: the Rf-genes functioned in the self-pollinated progenies of F1 hybrids (up to F10 but did not or poorly expressed in backcrosses of these hybrids to CMS-lines with the same cytoplasm type. In experiments on parallel growing of the same F1 hybrid combinations in the ‘dry plot’ and in the ‘irrigated plot’, it was found that high level of plant water availability during panicle and pollen developmental stages significantly increased male fertility of F1 and testcross hybrid populations, in which fertility-restoring genes were in heterozygote state, whereas in F2 populations the influences of water availability conditions cause less pronounce effects. Similarly, male-sterile F1 plants, being transferred from the ‘dry plot’ to greenhouse, produced male-fertile panicles. In addition, male-sterile plants from F2 families, which segregated-out as recessives, being transferred to greenhouse also produced male-fertile panicles. In the progenies of these revertants that were grown in field conditions and in the ‘dry plot’, stable inheritance of male fertility for 3 cycles of self-pollination was observed, and a number of stable fertile lines in the ‘9E’ cytoplasm were obtained. However, in test-crosses of these fertile lines to CMS-lines with the ‘9E’ cytoplasm restoration of male fertility was not observed, except the progeny of one revertant that behaved as fertility-restorer line. These data suggest that the functional state of fertility-restoring genes for the ‘9E’ sorghum cytoplasm is epigenetically-regulated trait established by the influence of environmental

  20. Study about the ontogenetic development of cephalic sensory system of Cottus Gobio Linaeus 1758 (Pisces; Cottidae

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    Ilie C. TELCEAN

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The lateral-cephalic channels system of Cotus gobio L. was studied for a number of 66 juveniles originated from the upper Tisa River. The topography of cephalic channels system and the number of their opening pores present a lot of similarities between different fishes groups that is close related in their phylogeny. The jointly characters are in fact the results of convergent evolution.The study on the ontogenesis of cephalic-laterals channels system and its pores at Cottus gobio can offer an image on the main stages of their phylogeny. The first channels which are forming are the preoperculo-mandibularis (POM followed by the infraorbitalis (IO, supratemporalis (ST and the occipital (OC channel. The last formed seem to be the supraorbital channels (SO. The main stages of this ontogeny suggest that the sensory channels from the mandible and upper head have the priority in their development. A number of genipores are the forerunner for the cephalic pores. The beginning genipores from the infraorbital and supratemporal cephalic surface are the most similar with those from the Gobiidae fish family. The secondary process in sensory system ontogeny consists in developing of the channel structure. The channels structure development occurred principally in the fresh water fishes it seems to be related with their environment.The total length of lateral line at the populations of Cottus gobio from the upper Tisa River is already complete at the individuals with 35-40 mm standard length. That earliest development of the cannels and its opening pores are distinctive for Cottus gobio from the Tisa River system or generally for the entire lower Danube rivers system. The mature individuals have an average number of 30-33 pores on the lateral line. The comparative study of the lateral line lengthiness correlated with the standard length of specimens reveal that the individuals from Tisa River have similarities with the populations of Cottus gobio from Czech

  1. Gravity regulation in tuber-bearing moss Leptobryum pyriforme (Hedw.) Wilson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobachevska, Oksana

    spatial distribution, to store considerable genetic variability and long term preservation of viable diasporas bank as a “genetic memory”. It also has been shown that spiral growth, which still had been found only for Ceratodon purpureus (Hedw.) Brid. under the conditions of microgravitation and for Barbula unguiculata Hedw. for 1 g (Kern et al., 2005; Demkiv et al., 2006) is also characteristic of protonemata turf L. pyriforme. Considering the fact that spirality is generally accepted biological phenomenon, it is possible to find the growth spiral movements under certain ecological conditions and various stages of moss development. Thus, the space orientation of moss organs is gravidependent process, and gravimorphogenesis is precondition to change growth model at various ontogenesis stages.

  2. Two novel LRR-only proteins in Chlamys farreri: Similar in structure, yet different in expression profile and pattern recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Lingling; Xin, Lusheng; Wang, Xiudan; Wang, Lin; Xu, Jianchao; Jia, Zhihao; Yue, Feng; Wang, Hao; Song, Linsheng

    2016-06-01

    Leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-only proteins could mediate protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions and be involved in the immune response. In the present study, two novel LRR-only proteins, CfLRRop-2 and CfLRRop-3, were identified and characterized from scallop Chlamys farreri. They both contained nine LRR motifs with the consensus signature sequence LxxLxLxxNxL and formed typical horseshoe structure. The CfLRRop-2 and CfLRRop-3 mRNA transcripts were constitutively expressed in haemocytes, muscle, mantle, gill, haepatopancreas and gonad, with the highest expression level in haepatopancreas and gill, respectively. During the ontogenesis of scallop, the mRNA transcripts of CfLRRop-2 were kept at a high level in oocytes and embryos, while those of CfLRRop-3 were expressed at a rather low level from oocytes to blastula. Their mRNA transcripts were significantly increased after the stimulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN), glucan (GLU) and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), and the mRNA expression of CfLRRop-2 rose more intensely than that of CfLRRop-3. After the suppression of CfTLR (previously identified Toll-like receptor in C. farreri) via RNA interference (RNAi), CfLRRop-3 mRNA transcripts increased more intensely and lastingly than those of CfLRRop-2. The rCfLRRop-3 protein could bind LPS, PGN, GLU and poly I:C, while rCfLRRop-2 exhibited no significant binding activity to them. Additionally, rCfLRRop-2 could significantly induce the release of TNF-α from the mixed primary cultured scallop haemocytes, but rCfLRRop-3 failed. These results collectively indicated that CfLRRop-2 might act as an immune effector or pro-inflammatory factor, while CfLRRop-3 would function as a pattern recognition receptor (PRR), suggesting the function of LRR-only protein family has differentiated in scallop.

  3. Control levels of acetylcholinesterase expression in the mammalian skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubic, Z; Zajc-Kreft, K; Brank, M; Mars, T; Komel, R; Miranda, A F

    1999-05-14

    Protein expression can be controled at different levels. Understanding acetylcholinesterase (EC. 3.1.1.7, AChE) expression in the living organisms therefore necessitates: (1) determination and mapping of control levels of AChE metabolism; (2) identification of the regulatory factors acting at these levels; and (3) detailed insight into the mechanisms of action of these factors. Here we summarize the results of our studies on the regulation of AChE expression in the mammalian skeletal muscle. Three experimental models were employed: in vitro innervated human muscle, mechanically denervated adult fast rat muscle, and the glucocorticoid treated fast rat muscle. In situ hybridization of AChE mRNA, combined with AChE histochemistry, revealed that different distribution patterns of AChE, observed during in vitro ontogenesis and synaptogenesis of human skeletal muscle, reflect alterations in the distribution of AChE mRNA (Z. Grubic, R. Komel, W.F. Walker, A.F. Miranda, Myoblast fusion and innervation with rat motor nerve alter the distribution of acetylcholinesterase and its mRNA in human muscle cultures, Neuron 14 (1995) 317-327). To study the mechanisms of AChE mRNA loss in denervated adult rat skeletal muscle, we exposed deproteinated AChE mRNA to various subcellular fractions in vitro. Fractions were isolated from the normal and denervated rat sternomastoideus muscle. We found significantly increased, but non-specific AChE mRNA degradation capacities in the three fractions studied, suggesting that increased susceptibility of muscle mRNA to degradation might be at least partly responsible for the decreased AChE mRNA observed under such conditions (K. Zajc-Kreft, S. Kreft, Z. Grubic, Degradation of AChE mRNA in the normal and denervated rat skeletal muscle, Book of Abstracts, The Sixth International Meeting on Cholinesterases, La Jolla, CA, March 20-24, 1998, p. A3.). In adult fast rat muscle, treated chronically with glucocorticoids, we found the fraction of early

  4. [Features of immune proteasome expression in the development of rat central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, A Sh; Liupina, Iu V; Abaturova, S B; Sharova, N P

    2014-01-01

    immune subunits LMP2 and LMP7 proteasome and ChLA with the expression of the transcription factor Zif268. Probably immune proteasome plays an important role in the regulation of key biochemical processes in the early ontogenesis of the central nervous system and are necessary for the emergence and realization of synaptic plasticity in the brain structures studied in rats.

  5. A cultural congruence test for primary school students

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    Bayanova L. F.

    2016-12-01

    relationship between a child at the given age and the environment, is determined by the child’s interaction with an adult. The factor of obedience is the key parameter for children of the age under consideration. New at this age are arbitrariness, self-regulation, self-analysis, and an internal action plan. Self-control is also conceptually linked to these factors. The study offers a new look at the cultural determination of psychological development in ontogenesis. Validated in the course of the investigations, the test can be used to diagnose cultural congruence — that is, the compliance of a primary school student with rules inherent in normative situations.

  6. Uncinula necator (Schow Burr., the Causal Agent of Grape Powdery Mildew: Economic Impact, Epidemiology and Control

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    Zoran Miladinović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is an overview of what we know at present about the patogen Uncinula necator and the disease powdery mildew of grapevine, i.e. its economic status, inoculum source, microclimate conditions, vine susceptibility and principles of its protection.Powdery mildew is a major grapevine disease in terms of losses. It infects the plant’s green parts, reducing its fertility, spoiling the quality of grapes and wine and ruining plant vitality. The process additionally affects subsequent vegetation seasons. The disease occursevery year and its intensity depends on a number of factors.It had long been assumed that overwintering mycelium was the primary source of inoculum. More recent research, however, has revealed a crucial role of cleistothecia in many vineyards. They were found in our vine-growing regions long ago but their true role in the epidemiology of disease has been explained only recently.Microclimate conditions considerably affect the abundance and vitality of cleistothecia and the pathogen’s infection potential. Outbreaks and intensity of disease both depend on them, while vine susceptibility plays another important role, depending on cultivarand plant ontogenesis. Grapevine is most sensitive during flowering and bunch formation when conditions are generally good for the disease to appear and spread.Temperature, precipitation and relative air humidity may limit the occurrence of powdery mildew, but extreme values in that respect are a rarity. Their normal scope is more or less favourable for the disease, especially in Podgorica vineyards.Knowing the pathogen, especially its infection potential, environmental conditions, dynamics of host development and timely and good quality protection of vines, both preventive and chemical, is crucial for grapevine protection.Prevention is important but treatments with fungicides are crucial for U. necator control, and they can either focus on destroying the inoculum and delaying mildew outbreaks

  7. SENSITIZATION TO STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES AT CHILDREN OF EARLY AND PRESCHOOL AGE WITH RECURRENT RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS — PREDICTORS OF RHEUMATIC PATHOLOGY

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    E. V. Shabaldina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes is the reason of rheumatism and a post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Primary colonization of mucosal with this microorganism develops in the period of early ontogenesis. It was confirmed that at a carriage of this microorganism children at them activate immunopathological reactions. Clinic and immune features of the children with recurrent respiratory infections of early and preschool age having the immune response to S. pyogenes were studied. Position of risk of formation of rheumatic diseases at these children was studied. 771 children, in an age interval of 2–6 years are examined. Immune and clinical indicators in two groups of the children having the immune response to S. pyogenes (n = 306 and not having it (n = 465 were analyzed. It was shown that in group of the children with immune response to S. pyogenes were authentically higher: point of an hereditary predisposition, expressiveness of placental insufficiency and a fetal hypoxia during the real pregnancy, and in the post-natal period degree of a thymomegaly, a pharyngeal lymphoid ring hypertrophy, skin manifestations of food allergy on the first year of life, the frequency of sharp respiratory infections within one year — in comparison with control. The group of the children having the immune response to S. pyogenes had a high level in a nasal secret of TNFα, IL-4, IFNα, and in blood — ASL-O, ASG, RF, CRP and immunoglobulin E. It was shown that at the children with a sensitization to S. pyogenes were lowered in peripheral blood: the general leukocytes, lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes (CD3 positive, T-helpery (CD3 and CD4 positive, an immunoregulatory index (the relation of CD4 of positive lymphocytes to CD8 to positive lymphocytes, phagocytosis (in test with nitro blue tetrazolium chloride — NBT and immunoglobulin A — in comparison with control. The atopic immune response to S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae, H

  8. Demetaphorizing or Metaphorizing:A Dynamically Interactive Model of Congruent and Metaphorical Modes of Realization%“去隐喻化”抑或“隐喻化”:一致式与隐喻式的动态交互模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘祖勤

    2013-01-01

    语言如何从原始阶段发展到当前的水平仍然是个谜团,相关的理论假设不少,其中Halliday提出语言的大部分历史是“去隐喻化”的历史。为了探究语言发展的可能情形,有必要对Halliday的这一思想进行反思。如果把语言种系进化和个体语言发展同时加以考察,那么可以有理由说,人类语言在其进化之初就其体现形式的本质而言是一致性的,语言的发展史不仅仅是一个“去隐喻化”的过程,更是一个隐喻化的进程;人类语言发展可能是从一致式衍化出隐喻式,遵循“隐喻化”和“去隐喻化”的动态交互模式。%How language evolved from protolanguage to modern language is still a myth although some theories and hypotheses have been put forward to try to uncover it, among which Halliday proposed that much of the history of a language is a history of demetaphorizing. In order to reconsider the possible way of language evolution, it is necessary to observe language evolution in terms of both phylogenesis and ontogenesis. Such observation may be more convincing, according to which language is initially congruent and the history of a language is a history of metaphorizing more than demetaphorizing. The process of language evolution may be one in which the metaphorical mode of realization originates from the congruent one in the initial state of language, and then the congruent and the metaphorical forms develop in a dynamically interactive model.

  9. Precerebellin-related genes and precerebellin 1 peptide in the adrenal gland of the rat: expression pattern, localization, developmental regulation and effects on corticosteroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucinski, Marcin; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Szyszka, Marta; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2009-03-01

    Precerebellin (Cbln)-related peptides are known to modulate the secretory activity and growth of the adrenal gland. However, precise expression of the Cbln-related genes and Cbln1 peptide in the adrenal remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated, using RT-PCR, QPCR, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and hormonal assays, their expression in the adrenals of adult rats and in the course of postnatal ontogenesis. Of the 4 known Cblns, Cbln(1-3) mRNAs were found in the adrenal gland of the adult male rats. Expression patterns of Cbln1 and 3 were similar to each other and different from that of Cbln2. Highest expression of the Cbln1 and 3 genes was observed in the zona glomerulosa (ZG), lower expression was noted in the fasciculata/reticularis and lowest expression was observed in the adrenal medulla. Expression of these genes was also present in freshly isolated rat adrenocortical cells. On the contrary, by means of classic RT-PCR, we demonstrated the presence of mRNAs of CBLN(1-4) in the human adrenal gland. In the rat, highest expression of the Cbln1 and 3 genes was found at postnatal day 2 and was somewhat lower at day 90. On the contrary, expression of the Cbln2 gene was low in adrenals of 2-day-old rats and notably higher at the remaining time points studied (up to day 360). Cerebellin (CER)-like immunoreactivity was observed in the membranes of the adrenal ZG cells, while in the medulla, immunoreactive substances were localized primarily in the cytoplasm of chromaffin cells. Cbln1-like immunoreactivity was present mainly in the cortex of the gland, and reaction products were noted both in the membranes and cytoplasm of adrenocortical cells. Semiquantitative evaluation of Cbln1 protein expression in compartments of the adrenal gland of the adult rat revealed a higher concentration of Cbln1 protein in the cortex than in the medulla of studied rats. We also found that both CER and desCER stimulated basal aldosterone secretion by freshly isolated ZG cells. Thus

  10. Development of nNOS-positive neurons in the rat sensory and sympathetic ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masliukov, P M; Emanuilov, A I; Madalieva, L V; Moiseev, K Y; Bulibin, A V; Korzina, M B; Porseva, V V; Korobkin, A A; Smirnova, V P

    2014-01-03

    Neurochemical features in sympathetic and afferent neurons are subject to change during development. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a developmental role in the nervous system. To better understand the neuroplasticity of sympathetic and afferent neurons during postnatal ontogenesis, the distribution of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) immunoreactivity was studied in the sympathetic para- and prevertebral, nodose ganglion (NG) and Th2 and L4 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from female Wistar rats of different ages (newborn, 10-day-old, 20-day-old, 30-day-old, 2-month-old, 6-month-old, 1-year-old, and 3-year-old). nNOS-positive neurons were revealed in all sensory ganglia but not in sympathetic ones from birth onward. The percentage of nNOS-immunoreactive (IR) neurons increased during first 10 days of life from 41.3 to 57.6 in Th2 DRG, from 40.9 to 59.1 in L4 DRG and from 31.6 to 38.5 in NG. The percentage of nNOS-IR neurons did not change in the NG later during development and senescence. However, in Th2 and L4 DRG the proportion of nNOS-IR neurons was high in animals between 10 and 30days of life and decreased up to the second month of life. In 2-month-old rats, the percentage of nNOS-IR neurons was 52.9 in Th2 DRG and 51.3 in L4 DRG. We did not find statistically significant differences in the percentage of nNOS-IR neurons between Th2 and L4 DRG and between young and aged rats. In NG and DRG of 10-day-old and older rats, a high proportion of nNOS-IR neurons binds isolectin B4. In newborn animals, only 41.3%, 45.3% and 28.4% of nNOS neuron profiles bind to IB4 in Th2, L4 DRG and NG, respectively. In 10-day-old and older rats, the number of sensory nNOS-IR neurons binding IB4 reached more than 90% in DRG and more than 80% in NG. Only a small number of nNOS-positive cells showed immunoreactivity to calcitonin gene-related peptide, neurofilament 200, calretinin. The information provided here will also serve as a basis for future studies investigating mechanisms of the development of

  11. Ontogenetic Differences in Dietary Fat Influence Microbiota Assembly in the Zebrafish Gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sandi; Stephens, W Zac; Burns, Adam R; Stagaman, Keaton; David, Lawrence A; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Guillemin, Karen; Rawls, John F

    2015-09-29

    Gut microbiota influence the development and physiology of their animal hosts, and these effects are determined in part by the composition of these microbial communities. Gut microbiota composition can be affected by introduction of microbes from the environment, changes in the gut habitat during development, and acute dietary alterations. However, little is known about the relationship between gut and environmental microbiotas or about how host development and dietary differences during development impact the assembly of gut microbiota. We sought to explore these relationships using zebrafish, an ideal model because they are constantly immersed in a defined environment and can be fed the same diet for their entire lives. We conducted a cross-sectional study in zebrafish raised on a high-fat, control, or low-fat diet and used bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing to survey microbial communities in the gut and external environment at different developmental ages. Gut and environmental microbiota compositions rapidly diverged following the initiation of feeding and became increasingly different as zebrafish grew under conditions of a constant diet. Different dietary fat levels were associated with distinct gut microbiota compositions at different ages. In addition to alterations in individual bacterial taxa, we identified putative assemblages of bacterial lineages that covaried in abundance as a function of age, diet, and location. These results reveal dynamic relationships between dietary fat levels and the microbial communities residing in the intestine and the surrounding environment during ontogenesis. The ability of gut microbiota to influence host health is determined in part by their composition. However, little is known about the relationship between gut and environmental microbiotas or about how ontogenetic differences in dietary fat impact gut microbiota composition. We addressed these gaps in knowledge using zebrafish, an ideal model organism because their

  12. Secretion of immunomodulating neuropeptides (VIP, SP) and nitric oxide synthase in porcine small intestine during postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovsca Janjatovic, A; Valpotic, H; Kezic, D; Lacković, G; Gregorovic, G; Sladoljev, S; Mršić, G; Popovic, M; Valpotic, I

    2012-09-13

    Immunohistological identification/localization of immunomodulating neuropeptides [vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and substance P (SP)] and enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) as well as histomorphometric analyses of kinetics of their release and development of respective nerve fibers density during postnatal ontogenesis of porcine intestinal mucosal immune system (IMIS), were performed in order to assess the role of these molecules involved in maturation of the IMIS. The kinetcs of reactions to VIP, SP and NOS were demonstrated in the samples of jejunum and ileum from conventionally reared pigs. The samples were obtained at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49 days of age and processed for immunohistological staining. The VIP+ reaction was prevalently visible in the epithelial layer, lamina propria and Lieberkühn crypts (Lc) but also in the submucosa and lamina muscularis along blood and lymphatic vessels. The SP+ fibers were regularily distributed along enteric neurons in the muscular layer. The reaction to NOS was demonstrated in both mucosa and submucosa of ileum and jejunum and in the ileal Peyer's patches (PP). Intensity of the reaction was more pronounced in the epithelial layer and numerous NOS+ cells were observed around the Lc and inside the follicles of the PP. Also, we have noticed NOS+ blood vessels, particular neurons and nerve fibers in the submucosa and muscular layer of the small intestine. By analyzing quantitative patterns of SP+, VIP+ fibers and release of NOS we have concluded that intensity of their reactions gradually increases with age, except a short period of stagnation after weaning (at age of 28 days), reaching the highest values in the pigs aged between 42 and 49 days. The values obtained by Sperman rank order correlation test (rs) between days of age of pigs and intensity of the reactions in their jejunum/ileum to VIP (rs=0.97/0.95), SP (rs=0.97/0.97) and NOS (rs=0.98/0.95), respectively, showed positive correlations (Psecretion of

  13. Transcriptome profiling of male gametophyte development in Nicotiana tabacum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Bokvaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen, an extremely reduced bicellular or tricellular male reproductive structure of flowering plants, serves as a model for numerous studies covering wide range of developmental and physiological processes. The pollen development represents a fragile and vital phase of plant ontogenesis and pollen was among the first singular plant tissues thoroughly characterized at the transcriptomic level (Honys and Twell [5]. Arabidopsis pollen developmental transcriptome has been published over a decade ago (Honys and Twell, 2004 and transcriptomes of developing pollen of other species have followed (Rice, Deveshwar et al. [2]; Triticeae, Tran et al. [11]; upland cotton, Ma et al. [8]. However, the transcriptomic data describing the development of tobacco pollen, a bicellular model for cell biology studies, have been missing. Here we provide the transcriptomic data covering three stages (Tupý et al., 1983 of wild type tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, cv. Samsun pollen development: uninucleate microspores (UNM, stage 1, early bicellular pollen (eBCP, stage 3 and late bicellular pollen (lBCP, stage 5 as a supplement to the mature pollen (MP, 4 h-pollen tube (PT4, 24 h-pollen tubes (PT24, leaf (LF and root (RT transcriptomic data presented in our previous studies (Hafidh et al., 2012a; Hafidh et al., 2012b. We characterized these transcriptomes to refine the knowledge base of male gametophyte-enriched genes as well as genes expressed preferentially at the individual stages of pollen development. Alongside updating the list of tissue-specific genes, we have investigated differentially expressed genes with respect to early expressed genes. Pollen tube growth and competition of pollen tubes in female pistil can be viewed as a race of the fittest. Accordingly, there is an apparent evolutionary trend among higher plants to store significant material reserves and nutrients during pollen maturation. This supply ensures that after pollen germination, the pollen tube

  14. [Heredity and environment in the genesis, epigenesis and evolution of the orofacial area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagni, L; Baccetti, T

    1993-01-01

    Genetic and evolutionary aspects of the dento-facial complex are described according to the concept of heredity as a force of preservation for the human species, though ruled by natural selection and by mutational changes. Ontogenesis and growth of the oral structures reflect mutual regulations between genes and environmental factors. Therefore, the authors carry out an analysis of environmental and constitutional factors affecting dental and facial development. Three levels are identified: individual morphogenesis and growth; actual heredity of parietal dento-facial traits; role and meaning of teeth, jaws and temporo-mandibular joint during evolution leading to Homo sapiens sapiens. As far as individual development is concerned, genes provide only the input for initial cell proliferation and/or differentiation. Further on, growth and morphogenesis of oro-facial structures takes place by means of cell-to-cell and cell-to-substrate interactions. The final, structural result is due to reciprocal interactions among developing structures: muscles modify bone, teeth alignment influences bony bases alignment, ecc. Each structure is genetically determined (teeth, bones, muscles) and each structure carries out epigenetic regulations on other structures: no structure is secluded from biological function of the organism. The inheritance of oro-facial "traits", then, is hardly valuable. First of all, "traits" actually do not exist: they are the product of complex, multifactorial biological mechanisms. Moreover, facial characteristics are affected by polygenic regulation, each gene often showing pleiotropic effects. It has been calculated that 85-90% of facial dimensions in due to epigenetic modifications. Evolution and phylogenesis give evidence about the deep environmental influence on oro-facial morphology. Apart from certain molecular features regarding tooth structure (several dental proteins are today the same as those of the first Vertebrates who lived 500 millions of

  15. Foraging behaviour and feeding ecology of the otter Lutra lutra: a selective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Carss

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews literature on food, foraging behaviour and feeding ecology of Lutra lutra and on the behaviour of their prey species. Otters have a diverse diet, forage in a wide variety of different habitats and have a relatively complex social system. Similarly, their strategies for obtaining food are complex and varied. Three aspects of foraging behaviour (i, ii, iii and two of feeding ecology (iv, v are discussed: i adaptations and ontogeny, ii energetics and food-limitation, iii human disturbance, and periods of prey vulnerability, iv assessing diet, and v changes in prey vulnerability and selection. The review has three main aims: (a to summarize some recent advances in research, (b to highlight gaps in current knowledge, and (c to suggest some areas of future research. The need for such a review arises from a necessity to direct further research effort towards carnivore predator-prey relationships in general, and those of otters in particular, and also to meet demands for conservation management. Riassunto Foraggiamento ed ecologia alimentare della lontra Lutra lutra: un'analisi selettiva della letteratura disponibile - Questo lavoro prende in esame la letteratura riguardante dieta, foraggiamento ed ecologia alimentare della lontra Lutra lutra e il comportamento delle sue prede. La lontra ha una dieta varia, ricerca il cibo in un'ampia gamma di ambienti e ha un'organizzazione sociale relativamentc complessa. Similarmente, le sue strategie di ricerca del cibo sono complesse e varie. Tre aspetti del foraggiamento (i, ii, iii e due di ecologia alimentare (iv, v sono qui discussi: i adattamenti e ontogenesi, ii richiesta energetica e fattori limitanti la disponibilità di cibo, iii disturbo antropico e periodi di vulnerabilità delle prede, iv analisi della dieta, e v cambiamenti nella vulnerabilità delle prede e selezione. Il presente lavoro ha tre

  16. Morphometric and immunohistochemical study of the abomasum of red deer during prenatal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masot, A J; Franco, A J; Redondo, E

    2007-01-01

    The red deer is well suited to scientific study, given its economic importance as an animal to be hunted, and because it has a rich genetic heritage. However, there has been little research into the prenatal development of the stomach of ruminants in general, and none for the red deer. For this reason, we undertook histological evaluation of the ontogenesis of the abomasum in red deer. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses were carried out on 50 embryos and fetuses from the initial stages of prenatal life until birth. The animals were divided for test purposes into five experimental groups: group I [1.4–3.6 cm crown–rump length (CRL); 30–60 days, 1–25% of gestation]; group II (4.5–7.2 cm CRL; 67–90 days, 25–35% of gestation); group III (8–19 cm CRL; 97–135 days, 35–50% of gestation); group IV (21–33 cm CRL; 142–191 days, 50–70% of gestation) group V (36–40 cm CRL; 205–235 days, 75–100% of gestation). In the organogenesis of the primitive gastric tube of red deer, differentiation of the abomasum took place at 67 days, forming a three-layered structure: the epithelial layer (pseudostratified), pluripotential blastemic tissue and serosa. The abomasal wall displayed the primitive folds of the abomasum and by 97 days abomasal peak areas were observed on the fold surface. At 135 days the abomasal surface showed a single mucous cylindrical epithelium, and gastric pits were observed in the spaces between abomasal areas. At the bottom of these pits the first outlines of glands could be observed. The histodifferentiation of the lamina propria-submucosa, tunica muscularis and serosa showed patterns similar to those described for the forestomach of red deer. The abomasum of red deer during prenatal life, especially from 67 days of gestation, was shown to be an active structure with full secretory capacity. Its histological development, its secretory capacity (as revealed by the presence of neutral mucopolysaccharides) and its

  17. Changes of the intensity of morphogenetic process in the bone skeleton under lowering of gravitational loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilievna Rodionova, Natalia; Zolotova-Haidamaka, Nadezhda

    The development of long skeleton bones and reconstruction of bone structures in ontogenesis during adaptive remodeling are performed due to a combination of the bone apposition and bone resorption processes. With the use of radioactive markers of specific biosyntheses -3H- thymidine and 3H-glycine we studied the dynamics and peculiarities of these processes under modeling microgravity conditions by unloading the hind limbs of young white rats (tail suspension method) during 28 days. The radionuclides were administered in a single dose at the end of the experiment and the biomaterial was taken 1, 24, 48, 120 and 192 h. after injection. In histoautographs the counts were made of a nuclei labeling index (3H-thymidine), of the number of silver grains over the cells and in the forming bone matrix in growth and remodeling zones of the femoral bone (3H-glycine). The tendency for a reduction of a labeling index in the 3H-thymidine-labeled osteogenic cells in the periost and endost has been established. The dynamics of labeled cells following various intervals after 3H-thymidine injection testifies to a delay in the rates of osteoblasts' differentiation and their transformation to osteocytes in the experiment animals. 3H-glycine is assimilated by osteogenic cells 30 min after the radionuclide injection and following 24 h. it is already incorporated into the forming bone matrix. As a result an appositional bone addition by 192 h. the silver grains are registered in the bone matrix as "labeling lines". A lower 3H-glycine uptake by the osteogenic cells and bone matrix as compared with a control is indicative of a decrease of the osteoplastic process under hypokinesia, particulary in the periost. At the same time the resorption and remodeling bone zones reveal regions of an intensive 3H-glycine uptake after 1 and 24 h. We associate this latter fact with an activation of collagen proteins in the differentiating fibroblasts (instead of osteoblasts) in these locations. This is

  18. Autoradiographic studies of the intensity of morphogenetic processes in the bone skeleton under modeling microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, N. V.; Zolotova-Haidamaka, N. V.; Nithevich, T. P.

    In ontogenesis the development of long skeleton bones and reconstruction of bone structures during adaptive remodeling are performed due to a combination of the bone apposition and bone resorption processes. With the use of radioactive markers of specific biosyntheses -3H-thymidine and 3H-glycine we studied the dynamics and peculiarities of these processes under hypokinesia by unloading the hind limbs of young white rats (tail suspension method) during 28 days. The radionuclides were administered in a single dose at the end of the experiment and the biomaterial was taken 1, 24, 48, 120 and 192 h. after injection. In histoautographs the counts were made of a nuclei labeling index (3H-thymidine), of the number of silver grains over the cells and in the forming bone matrix in growth and remodeling zones of the femoral bone (3H-glycine). The tendency for a reduction of a labeling index in the 3H-thymidine-labeled osteogenic cells in the periost and endost has been established. The dynamics of labeled cells following various intervals after 3H-thymidine injection testifies to a delay in the rates of osteoblasts' differentiation and their transformation to osteocytes in the experiment animals. 3H-glycine is assimilated by osteogenic cells 30 min after the radionuclide injection and following 24 h. it is already incorporated into the forming bone matrix. As a result an appositional bone addition by 192 h. the silver grains are registered in the bone matrix as "labeling lines". A lower 3H-glycine uptake by the osteogenic cells and bone matrix as compared with a control is indicative of a decrease of the osteoplastic process under hypokinesia, particulary in the periost. At the same time the resorption and remodeling bone zones reveal regions of an intensive 3H-glycine uptake after 1 and 24 h. We associate this latter fact with an activation of collagen proteins in the differentiating fibroblasts (instead of osteoblasts) in these locations. This is confirmed by our previous

  19. Environmental relevance of correlations of {delta}{sup 13}C and climate in tree rings of young pines (Pinus silvestris L.); Umweltrelevanz von {delta}{sup 13}C-Klimakorrelationen an Jahrringen rezenter Kiefern (Pinus silvestris L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmann, A.G.

    1993-08-01

    From two groups of trees, 15 damaged ones and 15 healthy ones, tree slices were taken and in these the tree-ring widths, ratios of {delta}{sup 13}C isotopes in cellulose and trace element concentrations were determined. Healthy trees have wider tree-rings over their entire period of life from 1891 to 1986 than the group of trees of damage category 3 (severely damaged). The pattern of tree-ring width development, however, is similar. From eight synchronous {delta}{sup 13}C traces of non-damaged pines a normal chronology was derived. The ontogenesis of some damaged individuals does not correspond to this normal course. In this way the onset of damage can be reconstructed by means of the {delta}{sup 13}C values. A link between the {delta}{sup 13}C values curves and anthropogenously induced changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration could not be established. The yearly variations of the {delta}{sup 13}C values of the normal chronology are climate-sensitive. The established trace element concentrations of the wood samples are neither in the toxic nor in the deficiency range. Their magnitude is abour equal in all radial sections, independently of the damage category. (UWA) [Deutsch] Aus einem Probenkollektiv von 15 ungeschaedigten und 15 geschaedigten Kiefern wurden an repraesentativen Baumscheiben Jahrringbreiten, {delta}{sup 13}C-Isotopenverhaeltnisse der Zellulose, sowie Spurenelementkonzentrationen bestimmt. Die Jahrringe in der Gruppe der ungeschaedigten Individuen sind ueber den gesamten Lebenszeitraum von 1891 bis 1986 breiter als im Kollektiv der Baeume der Schadstufe 3 (stark geschaedigt). Die Entwicklung der Jahrringbreitenmuster verlaeuft jedoch parallel. Aus 8 synchron verlaufenden {delta}{sup 13}C-Kurven ungeschaeigter Kiefern wurde eine Normalchronologie entwickelt. Die Ontogenese einiger geschaedigter Individuen entspricht nicht diesem Normalgang. Hiermit kann der Beginn der aktuellen Schaedigung ueber die {delta}{sup 13}C-Werte rekonstruiert werden

  20. Hereditary radiation effects in offspring of the second and third generations after irradiation of both grandparents. Experimental studies and Hereditary radiation effects in offspring of the first generation after irradiation of one and both parents. Experimental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefyodova, I.; Nefyodov, I [Medical Radiological Research Centre RAMS, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2000-05-01

    The parent study has investigated hereditary radiation effects in progeny of the second and third generations of Wistar rats after irradiation of both grandparents with doses of 2-4 Gy. Attention was focused on the relationship between stages of gametogenesis in grandparents at the moment of radiation exposure and death of progeny in embryogenesis and early postnatal ontogenesis. Totals of 4207 mature males and females Wistar rats, 13539 offspring of the second generation (F2) and 746 offspring of the third generation (F3) were the subjects of investigation. Male and female rat grandparents (P) of 220-250 g were exposed to an external single irradiation by gamma rays to doses of 2,3 and 4 Gy at a dose rate of 0.003 Gy.s{sup -1} ({sup 60}Co source). The animals were mated at different times after irradiation so that different stages in gametogenesis were studied. When F1 sexual maturity was achieved, F1 males of each experimental group were mated with intact females to produce F2 descendants from the father's line and conversely F1 females use mated with intact males to produce F2 descendants from the mother's line. Embryogenesis F2 was studied after euthanasia of some females by ether on the 20th day of pregnancy. The fetuses were scored for size and mass, pathology of viscera and skeleton and the total, pre- and postimplantation death of embryos was calculated. In addition development of young rats was observed for 30 days after the birth. The numbers surviving on the 1st and 30th days after the birth were calculated, giving the death rate for this period of time. It was stated: for F2; radiation effects depend upon a dose stage of gametogenesis of both P at the time of radiation exposure; F2 death in embryogenesis occurred only after irradiation of P with a dose of 4 Gy; ossification disorder of the skeleton in F2 embryogenesis was found in all experimental groups; high F2 death is observed after birth which depends much more on the stage of

  1. Effects of long-term radiation exposure on the higher aquatic plants in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevtsova, N.; Gudkov, D. [Institute of Hydrobiology (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    From the earliest years after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 the radioecological study on freshwater plant communities in the water-bodies within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) has been held. At first stages it was the research on plant species collection and radionuclide contamination of aquatic ecosystems. Now, it is the seasonal monitoring with several groups of data deals with different areas of plant communities investigation: (1) the data characterized the level of radionuclides contamination of the abiotic and biotic components of phyto-coenosis and connected absorbed dose rates for various species of aquatic plants; (2) indexes of plant reproduction, including productivity, sterility, seed germination indexes and different abnormalities of ontogenesis; (3) indexes of morphological deviations (radiomorphoses) of aquatic plant's reproduction organs such as panicle and seeds; (4) cytogenetic indexes including the rate and spectrum of chromosome aberrations in cells of apical root meristem of air-aquatic plants; (5) the group of indexes, connected with plant's immunity. The calculated absorbed dose rate for littoral emergent plants in sampling water bodies was varied from 0.7 to 1.4 Gy/year in dependence of radioactive contamination of bottom sediments, plant tissues and level of gamma-background. There were registered rather low rate of plant productivity (hundred times lower than normal), high percentage of sterility (20-80%), low germinating ability (14-48 %) and germinating power (40-50%) of seeds from all sampling water bodies within the ChEZ. Against the general suppressed background the effect of relative stimulation of more affected seeds was observed. With increase of internal absorbed dose in range of 0.2-5.3 mGy/year the number of germinated seeds was increased. At the same time the number of different abnormalities of seeds was increased as well. The highest rate of the morphological damages (up to 25 % of the total number of

  2. Use of biological indexes of the common reed (Phragmites australis) seed progeny in the environmental safety of radioactive contaminated water bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavnyuk, A. [National Aviation University, Kiev (Ukraine); Shevtsova, N.; Gudkov, D. [Institute of Hydrobiology of the National Academy of Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    effects were investigated via following indexes - occurrence of abnormality of certain type (geotropism and ontogenesis disturbance, chlorophyll abnormalities and root necrosis) in relation to the whole investigated sampling and occurrence of plants, progeny of which has detached abnormal forms. Our studies resulted in dose dependent character of the majority of investigated indexes. The most radiosensitive indexes of the common reed in conditions of long-term low-dose irradiation of parent plants include: all vitality indexes, frequency distribution of root and leaf length of germs, in progeny of which abnormal forms are detached. No reliable correlation was determined for dose dependences of root length distribution and abnormalities of particular type. Significant differences of studied indexes of seeds, with absorbed dose rate of parent plants 0.7-22.0 mcGy h{sup -1}, were determined in conditions of long-term ionizing radiation within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. It is assumed that hormesis effect on littoral zone vegetation within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone does exist. Studied indexes may be recommended for use in the complex determination of water bodies' radioecological safety. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  3. Developmental gonadal expression of the transcription factor SET and its target gene, P450c17 (17alpha-hydroxylase/c17,20 lyase).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P; Compagnone, N A; Fiore, C; Vigne, J L; Culp, P; Musci, T J; Mellon, S H

    2001-10-01

    activation of luciferase activity with the wildtype but not the mutant construct in all stages. These data suggest that Xenopus SET is able to bind to specific DNA sequences to activate transcription at all stages of Xenopus oogenesis. These data indicate that SET is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that participates in the early ontogenesis of the gonadal system, regulates P450c17 gene transcription in Leydig cells, and may also activate other genes expressed in immature oocytes, thus playing a role in oocyte development.

  4. Pressupostos da Teoria Histórico-Cultural para a apropriação da cultura escrita pela criança

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Amaral Mello

    2016-02-01

    que têm envolvido as práticas escolares que, a despeito dos esforços que exigem das crianças, não têm contribuído para a formação da sua capacidade de ler e produzir textos. Sendo assim, é apresentado o trabalho de enriquecimento das vivências infantis e das diferentes formas de expressão como possibilidades de um trabalho pedagógico capaz de contribuir para o desenvolvimento da criança.   Cultural-Historical Theory assumptions and the appropriation of written language  Abstract This article aims to bring to discussion some assumptions of Historical-Cultural Theory in order to support teachers’ practices that approach children in kindergarten and in early years of elementary school to writing language. Building on researches conducted by Vygotsky and Luria, to who the written language is a complex cultural instrument that IS developed during ontogenesis from gesture, play and drawing, this article aims to reflect on problems involving school practices that, despite the efforts required from children, have not contributed to the formation of their ability to read and produce texts. It also presents directions to enrich children's experiences and different forms of expression as pedagogical possibilities that may contribute to the development of the child. Keywords: Written Language. Socio-Cultural-Historical Theory. School Education.   Fundamentos de la Teoría Histórico-Cultural y la apropiación del lenguaje escrito  Resumen Este artículo tiene como objetivo traer a la discusión algunos supuestos de la Teoría Histórico-Cultural para la reflexión y para la práctica de maestros y maestras cuyo trabajo se convierte en la aproximación entre niños de preescolar y de los primeros años de educación primaria y la cultura escrita. Sobre la base de la investigación llevada a cabo por Vygotsky y Luria, para quien el lenguaje escrito es un instrumento cultural complejo que se desarrolla en la ontogénesis, a partir del gesto, del juego de

  5. Involution of the mammalian thymus, one of the leading regulators of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodey, B; Bodey, B; Siegel, S E; Kaiser, H E

    1997-01-01

    and thymopoietin seem to decline earlier, starting as early as 10 years of age. The influences of a variety of other hormones on the involution of the thymus have also been characterized: testosterone, estrogen and hydrocortisone treatment results in marked involution, cortisone and progesterone administration causes slight to moderate, while use of desoxycorticosterone has no effect. The experimental administration of thyroxine yielded dose dependent results: low doses resulted in thymic hypertrophy, higher doses produced slight hypertrophy and the highest employed doses caused thymic atrophy. The atrophy was of apicnotic type, very different from that detected after treatment with corticoid hormones. Thymus transplantation experiments indicate that age-related, physiological thymic involution has been genetically preprogrammed. Grafting of the thymus from one week old C3H leukemic strain mice into 6 month old hosts resulted in changes in thymic weight and an involution pattern that was synchronous in all recipients, in direct correlation with the glands in the donor, but not in the host. These data strongly suggest that the stimulus for thymus cell proliferation and differentiation is genetically determined within the organ implant. Since the thymus is the primary T-lymphopoietic organ during ontogenesis in the mammalian organism, its age-related involution with the already mentioned morphological alterations can be held responsible only for a decline in antigen-specific T lymphocyte immune functions. Thymic involution and diminished T lymphocyte proliferation can be partially restored by thymic tissue transplantation or use of thymic hormones. The leading physiological role of the thymic cellular microenvironment as a "clock" of the mammalian aging process is also discussed. "If present cells have come from pre-existing cells, then all cells can trace their ancestry back to the first formed cell in an unbroken line of descent."--Rudolf Virchow, 1858(1) "I have neve

  6. Sugar beet growth in a changing climate: past, present and future trends in southwest Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Pascal; Fuchs, Hans-Joachim; Lang, Christian

    2017-04-01

    In the study, single factors and their impact on sugar beet cultivation against the background of past and projected climate change are being analyzed. The database consists of climate data by the German Weather Service and 1x1 km interpolated INTERMET raster data. Impact models were run to assess possible future trends using climate projection data of the REgional MOdel (REMO), emission scenario A1B, Run 1, data stream 2 for Germany, daily resolution, without bias correction, 10x10 km raster (n=150) (MPI on behalf of UBA 2006). Compared periods were: B:1971 2000; K:2021-2050; L:2071-2100. Agronomic data were collected from the field books of regional trials from 1974 2014 (n=448). Moreover, a business survey of regional farmers was carried out and evaluated. Impact models to predict timing for sowing, the date of field emergence and row closure, were derived from these data. The ontogenesis was simulated using a linear, temperature-based leaf-growth model. Sowing shifted forward by 7,3 days in regional field trials from 1974 2014. Progress-oriented, risk-tolerant farmers start sowing 10-14 days earlier compared to 1980. Recently, sowing is being conducted on average on 21 March in southwest Germany. For period K, 17 March, and for period L, 2 March is being projected as the average future sowing date while the same late frost risk applies compared to present climatic conditions. Shifting forward the sowing date with spring warming and, thus, exploiting the associated yield potential is the most promising agronomic adaptation strategy to the projected climate change on the farm level. In connection to earlier sowing, the field emergence tendentially shifted forward by 14 days in the field trials. Assuming sowing on 15 March, projection results show an advance of field emergence form 7 April in period B to 3 April in period L. Row closure in field trials in average shifted forward by 19,6 days. For period L, 29 May and thus, an earlier row closure of 9 days compared

  7. Mutations in the E6/E7 genes of human papillomavirus type 16 from cervical cancer tissue%宫颈癌组织中HPV16型E6/E7序列突变分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志珊; 庄建良; 李爱禄; 蒋燕成

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析泉州地区宫颈癌患者HPV16型E6/E7序列突变情况,探讨其与宫颈癌发生的相关性.方法 取35例HPV16阳性的宫颈癌组织标本,采用PCR法扩增E6、E7全长基因.PCR产物直接测序,并与野生型序列进行比对.分析E6、E7基因的变异情况.结果 E6、E7基因的突变率分别为91.4%和89.2%.E6基因中有10个位点为错义突变,2个位点为无义突变.氨基酸突变频率最高的是D25E(77.1%).E7基因中共发现5个突变位点,有2个位点为错义突变,3个位点为无义突变,突变频率最高是N29S和无义突变T846C(均为75.0%).结论 HPV16 E6、E7基因中最常见突变位点D25E、N29S和T846C可能与宫颈癌的发生密切相关,可为研究针对中国人群的HPV疫苗提供一定的线索.%To investigate mutations in E6/E7 genes of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) in patients with cervical cancer in Quanzhou area and explore the potential association between the mutations and cervical cancer, 35 cervical cancer tissue with HPV 16 positive were collected in this study. DNA samples were amplified by polymerase chain reation (PCR), then the products were directly sequenced and the results were compared with the prototype sequence. It was found that the prevalences of HPV 16 E6 and E7 variants were 91. 4% and 89. 2% respectively. Ten mis-sense variantions and 2 silent variantions were identified in E6. The hot spot of E6 nucleotide mutation was D25E, with a frequency of 77. 1%. A total of 5 mutation spots was found in E7, including 2 mis-sense and 3 silent variations. Both N29S and T846C were the most common mutations, with the same ratio of 75. 0%. It is suggested that the mutation of D25E, N29S and T846C are likely to be associated with ontogenesis of cervical cancer. This founding might provide valuable information for HPV vaccine development in China.

  8. A trofolaxes grupal: transtornos narcísicos e reconstruções vinculares La trofolaxis grupal: perturbaciones narcisistas y reconstrucciones vinculares Trophallaxis group: narcissistic disturbances and linking reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazslo Antonio Ávila

    2007-12-01

    psiques, necesarias a la convivencia humana.Current essay discusses a concept from Biology of Knowledge and metaphorically applied to human groups. Trophallaxis refers to the chemical communicational process used by certain animals, such as social insects, to communicate the needs of their communities in terms of defense, feeding or reproduction. When applied to groups, trophallaxis explains certain mechanisms of group regulations in which, mainly through language, individuals may produce the group identity, the group’s restricting borders and the dynamic elements that permit inter-individual interactions. If trophallaxis permits communication, ontogenetic alterations and phylogenetic adaptation in insects, symbolic trophallaxis in human groups makes possible the generating of specific ontogenesis of distinct psyches, required for human relationships.

  9. Longitud de la oración en el desarrollo del lenguaje infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia López Betancourt

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available La ontogénesis del lenguaje constituye un proceso sociofisiológico de adquisición, en el cual aparecen los primeros elementos gramaticales cuando se articulan 2 palabras unidas poco después del primer año de vida, y continúa con un complejo y gradualmente progresivo desarrollo en la incorporación de los demás aspectos del lenguaje. Existen diversos métodos para evaluar el desarrollo del lenguaje y específicamente el oracional, y se destacan en la literatura la longitud media del enunciado y la complejidad de la oración. En este trabajo se expone parte de los resultados de la investigación nacional: Estudio del desarrollo del lenguaje del niño cubano, que está en proceso de redacción de la información en estos momentos, específicamente se describe lo relacionado con la longitud de la oración. Se verifica un aumento de la longitud de la oración a medida que avanza la edad, donde predomina hasta los 2 y medio años un promedio de 3 palabras por frase, hasta los 3 y medio años de 4 palabras y los mayores de esa edad de 5 palabras por frase emitidas por el niño, durante la entrevista realizada. Los factores que más inciden en este proceso son la edad, la escolaridad materna y el lugar al cual asiste, especialmente el círculo infantil. No existió relación significativa con el sexo.Ontogenesis of speech is a acquisition sociophysiologic process, in which appear the leading grammatical elements, when two rods are articulated together afterward first year of life, and to proceed with an complex and gradually progressive development in incorporation of other features of speech. There are different methods to assess speech development and specifically sentential one, in literature are emphasized mean lenght of enunciation and sentence complexity. In this paper, we put forward part of results of the national research: Study of speech development of Cuban children (in process of information editing in which specifically we describe

  10. 植物的发育:从细胞到个体%Plant development: From cells to individuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗林杰; 曾健; 田朝霞; 赵忠

    2016-01-01

    随着分子生物学研究手段的丰富,植物发育生物学也从宏观的植物形态观察走向了微观的细胞和基因水平的研究.植物本身有着显著不同于动物的胚后发育特征,这种发育模式赋予了植物极其灵活的发育可塑性以应对不同的生长环境.在长期进化过程中,植物正是通过持续的调整发育来适应外界环境变化,造就了植物界丰富的多样性.本文以植物干细胞的功能和调控为核心,阐述了干细胞调控植物胚后发育的模式以及植物内源激素对于细胞和植物发育调控的贡献,讨论了内源的遗传信息和外部的环境因素在植物发育过程中的整合,以及这些因素如何调控农作物的器官和形态发育,继而影响到作物的产量.%As the development of research tools in molecular biology,plant developmental biology has been changed its focus from the descriptive analysis of plant morphology to the cellular and gene regulation level.Plants have distinct postembryonic development patterns compare to the animal,which give the plant a flexible developmental plasticity in response to different growth environments.In the long-term of evolution,plants are adapted to the environment changes through the continuous adjustment of their development strategy,which makes the plant world highly diverse.The growth and development of multicellular organisms depend on the maintenance and constant differentiation of stem cells.In plants,most of the organs originate from stem cells where resided in the shoot apical meristem,root apical meristem and cambium.The functional conservation of stem cells in those diverse plants is the basis for ontogenesis.However,from the perspective of evolutionary development,the diversity of key regulatory genes expression in different stem cell populations fulfills the continuous adjustments of development strategy to adapt to environmental changes.The plasticity in stem cell regulations determines the

  11. Biotropic Effect of Radiation Conditions on Orbital Cosmic Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsetlin, Vladimir; Ushakov, Igor; Gurieva, Tamar; Moisa, Svetlana; Zotin, Alexei; Lobanov, Alexei

    On the orbit of pilot orbital stations the crews undergo to low doses of chronic irradiation of cosmic radiation. The studying of radiobiological effects in different living systems were carried out in the ship’s side (OC “MIR” and ICS) and model surface experiments (power dose 200 mGy/day, density of neutron flow 30 particles/sm2 sec). It was shown that ionized radiation effects on embryonal development of Japanese quail embryo, inducing morphological disturbances in 12% of embryos. Many years ontogenesis (more 15 years of life in OC “MIR”) of microbial association evoked replacement of dominant types of micromycetes and bacterium and increasing of colony-formed units (CFU) in four orders. In laboratory low doses of γ-radiation induced the increasing of flight strain biomass of Aspergillus niger that corresponds to a radiation hormezis and also the increasing of radio-sensitivity. Moreover, under γ-neutron radiation were marked some deviations in morphology of supporting cell and numerous head falls of Aspergillus niger. The irradiation of Protozoa by low doses led to that spontaneous motion activity of spirostoms (Spirostomum ambiguum Ehbg.) accommodated in water processing by mixed γ-neutron radiation decreased twice that testified the fact that the definite factor of γ-neutron radiation effect is the changing of water medium state. In dry seeds of the highest plants wetting in water of preliminary low doses α-and γ-irradiation field in 100-300 times lower than geomagnetic one) the germination of seeds was higher approximately twice under γ-radiation. Low doses of γ-radiation decreased and α-radiation increased a negative influence of hypo-magnetic field on these processes. It was shown that hypomagnetic field occurred, in general, beneficial effect on the development of Planorbarius corneus: the portion of teratogenic effect is decreased, embryos initially occurred in hypomagnetic conditions were characterized by lowering mortality. Mobility

  12. Leaf phenology and its associated traits in the wintergreen species Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae Fenología foliar y sus caracteres asociados en la especie invierno-verde Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA ANGÉLICA DAMASCOS

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The post-summer leaf demography of the wintergreen species Aristotelia chilensis growing near San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina, is described. Its specific leaf mass (SLM, g m-2 is compared to that of the deciduous and evergreen species of the Andean-Patagonian forests and to that of other communities abroad. The pattern of leaf emergence is intermediate, with leaf flush in spring (basal cohort, BC, followed by successive unfolding of the remaining leaves (distal cohort, DC during summer. The senescence of the BC occurs mainly in autumn, with a loss of 11-31 % of its SLM. The DC falls synchronously in mid-spring and the SLM loss in winter is 10-13 %. The SLM of A. chilensis (103.6 ± 6.2 g m-2 is intermediate when compared to the general mean values of deciduous (73.7 ± 15.9 g m-2 and evergreen species (154.8 ± 45.8 g m-2. The SLM of deciduous and evergreen species of three different forests near San Carlos de Bariloche varied significantly at the end of the growing season while that of A. chilensis showed more constant values. The periodicity of leaf production and senescence in A. chilensis allows the maintenance of one leaf cohort throughout the year, covering the carbon demand for flowering and leaf production in spring. This differentiates the deciduous from the wintergreen species, despite their similar mean leaf life span values, while the evergreen species have a longer leaf turnover. Considering the conditions for growth in each studied forest, the leaf life span was not the only factor determining the SLM value. This variable would also depend on multiple stresses that may act during the ontogenesis and evolution of the leaves in each phenological groupSe describe la demografía foliar después del verano de la especie invierno-verde Aristotelia chilensis, creciendo cerca de la ciudad de San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina. Se compara su peso específico foliar (SLM, g m-2 con los valores de especies deciduas y siempreverdes de los

  13. Considérations ontogénétiques et phylogénétiques concernant l’origine de la parole Ontogenetic and phylogenetic considerations concerning the origin of speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Granat

    2011-10-01

    solved: If we suppose that our ancestors (and distant cousins controlled their larynx and vocal tract in the same way as present-day humans, did the geometry of their vocal tract allow them to produce the universal sound structures of the languages spoken today? We analyzed 31 skulls from now to 1.5 Ma (millions years BP (Before Present for fossil hominids available at the Muséedel’Homme in Paris or in the literature: (1 10-30 ka BP: modern humans: Paleolithic; (2 90-200 ka BP: anatomically modern humans; (3 45-90 ka BP: Neanderthals; (4 1.5 Ma BP: Homoergaster; These skulls are all well kept and possess a jaw in the majority of cases but the vertebral column has been reconstituted. We attempt to: (1 Localize hyoid bone and then glottis position; (2 Reconstitute a vocal tract model in a plausible way using an articulatory model; (3 Quantify the acoustic capabilities of this reconstituted vocal tract. For this purpose, we combine phylogenesis and ontogenesis. We are in a position to state that our ancestors and distant cousins were equipped with a vocal tract that could produce the same variety of vowel sounds as we can today: the vowels /i a u/. The vocal tract morphology has been favorable to the emergence and production of speech since several hundreds of thousands of years. But how to know to what extent they mastered the control skills needed to produce speech? New lines of research are proposed in which orofacial abilities necessary to the emergence of speech are linked to a precursor mechanism dedicated to feeding (masticating-swallowing movements.

  14. Selected Abstracts of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology; Cagliari (Italy; October 22-25, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2014-06-01

    (Italy ABS 9. Traffiking of thymosin beta-4 in the cellular compartments of HepG2 cells at different conditions • M. Piras, M. Piludu, G. Pichiri, P. Coni, T. Cabras, R. Ambu, M. Castagnola; Cagliari and Rome (Italy ABS 10. Thyroid carcinoma in sardinian children and adolescents is often associated with autoimmune thyroiditis • P. Coni, E. Tamponi, A. Lampis, G. Pinna, A.M. Nurchi, S. Farci, M.L. Lai; Cagliari (Italy ABS 11. Prolonging nephrogenesis in preterm infants: a new approach for the prevention of renal disease in adulthood? • A. Sanna, C. Gerosa, D. Fanni, P. Van Eyken, M. Castagnola, R. Ambu; Cagliari, Rome (Italy and Leuven (Belgium ABS 12. Human adrenal gland development: morphogenesis and molecular mechanisms • E. Obinu, V. Fanos, A. Dessì, R. Ambu; Cagliari (Italy ABS 13. Biometrics application for newborns safe identification in Neonatal Intensive Care Units • A. Casanova, S. Barra, M. De Marsico, D. Riccio, L. Barberini, M. Puddu, V. Fanos; Cagliari, Rome and Naples (Italy ABS 14. Metabolomics in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE: a proposal for a european multicenter study • P. Gancia, G. Pomero, A. Delogu, C. Dalmazzo, G. Palmas, V. Fanos; Cuneo and Cagliari (Italy ABS 15. Longitudinal evaluation of myocardial function in infants with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE: preliminary data • F. Vitali, S. Galletti, A. Aceti, L. Ridolfi, G. Aquilano, M. Fabi, G. Faldella; Bologna (Italy ABS 16. Changes in podocyte number during intrauterine development • M. Desogus, A. Crobe, A. Sanna, C. Gerosa, C. Fanni, C. Loddo, M. Puddu, G. Ottonello, D. Fanni; Cagliari (Italy ABS 17. Efficacy of recombinant human erythropoietin in anemic pregnant women with heterozygous beta-thalassemia • S. Angioni, V. Mais, G.B. Melis; Cagliari (Italy ABS 18. WT1 expression in ontogenesis of human fetus • R. Ambu, L. Vinci, C. Gerosa, D. Fanni, E. Obinu, A. Faa, V. Fanos; Cagliari (Italy ABS 19. Brain hypothermia in perinatal arterial ischemic

  15. Selected Abstracts of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology; Cagliari (Italy; October 26-31, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2015-10-01

    at the interface of the renal stem/progenitor cell niche? • W.W. Minuth, L. Denk • Regensburg (Germany ABS 41. Severe neonatal anemia: the spectrum of causes in our unit • A.R. Denotti, V. Orecchia, M. Marica, P. Moi, S. Barella • Cagliari (Italy ABS 42. Orthogonalization methods in metabolomics. Hypothesis and tests for validation • L. Barberini, D. Grapov, A. Noto, A. Dessì, C. Fattuoni, F. Palmas, A. Casanova • Cagliari (Italy and Ballwin (MO, USA ABS 43. Training nurses and specialty doctors on central lines management in neonates improved skills in a third level neonatal unit • F. Manno, E. Ceriani, S. Dalla Valentina, F. Carolei, E. Bonafiglia, R. Beghini, M. Susi, E.M. Padovani • Verona (Italy ABS 44. Transfert of newborns with critical ductal-dependent congenital heart disease • A.R. Denotti, P. Neroni • Cagliari (Italy ABS 45. Wnt1 expression in ontogenesis of human fetus • S. Nati, L. Vinci, G. Locci, E. Obinu, C. Gerosa, D. Fanni, A. Ravarino, A. Mengoni, A. Atzei, G. Secci, E. Trudu, G. Faa, R. Ambu • Cagliari (Italy ABS 46. ‘Green flags’: one hundred Italian beaches for children. A selection by pediatricians • I. Farnetani • Milan (Italy ABS 47. Ultrastructural study of fresh human breast milk cells • M. Piras, P. Coni, G. Pichiri, M. Puddu, A. Reali, A. De Magistris, D. Lanzano, M. Isola • Cagliari (Italy ABS 48. Emerging biomarkers for metabolic diseases • M.J. Bennett • Philadelphia (PA, USA ABS 49. Retinopathy of prematurity: incidence and risk factors • R. Vidmantė, J. Garčinskienė, D. Stonienė, R. Tamelienė, R. Dzikienė • Kaunas (Lithuania ABS 50. Transient hypertransaminasemia in a malnourished newborn • M. Sibilio, C. Coppola, R. Coppola, M. Capasso, A. Colella, G. Della Corte, C. Cioffi, R. Iorio, D. Perri • Aversa and Naples (Italy ABS 51. Hepatic lymphangiomatosis in a 2 year-old child • E. Obinu, D. Fanni, G. Locci, L. Vinci, C. Gerosa, M. Puddu, Y. Gibo, P. Van Eyken, R. Ambu