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Sample records for ontario water management

  1. Addressing Ontario water management plan requirements through the application of spatial technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArdle, S. [4DM Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Tonkin, C. [Ontario Power Generation Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation outlined Ontario Power Generation's (OPG) water management plans as they refer to changes to Ontario's electricity market. It included water management planning requirements after the planning process and the OPG's commitment to water management planning in general. The OPG is actively involved in the planning process and advisory committee meetings. It also implemented a decision support software system as an approach for monitoring water management plans in watershed areas in which the OPG operates. A water management review (WMR) was initiated in Ontario in 1995. A review was also undertaken in 2005 and a number of information technology projects that were implemented were discussed. One of the software applications entitled Water View was presented in more detail. The purpose of this software is to address compliance and reporting requirements related to WMR. It represents a starting point for building information along a river system in a spatial context. Last, the presentation identified next steps which include the potential to expand into other OPG watersheds; enhancements to existing functionality; new functionality; and exploring interest with other waterpower producers. 2 figs.

  2. A comparative analysis of current microbial water quality risk assessment and management practices in British Columbia and Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Gemma; Harris, Leila; Cook, Christina; Prystajecky, Natalie

    2014-01-15

    Bacteria, protozoa and viruses are ubiquitous in aquatic environments and may pose threats to water quality for both human and ecosystem health. Microbial risk assessment and management in the water sector is a focus of governmental regulation and scientific inquiry; however, stark gaps remain in their application and interpretation. This paper evaluates how water managers practice microbial risk assessment and management in two Canadian provinces (BC and Ontario). We assess three types of entities engaged in water management along the source-to-tap spectrum (watershed agencies, water utilities, and public health authorities). We analyze and compare the approaches used by these agencies to assess and manage microbial risk (including scope, frequency, and tools). We evaluate key similarities and differences, and situate them with respect to international best practices derived from literatures related to microbial risk assessment and management. We find considerable variability in microbial risk assessment frameworks and management tools in that approaches 1) vary between provinces; 2) vary within provinces and between similar types of agencies; 3) have limited focus on microbial risk assessment for ecosystem health and 4) diverge considerably from the literature on best practices. We find that risk assessments that are formalized, routine and applied system-wide (i.e. from source-to-tap) are limited. We identify key limitations of current testing methodologies and looking forward consider the outcomes of this research within the context of new developments in microbial water quality monitoring such as tests derived from genomics and metagenomics based research. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Conflict Management in Participatory Approaches to Water Management: A Case Study of Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Furber

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The International Joint Commission (IJC has been involved in a 14-year effort to formulate a new water regulation plan for the Lake Ontario St. Lawrence River (“LOSLR” area that balances the interests of a diverse group of stakeholders including shipping and navigation, hydropower, environment, recreational boating, municipal and domestic water supply, First Nations, and shoreline property owners. It has embraced the principles of collaborative and participatory management and, applying a Shared Visioning Planning (SVP approach, has worked closely with stakeholders throughout all stages of this process; however, conflicts between competing stakeholders have delayed and complicated this effort. The overarching aim of this paper is to consider the extent to which the SVP approach employed by the IJC was effective in managing conflict in the LOSLR context. Audio recordings and transcriptions of public and technical hearings held by the IJC in 2013 have been systematically analysed using stakeholder mapping and content analysis methods, to gain insight into the stakeholder universe interacting with the IJC on Plan 2014.  The principal conclusions of this paper are that (a the Shared Vision Planning approach employed by the IJC had some significant successes in terms of conflict management—particularly notable is the success that has been achieved with regards to integration of First Nation concerns; (b there is a distinct group of shoreline property owners, based in New York State, who remain opposed to Plan 2014—the IJC’s public outreach and participation efforts have not been successful in reconciling their position with that of other stakeholders due to the fact that this stakeholder group perceive that they can only lose out from any regulation change and are therefore unlikely to be motivated to engage productively in any planning dialogue; and (c a solution would require that the problem be reframed so that this stakeholder can see

  4. Vernacular Knowledge and Water Management – Towards the Integration of Expert Science and Local Knowledge in Ontario, Canada

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    Hugh Simpson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex environmental problems cannot be solved using expert science alone. Rather, these kinds of problems benefit from problem-solving processes that draw on 'vernacular' knowledge. Vernacular knowledge integrates expert science and local knowledge with community beliefs and values. Collaborative approaches to water problem-solving can provide forums for bringing together diverse, and often competing, interests to produce vernacular knowledge through deliberation and negotiation of solutions. Organised stakeholder groups are participating increasingly in such forums, often through involvement of networks, but it is unclear what roles these networks play in the creation and sharing of vernacular knowledge. A case-study approach was used to evaluate the involvement of a key stakeholder group, the agricultural community in Ontario, Canada, in creating vernacular knowledge during a prescribed multi-stakeholder problem-solving process for source water protection for municipal supplies. Data sources – including survey questionnaire responses, participant observation, and publicly available documents – illustrate how respondents supported and participated in the creation of vernacular knowledge. The results of the evaluation indicate that the respondents recognised and valued agricultural knowledge as an information source for resolving complex problems. The research also provided insight concerning the complementary roles and effectiveness of the agricultural community in sharing knowledge within a prescribed problem-solving process.

  5. Traditional Knowledge: Considerations for Protecting Water in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah McGregor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Canada, the water crisis increasingly felt around the world is being experienced primarily in small, usually Indigenous, communities. At the heart of this issue lies an ongoing struggle to have Indigenous voices heard in the decision-making processes that affect their lives, lands, and waters. As part of ancient systems of Traditional Knowledge (TK, Indigenous people bear the knowledge and the responsibility to care for the waters upon which they depend for survival. A series of internationally developed documents has supported Indigenous peoples’ calls for increased recognition of the importance of TK in resolving environmental crises, including those involving water. Ontario provincial and Canadian federal governments have been developing legislative and regulatory documents to help fend off further water-related catastrophes within their jurisdictions. Despite such efforts, a number of barriers to the successful and appropriate involvement of TK in water management remain. Based on years of community-based and policy-related research with First Nations people involved in water-related undertakings, this article highlights progress made to date, and provides Indigenous viewpoints on what further steps need to be taken. Key among these steps are the need to restore and maintain Indigenous access to traditional territories and ways of life, and the requirement for mutually respectful collaboration between TK and Western science.

  6. Proceedings of the Ontario Waterpower Association's 5. annual conference : the power of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This conference examined issues critical to the positive growth of waterpower. Topics covered included water management planning; water resource economics; new development; adaptive management; dam safety and public safety around dams and operational best practices. The conference provided an effective forum for coordinating and promoting the common interests of the waterpower industry in Ontario and improving the competitiveness of the industry. Common interests were identified among various organizations, and representatives from government and non-government agencies, industry professionals and practitioners that were invited to participate in this event. The conference featured 15 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Source Water Protection Planning for Ontario First Nations Communities: Case Studies Identifying Challenges and Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie Collins; Deborah McGregor; Stephanie Allen; Craig Murray; Chris Metcalfe

    2017-01-01

    After the Walkerton tragedy in 2000, where drinking water contamination left seven people dead and many suffering from chronic illness, the Province of Ontario, Canada implemented policies to develop Source Water Protection (SWP) plans. Under the Clean Water Act (2006), thirty-six regional Conservation Authorities were mandated to develop watershed-based SWP plans under 19 Source Protection Regions. Most First Nations in Ontario are outside of these Source Protection Regions and reserve lands...

  8. Integration of woodland caribou habitat management and forest management in northern Ontario - current status and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted (E.R Armstrong

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou {Rangifer tarandus caribou range across northern Ontario, occurring in both the Hudson Bay Lowlands and the Boreal Forest. Woodland caribou extend south well into the merchantable forest, occurring in licensed and/or actively managed Forest Management Units (FMU's across the province. Caribou range has gradually but continuously receded northward over the past century. Since the early 1990's, the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR has been developing and implementing a woodland caribou habitat management strategy in northwestern Ontario. The purpose of the caribou habitat strategy is to maintain woodland caribou occupancy of currently occupied range in northwestern Ontario. Long-term caribou habitat needs and predator-prey dynamics form the basis of this strategy, which requires the development of a landscape-level caribou habitat mosaic across the region within caribou range. This represents a significant change from traditional forest management approaches, which were based partially upon moose (Alces alces habitat management principles. A number of issues and concerns regarding implications of caribou management to the forest industry are being addressed, including short-term and long-term reductions in wood supply and wood quality, and increased access costs. Other related concerns include the ability to regenerate forests to pre-harvest stand conditions, remote tourism concerns, implications for moose populations, and required information on caribou biology and habitat. The forest industry and other stakeholders have been actively involved with the OMNR in attempting to address these concerns, so that caribou habitat requirements are met while ensuring the maintenance of a viable timber industry, other forest uses and the forest ecosystem.

  9. Source Water Protection Planning for Ontario First Nations Communities: Case Studies Identifying Challenges and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Collins

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available After the Walkerton tragedy in 2000, where drinking water contamination left seven people dead and many suffering from chronic illness, the Province of Ontario, Canada implemented policies to develop Source Water Protection (SWP plans. Under the Clean Water Act (2006, thirty-six regional Conservation Authorities were mandated to develop watershed-based SWP plans under 19 Source Protection Regions. Most First Nations in Ontario are outside of these Source Protection Regions and reserve lands are under Federal jurisdiction. This paper explores how First Nations in Ontario are attempting to address SWP to improve drinking water quality in their communities even though these communities are not part of the Ontario SWP framework. The case studies highlight the gap between the regulatory requirements of the Federal and Provincial governments and the challenges for First Nations in Ontario from lack of funding to implement solutions to address the threats identified in SWP planning. This analysis of different approaches taken by Ontario First Nations shows that the Ontario framework for SWP planning is not an option for the majority of First Nations communities, and does not adequately address threats originating on reserve lands. First Nations attempting to address on-reserve threats to drinking water are using a variety of resources and approaches to develop community SWP plans. However, a common theme of all the cases surveyed is a lack of funding to support implementing solutions for the threats identified by the SWP planning process. Federal government initiatives to address the chronic problem of boil water advisories within Indigenous communities do not recognize SWP planning as a cost-effective tool for improving drinking water quality.

  10. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Conditions and Variability in Water Quality Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in recent years has increased regarding conditions in the nearshore of the Great Lakes. We conducted a high-resolution survey of the Lake Ontario nearshore along the 20 m contour using towed electronic instrumentation. The 720 km survey was conducted September 6-10, 20...

  11. Drinking water contamination in Walkerton, Ontario: positive resolutions from a tragic event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, R

    2003-01-01

    In May 2000, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter jejuni contaminated the drinking water supply in Walkerton, Ontario. Seven people died and over 2,000 were ill as a result. The Ontario Provincial Government set up a judicial Inquiry into the circumstances surrounding the outbreak and also moved quickly to introduce a new Drinking Water Regulation that incorporated some significant requirements for drinking water providers. The Inquiry itself was in three parts: (a) part 1 related to the events that occurred in Walkerton and why the water contamination occurred; (b) part 1A related specifically to the role of the Provincial Government in the event; and (c) part 2 related to the future of drinking water safety in Ontario with potential to influence regulation on a wider basis. A number of other actions were taken after Walkerton. In August 2000, the Ontario Government, through the Regulatory body, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) (a) re-issued and revised the Ontario Drinking Water Objectives (ODWO) as the Ontario Drinking Water Standards (ODWS) and (b) introduced new regulations governing drinking water in Ontario--the Ontario Drinking Water Protection Regulation. One of the key features of the Drinking Water Protection Regulation was the requirement to produce an independent Engineers' Report on all water systems. This paper provides a unique perspective on the Walkerton tragedy and its aftermath. The author was active in many aspects of the resulting activity (Chair of the Ontario Water Works Association's (a section of the AWWA) Special Committee involved in Part 2 of the Walkerton Inquiry; author of several of the Engineers' Reports mandated by Regulation; reviewer on behalf of the Regulator of Engineers' Reports submitted by others). The Engineers' Reports were of interest because (1) the drinking water providers (mostly municipalities) were mandated by regulation to complete the Reports by specific dates and are paying for the Reports, (2

  12. The effectiveness and resilience of phosphorus management practices in the Lake Simcoe watershed, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, J.; Futter, M. N.; Palmer, M.; Whitehead, P. G.; Baulch, H. M.; Woods, D.; Jin, L.; Oni, S. K.; Dillon, P. J.

    2016-09-01

    Uncertainty surrounding future climate makes it difficult to have confidence that current nutrient management strategies will remain effective. This study used monitoring and modeling to assess current effectiveness (% phosphorus reduction) and resilience (defined as continued effectiveness under a changing climate) of best management practices (BMPs) within five catchments of the Lake Simcoe watershed, Ontario. The Integrated Catchment Phosphorus model (INCA-P) was used, and monitoring data were used to calibrate and validate a series of management scenarios. To assess current BMP effectiveness, models were run over a baseline period 1985-2014 with and without management scenarios. Climate simulations were run (2070-2099), and BMP resilience was calculated as the percent change in effectiveness between the baseline and future period. Results demonstrated that livestock removal from water courses was the most effective BMP, while manure storage adjustments were the least. Effectiveness varied between catchments, influenced by the dominant hydrological and nutrient transport pathways. Resilience of individual BMPs was associated with catchment sensitivity to climate change. BMPs were most resilient in catchments with high soil water storage capacity and small projected changes in frozen-water availability and in soil moisture deficits. Conversely, BMPs were less resilient in catchments with larger changes in spring melt magnitude and in overland flow proportions. Results indicated that BMPs implemented are not always those most suited to catchment flow pathways, and a more site-specific approach would enhance prospects for maintaining P reduction targets. Furthermore, BMP resilience to climate change can be predicted from catchment physical properties and present-day hydrochemical sensitivity to climate forcing.

  13. Comparing health system performance assessment and management approaches in the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klazinga Niek S

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the proliferation and the growing complexity of performance measurement initiatives in many health systems, the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada expressed interests in cross-national comparisons in an effort to promote knowledge transfer and best practise. To support this cross-national learning, a study was undertaken to compare health system performance approaches in The Netherlands with Ontario, Canada. Methods We explored the performance assessment framework and system of each constituency, the embeddedness of performance data in management and policy processes, and the interrelationships between the frameworks. Methods used included analysing governmental strategic planning and policy documents, literature and internet searches, comparative descriptive tables, and schematics. Data collection and analysis took place in Ontario and The Netherlands. A workshop to validate and discuss the findings was conducted in Toronto, adding important insights to the study. Results Both Ontario and The Netherlands conceive health system performance within supportive frameworks. However they differ in their assessment approaches. Ontario's Scorecard links performance measurement with strategy, aimed at health system integration. The Dutch Health Care Performance Report (Zorgbalans does not explicitly link performance with strategy, and focuses on the technical quality of healthcare by measuring dimensions of quality, access, and cost against healthcare needs. A backbone 'five diamond' framework maps both frameworks and articulates the interrelations and overlap between their goals, themes, dimensions and indicators. The workshop yielded more contextual insights and further validated the comparative values of each constituency's performance assessment system. Conclusion To compare the health system performance approaches between The Netherlands and Ontario, Canada, several important conceptual and contextual issues must be addressed

  14. Will ecosystem management supply woodland caribou habitat in northwestern Ontario?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Euler

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem management is emerging as an important concept in managing forests. Although the basic conceptual idea is not new, important defining principles are developing that elucidate some of the specific attributes of ecosystem management. These principles include: the maintenance of all ecosystems in the managed forest, rhe emulation of natural disturbance patterns on rhe landscape and the insurance that structure and function of forested ecosystems are conserved. Forest management has an impact on woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou, although the presence of wolves (Canis lupus and moose (Alces alces in the same northern ecosystems also affects the caribou-forestry interacrion. Specific management for caribou as a featured species has been proposed, based on managing large landscape blocks. Ecosystem management would also produce habitat in a manner that might accomplish the goal of conserving woodland caribou as well as maintaining other important ecosystem functions.

  15. Contamination in Ontario farmstead domestic wells and its association with agriculture:. 1. Results from drinking water wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, M. J.; Barry, D. A. J.; Rudolph, D. L.

    1998-08-01

    Groundwater provides about 30% of water requirements in Ontario, but farm families depend almost entirely on private wells. Major potential contaminants on farms are nitrate (NO 3-), pathogenic microorganisms, pesticides and petroleum derivatives. A survey of farm drinking-water wells was conducted throughout the Province of Ontario, Canada, in 1991 and 1992 and tested for these contaminants. The main objectives of the survey were to determine the quality and safety of drinking water for farm families, and determine the effect of agricultural management on groundwater quality at a provincial scale. Four farm wells were chosen in each township where >50% of the land area was used for agricultural production. Elsewhere one well per township was usually sampled. Within each township the types of farming activity and dominant soils were additional criteria for selection. The network comprised 1292 of the estimated 500,000 water-wells in Ontario, and the study conformed to a stratified random survey. A subset of 160 wells, chosen by farm type, soil, and the presence or absence of a fuel storage tank, was investigated for the presence of petroleum derivatives: benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene. About 40% of farm wells tested contained one or more of the target contaminants above the maximum acceptable concentration; 34% of wells had more than the maximum acceptable number of coliform bacteria, 14% contained NO 3--N concentrations above 10 mg l -1 limit and about 7% were contaminated with both bacteria and NO 3-. Only six wells contained pesticide residues above the interim maximum acceptable concentration (IMAC), but pesticides were detected in 7% of wells in winter and in 11% in summer. No wells contained detectable petroleum derivatives. These results for NO 3- contamination were not significantly different from those reported for a survey of Ontario wells for the period 1950-1954, but the frequency of contamination by Escherichia coli was greater in the

  16. Total Water Management - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

  17. Experience, training and confidence among small, non-community drinking water system operators in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Wendy; McEwen, Scott A; Pintar, Katarina; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Young, Ian; Papadopoulos, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    The water operator plays an important role in water safety; however, little published research exists that has examined this role. The purpose of this study was to develop a greater understanding of the experience, existing knowledge, confidence and future training needs of the small, non-community drinking water operator in Ontario in order to help guide future outreach and training opportunities. A cross-sectional telephone survey of 332 small, non-community drinking water operators in Ontario was conducted in July and August 2011. Survey questions pertained to respondents' experience as operators, formal training, perceived importance of water safety issues, confidence in handling water safety issues, and future training needs. Approximately 16% (54/330) of respondents had one year or less experience as a water operator, and 60% (199/332) reported that being a water operator was not a chosen profession. Only 37% (124/332) of operators reported completing operator training. Respondents reported a preference for online training courses or on-site training (compared with a classroom setting). Low training rates, inexperience, and in certain situations, low confidence, among many small water system operators highlight a need to provide continued support to the development of ongoing training opportunities in this population.

  18. Towards a Caribou Habitat Management Strategy for Northwestern Ontario: Running the Gauntlet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald D. Racey

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A management strategy for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou habitat is being developed in northwestern Ontario. This strategy is based upon a set of draft Timber Management Guidelines for the Provision of Woodland Caribou Habitat. These guidelines recommend maintaining a sustainable supply of winter habitat within large tracts of old forest, protecting calving areas and minimizing human disturbance. Due to the large temporal and spatial scale of caribou habitat management, an ecosystem-based approach is recommended. Public response to the strategy shows a strong dichotomy between environmental and utilitarian values among all the major stakeholder groups. The major issues raised by the public include security of industrial wood supply, quality of the knowledge base, level of awareness of caribou, economic impacts on remote communities, concern about environmental impacts and silvicultural know-how. The government is responding to these concerns as the strategy evolves. Current emphasis is placed on increasing awareness of the public, training resource managers in caribou biology, management and habitat planning, implementing interim habitat management prescriptions and studying the potential impact on wood supply. The final direction for a northwestern Ontario strategy to conserve woodland caribou habitat has yet to be decided, although a commitment has been made to strive for the conservation of woodland caribou populations and their habitat.

  19. Behavior, movements, and demographics of rabid raccoons in Ontario, Canada: management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosatte, Rick; Sobey, Kirk; Donovan, Dennis; Bruce, Laura; Allan, Mike; Silver, Andrew; Bennett, Kim; Gibson, Mark; Simpson, Holly; Davies, Chris; Wandeler, Alex; Muldoon, Frances

    2006-07-01

    During 1999-2003, 127 cases of raccoon variant rabies were reported in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in Ontario, Canada. Raccoons accounted for 98% (125/127) of the reported cases with behaviors/conditions including aggression, fighting with dogs, ataxia, vocalizations, appearance of being sick, and the presence of porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) quills. Seventy-eight percent of the rabid raccoons were adults. Juveniles were underrepresented (22%) compared with the adult/juvenile ratios found in nonrabid Ontario raccoon populations. Of the known aged raccoons, 83% were raccoons had evidence of having had a litter during the year in which they were found to be rabid. The majority of rabid raccoons were reported during the fall, winter, and spring, suggesting a relationship between raccoon behavioral activities such as denning and breeding and the timing of rabies outbreaks. Multiple cases of raccoon rabies occurred at several barns, suggesting that those structures serve as focal points of rabies transmission as a result of denning activities. Movements of five rabid raccoons (range 1,564-4,143 m) were not different from movements of nonrabid raccoons in Ontario. Sixty-six percent of the rabid animals were submitted by government staff, stressing the importance of those agencies in rabies control and surveillance operations. Increased knowledge of the behaviors of rabid raccoons should assist in the development of management strategies for rabies.

  20. Disability management outcomes in the Ontario long-term care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, C A; Kalcevich, C; Steenstra, I A; Smith, P; Amick, B

    2010-12-01

    Optimal disability management practices supporting early and safe return-to-work involve the workplace adoption of formal policies and procedures to ensure the quality of disability management outcomes. In the Canadian province of Ontario, there are approximately 60,000 health care workers in 600 licensed facilities providing long-term residential care to approximately 75,000 elderly residents. Workers in this sector are exposed to high biomechanical demands arising from care-giving tasks and have a substantial risk of work-related disability. Over the period 2000-2006, many long-term care facilities in Ontario adopted disability management practices that encourage modified work arrangements. The objective of this study was to describe differences in modified work arrangements and disability outcomes in long-term care facilities in Ontario. Measures of disability episode outcomes are described for a representative sample of 32 Ontario long-term care facilities for two consecutive years 2005 and 2006. Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of facilities, a survey of a representative sample of caregivers and administrative records from the provincial workers' compensation agency. A total of 28,747 days of disability attributed to work-related conditions were experienced by 3,271 full-time equivalent staff in 2005 (28,034 days in 2006). Average total disability days were 922 per 100 full-time equivalent staff in 2005 and 889 per 100 full-time equivalent staff in 2006. Disability compensation expenditures, measured as wage replacement benefits received by disabled workers, were estimated to be $72,332 per 100 full-time equivalent staff in 2005 and $64,619 per 100 full-time equivalent staff in 2006. On average, approximately 60% of all disability days were managed by modified duty arrangements and the proportion of total disability days managed by modified duty arrangements for each facility was correlated between the two observation years. Across facilities

  1. Experience of implementing a quality management system in an Ontario hospital laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Daniel K H

    2005-11-29

    This article describes the process of building and implementing a quality management system in the Department of Laboratory Medicine at St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto. This was done in part to fulfill the requirements of the Ontario Laboratory Accreditation program. During the process, we revised and created new procedure manuals and documents through the use of focus groups and inter-departmental committees. The entire project took approximately two-and-a-half years to complete and required teamwork, personal commitment, and professional sacrifices by key personnel.

  2. Osteoporosis management and fractures in the Métis of Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Jandoc, Racquel; Jembere, Nathaniel; Khan, Saba; Russell, Storm J.; Allard, Yvon; Cadarette, Suzanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Half of Métis citizens, compared to less than 10 % of the general population of Ontario, reside in northern regions, with little access to bone mineral density (BMD) testing. Métis citizens had lower sex-specific and age-standardized rates of BMD testing, yet similar rates of fracture (both sexes) and pharmacotherapy (women only). Purpose To examine osteoporosis management and common osteoporosis-related fractures among Métis citizens compared to the general population of older adults...

  3. An analysis of the relationship between bulk tank milk quality and wash water quality on dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, N R; Kelton, D F; Hand, K J; MacNaughton, G; Berke, O; Leslie, K E

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify regions at high risk for bacterial water or milk contamination, as well as risk factors associated with high bacteria counts in raw milk in Ontario, Canada. Between 2003 and 2004, the Dairy Farmers of Ontario (DFO) tested water samples from 5,421 farms in Ontario for the presence of Escherichia coli and coliforms. The water samples were collected as "point-of-use" samples, meaning that each sample was taken from a tap or water hose in the milk house as soon as the water was turned on. Routine, monthly raw milk bacterial counts were determined by DFO using BactoScan (Foss, Hillerød, Denmark). BactoScan data were retrieved from DFO for all of the farms with water test results. The prevalence of samples with E. coli and coliforms in water and elevated bacteria counts in raw milk was 13.6, 53.8, and 2.8%, respectively. The spatial analysis, using a scan statistic, revealed 1 coliform and 3 E. coli clusters of contaminated water, but no clusters of elevated milk bacteria counts in raw milk in southern Ontario. The coliform water contamination cluster was the largest, with a radius of approximately 200 km. Regression analysis indicated that risk factors associated with the occurrence of high levels of bacteria in raw milk were elevated average monthly somatic cell count, increased total milk production, cooler seasons of the year, and the presence of E. coli in wash water.

  4. Impact of long term wetting on pore water chemistry in a peat bog in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Jonas; Blodau, Christian; Holger Knorr, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    Peatlands of the northern hemisphere store a remarkable amount of carbon but also contribute to global methane emissions. As large areas in the boreal and subarctic zone are considered to undergo significant climate change it is necessary to understand how these ecosystems react to altered environmental conditions. Since not only temperatures but also precipitation is likely to increase in these regions, it is of particular interest to understand the impact of raised water tables and changing local hydrological flow patterns on peatlands' carbon cycle. We chose a pristine bog that was partly flooded by a reservoir lake created 60 years ago in Ontario, Canada. Water management in the reservoir resulted in seasonal flooding, shifting hydrological flow patterns and vegetation gradients. The impact of partial flooding on pore water chemistry and DIC and CH4 concentrations were studied within surface peat layers. Samples were taken with pore water peepers along the vegetation- and flooding gradient. Turnover rates of DIC and methane were calculated from obtained concentration profiles and peat porosity under the assumption that transport is dominated by diffusion. Values of pH changed remarkably from 4 within the undisturbed bog part to almost 8 at the lake shore. Ca2+ and Mg2+ were the only ions that showed significant distribution patterns with readily increasing concentrations towards the lake water body. CH4 and DIC concentrations also increased towards the lake and peaked in around 100 cm depth right at the shore with maximum concentrations being 2766 μmol L-1 for CH4 and 7543 μmol L-1 for DIC, respectively. Turnover rates also increased towards the shore albeit some uncertainty lies in this finding as steady state condition required for calculations were probably not established and transport was not only dominated by diffusion. Maximum CH4 production rates were modeled to be 36 nmol cm-3 d-1 and maximum DIC production was calculated to 64 nmol cm-3 d-1. Ca2

  5. Policy Transfer Among Regional-Level Organizations: Insights from Source Water Protection in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Loë, R C; Murray, D; Michaels, S; Plummer, R

    2016-07-01

    Organizations at the local and regional scales often face the challenge of developing policy mechanisms rapidly and concurrently, whether in response to expanding mandates, newly identified threats, or changes in the political environment. In the Canadian Province of Ontario, rapid, concurrent policy development was considered desirable by 19 regional organizations tasked with developing policies for protection of drinking water sources under very tight and highly prescribed mandates. An explicit policy transfer approach was used by these organizations. Policy transfer refers to using knowledge of policies, programs, and institutions in one context in the development of policies, programs, and institutions in another. This paper assesses three online mechanisms developed to facilitate policy transfer for source water protection in Ontario. Insights are based on a survey of policy planners from the 19 regional organizations who used the three policy transfer tools, supplemented by an analysis of three policies created and transferred among the 19 regional source water protection organizations. Policy planners in the study indicated they had used policy transfer to develop source protection policies for their regions-a finding confirmed by analysis of the text of policies. While the online policy transfer tools clearly facilitated systematic policy transfer, participants still preferred informal, direct exchanges with their peers in other regions over the use of the internet-based policy transfer mechanisms created on their behalf.

  6. Policy Transfer Among Regional-Level Organizations: Insights from Source Water Protection in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Loë, R. C.; Murray, D.; Michaels, S.; Plummer, R.

    2016-07-01

    Organizations at the local and regional scales often face the challenge of developing policy mechanisms rapidly and concurrently, whether in response to expanding mandates, newly identified threats, or changes in the political environment. In the Canadian Province of Ontario, rapid, concurrent policy development was considered desirable by 19 regional organizations tasked with developing policies for protection of drinking water sources under very tight and highly prescribed mandates. An explicit policy transfer approach was used by these organizations. Policy transfer refers to using knowledge of policies, programs, and institutions in one context in the development of policies, programs, and institutions in another. This paper assesses three online mechanisms developed to facilitate policy transfer for source water protection in Ontario. Insights are based on a survey of policy planners from the 19 regional organizations who used the three policy transfer tools, supplemented by an analysis of three policies created and transferred among the 19 regional source water protection organizations. Policy planners in the study indicated they had used policy transfer to develop source protection policies for their regions—a finding confirmed by analysis of the text of policies. While the online policy transfer tools clearly facilitated systematic policy transfer, participants still preferred informal, direct exchanges with their peers in other regions over the use of the internet-based policy transfer mechanisms created on their behalf.

  7. Exploring the relationships between small non-community drinking water system characteristics and water system performance in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Wendy; Young, Ian; Pearl, David; Jones-Bitton, Andria; McEwen, Scott A; Pintar, Katarina; Papadopoulos, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of this work were to investigate the relationships between characteristics of small non-community drinking water systems (SDWSs) and the performance of these systems with respect to Escherichia coli testing and risk ratings. Ontario-wide SDWS data were analysed using regression models with outcomes of (1) having an adverse E. coli test result in the 12 months prior to the last inspection and (2) the SDWS risk rating (high/medium vs. low risk) that is assigned by public health inspectors. Almost 34% (2,364/7,003) of SDWSs did not utilize treatment, more commonly for ground water than surface supplies (P water with treatment (OR = 2.00; 95% CI 1.23-3.24) and surface water with treatment (OR = 1.97; 95% CI 1.05-3.71) compared to ground water with no treatment. The odds of having a water system rated high or medium compared to low risk was greater if the water system operated seasonally (OR = 1.36; 95% CI 1.17-1.59), had an adverse E. coli test result (OR = 1.66; 95% CI 1.09-2.53), and in specific facility types. This research helps to inform existing training opportunities available to SDWS operators in Ontario, and to better standardize the SDWS risk assessment process.

  8. Factors influencing the occurrence and distribution of neonicotinoid insecticides in surface waters of southern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struger, John; Grabuski, Josey; Cagampan, Steve; Sverko, Ed; McGoldrick, Daryl; Marvin, Christopher H

    2017-02-01

    The widespread use of neonicotinoid insecticides and recent increased regulatory scrutiny requires the generation of monitoring data with sufficient scope and resolution to provide decision makers with a better understanding of occurrence and distribution in the environment. This study presents a wide-scale investigation of neonicotinoid insecticides used across the range of agricultural activities from fifteen surface water sites in southern Ontario. Using statistical analysis, the correlation of individual compounds with land use was investigated, and the relationship between neonicotinoid occurrence and hydrologic parameters in calibrated water courses was also assessed. Of the five neonicotinoids studied, imidacloprid, clothianidin and thiamethoxam exhibited detection rates above 90% at over half the sites sampled over a three year period (2012-2014). At two sites in southwestern Ontario, the Canadian Federal freshwater guideline value for imidacloprid (230 ng/L) was exceeded in roughly 75% of the samples collected. For some watersheds, there were correlations between the occurrence of neonicotinoids and precipitation and/or stream discharge. Some watersheds exhibited seasonal maxima in concentrations of neonicotinoids in spring and fall, particularly for those areas where row crop agriculture is predominant; these seasonal patterns were absent in some areas characterized by a broad range of agricultural activities.

  9. Occurrence and Distribution of Carbamate Pesticides and Metalaxyl in Southern Ontario Surface Waters 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struger, John; Grabuski, Josey; Cagampan, Steve; Sverko, Ed; Marvin, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Surface water sampling in 2007-2010 measured the occurrence of carbamates and metalaxyl during base flow conditions and wet weather events in southern Ontario surface waters. Carbaryl, metalaxyl and pirimicarb were the most frequently detected compounds. In 2008 these three compounds were detected in over 50 % of the samples. Overall mean concentrations of carbaryl and metalaxyl over the course of the study (2007-2010) were 15 and 18 ng/L, respectively. Elevated concentrations of carbaryl (~100 to ~950 ng/L) appeared associated with wet weather (high flow) events, while highest concentrations of metalaxyl (~20-1330 ng/L) were correlated with base flow conditions. We attributed these observations as the result of runoff of carbaryl from the watershed during rain events, while metalaxyl contamination may have resulted primarily from spray drift.

  10. Exploring limits to market-based reform: managed competition and rehabilitation home care services in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Glen E; Williams, A Paul

    2006-04-01

    The rise of neo-liberalism, which suggests that only markets can deliver maximum economic efficiency, has been a driving force behind the trend towards using market-based solutions to correct health care problems. However, the broad application of market-based reforms has tended to assume the presence of fully functioning markets. When there are barriers to markets functioning effectively, such as the absence of adequate competition, recourse to market-based solutions can be expected to produce less than satisfactory, if not paradoxical results. One such case is rehabilitation homecare in Ontario, Canada. In 1996, a "managed competition" model was introduced as part of a province-wide reform of home care in an attempt to encourage high quality at competitive prices. However, in the case of rehabilitation home care services, significant obstacles to achieving effective competition existed. Notably, there were few private provider agencies to bid on contracts due to the low volume and specialized nature of services. There were also structural barriers such as the presence of unionized employees and obstacles to the entry of new providers. This paper evaluates the impact of Ontario's managed competition reform on community-based rehabilitation services. It draws on data obtained through 49 in-depth key informant interviews and a telephone survey of home care coordinating agencies and private rehabilitation provider agencies. Instead of reducing costs and improving quality, as the political rhetoric promised, the analysis suggests that providing rehabilitation homecare services under managed competition resulted in higher per-visit costs and reduced access to services. These findings support the contention that there are limits to market-based reforms.

  11. Water management strategy overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducette, B. [Suncor Energy Inc. Oil Sands, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Suncor's oil sands operations produce 225,000 bbl/day of crude oil products from Alberta's Fort McMurray area. Water is a key resource used for enhanced recovery methods to produce crude oil products from oil sands. A water management strategy is required to monitor and control the amount of water used in the bitumen liberation process, cooling, the steam assisted gravity drainage process, steam for cogeneration, an energy transfer medium, a transportation medium, feedstock, and potable water. The water management strategy is designed to manage both short and long term water issues and develop sustainable water management strategies in an integrated manner. The strategy also encourages open communication on water to optimize synergy between operators, energy producers, and governments. The opportunities and challenges of a water management strategy were outlined with reference to recycling opportunities, managing water chemistry, and improving the ability to measure water use.

  12. Occurrence of waterborne pathogens and Escherichia coli at offshore drinking water intakes in lake Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, T A; Khan, I U H; Bouchard, R; Guo, J; Hill, S; Locas, A; Moore, L; Neumann, N; Nowak, E; Payment, P; Yang, R; Yerubandi, R; Watson, S

    2013-10-01

    The occurrence of waterborne pathogens was investigated at three drinking water intakes located about 2 km offshore in Lake Ontario. Water sampling was conducted over 3 years for Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., cultivable enteric viruses, and water quality parameters. All pathogens were detected in the offshore source water for each water treatment plant (WTP1 to WTP3), although at relatively low frequencies and concentrations. Giardia was the most common pathogen, occurring in 36% of water samples from the influent of WTP1 (n = 46), and with a maximum concentration of 0.70 cysts/liter in this influent. Cryptosporidium occurred as frequently as 15% in the WTP2 influent (n = 35), with a maximum concentration of 0.40 oocysts/liter in the WTP1 influent. The human Bacteroidales HF183 DNA marker was most common in the WTP1 influent (19%), and this was the only WTP where the Cryptosporidium hominis genotype was detected. No water quality parameter was predictive of pathogen occurrence across all three WTP influents. Escherichia coli was often below detection when pathogens were detected, and spikes in E. coli concentrations often did not coincide with pathogen occurrence. After summer rain events, river plumes had E. coli concentrations as high as 222 CFU/100 ml in surface waters 2 km offshore, without impacting drinking water intakes below the thermocline on the lake bottom. At times, prechlorination to control mussels at offshore intake cribs compromised the use of E. coli for "raw" water quality assessment, particularly for chlorine-resistant Cryptosporidium. E. coli measured by standard methods did not reliably predict pathogen occurrence at drinking water intakes in offshore ecosystems.

  13. Factors influencing workers to follow food safety management systems in meat plants in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Brita; Wilcock, Anne; Aung, May

    2009-06-01

    Small and medium sized food businesses have been slow to adopt food safety management systems (FSMSs) such as good manufacturing practices and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP). This study identifies factors influencing workers in their implementation of food safety practices in small and medium meat processing establishments in Ontario, Canada. A qualitative approach was used to explore in-plant factors that influence the implementation of FSMSs. Thirteen in-depth interviews in five meat plants and two focus group interviews were conducted. These generated 219 pages of verbatim transcripts which were analysed using NVivo 7 software. Main themes identified in the data related to production systems, organisational characteristics and employee characteristics. A socio-psychological model based on the theory of planned behaviour is proposed to describe how these themes and underlying sub-themes relate to FSMS implementation. Addressing the various factors that influence production workers is expected to enhance FSMS implementation and increase food safety.

  14. Multi-Barrier Protection of Drinking Water Systems in Ontario: A Comparison of First Nation and Non-First Nation Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhendra Singh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In some way or another, all levels of government in Canada and First Nations share responsibility to implement multi-barrier protection of drinking water. The goal is to protect water from source to tap to minimize risk so that people have access to adequate and safe drinking water. The federal government has committed to assist First Nations achieve comparable levels of service standards available to non-First Nation communities. However, several recent reports on the status of drinking water services standards in First Nations indicate that people in these communities often experience greater health risks than those living off reserves. Using the federal drinking water risk evaluation guidelines, the capacities of First Nations and non-First Nations in Ontario to implement multi-barrier protection of their drinking water systems are compared. The Risk Level Evaluation Guidelines for Water and Wastewater Treatment in First Nation Communities rank drinking water systems as low, medium, or high risk based on information about source water, system design, system operation, reporting, and operator expertise. The risk evaluation scores for First Nations drinking water systems were obtained from Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada. A survey based on the federal Risk Level Evaluation Guidelines was sent to non-First Nation communities throughout Ontario with 54 communities responding. The capacity among First Nations was variable throughout the province, whereas all of the municipalities were in the low risk category, even small and northern non-First Nation community water systems. It is clear that the financial and technological capacity issues should be addressed regardless of the legislative and regulatory regime that is established. The current governance and management structure does not appear to be significantly reducing the gap in service standards despite financial investment. Exploring social or other underlying determinants

  15. Water Management in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Majewski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current situation in Polish water resources management. Discussed here are measures taken by the Ministry of Environment to introduce a new water law, as well as reforms of water management in Poland. The state of water resources in Poland are described, and the actions needed to improve this situation, taking into account possible climate changes and their impact on the use of water resources. Critically referred to is the introduction by the Ministry of Environment of charges for water abstraction by hydro power plants, and adverse effects for the energy and water management sectors are discussed.

  16. Evaluation of the Johne's disease risk assessment and management plan on dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Laura; Sorge, Ulrike S; DeVries, Trevor J; Godkin, Ann; Lissemore, Kerry; Kelton, David F

    2015-10-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is a production-limiting gastrointestinal disease in cattle. To minimize the effects of JD, the Ontario dairy industry launched the Ontario Johne's Education and Management Assistance Program in 2010. As part of the program, trained veterinarians conducted a risk assessment and management plan (RAMP), an on-farm questionnaire where high RAMP scores are associated with high risk of JD transmission. Subsequently, veterinarians recommended farm-specific management practices for JD prevention. Milk or serum ELISA results from the milking herd were used to determine the herd ELISA status (HES) and within-herd prevalence. After 3.5 yr of implementation of the program, the aim of this study was to evaluate the associations among RAMP scores, HES, and recommendations. Data from 2,103 herds were available for the analyses. A zero-inflated negative binomial model for the prediction of the number of ELISA-positive animals per farm was built. The model included individual RAMP questions about purchasing animals in the logistic portion, indicating risks for between-herd transmission, and purchasing bulls, birth of calves outside the designated calving area, colostrum and milk feeding management, and adult cow environmental hygiene in the negative binomial portion, indicating risk factors for within-herd transmission. However, farms which fed low-risk milk compared with milk replacer had fewer seropositive animals. The model additionally included the JD herd history in the negative binomial and the logistic portion, indicating that herds with a JD herd history were more likely to have at least 1 positive animal and to have a higher number of positive animals. Generally, a positive association was noted between RAMP scores and the odds of receiving a recommendation for the respective risk area; however, the relationship was not always linear. For general JD risk and calving area risk, seropositive herds had higher odds of receiving recommendations compared

  17. Supply shortage forecast in Ontario: The significance of demand-side management (DSM); its tools and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, S.

    2004-06-01

    Aspects of the recent report by the Ontario Electricity Conservation and Supply Task Force and Independent Market Operator which forecasts acute power supply shortages in Ontario, are discussed. Immediate action is recommended to avert the problem. The principal recommendation concerns the adoption of Demand Side Management as a tool to reduce the widening gap between supply and demand, citing supply shortage, imports, high prices, deregulated market and environmental concerns as the driving forces which push for the adoption of DSM. It is claimed that DSM, through its tools such as Demand/Load Response Programs and Time-of-Use rates has the capacity to create the necessary balance between supply and demand more efficiently, and in a more timely fashion than supply side management. The demand for adoption of DSM is justified on the basis of a careful examination of the magnitude and significance of each of the driving forces affecting the electricity supply in Ontario, as well as the benefits and techniques of DSM designed to manage power shortages. Energy Conservation and Efficiency and Demand/Load Response Programs are discussed as the principal DSM techniques, while Dynamic/Real Time Pricing, Time-of-Use Rates, Automated /Smart Metering, Web-based/Communication Systems, Reliability-based Programs, Market/Price-based programs, and Types of Load Control are described as the principal tools used by DSM. DSM program approaches and strategies are also reviewed, along with a brief list of successful examples of DSM applications. 3 figs.

  18. Examining water quality effects of riparian wetland loss and restoration scenarios in a southern ontario watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanhong; Liu, Yongbo; Ou, Chunping; Gabor, Shane

    2016-06-01

    Wetland conservation has two important tasks: The first is to halt wetland loss and the second is to conduct wetland restoration. In order to facilitate these tasks, it is important to understand the environmental degradation from wetland loss and the environmental benefits from wetland restoration. The purpose of the study is to develop SWAT based wetland modelling to examine water quality effects of riparian wetland loss and restoration scenarios in the 323-km(2) Black River watershed in southern Ontario, Canada. The SWAT based wetland modelling was set up, calibrated and validated to fit into watershed conditions. The modelling was then applied to evaluate various scenarios of wetland loss from existing 7590 ha of riparian wetlands (baseline scenario) to 100% loss, and wetland restoration up to the year 1800 condition with 11,237 ha of riparian wetlands (100% restoration). The modelling was further applied to examine 100% riparian wetland loss and restoration in three subareas of the watershed to understand spatial pattern of water quality effects. Modelling results show that in comparing to baseline condition, the sediment, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) loadings increase by 251.0%, 260.5%, and 890.9% respectively for 100% riparian wetland loss, and decrease by 34.5%, 28.3%, and 37.0% respectively for 100% riparian wetland restoration. Modelling results also show that as riparian wetland loss increases, the corresponding environmental degradation worsens at accelerated rates. In contrast, as riparian wetland restoration increases, the environmental benefits improve but at decelerated rates. Particularly, the water quality effects of riparian wetland loss or restoration show considerable spatial variations. The watershed wetland modelling contributes to inform decisions on riparian wetland conservation or restoration at different rates. The results further demonstrate the importance of targeting priority areas for stopping riparian wetland loss

  19. Identity management, negotiation and resistance among women in the sex trade in London, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Treena; Farr, Sara; Macphail, Susan; Wender, Cass; Young, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Sex work, and ideas about women in the trade, have long been represented as tragic and/or threatening. However, such portrayals tell us very little about how women think about themselves and the kinds of work they do. The data for this paper come from an ethnographic, community-based study in London, Ontario, that involves women in street-based, indoor and transactional sex work. This discussion focuses on how women develop different individual identities, including the management of multiple selves, their sexual identities and what we have termed the 'good junkie' identity. We also examine how these women employ aspects of dominant representation of sex workers, namely the low status accorded to those in street-based work and the defamatory term 'whore' or 'ho', when negotiating the moral hierarchies that exist within various kinds of sex work (i.e., stripping, massage parlours) and making sense of their professional and personal lives. The work that goes into the creation and maintenance of the women's divergent identities sheds important light on this complicated and tremendously demanding, yet inadequately understood, aspect of life as women in the sex trade.

  20. Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario (HSFO high blood pressure strategy's hypertension management initiative study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Von Sychowski Shirley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achieving control of hypertension prevents target organ damage at both the micro and macrovascular level and is a highly cost effective means of lowering the risk for heart attack and stroke particularly in people with diabetes. Clinical trials demonstrate that blood pressure control can be achieved in a large proportion of people. Translating this knowledge into widespread practice is the focus of the Hypertension Management Initiative, which began in 2004 with the goal of improving the management of this chronic health condition by primary care providers and patients in the community. Methods This study will test the effect of a systems change on the management of high blood pressure in real world practice in primary care in Ontario, Canada. The systems change intervention involves an interprofessional educational program bringing together physicians, nurses and pharmacists with tools for both providers and patients to facilitate blood pressure management. Each of two waves of subjects were enrolled over a 6 month period with the initial enrollment between waves separated by 9 months. Blood pressure will be measured with the BpTru ® automated blood pressure device. To determine the effectiveness of the intervention, a before and after analysis within all subjects will compare blood pressure at baseline to annual measurements for the three year study. To assess whether the intervention has an impact on blood pressure control independent of community trends, a betwen group comparison of baseline blood pressures in the delayed wave will be made with the immediate wave during the same time period, so that the immediate wave has experienced the intervention for at least 9 months. The total enrollment goal is 5,000 subjects. The practice locations include 10 Family Health Teams (FHTs and 1 Community Health Centre (CHC and approximately 49 primary care physicians, 15 nurse practitioners, 37 registered nurses and over 150

  1. Lake Ontario water quality during the 2003 and 2008 intensive field years and comparison with long-term trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holeck, K. T.; Rudstam, L. G.; Watkins, J. M.; Luckey, F. J.; Lantry, J. R.; Lantry, Brian F.; Trometer, E. S.; Koops, M. A.; Johnson, Terry B.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus loading declined between the 1970s and the 1990s, leading to oligotrophication of the offshore waters of Lake Ontario during that time period. Using lake-wide data from the intensive field years of 2003 and 2008 and from available long-term data sets on several trophic state indicators (total phosphorus [TP], soluble reactive silica [SRSi], chlorophyll a and Secchi disc transparency [SDT]), we tested the hypothesis that oligotrophication of the offshore waters of Lake Ontario has continued in the 2000s. Significant differences between 2003 and 2008 include higher spring (April) TP, SRSi, and SDT in 2008, lower summer (July–August) SDT in 2008, higher summer chlorophyll a in 2008, and lower fall (September) TP, SRSi, and chlorophyll a in 2008. The decline in SRSi from spring to summer was greater in 2008 than in 2003. Change point and regression analyses on the long-term data revealed no trend in spring TP since 1996, in summer chlorophyll a since 1994, in spring SDT since 1998, in spring SRSi or SRSi decline from spring to summer since 1999, or in summer SDT since 2001. Neither the comparison of the 2003 and 2008 surveys nor the analysis of the long-term data supported our hypothesis of continued oligotrophication of the offshore of Lake Ontario in the 2000s.

  2. Sediment-to-Water Partition Coefficients: the Influence of Physicochemical and Seasonal Factors in Eastern Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yankovich, Tamara L. [International Atomic Energy Agency, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Shultz, Carmen; Hartwig, Dale; Wills, C. Anne [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada); Beresford, Nicholas A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Center, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Wood, Michael D. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    not under-estimated or to take site-specific measurements of surface waters and sediments to facilitate quantification of site-specific K{sub d} values for application on a site-by-site basis. To gain a better understanding of the factors that contribute to the variability of K{sub d}, systematic sampling of surface waters and bed sediments, and the site-specific factors that could influence K{sub d}, was carried out at 119 locations in Eastern Ontario between 2001 and 2006. Measurements of 35 parameters were taken, in addition to site-specific factors, such as sediment type, geology, proximity to radionuclide and contaminant sources, and others. The influence of such factors on variability and the application of K{sub d} values in EIA will be discussed. These data will contribute to work that is being undertaken as part of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)'s Modelling and Data for Radiological Impact Assessments (MODARIA) programme within Working Group 4, which is focused on the analysis of radioecological data in IAEA Technical Reports Series publications to identify key radionuclides and uncertainties associated with parameter values for human and wildlife assessment. (authors)

  3. Purge water management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Neto, Joao E.; Williams, Daniel W.

    1996-01-01

    A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  4. Comparing health system performance assessment and management approaches in the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Tawfik-Shukor (Ali); N.S. Klazinga (Niek); O.A. Arah (Onyebuchi)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Given the proliferation and the growing complexity of performance measurement initiatives in many health systems, the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada expressed interests in cross-national comparisons in an effort to promote knowledge transfer and best practise. To support thi

  5. Comparing health system performance assessment and management approaches in the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Tawfik-Shukor (Ali); N.S. Klazinga (Niek); O.A. Arah (Onyebuchi)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Given the proliferation and the growing complexity of performance measurement initiatives in many health systems, the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada expressed interests in cross-national comparisons in an effort to promote knowledge transfer and best practise. To support

  6. Comparing health system performance assessment and management approaches in the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Tawfik-Shukor (Ali); N.S. Klazinga (Niek); O.A. Arah (Onyebuchi)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Given the proliferation and the growing complexity of performance measurement initiatives in many health systems, the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada expressed interests in cross-national comparisons in an effort to promote knowledge transfer and best practise. To support

  7. 1988 Annual water management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Ruby Lake NWR 1987 Annual Water Management Report 1988 Annual Water Management Plan. Includes 1987 weather summary, water availability forecast, summary of 1987...

  8. Energy and Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valek, Susan E.

    2008-01-01

    Energy efficiency isn't just a good idea; it's a necessity, both for cost reasons and to meet federal regulatory requirements. First, rising energy unit costs continue to erode NASA's mission budget. NASA spent roughly $156M on facility energy in FY 2007. Although that represents less than one per cent of NASA's overall annual budget, the upward trend in energy costs concerns the agency. While NASA reduced consumption 13%, energy unit costs have risen 63%. Energy cost increases counteract the effects of energy conservation, which results in NASA buying less yet spending more. The second factor is federal energy legislation. The National Energy Conservation Policy Act, as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Executive Order (EO) 13423 (January, 2007), and the Energy Independence and Security Act (December, 2007), mandates energy/water conservation goals for all federal agencies, including NASA. There are also reporting requirements associated with this legislation. The Energy/Water Management Task was created to support NASA Headquarters Environmental Management Division (HO EMD) in meeting these requirements. With assistance from TEERM, HQ EMD compiled and submitted the NASA Annual Report to the Department of Energy FY 2007. The report contains information on how NASA is meeting federally mandated energy and water management goals. TEERM monitored input for timeliness, errors, and conformity to the new energy/water reporting guidelines and helped compile the information into the final report. TEERM also assists NASA Energy/Water Management with proposal and award calls, updates to the energy/water management database, and facilitating communication within the energy/water management community. TEERM is also supporting NASA and the Interagency Working Group (IWG) on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells. Established shortly after the President announced the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in 2003, this IWG serves as the mechanism for collaboration among the Federal agencies

  9. Status of rainbow smelt in the U.S. waters of Lake Ontario, 2013: Section 12 of NYSDEC Lake Ontario Unit annual report 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidel, Brian C.; Connerton, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax are the second most abundant pelagic prey fish in Lake Ontario after Alewife Alosa psuedoharengus. The 2013, USGS/NYSDEC bottom trawl assessment indicated the abundance of Lake Ontario age-1 and older Rainbow Smelt decreased by 69% relative to 2012. Length frequency-based age analysis indicated that age-1 Rainbow Smelt constituted approximately 50% of the population, which is similar to recent trends where the proportion of age-1 has ranged from 95% to 42% of the population. While they constituted approximately half of the catch, the overall abundance index for age 1 was one of the lowest observed in the time series, potentially a result of cannibalism from the previous year class. Combined data from all bottom trawl assessments along the southern shore and eastern basin indicate the proportion of the fish community that is Rainbow Smelt has declined over the past 30 years. In 2013 the proportion of the pelagic fish catch (only pelagic species) that was Rainbow Smelt was the second lowest in the time series at 3.1%. Community diversity indices, based on bottom trawl catches, indicate that Lake Ontario fish community diversity, as assessed by bottom trawls, has sharply declined over the past 36 years and in 2013 the index was the lowest value in the time series. Much of this community diversity decline is driven by changes in the pelagic fish community and dominance of Alewife.

  10. Active offer of health services in French in Ontario: Analysis of reorganization and management strategies of health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanova, Elina; Bonneville, Luc; Bouchard, Louise

    2017-08-02

    The availability of health services in French is not only weak but also inexistent in some regions in Canada. As a result, estimated 78% of more than a million of Francophones living in a minority situation in Canada experience difficulties accessing health care in French. To promote the delivery of health services in French, publicly funded organizations are encouraged to take measures to ensure that French-language services are clearly visible, available, easily accessible, and equivalent to the quality of services offered in English. This study examines the reorganization and management strategies taken by health care organizations in Ontario that provide health services in French. Review and analysis of designation plans of a sample of health care organizations. Few health care organizations providing services in French have concrete strategies to guarantee availability, visibility, and accessibility of French-language services. Implementation of the active offer of French-language services is likely to be difficult and slow. The Ontario government must strengthen collaboration with health care organizations, Francophone communities, and other key actors participating in the designation process to help health care organizations build capacities for the effective offer of French-language services. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Solidarity in water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Keessen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to climate change can be an inclusive and collective, rather than an individual effort. The choice for collective arrangements is tied to a call for solidarity. We distinguish between one-sided (assisting community members in need and two-sided solidarity (furthering a common interest and between voluntary and compulsory solidarity. We assess the strength of solidarity as a basis for adaptation measures in six Dutch water management case studies. Traditionally, Dutch water management is characterized by compulsory two-sided solidarity at the water board level. Since the French times, the state is involved through compulsory national solidarity contributions to avoid societal disruption by major floods. In so far as this furthers a common interest, the contributions qualify as two-sided solidarity, but if it is considered assistance to flood-prone areas, they also qualify as one-sided solidarity. Although the Delta Programme explicitly continues on this path, our case studies show that solidarity continues to play an important role in Dutch water management in the process of adapting to a changing climate, but that an undifferentiated call for solidarity will likely result in debates over who should pay what and why. Such discussions can lead to cancellation or postponement of adaptation measures, which are not considered to be in the common interest or result in an increased reliance on local solidarity.

  12. Paratuberculosis on small ruminant dairy farms in Ontario, Canada: A survey of management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Cathy A; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David

    2016-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to determine the risk factors for dairy goat herds and dairy sheep flocks testing positive for paratuberculosis (PTB) in Ontario, Canada. A questionnaire was administered to 50 producers during a farm visit in which concurrently, 20 randomly selected, lactating animals over the age of 2 years underwent sampling for paratuberculosis testing. Only 1 of 50 farms (2.0%) was closed to animal movement, whereas 96.6% of dairy goat farms and 94.1% of sheep farms purchased livestock from other producers. Only 10.3% of dairy goat, and no dairy sheep farms used artificial insemination. Manure was spread on grazing pastures by 65.5% and 70.6% of dairy goat and dairy sheep farms, respectively. Because of the high true-prevalence of paratuberculosis infection detected, no risk factor analysis could be performed. This study demonstrates that biosecurity practices conducive to transmission of PTB are highly prevalent in Ontario small ruminant dairy farms.

  13. Promoting the management and protection of private water wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Hugh

    Rural families in Ontario depend almost entirely on groundwater from private wells for their potable water supply. In many cases, groundwater may be the only feasible water supply source and it requires management and protection. A significant potential source of ground water contamination is the movement of contaminated surface water through water wells that are improperly constructed, maintained, or should be decommissioned. Therefore, proper water well construction and maintenance, and eventual decommissioning, are critical for managing and protecting the quantity and quality of groundwater, as well as ensuring the integrity of rural drinking-water supplies. These actions are important for protecting private water supplies from both potential human and natural contamination. Individual well owners each have a personal interest and valuable role in ensuring the integrity of their water supplies. The following information is required to help well owners ensure the integrity of their water supply: different types of wells, why some wells are at greater risk of contamination than others, and sources of groundwater contaminants; groundwater contaminants, how they can move through soil and water, and potential risks to human health; benefits of ensuring that wells are properly maintained and operate efficiently; and importance of a regular well water quality testing program. This paper summarizes the technical information that should be provided to rural well owners concerning proper water well and groundwater management and protection, and provides an example of how this information can be promoted in an effective manner.

  14. Disparities in attendance at diabetes self-management education programs after diagnosis in Ontario, Canada: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cauch-Dudek Karen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients newly-diagnosed with diabetes require self-management education to help them understand and manage the disease. The goals of the study were to determine the frequency of diabetes self-management education program utilization by newly-diagnosed patients, and to evaluate whether there were any demographic or clinical disparities in utilization. Methods Using population-level health care data, all 46,553 adults who were diagnosed with any type of non-gestational diabetes in Ontario, Canada between January and June 2006 were identified. They were linked with a diabetes self-management education program registry to identify those who attended within 6 months of diagnosis. The demographic and clinical characteristics of attendees and non-attendees were compared. Results A total of 9,568 (20.6% patients attended a diabetes self-management education program within 6 months of diagnosis. Younger age, increasing socioeconomic status, and the absence of mental health conditions or other medical comorbidity were associated with attendance. Patients living in rural areas, where access to physicians may be limited, were markedly more likely to attend. Recent immigrants were 40% less likely to attend self-management education programs than longer-term immigrants or nonimmigrants. Conclusion Only one in five newly-diagnosed diabetes patients attended a diabetes self-management education program. Demographic and clinical disparities in utilization persisted despite a publicly-funded health care system where patients could access these services without direct charges. Primary care providers and education programs must ensure that more newly-diagnosed diabetes patients receive self-management education, particularly those who are older, poorer, sicker, or recent immigrants.

  15. Network analysis of swine shipments in Ontario, Canada, to support disease spread modelling and risk-based disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorjee, S; Revie, C W; Poljak, Z; McNab, W B; Sanchez, J

    2013-10-01

    Understanding contact networks are important for modelling and managing the spread and control of communicable diseases in populations. This study characterizes the swine shipment network of a multi-site production system in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Data were extracted from a company's database listing swine shipments among 251 swine farms, including 20 sow, 69 nursery and 162 finishing farms, for the 2-year period of 2006 to 2007. Several network metrics were generated. The number of shipments per week between pairs of farms ranged from 1 to 6. The medians (and ranges) of out-degree were: sow 6 (1-21), nursery 8 (0-25), and finishing 0 (0-4), over the entire 2-year study period. Corresponding estimates for in-degree of nursery and finishing farms were 3 (0-9) and 3 (0-12) respectively. Outgoing and incoming infection chains (OIC and IIC), were also measured. The medians (ranges) of the monthly OIC and IIC were 0 (0-8) and 0 (0-6), respectively, with very similar measures observed for 2-week intervals. Nursery farms exhibited high measures of centrality. This indicates that they pose greater risks of disease spread in the network. Therefore, they should be given a high priority for disease prevention and control measures affecting all age groups alike. The network demonstrated scale-free and small-world topologies as observed in other livestock shipment studies. This heterogeneity in contacts among farm types and network topologies should be incorporated in simulation models to improve their validity. In conclusion, this study provided useful epidemiological information and parameters for the control and modelling of disease spread among swine farms, for the first time from Ontario, Canada. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Adaptive and integrated water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pahl-Wostl, C.; Kabat, P.; Möltgen, J.

    2007-01-01

    Sustainable water management is a key environmental challenge of the 21st century. Developing and implementing innovative management approaches and how to cope with the increasing complexity and uncertainties was the theme of the first International Conference on Adaptive and Integrated Water Manage

  17. Water management tools for Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our goal is to equip crop producers in the Southeast with tools to improve crop production and management including: • Knowledge of crop and soil water relations • Irrigation scheduling tools for better water management, and • Economic benefits of water conservation technologies Crop performance can...

  18. Radium-226 in water, sediments, and fish from lakes near the city of Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clulow, F V; Davé, N K; Lim, T P; Avadhanula, R

    1998-01-01

    Ra-226 was measured by alpha-emission spectroscopy in water, sediments, and fish (tissues and gut contents), from five lakes in a watershed containing U mining and milling operations at Elliot Lake, Ontario, and from control lakes in an adjacent non-industrialized watershed. Ra-226 transfer parameters from lake water and sediments to fish tissues, and annual intakes by humans consuming fish, were estimated. Mean dissolved 226Ra levels ranged from approximately 76 mBq litre(-1) in water of the most affected lake, to Ra-226 levels in lake trout muscle were low and showed erratic variation among lakes whereas levels in whitefish muscle did not vary significantly among study and control sites. Lake herring (= cisco, Coregonus artedii), a planktivorous fish taken only from Quirke Lake, had mean 226Ra levels of 18 and 1.4 mBq g(-1) dry wt in bone and muscle, respectively. Gut 226Ra levels, highest in lake trout from McCabe and Quirke Lakes (126 +/- 53, 64 +/- 44 mBq g(-1) dry wt, respectively), and just detectable in McCabe and Elliot Lake whitefish (24 +/- 2, 36 +/- 14 mBq g(-1) dry wt, respectively), were below detection in lake trout and whitefish from other lakes. Concentration ratios (CRs) of 226Ra from water to muscle ranged from 8 to 14 in lake trout, 7 to 14 in whitefish, and 4 to 6 in lake herring. The water to bone CRs varied from 81 to 142, 314 to 548, and 126 to 272 in the same species. CRs were always 2 mSv year(-1)) and the public dose limit (5 mSv year(-1)).

  19. Drinking-water risk management principles for a total quality management framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrudey, Steve

    The Walkerton Inquiry Part 2 Report addressed the second part of the mandate from the Government of Ontario under the Public Inquiries Act, following the Walkerton tragedy, namely, "to make such findings and recommendations as the commission considers advisable to ensure the safety of the water supply system in Ontario." In addressing this mandate Justice O'Connor noted: "Perhaps the most significant recommendations in this report address the need for quality management through mandatory accreditation and operational planning. I recommend requiring all operating agencies to become accredited in accordance with a quality management standard-a standard that will be developed by the industry and others knowledgeable in the area and mandated by the MOE." This recommendation reflects a recognition that any narrow set of detailed requirements related to specific water quality issues will not be able to provide sufficiently comprehensive and flexible guidance to cover the diversity of challenges that exist. Rather, by creating and mandating a process to capture and codify the best technical, operating, and managerial practices, a system can be created that will seek to have these best practices adopted across the drinking-water industry. Done well, this will provide the industry and regulators with the culture and capacity to recognize and resolve problems to prevent future drinking-water tragedies. This paper provides some guiding principles that should foster the development of a practical accreditation standard to achieve the foregoing objectives.

  20. Recent California Water Transfers: Emerging Options in Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    where droughts endure long enough that water managers have opportunities and motivation to test innovative water management strategies . With literally...water demands expand. This serves to motivate examination and experimentation with novel water management strategies , such as water transfers. 10... management strategies to which water transfers can be applied. The latter part of the chapter identifies several additional types of water transfers

  1. Associations between stomach cancer incidence and drinking water contamination with atrazine and nitrate in Ontario (Canada) agroecosystems, 1987-1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, J A; Waltner-Toews, D; Abernathy, T; Smit, B; Shoukri, M

    1999-10-01

    Nitrate and atrazine are two chemicals that are heavily used in certain sectors of agriculture. They are suspected to be associated with the development of certain types of tumours. Existing data were obtained on the incidence of specific types of cancers, contamination of drinking water with atrazine and nitrate, and related agricultural practices for the 40 ecodistricts in the province of Ontario. The data were merged into a georelational database for geographical and statistical analyses. Weighted (by population size) least squares regression analyses were conducted while controlling for confounding socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Maximum likelihood spatial error models were estimated when least square regression error terms were found to be spatially autocorrelated using the Moran's I statistic. Atrazine contamination levels (range 50-649 ng/l, maximum acceptable concentration [MAC] = 60000 ng/l) were positively associated (P < 0.05) with stomach cancer incidence and negatively associated with colon cancer incidence. Nitrate levels, (range 0-91 mg/l, MAC = 10 mg/l) were negatively associated with stomach cancer incidence. The associations found at the ecodistrict level, both positive and negative, if confirmed by other studies, raise serious questions about maximum allowable limits for atrazine, as well as possibilities of complex trade-offs among disease outcomes, and interactions of biophysical and social mechanisms which might explain them. Although the negative associations appear to have no direct biological explanations, such counter-intuitive outcomes may occur in complex systems where social and biological variables interact.

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a system-based approach for managing neonatal jaundice and preventing kernicterus in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bin; da Silva, Orlando; Zaric, Greg

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness of a system-based approach for the management of neonatal jaundice and the prevention of kernicterus in term and late-preterm (≥35 weeks) infants, compared with the traditional practice based on visual inspection and selected bilirubin testing. Two hypothetical cohorts of 150,000 term and late-preterm neonates were used to compare the costs and outcomes associated with the use of a system-based or traditional practice approach. Data for the evaluation were obtained from the case costing centre at a large teaching hospital in Ontario, supplemented by data from the literature. The per child cost for the system-based approach cohort was $176, compared with $173 in the traditional practice cohort. The higher cost associated with the system-based cohort reflects increased costs for predischarge screening and treatment and increased postdischarge follow-up visits. These costs are partially offset by reduced costs from fewer emergency room visits, hospital readmissions and kernicterus cases. Compared with the traditional approach, the cost to prevent one kernicterus case using the system-based approach was $570,496, the cost per life year gained was $26,279, and the cost per quality-adjusted life year gained was $65,698. The cost to prevent one kernicterus case using the system-based approach is much lower than previously reported in the literature.

  3. Advances in water resources management

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chih; Wang, Mu-Hao

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides in-depth coverage of such topics as multi-reservoir system operation theory and practice, management of aquifer systems connected to streams using semi-analytical models, one-dimensional model of water quality and aquatic ecosystem-ecotoxicology in river systems, environmental and health impacts of hydraulic fracturing and shale gas, bioaugmentation for water resources protection, wastewater renovation by flotation for water pollution control, determination of receiving water’s reaeration coefficient in the presence of salinity for water quality management, sensitivity analysis for stream water quality management, river ice process, and computer-aided mathematical modeling of water properties. This critical volume will serve as a valuable reference work for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, designers of water resources systems, and scientists and researchers. The goals of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series are: (1) to cover entire environmental fields, includin...

  4. Climatic sensitivity, water-use efficiency, and growth decline in boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forests in Northern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Rachel; Bell, F. Wayne; Silva, Lucas C. R.; Cecile, Alice; Horwath, William R.; Anand, Madhur

    2016-10-01

    Rises in atmospheric carbon dioxide (atmCO2) levels are known to stimulate photosynthesis and increase intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) in trees. Stand-level increases in iWUE depend on the physiological response of dominant species to increases in atmCO2, while tree-level response to increasing atmCO2 depends on the balance between the direct effects of atmCO2 on photosynthetic rate and the indirect effects of atmCO2 on drought conditions. The aim of this study was to characterize the response of boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) stands in Northern Ontario to changes in atmCO2 and associated climatic change over the past 100 years. The impact of changes in growing season length, temperature, and precipitation, as well as atmCO2 on tree growth, was determined using stable carbon isotopes and dendrochronological analysis. Jack pine stands in this study were shown to be in progressive decline. As expected, iWUE was found to increase in association with rising atmCO2. However, increases in iWUE were not directly coupled with atmCO2, suggesting that the degree of iWUE improvement is limited by alternative factors. Water-use efficiency was negatively associated with tree growth, suggesting that warming- and drought-induced stomatal closure has likely led to deviations from expected atmCO2-enhanced growth. This finding corroborates that boreal forest stands are likely to face continued stress under future climatic warming.

  5. Principles and practices of sustainable water management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bixia Xu

    2010-01-01

    Literature related to sustainable water management is reviewed to illustrate the relationship among water management, sustainability (sustainable development), and sustainable water management. This review begins with the explanation on the definition of sustainable water management, followed by a discussion of sustainable water management principles and practices.

  6. Chronic disease management and the home-care alternative in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsasis, Peter

    2009-08-01

    The pressure on our health-care system to deliver efficient, quality and cost-effective care is increasing. The debate on its sustainability is also expanding. These challenges can be managed with revisions to our health-care policy frameworks governing how and what public health-care services are delivered. Chronic disease management and home care can together ease many of the present and future pressures facing the health-care system. However, the current level of investment and the present policy are not effectively supporting movement in this direction. Updating the Canada Health Act to reflect the realities of our health-care system, and developing policies to support the areas of interdisciplinary teamwork and system integration are needed to facilitate chronic disease management and home care in Canada. This article lays out the challenges, highlights the impending issues and suggests a framework for moving forward.

  7. Economics of Water Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, X.

    2015-01-01

    Water is a scarce natural resource. It is not only used as an input to economic activity such as irrigation, household and industrial water use, and hydropower generation, but also provides ecosystem services such as the maintenance of wetlands, wildlife support, and river flows for aquatic

  8. Managing water for life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel P. LOUCKS; Haifeng JIA

    2012-01-01

    Water is essential for life. In spite of the entire engineering infrastructure devoted to the treatment, regulation and beneficial uses of water, occasionally sufficient quantities and qualities of water become scarce. When this happens, just how do we decide how much less water to allocate to all of us and the activities we engage in to sustain and enhance our quality of life? This paper addresses some of the complexities of answering such a question, especially as society increasingly recognizes the need to provide flow regimes that will maintain healthy aquatic and floodplain ecosystems that also impact the economic, physical and even the spiritual quality of our lives. For we depend on these ecosystems to sustain our wellbeing. We are indeed a part of our ecosystems. We depend upon on aquatic ecosystems to moderate river flow qualities and quantities, reduce the extremes of floods and droughts, reduce erosion, detoxify and decompose water- borne wastes, generate and preserve flood plain soils and renew their fertility, regulate disease carrying organisms, and to enhance recreational benefits of river systems. This question of deciding just how much water to allocate to each water user and for the maintenance of viable aquatic ecosystems, especially when there is not enough, is a complex, and largely political, issue. This issue is likely to become even more complex and political and contentious in the future as populations grow and as water quantities and their qualities become even more variable and uncertain.

  9. Storm Water Management Model (SWMM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is used throughout the world for planning, analysis and design related to stormwater runoff, combined and sanitary sewers, and other drainage systems in urban areas.

  10. Technology for Water Treatment (National Water Management)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

  11. Improving the Quality of Radiation Treatment for Patients in Ontario: Increasing Peer Review Activities on a Jurisdictional Level Using a Change Management Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddeman, Lindsay; Foxcroft, Sophie; Gutierrez, Eric; Hart, Margaret; Lockhart, Elizabeth; Mendelsohn, Marissa; Ang, Michelle; Sharpe, Michael; Warde, Padraig; Brundage, Michael; Reddeman, Lindsay; Foxcroft, Sophie; Gutierrez, Eric; Hart, Margaret; Lockhart, Elizabeth; Mendelsohn, Marissa; Ang, Michelle; Sharpe, Michael; Warde, Padraig; Brundage, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Peer review of radiation treatment (RT) plans is a key component of quality assurance programs in radiation medicine. A 2011 current state assessment identified considerable variation in the percentage of RT plans peer reviewed across Ontario's 14 cancer centers.In response, Cancer Care Ontario launched an initiative to increase peer review of plans for patients receiving radical intent RT. The initiative was designed consistent with the Kotter eight-step process for organizational transformation. A multidisciplinary team conducted site visits to promote and guide peer review and to develop education and implementation processes in collaboration with the centers. A centralized reporting infrastructure enabled the monitoring of the percentage of RT courses peer reviewed and the timing of peer review (before completion of 25%of treatment visits, after completion of >25%treatment visits). The initiative is ongoing, but early results indicate that the proportion of radical intent RT courses peer reviewed province wide increased from 43.5% (April 2013) to 68.0%(March 2015). This proportion is now a quality metric in Ontario and is publicly reported through the Cancer System Quality Index. The performance target for this metric was initially set at 50%(cases treated with radical intent) and revised to 60% in 2014. Provincial performance exceeded targets in both years (58.2% and 68.2%, respectively). Considerable variation was observed, however, in rates and timing of peer review among Cancer Care Ontario centers. This initiative demonstrates that a change management framework can be useful for planning and achieving substantial increases in jurisdictional peer review activities.

  12. Climate changes Dutch water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaik, van H.

    2007-01-01

    This booklet starts out describing how our water management strategy has evolved over the centuries from increasingly defensive measures to an adaptive approach. The second part presents smart, areaspecific examples in planning and zoning of water, land and ecosystems for our coast, rivers, cities a

  13. WATER MANAGEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION SITE

    OpenAIRE

    Patil V.A*, Gawade S.L

    2017-01-01

    At prior stage water management is not considered to be vital point of planning and supervision as well, as the time passes all the possible chances of water entry in the structured is observed. As a result it seems very worst stage of existing building. Here entry of water may be from underground source, due to wrong workmanship or entry of water from surface source. Final result will be in the form of structurally weak building. For underground water entry there are number of chances of cor...

  14. Little Galloo Island, Lake Ontario: Two decades of studies on the diet, fish consumption, and management of double-crested cormorants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; McCullough, Russell D.; Farquhar, James F.; Mazzocchi, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) colony at Little Galloo Island, Lake Ontario has been a Great Lakes focal point of controversy regarding cormorant–fish interactions for over two decades. We examined cormorant diet and fish consumption at the colony from 1992 to 2013. During this time period, two events, management actions and round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) invasion, occurred that affected the number of fish consumed by cormorants and their diet composition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of round goby on the feeding ecology of cormorants and evaluate the efficacy of management actions on meeting cormorant population targets at the colony. Round goby first appeared in the diet in 2004 (0.8%) and within one year were the primary prey (29.3%). The presence of round goby in the diet of cormorants: (1) eliminated seasonal variability in diet composition, (2) reversed seasonal trends in the number of fish consumed daily, (3) increased daily fish consumption, and (4) significantly reduced the consumption of other species including yellow perch and smallmouth bass. Management actions, such as egg oiling and culling, were also effective in reducing nesting activity and the number of cormorant feeding days at the Little Galloo Island colony. There is evidence that the combination of management actions and round goby may have allowed some population recovery of yellow perch and smallmouth bass in eastern Lake Ontario.

  15. Urbanization and water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segeren, W.A.; Slijkoord, F.; Wiggers, J.B.M.; Kremer, R.H.J.; Schultz, E.; Vliet, J.H. van der; Dragt, J.S.J.

    1978-01-01

    On May 4th 1977, a symposium was held at Lunteren, Netherlands, that had been jointly organized by TNO's Committee for Hydrological Research, the Netherlands Association of Water Boards and the Netherlands Institute for Directors and Engineers of Municipal Public Works Departments. The symposium's c

  16. Principals as Middle Managers: School Leadership during the Implementation of Primary Class Size Reduction Policy in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessa, Joseph J.

    2012-01-01

    Previous work on policy implementation has often suggested that schools leave their "thumbprints" on policies received from above. During the implementation of Primary Class Size Reduction (PCS) Initiative in Ontario, Canada, however, school principals spoke with remarkable uniformity about the ways PCS affected their work. This article…

  17. Transmission system planning in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrie, D.; Macedo, F.X.; Mcconnach, J.S. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    In recent years, new and modified approaches to planning the large transmission system that serves the province of Ontario, Canada, have been necessary to accommodate the rapidly changing planning environment including slower uncertain growth, ageing of facilities, integration of demand side management and non utility generation options, increased competitiveness, increased financial stresses and affordable constraints. This paper describes some of the new and modified approaches and tools that have been adopted or are being developed by Ontario Hydro to cope with this changing environment. (author) 9 refs., 4 figs.

  18. 1998 annual water management report [and] 1999 annual water management plan [ Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Content includes 1998 weather summary, 1998 water management summaries, 1999 water availability forecast, and 1999 water management strategy.

  19. Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge 2000 annual water management report and 2001 annual water management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Content includes 2000 weather summary, 2000 water management summaries, 2001 water availability forecast, and 2001 water management strategy.

  20. 1999 annual water management report [and] 2000 annual water management plan [ Ruby Lake National Wildlife refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Content includes 1999 weather summary, 1999 water management summaries, 2001 water availability forecast, and 2001 water management strategy.

  1. Planktonic diatoms of Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinwand, Jerry F.

    1969-01-01

    The major species of diatoms in surface collections from Lake Ontario in September 1964 were Asterionella formosa, Fragilaria crotonensis, and Tabellaris fenestrata. Dominant species in the deep-water samples were Stephanodiscus astraea, S. astraea var. mintula, and F. crotonensis. The diatom flora in surface collections varied among several stations in the eastern end of the lake.

  2. Comparison of municipal solid waste management systems in Canada and Ghana: a case study of the cities of London, Ontario, and Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asase, Mizpah; Yanful, Ernest K; Mensah, Moses; Stanford, Jay; Amponsah, Samuel

    2009-10-01

    Integrated waste management has been accepted as a sustainable approach to solid waste management in any region. It can be applied in both developed and developing countries. The difference is the approach taken to develop the integrated waste management system. This review looks at the integrated waste management system operating in the city of London, Ontario-Canada and how lessons can be drawn from the system's development and operation that will help implement a sustainable waste management system in the city of Kumasi, Ghana. The waste management system in London is designed such that all waste generated in the city is handled and disposed of appropriately. The responsibility of each sector handling waste is clearly defined and monitored. All major services are provided and delivered by a combination of public and private sector forces. The sustainability of the waste management in the city of London is attributed to the continuous improvement strategy framework adopted by the city based on the principles of integrated waste management. It is perceived that adopting a strategic framework based on the principles of integrated waste management with a strong political and social will, can transform the current waste management in Kumasi and other cities in developing countries in the bid for finding lasting solutions to the problems that have plagued the waste management system in these cities.

  3. Integrated Urban Water Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, W.; Harremoës, Poul

    1995-01-01

    The basic features of integrated urban water quality management by means of deterministic modeling are outlined. Procedures for the assessment of the detrimental effects in the recipient are presented as well as the basic concepts of an integrated model. The analysis of a synthetic urban drainage...... system provides useful information for water quality management. It is possible to identify the system parameters that contain engineering significance. Continuous simulation of the system performance indicates that the combined nitrogen loading is dominated by the wastewater treatment plant during dry...

  4. Water management plan : revised March 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Content of the Ruby Lake NWR Water Management Plan includes information on refuge background, objectives and management strategies, and water management program...

  5. Water sustainable management for buildings Water sustainable management for buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Arturo Ocaña Ponce

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a literature review article that deals with how to manage water in build­ings, specifically in facility projects, in ways to save water during the use, maintenance and operation of the building. This work is aimed at architects, builders and developers, and may be helpful for decision-making in the planning and management of efficient water use in buildings.Este trabajo es un artículo de revisión relacionado con el manejo y gestión del recurso agua, particularmente en proyectos de edificaciones, con el fin de propiciar ahorro de agua durante el uso, mantenimiento y operación del inmueble. Este documento está dirigido a arquitectos, constructores y desarrolladores inmobiliarios y puede ser de gran utilidad para la toma de decisiones en la fase de planeación y de gestión del uso eficiente del agua en los edificios.

  6. Water Resources: Management and Strategies in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water Resources: Management and Strategies in Nigeria. ... flood conditions. Suggestions were made on ways of planning sustainable water supply systems for Nigeria. Key words: Water Resources, Management, Strategies, Climate Change ...

  7. Seafood and Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia M. van Ruth

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seafood is an important food source for many. Consumers should be entitled to an informed choice, and there is growing concern about correct composition labeling of seafood. Due to its high price, it has been shown to be vulnerable to adulteration. In the present study, we focus on moisture levels in seafood. Moisture and crude protein contents of chilled and frozen cod, pangasius, salmon, shrimp and tilapia purchased from various retail outlets in the Netherlands were examined by reference methods and the values of which were compared with the reported data from other studies in literature. Significant differences in proximate composition were determined for different species and between chilled and frozen products of the same species. Pangasius products showed the highest moisture contents in general (86.3 g/100 g, and shrimp products revealed the largest differences between chilled and frozen products. Comparison with literature values and good manufacturing practice (GMP standards exposed that, generally, chilled pangasius, frozen pangasius and frozen shrimp products presented considerably higher moisture and lower crude protein/nitrogen contents than those found in other studies. From the GMP standards, extraneous water was estimated on average at 26 g/100 g chilled pangasius product, and 25 and 34 g/100 g product for frozen shrimp and pangasius products, respectively.

  8. Women and rural water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandara, Christina Geoffrey; Niehof, Anke; Horst, van der Hilje

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses how informal structures intersect with women's participation in formally created decision-making spaces for managing domestic water at the village level in Tanzania. The results reveal the influence of the informal context on women's access to and performance in the formal de

  9. Economic instruments for water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Echeverría

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to water management in Costa Rica have an economic origin. Partly, as a consequence of a natural condition of water richness, as well as the concept of public service with fees that don´t promote neither investment nor efficiency of water resource use. Solutions must be targeted toward the economic conditions generating pollution, little efficiency, and lesser infiltration area. Water social cost regarding its use and pollution must be recognized and paid. The water user fee and pollution fee represent a step forward. A higher application of this kind of instruments will generate profit-benefit to the economy and might encourage the protection of the environment and natural resources.

  10. Reduced metals concentrations of water, sediment and hyalella azteca from lakes in the vicinity of the sudbury metal smelters, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhaimi-Othman, M; Pascoe, D; Borgmann, U; Norwood, W P

    2006-06-01

    Hyalella azteca (Crustacea: Amphipoda), water and sediments from 12 circum-neutral lakes between Sudbury and North Bay in Ontario, Canada were sampled in August 1998 and analyzed for 10 metals including Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, Co, Mo, V, Ba and Ti. Statistical analyses showed that concentrations of the metals in H. azteca, water and sediment differed significantly (ANOVA, Pazteca and Mo in water). There was a trend of declining metal concentration, especially for Cu, Ni and Co (in water, Hyalella and sediment), with distance from the smelters indicating the reduced impact of atmospheric pollution. Metal concentrations of lakes (water) in the Sudbury area were found to be lower compared to data from the 1970s and 1980s indicating an improvement in water quality. Metal concentrations in field-collected amphipods compared favorably with those measured in the laboratory in animals exposed to deep-water sediments, provided metal concentrations were not extremely low (e.g., Pb) and that water chemistry differences (e.g., pH) were taken into account for some metals (especially Cd). In general bioaccumulation of metals in H. azteca was predicted better from surface water than from sediment total metal.

  11. Comparing ELISA test-positive prevalence, risk factors and management recommendations for Johne's disease prevention between organic and conventional dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Laura; Sorge, Ulrike S; DeVries, Trevor; Godkin, Ann; Lissemore, Kerry; Kelton, David

    2015-11-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic, infectious disease in cattle. Between 2010 and 2013, a voluntary JD control program was successfully launched in Ontario, Canada, including a Risk Assessment and Management Plan (RAMP) and JD ELISA testing of the entire milking herd. Over the last decade, the organic dairy sector has been growing. However, organic farming regulations and philosophies may influence the risk for JD transmission on Ontario organic dairy farms. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate differences in JD ELISA test positive prevalence, risk factors for JD and recommendations for JD prevention between organic and conventional dairy herds in Ontario. RAMP results (i.e. RAMP scores and recommendations) and ELISA results were available for 2103 dairy herds, including 42 organic herds. If available, additional data on milk production, milk quality, and herd characteristics were gathered. Organic and conventional herds had a similar herd-level JD ELISA test-positive prevalence (26.2% and 27.2%, respectively). Organic herds (4.2%) had a higher within-herd JD ELISA test-positive prevalence compared to conventional herds (2.3%) if they had at least one JD test-positive animal on the farm. Organic farms had lower risk scores for biosecurity (9 points lower), and higher scores in the calving (7 points higher) and the calf-rearing management areas (4 points higher). After accounting for RAMP score, organic farms received fewer recommendations for the calving management area (Odds Ratio=0.41) and more recommendations in the adult cow management area (Odds Ratio=2.70). A zero-inflated negative binomial model was built with purchase of animals and the herd size included in the logistic portion of the model. Herd type (organic or conventional), colostrum and milk feeding practices, average bulk tank somatic cell count, and presence of non-Holstein breeds were included in the negative binomial portion of the model. Organic farms had a higher number of

  12. Integrated Urban Water Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, W.; Harremoës, Poul

    1995-01-01

    weather, while the overflow from the combined sewer system plays a minor role. Oxygen depletion in urban rivers is caused by intermittent discharges from both sewer system and wastewater treatment plant. Neglecting one of them in the evaluation of the environmental impact gives a wrong impression of total......The basic features of integrated urban water quality management by means of deterministic modeling are outlined. Procedures for the assessment of the detrimental effects in the recipient are presented as well as the basic concepts of an integrated model. The analysis of a synthetic urban drainage...... system provides useful information for water quality management. It is possible to identify the system parameters that contain engineering significance. Continuous simulation of the system performance indicates that the combined nitrogen loading is dominated by the wastewater treatment plant during dry...

  13. Water Management Plan Recommendations for 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memorandum outlines the management strategy for water level management on St. Vincent Island in 2007. A table of planned water levels for each month is provided...

  14. Drinking water management: health risk perceptions and choices in First Nations and non-First Nations communities in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Diane; Waldner, Cheryl; Bharadwaj, Lalita; Plummer, Ryan; Carter, Blair; Cave, Kate; Zagozewski, Rebecca

    2014-05-30

    The relationship between tap water and health has been a topic of public concern and calls for better management in Canada since well-publicized contamination events in two provinces (Ontario and Saskatchewan) in 2000-2001. This study reports the perspectives on health risks from tap water and corresponding use of, and spending on, bottled water in a number of different communities in Canada. In 2009-2010, four First Nations communities (three from Ontario and one from Saskatchewan) and a geographically diverse sample of non-First Nations Canadians were surveyed about their beliefs concerning health risks from tap water and their spending practices for bottled water as a substitute. Responses to five identical questions were examined, revealing that survey respondents from Ontario First Nations communities were more likely than non-First Nations Canadians to believe bottled water is safer than tap water (OR 1.6); more likely to report someone became ill from tap water (OR 3.6); more likely to express water and health concerns related to tap water consumption (OR 2.4); and more likely to spend more on bottled water (OR 4.9). On the other hand, participants from one Saskatchewan First Nations community were less likely than non-First Nations Canadians to believe that someone had become ill from drinking tap water (OR 3.8), less likely to believe bottled water is safer than tap (OR 2.0), and less likely to have health concerns with tap water (OR 1.5). These differences, however, did not translate into differences in the likelihood of high bottled water expenditures or being a 100% bottled water consumer. The paper discusses how the differences observed may be related to water supply and regulation, trust, perceived control, cultural background, location, and past experience.

  15. Climate Teleconnections and Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtew, Wossenu; Melesse, Assefa M.

    2014-02-01

    Advancements have been made in identifying teleconnection between various climate phenomena and regional hydrometeorology. This knowledge can be systematically applied to predict regional hydrometeorology to gain lead time for resource and risk management decision making. Adaptations for droughts, floods, and cold and warm weather conditions are necessary for optimal food production and, in many cases, for survival. The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climatic phenomenon has been linked to seasonal weather of many regions mainly through rainfall and temperature. The development of El Niño or La Niña has usually opposing regional effects. Its effects are manifested in regional droughts and crop yield reduction, loss of livestock feed, water supply shortage or floods and flood damages, insect population and pathogens, wildfires, etc. A new method has been used to track ENSO development using cumulative sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly and cumulative Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) from freely available data. The relationships of ENSO indices and the Blue Nile hydrology have been shown using an index that tracks cumulative SST anomaly. It has been shown that the Upper Blue Nile basin rainfall and flows have teleconnection to ENSO. Dry years are likely to occur during El Niño years at a confidence level of 90 % and La Niña years favor wetter condition. The results of this study can be applied to resource management decision making to mitigate drought or flood impacts with a lead time of at least few months. ENSO tracking and forecasting helps prediction of approaching hydrologic conditions to make early water management decisions. A case study with organizational structure and decision making process is presented where ENSO conditions are tracked weekly and results are applied for water management decision making.

  16. Rocky Mountain Arsenal surface water management plan : water year 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Surface Water Management Plan (SWMP) for Water Year 2003 (WY 2003) (October I, 2002 to September 30, 2003) is an assessment of the nonpotable water demands at...

  17. Rocky Mountain Arsenal surface water management plan : water year 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Surface Water Management Plan for Water Year (WY) 2005 (October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2005) is an assessment of the nonpotable water demands at the Rocky...

  18. Rocky Mountain Arsenal surface water management plan : water year 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Surface Water Management Plan for Water Year (WY) 2006 (October 1, 2005 to September 30, 2006) is an assessment of the nonpotable water demands at the Rocky...

  19. Finding Common Ground: A Critical Review of Land Use and Resource Management Policies in Ontario, Canada and their Intersection with First Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser McLeod

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an in-depth analysis of selective land use and resource management policies in the Province of Ontario, Canada. It examines their relative capacity to recognize the rights of First Nations and Aboriginal peoples and their treaty rights, as well as their embodiment of past Crown–First Nations relationships. An analytical framework was developed to evaluate the manifest and latent content of 337 provincial texts, including 32 provincial acts, 269 regulatory documents, 16 policy statements, and 5 provincial plans. This comprehensive document analysis classified and assessed how current provincial policies address First Nation issues and identified common trends and areas of improvement. The authors conclude that there is an immediate need for guidance on how provincial authorities can improve policy to make relationship-building a priority to enhance and sustain relationships between First Nations and other jurisdictions.

  20. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan summarizes last years planned water management program and actual CY 1983 water events. A more detailed summary is available in the CY 1983 Annual Water...

  1. ASPECTS OF OPTIMIZATION OF WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. BEILICCI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Water management system include all activities and works which providing the administration of public domain of water, with local / national interest, and qualitative, quantitative and sustainable management of water resources. Hydrotechnical arrangements, consisting of a set of hydraulic structures, produce both a favorable and unfavorable influences on environment. Their different constructive and exploitation solutions exercise a significantly impact on the environment. Therefore the advantages and disadvantages of each solution must be weighed and determined to materialize one or other of them seriously argued.The optimization of water management systems is needed to meet current and future requirements in the field of rational water management in the context of integrated water resources management. Optimization process of complex water management systems includes several components related to environmental protection, technical side and the business side. This paper summarizes the main aspects and possibilities of optimization of existing water management systems and those that are to be achieved.

  2. New water management and conservation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peachey, B.R. [New Paradigm Engineering Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The importance of water management issues in oil and gas operations was discussed in an effort to demonstrate how a basic understanding of water impacts, issues and management options can help the industry maximize oil and gas recovery while improving their financial and environmental results. Water related practices and regulations used for conventional oil production in western Canada may be useful in determining water management practices in expanded applications such as in the oil sands and coalbed methane (CBM) sectors. Although many water management strategies exist, they must be chosen proactively for each situation, since no one solution works well in all cases. The association of water and hydrocarbon production was also summarized with reference to water use, costs of water, and benefits of water. Water also represents environmental risks and opportunities such as leaks and spills; corrosion of equipment; competition for fresh water; expanding use of water for enhanced oil recovery; and, use of fresh water from CBM operations for irrigation or as an energy source for geothermal power production. Water's link to climate change was also addressed. Some of the options for water management include: selling off water prone assets; block, retreat and minimize other costs; use water effectively and maximize oil; use blocking agents; control water coning; segregate waste water streams; reduce water volumes with downhole separation and disposal; and, reduce fresh water use. 14 refs., 22 figs.

  3. The Ontario Brain Institute: completing the circle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuss, Donald T

    2014-11-01

    The Province of Ontario recognized the pressing need to improve the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of brain disorders. It also recognized that maximizing the existing strengths through a province-wide integrated approach was a pivotal mechanism. To achieve this, the Province established the Ontario Brain Institute. The goal of this article is to introduce the elements of the Ontario Brain Institute to the neuroscience community: the motivation for establishing it, the philosophy behind its creation, the principles guiding its development, the rapid evolution of its functional structure, the tools available to achieve its vision, and the management structure to ensure success. The singular goal of the Province and the Ontario Brain Institute is a comprehensive system that assures that basic research is embedded in the clinical system and is facilitating product development to accelerate benefits to both health and the economy of health: science with impact.

  4. Regional trends in evaporation loss and water yield based on stable isotope mass balance of lakes: The Ontario Precambrian Shield surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. J.; Birks, S. J.; Jeffries, D.; Yi, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Stable isotopes of water, oxygen-18 and deuterium, were measured in water samples collected from a network of 300 lakes sampled in six ∼100 km2 blocks (centred at 49.72°N, 91.46°W; 48.49°N, 91.58°W; 50.25°N, 86.62°W; 49.78°N, 83.98°W; 48.24°N, 85.49°W; 47.73, 84.52°W) within Precambrian shield drainages in the vicinity of Lake Superior, northern Ontario, Canada. Additional sampling was also conducted within the Turkey Lakes watershed (47.03°N, 84.38°W), a research basin situated in the Algoma region located 50 km north of Sault Saint Marie, Ontario. The studies were undertaken to gain a better understanding of hydrology and geochemistry of watersheds in the region in order to better predict acid sensitivity of lakes. The main objective of this paper is to describe the hydrologic variations observed based on stable isotope results. Evaporative isotopic enrichment of lake water was found to be systematic across the region, and its deviation from the isotopic composition of precipitation was used to estimate the evaporation/inflow to the lakes as well as runoff (or water yield) based on a simple isotope mass balance model. The analysis illustrates significant variability in the water yield to lakes and reveals a pattern of positively skewed distributions in all six widely spaced blocks, suggesting that a high proportion of lakes have relatively limited runoff whereas relatively few have greater runoff. Such basic information on the drainage structure of an area can be valuable for site-specific hydrologic assessments but also has significant implications for critical loads assessment, as low runoff systems tend to be less buffered and therefore are more sensitive to acidification. Importantly, the Turkey Lakes sampling program also suggests that isotope-based water yield is comparable in magnitude to hydrometric gauging estimates, and also establishes that uncertainty related to stratification can be as high as ±20% or more for individual lakes

  5. Rich Water World an adaptive water management tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rheenen, Hans; van den Berg, Wim

    2015-04-01

    Rich Water World an adaptive water management tool based on weather forecasting, sensor data and hydrological modelling. Climate change will cause periods of more extreme rainfall relieved by periods of drought. Water systems have to become more robust and self supporting in order to prevent damage by flooding and drought. For climate proof water management, it is important to anticipate on extreme events by using excellent weather forecast data, sensor data on soil and water, and hydrologic model data. The Rich Water World project has created an Adaptive Water Management Tool that integrates all these data.

  6. Ozone treatment and the depletion of detectable pharmaceuticals and atrazine herbicide in drinking water sourced from the upper Detroit River, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wenyi; Bennett, Erin R; Letcher, Robert J

    2006-07-01

    The depletion and degradation of pharmacologically active compounds (PhACs) and pesticides as a function of ozonation in drinking water treatment processes is not well studied. The A.H. Weeks drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) serves the City of Windsor, Ontario Canada, and incorporates ozone treatment into the production of drinking water. This DWTP also operates a real-time, scaled down pilot plant, which has two parallel streams, conventional and ozone plus conventional treatments. In this study water samples were collected from key points in the two streams of the pilot plant system to determine the depletion and influence of seasonal changes in water processing parameters on eighteen major PhACs (and metabolites) and seven s-triazines herbicides. However, only carbamazepine (antiepileptic), caffeine (stimulant), cotinine (metabolite of nicotine) and atrazine were consistently detectable in the raw water intake (low to sub-ng/L level). Regardless of the seasonality, the flocculation-coagulation and dual media filtration steps without ozone treatment resulted in no decrease in analyte concentrations, while decreases of 66-100% (undetectable, method detection limits 0.05-1 ng/L) of the analyte concentrations were observed when ozone treatment was part of the water processing. These findings demonstrate that ozone treatment is highly effective in depleting carbamazepine, caffeine, cotinine, and atrazine, and thus is highly influential in the fate of these compounds in drinking water treatment regardless of the seasonal time frame. Currently very few Canadian DWTPs incorporate ozonation into conventional treatment, which suggests that human exposure to these compounds via drinking water consumption may be an issue in affected communities.

  7. Knowledge, Perceptions and Attitudes toward Chronic Pain and Its Management: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Frontline Pharmacists in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejal Patel

    Full Text Available The treatment of chronic pain consumes a significant share of primary care. Community and family health team pharmacists frequently see patients with chronic pain, thus have the opportunity to improve their care. To assess the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of Ontario pharmacists, we invited 5,324 Ontario pharmacists, to participate in an online survey we developed using Qualtrics. The 31-question survey gathered demographic information, assessed pharmacists' knowledge of three chronic pain conditions; chronic lower back pain (CLBP, eight true/false statements; chronic headache disorder (CHD, eight true/false statements and painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN, seven true/false statements, and their attitudes toward and perceptions of patients with these conditions, and knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of opioids in pain management. We received 688 responses (12.9% and 392 pharmacists completed the survey. The mean age of respondents was 48.5 years and 48.5% were male. More than 50% of respondents were in practice for more than 20 years and 58.7% worked 25-40 hours per week. The mean knowledge scores were 4.5/8, 5.5/8, and 5.3/8 for CBLP, CHD, and PDN respectively. While 95% of respondents were aware of the increasing death rates due to opioid use, only half were familiar with the Canadian guideline for safe opioid prescribing for non-cancer use. Responses were compared based on gender, time in practice and location of practice. Pharmacists with more than ten years of experience scored significantly higher than those with less experience. Fewer differences were found in comparisons of gender and location of practice. Safe and effective care of chronic pain patients, particularly with opioids, will require additional pharmacist education.

  8. Knowledge, Perceptions and Attitudes toward Chronic Pain and Its Management: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Frontline Pharmacists in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tejal; Chang, Feng; Mohammed, Heba Tallah; Raman-Wilms, Lalitha; Jurcic, Jane; Khan, Ayesha; Sproule, Beth

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of chronic pain consumes a significant share of primary care. Community and family health team pharmacists frequently see patients with chronic pain, thus have the opportunity to improve their care. To assess the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of Ontario pharmacists, we invited 5,324 Ontario pharmacists, to participate in an online survey we developed using Qualtrics. The 31-question survey gathered demographic information, assessed pharmacists' knowledge of three chronic pain conditions; chronic lower back pain (CLBP, eight true/false statements); chronic headache disorder (CHD, eight true/false statements) and painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN, seven true/false statements), and their attitudes toward and perceptions of patients with these conditions, and knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of opioids in pain management. We received 688 responses (12.9%) and 392 pharmacists completed the survey. The mean age of respondents was 48.5 years and 48.5% were male. More than 50% of respondents were in practice for more than 20 years and 58.7% worked 25-40 hours per week. The mean knowledge scores were 4.5/8, 5.5/8, and 5.3/8 for CBLP, CHD, and PDN respectively. While 95% of respondents were aware of the increasing death rates due to opioid use, only half were familiar with the Canadian guideline for safe opioid prescribing for non-cancer use. Responses were compared based on gender, time in practice and location of practice. Pharmacists with more than ten years of experience scored significantly higher than those with less experience. Fewer differences were found in comparisons of gender and location of practice. Safe and effective care of chronic pain patients, particularly with opioids, will require additional pharmacist education.

  9. Water resource management: an Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadse, G K; Labhasetwar, P K; Wate, S R

    2012-10-01

    Water is precious natural resource for sustaining life and environment. Effective and sustainable management of water resources is vital for ensuring sustainable development. In view of the vital importance of water for human and animal life, for maintaining ecological balance and for economic and developmental activities of all kinds, and considering its increasing scarcity, the planning and management of water resource and its optimal, economical and equitable use has become a matter of the utmost urgency. Management of water resources in India is of paramount importance to sustain one billion plus population. Water management is a composite area with linkage to various sectors of Indian economy including the agricultural, industrial, domestic and household, power, environment, fisheries and transportation sector. The water resources management practices should be based on increasing the water supply and managing the water demand under the stressed water availability conditions. For maintaining the quality of freshwater, water quality management strategies are required to be evolved and implemented. Decision support systems are required to be developed for planning and management of the water resources project. There is interplay of various factors that govern access and utilization of water resources and in light of the increasing demand for water it becomes important to look for holistic and people-centered approaches for water management. Clearly, drinking water is too fundamental and serious an issue to be left to one institution alone. It needs the combined initiative and action of all, if at all we are serious in socioeconomic development. Safe drinking water can be assured, provided we set our mind to address it. The present article deals with the review of various options for sustainable water resource management in India.

  10. Managing competition in the countryside: Non-profit and for-profit perceptions of long-term care in rural Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Mark W; Rosenberg, Mark W

    2006-12-01

    This paper contributes to the current debates surrounding private delivery of health care services by addressing the distinctive challenges, constraints and opportunities facing for-profit and non-profit providers of long-term care in rural and small town settings. It focuses on the empirical case of Ontario, Canada where extensive restructuring of long-term care, under the rubric of managed competition, has been underway since the mid-1990s. In-depth interviews with 72 representatives from local governments, public health institutions and authorities, for-profit and non-profit organisations, and community groups during July 2003 to December 2003 form the platform for a qualitative analysis of the implications of managed competition as it relates to the provision of long-term care in the countryside. The results suggest that the introduction and implementation of managed competition has accentuated the problems of service provision in rural communities, and that the long-standing issues of caregiving in rural situations transcend the differences, perceived or otherwise, between for-profit and non-profit provision. Understanding the implications of market-oriented long-term care restructuring initiatives for providers, and their clients, in rural situations requires a re-focussing of research beyond the for- versus non-profit dichotomy.

  11. Water footprint as a tool for integrated water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaya, Maite; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2010-05-01

    In a context where water resources are unevenly distributed and, in some regions precipitation and drought conditions are increasing, enhanced water management is a major challenge to final consumers, businesses, water resource users, water managers and policymakers in general. By linking a large range of sectors and issues, virtual water trade and water footprint analyses provide an appropriate framework to find potential solutions and contribute to a better management of water resources. The water footprint is an indicator of freshwater use that looks not only at direct water use of a consumer or producer, but also at the indirect water use. The water footprint of a product is the volume of freshwater used to produce the product, measured over the full supply chain. It is a multi-dimensional indicator, showing water consumption volumes by source and polluted volumes by type of pollution; all components of a total water footprint are specified geographically and temporally. The water footprint breaks down into three components: the blue (volume of freshwater evaporated from surface or groundwater systems), green (water volume evaporated from rainwater stored in the soil as soil moisture) and grey water footprint (the volume of polluted water associated with the production of goods and services). Closely linked to the concept of water footprint is that of virtual water trade, which represents the amount of water embedded in traded products. Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. Virtual water trade between nations and even continents could thus be used as an instrument to improve global water use efficiency and to achieve water security in water-poor regions of the world. The virtual water trade

  12. Toward A Science of Sustainable Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.

    2016-12-01

    Societal need for improved water management and concerns for the long-term sustainability of water resources systems are prominent around the world. The continued susceptibility of society to the harmful effects of hydrologic variability, pervasive concerns related to climate change and the emergent awareness of devastating effects of current practice on aquatic ecosystems all illustrate our limited understanding of how water ought to be managed in a dynamic world. The related challenges of resolving the competition for freshwater among competing uses (so called "nexus" issues) and adapting water resources systems to climate change are prominent examples of the of sustainable water management challenges. In addition, largely untested concepts such as "integrated water resources management" have surfaced as Sustainable Development Goals. In this presentation, we argue that for research to improve water management, and for practice to inspire better research, a new focus is required, one that bridges disciplinary barriers between the water resources research focus on infrastructure planning and management, and the role of human actors, and geophysical sciences community focus on physical processes in the absence of dynamical human response. Examples drawn from climate change adaptation for water resource systems and groundwater management policy provide evidence of initial progress towards a science of sustainable water management that links improved physical understanding of the hydrological cycle with the socioeconomic and ecological understanding of water and societal interactions.

  13. Urban water sustainability: an integrative framework for regional water management

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Traditional urban water supply portfolios have proven to be unsustainable under the uncertainties associated with growth and long-term climate variability. Introducing alternative water supplies such as recycled water, captured runoff, desalination, as well as demand management strategies such as conservation and efficiency measures, has been widely proposed to address the long-term sustainability of urban water resources. Collaborative ef...

  14. Mingo NWR 1994 Water Management Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 1994 Mingo NWR Water Management Program documents 1993 use and proposes management for 1994 for three major impoundments, two green tree reservoirs, and 19 moist...

  15. Economic resilience through "One-Water" management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Schmid, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of water availability leads to food scarcity and loss of economic opportunity. Development of effective water-resource policies and management strategies could provide resiliance to local economies in the face of water disruptions such as drought, flood, and climate change. To accomplish this, a detailed understanding of human water use and natural water resource availability is needed. A hydrologic model is a computer software system that simulates the movement and use of water in a geographic area. It takes into account all components of the water cycle--“One Water”--and helps estimate water budgets for groundwater, surface water, and landscape features. The U.S. Geological Survey MODFLOW One-Water Integrated Hydrologic Model (MODFLOWOWHM) software and scientific methods can provide water managers and political leaders with hydrologic information they need to help ensure water security and economic resilience.

  16. Senegal - Irrigation and Water Resource Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — IMPAQ: This evaluation report presents findings from the baseline data collected for the Irrigation and Water Resources Management (IWRM) project, which serves as...

  17. Managing tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima) in parks and protected areas: a case study of Rondeau Provincial Park (Ontario, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloche, Colette; Murphy, Stephen D

    2006-06-01

    The Carolinian Life Zone in southwestern Ontario, Canada is valued because it represents an almost disjunct ecosystem (i.e., one that is typical of the mid-Atlantic United States, rather than the rest of Canada or the nearby states in the United States). The landscape of the Carolinian Life Zone has undergone dramatic transformation, especially in recent decades as agriculture, urbanization, and recreation have intensified. One of the most apparent changes is the invasion of exotic plant species that exacerbates the need for mass restoration efforts. Within the Carolinian Life Zone, Rondeau Provincial Park has experienced an influx of nonindigenous, invasive species in recent years. Tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima) is one example. The infestation is still relatively localized to (mainly) the park, slowly spreading, and manageable as long as something is done immediately. We examined the effects of hand-pulling and mulching, cut stump and glyphosate application, cut stump alone, and the EZJect Capsule Injection System (using glyphosate) on the management of A. altissima within the park. Cut stump and glyphosate treatment was most effective and efficient in its control of young A. altissima shoots because it limits disturbance and has acceptable capital and operating costs. Hand-pulling and mulching was the second choice, mainly because of the risk of additional disturbance that increased shoot densities 1 year after treatment. Cut stump alone was not effective, worsened the infestation, and is not recommended for this species. The EZJect system was effective at managing mature, seed-producing shoots, although the somewhat higher capital costs mean that the system probably should be purchased for management of several invasive tree species to make it more cost-effective.

  18. Evaluating Water Management Practice for Sustainable Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangfeng Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To move towards sustainable development, the mining industry needs to identify better mine water management practices for reducing raw water use, increasing water use efficiency, and eliminating environmental impacts in a precondition of securing mining production. However, the selection of optimal mine water management practices is technically challenging due to the lack of scientific tools to comprehensively evaluate management options against a set of conflicting criteria. This work has provided a solution to aid the identification of more sustainable mine water management practices. The solution includes a conceptual framework for forming a decision hierarchy; an evaluation method for assessing mine water management practices; and a sensitivity analysis in view of different preferences of stakeholders or managers. The solution is applied to a case study of the evaluation of sustainable water management practices in 16 mines located in the Bowen Basin in Queensland, Australia. The evaluation results illustrate the usefulness of the proposed solution. A sensitivity analysis is performed according to preference weights of stakeholders or managers. Some measures are provided for assessing sensitivity of strategy ranking outcomes if the weight of an indicator changes. Finally, some advice is given to improve the mine water management in some mines.

  19. Atmospheric exchange of carbon dioxide and methane of a small water body and a floating mat in the Luther Marsh peatland, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Magdalena; Berger, Sina; Blodau, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Recent investigations have suggested that small water bodies cover larger areas in northern peatlands than previously assumed. Their role in the carbon cycle and gas exchange rates are poorly constrained so far. To address this issue we measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes on a small water body (ca. 700 m2) and the surrounding floating mat in the Luther Marsh peatland in Ontario, Canada from July to September 2014. To this end we used closed chambers combined with a portable Los Gatos high-resolution trace gas analyzer at different water depths and distances from the shore on the pond and with different dominating plant types on the floating mat surrounding the pond. In addition, CO2 concentrations were recorded in high temporal resolution using an infrared sensor system during selected periods. Air and water temperature, humidity and temperature of the floating mat, wind speed and direction, photosynthetically active radiation, air pressure and relative humidity were also recorded as auxiliary data at the study site. The results show that pond and floating mat were sources of methane throughout the whole measuring period. Methane emissions via the ebullition pathway occurred predominantly near the shore and on the floating mat. During the daytime measurements the floating mat acted as a net sink and the pond as a net source of CO2. The dynamics of CO2 exchange was also strongly time dependent, as CO2 emissions from the pond strongly increased after mid-August. This suggests that photosynthesis was more affected by seasonal decline than respiration process in the pond and that the allochthonous component of the CO2 flux increased in relative importance towards fall.

  20. Drainage water management effects on tile dicharge and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drainage water management (DWM) has received considerable attention as a potential best management practice for improving water quality in tile drained landscapes. However, only a limited number of studies have documented the effectiveness of DWM in mitigating nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads. ...

  1. Bathymetry of Lake Ontario

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Ontario has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  2. Managing Change toward Adaptive Water Management through Social Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pahl-Wostl

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of water resources is currently undergoing a paradigm shift toward a more integrated and participatory management style. This paper highlights the need to fully take into account the complexity of the systems to be managed and to give more attention to uncertainties. Achieving this requires adaptive management approaches that can more generally be defined as systematic strategies for improving management policies and practices by learning from the outcomes of previous management actions. This paper describes how the principles of adaptive water management might improve the conceptual and methodological base for sustainable and integrated water management in an uncertain and complex world. Critical debate is structured around four questions: (1 What types of uncertainty need to be taken into account in water management? (2 How does adaptive management account for uncertainty? (3 What are the characteristics of adaptive management regimes? (4 What is the role of social learning in managing change? Major transformation processes are needed because, in many cases, the structural requirements, e.g., adaptive institutions and a flexible technical infrastructure, for adaptive management are not available. In conclusion, we itemize a number of research needs and summarize practical recommendations based on the current state of knowledge.

  3. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Layne; Wilson, Laura Labuda; Orozco, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of May 2011, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  4. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Layne; Pruitt, Jennifer; Brown, Christopher A.; Bazley, Jesse; Gazda, Daniel; Schaezler, Ryan; Bankers, Lyndsey

    2016-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of May 2016 and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  5. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Layne; Takada, Kevin; Gazda, Daniel; Brown, Christopher; Bazley, Jesse; Schaezler, Ryan; Bankers, Lyndsey

    2017-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of June 2017 and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  6. Water resources management in Rostov region (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarenko, O.

    2009-04-01

    Proper management of water resources leads to the development of the region. Nowadays there is an urgent problem - water shortage. Many European countries face this problem, Russia is not the excluding. In addition, there is a problem not only of water quantity, but quality as well. Although Rostov region is well provided with fresh water, the water resources are unevenly disturbed within region. Rostov region is heavily populated and receive moderate rainfall. Groundwater has a limited capacity for renewal. At the same time, Rostov region is industrial and agricultural one that is why pressures from agriculture, industry and domestic users affect the quantity of water resources. Both water quality and availability must be integrated in long-term planning and policy implications concerning water management. In Russia there are high standards for water quality. Effectively managed water-supply and resource protection systems generate the indispensable basis for agricultural and industrial production. Throughout the Region, urban and rural development has thrived where water sources have been effectively managed. Rostov region can be divided into three parts: northern districts, central part of the region and southern ones. Main cities in the region have not enough available drinking water. In the region ground water is used for curing and water supplying purpose.

  7. Towards sustainable water management in Algeria

    KAUST Repository

    Drouiche, Nadjib

    2012-12-01

    Algeria aspires to protect its water resources and to provide a sustainable answer to water supply and management issues by carrying out a national water plan. This program is in line with all projects the Algerian Government is implementing to improve its water sector performance. The water strategy focuses on desalination for the coastal cities, medium-sized dams to irrigate the inland mountains and high plateau, and ambitious water transfer projects interconnecting Algeria\\'s 65 dams to bring water to water scarce parts of the country. Waste water treatment and water reclamation technologies are also highly sought after. The main objective of the country\\'s water policy consists on providing sufficient potable water for the population supply. This objective is undertaken by increasing the water resources and availability. © 2012 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  8. Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

  9. Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

  10. 76 FR 18780 - Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Benton...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement... Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project. The Washington State...; and (4) identify a comprehensive approach for efficient management of basin water supplies....

  11. Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Ruby Valley Nevada : 2008 annual water management report 2009 annual water management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Content includes 2008 weather summary, 2008 water management summaries, 2009 water availability forecast, and 2009 water management strategy.

  12. Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Ruby Valley Nevada : 2007 annual water management report and 2008 annual water management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Content includes 2007 weather summary, 2007 water management summaries, 2008 water availability forecast, and 2008 water management strategy.

  13. Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Ruby Valley Nevada : 2005 annual water management report and 2006 annual water management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Content includes 2005 weather summary, 2005 water management summaries, 2006 water availability forecast, and 2006 water management strategy.

  14. Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Ruby Valley Nevada : 2003 annual water management report and 2004 annual water management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Content includes 2003 weather summar, 2003 water management summaries, 2004 water availability forecast, and 2004 water management strategy.

  15. Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Ruby Valley Nevada : 2006 annual water management report and 2007 annual water management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Content includes 2006 weather summary, 2006 water management summaries, 2007 water availability forecast, and 2007 water management strategy.

  16. Risk management in agricultural water use

    OpenAIRE

    Tychon, Bernard; Balaghi, Riad; Jlibene, Mohammed

    2002-01-01

    Water availability for agricultural activities will decrease in the twenty-first century. As a consequence, agricultural water management will have to improve in order to meet two challenges: satisfy the needs of an increasing world population; and alleviate the climate change impacts. One way to improve agricultural water management consists of including the ‘risk’ notion as much as possible at the different decision levels of: farmers, farmer corporations and states or associations of st...

  17. Industrial water management: The Intel example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.L. [Intel Corp., Rio Rancho, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The author was asked to talk about how industry manages its water resources. Intel recently made a well application to draw water from the middle Rio Grande underground water basin to use in their manufacturing effort. This presentation is based on that application and some of the things that have come of it. The focus is not on the technical aspects of the application, but more on the water needs of an industry, and how Intel feels an industry can contribute to conserving natural resources. The paper begins with a brief history of water management in New Mexico, specifically in the Middle Rio Grande underground water basin, then discusses the quantity and quality of water Intel needs to manufacture semiconductor devices, and what Intel currently is doing. Intel plans to conserve approximately 39 percent of their current water requirements primarily by water reuse.

  18. STORM WATER MANAGEMENT MODEL (SWMM) MODERNIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Water Supply and Water Resources Division in partnership with the consulting firm of CDM to redevelop and modernize the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). In the initial phase of this project EPA rewrote SWMM's computational engine usi...

  19. The transition in Dutch water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van der Brugge (Rutger); J. Rotmans (Jan); D.A. Loorbach (Derk)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractOver the past decades the Dutch people have been confronted with severe waterrelated problems, which are the result of an unsustainable water system, arising from human interventions in the physical infrastructure of the water system and the water management style. The claims of housing,

  20. Water resources planning and management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grafton, R. Quentin; Hussey, Karen

    2011-01-01

    .... There are growing concerns about water as a renewable resource, its availability for a wide range of users, aquatic ecosystem health, and global issues relating to climate change, water security...

  1. Effectiveness of passive physical modalities for shoulder pain: systematic review by the Ontario protocol for traffic injury management collaboration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu, Hainan; Côté, Pierre; Shearer, Heather M; Wong, Jessica J; Sutton, Deborah A; Randhawa, Kristi A; Varatharajan, Sharanya; Southerst, Danielle; Mior, Silvano A; Ameis, Arthur; Stupar, Maja; Nordin, Margareta; van der Velde, Gabreille M; Carroll, Linda; Jacobs, Craig L; Taylor-Vaisey, Anne L; Abdulla, Sean; Shergill, Yaadwinder

    2015-01-01

    .... However, previous systematic reviews reported conflicting results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of passive physical modalities for the management of soft tissue injuries of the shoulder...

  2. Legal regime of water management facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jožef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the legal regime of water management facilities in the light of Serbian, foreign and European law. Different divisions of water management facilities are carried out (to public and private ones, natural and artificial ones, etc., with determination of their legal relevance. Account is taken of the issue of protection from harmful effects of waters to such facilities, as well. The paper points also to rules on the water management facilities, from acts of planning, to individual administrative acts and measures for maintenance of required qualitative and quantitative condition of waters, depending on their purpose (general use or special, commercial use o waters. Albeit special rules on water management facilities exist, due to the natural interlocking between all the components of the environment (water, air and soil, a comprehensive approach is required. A reference is made to other basic principles of protection of water management facilities as well, such as the principle of prevention, principle of sustainable development and the principle "polluter pays". The last one represents the achievement of contemporary law, which deviates from the idea accepted in the second half of 20th century that supported the socialization of risk from harmful effects of waters.

  3. Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loenen, A.; van Dijk, M.; van Verseveld, W.; Berger, H.

    2012-04-01

    Most of the Dutch large rivers, canals and lakes are controlled by the Dutch water authorities. The main reasons concern safety, navigation and fresh water supply. Historically the separate water bodies have been controlled locally. For optimizating management of these water systems an integrated approach was required. Presented is a platform which integrates data from all control objects for monitoring and control purposes. The Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems (IWP) is an implementation of Delft-FEWS which supports operational control of water systems and actively gives advice. One of the main characteristics of IWP is that is real-time collects, transforms and presents different types of data, which all add to the operational water management. Next to that, hydrodynamic models and intelligent decision support tools are added to support the water managers during their daily control activities. An important advantage of IWP is that it uses the Delft-FEWS framework, therefore processes like central data collection, transformations, data processing and presentation are simply configured. At all control locations the same information is readily available. The operational water management itself gains from this information, but it can also contribute to cost efficiency (no unnecessary pumping), better use of available storage and advise during (water polution) calamities.

  4. Systems modelling for effective mine water management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cote, C.M.; Moran, C.J.; Hedemann, C.J.; Koch, C. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2010-12-15

    Concerns about the difficulties in securing water have led the Australian coal mining industry to seek innovative ways to improve its water management and to adopt novel strategies that will lead to less water being used and more water being reused. Simulation tools are essential to assess current water management performance and to predict the efficiency of potential strategies. As water systems on coal mines are complex and consist of various inter-connected elements, a systems approach was selected, which views mine site water management as a system that obtains water from various sources (surface, groundwater), provides sufficient water of suitable quality to the mining tasks (coal beneficiation, dust suppression, underground operations) and maintains environmental performance. In this paper, the model is described and its calibration is illustrated. The results of applying the model for the comparison of the water balances of 7 coal mines in the northern Bowen Basin (Queensland, Australia) are presented. The model is used to assess the impact of applying specific water management strategies. Results show that a simple systems model is an appropriate tool for assessing site performance, for providing guidance to improve performance through strategic planning, and for guiding adoption of site objectives.

  5. The Status of Benthos in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benthic community of Lake Ontario was dominated by an amphipod (Diporeia spp.) prior to the 1990’s. Two dreissenid mussel species D. polymorpha (zebra) and D. bugensis (quagga) were introduced in 1989 and 1991 via ballast water exchange. D. bugensis was observed as deep as 85...

  6. 18 CFR 740.4 - State water management planning program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.4 State water management planning program. (a) A State...) The integration of water quantity and water quality planning and management; (ii) The protection and... integration of ground and surface water planning and management; and (v) Water conservation. (4) Identify...

  7. 2001 USACE LRE Topobathy Lidar: Lake Ontario (NY)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Office for Coastal Management received the 2001 Lake Ontario dataset with 2 separate metadata records in 2013 on a hard-drive device from the USGS Center for...

  8. Water Quality Management of Beijing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    At present, Beijing's water resources are insufficient and will become the limiting factor for sustainable development for the city in the near future. Although efforts have been made to control pollution, water quality degradation has occurred in some of the important surface water supplies, aggravating the water resource shortage. At present, approximately three quarters of the city's wastewater is discharged untreated into the urban river system, resulting in serious pollution and negatively influencing the urban landscape and quality of daily life. To counteract these measures, the city has implemented a comprehensive "Water Quality Management Plan" for the region, encompassing water pollution control, prevention of water body degradation, and improved water quality.The construction of municipal wastewater treatment plants is recognised as fundamental to controlling water pollution, and full secondary treatment is planned to be in place by the year 2015. Significant work is also required to expand the service area of the municipal sewage system and to upgrade and renovate the older sewer systems. The limitation on available water resources has also seen the emphasis shift to low water using industries and improved water conservation. Whilst industrial output has increased steadily over the past 10-15 years at around 10% per annum, industrial water usage has remained relatively constant. Part of the city's water quality management plan has been to introduce a strict discharge permit system, encouraging many industries to install on-site treatment facilities.

  9. Advanced water treatment as a tool in water scarcity management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoes, Poul

    2000-01-01

    until recently. This paper sets the stage with respect to perspective and management options related to implementation of water reuse. Water treatment has to be interpreted as the means by which to purify the water from any degree of impurity to any degree of purity that fits the desired use, including......The water resource is under increasing pressure, both from the increase in population and from the wish to improve the living standards of the individual. Water scarcity is defined as the situation where demand is greater than the resource. Water scarcity has two distinctly different dimensions......: water availability and water applicability. The availability is a question of quantitative demand relative to resource. The applicability is a question of quality suitability for the intended use of the water. There is a significant difference in this regard with respect to rural versus urban use...

  10. Merced National Wildlife Refuge water management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The details of this plan are separated into ten sections: Background, Water Management Related Goals and Objectives, Policies and Procedures, Inventory and Existing...

  11. Annual water management plan - 1983-1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Arapahoe National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan...

  12. Annual water management plan 1994-1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Arapahoe National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan...

  13. 1991-92 Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge – McGregor District Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth...

  14. Annual Water Management Plan, Part II

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan is to establish a schedule...

  15. Annual water management plan 1995-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Arapahoe National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan...

  16. Surface Waters Information Management System (SWIMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Surface Waters Information Management System (SWIMS) has been designed to meet multi-agency hydrologic database needs for Kansas. The SWIMS project was supported...

  17. Asset Management for Water and Wastewater Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewing and replacing the nation's public water infrastructure is an ongoing task. Asset management can help a utility maximize the value of its capital as well as its operations and maintenance dollars.

  18. Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge water management alternatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is an assessment of alternatives to water management issues on Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge. Marsh productivity has been declining due to salts...

  19. How are pharmacists in Ontario adapting to practice change? Results of a qualitative analysis using Kotter's change management model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Beatriz; Gregory, Paul A M; Austin, Zubin

    2017-01-01

    The pace of practice change in community pharmacy over the past decade has been significant, yet there is little evidence documenting implementation of change in the profession. Kotter's change management model was selected as a theoretical framework for this exploratory qualitative study. Community pharmacists were interviewed using a semistructured protocol based on Kotter's model. Data were analyzed and coded using a constant-comparative iterative method aligned with the stages of change management outlined by Kotter. Twelve community pharmacists were interviewed. Three key themes emerged: 1) the profession has successfully established the urgency to, and created a climate conducive for, change; 2) the profession has been less successful in engaging and enabling the profession to actually implement change; and 3) legislative changes (for example, expansion of pharmacists' scope of practice) may have occurred prematurely, prior to other earlier stages of the change process being consolidated. As noted by most participants, allowing change is not implementing change: pharmacists reported feeling underprepared and lacking confidence to actually make change in their practices and believe that more emphasis on practical, specific implementation tactics is needed. Change management is complex and time and resource intensive. There is a need to provide personalized, detailed, context-specific implementation strategies to pharmacists to allow them to take full advantage of expanded scope of practice.

  20. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

    2007-10-31

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

  1. Oil sands mining water use and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, M.; Long, D.; Fitch, M. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    There are currently 4 bitumen mining operations operating along the Athabasca River in northern Alberta. This paper presented details of the water licences, historical water use, present water use, and future plans for water management in relation to oil sands mining operations. The study was based on work currently conducted for the Oil Sands Developers Group (OSDG) and Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP), as well as on mine site water balance analyses for proposed mines in the region. Typical mine site water balances were discussed, and water use rates for the mining operations were reviewed. The new Athabasca River water management framework may require that mines provide additional water storage or delayed reclamation of mine areas in order to offset water losses during winter low-flow periods. New regulations may also reduce the requirement for make-up water. The study also noted that release criteria are still being developed for on-site water within closed-loop mine operations. The oil sands industry will need to balance various factors related to water use in the future. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Water quality management system; Suishitsu kanri system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsugura, H.; Hanawa, T.; Hatano, K.; Fujiu, M. [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-19

    Water quality management system designed in consideration of compliance with the environmental ISO is outlined. The water quality management system is positioned at the center, connected to water quality monitors that are deployed at various parts of the water supply facility, and performs the real-time display of information about water quality and the operating status of the water quality monitors for every one of the monitoring locations. The communication software run on this system supports 30 water quality monitors and performs uninterrupted surveillance using dedicated lines. It can also use public lines for periodic surveillance. Errors in communication if any are remedied automatically. A pipeline diagnosing/estimating function is provided, which utilizes water quality signals from received water quality monitors for estimating the degree of corrosion of pipelines in the pipeline network. Another function is provided of estimating water quality distribution throughout the pipeline network, which determines the residual chlorine concentration, conductivity, pH level, water temperature, etc., for every node in the pipeline network. A third function estimates water quality indexes, evaluating the trihalomethane forming power through measuring the amounts of low-concentration organic matters and utilizing signals from low-concentration UV meters in the water purification process. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Integrated water and waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, P.

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses concepts and developments within water quantity, water quality, integrated environmental assessment and wastewater treatment. The historical and the global perspectives are used in the discussion of the role of engineers in today's society. Sustainabilty and ethics are taken...... into the analysis. There is a need for re-evaluation of the resource, society and environment scenarios with a view to the totality of the system and with proper analysis of the flow of water and matter through society. Among the tools are input-output analysis and cradle to grave analysis, in combination...

  4. Modoc National Wildlife Refuge annual water management plan 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The content of this plan includes water source, existing water supplies, problems, resume of water management for 1980, recommended water management for 1981, and...

  5. Modoc National Wildlife Refuge annual water management plan 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The content of this plan includes water source, existing water supplies, problems, resume of water management for 1981, recommended water management for 1982, and...

  6. Water Management in England: A Regional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Daniel A.

    1975-01-01

    Reorganization of authorities resulting in sound direction, greater flexibility, and more attention to cost effectiveness has helped the British achieve a high quality of water service. The history and development of British water management are reviewed and more cooperation between federal and state agencies is encouraged. (BT)

  7. Ontario's Student Voice Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This article describes in some detail aspects of the Student Voice initiative funded and championed by Ontario's Ministry of Education since 2008. The project enables thousands of students to make their voices heard in meaningful ways and to participate in student-led research. Some students from grades 7 to 12 become members of the Student…

  8. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a high-resolution survey with towed electronic instrumentation along the Lake Ontario nearshore (720 km) at a 20 meter contour. The survey was conducted September 6-10, 2008 with a shorter 300 km survey conducted August 14-15 for comparing of temporal variability. ...

  9. Water Management Policy in California

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, Christina; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2015-01-01

    Using Olson’s 1965 logic of collective action and group theory, we argue that the “small group” of the “iron triangle” is able to collectively act to push for command-and-control regulations in Californian water policy. There are individual rent-seeking incentives in the small group because...... the politicians do not want to impose tax, and they would like to have short-term development and economic growth during their term in order to gain a positive reputation from the public or to get re-elected. The developers would like more work and prestige and the water bureaucrats have little incentive to limit...

  10. Water management in 2020 and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Asit K. [Third World Centre for Water Management, Atizapan, MEX (Mexico); Tortajada, Cecilia [Water Institute of Aragon, Zaragoza (ES). International Centre for Water and Environment (CIAMA); Izquierdo, Rafael (eds.) [Water Institute of Aragon, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Water is intertwined in the daily life of humans in countless ways. The importance of water as a driver for health, food security, and quality of life and as a pillar for economic development is unique. As water affects human lives, the mankind also effects the hydrological cycle, in all dimensions from the local to the global scale. Food production accounts for 90% of water use in developing countries. Hydropower production evokes emotions; yet sustainable energy production is among cornerstones of economic development. The damages caused by floods and droughts are escalating all over the world. The human impacts on ecosystems are increasing as well. Water is largely a political good since a bulk of the mankind lives in river basins shared by two or more nations. These complexities are approached in the book in depth. The analyses include consideration of how developments in seemingly unrelated processes and sectors such as globalisation, free trade, energy, security, information and communication revolutions, health-related issues such as HIV/AIDS, as well as emerging developments in sectors that are linked more conventionally to water, such as population growth, urbanisation, technological development, agriculture, infrastructure, energy, management of water quality and ecosystem health, are likely to affect water management in the future. For the first time, a pragmatic attempt is make to define a realistic framework for water management in 2020 with leading experts from different parts of the world as well as different disciplines. (orig.)

  11. Water Institutions and Management in Cape Verde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Suarez Bosa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The water-management model used in Cape Verde for irrigation water is a singular one involving both public and private institutions. The institutional framework adopted since independence (1975 includes influences of both Portuguese colonial occupation and African culture. Water is a common-pool resource, which can take the form of communal, private or state property, or not be subject to any form of ownership. Thus, this case study enables us to compare theories about managing. From a neo-liberal point of view, the common administration of resources of this kind is inefficient, but for one school of the institutional theory, solutions can come “from within”; in other words, from user groups themselves, who can co-operate, once they have defined commitments. Research based on surveys and interviews with private sector administrators leads to the conclusion that user association management is successful, whereas, individual management can lead to squandering.

  12. Urban water sustainability: an integrative framework for regional water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, P.; Ajami, N. K.

    2015-11-01

    Traditional urban water supply portfolios have proven to be unsustainable under the uncertainties associated with growth and long-term climate variability. Introducing alternative water supplies such as recycled water, captured runoff, desalination, as well as demand management strategies such as conservation and efficiency measures, has been widely proposed to address the long-term sustainability of urban water resources. Collaborative efforts have the potential to achieve this goal through more efficient use of common pool resources and access to funding opportunities for supply diversification projects. However, this requires a paradigm shift towards holistic solutions that address the complexity of hydrologic, socio-economic and governance dynamics surrounding water management issues. The objective of this work is to develop a regional integrative framework for the assessment of water resource sustainability under current management practices, as well as to identify opportunities for sustainability improvement in coupled socio-hydrologic systems. We define the sustainability of a water utility as the ability to access reliable supplies to consistently satisfy current needs, make responsible use of supplies, and have the capacity to adapt to future scenarios. To compute a quantitative measure of sustainability, we develop a numerical index comprised of supply, demand, and adaptive capacity indicators, including an innovative way to account for the importance of having diverse supply sources. We demonstrate the application of this framework to the Hetch Hetchy Regional Water System in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. Our analyses demonstrate that water agencies that share common water supplies are in a good position to establish integrative regional management partnerships in order to achieve individual and collective short-term and long-term benefits.

  13. Urban water sustainability: an integrative framework for regional water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gonzales

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional urban water supply portfolios have proven to be unsustainable under the uncertainties associated with growth and long-term climate variability. Introducing alternative water supplies such as recycled water, captured runoff, desalination, as well as demand management strategies such as conservation and efficiency measures, has been widely proposed to address the long-term sustainability of urban water resources. Collaborative efforts have the potential to achieve this goal through more efficient use of common pool resources and access to funding opportunities for supply diversification projects. However, this requires a paradigm shift towards holistic solutions that address the complexity of hydrologic, socio-economic and governance dynamics surrounding water management issues. The objective of this work is to develop a regional integrative framework for the assessment of water resource sustainability under current management practices, as well as to identify opportunities for sustainability improvement in coupled socio-hydrologic systems. We define the sustainability of a water utility as the ability to access reliable supplies to consistently satisfy current needs, make responsible use of supplies, and have the capacity to adapt to future scenarios. To compute a quantitative measure of sustainability, we develop a numerical index comprised of supply, demand, and adaptive capacity indicators, including an innovative way to account for the importance of having diverse supply sources. We demonstrate the application of this framework to the Hetch Hetchy Regional Water System in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. Our analyses demonstrate that water agencies that share common water supplies are in a good position to establish integrative regional management partnerships in order to achieve individual and collective short-term and long-term benefits.

  14. Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Ruby Valley Nevada : 1991 Annual water management report 1992 Annual water management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Ruby Lake NWR 1991 Annual Water Management Report 1992 Annual Water Management Plan. Includes Ruby Lake 1991 weather summary, summary of 1991 water levels, water...

  15. Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Ruby Valley Nevada : 1992 Annual water management report 1993 Annual water management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Ruby Lake NWR 1992 Annual Water Management Report 1993 Annual Water Management Plan. Includes summary of 1992 weather, 1992 water levels, water availability forecast...

  16. WATER MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safer Karima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available «Of course I wish I was in school. I want to learn, I want to read and write... But how mom need me to fetch water» - Benny Bazan, Bolivia; «…the factories consume a lot of water, while we can hardly find enough basic our needs, not to mention what we need to irrigate crops» - Gopal Jojor, India. Voices are united by the same thing: the denial of access to water. It’s what began the United Nations report of human development for the year 2006. The observed increase of the population and increasing water pressure to use some form of this article despite the enormous availability and large, underground or surface quantities, but the supply and demand equation is no longer as in the past in spite of the new techniques introduced Kthalih seawater. And has worked to highlight the importance of this element as the most important determinants of sustainable development, which aims to rationality and adulthood and dealing with efforts to achieve growth and meet the needs of the population of housing and economic activities and food and education, without prejudice to the negative form of ecological, and sustainable development is the way only to ensure a good quality of life for residents of the present and the future.

  17. Sustainable agricultural water management across climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVincentis, A.

    2016-12-01

    Fresh water scarcity is a global problem with local solutions. Agriculture is one of many human systems threatened by water deficits, and faces unique supply, demand, quality, and management challenges as the global climate changes and population grows. Sustainable agricultural water management is paramount to protecting global economies and ecosystems, but requires different approaches based on environmental conditions, social structures, and resource availability. This research compares water used by conservation agriculture in temperate and tropical agroecosystems through data collected from operations growing strawberries, grapes, tomatoes, and pistachios in California and corn and soybeans in Colombia. The highly manipulated hydrologic regime in California has depleted water resources and incited various adaptive management strategies, varying based on crop type and location throughout the state. Operations have to use less water more efficiently, and sometimes that means fallowing land in select groundwater basins. At the opposite end of the spectrum, the largely untouched landscape in the eastern plains of Colombia are rapidly being converted into commercial agricultural operations, with a unique opportunity to manage and plan for agricultural development with sustainability in mind. Although influenced by entirely different climates and economies, there are some similarities in agricultural water management strategies that could be applicable worldwide. Cover crops are a successful management strategy for both agricultural regimes, and moving forward it appears that farmers who work in coordination with their neighbors to plan for optimal production will be most successful in both locations. This research points to the required coordination of agricultural extension services as a critical component to sustainable water use, successful economies, and protected environments.

  18. AOIPS water resources data management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, E. S.; Shotwell, R. L.; Place, M. C.; Belknap, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    A geocoded data management system applicable for hydrological applications was designed to demonstrate the utility of the Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System (AOIPS) for hydrological applications. Within that context, the geocoded hydrology data management system was designed to take advantage of the interactive capability of the AOIPS hardware. Portions of the Water Resource Data Management System which best demonstrate the interactive nature of the hydrology data management system were implemented on the AOIPS. A hydrological case study was prepared using all data supplied for the Bear River watershed located in northwest Utah, southeast Idaho, and western Wyoming.

  19. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Southeastern States. Ground water is not completely 'self-renewing' because, where it is being mined, the reserve is being diminished and the reserve would be renewed only if pumping were stopped. Water is being mined at the rate of 5 million acre-feet per year in Arizona and 6 million in the High Plains of Texas. In contrast, water has been going into storage in the Snake River Plain of Idaho, where deep percolation from surface-water irrigation has added about 10 million acre-feet of storage since irrigation began. Situations in California illustrate problems of land subsidence resulting from pumping and use of water, and deterioration of ground-water reservoirs due to sea-water invasion. Much water development in the United States has been haphazard and rarely has there been integrated development of ground water and surface water. Competition is sharpening and new codes of water law are in the making. New laws, however, will not prevent the consequences of bad management. An important task for water management is to recognize the contingencies that may arise in the future and to prepare for them. The three most important tasks at hand are to make more efficient use of water, to develop improved quantitative evaluations of water supplies arid their quality, and to develop management practices which are based on scientific hydrology.

  20. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Southeastern States. Ground water is not completely 'self-renewing' because, where it is being mined, the reserve is being diminished and the reserve would be renewed only if pumping were stopped. Water is being mined at the rate of 5 million acre-feet per year in Arizona and 6 million in the High Plains of Texas. In contrast, water has been going into storage in the Snake River Plain of Idaho, where deep percolation from surface-water irrigation has added about 10 million acre-feet of storage since irrigation began. Situations in California illustrate problems of land subsidence resulting from pumping and use of water, and deterioration of ground-water reservoirs due to sea-water invasion. Much water development in the United States has been haphazard and rarely has there been integrated development of ground water and surface water. Competition is sharpening and new codes of water law are in the making. New laws, however, will not prevent the consequences of bad management. An important task for water management is to recognize the contingencies that may arise in the future and to prepare for them. The three most important tasks at hand are to make more efficient use of water, to develop improved quantitative evaluations of water supplies arid their quality, and to develop management practices which are based on scientific hydrology.

  1. FUTURE WATER MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS IN ASIAN MEGACITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Prinz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Today, about half of the world population lives in urban areas and in the coming 20 years, urbanization is expected to increase steadily, especially in the Developing World. Based on UN data and projections, about 4 out of the 5 billion world urban population will live in developing countries by 2030. Large cities in the Developing World face the problem of unplanned growth, coupled with the financial and operational inability to offer the public services needed to sustain a decent life in urban environments. Water is one of those essential commodities which is often short in supply and/or of low quality. Additionally, flood poses a threat to urban dwellers during rainy season. The water management challenges in tropical urban areas today and in the decades to come can be characterized by (1 fighting physical shortcomings in water resources, (2 coping with contamination of groundwater, rivers, lakes, and reservoirs by domestic, agricultural or industrial waste and waste water, (3 mitigating environmental impacts of water extraction (such as loss of wetlands, subsidence and seawater intrusion , (4 preventing / mastering flood situations and (5 overcoming administrative and financial strains and operational incapacities. Solutions to the problems of urban water in 20 years time are to be found in supply side and demand side measures. The first group includes (1 optimal use of surface water and groundwater resources, (2 pollution protection, (3 watershed management and (4 more water storage. The second group includes (1 educational training, (2 technological innovation, (3 water conservation and (4 water pricing.

  2. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities.

  3. ``Virtual water'': An unfolding concept in integrated water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Zehnder, Alexander

    2007-12-01

    In its broadest sense, virtual water refers to the water required for the production of food commodities. Issues relating to virtual water have drawn much attention in scientific communities and the political sphere since the mid 1990s. This paper provides a critical review of major research issues and results in the virtual water literature and pinpoints the remaining questions and the direction of research in future virtual water studies. We conclude that virtual water studies have helped to raise the awareness of water scarcity and its impact on food security and to improve the understanding of the role of food trade in compensating for water deficit. However, the studies so far have been overwhelmingly concerned with the international food trade, and many solely quantified virtual water flows associated with food trade. There is a general lack of direct policy relevance to the solutions to water scarcity and food insecurity, which are often local, regional, and river basin issues. The obscurity in the conceptual basis of virtual water also entails some confusion. The methodologies and databases of the studies are often crude, affecting the robustness and reliability of the results. Looking ahead, future virtual water studies need to enhance the policy relevance by strengthening their linkages with national and regional water resources management. Meanwhile, integrated approaches taking into consideration the spatial and temporal variations of blue and green water resources availability and the complexity of natural, socioeconomic, and political conditions are necessary in assessing the trade-offs of the virtual water strategy in dealing with water scarcity. To this end, interdisciplinary efforts and quantitative methods supported by improved data availability are greatly important.

  4. Managing the urban water-energy nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, Alvar; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Lund, Jay R.

    2016-04-01

    Water use directly causes a significant amount of energy use in cities. In this paper we assess energy and greenhouse emissions related with each part of the urban water cycle and the consequences of several changes in residential water use for customers, water and energy utilities, and the environment. First, we develop an hourly model of urban water uses by customer category including water-related energy consumption. Next, using real data from East Bay Municipal Utility District in California, we calibrate a model of the energy used in water supply, treatment, pumping and wastewater treatment by the utility. Then, using data from the California Independent System Operator, we obtain hourly costs of energy for the energy utility. Finally, and using emission factors reported by the energy utilities we estimate greenhouse gas emissions for the entire urban water cycle. Results of the business-as-usual scenario show that water end uses account for almost 95% of all water-related energy use, but the 5% managed by the utility is still worth over 12 million annually. Several simulations analyze the potential benefits for water demand management actions showing that moving some water end-uses from peak to off-peak hours such as outdoor use, dishwasher or clothes washer use have large benefits for water and energy utilities, especially for locations with a high proportion of electric water heaters. Other interesting result is that under the current energy rate structures with low or no fixed charges, energy utilities burden most of the cost of the conservation actions.

  5. 46 CFR 401.405 - Basic rates and charges on the St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Lake Ontario. 401.405 Section 401.405 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF... § 401.405 Basic rates and charges on the St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario. Except as provided in.... registered pilots in the St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario. (a) Area 1 (Designated Waters): Service...

  6. Adapting water allocation management to drought scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Giacomelli

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change dynamics have significant consequences on water resources on a watershed scale. With water becoming scarcer and susceptible to variation, the planning and reallocation decisions in watershed management need to be reviewed. This research focuses on an in-depth understanding of the current allocation balance of water resources among competitors, placed along the course of the Adda River. In particular, during the summer period, the demand for water dramatically increases. This is due to the increase in irrigation activities in the lower part of the basin and to the highest peaks of tourist inflow, in the Como Lake and Valtellina areas. Moreover, during these months, the hydroelectric reservoirs in the upper part of the Adda River basin (the Valtellina retain most of the volume of water coming from the snow and glacier melt. The existing allocation problem among these different competing users is exacerbated by the decreasing water supplies. The summer of 2003 testified the rise in a number of allocation problems and situations of water scarcity that brought about environmental and economical consequences. The RICLIC project is committed to the understanding of water dynamics on a regional scale, to quantify the volumes involved and offer local communities an instrument to improve a sustainable water management system, within uncertain climate change scenarios.

  7. Development of Manitoba Hydro's public water safety around dams management guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, Dave; McPhail, Gord; Murphy, Shayla; Schellenberg, Gord [KGS Acres, Winnipeg, (Canada); Read, Nick [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Several drowning fatalities and safety incidents have occurred around dams in Ontario, Manitoba and other jurisdictions in Canada. Following these incidents, Manitoba Hydro implemented several measures to improve public safety around its dams with the development of a warning signs manual. Manitoba Hydro found that a standard centralized approach to the process of improving public safety is better for ensuring compliance and consistency, even though they have safety measures in place. This paper described the process that Manitoba Hydro has followed in developing a formal set of public water safety around dams (PWSD) guidelines and a program for implementing these guidelines. This program was developed with the intent of providing a high standard of public protection and continuous improvement and monitoring on par with the effect spent on similar dam safety type programs. This paper focused on the development of the pilot PWSD management plan for Pine Falls generating station in order to test the effectiveness and usability of the guidelines.

  8. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management (WQM...) The functions to be exercised by the Indian Tribe pertain to the management and protection of...

  9. Implementation of an agency to improve chronic kidney disease care in Ontario: lessons learned by the Ontario Renal Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Graham L; Iverson, Alex; Harvey, Rebecca; Blake, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, Ontario's Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care initiated the transfer of oversight and coordination of chronic kidney disease (CKD) care to the Ontario Renal Network (ORN) under the auspices of Cancer Care Ontario (CCO). The aim was to replicate the quality improvement and change management practices used for cancer control within CKD. Much of the ORN's first three years were dedicated to building the infrastructure necessary to bridge the gap between provincial policy and clinical practice. This article explores the accomplishments, challenges and lessons learned over that period. The results, which are applicable to the management of chronic diseases in Ontario, Canada, and internationally, confirm that sustainable change takes time and requires strong leadership, transparency, accountability and communication, supported by a solid foundation of data and evidence.

  10. Deepwater sculpin status and recovery in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidel, Brian C.; Walsh, Maureen; Connerton, Michael J.; Lantry, Brian F.; Lantry, Jana R.; Holden, Jeremy P.; Yuille, Michael J.; Hoyle, James A.

    2017-01-01

    Deepwater sculpin are important in oligotrophic lakes as one of the few fishes that use deep profundal habitats and link invertebrates in those habitats to piscivores. In Lake Ontario the species was once abundant, however drastic declines in the mid-1900s led some to suggest the species had been extirpated and ultimately led Canadian and U.S. agencies to elevate the species' conservation status. Following two decades of surveys with no captures, deepwater sculpin were first caught in low numbers in 1996 and by the early 2000s there were indications of population recovery. We updated the status of Lake Ontario deepwater sculpin through 2016 to inform resource management and conservation. Our data set was comprised of 8431 bottom trawls sampled from 1996 to 2016, in U.S. and Canadian waters spanning depths from 5 to 225 m. Annual density estimates generally increased from 1996 through 2016, and an exponential model estimated the rate of population increase was ~ 59% per year. The mean total length and the proportion of fish greater than the estimated length at maturation (~ 116 mm) generally increased until a peak in 2013. In addition, the mean length of all deepwater sculpin captured in a trawl significantly increased with depth. Across all years examined, deepwater sculpin densities generally increased with depth, increasing sharply at depths > 150 m. Bottom trawl observations suggest the Lake Ontario deepwater sculpin population has recovered and current densities and biomass densities may now be similar to the other Great Lakes.

  11. Water resources. [mapping and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonson, V. V.

    1974-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in applying ERTS-1 data to water resources problems, nevertheless, more time and effort still appear necessary for further quantification of results, including the specification of thematic measurement accuracies. More modeling can be done very profitably. In particular, more strategy models describing the processes wherein ERTS-1 data would be acquired, analyzed, processed, and utilized in operational situations could be profitably accomplished. It is generally observed that the ERTS-1 data applicability is evident in several areas and that the next most general and substantive steps in the implementation of the data in operational situations would be greatly encouraged by the establishment of an operational earth resources satellite organization and capability. Further encouragement of this operational capability would be facilitated by all investigators striving to document their procedures as fully as possible and by providing time and cost comparisons between ERTS-1 and conventional acquisition approaches.

  12. Geoarchaeology of water management at Great Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulas, Federica; Pikirayi, Innocent; Sagiya, Munyaradzi Elton

    In Africa, research on water management in urban contexts has often focussed rainfall, and the occurrence floods and droughts, whereas small-scale catchment systems and soil moisture regimes have received far less attention. This paper sets out to re-address the issue by examining the occurrence...... management of water resources over the last thousand years or so. These findings call for a rethinking of current models of urban evolutions in the region. More importantly, this study illustrates the need for integrating different datasets at multiple spatial and temporal scales to address people-water......, distribution and use of multiple water resources at the ancient urban landscape of Great Zimbabwe. Here, the rise and demise of the urban site have been linked to changing rainfall in the 1st mill. AD. Accordingly, rainfall shortages and consequent droughts eventually leading to the decline and abandonment...

  13. 33 CFR 151.1510 - Ballast water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast water management. 151..., AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1510 Ballast water management. (a) The master of each vessel subject to this...

  14. Marsh and Water Management Plan : Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The marsh and water management plan outlines and describes management strategies for maintenance, rehabilitation, and development of managed waters on the Clarence...

  15. 1995 Annual Water Management Plan : Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 1995 Water Management Plan for Muscatatuck NWR begins by summarizing the 1994 Water Management Program. Management results for moist soil units, green tree...

  16. Water management in the oil sands industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauls, R. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Water management issues at Alberta's 4 oil sand deposits were discussed. The 4 deposits include the Peace River, Athabasca, Wabasca and Cold Lake deposits, with the Athabasca deposit being the largest and the only surface-mineable deposit. Large quantities of water are needed to extract bitumen from oil sands. This paper addressed water volume withdrawal from the Athabasca River, the primary source of water for the surface-mining oil sands industry. It also addressed Muskeg River watershed integrity, quality of water withdrawn from reclaimed landscapes, groundwater contamination, and ecological viability of end-pit lakes. Currently, half of Syncrude's oil sand is transported from mine to extraction plant by conveyor belts. The other half is pipelined as a warm water slurry. By 2005, all transport will be by pipeline. The oil sand is mixed with hot water, steam and surfactants to condition it for extraction. Seventy-nine per cent of the water used by Syncrude is recycled water and the remainder comes from the Athabasca River. Syncrude diverts 2.5 to 3 barrels of water from the Athabasca River for every barrel of oil produced. This paper discussed the in-stream flow needs of the Athabasca River based on protection of aquatic ecosystems. Flow needs are addressed by the Cumulative Effects Management Association (CEMA). The paper states that the proportion of annual flow withdrawn from the Athabasca River is too low to have a significant impact on aquatic systems, but the main concern lies in water use during low flow periods, typically during the winter months. Developers will likely come under pressure to develop off-site reservoirs to store water for use during these low-flow periods. tabs., figs.

  17. Canadian wind energy case studies : Toronto, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, the North Toronto Green Community created the Toronto Renewable Energy Co-operative (TREC) to work on the development of a wind turbine for the city of Toronto. By December 2002, a 750 KW turbine from Lagerwey BV in the Netherlands was installed along the shore of Lake Ontario. It represents one of the most innovative wind power projects, and the first urban wind turbine in North America. WindShare, a separate cooperative created by TREC owns and manages the Exhibition Place Turbine. Power was first generated in January 2003 with an annual output of 1.4 million kWh, the equivalent of reducing 1,400 tonnes of greenhouse gases annually. The total investment was about $1.7 million, with both the planning phase and operational phase of the project bringing in local economic benefits. Wind energy addresses public concerns over the environmental impacts of conventional electricity production. Wind is a renewable energy source that does not contribute to climate change, air and water pollution. In an average year, a 660 KW turbine can produce 2,000 MWh of electricity, enough to power 250 homes. Public support has been very positive for the Exhibition Place wind turbine, which is now a main tourist attraction. Interest in this project has prompted the creation of twelve new community co-ops province-wide. 1 fig.

  18. Perspective: The challenge of ecologically sustainable water management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bernhardt, E

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable water resource management is constrained by three pervasive myths; that societal and environmental water demands always compete with one another; that technological solutions can solve all water resource management problems...

  19. Streamflow and estimated loads of phosphorus and dissolved and suspended solids from selected tributaries to Lake Ontario, New York, water years 2012–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Brett A.; Fisher, Benjamin N.; Reddy, James E.

    2016-07-20

    This report presents results of the evaluation and interpretation of hydrologic and water-quality data collected as part of a cooperative program between the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Streamflow, phosphorus, and solids dissolved and suspended in stream water were the focus of monitoring by the U.S. Geological Survey at 10 sites on 9 selected tributaries to Lake Ontario during the period from October 2011 through September 2014. Streamflow yields (flow per unit area) were the highest from the Salmon River Basin due to sustained yields from the Tug Hill aquifer. The Eighteenmile Creek streamflow yields also were high as a result of sustained base flow contributions from a dam just upstream of the U.S. Geological Survey monitoring station at Burt. The lowest streamflow yields were measured in the Honeoye Creek Basin, which reflects a decrease in flow because of withdrawals from Canadice and Hemlock Lakes for the water supply of the City of Rochester. The Eighteenmile Creek and Oak Orchard Creek Basins had relatively high yields due in part to groundwater contributions from the Niagara Escarpment and seasonal releases from the New York State Barge Canal.Annual constituent yields (load per unit area) of suspended solids, phosphorus, orthophosphate, and dissolved solids were computed to assess the relative contributions and allow direct comparison of loads among the monitored basins. High yields of total suspended solids were attributed to agricultural land use in highly erodible soils at all sites. The Genesee River, Irondequoit Creek, and Honeoye Creek had the highest concentrations and largest mean yields of total suspended solids (165 short tons per square mile [t/mi2], 184 t/mi2, and 89.7 t/mi2, respectively) of the study sites.Samples from Eighteenmile Creek, Oak Orchard Creek at Kenyonville, and Irondequoit Creek had the highest concentrations and largest mean yields of phosphorus (0.27 t/mi2, 0.26 t/mi2, and 0.20 t/mi2

  20. Knowledge and information management for integrated water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed information systems that integrate data and analytical tools are critical enabling technologies to support Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) by converting data into information, and information into knowledge. Many factors bring people to the table to participate in an IWRM fra...

  1. Considering the risk of infection by cryptosporidium via consumption of municipally treated drinking water from a surface water source in a Southwestern Ontario community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintar, K D M; Fazil, A; Pollari, F; Waltner-Toews, D; Charron, D F; McEwen, S A; Walton, T

    2012-07-01

    Through the use of case-control analyses and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), relative risks of transmission of cryptosporidiosis have been evaluated (recreational water exposure vs. drinking water consumption) for a Canadian community with higher than national rates of cryptosporidiosis. A QMRA was developed to assess the risk of Cryptosporidium infection through the consumption of municipally treated drinking water. Simulations were based on site-specific surface water contamination levels and drinking water treatment log₁₀ reduction capacity for Cryptosporidium. Results suggested that the risk of Cryptosporidium infection via drinking water in the study community, assuming routine operation of the water treatment plant, was negligible (6 infections per 10¹³ persons per day--5th percentile: 2 infections per 10¹⁵ persons per day; 95th percentile: 3 infections per 10¹² persons per day). The risk is essentially nonexistent during optimized, routine treatment operations. The study community achieves between 7 and 9 log₁₀ Cryptosporidium oocyst reduction through routine water treatment processes. Although these results do not preclude the need for constant vigilance by both water treatment and public health professionals in this community, they suggest that the cause of higher rates of cryptosporidiosis are more likely due to recreational water contact, or perhaps direct animal contact. QMRA can be successfully applied at the community level to identify data gaps, rank relative public health risks, and forecast future risk scenarios. It is most useful when performed in a collaborative way with local stakeholders, from beginning to end of the risk analysis paradigm. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Integrated waste and water management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.; Sauer, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The performance requirements of the NASA Space Station have prompted a reexamination of a previously developed integrated waste and water management system that used distillation and catalytic oxydation to purify waste water, and microbial digestion and incineration for waste solids disposal. This system successfully operated continuously for 206 days, for a 4-man equivalent load of urine, feces, wash water, condensate, and trash. Attention is given to synergisms that could be established with other life support systems, in the cases of thermal integration, design commonality, and novel technologies.

  3. Integrated waste and water management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.; Sauer, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The performance requirements of the NASA Space Station have prompted a reexamination of a previously developed integrated waste and water management system that used distillation and catalytic oxydation to purify waste water, and microbial digestion and incineration for waste solids disposal. This system successfully operated continuously for 206 days, for a 4-man equivalent load of urine, feces, wash water, condensate, and trash. Attention is given to synergisms that could be established with other life support systems, in the cases of thermal integration, design commonality, and novel technologies.

  4. Game Theory in water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanevaki, Styliani Maria; Varouchakis, Emmanouil; Karatzas, George

    2015-04-01

    Rural water management is a basic requirement for the development of the primary sector and involves the exploitation of surface/ground-water resources. Rational management requires the study of parameters that determine their exploitation mainly environmental, economic and social. These parameters reflect the influence of irrigation on the aquifer behaviour and on the level-streamflow of nearby rivers as well as on the profit from the farming activity for the farmers' welfare. The question of rural water management belongs to the socio-political problems, since the factors involved are closely related to user behaviour and state position. By applying Game Theory one seeks to simulate the behaviour of the system 'surface/ground-water resources to water-users' with a model based on a well-known game, "The Prisoner's Dilemma" for economic development of the farmers without overexploitation of the water resources. This is a game of two players that have been extensively studied in Game Theory, economy and politics because it can describe real-world cases. The present proposal aims to investigate the rural water management issue that is referred to two competitive small partnerships organised to manage their agricultural production and to achieve a better profit. For the farmers' activities water is required and ground-water is generally preferable because consists a more stable recourse than river-water which in most of the cases in Greece are of intermittent flow. If the two farmer groups cooperate and exploit the agreed water quantities they will gain equal profits and benefit from the sustainable availability of the water recourses (p). If both groups overexploitate the resource to maximize profit, then in the medium-term they will incur a loss (g), due to the water resources reduction and the increase of the pumping costs. If one overexploit the resource while the other use the necessary required, then the first will gain great benefit (P), and the second will

  5. Water management as a key component of integrated weed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Zanin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Water management within the cropping system is a key factor for an integrated weed management. Soil moisture affects seed persistence and seed dormancy, thus influencing their germination, the establishment of seedlings as well as the competition at adult stage and the number, vitality and dormancy of the new seeds produced by the weeds. The interactions among water availability and competition are very complex and still not fully understood. A research effort in this sector should the be very relevant for the development of new approaches of weed management, such as “Ecological weed management”, aiming to reduce weed density and competitiveness and, in the medium term, to prevent undesired modifications of the weed flora.

  6. Portfolios of adaptation investments in water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, Jeroen C.J.H.; Botzen, Wouter; Werners, Saskia E.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores how Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) can guide investment decisions in integrated water resources management (IWRM) and climate change adaptation under uncertainty. The objectives of the paper are to: (i) explain the concept of diversification to reduce risk, as formulated in MPT

  7. Portfolios of adaptation investments in water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, Jeroen C.J.H.; Botzen, Wouter; Werners, Saskia E.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores how Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) can guide investment decisions in integrated water resources management (IWRM) and climate change adaptation under uncertainty. The objectives of the paper are to: (i) explain the concept of diversification to reduce risk, as formulated in

  8. Portfolios of adaptation investments in water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, Jeroen C.J.H.; Botzen, Wouter; Werners, Saskia E.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores how Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) can guide investment decisions in integrated water resources management (IWRM) and climate change adaptation under uncertainty. The objectives of the paper are to: (i) explain the concept of diversification to reduce risk, as formulated in MPT

  9. Integrated urban water management in commercial buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowsdale, S; Gabe, J; Vale, R

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring results are presented as an annual water balance from the pioneering Landcare Research green building containing commercial laboratory and office space. The building makes use of harvested roof runoff to flush toilets and urinals and irrigate glasshouse experiments, reducing the demand for city-supplied water and stormwater runoff. Stormwater treatment devices also manage the runoff from the carpark, helping curb stream degradation. Composting toilets and low-flow tap fittings further reduce the water demand. Despite research activities requiring the use of large volumes of water, the demand for city-supplied water is less than has been measured in many other green buildings. In line with the principles of sustainability, the composting toilets produce a useable product from wastes and internalise the wastewater treatment process.

  10. 1990 Annual water management report 1991 Annual water management plan : Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Ruby Valley Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Ruby Lake NWR 1990 Annual Water Management Report 1991 Annual Water Management Plan. Includes 1990 weather summary, water availability forecast, summary of 1990...

  11. Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Ruby Valley Nevada : 1997 Annual water management report 1998 Annual water management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Contents include: 1997 Weather Summary, 1997 Marsh Unit Water Management, Water Availability Forecast, and Water Management Strategy for 1998.

  12. 1989 Annual water management report 1990 Annual water management plan : Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Ruby Valley Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Ruby Lake NWR 1989 Annual Water Management Report 1990 Annual Water Management Plan. Includes 1989 weather summary, water availability forecast, summary of 1989...

  13. Managing new resources in Arctic marine waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kourantidou, Melina; Fernandez, Linda; Kaiser, Brooks

    and management of the resource which poses challenges due its nature as a ‘sedentary species’ colonizing the Barents Sea continental shelf shared by Norway and Russia and approaching the fishery protection zone around Svalbard. Conversely, little research has looked into the implications of the invasion partly...... fishery straddling Arctic waters which lends towards different productivity under different management and we delineate acceptable risk levels in order build up a bioeconomic framework that pinpoints the underlying trade-offs. We also address the difficulties of managing the resource under uncertainty......Along with the Arctic’s icy barriers melting which allows species to move northwards, new invasion corridors also arise with the opening of new shipping routes. The Snow Crab in the North West Atlantic is suspected to be a stowaway transferred via ballast water from the North Pacific...

  14. Water demand management research: A psychological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Sally; Fielding, Kelly

    2010-05-01

    The availability of fresh water for human consumption is a critical global issue and one that will be exacerbated by the impacts of climate change. Water demand management has an important role to play in reducing the vulnerability of freshwater supplies to climate change impacts. In this paper, we argue that the field of psychology and environmental psychology in particular can make a vital contribution in understanding further the drivers of residential water demand. A growing body of literature in environmental psychology has examined the determinants of water conservation behavior, and this research has many potential applications for water demand policy. In this paper we offer a review of current psychological research that examines the five broad causes of residential water conservation behaviors: attitudes, beliefs, habits or routines, personal capabilities, and contextual factors. We assess how psychologists have studied water conservation behavior to date, identify shortcomings, and indicate how this research can be used to further promote residential water conservation and to inform evidence-based policy and practice.

  15. An integrated risk management model for source water protection areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chiueh, Pei-Te; Shang, Wei-Ting; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2012-01-01

    .... For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans...

  16. Irrigation Water Management in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo S de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Latin American countries show a great potential for expanding their irrigated areas. Irrigation is important for strengthening local and regional economy and for enhancing food security. The present paper aimed at providing a brief review on key aspects of irrigation management in Latin America. Poor irrigation management can have great impact on crop production and on environment while good management reduces the waste of soil and water and help farmers maximizing their profits. It was found that additional research is needed to allow a better understanding of crop water requirements under Latin American conditions as well as to provide farmers with local derived information for irrigation scheduling. The advantages of deficit irrigation practices and the present and future opportunities with the application of remote sensing tools for water management were also considered. It is clear that due to the importance of irrigated agriculture, collaborative work among Latin American researchers and institutions is of paramount importance to face the challenges imposed by a growing population, environment degradation, and competition in the global market.

  17. Towards an integrated water management - Comparing German and Dutch water law from a spatial planning perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, Hartmann; Spit, Tejo

    2015-01-01

    Water management increasingly deals with spatial aspects; spatial planning interferes and depends in various ways on water management. Particularly in urban areas, this interference calls for an integrated water management. As a result, water management and spatial planning meet. Laws frame the inte

  18. Horizontal drilling in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidey, P.; Precul, L. [Sproule Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    A review of oil and gas production in Ontario was presented with particular reference to drilling activity between 1987 to mid 2002 when 1450 vertical wells were drilled, of which 1100 were for petroleum production and the remainder were for gas storage, observation wells, private gas wells and stratigraphic tests. Of the 1100 vertical wells drilled for petroleum production, 40 per cent became gas wells, 16 per cent became oil wells, 4 per cent became oil and gas wells, and 40 per cent were dry. During the same time period, 133 horizontal wells were also drilled, mostly for petroleum. The most active operator was Talisman Energy, which drilled 101 of the 133 horizontal wells. The remainder were drilled by 12 other companies. Of the horizontal wells, 64 per cent became oil wells, 19 per cent became gas wells, and 17 per cent were dry. This presentation included graphs depicting which oil and gas pools saw vertical or horizontal drilling during the designated time period, and explained how the wells were classified. Both horizontal and vertical well targets were illustrated. Particular reference was made to Talisman Energy's Lake Erie Drilling program which revealed that horizontal wells have an initial production rate that is 5 times that expected from vertical wells. The Hillman Pool case study revealed that the initial rate of the average horizontal well is less than half that of the average vertical well. Horizontal drilling in the Lake Erie Morpeth Gas pool has also been a commercial success. This paper demonstrates that operators have maintained Ontario's oil and gas production at high levels. In 1997 widespread horizontal drilling began taking place in Ontario, and since then, approximately 30 per cent of the wells drilled in the province have been horizontal. 16 figs.

  19. Water management tools as a means of averting a possible water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water management tools as a means of averting a possible water scarcity in South ... as water stressed country is forecasted to experience physical water scarcity by ... continuous pollution of the available water sources, there is bound to be ...

  20. Russia in the World Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibikova, Tatiana; Koronkevich, Nikolay; Barabanova, Elena; Zaytseva, Irina

    2014-05-01

    resources, including surface and ground waters, for the territory and the population; precipitation; indicators of anthropogenic impact, such as population, water withdrawals, sewage waters, irrevocable consumption of water, data on flow regulation by reservoirs; the state of natural waters was estimated by comparison of the average long-term values of water resources with characteristics of anthropogenic impact, and economic efficiency of water use - by water and gross domestic product comparison. The objective of this paper was to give a general idea of the position of Russia in the world water management in the period of time. Further work on this subject is aimed at clarifying the indicators of water resources, human impact on them and the effectiveness of their use. Particular attention will be paid to the assessment of the impact of economic activity in the catchment on rivers and reservoirs. Such kind of assessment is necessary for achieving sustainable water supply in the near and distant future, raising living standards and preserving the environment. References: Koronkevich N.I., Zaytseva I.S., 2003. Anthropogenic Influences on Water Resources of Russia and Neighboring Countries at the end of XXth Century. Moscow, Nauka. Bibikova T., 2011 Comparative Analysis of Anthropogenic Impact on Water Resources in Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine in the Post-Soviet Period. Water Res. Vol. 38 No. 5, 549-556.

  1. Water Quality Management in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Asit K.; Tortajada, Cecilia; Braga, Benedito; Rodriguez, Diego J.

    The book contains several in-depth case studies which comprehensively analyze the present status of water quality management practices at country and state levels, especially in terms of their effectiveness and overall impacts. The objective is to identify opportunities, shortcomings, and constraints that currently exist. The analyses include the mechanisms and instruments that have succeeded in improving water quality, at which locations, for what reasons, and how whatever constraints and deficiencies that exist at present can be overcome in the future in a cost-effective and timely manner.

  2. Developing Sustainable Spacecraft Water Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.; Klaus, David M.

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that water handling systems used in a spacecraft are prone to failure caused by biofouling and mineral scaling, which can clog mechanical systems and degrade the performance of capillary-based technologies. Long duration spaceflight applications, such as extended stays at a Lunar Outpost or during a Mars transit mission, will increasingly benefit from hardware that is generally more robust and operationally sustainable overtime. This paper presents potential design and testing considerations for improving the reliability of water handling technologies for exploration spacecraft. Our application of interest is to devise a spacecraft wastewater management system wherein fouling can be accommodated by design attributes of the management hardware, rather than implementing some means of preventing its occurrence.

  3. Water quality management library. 2. edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckenfelder, W.W.; Malina, J.F.; Patterson, J.W. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    A series of ten books offered in conjunction with Water Quality International, the Biennial Conference and Exposition of the International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control (IAWPRC). Volume 1, Activated Sludge Process, Design and Control, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 2, Upgrading Wastewater Treatment Plants, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 3, Toxicity Reduction, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 4, Municipal Sewage Sludge Management, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 5, Design and Retrofit of Wastewater Treatment Plants for Biological Nutrient Removal, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 6, Dynamics and Control of the Activated Sludge Process, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 7: Design of Anaerobic Processes for the Treatment of Industrial and Municipal Wastes, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 8, Groundwater Remediation, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 9, Nonpoint Pollution and Urban Stormwater Management, 1st edition, 1995: Volume 10, Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse, 1st edition, 1998.

  4. Water Management of Noninsulating and Insulating Sheathings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smegal, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    There is an increasing market in liquid (or fluid) applied water management barriers for residential applications that could be used in place of tapes and other self-adhering membranes if applied correctly, especially around penetrations in the enclosure. This report discusses current best practices, recommends ways in which the best practices can be improved, and looks at some current laboratory testing and testing standards.

  5. Multi-agent Water Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletti, A.; Giuliani, M.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing environmental awareness and emerging trends such as water trading, energy market, deregulation and democratization of water-related services are challenging integrated water resources planning and management worldwide. The traditional approach to water management design based on sector-by-sector optimization has to be reshaped to account for multiple interrelated decision-makers and many stakeholders with increasing decision power. Centralized management, though interesting from a conceptual point of view, is unfeasible in most of the modern social and institutional contexts, and often economically inefficient. Coordinated management, where different actors interact within a full open trust exchange paradigm under some institutional supervision is a promising alternative to the ideal centralized solution and the actual uncoordinated practices. This is a significant issue in most of the Southern Alps regulated lakes, where upstream hydropower reservoirs maximize their benefit independently form downstream users; it becomes even more relevant in the case of transboundary systems, where water management upstream affects water availability downstream (e.g. the River Zambesi flowing through Zambia, Zimbabwe and Mozambique or the Red River flowing from South-Western China through Northern Vietnam. In this study we apply Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) theory to design an optimal management in a decentralized way, considering a set of multiple autonomous agents acting in the same environment and taking into account the pay-off of individual water users, which are inherently distributed along the river and need to coordinate to jointly reach their objectives. In this way each real-world actor, representing the decision-making entity (e.g. the operator of a reservoir or a diversion dam) can be represented one-to-one by a computer agent, defined as a computer system that is situated in some environment and that is capable of autonomous action in this environment in

  6. Environmental Ethics in River Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandran Moorthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Environmental ethics concerns human beings’ ethical relationship with the natural environment. The fundamental question regarding environmental ethics is basically-what moral obligations do we have concerning the natural environment? The main objective of this study is to examine the extent environmental ethics manifest in river management. The study employs the case study of Malaysia's Gombak River-one of the most polluted urban rivers that run through some heavily inhabited urban areas. The study examines how the Department of Environment (DOE, Drainage and Irrigation Department (DID and Selayang Municipal Council (MPS manage the problem of pollution in the Gombak River. Approach: This study uses both quantitative and qualitative analysis. A quantitative approach is employed to assess the water quality in several points along Gombak River. This is done by way of series of scientific testing to determine the level of pollution in the river. Secondly, a qualitative approach is applied on the data gathered through expert interviews on inter-agency coordination efforts to manage pollution problems. Results: The study firstly shows that the Gombak River is considerably polluted, with higher levels of pollution in upstream as compared to the downstream. The second finding suggests that notwithstanding several legislations that are already in place, there is sluggishness in the enforcement of pollution mitigation efforts as a result of ineffective inter-agency communication and coordination. Conclusion: The lack of concerted and coordinated efforts between river management agencies have been cited as one of the main factors contributing to river pollution. Therefore, the agencies concerned should embark on cohesive measures to ensure the rivers are managed well and its water quality controlled. This requires for a structured coordination mechanism between agencies to be put in place and such mechanism can be emulated in the

  7. Managing the water crisis: A youth perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simataa, Faith

    2017-04-01

    The youth are identified as a key group to include in effective engagement and decision-making for water security and sustainable development. An increase in severe droughts in Namibia has highlighted its destructive impacts and led to a growing concern about the societal exposure of communities. Acknowledging the benefit of access to safe drinking water to humanity, in reality a disproportionate burden of protecting environmental benefits such as clean water is borne by the poor and vulnerable sections of the society. As a result, a key consideration highlighted in the Hyogo and Sendai Frameworks is the inclusion of gender & age perspectives, and vulnerable groups in planning for disaster risk reduction. Therefore, the paper argues that empowering the youth with knowledge and skills capability in disaster risk issues becomes essential for a sustainable management approach, and a potential 'rescue' mechanism from the web of poverty. The paper also illustrates that there is indeed weak adherence to good governance and that the government needs to improve structures for youth coordination to ensure water stewardship. Realizing this gap in knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of resilience at all levels of society, the paper offers a perspective on the role of youth in the development agenda of Namibia and how they can influence decision-making processes in addressing water insecurity in the country. Keywords: Empowerment, Namibia, Water insecurity, Youth

  8. Water quality management for Lake Mariout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Donia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A hydrodynamic and water quality model was used to study the current status of the Lake Mariout subject to the pollution loadings from the agricultural drains and the point sources discharging directly to the Lake. The basic water quality modelling component simulates the main water quality parameters including the oxygen compounds (BOD, COD, DO, nutrients compounds (NH4, TN, TP, and finally the temperature, salinity and inorganic matter. Many scenarios have been conducted to improve the circulation and the water quality in the lake and to assess the spreading and mixing of the discharge effluents and its impact on the water quality of the main basin. Several pilot interventions were applied through the model in the Lake Mariout together with the upgrades of the East and West Waste Water Treatment Plants in order to achieve at least 5% reduction in the pollution loads entering the Mediterranean Sea through Lake Mariout in order to improve the institutional mechanisms for sustainable coastal zone management in Alexandria in particular to reduce land-based pollution to the Mediterranean Sea.

  9. Water Management at Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report highlights the results in water management at Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge in 1983. This report includes a summary of water management in...

  10. Annual Water Management Program - 1991 : Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The proposed water management program for 1991 focuses on managing unit water levels to maintain habitat on Big Stone NWR. During the winter of 1990/91, cattails...

  11. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) manages multiple water management units. Silver Lake is the largest unit that is utilized primarily as a water storage...

  12. Managing peatland vegetation for drinking water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritson, Jonathan P.; Bell, Michael; Brazier, Richard E.; Grand-Clement, Emilie; Graham, Nigel J. D.; Freeman, Chris; Smith, David; Templeton, Michael R.; Clark, Joanna M.

    2016-11-01

    Peatland ecosystem services include drinking water provision, flood mitigation, habitat provision and carbon sequestration. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal is a key treatment process for the supply of potable water downstream from peat-dominated catchments. A transition from peat-forming Sphagnum moss to vascular plants has been observed in peatlands degraded by (a) land management, (b) atmospheric deposition and (c) climate change. Here within we show that the presence of vascular plants with higher annual above-ground biomass production leads to a seasonal addition of labile plant material into the peatland ecosystem as litter recalcitrance is lower. The net effect will be a smaller litter carbon pool due to higher rates of decomposition, and a greater seasonal pattern of DOC flux. Conventional water treatment involving coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation may be impeded by vascular plant-derived DOC. It has been shown that vascular plant-derived DOC is more difficult to remove via these methods than DOC derived from Sphagnum, whilst also being less susceptible to microbial mineralisation before reaching the treatment works. These results provide evidence that practices aimed at re-establishing Sphagnum moss on degraded peatlands could reduce costs and improve efficacy at water treatment works, offering an alternative to ‘end-of-pipe’ solutions through management of ecosystem service provision.

  13. Linking integrated water resources management and integrated coastal zone management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, P S; Ipsen, N; Malmgren-Hansen, A; Mogensen, B

    2005-01-01

    Some of the world's most valuable aquatic ecosystems such as deltas, lagoons and estuaries are located in the coastal zone. However, the coastal zone and its aquatic ecosystems are in many places under environmental stress from human activities. About 50% of the human population lives within 200 km of the coastline, and the population density is increasing every day. In addition, the majority of urban centres are located in the coastal zone. It is commonly known that there are important linkages between the activities in the upstream river basins and the environment conditions in the downstream coastal zones. Changes in river flows, e.g. caused by irrigation, hydropower and water supply, have changed salinity in estuaries and lagoons. Land use changes, such as intensified agricultural activities and urban and industrial development, cause increasing loads of nutrients and a variety of chemicals resulting in considerable adverse impacts in the coastal zones. It is recognised that the solution to such problems calls for an integrated approach. Therefore, the terms Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) are increasingly in focus on the international agenda. Unfortunately, the concepts of IWRM and ICZM are mostly being developed independently from each other by separate management bodies using their own individual approaches and tools. The present paper describes how modelling tools can be used to link IWRM and ICZM. It draws a line from the traditional sectoral use of models for the Istanbul Master Planning and assessment of the water quality and ecological impact in the Bosphorus Strait and the Black Sea 10 years ago, to the most recent use of models in a Water Framework Directive (WFD) context for one of the selected Pilot River Basins in Denmark used for testing of the WFD Guidance Documents.

  14. Water resource management in Japan: Forest management or dam reservoirs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Hikaru; Kume, Tomonori; Otsuki, Kyoichi

    2010-01-01

    Researchers and journalists in Japan recently proposed forest management as an alternative to dam reservoir development for water resource management. To examine the validity of the proposal, we compared the potential low-flow increase due to forest clearcutting with the increase due to dam reservoir development. Here, we focused on forest clearcutting as an end member among various types of forest management. We first analyzed runoff data for five catchments and found a positive correlation between annual precipitation and the low-flow increase due to deforestation. We then examined the increase in low-flow rates due to dam reservoir development (dQ(d)) using inflow and outflow data for 45 dam reservoirs across Japan. Using the relationship between annual precipitation and the low-flow increase due to deforestation, we estimated the potential increase in the low-flow rate for each dam reservoir watershed if forests in the watershed were clearcut (dQ(f)). Only 6 of the 45 samples satisfied dQ(f)>dQ(d), indicating that the potential increase in the low-flow rate due to forest clearcutting was less than the increase due to dam reservoir development in most cases. Twenty-five of the 45 samples satisfied dQ(f)<0.2 dQ(d), indicating the potential increase in the low-flow rate due to forest clearcutting was less than 20% of the increase due to dam reservoir development in more than half the cases. Therefore, forest management is far less effective for water resource management than dam reservoir development is in Japan.

  15. International Student Support Services at Ontario Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Clayton; Whiteside, Brenda; Blanchard, Suzanne; Martin, Chris

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the Ontario Committee on Student Affairs and the Ontario Undergraduate Student Alliance partnered to examine the availability and use of international student support services at Ontario universities. Results of the recently administered Ontario Committee on Student Affairs, Canadian Bureau of International Education, and…

  16. Evaluation of a chronic disease management system for the treatment and management of diabetes in primary health care practices in Ontario: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, D J; Bowen, J M; Sebaldt, R J; Petrie, A; Hopkins, R B; Assasi, N; MacDougald, C; Nunes, E; Goeree, R

    2014-01-01

    Computerized chronic disease management systems (CDMSs), when aligned with clinical practice guidelines, have the potential to effectively impact diabetes care. The objective was to measure the difference between optimal diabetes care and actual diabetes care before and after the introduction of a computerized CDMS. This 1-year, prospective, observational, pre/post study evaluated the use of a CDMS with a diabetes patient registry and tracker in family practices using patient enrolment models. Aggregate practice-level data from all rostered diabetes patients were analyzed. The primary outcome measure was the change in proportion of patients with up-to-date "ABC" monitoring frequency (i.e., hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, and cholesterol). Changes in the frequency of other practice care and treatment elements (e.g., retinopathy screening) were also determined. Usability and satisfaction with the CDMS were measured. Nine sites, 38 health care providers, and 2,320 diabetes patients were included. The proportion of patients with up-to-date ABC (12%), hemoglobin A1c (45%), and cholesterol (38%) monitoring did not change over the duration of the study. The proportion of patients with up-to-date blood pressure monitoring improved, from 16% to 20%. Data on foot examinations, retinopathy screening, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers, and documentation of self-management goals were not available or not up to date at baseline for 98% of patients. By the end of the study, attitudes of health care providers were more negative on the Training, Usefulness, Daily Practice, and Support from the Service Provider domains of the CDMS, but more positive on the Learning, Using, Practice Planning, CDMS, and Satisfaction domains. Few practitioners used the CDMS, so it was difficult to draw conclusions about its efficacy. Simply giving health care providers a potentially useful technology will not ensure its use. This real-world evaluation of a

  17. Evaluation of a Chronic Disease Management System for the Treatment and Management of Diabetes in Primary Health Care Practices in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    DJ, O’Reilly; JM, Bowen; RJ, Sebaldt; A, Petrie; RB, Hopkins; N, Assasi; C, MacDougald; E, Nunes; R, Goeree

    2014-01-01

    Background Computerized chronic disease management systems (CDMSs), when aligned with clinical practice guidelines, have the potential to effectively impact diabetes care. Objective The objective was to measure the difference between optimal diabetes care and actual diabetes care before and after the introduction of a computerized CDMS. Methods This 1-year, prospective, observational, pre/post study evaluated the use of a CDMS with a diabetes patient registry and tracker in family practices using patient enrolment models. Aggregate practice-level data from all rostered diabetes patients were analyzed. The primary outcome measure was the change in proportion of patients with up-to-date “ABC” monitoring frequency (i.e., hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, and cholesterol). Changes in the frequency of other practice care and treatment elements (e.g., retinopathy screening) were also determined. Usability and satisfaction with the CDMS were measured. Results Nine sites, 38 health care providers, and 2,320 diabetes patients were included. The proportion of patients with up-to-date ABC (12%), hemoglobin A1c (45%), and cholesterol (38%) monitoring did not change over the duration of the study. The proportion of patients with up-to-date blood pressure monitoring improved, from 16% to 20%. Data on foot examinations, retinopathy screening, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers, and documentation of self-management goals were not available or not up to date at baseline for 98% of patients. By the end of the study, attitudes of health care providers were more negative on the Training, Usefulness, Daily Practice, and Support from the Service Provider domains of the CDMS, but more positive on the Learning, Using, Practice Planning, CDMS, and Satisfaction domains. Limitations Few practitioners used the CDMS, so it was difficult to draw conclusions about its efficacy. Simply giving health care providers a potentially useful technology

  18. Risk management in waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M; Strube, I

    2005-01-01

    With the continuous restructuring of the water market due to liberalisation, privatisation and internationalisation processes, the requirements on waste water disposal companies have grown. Increasing competition requires a target-oriented and clearly structured procedure. At the same time it is necessary to meet the environment-relevant legal requirements and to design the processes to be environment-oriented. The implementation of risk management and the integration of such a management instrument in an existing system in addition to the use of modern technologies and procedures can help to make the operation of the waste water treatment safer and consequently strengthen market position. The risk management process consists of three phases, risk identification, risk analysis/risk assessment and risk handling, which are based on each other, as well as of the risk managing. To achieve an identification of the risks as complete as possible, a subdivision of the kind of risks (e.g. legal, financial, market, operational) is suggested. One possibility to assess risks is the portfolio method which offers clear representation. It allows a division of the risks into classes showing which areas need handling. The determination of the appropriate measures to handle a risk (e.g. avoidance, reduction, shift) is included in the concluding third phase. Different strategies can be applied here. On the one hand, the cause-oriented strategy, aiming at preventive measures which aim to reduce the probability of occurrence of a risk (e.g. creation of redundancy, systems with low susceptibility to malfunction). On the other hand, the effect-oriented strategy, aiming to minimise the level of damage in case of an undesired occurrence (e.g. use of alarm systems, insurance cover).

  19. 78 FR 33774 - Ballast Water Management Reporting and Recordkeeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    .... USCG-2012-0924] RIN 1625-AB68 Ballast Water Management Reporting and Recordkeeping AGENCY: Coast Guard... ballast water management (BWM) reporting and recordkeeping requirements. The Coast Guard will require... Ballast Water Management CFR Code of Federal Regulations COTP Coast Guard Captain of the Port...

  20. Hydroeconomic modeling to support integrated water resources management in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus

    of the growing demand for water to irrigation, industrial and domestic uses. As a response, the Chinese authorities have launched the 2011 No. 1 Central Policy Document, which set targets related to water scarcity and water quality and marks the first step towards sustainable management of the Chinese water...... resources. In this context, the PhD study focused on development of approaches to inform integrated water resources management to cope with multiple and coupled challenges faced in China. The proposed method is to formulate river water management as a joint hydroeconomic optimization problem that minimizes...... basin-wide costs of water supply and water curtailment. Water users are characterized by water demand and economic value, turning the complex water management problem into a single objective cost minimization problem. The physical system and management scenarios are represented as constraints...

  1. Development of FVSOntario: A Forest Vegetation Simulator Variant and application software for Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray E. Woods; Donald C. E. Robinson

    2008-01-01

    The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources is leading a government-industry partnership to develop an Ontario variant of the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS). Based on the Lake States variant and the PrognosisBC user-interface, the FVSOntarioproject is motivated by a need to model the impacts of intensive forest management...

  2. A perspective on nonstationarity and water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    This essay offers some perspectives on climate-related nonstationarity and water resources. Hydrologists must not lose sight of the many sources of nonstationarity, recognizing that many of them may be of much greater magnitude than those that may arise from climate change. It is paradoxical that statistical and deterministic approaches give us better insights about changes in mean conditions than about the tails of probability distributions, and yet the tails are very important to water management. Another paradox is that it is difficult to distinguish between long-term hydrologic persistence and trend. Using very long hydrologic records is helpful in mitigating this problem, but does not guarantee success. Empirical approaches, using long-term hydrologic records, should be an important part of the portfolio of research being applied to understand the hydrologic response to climate change. An example presented here shows very mixed results for trends in the size of the annual floods, with some strong clusters of positive trends and a strong cluster of negative trends. The potential for nonstationarity highlights the importance of the continuity of hydrologic records, the need for repeated analysis of the data as the time series grow, and the need for a well-trained cadre of scientists and engineers, ready to interpret the data and use those analyses to help adjust the management of our water resources.

  3. Water Management Plan: Parker River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water management on the Parker River National Wildlife Refuge includes two divergent types: impounded fresh water and natural saltmarsh, open salt water, and tidal...

  4. Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge : 1983 Water Management Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes water management on Benton Lake NWR during 1983. The effects of water levels on marsh units, water elevations, and a pumping report are...

  5. Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge : Long Range Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Long-Range Water Management Plan for Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge begins with a history of precipitation, water levels, wildlife use, disease, water...

  6. Long Range Water Management Plan : Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Long-Range Water Management Plan for Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge begins with a history of precipitation, water levels, wildlife use, disease, water...

  7. Water management and reuse opportunities in a thermal power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-19

    Jul 19, 2010 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 9 (29), pp. ... Key words: Boiler blow down, industrial water reuse, industrial water treatment, power plants, waste management. ... waste water from electric power plant on the earliness.

  8. AGRICULTURAL WATER MANAGEMENT IN TURKEY: PAST-PRESENT-FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Gökalp

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Water is an essential element in ensuring food safety. It is not possible to obtain food without water. The importance of water is gradually increased and nowadays raised to the top ranks among strategic resources. The use and increasing environmental threats by different sectors are increasingly limited available water resources. In the past years water was seen as an abundant and unlimited resource, and was used randomly. However today, global warming and drought have brought the importance of the water agenda, and has taken on a particular importance to the management of water resources. Therefore, one of the most important goals of agricultural water management is to ensure the efficient use of water by preventing water waste. Water management has quite a wide range of services included necessary activities in order to develop, distribute and use of water resources. Today this point of agricultural water management is to search the ways of saving water and put into practice. In the future such techniques virtual water use, water footprint of products will come to the fore in order to provide water saving in water management. In this study, the past, present and future of water management in agriculture are discussed and given suggestions.

  9. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Eckert, Thomas H.; Schaner, Ted; Bowlby, James N.; Schleen, Larry P.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to maintain the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Ontario by stocking fry failed and the species was extirpated by the 1950s. Hatchery fish stocked in the 1960s did not live to maturity because of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation and incidental commercial harvest. Suppression of sea lampreys began with larvicide treatments of Lake Ontario tributaries in 1971 and was enhanced when the tributaries of Oneida Lake and Lake Erie were treated in the 1980s. Annual stocking of hatchery fish was resumed with the 1972 year class and peaked at about 1.8 million yearlings and 0.3 million fingerlings from the 1985–1990 year classes. Survival of stocked yearlings declined over 50% in the 1980 s and was negatively correlated with the abundance of lake trout > 550 mm long (r = −0.91, P < 0.01, n = 12). A slot length limit imposed by the State of New York for the 1988 fishing season reduced angler harvest. Angler harvest in Canadian waters was 3 times higher in eastern Lake Ontario than in western Lake Ontario. For the 1977–1984 year classes, mean annual survival rate of lake trout age 6 and older was 0.45 (range: 0.35–0.56). In U.S. waters during 1985–1992, the total number of lake trout harvested by anglers was about 2.4 times greater than that killed by sea lampreys. The number of unmarked lake trout < 250 mm long in trawl catches in 1978–1992 was not different from that expected due to loss of marks and failure to apply marks at the hatchery, and suggested that recruitment of naturally-produced fish was nil. However, many of the obstacles which may have impeded lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario during the 1980s are slowly being removed, and there are signs of a general ecosystem recovery. Significant recruitment of naturally produced lake trout by the year 2000, one interim objective of the rehabilitation plan for the Lake, may be achieved.

  10. Ontario Teachers' Deprofessionalization and Proletarianization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filson, Glen

    1988-01-01

    Discusses teachers' class location in capitalist societies in terms of major sociological perspectives. Identifies corporate capitalist class categories that distinguish professionals from proletarians, and applies these categories to Ontario teachers at different occupational levels. (44 references) (SV)

  11. Risk-based water resources planning: Coupling water allocation and water quality management under extreme droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi-Naeini, M.; Bussi, G.; Hall, J. W.; Whitehead, P. G.

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of water companies is to have a reliable and safe water supply system. To fulfil their duty the water companies have to consider both water quality and quantity issues and challenges. Climate change and population growth will have an impact on water resources both in terms of available water and river water quality. Traditionally, a distinct separation between water quality and abstraction has existed. However, water quality can be a bottleneck in a system since water treatment works can only treat water if it meets certain standards. For instance, high turbidity and large phytoplankton content can increase sharply the cost of treatment or even make river water unfit for human consumption purposes. It is vital for water companies to be able to characterise the quantity and quality of water under extreme weather events and to consider the occurrence of eventual periods when water abstraction has to cease due to water quality constraints. This will give them opportunity to decide on water resource planning and potential changes to reduce the system failure risk. We present a risk-based approach for incorporating extreme events, based on future climate change scenarios from a large ensemble of climate model realisations, into integrated water resources model through combined use of water allocation (WATHNET) and water quality (INCA) models. The annual frequency of imposed restrictions on demand is considered as measure of reliability. We tested our approach on Thames region, in the UK, with 100 extreme events. The results show increase in frequency of imposed restrictions when water quality constraints were considered. This indicates importance of considering water quality issues in drought management plans.

  12. Water Resources Management for Shale Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoxtheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons, especially natural gas, from shale formations has been facilitated by advents in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies. Shale energy resources are very promising as an abundant energy source, though environmental challenges exist with their development, including potential adverse impacts to water quality. The well drilling and construction process itself has the potential to impact groundwater quality, however if proper protocols are followed and well integrity is established then impacts such as methane migration or drilling fluids releases can be minimized. Once a shale well has been drilled and hydraulically fractured, approximately 10-50% of the volume of injected fluids (flowback fluids) may flow out of the well initially with continued generation of fluids (produced fluids) throughout the well's productive life. Produced fluid TDS concentrations often exceed 200,000 mg/L, with elevated levels of strontium (Sr), bromide (Br), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), barium (Ba), chloride (Cl), radionuclides originating from the shale formation as well as fracturing additives. Storing, managing and properly disposisng of these fluids is critical to ensure water resources are not impacted by unintended releases. The most recent data in Pennsylvania suggests an estimated 85% of the produced fluids were being recycled for hydraulic fracturing operations, while many other states reuse less than 50% of these fluids and rely moreso on underground injection wells for disposal. Over the last few years there has been a shift to reuse more produced fluids during well fracturing operations in shale plays around the U.S., which has a combination of economic, regulatory, environmental, and technological drivers. The reuse of water is cost-competitive with sourcing of fresh water and disposal of flowback, especially when considering the costs of advanced treatment to or disposal well injection and lessens

  13. Ethics and Sustainability: A Review of Water Policy and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandran Moorthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This is a review paper that examines the extent aspects such as ethics, sustainability and the environment manifest in the water policy and water management in Malaysia. The study examines two aspects of this topic; firstly it examines the various objectives and considerations in the National Water Policy and secondly it discusses the issues that arise regarding water policy and management, especially with regard to federal-states jurisdiction issues, legislations in water management and the problems related to inter-agency coordination, especially among agencies involved in the management of rivers. Approach: A qualitative approach is employed in this study. It provides a comprehensive review of the stated problem based on document analysis and interviews with individuals involved in policy formulation and from agencies involved in water management. Results: The study reveals two major findings; the first shows that the National Water Policy provide a holistic approach in dealing with water-by providing safe, adequate and affordable water supply to people; providing sufficient water that will ensure national and food security and promote rural development; sufficient water to spur and sustain economic growth; and protection of the water environment to preserve water resources. Second, it examines issues regarding water management such as the jurisdiction between federal and state governments, legislations and enforcement and inefficiency in inter-agency coordination that hinder the realization of this policys objectives. Conclusion: The study concludes that despite the holistic coverage of the national water policy, there are apparent problems with regard to the jurisdiction, legislation and coordination initiatives that have resulted in the poor management of water resources. The study postulates that, in addition to better coordination between water related agencies and more cohesive water legislations structure, it is

  14. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area : Annual Water Management Program : January 1, 1972 to December 31, 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1972 Annual Water Management Program for the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area summarizes the water receipts, distribution, and marsh conditions attributed to...

  15. Management Plan Part 3: Chapter 1: Marsh and Water Management: St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The proposed water and marsh management at St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge is limited to freshwater. Management strategies include cyclic water level...

  16. Innovation & Collaboration Are Keys to Campus Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler-Carter, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    Water, water everywhere--managing and conserving water resources is a major factor at campuses worldwide. Doing so is a challenge, since water is one of the most-used and ubiquitous resources in any environment. Water is often taken for granted and not measured by the people who use it the most, yet it might have the greatest potential for helping…

  17. Innovation & Collaboration Are Keys to Campus Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler-Carter, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    Water, water everywhere--managing and conserving water resources is a major factor at campuses worldwide. Doing so is a challenge, since water is one of the most-used and ubiquitous resources in any environment. Water is often taken for granted and not measured by the people who use it the most, yet it might have the greatest potential for helping…

  18. Instruments for an equitable management of shared waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra M. Petrescu-Mag

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Concepts of Integrated Water Resources and River Basins Management are considered as key points to the question of how conflict can be avoided and international waters be managed. Over the last fifty years, countries have been engaged in more than 500 conflictive events over water. Almost 90% were disagreements over infrastructure and water quantity allocation. The Convention on the NonnavigationalUses of International Watercourses (1997 provides an important template for cooperation and equitable transboundary water-sharing.

  19. 78 FR 21414 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... Water Management Plans (Criteria). For the purpose of this announcement, Water Management Plans...

  20. Sustainable River Water Quality Management in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Mamun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecological status of Malaysia is not as bad as many other developing nations in the world. However, despite the enforcement of the Environmental Quality Act (EQA in 1974, the water quality of Malaysian inland water (especially rivers is following deteriorating trend. The rivers are mainly polluted due to the point and non-point pollution sources. Point sources are monitored and controlled by the Department of Environment (DOE, whereas a significant amount of pollutants is contributed by untreated sullage and storm runoff. Nevertheless, it is not too late to take some bold steps for the effective control of non-point source pollution and untreated sullage discharge, which play significant roles on the status of the rivers. This paper reviews the existing procedures and guidelines related to protection of the river water quality in Malaysia.  There is a good possibility that the sewage and effluent discharge limits in the Environmental Quality Act (EQA may pose hindrance against achieving good quality water in the rivers as required by the National Water Quality Standards (NWQS. For instance, Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N is identified as one of the main pollutants to render many of the rivers polluted but it was not considered in the EQA as a monitoring parameter until the new regulations published in 2009.  Surprisingly, the new regulation for sewage and industrial effluent limits set allowable NH3-N concentration quite high (5 mg/L, which may result in low Water Quality Index (WQI values for the river water. The water environment is a dynamic system. Periodical review of the monitoring requirements, detecting emerging pollutants in sewage, effluent and runoff, and proper revision of water quality standards are necessary for the management of sustainable water resources in the country. ABSTRAK: Satus ekologi Malaysia tidak seburuk kebanyakan negara membangun lain di dunia. Walaupun Akta Kualiti Alam Sekitar (EQA dikuatkuasakan pada tahun 1974

  1. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... management planning. Before grant assistance can be awarded for any treatment works project, the Regional Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan being...

  2. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... management planning. (a) From funds reserved under § 35.2020(d) the Regional Administrator shall make grants to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to: (1...

  3. River basin management plans for the European Water Framework Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronvang, B.; Bechmann, M.; Behrendt, H.; Ruboek, G.H.; Schoumans, O.F.

    2004-01-01

    The newly adopted EU water framework directive aims at protecting different water bodies by performing impact analysis and developing river basin management plans before 2009. The adoption of management measures in river basins demands that catchment managers are able to quantify the importance of d

  4. [Countermeasures for strict water quality management of drinking water sources: some thoughts and suggestions on implementing strict water resources management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guo-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Suggestions on Carrying Out Strict Management Regulations of Water Resources were promulgated by the State Council in January, 2012. This is an important issue which has drawn public attention. I strongly support the principle and spirit of the regulations, as well as the request that governments above the county level bear the overall management responsibility. However, as to the technical route of and countermeasures for achieving strict management, several problems exist in reality. Relevant opinions and suggestions are given in this paper (the paper focuses exclusively on drinking water sources which are most in need of strict protection and management). Main opinions are as follows. (1) The sources of drinking water meeting the Class II standard in Surface Water Environment Quality Standards (GB 3838-2002) may not necessarily be unpolluted; (2) A necessary condition for protecting drinking water sources is that the effluents of enterprises' workshops discharged into the conservation zone should meet the regulation on the permitted maximum concentration of priority-I pollutants defined in the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB 8978-1996); (3) There is a strong doubt about whether Class II standard in GB 3838-2002 for priority I pollutants reflects environmental background values in water.

  5. Effect analysis of transient scenarios for successful water management strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, M.; Middelkoop, H.; Deursen, van W.; Beek, van E.; Beersma, J.; Erdbrink, C.D.; Os, van A.G.

    2008-01-01

    Recent scenario studies on water management focus on one or two projection years and the effects on the water system and functions. The future is however more complex and dynamic. Therefore, we analyse transient scenarios in order to evaluate the performance of water management strategies. Current a

  6. Governance Experiments in Water Management: From Interests to Building Blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, N.

    2015-01-01

    The management of water is a topic of great concern. Inadequate management may lead to water scarcity and ecological destruction, but also to an increase of catastrophic floods. With climate change, both water scarcity and the risk of flooding are likely to increase even further in the coming decade

  7. Oxygen-isotope variations in post-glacial Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladyniuk, Ryan; Longstaffe, Fred J.

    2016-02-01

    The role of glacial meltwater input to the Atlantic Ocean in triggering the Younger Dryas (YD) cooling event has been the subject of controversy in recent literature. Lake Ontario is ideally situated to test for possible meltwater passage from upstream glacial lakes and the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) to the Atlantic Ocean via the lower Great Lakes. Here, we use the oxygen-isotope compositions of ostracode valves and clam shells from three Lake Ontario sediment cores to identify glacial meltwater contributions to ancient Lake Ontario since the retreat of the LIS (∼16,500 cal [13,300 14C] BP). Differences in mineralogy and sediment grain size are also used to identify changes in the hydrologic regime. The average lakewater δ18O of -17.5‰ (determined from ostracode compositions) indicates a significant contribution from glacial meltwater. Upon LIS retreat from the St. Lawrence lowlands, ancient Lake Ontario (glacial Lake Iroquois) lakewater δ18O increased to -12‰ largely because of the loss of low-18O glacial meltwater input. A subsequent decrease in lakewater δ18O (from -12 to -14‰), accompanied by a median sediment grain size increase to 9 μm, indicates that post-glacial Lake Ontario received a final pulse of meltwater (∼13,000-12,500 cal [11,100-10,500 14C] BP) before the onset of hydrologic closure. This meltwater pulse, which is also recorded in a previously reported brief freshening of the neighbouring Champlain Valley (Cronin et al., 2012), may have contributed to a weakening of thermohaline circulation in the Atlantic Ocean. After 12,900 cal [11,020 14C] BP, the meltwater presence in the Ontario basin continued to inhibit entry of Champlain seawater into early Lake Ontario. Opening of the North Bay outlet diverted upper Great Lakes water from the lower Great Lakes causing a period (12,300-8300 cal [10,400-7500 14C] BP) of hydrologic closure in Lake Ontario (Anderson and Lewis, 2012). This change is demarcated by a shift to higher δ18Olakewater

  8. Identifying Cost-Effective Water Resources Management Strategies: Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a public-domain software application designed to aid decision makers with integrated water resources management. The tool allows water resource managers and planners to screen a wide-range of management practices for c...

  9. Management of the water balance and quality in mining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, Antti; Krogerus, Kirsti; Mroueh, Ulla-Maija; Turunen, Kaisa; Backnäs, Soile; Vento, Tiia; Veijalainen, Noora; Hentinen, Kimmo; Korkealaakso, Juhani

    2015-04-01

    Although mining companies have long been conscious of water related risks they still face environmental management problems. These problems mainly emerge because mine sites' water balances have not been adequately assessed in the stage of the planning of mines. More consistent approach is required to help mining companies identify risks and opportunities related to the management of water resources in all stages of mining. This approach requires that the water cycle of a mine site is interconnected with the general hydrologic water cycle. In addition to knowledge on hydrological conditions, the control of the water balance in the mining processes require knowledge of mining processes, the ability to adjust process parameters to variable hydrological conditions, adaptation of suitable water management tools and systems, systematic monitoring of amounts and quality of water, adequate capacity in water management infrastructure to handle the variable water flows, best practices to assess the dispersion, mixing and dilution of mine water and pollutant loading to receiving water bodies, and dewatering and separation of water from tailing and precipitates. WaterSmart project aims to improve the awareness of actual quantities of water, and water balances in mine areas to improve the forecasting and the management of the water volumes. The study is executed through hydrogeological and hydrological surveys and online monitoring procedures. One of the aims is to exploit on-line water quantity and quality monitoring for the better management of the water balances. The target is to develop a practical and end-user-specific on-line input and output procedures. The second objective is to develop mathematical models to calculate combined water balances including the surface, ground and process waters. WSFS, the Hydrological Modeling and Forecasting System of SYKE is being modified for mining areas. New modelling tools are developed on spreadsheet and system dynamics platforms to

  10. Feasibility versus sustainability in urban water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkl, Markus; Brunner, Norbert

    2004-07-01

    Decision making in urban water management is exemplified by the case of Austria: Although researchers define a comprehensible concept of sustainability, practitioners emphasize feasibility and accept limitations in sustainability. Could the specification of particular methods, chosen from some decision support methodology, remedy this situation? While an integrative assessment of sustainability should not be based on prescribed or standardized criteria, or even a certain assessment method, it should force the decision makers to make their chosen premise more visible. To this end a change of the decision making process is proposed, which will allow the decision makers to adapt the decision making process to the circumstances of a specific project in a way that is accepted by the stakeholders.

  11. What Do Experienced Water Managers Think of Water Resources of Our Nation and Its Management Infrastructure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Hossain

    Full Text Available This article represents the second report by an ASCE Task Committee "Infrastructure Impacts of Landscape-driven Weather Change" under the ASCE Watershed Management Technical Committee and the ASCE Hydroclimate Technical Committee. Herein, the 'infrastructure impacts" are referred to as infrastructure-sensitive changes in weather and climate patterns (extremes and non-extremes that are modulated, among other factors, by changes in landscape, land use and land cover change. In this first report, the article argued for explicitly considering the well-established feedbacks triggered by infrastructure systems to the land-atmosphere system via landscape change. In this report by the ASCE Task Committee (TC, we present the results of this ASCE TC's survey of a cross section of experienced water managers using a set of carefully crafted questions. These questions covered water resources management, infrastructure resiliency and recommendations for inclusion in education and curriculum. We describe here the specifics of the survey and the results obtained in the form of statistical averages on the 'perception' of these managers. Finally, we discuss what these 'perception' averages may indicate to the ASCE TC and community as a whole for stewardship of the civil engineering profession. The survey and the responses gathered are not exhaustive nor do they represent the ASCE-endorsed viewpoint. However, the survey provides a critical first step to developing the framework of a research and education plan for ASCE. Given the Water Resources Reform and Development Act passed in 2014, we must now take into account the perceived concerns of the water management community.

  12. Evolving urban water and residuals management paradigms: water reclamation and reuse, decentralization, and resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigger, Glen T

    2009-08-01

    Population growth and improving standards of living, coupled with dramatically increased urbanization, are placing increased pressures on available water resources, necessitating new approaches to urban water management. The tradition linear "take, make, waste" approach to managing water increasingly is proving to be unsustainable, as it is leading to water stress (insufficient water supplies), unsustainable resource (energy and chemicals) consumption, the dispersion of nutrients into the aquatic environment (especially phosphorus), and financially unstable utilities. Different approaches are needed to achieve economic, environmental, and social sustainability. Fortunately, a toolkit consisting of stormwater management/rainwater harvesting, water conservation, water reclamation and reuse, energy management, nutrient recovery, and source separation is available to allow more closed-loop urban water and resource management systems to be developed and implemented. Water conservation and water reclamation and reuse (multiple uses) are becoming commonplace in numerous water-short locations. Decentralization, enabled by new, high-performance treatment technologies and distributed stormwater management/rainwater harvesting, is furthering this transition. Likewise, traditional approaches to residuals management are evolving, as higher levels of energy recovery are desired, and nutrient recovery and reuse is to be enhanced. A variety of factors affect selection of the optimum approach for a particular urban area, including local hydrology, available water supplies, water demands, local energy and nutrient-management situations, existing infrastructure, and utility governance structure. A proper approach to economic analysis is critical to determine the most sustainable solutions. Stove piping (i.e., separate management of drinking, storm, and waste water) within the urban water and resource management profession must be eliminated. Adoption of these new approaches to urban

  13. Remediation of the Highland Drive South Ravine, Port Hope, Ontario: Contaminated Groundwater Discharge Management Using Permeable Reactive Barriers and Contaminated Sediment Removal - 13447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, David; Roos, Gillian [Golder Associates Ltd., 2390 Argentia Road, Mississauga, ON L5N 5Z7 (Canada); Ferguson Jones, Andrea [MMM Group Ltd., 100 Commerce Valley Drive West, Thornhill, ON L3T 0A1 (Canada); Case, Glenn [AECL Port Hope Area Initiative Management Office, 115 Toronto Road, Port Hope, ON L1A 3S4 (Canada); Yule, Adam [Public Works and Government Services Canada, 4900 Yonge Street, 11th Floor, Toronto, ON, M2N 6A6 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    surface and the creek and ponds in the HDSR. The first of the PRBs will be installed immediately up-gradient of the wet discharge area approximately 50 m from the creek, the other two will be installed across the area of shallow soil replacement, and all will extend from ground surface to the base of the water table aquifer through which the impacted groundwater flows. The PRBs have been designed to provide the removal of uranium and arsenic for decades, although the capacity of the treatment mixture for contaminant removal suggests that a longer period of treatment may be feasible. The environmental management plan includes an allowance for on-going monitoring, and replacement of a PRB(s) as might be required. (authors)

  14. Transboundary air pollution in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, D.; Reid, N.; De Brou, G.; Bloxam, R. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Energy, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-06-01

    This report examines the role of transboundary air pollution from an Ontario perspective, specifically the impacts of smog associated with both ground level ozone and fine particulate matter coming from the United States. Measurements and computer modeling have provided compelling evidence regarding the impact of transboundary pollution in Ontario. This paper presents an assessment of the human health and economic costs associated with transboundary air pollution. It also examines the impact of Ontario's emissions on other jurisdictions and reviews emission control programs, and initiatives and agreements that are being undertaken or considered to address these transboundary problems. Particular attention is given to the impacts of mercury and acid deposition. The report concludes that unique features exist in the regional climate that lead to elevated episodic conditions of poor air quality over southern Ontario. Transboundary transport of pollution is a very significant source of regionally elevated air quality levels in Ontario. Furthermore, there is an urgency to address the unacceptable health impacts and environmental consequences. 29 refs., 13 tabs., 33 figs., 1 app.

  15. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge : 2002 Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 2002 Annual Water Management Plan for Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge is used as aguide to manage the refuge's 4 lakes and 5 moist soil units, for...

  16. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge : 2003 Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 2003 Annual Water Management Plan for Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge is used as aguide to manage the refuge's 4 lakes and 5 moist soil units, for...

  17. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge : 2006 Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 2006 Annual Water Management Plan for Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge is used as aguide to manage the refuge's 4 lakes and 5 moist soil units, for...

  18. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge : 2004 Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 2004 Annual Water Management Plan for Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge is used as aguide to manage the refuge's 4 lakes and 5 moist soil units, for...

  19. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge : 2000 Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 2000 Annual Water Management Plan for Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge is used as aguide to manage the refuge's 4 lakes and 5 moist soil units, for...

  20. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge : 2001 Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 2001 Annual Water Management Plan for Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge is used as aguide to manage the refuge's 4 lakes and 5 moist soil units, for...

  1. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge : 1999 Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 1999 Annual Water Management Plan for Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge is used as aguide to manage the refuge's 4 lakes and 5 moist soil units, for...

  2. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge : 2005 Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 2005 Annual Water Management Plan for Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge is used as aguide to manage the refuge's 4 lakes and 5 moist soil units, for...

  3. Structured ecosystem-scale approach to marine water quality management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taljaard, Susan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available and implement environmental management programmes. A structured ecosystem-scale approach for the design and implementation of marine water quality management programmes developed by the CSIR (South Africa) in response to recent advances in policies...

  4. Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge : Marsh and Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Marsh and Water Management Plan (MWMP) is intended to guide the management of Agassiz NWR wetlands into the twenty-first century. The foundation on which this...

  5. WATER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Capra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Deficit irrigation (DI is an optimization strategy whereby net returns are maximized by reducing the amount of irrigation water; crops are deliberated allowed to sustain some degree of water deficit and yield reduction. Although the DI strategy dates back to the 1970s, this technique is not usually adopted as a practical alternative to full irrigation by either academics or practitioners. Furthermore, there is a certain amount of confusion regarding its concept. In fact, a review of recent literature dealing with DI has shown that only a few papers use the concept of DI in its complete sense (e.g. both the agronomic and economic aspects. A number of papers only deal with the physiological and agronomical aspects of DI or concern techniques such as Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI and Partial Root Drying (PRD. The paper includes two main parts: i a review of the principal water management strategies under deficit conditions (e.g. conventional DI, RDI and PRD; and ii a description of a recent experimental research conducted by the authors in Sicily (Italy that integrates agronomic, engineering and economic aspects of DI at farm level. Most of the literature reviewed here showed, in general, quite positive effects from DI application, mostly evidenced when the economics of DI is included in the research approach. With regard to the agronomic effects, total fresh mass and total production is generally reduced under DI, whereas the effects on dry matter and product quality are positive, mainly in crops for which excessive soil water availability can cause significant reductions in fruit size, colour or composition (grapes, tomatoes, mangos, etc.. The experimental trial on a lettuce crop in Sicily, during 2005 and 2006, shows that the highest mean marketable yield of lettuce (55.3 t ha-1 in 2005 and 51.9 t ha-1 in 2006 was recorded in plots which received 100% of ET0-PM (reference evapotranspiration by the Penman- Monteith method applied water. In

  6. Anticipatory Water Management: Using ensemble weather forecasts for critical events

    OpenAIRE

    Van Andel, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Day-to-day water management is challenged by meteorological extremes, causing floods and droughts. Often operational water managers are informed too late about these upcoming events to be able to respond and mitigate their effects, such as by taking flood control measures or even requiring evacuation of local inhabitants. Therefore, the use of weather forecast information with hydrological models can be invaluable for the operational water manager to expand the forecast horizon and to have ti...

  7. Trust build up and break down between stakeholders in water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Gemma

    2015-04-01

    Trust is a word that is often heard in discussions about stakeholder participation in water management programmes and projects. A break down in trust between participants is often attributed to the failure of a project reaching its objectives. In contrast, the development of trust is often described as a success in itself, and is thought to lead to positive water management outcomes. To explore how trust impacts water management, this research explores the factors that led to trust development and break-down, and the implications of this, in a major stakeholder engagement project in water management in North America. A major review of the Lake Ontario and St Lawrence River water level operating system (the LOSL Study) was commissioned in 1999 by the International Joint Commission (IJC). The goal of the five-year LOSL Study was to produce an operating policy for the system that was acceptable to everyone impacted by the water levels and flows in the basin. Through public meetings and consultations, the Study aimed to bring together and combine public and scientist input to co-produce an operating policy that met the needs of all interest groups. Freely accessible documentation of the public involvement activities that took place is available, which is used to explore trust and mistrust development. Provisional findings show that some public/interest group representatives mistrusted the Study. This was related to concerns over data quality, whether appropriate indicators were selected by the researchers and whether the models used were producing accurate outputs. Scientist responses to questions at public meetings were able to address some of these concerns and therefore build trust in the methods, but could also lead to further mistrust if public concerns and questions were not addressed adequately (for example, simply dismissed as irrelevant by scientists without due explanation). The impacts of distrust between participants and scientists included apathy and low

  8. Does Integrated Water Resources Management Support Institutional Change? The Case of Water Policy Reform in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Fischhendler

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many international efforts have been made to encourage integrated water resources management through recommendations from both the academic and the aid and development sectors. Recently, it has been argued that integrated water resources management can help foster better adaptation of management and policy responses to emerging water crises. Nevertheless, few empirical studies have assessed how this type of management works in practice and what an integrated water management system implies for institutional adaptation and change. Our assessment of the Israeli water sector provides one view of how they can be shaped by an integrated structure in the water sector. Our analysis of recent efforts to adapt Israel's water management system to new conditions and uncertainties reveals that the interconnectedness of the system and the consensus decision-making process, led by a dominant actor who coordinates and sets the policy agenda, tends to increase the complexity of negotiations. In addition, the physical integration of water management leads to sunk costs of large-scale physical infrastructure. Both these factors create a path dependency that empowers players who receive benefits from maintaining the existing system. This impedes institutional reform of the water management system and suggests that integrated water resources management creates policy and management continuity that may only be amenable to incremental changes. In contrast, real adaptation that requires reversibility and the ability to change management strategies in response to new information or monitoring of specific management outcomes.

  9. Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Water Management Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of the refuge's water management plan is to create water conditions that will result in an ecologically diverse wetland community....

  10. Water Management Program Report 1981 Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual program describes the results of the 1980 water management program at Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge and outlines the water regimen plan for 1981....

  11. Water Management Program Report 1979 Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual program describes the results of the 1978 water management program at Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge and outlines the water regimen plan for 1979....

  12. Annual Water Management Program Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes water conditions during the year 1988, for refuge impoundments, and provides water management guidelines for calendar year 1989. This report...

  13. Annual Water Management Program Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes water conditions during the year 1987, for refuge impoundments, and provides water management guidelines for calendar year 1988. This report...

  14. Water Information Management & Analysis System (WIMAS) v 4.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Water Information Management and Analysis System (WIMAS) is an ArcView based GIS application that allows users to query Kansas water right data maintained by the...

  15. 2012 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: Lake Manatee

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Information System (GIS). Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) regularly uses digital topographic information to support regulatory, land...

  16. Seeking a consensus: water management principles from the monotheistic scriptures

    KAUST Repository

    Lefers, Ryan

    2015-03-13

    Religious and cultural values related to water use and management are important motivation for many people of the world. Although much has been written related to water management and use in Islam, fewer authors have attempted to evaluate water management through the lens of other religions. The common thread of monotheism, specifically worship of the one God of Abraham, binds together the world\\'s largest two religions (Islam and Christianity). Judaism also falls within this monotheistic group and is especially important in the context of Middle Eastern water management. As agriculture consumes approximately 70% of all fresh water used in the world today, proper management of water within its context is of critical and global importance. This paper presents an effort to build consensus from a monotheistic scripture-based perspective related to water management in agriculture. If greater dialog and agreement about water management can be attained within and among monotheists, complex issues related to transboundary water management, reuse and conservation could be resolved with less conflict, creating a shared overall management vision.

  17. Water supply assessment 2003 : St. Johns River Water Management District

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This report identifies future water supply needs, and areas where those needs cannot be met by the water supply plans of major water users without unacceptable impacts to water resources and related natural systems (which are priority water resource caution areas). (186pp.)

  18. Cancer nursing in Ontario: defining nursing roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Margaret I; Mings, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    The delivery of cancer care in Ontario is facing unprecedented challenges. Shortages in nursing, as in all professional disciplines, are having an impact on the delivery of cancer care. Oncology nurses have a major role to play in the delivery of optimum cancer care. Oncology nursing, when adequately defined and supported, can benefit the cancer delivery system, patients, and families. A primary nursing model is seen as being key to the delivery of optimum cancer care. Primary nursing as a philosophy facilitates continuity of care, coordination of a patient's care plan, and a meaningful ongoing relationship with the patient and his/her family. Primary nursing, when delivered in the collaboration of a nurse-physician team, allows for medical resources to be used appropriately. Defined roles enable nurses to manage patients within their scope of practice in collaboration with physicians. Enacting other nursing roles, such as nurse practitioners and advanced practice nurses, can also enable the health care system to manage a broader number of patients with more complex needs. This article presents a position paper originally written as the basis for an advocacy and education initiative in Ontario. It is shared in anticipation that the work may be useful to oncology nurses in other jurisdictions in their efforts to advance oncology nursing and improvement of patient care.

  19. Paradigm shift: Holistic approach for water management in urban environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tamim Younos

    2011-01-01

    Conventional water infrastructure in urban environments is based on the centralized approach.This approach consists of building pipe network that provides potable water to consumers and drainage network that transport wastewater and stormwater runoff away from population centers.However,as illustrated in this article,centralized water infrastructures are not sustainable over a long period of time for a variety of reasons.This article presents the concept of a holistic approach for sustainable water management that incorporates decentralized water infrastructures into water management system design in urban environments.Decentralized water infrastructures are small to medium-scale systems that use and/or reuse local sources of water such as captured rainwater,stormwater runoff and wastewater.The holistic approach considers these waters as a valuable resource not to be wasted but utilized.This article briefly introduces various types of decentralized water infrastructures appropriate for urban settings.This article focuses on the effectiveness of rooftop rainwater harvesting systems as a decentralized water infrastructure and as a critical component of developing a holistic and sustainable water infrastructure in urban environments.Despite widespread use of rainwater harvesting systems,limited information has been published on its effectiveness for sustainable management of water resources and urban water infrastructures.This article,discusses multi-dimensional benefits of rainwater harvesting systems for sustainable management of water resources and its role as a critical component of decentralized water infrastructures in urban environments.

  20. Paradigm shift: Holistic approach for water management in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younos, Tamim

    2011-12-01

    Conventional water infrastructure in urban environments is based on the centralized approach. This approach consists of building pipe network that provides potable water to consumers and drainage network that transport wastewater and stormwater runoff away from population centers. However, as illustrated in this article, centralized water infrastructures are not sustainable over a long period of time for a variety of reasons. This article presents the concept of a holistic approach for sustainable water management that incorporates decentralized water infrastructures into water management system design in urban environments. Decentralized water infrastructures are small to medium-scale systems that use and/or reuse local sources of water such as captured rainwater, stormwater runoff and wastewater. The holistic approach considers these waters as a valuable resource not to be wasted but utilized. This article briefly introduces various types of decentralized water infrastructures appropriate for urban settings. This article focuses on the effectiveness of rooftop rainwater harvesting systems as a decentralized water infrastructure and as a critical component of developing a holistic and sustainable water infrastructure in urban environments. Despite widespread use of rainwater harvesting systems, limited information has been published on its effectiveness for sustainable management of water resources and urban water infrastructures. This article, discusses multi-dimensional benefits of rainwater harvesting systems for sustainable management of water resources and its role as a critical component of decentralized water infrastructures in urban environments.

  1. Measure Guideline. Water Management at Tub and Shower Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, Bruce [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Due to the high concentrations of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home’s structure a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. This guide shows how to install fundamental waterproofing strategies to prevent water related issues at shower and tub areas.

  2. Managing water pressure for water savings in developing countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-03

    Mar 3, 2014 ... ment of water distribution systems based on the water balance and performance .... The first comprehensive concept of real loss components and influenc- ...... residual pressure as design criterion for South African water distri-.

  3. Agricultural Best Management Practice Abundance and Location does not Influence Stream Ecosystem Function or Water Quality in the Summer Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolan J. T. Pearce

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Best management practices (BMPs are tools commonly used to mitigate negative impacts of agriculture on water quality; however, the relationship between BMPs and aquatic ecological function is unknown. Our research goal was to determine the association between both stream ecosystem metabolism and water quality, and the abundance and location of four different BMPs in agricultural catchments. Dissolved oxygen was measured over a two-week period in mid-June and used to estimate ecosystem metabolism of 13 headwater streams representing a gradient of BMP implementation in Southern Ontario, Canada. Stepwise regression analyses were used to associate stream metabolism and water quality with metrics describing the abundance and location of BMPs within each catchment. Studied streams exhibited rates of metabolism comparable to catchments from other agricultural regions. However, metrics of BMP implementation were not associated with either stream metabolism or water quality. Our results suggest that BMPs in the studied agricultural catchments are not improving water quality or mitigating water quality impacts on stream metabolism during the summer season. We propose that seasonality of catchment hydrology and time lag effects associated with past agricultural land use may be masking the mitigation benefits of BMPs on stream ecosystem conditions during the summer season.

  4. Total Water Management: A Research Project of the United States Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

  5. Banking for the future: Prospects for integrated cyclical water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Integrated management of surface water and groundwater can provide efficient and flexible use of water by making the best use of the properties of different types of water resources. Integrated cyclical water management can help adaptation to climate variation and uncertainty by varying the proportion of surface water and groundwater allocations over time in response to changing water availability. Water use entitlements and rules specify conditions for the use, storage and exchange of surface water and groundwater. These entitlements and rules provide certainty for water users, investors and managers. Entitlements and rules also need to be flexible to enable users and managers to respond to changing water availability and knowledge. Arrangements to provide certainty and flexibility can conflict. For example guarantees of specific long-term allocations of water, or shares of allocations can conflict with arrangements to bank water underground during wet periods and then to use an increased amount of groundwater in dry periods. Systems of water entitlements and rules need to achieve a balance between certainty and flexibility. This article explores the effect of water entitlements and rules, and arrangements to provide certainty and flexibility for the integration of surface water and groundwater management over time. The analysis draws on case studies from the Namoi River basin in New South Wales and the South Platte River basin in Colorado. Integrated cyclical water management requires a comprehensive, flexible and balanced system of water entitlements and rules that allow extended water carryover, water banking, aquifer storage and recovery over the wet and dry climate cycle. Opportunities for extended carryover and aquifer storage and recovery over the wet and dry climate cycle merit further consideration in New South Wales, Colorado and other jurisdictions.

  6. Optimal allocation of watershed management cost among different water users

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zanxin; Margaret M.Calderon

    2006-01-01

    The issue of water scarcity highlights the importance of watershed management. A sound watershed management should make all water users share the incurred cost. This study analyzes the optimal allocation of watershed management cost among different water users. As a consumable, water should be allocated to different users the amounts in which their marginal utilities (Mus) or marginal products (MPs) of water are equal. The value of Mus or MPs equals the water price that the watershed manager charges. When water is simultaneously used as consumable and non-consumable, the watershed manager produces the quantity of water in which the sum of Mus and/or MPs for the two types of uses equals the marginal cost of water production. Each water user should share the portion of watershed management cost in the percentage that his MU or MP accounts for the sum of Mus and/or MPs. Thus, the price of consumable water does not equal the marginal cost of water production even if there is no public good.

  7. Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge and Wetland Management District : 2000 annual water management plan : 1999 water use report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge and Bowdoin Wetland Management District Annual Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives. The...

  8. Reforming Ontario Early Learning: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas; Date, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we address the reformation of Ontario early learning. Over the next 3 years, all 4- and 5-year-olds in Ontario (Canada) will be able to attend full-day early learning with child care, before and after school provided by the Government of Ontario Ministry of Education. The benefits of such a change are both academic and societal and are…

  9. Advanced water treatment as a tool in water scarcity management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoes, Poul

    2000-01-01

    The water resource is under increasing pressure, both from the increase in population and from the wish to improve the living standards of the individual. Water scarcity is defined as the situation where demand is greater than the resource. Water scarcity has two distinctly different dimensions......: water availability and water applicability. The availability is a question of quantitative demand relative to resource. The applicability is a question of quality suitability for the intended use of the water. There is a significant difference in this regard with respect to rural versus urban use...... of water. In the former case, the water is lost by evaporation and polluted. In the latter case, the water is not lost but heavily polluted. With increasing scarcity, the value of water and the need for controls increase. In this situation, water reuse becomes an option that has been considered exotic...

  10. Evaluating data worth for ground-water management under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models-a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programing sampling network design model-to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring network design model identifies, prior to data collection, the sampling strategy that will minimize model uncertainty; (3) the optimal ground-water management strategy is recalculated on the basis of the projected model uncertainty after sampling; and (4) the worth of the monitoring strategy is assessed by comparing the value of the sample information-i.e., the projected reduction in management costs-with the cost of data collection. Steps 2-4 are repeated for a series of data collection budgets, producing a suite of management/monitoring alternatives, from which the best alternative can be selected. A hypothetical example demonstrates the methodology's ability to identify the ground-water sampling strategy with greatest net economic benefit for ground-water management.A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models - a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programming sampling network design model - to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring

  11. Managing the Financial Risks of Water Scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characklis, Greg; Foster, Ben; Kern, Jordan; Meyer, Eliot; Zeff, Harrison

    2015-04-01

    of financial losses experienced by such entities as water utilities, hydropower producers and inland shipping firms as a result of water scarcity, all of which suggest a growing role for financial instruments in managing environmental risk.

  12. Water Resilience by Design: A water infrastructure planning framework for developing sustainable water management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.; Ray, P. A.; Freeman, S.

    2016-12-01

    Societal need for improved water management and concerns for the long-term sustainability of water resources systems are prominent around the world. The continued susceptibility of society to the harmful effects of hydrologic variability, pervasive concerns related to climate change and the emergent awareness of devastating effects of current practice on aquatic ecosystems all illustrate our limited understanding of how water ought to be managed in a dynamic world. To address these challenges, new problem solving approaches are required that acknowledge uncertainties, incorporate best available information, and link engineering design principles, typically based on determinism, with our best geoscience-based understanding of planetary change. In this presentation, we present and demonstrate a framework for developing water planning and management strategies that are resilient in the face of future uncertainties and our limited ability to anticipate the future. The approach begins with stakeholder engagement and decision framing to elicit relevant context, uncertainties, choices and connections that drive planning and serve as an entry point to exploring possible futures. The result is the development of water strategies that are informed by the best available predictive information and designed to perform well over a future of change. Examples from around the world are presented to illustrate the methodology.

  13. 76 FR 54251 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... Management Plans (Criteria). For the purpose of this announcement, Water Management Plans (Plans)...

  14. Technologies for water resources management: an integrated approach to manage global and regional water resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, W. C., LLNL

    1998-03-23

    Recent droughts in California have highlighted and refocused attention on the problem of providing reliable sources of water to sustain the State`s future economic development. Specific elements of concern include not only the stability and availability of future water supplies in the State, but also how current surface and groundwater storage and distribution systems may be more effectively managed and upgraded, how treated wastewater may be more widely recycled, and how legislative and regulatory processes may be used or modified to address conflicts between advocates of urban growth, industrial, agricultural, and environmental concerns. California is not alone with respect to these issues. They are clearly relevant throughout the West, and are becoming more so in other parts of the US. They have become increasingly important in developing and highly populated nations such as China, India, and Mexico. They are critically important in the Middle East and Southeast Asia, especially as they relate to regional stability and security issues. Indeed, in almost all cases, there are underlying themes of `reliability` and `sustainability` that pertain to the assurance of current and future water supplies, as well as a broader set of `stability` and `security` issues that relate to these assurances--or lack thereof--to the political and economic future of various countries and regions. In this latter sense, and with respect to regions such as China, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia, water resource issues may take on a very serious strategic nature, one that is most illustrative and central to the emerging notion of `environmental security.` In this report, we have identified a suite of technical tools that, when developed and integrated together, may prove effective in providing regional governments the ability to manage their water resources. Our goal is to formulate a framework for an Integrated Systems Analysis (ISA): As a strategic planning tool for managing

  15. From Flood Control to Water Management: A Journey of Bangladesh towards Integrated Water Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh K. Gain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM is considered as a practical approach in solving water-related problems, which are socio-ecologically complex in nature. Bangladesh has also embraced the IWRM approach against its earlier attempt to flood control. In this paper, we evaluate the current status of IWRM in Bangladesh through the lens of policy shifts, institutional transitions and project transformations using seven key dimensions of IWRM. Looking at IWRM from such perspectives is lacking in current literature. A thorough review of policy shifts suggests that all the key dimensions of IWRM are “highly reflected” in the current policy documents. The dimension of “integrated management” is “highly reflected” in both institutional transition and project-level transformation. Most other dimensions are also recognised at both institutional and project levels. However, such reflections gradually weaken as we move from policies to institutions to projects. Despite catchment being considered as a spatial unit of water management at both institutional and project levels, transboundary basin planning is yet to be accomplished. The participation of local people is highly promoted in various recent projects. However, equity and social issues have received less attention at project level, although it has significant potential for supporting some of the key determinants of adaptive capacity. Thus, the IWRM dimensions are in general reflected in recent policies, institutional reforms and project formulation in Bangladesh. However, to solve the complex water-problems, basin scale management through transboundary cooperation and equity and social issues need to be implemented at institutional and project levels.

  16. Science-seeking behaviour of Conservation Authorities in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikheldin, Gussai; Krantzberg, Gail; Schaefer, Karl

    2010-05-01

    The communication of science to science users is evolving to an approach that translates knowledge to targeted audiences. Under this evolution, knowledge brokers play an increasingly important role and users help 'pull' the required science to meet a policy or management imperative. To do this effectively, more insight is required into the knowledge seeking behaviour of science users and practitioners. The findings from a series of interviews that identify the science needs of Ontario's Conservation Authorities (CAs) are presented. Results indicate that emerging functions, such as source water protection and integrated water resource planning, require more science input than mature functions. Senior CA officials view personal communication with their knowledgeable staff as the most used, accessible, trustworthy, relevant, shared, and preferable source of science information. While the internet and media were considered highly accessible, they were not viewed as trustworthy. We found no relationship between CA size and science use. Further research is needed to identify where junior and intermediate CA staff obtain their science knowledge from and whether this varies as a function of CA size. Our findings will be of interest to both policy/program communities and science providers.

  17. Managing Water-Food-Energy Futures in the Canadian Prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheater, H. S.; Hassanzadeh, E.; Nazemi, A.; Elshorbagy, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    The water-food-energy nexus is a convenient phrase to highlight competing societal uses for water and the need for cross-sectoral policy integration, but this can lead to oversimplification of the multiple dimensions of water (and energy) management. In practice, water managers must balance (and prioritize) demands for water for many uses, including environmental flows, and reservoir operation often involves managing conflicting demands, for example to maximize retention for supply, reduce storage to facilitate flood control, and constrain water levels and releases for habitat protection. Agriculture and water quality are also inextricably linked: irrigated agriculture requires appropriate water quality for product quality and certification, but agriculture can be a major source of nutrient pollution, with impacts on human and ecosystem health, drinking water treatment and amenity. And energy-water interactions include energy production (hydropower and cooling water for thermal power generation) and energy consumption (e.g. for pumping and water and wastewater treatment). These dependencies are illustrated for the Canadian prairies, and a risk-based approach to the management of climate change is presented. Trade-offs between economic benefits of hydropower and irrigation are illustrated for alternative climate futures, including implications for freshwater habitats. The results illustrate that inter-sector interactions vary as a function of climate and its variability, and that there is a need for policy to manage inter-sector allocations as a function of economic risk.

  18. Finding practical approaches to integrated water resources management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butterworth, J.; Warner, J.F.; Moriarty, P.; Smits, S.; Batchelor, Ch.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) has often been interpreted and implemented in a way that is only really suited to countries with the most developed water infrastructures and management capacities. While sympathetic to many of the criticisms levelled at the IWRM concept and recognising

  19. Anticipatory Water Management: Using ensemble weather forecasts for critical events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Andel, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Day-to-day water management is challenged by meteorological extremes, causing floods and droughts. Often operational water managers are informed too late about these upcoming events to be able to respond and mitigate their effects, such as by taking flood control measures or even requiring evacuatio

  20. Anticipatory water management: using ensemble weather forecasts for critical events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Andel, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Day-to-day water management is challenged by meteorological extremes, causing floods and droughts. Often operational water managers are informed too late about these upcoming events to be able to respond and mitigate their effects, such as by taking flood control measures or even requiring evacuatio

  1. Integrated Water Management Approaches for Sustainable Food Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraiture, de C.M.S.; Fayrap, A.; Unver, O.; Ragab, R.

    2014-01-01

    With a growing and increasingly wealthy and urban population, it is likely that the role of agricultural water management in ensuring food security will become more important. Pressure on water resources is high. Adverse environmental impacts as a result of sometimes poor management of irrigation an

  2. Anticipatory Water Management: Using ensemble weather forecasts for critical events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Andel, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Day-to-day water management is challenged by meteorological extremes, causing floods and droughts. Often operational water managers are informed too late about these upcoming events to be able to respond and mitigate their effects, such as by taking flood control measures or even requiring evacuatio

  3. Anticipatory water management: using ensemble weather forecasts for critical events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Andel, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Day-to-day water management is challenged by meteorological extremes, causing floods and droughts. Often operational water managers are informed too late about these upcoming events to be able to respond and mitigate their effects, such as by taking flood control measures or even requiring evacuatio

  4. Integrated Water Management Approaches for Sustainable Food Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraiture, de C.M.S.; Fayrap, A.; Unver, O.; Ragab, R.

    2014-01-01

    With a growing and increasingly wealthy and urban population, it is likely that the role of agricultural water management in ensuring food security will become more important. Pressure on water resources is high. Adverse environmental impacts as a result of sometimes poor management of irrigation

  5. Anticipatory water management: using ensemble weather forecasts for critical events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Andel, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Day-to-day water management is challenged by meteorological extremes, causing floods and droughts. Often operational water managers are informed too late about these upcoming events to be able to respond and mitigate their effects, such as by taking flood control measures or even requiring

  6. Anticipatory Water Management: Using ensemble weather forecasts for critical events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Andel, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Day-to-day water management is challenged by meteorological extremes, causing floods and droughts. Often operational water managers are informed too late about these upcoming events to be able to respond and mitigate their effects, such as by taking flood control measures or even requiring

  7. Hydroeconomic optimization of reservoir management under downstream water quality constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo

    2015-01-01

    A hydroeconomic optimization approach is used to guide water management in a Chinese river basin with the objectives of meeting water quantity and water quality constraints, in line with the China 2011 No. 1 Policy Document and 2015 Ten-point Water Plan. The proposed modeling framework couples...... water quantity and water quality management and minimizes the total costs over a planning period assuming stochastic future runoff. The outcome includes cost-optimal reservoir releases, groundwater pumping, water allocation, wastewater treatments and water curtailments. The optimization model uses...... a variant of stochastic dynamic programming known as the water value method. Nonlinearity arising from the water quality constraints is handled with an effective hybrid method combining genetic algorithms and linear programming. Untreated pollutant loads are represented by biochemical oxygen demand (BOD...

  8. A Review of China’s Rural Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoman Yu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With less than 6% of total global water resources but one fifth of the global population, China is facing serious challenges for its water resources management, particularly in rural areas due to the long-standing urban-rural dualistic structure and the economic-centralized developmental policies. This paper addresses the key water crises in rural China including potable water supply, wastewater treatment and disposal, water for agricultural purposes, and environmental concerns, and then analyzes the administrative system on water resources from the perspective of characteristics of the current administrative system and regulations; finally, synthetic approaches to solve water problems in rural China are proposed with regard to institutional reform, regulation revision, economic instruments, technology innovation and capacity-building. These recommendations provide valuable insights to water managers in rural China so that they can identify the most appropriate pathways for optimizing their water resources, reducing the total wastewater discharge and improving their water-related ecosystem.

  9. Role of water reuse for enhancing integrated water management in Europe and Mediterranean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarova, V; Levine, B; Sack, J; Cirelli, G; Jeffrey, P; Muntau, H; Salgot, M; Brissaud, F

    2001-01-01

    Recycling water is an important aspect of water resource and environment management policies, ensuring reliable alternative water resources, reducing environmental pollution and achieving a more sustainable form of development. This paper focuses on wastewater reuse as a strategy for integrated water management. Key economic, financial, regulatory, social and technical factors that help to make water reuse projects successful are reviewed. Selected examples from Northern and Western Europe and arid and semi-arid Mediterranean regions illustrate the contribution of wastewater reuse to integrated management of water resources.

  10. Water availability and management for food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food security is directly linked to water security for food production. Water availability for crop production will be dependent upon precipitation or irrigation, soil water holding capacity, and crop water demand. The linkages among these components in rainfed agricultural systems shows the impact ...

  11. Buffer zone water repellency: effects of the management practice

    OpenAIRE

    Rasa, Kimmo; Räty, Mari; Nikolenko, Olga; Horn, Rainer; Yli-Halla, Markku; Uusi-Kämppä, Jaana; Pietola, Liisa

    2006-01-01

    Water repellency index R was measured in a heavy clay and a sandy loam, used as arable land or buffer zone (BZ). Further, effect of management practise and ageing of BZs were studied. Water repellency was proved to be a common phenomenon on these soils. Harvesting and grazing increased water repellency as does ageing.Low water repellency is supposed to prevent preferential flows and provide evenly distributed water infiltration pattern through large soil volume, which favours nutrient retention.

  12. Water Resource Management in Thailand: An Economic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kaosa-ard, Mingsarn

    1996-01-01

    In Thailand, water is life. Recently however, water has been more associated with conflict and problems, both natural and manmade, from drought to floods to dams to pollution. This paper investigates two major problems related to the management of water resources, dry-season allocation and water quality. In Thailand, water allocation has been considered an administrative problem and solutions have largely been supply- oriented. Economic instruments have not been used to solve them. In dealing...

  13. PV gold rush in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Daniela

    2011-07-01

    As a result of the Green Energy Act, the installed PV capacity in the Canadian province of Ontario has tripled in the year 2010. A generous feed-in tariff, aiming at maximum local added value, has attracted numerous international manufacturers. However, the rigorous rules committing the companies to 60 % inland production have provoked harsh criticism. (orig.)

  14. Natural water purification and water management by artificial groundwater recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balke, Klaus-Dieter; Zhu, Yan

    2008-03-01

    Worldwide, several regions suffer from water scarcity and contamination. The infiltration and subsurface storage of rain and river water can reduce water stress. Artificial groundwater recharge, possibly combined with bank filtration, plant purification and/or the use of subsurface dams and artificial aquifers, is especially advantageous in areas where layers of gravel and sand exist below the earth's surface. Artificial infiltration of surface water into the uppermost aquifer has qualitative and quantitative advantages. The contamination of infiltrated river water will be reduced by natural attenuation. Clay minerals, iron hydroxide and humic matter as well as microorganisms located in the subsurface have high decontamination capacities. By this, a final water treatment, if necessary, becomes much easier and cheaper. The quantitative effect concerns the seasonally changing river discharge that influences the possibility of water extraction for drinking water purposes. Such changes can be equalised by seasonally adapted infiltration/extraction of water in/out of the aquifer according to the river discharge and the water need. This method enables a continuous water supply over the whole year. Generally, artificially recharged groundwater is better protected against pollution than surface water, and the delimitation of water protection zones makes it even more save.

  15. Natural water purification and water management by artificial groundwater recharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Klaus-Dieter BALKE; Yan ZHU

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, several regions suffer from water scarcity and contamination. The infiltration and subsurface storage of rain and fiver water can reduce water stress. Artificial groundwater recharge, possibly combined with bank filtration, plant puri- fication and/or the use of subsurface dams and artificial aquifers, is especially advantageous in areas where layers of gravel and sand exist below the earth's surface. Artificial infiltration of surface water into the uppermost aquifer has qualitative and quanti-tative advantages. The contamination of infiltrated fiver water will be reduced by natural attenuation. Clay minerals, iron hy-droxide and humic matter as well as microorganisms located in the subsurface have high decontamination capacities. By this, a final water treatment, if necessary, becomes much easier and cheaper. The quantitative effect concerns the seasonally changing fiver discharge that influences the possibility of water extraction for drinking water purposes. Such changes can be equalised by seasonally adapted infiltration/extraction of water in/out of the aquifer according to the fiver discharge and the water need. This method enables a continuous water supply over the whole year. Generally, artificially recharged groundwater is better protected against pollution than surface water, and the delimitation of water protection zones makes it even more save.

  16. Analysis of 44 Cases before the Landlord and Tenant Board Involving Bed Bug Infestations in Ontario, Canada: Focus on Adjudicator Decisions Based on Entomological/Pest Management Evidence and Accountability under the Residential Tenancy Act and Other Applicable Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryks, Sam

    2011-01-01

    The resurgence of bed bugs in major urban centres in North America has resulted in conflict between landlords and tenants. This is commonly focused on attribution of blame for source of infestation, on responsibility, on costs for preparation, treatment and losses, and for compensation as rent abatement and/or alternative temporary housing. In Ontario, Canada, these issues are often decided by adjudicators at the Landlord and Tenant Board hearing claims, counter-claims and defense by legal representation (lawyers and paralegals) as well as through mediation. Evidence in these hearings may include photographs, invoices for costs as well as testimony by tenants, landlords and “expert witnesses” who are most often pest control firms representing their landlord clients. A total of 44 Landlord and Tenant Board adjudicated cases available online were analyzed. The analysis included elements of the decisions such as adjudicator, claimant (landlord or tenant), basis of claim, review of evidence, amount of claim, amount awarded, and evaluation of the quality of the evidence. The results of the analysis of these findings are discussed. Recommendations for improvement of adjudicator decisions on the basis of knowledge of bed bug biology and Integrated Pest Management best practices are presented as well as the importance of education of tenants and landlords to a process of mutual trust, support and accountability. PMID:26467732

  17. Analysis of 44 Cases before the Landlord and Tenant Board Involving Bed Bug Infestations in Ontario, Canada: Focus on Adjudicator Decisions Based on Entomological/Pest Management Evidence and Accountability under the Residential Tenancy Act and Other Applicable Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryks, Sam

    2011-07-19

    The resurgence of bed bugs in major urban centres in North America has resulted in conflict between landlords and tenants. This is commonly focused on attribution of blame for source of infestation, on responsibility, on costs for preparation, treatment and losses, and for compensation as rent abatement and/or alternative temporary housing. In Ontario, Canada, these issues are often decided by adjudicators at the Landlord and Tenant Board hearing claims, counter-claims and defense by legal representation (lawyers and paralegals) as well as through mediation. Evidence in these hearings may include photographs, invoices for costs as well as testimony by tenants, landlords and "expert witnesses" who are most often pest control firms representing their landlord clients. A total of 44 Landlord and Tenant Board adjudicated cases available online were analyzed. The analysis included elements of the decisions such as adjudicator, claimant (landlord or tenant), basis of claim, review of evidence, amount of claim, amount awarded, and evaluation of the quality of the evidence. The results of the analysis of these findings are discussed. Recommendations for improvement of adjudicator decisions on the basis of knowledge of bed bug biology and Integrated Pest Management best practices are presented as well as the importance of education of tenants and landlords to a process of mutual trust, support and accountability.

  18. Modeling Water Shortage Management Using an Object-Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Senarath, S.; Brion, L.; Niedzialek, J.; Novoa, R.; Obeysekera, J.

    2007-12-01

    As a result of the increasing global population and the resulting urbanization, water shortage issues have received increased attention throughout the world . Water supply has not been able to keep up with increased demand for water, especially during times of drought. The use of an object-oriented (OO) approach coupled with efficient mathematical models is an effective tool in addressing discrepancies between water supply and demand. Object-oriented modeling has been proven powerful and efficient in simulating natural behavior. This research presents a way to model water shortage management using the OO approach. Three groups of conceptual components using the OO approach are designed for the management model. The first group encompasses evaluation of natural behaviors and possible related management options. This evaluation includes assessing any discrepancy that might exist between water demand and supply. The second group is for decision making which includes the determination of water use cutback amount and duration using established criteria. The third group is for implementation of the management options which are restrictions of water usage at a local or regional scale. The loop is closed through a feedback mechanism where continuity in the time domain is established. Like many other regions, drought management is very important in south Florida. The Regional Simulation Model (RSM) is a finite volume, fully integrated hydrologic model used by the South Florida Water Management District to evaluate regional response to various planning alternatives including drought management. A trigger module was developed for RSM that encapsulates the OO approach to water shortage management. Rigorous testing of the module was performed using historical south Florida conditions. Keywords: Object-oriented, modeling, water shortage management, trigger module, Regional Simulation Model

  19. Local water rights and local water user entities: the unsung heroines of water resource management in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokile, Charles S.; Koppen, Barbara van

    When considering water management, formal institutions tend to overshadow the local informal ones although the latter guide day-to-day interactions on water use. Conversely, Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) has demonstrated a bias toward the formal state-based institutions for water management. A study was carried out to examine how local water rights and local informal institutional arrangements influence water management in the Great Ruaha River catchment in the Rufiji basin in Tanzania. Participatory appraisals were carried out, supplemented by focus group discussions, interviews, and a stakeholders’ workshop. It was found that local water rights, local water rotations and local water user groups are widely in use and are more influential than the formal water rights, water fees and water user associations (WUAs). Water allocation at the driest period depends on local informal relations among irrigators. More than 70% of water users surveyed choose to settle disputes over water via informal channels and the latter are more effective in resolving water conflicts and reconciling the antagonists compared to the formal routes. It was also found that although much emphasis and many resources have been expended in transforming local water rights and water related organisations to formal registered ones, the former have remained popular and water users feel more affiliated to local arrangements. The paper concludes that local informal water management can offer the best lessons for the formal management arrangements and should not be simply overlooked. Finally, the paper recommends that the formal and informal institutions should be amalgamated to bring forth a real Integrated Water Resource Management framework.

  20. Managing Water Scarcity: Why Water Conservation Matters to Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiwak, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    The issue of water scarcity has often hit the headlines in the past several years. Some states have gone to court over water rights and access even as others have agonized over scarce supplies. University presidents and their staff of directors understand that the days of unlimited, inexpensive water are almost over. While it remains inexpensive…

  1. Water resources and water management in the Bahurutshe heartland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-12-03

    Dec 3, 2004 ... well as determine how to sustain the balance ..... proper water services, i.e. to take the water to the people, is cur- rently a bigger ... Warnings that the balance between the carrying capacity of the land, the availability of water, ...

  2. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary goal of the annual water plan is to set a strategy for the 'most efficient use of the available water delivered to Stillwater WMA. For all practical...

  3. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary goal of the annual water plan is to set a strategy for the most efficient use of the available water delivered to Stillwater WMA. For all practical...

  4. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary goal of the annual water plan is to set a strategy for the 'most efficient use of the available water delivered to Stillwater WMA. For all practical...

  5. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary goal of the annual water plan is to set a strategy for the most efficient use of the available water delivered to Stillwater WMA. For all practical...

  6. Low prevalence of VHSV detected in round goby collected in offshore regions of Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, Emily R.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Groocock, Geoffrey H.; Walsh, Maureen G.; Bowser, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    Since the first reports of mortalities due to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) type IVb in the Laurentian Great Lakes basin during 2005 (Lake St. Clair, USA and Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario, Canada), many groups have conducted surveillance efforts for the virus, primarily in nearshore areas. The round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) has been identified as a key species to target for surveillance, because they have a very high probability of infection at a given site. Our objective in this study was to document and quantify VHSV in round gobies in offshore waters of Lake Ontario using molecular techniques. We collected 139 round gobies from depths ranging from 55 to 150 m using bottom trawls during the early spring of 2011 and detected VHSV in 4 individuals (1/26 fish at 95 m, 2/12 fish at 105 m, and 1/24 fish at 135 m). These results expand the known depth range of VHSV in the Great Lakes. They also have implications on the management of the spread of VHSV within infected bodies of water related to the mixing of populations of fish that would remain distinct in their breeding habitats, but then have the opportunity to mix in their overwintering habitats, as well as to increase overlap of predator and prey species in overwintering habitats.

  7. Integrated Water-Less Management of Night Soil for Depollution of Water Resources and Water Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod R. Chaudhari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Use of water for flushing night soil and enormous sewage disposal are responsible for pollution and depletion of fresh water resources in India and other countries. The review of traditional methods in the world provides idea of zero-waste discharge residential units. Experiences and research in India, China, Japan, America and Sweden has indicated feasibility of waterless management of night soil, composting and use of biofertilizer product in agriculture. A novel idea of ecological management of night soil and urine is presented in which night soil may be conditioned for transportation and treatment by adding suitable waste product(s from industry and other sources. Different night soil treatment methods are reviewed and emphasized the need for further research on whole cycle of ecological management or sustainable sanitation depending on local conditions. The benefits of this system are zero sewage discharge, reuse of waste as resource, recovery of nutrients in waste as fertilizer, production of fuel gas and reduction of pathogens in biofertilizer. This will help in water conservation and regenerating the quality and quantity of river flow for use as water ways and irrigation and to improve the public health. Potential technical intervention and research needs are discussed in this article

  8. Conjunctive Surface Water and Groundwater Management under Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong eZhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change can result in significant impacts on regional and global surface water and groundwater resources. Using groundwater as a complimentary source of water has provided an effective means to satisfy the ever-increasing water demands and deal with surface water shortages problems due to robust capability of groundwater in responding to climate change. Conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater is crucial for integrated water resources management. It is helpful to reduce vulnerabilities of water supply systems and mitigate the water supply stress in responding to climate change. Some critical challenges and perspectives are discussed to help decision/policy makers develop more effective management and adaptation strategies for conjunctive water resources use in facing climate change under complex uncertainties.

  9. Study on Shanghai Water Management Information Standard and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Huajie; Zheng Xiaoyang

    2007-01-01

    In Shanghai, three trades including water conservancy, water supply and water drainage are managed integratively by Shanghai Water Authority. However, trade division is apparent among them, and information sharing needs to be strengthened.Therefore, lack of information standard is becoming an urgent problem to be solved. According to the strategic objectives of "Golden Water Project" in China and "Digital City" in Shanghai, "Shanghai Water Management Information Standard" is made for normalizing information classifications, codes, terms,GIS symbols and attributed data structures. It not only coincides with national standards,ministerial standards and Shanghai local standards, but also embodies the characteristic of integrated water management in Shanghai. It provides "traffic rule" for resources integrating and information sharing. Some good research ideas such as omni-direction,multi-levels and facing application can be popularized in other provinces and municipalities of China.

  10. Workshops capacity building for agricultural water demand management; final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vehmeijer, P.W.; Wolters, W.

    2004-01-01

    Agricultural Water Demand Management (AWDM) is at the core of the Water for Food Programme launched as a result of a pledge by the Netherlands' Minister for Agriculture at the 2nd World Water Forum in March 2000, The Hague. One of the projects that was started after the March 2000 pledge was

  11. Marine water-quality management in South- Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taljaard, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa the ultimate goal in water quality management is to keep the water resources suitable for all ''beneficial uses''. Beneficial uses provide a basis for the derivation of water quality guidelines, which, for South Africa, are defined...

  12. A synthesis and comparative evaluation of drainage water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viable large-scale crop production in the United States requires artificial drainage in humid and poorly drained agricultural regions. Excess water removal is generally achieved by installing tile drains that export water to open ditches that eventually flow into streams. Drainage water management...

  13. Workshops capacity building for agricultural water demand management; final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vehmeijer, P.W.; Wolters, W.

    2004-01-01

    Agricultural Water Demand Management (AWDM) is at the core of the Water for Food Programme launched as a result of a pledge by the Netherlands' Minister for Agriculture at the 2nd World Water Forum in March 2000, The Hague. One of the projects that was started after the March 2000 pledge was Worksho

  14. Water quality and management of private drinking water wells in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swistock, Bryan R; Clemens, Stephanie; Sharpe, William E; Rummel, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    Pennsylvania has over three million rural residents using private water wells for drinking water supplies but is one of the few states that lack statewide water well construction or management standards. The study described in this article aimed to determine the prevalence and causes of common health-based pollutants in water wells and evaluate the need for regulatory management along with voluntary educational programs. Water samples were collected throughout Pennsylvania by Master Well Owner Network volunteers trained by Penn State Extension. Approximately 40% of the 701 water wells sampled failed at least one health-based drinking water standard. The prevalence of most water quality problems was similar to past studies although both lead and nitrate-N were reduced over the last 20 years. The authors' study suggests that statewide water well construction standards along with routine water testing and educational programs to assist water well owners would result in improved drinking water quality for private well owners in Pennsylvania.

  15. Water resource management and the poor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Schoengold, K.; Zilberman, D.

    2008-01-01

    Water allocations as well as water quality and health concerns are often due to inadequate policies and institutions, which pose major challenges for policy reform. The necessary ingredients of such reform include four elements: rules to improve the decision-making process about water projects, prin

  16. Water resource management and the poor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Schoengold, K.; Zilberman, D.

    2008-01-01

    Water allocations as well as water quality and health concerns are often due to inadequate policies and institutions, which pose major challenges for policy reform. The necessary ingredients of such reform include four elements: rules to improve the decision-making process about water projects,

  17. Agricultural water management: Priorities and challenges (Preface)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Todorovic, M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available of fresh water resources and the sustainable use of soil resources are under increasing pressure. Given the physical limitations of natural resources (e.g. land and water), the link between food security, land use and water resources is inevitable. New...

  18. Hydroeconomic optimization of reservoir management under downstream water quality constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo; Holm, Peter E.; Trapp, Stefan; Rosbjerg, Dan; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2015-10-01

    A hydroeconomic optimization approach is used to guide water management in a Chinese river basin with the objectives of meeting water quantity and water quality constraints, in line with the China 2011 No. 1 Policy Document and 2015 Ten-point Water Plan. The proposed modeling framework couples water quantity and water quality management and minimizes the total costs over a planning period assuming stochastic future runoff. The outcome includes cost-optimal reservoir releases, groundwater pumping, water allocation, wastewater treatments and water curtailments. The optimization model uses a variant of stochastic dynamic programming known as the water value method. Nonlinearity arising from the water quality constraints is handled with an effective hybrid method combining genetic algorithms and linear programming. Untreated pollutant loads are represented by biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and the resulting minimum dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration is computed with the Streeter-Phelps equation and constrained to match Chinese water quality targets. The baseline water scarcity and operational costs are estimated to 15.6 billion CNY/year. Compliance to water quality grade III causes a relatively low increase to 16.4 billion CNY/year. Dilution plays an important role and increases the share of surface water allocations to users situated furthest downstream in the system. The modeling framework generates decision rules that result in the economically efficient strategy for complying with both water quantity and water quality constraints.

  19. Climate Change and Water Resources Management: A Federal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, Levi D.; Kiang, Julie E.; Olsen, J. Rolf; Pulwarty, Roger S.; Raff, David A.; Turnipseed, D. Phil; Webb, Robert S.; White, Kathleen D.

    2009-01-01

    Many challenges, including climate change, face the Nation's water managers. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has provided estimates of how climate may change, but more understanding of the processes driving the changes, the sequences of the changes, and the manifestation of these global changes at different scales could be beneficial. Since the changes will likely affect fundamental drivers of the hydrological cycle, climate change may have a large impact on water resources and water resources managers. The purpose of this interagency report prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is to explore strategies to improve water management by tracking, anticipating, and responding to climate change. This report describes the existing and still needed underpinning science crucial to addressing the many impacts of climate change on water resources management.

  20. Integrated water management system - Description and test results. [for Space Station waste water processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elden, N. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Price, D. F.; Reysa, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Water recovery subsystems are being tested at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for Space Station use to process waste water generated from urine and wash water collection facilities. These subsystems are being integrated into a water management system that will incorporate wash water and urine processing through the use of hyperfiltration and vapor compression distillation subsystems. Other hardware in the water management system includes a whole body shower, a clothes washing facility, a urine collection and pretreatment unit, a recovered water post-treatment system, and a water quality monitor. This paper describes the integrated test configuration, pertinent performance data, and feasibility and design compatibility conclusions of the integrated water management system.

  1. Integrated water management system - Description and test results. [for Space Station waste water processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elden, N. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Price, D. F.; Reysa, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Water recovery subsystems are being tested at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for Space Station use to process waste water generated from urine and wash water collection facilities. These subsystems are being integrated into a water management system that will incorporate wash water and urine processing through the use of hyperfiltration and vapor compression distillation subsystems. Other hardware in the water management system includes a whole body shower, a clothes washing facility, a urine collection and pretreatment unit, a recovered water post-treatment system, and a water quality monitor. This paper describes the integrated test configuration, pertinent performance data, and feasibility and design compatibility conclusions of the integrated water management system.

  2. Urban Ethnohydrology: Cultural Knowledge of Water Quality and Water Management in a Desert City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Gartin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Popular concern over water quality has important implications for public water management because it can both empower water utilities to improve service but also limit their ability to make changes. In the desert city of Phoenix, Arizona, obtaining sufficient high-quality water resources for a growing urban population poses a major challenge. Decision makers and urban hydrologists are aware of these challenges to water sustainability but the range of acceptable policy and management options available to them is constrained by public opinion. Therefore, this study examines cultural models of water quality and water management, termed ethnohydrology, among urban residents. The study yields three key findings. First, urban residents appear to have a shared model of ethnohydrology which holds that a there are significant water quality risks associated with low financial investments in city-wide water treatment and the desert location of Phoenix, and b government monitoring and management combined with household-level water treatment can yield water of an acceptable quality. Second, people with high incomes are more likely to engage in expensive water filtration activities and to agree with the cultural ethnohydrology model found. Third, people living in communities that are highly concerned about water quality are less likely to share high agreement around ethnohydrology. The results have implications for water policy making and planning, particularly in disadvantaged and vulnerable communities where water quality is perceived to be low.

  3. Water quality management of aquifer recharge using advanced tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarova, Valentina; Emsellem, Yves; Paille, Julie; Glucina, Karl; Gislette, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with recycled water or other alternative resources is one of the most rapidly growing techniques that is viewed as a necessity in water-short areas. In order to better control health and environmental effects of MAR, this paper presents two case studies demonstrating how to improve water quality, enable reliable tracing of injected water and better control and manage MAR operation in the case of indirect and direct aquifer recharge. Two water quality management strategies are illustrated on two full-scale case studies, including the results of the combination of non conventional and advanced technologies for water quality improvement, comprehensive sampling and monitoring programs including emerging pollutants, tracer studies using boron isotopes and integrative aquifer 3D GIS hydraulic and hydrodispersive modelling.

  4. Diagnosis and recommendations for transjurisdictional water pollution management in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yahua

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale water environmental deterioration is one of the most prominent environmental issues in current China.Transjurisdictional water pollution is an important reason for water environmental deterioration of river basins,and currently there are some major defects that exist in China's management system related to transjurisdictional water pollution.With seven major river basins in China as an object of study,this paper is designed to perform a diagnosis of major problems about the transjurisdictional water pollution management in China from three aspects,i.e.institution,mechanism,and legislation.On the basis of this,it gives an overall train of thoughts on the reform of transjurisdictional water pollution management in China,and proposes specific recommendations from the aforesaid three aspects.

  5. Applying Telecoupling Framework for Urban Water Sustainability Research and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W.; Hyndman, D. W.; Winkler, J. A.; Viña, A.; Deines, J.; Lupi, F.; Luo, L.; Li, Y.; Basso, B.; Zheng, C.; Ma, D.; Li, S.; Liu, X.; Zheng, H.; Cao, G.; Meng, Q.; Ouyang, Z.; Liu, J.

    2016-12-01

    Urban areas, especially megacities (those with populations greater than 10 million), are hotspots of global water use and thus face intense water management challenges. Urban areas are influenced by local interactions between human and natural systems and also interact with distant systems through flows of water, food, energy, people, information, and capital. However, analyses of water sustainability and the management of water flows in urban areas are often fragmented. There is a strong need for applying integrated frameworks to systematically analyze urban water dynamics and factors influencing these dynamics. Here, we apply the framework of telecoupling (socioeconomic and environmental interactions over distances) to analyze urban water issues, using Beijing as a demonstration city. Beijing exemplifies the global water sustainability challenge for urban settings. Like many other cities, Beijing has experienced drastic reductions in quantity and quality of both surface water and groundwater over the past several decades; it relies on the import of real and virtual water from sending systems to meet its demand for clean water, and releases polluted water to other systems (spillover systems). The integrated framework presented here demonstrates the importance of considering socioeconomic and environmental interactions across telecoupled human and natural systems, which include not only Beijing (the water receiving system), but also water sending systems and spillover systems. This framework helps integrate important components of local and distant human-nature interactions and incorporates a wide range of local couplings and telecouplings that affect water dynamics, which in turn generate significant socioeconomic and environmental consequences including feedback effects. The application of the framework to Beijing reveals many research gaps and management needs. This study also provides a foundation to apply the telecoupling framework to better understand and

  6. Challenges of Integrated Water Resources Management in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Ali Fulazzaky

    2014-01-01

    The increased demands for water and land in Indonesia as a consequence of the population growth and economic development has reportedly have been accelerated from the year to year. The spatial and temporal variability of human induced hydrological changes in a river basin could affect quality and quantity of water. The challenge is that integrated water resources management (IWRM) should cope with complex issues of water in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an eq...

  7. The economics of water reuse and implications for joint water quality-quantity management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Traditionally, economists have treated the management of water quality and water quantity as separate problems. However, there are some water management issues for which economic analysis requires the simultaneous consideration of water quality and quantity policies and outcomes. Water reuse, which has expanded significantly over the last several decades, is one of these issues. Analyzing the cost effectiveness and social welfare outcomes of adopting water reuse requires a joint water quality-quantity optimization framework because, at its most basic level, water reuse requires decision makers to consider (a) its potential for alleviating water scarcity, (b) the quality to which the water should be treated prior to reuse, and (c) the benefits of discharging less wastewater into the environment. In this project, we develop a theoretical model of water reuse management to illustrate how the availability of water reuse technologies and practices can lead to a departure from established rules in the water resource economics literature for the optimal allocation of freshwater and water pollution abatement. We also conduct an econometric analysis of a unique dataset of county-level water reuse from the state of Florida over the seventeen-year period between 1996 and 2012 in order to determine whether water quality or scarcity concerns drive greater adoption of water reuse practices.

  8. Local Authorities’ contribution on Gastronomy Tourism Development: the case of Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Karagiannis, Dimitris; METAXAS, Theodore

    2017-01-01

    The role of Local Government (LG) in achieving tourism development is extremely important. A characteristic example is the province of Ontario in Canada, which managed with the assistance of the Ministries of Tourism and Culture and with the cooperation of the private sector, to create an effective tourism development tool promote the region through its gastronomy - Ontario Culinary Tourism Alliance (OCTA), a non-profit, industry driven organization which leads the implementation of the provi...

  9. Analyzing and Improving the Water-Table Fluctuation Method of Estimating Groundwater Recharge: Field Considerations Patros, T.B. and Parkin, G.W., School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patros, T.; Parkin, G. W.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the project is on measuring and quantifying groundwater recharge (GWR) using the water-table fluctuation (WTF) method. This method requires measuring the change in water-table (WT) height (Δh) during recharge (R) events and volumetric soil specific yield water content (θsy), (&/or) perhaps more correctly volumetric soil fillable water content (θf). The rise in WT can also result from other non-precipitation-related WTF causes (e.g., Lisse effect, temperature variations, barometric, lateral flow, Reverse Wieringermeer effect, encapsulated air, pumping), which must be counted for. The measurement of the storativity (S) terms (θsy) and/or θf) is, indeed, not clear-cut and often they are taken as being constant with depth, time, WT movement (Drying-Wetting & Freezing-Thawing) history and heterogeneity. In fact, these two terms (θsy & θf) are controversial in their definition, thus in their use, in the literature and may either overestimate the R, when using θsy, or underestimate it, when using θf. To resolve some of these questions, a novel-automated method is under development, at the University of Guelph's Elora Research Station (ERS) and Arboretum, along with a novel multi-event time series model. The long-term expected outcomes and significance of this study are; 1. Establishing accuracy in defining and evaluating the θsy and θf and using them accordingly in estimating GWR with the WTF method in order to overcome some of the existing substantial gaps in our knowledge of groundwater (GW) storage variation. 2. Obtaining GWR measurements at the local scale on a year-round basis, which are currently scarce or even completely lacking for many regions of Ontario and thus would provide a valuable database for guiding development of any policy requiring GWR. 3. Using this database to calibrate and test estimates of the spatial and temporal variability in regional-scale (watershed scale) GWR from approximate statistical techniques or deterministic

  10. Storm-water management through Infiltration trenches

    OpenAIRE

    Chahar, Bhagu Ram; Graillot, Didier; Gaur, Shishir

    2012-01-01

    International audience; With urbanization, the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by infiltration can occur is reducing. This is resulting in much less ground-water recharge and greatly increased surface run-off. Infiltration devices, which redirect run-off waters from the surface to the sub-surface environments, are commonly adopted to mitigate the negative hydrologic effects associated with urbanization. An infiltration trench alone or in combination with other storm water m...

  11. An Integrated Risk Management Model for Source Water Protection Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Lien Lo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Watersheds are recognized as the most effective management unit for the protection of water resources. For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans. The aim of this article is to establish a risk assessment model that provides basic information for identifying critical pollutants and areas at high risk for degraded water quality. In this study, a quantitative risk model that uses hazard quotients for each water quality parameter was combined with a qualitative risk model that uses the relative risk level of potential pollution events in order to characterize the current condition and potential risk of watersheds providing drinking water. In a case study of Taipei Source Water Area in northern Taiwan, total coliforms and total phosphorus were the top two pollutants of concern. Intensive tea-growing and recreational activities around the riparian zone may contribute the greatest pollution to the watershed. Our risk assessment tool may be enhanced by developing, recording, and updating information on pollution sources in the water supply watersheds. Moreover, management authorities could use the resultant information to create watershed risk management plans.

  12. An integrated risk management model for source water protection areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiueh, Pei-Te; Shang, Wei-Ting; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2012-10-17

    Watersheds are recognized as the most effective management unit for the protection of water resources. For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans. The aim of this article is to establish a risk assessment model that provides basic information for identifying critical pollutants and areas at high risk for degraded water quality. In this study, a quantitative risk model that uses hazard quotients for each water quality parameter was combined with a qualitative risk model that uses the relative risk level of potential pollution events in order to characterize the current condition and potential risk of watersheds providing drinking water. In a case study of Taipei Source Water Area in northern Taiwan, total coliforms and total phosphorus were the top two pollutants of concern. Intensive tea-growing and recreational activities around the riparian zone may contribute the greatest pollution to the watershed. Our risk assessment tool may be enhanced by developing, recording, and updating information on pollution sources in the water supply watersheds. Moreover, management authorities could use the resultant information to create watershed risk management plans.

  13. Watershed management for water supply in developing world city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车越; 杨凯; 吕永鹏; 张宏伟; 吴健; 杨永川

    2009-01-01

    The water supply system in Shanghai provides about 2.55×109 m3/a,of which more than 50% is derived from the Upper Huangpu River Watershed. During the process of rapid urbanization and industrialization,the role of watershed management in sustaining clean drinking water quality at surface sources is emphasized in Shanghai. This paper proposes an integrated watershed management (IWM) approach in the context of the current pressures and problems of source water protection at the Upper Huangpu River Watershed in Shanghai. Based on data sets of land use,water quality and regional development,multi-criteria analysis and system dynamics techniques were used to evaluate effectiveness and improve decision-making of source water protection at a watershed scale. Different scenarios for potential source water quality changing from 2008 to 2020 were predicted,based on a systematic analysis and system dynamics modeling,a watershed management approach integrating land use prioritization and stakeholder involvement was designed to conserve the source water quality. The integrated watershed management (IWM) approach may help local authorities better understand and address the complex source water system,and develop improved safe drinking water strategies to better balance urban expansion and source water protection.

  14. Towards Sustainable Water Management in a Country that Faces Extreme Water Scarcity and Dependency: Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyns, J.; Hamaideh, A.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Schyns, M.

    2015-12-01

    Jordan faces a great variety of water-related challenges: domestic water resources are scarce and polluted; the sharing of transboundary waters has led to tensions and conflicts; and Jordan is extremely dependent of foreign water resources through trade. Therefore, sustainable water management in Jordan is a challenging task, which has not yet been accomplished. The objective of this study was to analyse Jordan's domestic water scarcity and pollution and the country's external water dependency, and subsequently review sustainable solutions that reduce the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency. We have estimated the green, blue and grey water footprint of five different sectors in Jordan: crop production, grazing, animal water supply, industrial production and domestic water supply. Next, we assessed the blue water scarcity ratio for the sum of surface- and groundwater and for groundwater separately, and calculated the water pollution level. Finally, we reviewed the sustainability of proposed solutions to Jordan's domestic water problems and external water dependency in literature, while involving the results and conclusions from our analysis. We have quantified that: even while taking into account the return flows, blue water scarcity in Jordan is severe; groundwater consumption is nearly double the sustainable yield; water pollution aggravates blue water scarcity; and Jordan's external virtual water dependency is 86%. Our review yields ten essential ingredients that a sustainable water management strategy for Jordan, that reduces the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency, should involve. With respect to these, Jordan's current water policy requires a strong redirection towards water demand management. Especially, more attention should be paid to reducing water demand by changing the consumption patterns of Jordan consumers. Moreover, exploitation of fossil groundwater should soon be halted and planned desalination projects require careful

  15. Evaluating participation in water resource management: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, G.; BlöSchl, G.; Loucks, D. P.

    2012-11-01

    Key documents such as the European Water Framework Directive and the U.S. Clean Water Act state that public and stakeholder participation in water resource management is required. Participation aims to enhance resource management and involve individuals and groups in a democratic way. Evaluation of participatory programs and projects is necessary to assess whether these objectives are being achieved and to identify how participatory programs and projects can be improved. The different methods of evaluation can be classified into three groups: (i) process evaluation assesses the quality of participation process, for example, whether it is legitimate and promotes equal power between participants, (ii) intermediary outcome evaluation assesses the achievement of mainly nontangible outcomes, such as trust and communication, as well as short- to medium-term tangible outcomes, such as agreements and institutional change, and (iii) resource management outcome evaluation assesses the achievement of changes in resource management, such as water quality improvements. Process evaluation forms a major component of the literature but can rarely indicate whether a participation program improves water resource management. Resource management outcome evaluation is challenging because resource changes often emerge beyond the typical period covered by the evaluation and because changes cannot always be clearly related to participation activities. Intermediary outcome evaluation has been given less attention than process evaluation but can identify some real achievements and side benefits that emerge through participation. This review suggests that intermediary outcome evaluation should play a more important role in evaluating participation in water resource management.

  16. Is Ontario Hydro for sale? Provincial commission recommends dissolving Utility`s 90-year monopoly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-06-01

    The possible breakup and privatization of Ontario Hydro was discussed, triggered by the recent release of the Macdonald Commission report which found that `there is no longer a sound economic rationale for allowing a large monopoly to dominate the electricity system`. The essence of the Committee`s recommendation was (1) to allow all electricity generators, including out-of-province suppliers to compete on equal terms for Ontario business;, (2) operate Ontario Hydro`s four nuclear generation plants as separate competing entities and keep them in public ownership, (3) provide open non-discriminatory access to Ontario`s transmission system, (4) move responsibility for managing Ontario Hydro`s high-voltage transmission assets to an independent {sup T}ransmission Grid Company`, (5) reduce the number of distribution utilities from the current total of 307, and (6) create community-based organizations to serve remote communities that are not connected to the transmission system. The expectation is that competition will lead to lower energy prices and more choice for consumers. No action from the Ontario government is expected for several months, and not without extensive consultation with the industry and consumers.

  17. Towards Adaptive Urban Water Management: Up-Scaling Local Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hoffmann, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, the need for adaptive urban water management approaches is advertised, but the transition towards such approaches in the urban water sector seems to be slow. The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth study of how an innovative approach has been adopted in practice by looking...... of rainwater. This insight into the processes of learning aggregation of water practices points towards the important role that the dedicated work performed by local facilitators and intermediaries play in relation to a transition towards more adaptive urban water management....

  18. Bioinspired materials for water supply and management: water collection, water purification and separation of water from oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip S; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-08-06

    Access to a safe supply of water is a human right. However, with growing populations, global warming and contamination due to human activity, it is one that is increasingly under threat. It is hoped that nature can inspire the creation of materials to aid in the supply and management of water, from water collection and purification to water source clean-up and rehabilitation from oil contamination. Many species thrive in even the driest places, with some surviving on water harvested from fog. By studying these species, new materials can be developed to provide a source of fresh water from fog for communities across the globe. The vast majority of water on the Earth is in the oceans. However, current desalination processes are energy-intensive. Systems in our own bodies have evolved to transport water efficiently while blocking other molecules and ions. Inspiration can be taken from such to improve the efficiency of desalination and help purify water containing other contaminants. Finally, oil contamination of water from spills or the fracking technique can be a devastating environmental disaster. By studying how natural surfaces interact with liquids, new techniques can be developed to clean up oil spills and further protect our most precious resource.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Estimation of crop water requirements using remote sensing for operational water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliades, Lampros; Spiliotopoulos, Marios; Tzabiras, John; Loukas, Athanasios; Mylopoulos, Nikitas

    2015-06-01

    An integrated modeling system, developed in the framework of "Hydromentor" research project, is applied to evaluate crop water requirements for operational water resources management at Lake Karla watershed, Greece. The framework includes coupled components for operation of hydrotechnical projects (reservoir operation and irrigation works) and estimation of agricultural water demands at several spatial scales using remote sensing. The study area was sub-divided into irrigation zones based on land use maps derived from Landsat 5 TM images for the year 2007. Satellite-based energy balance for mapping evapotranspiration with internalized calibration (METRIC) was used to derive actual evapotranspiration (ET) and crop coefficient (ETrF) values from Landsat TM imagery. Agricultural water needs were estimated using the FAO method for each zone and each control node of the system for a number of water resources management strategies. Two operational strategies of hydro-technical project development (present situation without operation of the reservoir and future situation with the operation of the reservoir) are coupled with three water demand strategies. In total, eight (8) water management strategies are evaluated and compared. The results show that, under the existing operational water resources management strategies, the crop water requirements are quite large. However, the operation of the proposed hydro-technical projects in Lake Karla watershed coupled with water demand management measures, like improvement of existing water distribution systems, change of irrigation methods, and changes of crop cultivation could alleviate the problem and lead to sustainable and ecological use of water resources in the study area.

  20. Forecasting Ontario's blood supply and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drackley, Adam; Newbold, K Bruce; Paez, Antonio; Heddle, Nancy

    2012-02-01

    Given an aging population that requires increased medical care, an increasing number of deferrals from the donor pool, and a growing immigrant population that typically has lower donation rates, the purpose of this article is to forecast Ontario's blood supply and demand. We calculate age- and sex-specific donation and demand rates for blood supply based on 2008 data and project demand between 2008 and 2036 based on these rates and using population data from the Ontario Ministry of Finance. Results indicate that blood demand will outpace supply as early as 2012. For instance, while the total number of donations made by older cohorts is expected to increase in the coming years, the number of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in the 70+ age group is forecasted grow from approximately 53% of all RBC transfusions in 2008 (209,515) in 2008 to 68% (546,996) by 2036. A series of alternate scenarios, including projections based on a 2% increase in supply per year and increased use of apheresis technology, delays supply shortfalls, but does not eliminate them without active management and/or multiple methods to increase supply and decrease demand. Predictions show that demand for blood products will outpace supply in the near future given current age- and sex-specific supply and demand rates. However, we note that the careful management of the blood supply by Canadian Blood Services, along with new medical techniques and the recruitment of new donors to the system, will remove future concerns. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  1. Correlation study among water quality parameters an approach to water quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, D K; Rastogi, G K; Kumar, R; Kumar, N

    2009-04-01

    To find out an approach to water quality management through correlation studies between various water quality parameters, the statistical regression analysis for six data points of underground drinking water of different hand pumps at J. P. Nagar was carried out. The comparison of estimated values with W.H.O drinking water standards revealed that water of the study area is polluted with reference to a number of physico-chemical parameters studied. Regression analysis suggests that conductivity of underground water is found to be significantly correlated with eight out of twelve water quality parameters studied. It may be suggested that the underground drinking water quality at J. P. Nagar can be checked very effectively by controlling the conductivity of water. The present study may be treated one step forward towards the water quality management.

  2. Water scarcity and urban forest management: introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; Robert Prince

    2013-01-01

    Between 1997 and 2009 a serious drought affected much of Australia. Whether reasoned or unintentional, water policy decisions closed the tap, turning much of the urban forest’s lifeline into a trickle. Green infrastructure became brown infrastructure, exposing its standing as a low priority relative to other consumptive sources. To share new solutions to water scarcity...

  3. Staggering successes amid controversy in California water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Water in California has always been important and controversial, and it probably always will be. California has a large, growing economy and population in a semi-arid climate. But California's aridity, hydrologic variability, and water controversies have not precluded considerable economic successes. The successes of California's water system have stemmed from the decentralization of water management with historically punctuated periods of more centralized strategic decision-making. Decentralized management has allowed California's water users to efficiently explore incremental solutions to water problems, ranging from early local development of water systems (such as Hetch Hetchy, Owens Valley, and numerous local irrigation projects) to more contemporary efforts at water conservation, water markets, wastewater reuse, and conjunctive use of surface and groundwater. In the cacophony of local and stakeholder interests, strategic decisions have been more difficult, and consequently occur less frequently. California state water projects and Sacramento Valley flood control are examples where decades of effort, crises, floods and droughts were needed to mobilize local interests to agree to major strategic decisions. Currently, the state is faced with making strategic environmental and water management decisions regarding its deteriorating Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Not surprisingly, human uncertainties and physical and fiscal non-stationarities dominate this process.

  4. Water management in mountainous Jardhar Village, Chamba Block, Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RK Kamble

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been carried out to assess water management practices adopted by Jardhar villagers in Chamba block of Uttrakhand. The rain water during rainy season got collected in chahals (mountainous tanks on top of mountains. The rain water which got collected in these structures percolates through mountains and forms number of small streams which were perennial in nature. The water from these streams were received in a small metal tank at the end of stream in the mountain and through a steel pipe this collected water was diverted and collected into a cement tank at an elevated location at the entrance of the village. From this elevated water reservoir water was distributed at various locations in the village through public stand posts. The sustainable utilization of water in this mountainous area paved way for availability of water throughout the year and thus can sustain the population in such a topographic region. This traditional water management in Jardhar village has set an example of water management which can be adopted in such terrains throughout the world. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9946 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1 2014: 93-100

  5. Annual Water Management Program 1985 Erie National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The management of water levels on refuge impoundments is critical in meeting refuge waterfowl objectives. These objectives are: 1) Provide nesting habitat for...

  6. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual Water Management Program 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan is to establish a...

  7. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual Water Management Program 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan is to establish a...

  8. Water Management Membrane for Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an improved water management membrane for a static vapor feed electrolyzer that produces sub-saturated H2 and O2 is proposed. This improved membrane...

  9. Annual Water Management Program Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge has a total of four impounded wetlands. The water levels are manageable to a limited degree in three of them: Cranberry Pool,...

  10. Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan...

  11. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge : Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives. The purpose of this plan is to establish a...

  12. [Arrowwood Water Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood Water Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1978 calendar year. The report begins by...

  13. Arrowwood Water Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood Water Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1977 calendar year. The report begins by...

  14. Key challenges facing water resource management in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ashton, P

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Resource Managers The Dichotomy of Water Source of destruction, dispute and poverty • Drought and desertification • Flooding and erosion • Salinization • Malnutrition and starvation • Contamination • Epidemics and diseases • Dispute...

  15. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual Water Management Program 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan is to establish a...

  16. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual Water Management Program 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan is to establish a...

  17. Water Management Plan 1949 Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan...

  18. Annual Water Management Plan Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives. The purpose of this plan is to establish a schedule of...

  19. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual Water Management Program 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan is to establish a...

  20. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual Water Management Program 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan is to establish a...

  1. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual Water Management Program 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan is to establish a...

  2. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual Water Management Program 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan is to establish a...

  3. 2006 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: North District

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the Southwest Florida Water Management District's FY2006 Digital Orthophoto (B089) and LiDAR...

  4. Skills Labs: Hoogwaardige e-practica Water Management met EMERGO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadolski, Rob; Hummel, Hans; Slootmaker, Aad; Kurvers, Hub

    2010-01-01

    Nadolski, R. J., Hummel, H. G. K., Slootmaker, A., & Kurvers, H. (2010, 27 May). Skills Labs: Hoogwaardige e-practica Water Management met EMERGO. Presentatie tijdens de bijeenkomst: Surfen door Zeeland: e-learning delta innovaties, Vlissingen, Nederland. SURFFoundation.

  5. Annual Water Management Plan White River National Wildlife Refuge 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The White River National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives. The purpose of this plan is to establish a schedule...

  6. Water management alternatives at Reelfoot Lake: Results of a workshop

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes a workshop for discussing water management alternatives at Reelfoot Lake National Wildlife Refuge. The objectives of the workshop were to...

  7. Annual Water Management Plan Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives. The purpose of this plan is to establish a schedule of...

  8. 2012 Suwannee River Water Management District (SRWMD) Lidar: Bradford (FL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USGS - Suwannee River Water Management District Contract No.G10PC00093, Task Order No.G12PD00242 Prime Contractor: Digital Aerial Solutions (DAS) Sub-Contractor:...

  9. Annual Water Management Plan Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives. The purpose of this plan is to establish a schedule of...

  10. Condition, use, and management of water resources among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agadaga

    2012-09-17

    Sep 17, 2012 ... ISSN 1996-0786 ©2012 Academic Journals. Full Length Research Paper. Condition, use ... The study recommends that strong assistance is required in ... gender relations in using, managing and controlling water resources.

  11. Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan...

  12. Water Management Plan 1950 Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan...

  13. Annual Water Management Program 1988 Erie National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The management of water levels on refuge impoundments is critical in meeting refuge waterfowl objectives. These objectives are: 1) Provide nesting habitat for...

  14. Annual Water Management Program 1987 Erie National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The management of water levels on refuge impoundments is critical in meeting refuge waterfowl objectives. These objectives are: 1) Provide nesting habitat for...

  15. Marsh and Water Management Plan: Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives for marsh and water management on the Trempealeau NWR are: 1. to provide habitat for waterfowl, other migratory birds, and endangered or threatened...

  16. 2006 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: North District

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the Southwest Florida Water Management District's FY2006 Digital Orthophoto (B089) and LiDAR...

  17. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual Water Management Program 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan is to establish a...

  18. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual Water Management Program 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan is to establish a...

  19. Water Management Plan Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan is to establish a...

  20. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual Water Management Program 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan is to establish a...

  1. Marsh and Water Management Plan: Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge Marsh and Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of...

  2. Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan...

  3. Initial Survey Instructions for management unit water monitoring : level

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial survey instructions for 1.08 management unit water monitoring (level) survey on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. This survey is conducted weekly and is...

  4. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual Water Management Program 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan is to establish a...

  5. Water Management Plan: Savannah National Wildlife Refuge Calendar Year 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water Management Plan for Savannah NWR for calendar year 1962. This plan includes brief habitat descriptions and specific actions for Pools 2-7A, as well as...

  6. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual Water Management Program 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan is to establish a...

  7. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual Water Management Program 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan is to establish a...

  8. Remaking "Nature" The Ecological Turn in Dutch Water Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Disco, Cornelis

    2002-01-01

    The ecological turn in water management has usually been interpreted as a political andcultural rather than technical and professional accomplishment. The dynamics of theuptake of ecological expertise into hydraulic engineering bureaucracies have not beenwell described. Focusing on the controversy a

  9. Merced National Wildlife Refuge water management plan 2011 to 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The details of this Merced 2011-2013 plan are separated into ten sections: Background, Water Management Related Goals and Objectives, Policies and Procedures,...

  10. the impact of community participation in rural water management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... embrace community management model in rural water systems. Community ... participation in decision making which has been welcomed even ... substantial support in the international community ... Methodology. The Study ...

  11. Collective action and participation in irrigation water management: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This calls for strengthening of local water management systems and institutional ... ment support among smallholder irrigation farmers, accompa- nied by weak ... METHODOLOGY ... individual decisions result in collective loss/tragedy. This.

  12. Marsh and Water Management Plan Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water management facilities at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge were constructed nearly 50 years ago. The original design had a myriad of problems that have since...

  13. Annual Water Management Plan White River National Wildlife Refuge 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The White River National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives. The purpose of this plan is to establish a schedule...

  14. Water Management Plan: Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this...

  15. Annual Water Management Plan Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives. The purpose of this plan is to establish a schedule of...

  16. Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan...

  17. 75 FR 70020 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... Bureau of Reclamation developed and published the Criteria for Evaluating Water Management...

  18. 77 FR 33240 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... Bureau of Reclamation developed and published the Criteria for Evaluating Water Management...

  19. 76 FR 12756 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... published the Criteria for Evaluating Water Management Plans (Criteria). For the purpose of...

  20. 75 FR 32855 - Safety Zone; Pierce County, WA, Department of Emergency Management, Regional Water Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... Management, Regional Water Exercise AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Pierce County, Washington, Department of Emergency Management is sponsoring a Regional Water Rescue... County, Washington, Department of Emergency Management is sponsoring a Regional Water Rescue Exercise...

  1. 76 FR 27344 - Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National Preserve, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... National Park Service Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National... Prepare a Water Resources Management Plan/ Environmental Impact Statement for Mojave National Preserve... to inform preparation of a Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement...

  2. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An estimated 70,000 acre feet (AF) of water are needed annually to maintain 14,000 acres of marsh currently regulated by Operating Criteria and Procedures (OCAP) on...

  3. Water sustainability: reforming water management in new global era of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kavita; Sharma, Prashant Kumar; Nandi, Ipsita; Singh, Nidhi

    2014-10-01

    The National Seminar on Sustainable Water Resource Management in Era of Changing Climate (NSWRM-2014) on 10-11 January 2014 organised by the Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development and Environmental Science and Technology, Banaras Hindu University, witnessed the presence of experts from environmentalists, industrialists and experts on water resources and its management. The deliberations and scientific discussions led to the conclusion that it is not just the resource but the natural capacity to sustain it that requires monitoring, understanding and stewardship. The focus of governance in India needs to move at a faster pace from conventional methods of sector-based water management to more integrated approach for sustainable water resource management. It is more of the people participation that is the future key towards sustainable water resource management in India.

  4. MoGIRE: A Model for Integrated Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, A.; Leenhardt, D.

    2008-12-01

    Climate change and growing water needs have resulted in many parts of the world in water scarcity problems that must by managed by public authorities. Hence, policy-makers are more and more often asked to define and to implement water allocation rules between competitive users. This requires to develop new tools aiming at designing those rules for various scenarios of context (climatic, agronomic, economic). If models have been developed for each type of water use however, very few integrated frameworks link these different uses, while such an integrated approach is a relevant stake for designing regional water and land policies. The lack of such integrated models can be explained by the difficulty of integrating models developed by very different disciplines and by the problem of scale change (collecting data on large area, arbitrate between the computational tractability of models and their level of aggregation). However, modelers are more and more asked to deal with large basin scales while analyzing some policy impacts at very high detailed levels. These contradicting objectives require to develop new modeling tools. The CALVIN economically-driven optimization model developed for managing water in California is a good example of this type of framework, Draper et al. (2003). Recent reviews of the literature on integrated water management at the basin level include Letcher et al. (2007) or Cai (2008). We present here an original framework for integrated water management at the river basin scale called MoGIRE ("Modèle pour la Gestion Intégrée de la Ressource en Eau"). It is intended to optimize water use at the river basin level and to evaluate scenarios (agronomic, climatic or economic) for a better planning of agricultural and non-agricultural water use. MoGIRE includes a nodal representation of the water network. Agricultural, urban and environmental water uses are also represented using mathematical programming and econometric approaches. The model then

  5. Results of detailed ground geophysical surveys for locating and differentiating waste structures in waste management area 'A' at Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomsons, D.K.; Street, P.J.; Lodha, G.S

    1999-07-01

    Waste Management Area 'A' (WMA 'A'), located in the outer area of the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) was in use as a waste burial site from 1946 to 1955. Waste management structures include debris-filled trenches, concrete bunkers and miscellaneous contaminated solid materials, and ditches and pits used for liquid dispersal. In order to update historical records, it was proposed to conduct detailed ground geophysical surveys to define the locations of waste management structures in WMA 'A', assist in planning of the drilling and sampling program to provide ground truth for the geophysics investigation and to predict the nature and locations of unknown/undefined shallow structures. A detailed ground geophysical survey grid was established with a total of 127 grid lines, oriented NNE and spaced one metre apart. The geophysical surveys were carried out during August and September, 1996. The combination of geophysical tools used included the Geonics EM61 metal detector, the GSM-19 magnetometer/gradiometer and a RAMAC high frequency ground penetrating radar system. The geophysical surveys were successful in identifying waste management structures and in characterizing to some extent, the composition of the waste. The geophysical surveys are able to determine the presence of most of the known waste management structures, especially in the western and central portions of the grid which contain the majority of the metallic waste. The eastern portion of the grid has a completely different geophysical character. While historical records show that trenches were dug, they are far less evident in the geophysical record. There is clear evidence for a trench running between lines 30E and 63E at 70 m. There are indications from the radar survey of other trench-like structures in the eastern portion. EM61 data clearly show that there is far less metallic debris in the eastern portion. The geophysical surveys were also successful in identifying

  6. Water management by early people in the Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, W.

    1995-06-01

    The Yucatan Peninsula is a coastal plain underlain by permeable limestone and receives abundant rainfall. Such hydrogeologic conditions should provide major supplies of water; however, factors of climate and hydrogeology have combined to form a hydrologic system with chemical boundaries that limits the amount of fresh water available. Management of water resources has long had a major influence on the cultural and economic development of the Yucatan. The Mayan culture of the northern Yucatan developed on extensive use of groundwater. The religion was water oriented and the Mayan priests prayed to Chac, the water god, for assistance in water management, primarily to decrease the severity of droughts. The Spaniards arrived in 1517 and augmented the supply by digging wells, which remained the common practice for more than 300 years. Many wells now have been abandoned because of serious problems of pollution. A historical perspective of a paper such as this provides insight into the attitudes concerning water of early people and perhaps provides insight into current attitudes concerning water. Hydrogeologists possess the expertise to generate relevant information required by water managers to arrive at management programs to achieve sustainable development.

  7. Sustainable water management in Alberta's oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, Bill; Usher, Robyn; Roach, Andrea [CH2M HILL, Englewood, CO (United States); Lambert, Gord; Kotecha, Prit [Suncor Energy Inc., Calgary (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers forecast published in 2011 predicts that oil production from oil sands will increase by 50% in the next 3 years and double by 2020. This rate of growth will result in significant pressure on water resources; water use per barrel of oil sands production is comparable to other energy resources - about 2.5 barrels of fresh water per barrel of oil produced are used by mining operations and 0.5 barrels by in-situ operations. Suncor Energy Inc. (Suncor) was the first company to develop the oil sands in northern Alberta and holds one of the largest oil sands positions in Canada. In 2010, Suncor announced plans to increase production to more than 1 million barrels of oil equivalent per day by 2020, which it plans to achieve through oil sands production growth of approximately 10% per year. Because water supply and potential impacts to water quality are critical to its future growth, in 2010-2011 Suncor conducted a risk assessment to identify water-related business risks related to its northern Alberta operations. The assessment identified more than 20 high level business risks in strategic water risk areas including water supply, water reuse, storm water management, groundwater, waste management and river water return. The risk assessment results prompted development of a strategic roadmap to guide water stewardship across Suncor's regional operations. The roadmap describes goals, objectives, and specific activities for each of six key water risk areas, and informs prioritization and selection of prospective water management activities. Suncor is not only exploring water within its own boundaries, but is also collaborating with other oil sands producers to explore ways of integrating its water systems through industry consortia; Suncor is a member of the Oil Sands Leadership Initiative and of the recently formed Canadian Oil Sands Innovation Alliance, among others. (author)

  8. Electrical load management for the California water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, B.; Lasater, I.; Blumstein, C.

    1977-07-01

    To meet its water needs California has developed an extensive system for transporting water from areas with high water runoff to areas with high water demand. This system annually consumes more than 6 billion kilowatt hours (kWh) of electricity for pumping water and produces more than 12 billion kWh/year of hydroelectric power. From the point of view of energy conservation, the optimum operation of the California water supply system would require that pumping be done at night and generation be done during the day. Night pumping would reduce electric power peak load demand and permit the pumps to be supplied with electricity from ''base load'' generating plants. Daytime hydro power generation would augment peak load power generation by fossil-fuel power plants and save fuel. The technical and institutional aspects of this type of electric power load management for water projects are examined for the purpose of explaining some of the actions which might be pursued and to develop recommendations for the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission (ERCDC). The California water supply system is described. A brief description is given of various energy conservation methods, other than load management, that can be used in the management of water resources. An analysis of load management is presented. Three actions for the ERCDC are recommended: the Commission should monitor upcoming power contract negotiations between the utilities and the water projects; it should determine the applicability of the power-pooling provisions of the proposed National Energy Act to water systems; and it should encourage and support detailed studies of load management methods for specific water projects.

  9. Ethiopia : Managing Water Resources to Maximize Sustainable Growth

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This report looks at, and beyond, the management hydrological variability to interventions aimed at decreasing the vulnerability of the economy to these shocks. It helps clarify linkages between the country's economic performance and its water resources endowment and management. It then uses this analysis to recommend both water resource strategies and economic and sectoral policies that will enhance growth and insulate the Ethiopian people and economy from the often devastating, economy-wide...

  10. Strategies for water management. A global irrigation model

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Joao; Sousa, Miguel; Torres-Campos, Tiago; Pereira, Mariana

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the physical component of irrigation water management in regions where its scarcity is intensified by recent urban centre development, seeking not only the definition of strategies for major savings in consumption, but rather their inclusion in landscape principles for more sustainable urban design solutions.The (re)establishment of a close relation between water management and planting techniques (perpetuated in vernacular irrigation techniques) is quintessential. There...

  11. Innovative Sustainable Water Management Practices in Solar Residential Design

    OpenAIRE

    C. Jason Mabry; Franca Trubiano

    2012-01-01

    This paper communicates the results of an architectural research project which sought innovative design strategies for achieving energy and resource efficiencies in water management systems traditionally used in single-family housing. It describes the engineering of an efficient, multifaceted, and fully integrated water management system for a domesticenvironment of 800 sq. ft., entirely powered by solar energy. The four innovations whose details are conveyed include the use of alternate mate...

  12. How are pharmacists in Ontario adapting to practice change? Results of a qualitative analysis using Kotter’s change management model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Beatriz; Gregory, Paul A. M.; Austin, Zubin

    2017-01-01

    Background: The pace of practice change in community pharmacy over the past decade has been significant, yet there is little evidence documenting implementation of change in the profession. Methods: Kotter’s change management model was selected as a theoretical framework for this exploratory qualitative study. Community pharmacists were interviewed using a semistructured protocol based on Kotter’s model. Data were analyzed and coded using a constant-comparative iterative method aligned with the stages of change management outlined by Kotter. Results: Twelve community pharmacists were interviewed. Three key themes emerged: 1) the profession has successfully established the urgency to, and created a climate conducive for, change; 2) the profession has been less successful in engaging and enabling the profession to actually implement change; and 3) legislative changes (for example, expansion of pharmacists’ scope of practice) may have occurred prematurely, prior to other earlier stages of the change process being consolidated. Interpretation: As noted by most participants, allowing change is not implementing change: pharmacists reported feeling underprepared and lacking confidence to actually make change in their practices and believe that more emphasis on practical, specific implementation tactics is needed. Conclusions: Change management is complex and time and resource intensive. There is a need to provide personalized, detailed, context-specific implementation strategies to pharmacists to allow them to take full advantage of expanded scope of practice. PMID:28507655

  13. Subsidiarity in Principle: Decentralization of Water Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Stoa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The subsidiarity principle of water resources management suggests that water management and service delivery should take place at the lowest appropriate governance level. The principle is attractive for several reasons, primarily because: 1 the governance level can be reduced to reflect environmental characteristics, such as the hydrological borders of a watershed that would otherwise cross administrative boundaries; 2 decentralization promotes community and stakeholder engagement when decision-making is localized; 3 inefficiencies are reduced by eliminating reliance on central government bureaucracies and budgetary constraints; and 4 laws and institutions can be adapted to reflect localized conditions at a scale where integrated natural resources management and climate change adaptation is more focused. Accordingly, the principle of subsidiarity has been welcomed by many states committed to decentralized governance, integrated water resources management, and/or civic participation. However, applications of decentralization have not been uniform, and in some cases have produced frustrating outcomes for states and water resources. Successful decentralization strategies are heavily dependent on dedicated financial resources and human resource capacity. This article explores the nexus between the principle of subsidiarity and the enabling environment, in the hope of articulating factors likely to contribute to, or detract from, the success of decentralized water resources management. Case studies from Haiti, Rwanda, and the United States’ Florida Water Management Districts provide examples of the varied stages of decentralization.

  14. Subsidiarity in Principle: Decentralization of Water Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Stoa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The subsidiarity principle of water resources management suggests that water management and service delivery should take place at the lowest appropriate governance level. The principle is attractive for several reasons, primarily because: 1 the governance level can be reduced to reflect environmental characteristics, such as the hydrological borders of a watershed that would otherwise cross administrative boundaries; 2 decentralization promotes community and stakeholder engagement when decision-making is localized; 3 inefficiencies are reduced by eliminating reliance on central government bureaucracies and budgetary constraints; and 4 laws and institutions can be adapted to reflect localized conditions at a scale where integrated natural resources management and climate change adaptation is more focused. Accordingly, the principle of subsidiarity has been welcomed by many states committed to decentralized governance, integrated water resources management, and/or civic participation. However, applications of decentralization have not been uniform, and in some cases have produced frustrating outcomes for states and water resources. Successful decentralization strategies are heavily dependent on dedicated financial resources and human resource capacity. This article explores the nexus between the principle of subsidiarity and the enabling environment, in the hope of articulating factors likely to contribute to, or detract from, the success of decentralized water resources management. Case studies from Haiti, Rwanda, and the United States’ Florida Water Management Districts provide examples of the varied stages of decentralization.

  15. Water study report : Stillwater Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary purpose of this study was to assemble and evaluate water records that are in the files of the Truckee-Carson Irrigation District, Fallon, Nevada. The...

  16. Water Resources Management in Tanzania: Identifying Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We reviewed published literature on water resources ... to have sustainable agricultural production for the reduction of poverty ... health, tourism, coastal development, and biodiversity ...... Tanzania: Centre for Energy, Environment,. Science ...

  17. SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT THROUGH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    high and step-faulted western sides of the Ethiopian rift system. ... The traditional and indigenous methods were applied and practiced as fallowing land ..... Water Conservation Decision Behavior of .... Current land holding to support the family.

  18. Bringing ecosystem services into integrated water resources management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Crossman, Neville D; Nolan, Martin; Ghirmay, Hiyoba

    2013-11-15

    In this paper we propose an ecosystem service framework to support integrated water resource management and apply it to the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia. Water resources in the Murray-Darling Basin have been over-allocated for irrigation use with the consequent degradation of freshwater ecosystems. In line with integrated water resource management principles, Australian Government reforms are reducing the amount of water diverted for irrigation to improve ecosystem health. However, limited understanding of the broader benefits and trade-offs associated with reducing irrigation diversions has hampered the planning process supporting this reform. Ecosystem services offer an integrative framework to identify the broader benefits associated with integrated water resource management in the Murray-Darling Basin, thereby providing support for the Government to reform decision-making. We conducted a multi-criteria decision analysis for ranking regional potentials to provide ecosystem services at river basin scale. We surveyed the wider public about their understanding of, and priorities for, managing ecosystem services and then integrated the results with spatially explicit indicators of ecosystem service provision. The preliminary results of this work identified the sub-catchments with the greatest potential synergies and trade-offs of ecosystem service provision under the integrated water resources management reform process. With future development, our framework could be used as a decision support tool by those grappling with the challenge of the sustainable allocation of water between irrigation and the environment. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Integrating water resources management in eco-hydrological modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, H; Liersch, S; Hattermann, F F

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the integration of water resources management with regard to reservoir management in an eco-hydrological model is described. The model was designed to simulate different reservoir management options, such as optimized hydropower production, irrigation intake from the reservoir or optimized provisioning downstream. The integrated model can be used to investigate the impacts of climate variability/change on discharge or to study possible adaptation strategies in terms of reservoir management. The study area, the Upper Niger Basin located in the West African Sahel, is characterized by a monsoon-type climate. Rainfall and discharge regime are subject to strong seasonality. Measured data from a reservoir are used to show that the reservoir model and the integrated management options can be used to simulate the regulation of this reservoir. The inflow into the reservoir and the discharge downstream of the reservoir are quite distinctive, which points out the importance of the inclusion of water resources management.

  20. A Water Management Model for Toshka Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Fassieh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toshka Depression (TD, located about 250 km south west of the High Aswan Dam (HAD, consists of four deep-cut basins connected by natural sills. It is required to assess the contribution of TD as a spillway, in enhancing the effectiveness of Lake Nasser in flood control and water availability. However, most related previous works are descriptive and use qualitative methods. In order to provide the required assessment quantitatively, we developed a numerical model which computes TD mass balance and interbasin water movements. The model computes the variation of water volume, surface area, and water level in each one of the four basins (subdepressions, thus depicting their filling sequence, for the past 130 years. This TD response to realistic time series of water inflow gains and evaporation losses is analyzed to compute the TD overflow time series. This response helps assess water availability for agricultural use and effectiveness in alleviating flood risks. Furthermore, the developed model compares between three TD configurations to help the decision maker and recommends (i building a dam—height 10 m—at the end of the fourth subdepression near Kharga Oasis and/or (ii incorporating the third subdepression into TD by digging a canal through the hill that blocks it from the first subdepression.

  1. Issues of governance in water resource management and spatial planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocco de Campos Pereira, R.C.; Schweitzer, R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes governance arrangements in regional spatial planning and water resources management at the regional level from a normative point of view. It discusses the need to integrate spatial planning and resources management in order to deliver socially sustainable integral territorial ma

  2. Sustainable Water Management in Urban, Agricultural, and Natural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess Russo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable water management (SWM requires allocating between competing water sector demands, and balancing the financial and social resources required to support necessary water systems. The objective of this review is to assess SWM in three sectors: urban, agricultural, and natural systems. This review explores the following questions: (1 How is SWM defined and evaluated? (2 What are the challenges associated with sustainable development in each sector? (3 What are the areas of greatest potential improvement in urban and agricultural water management systems? And (4 What role does country development status have in SWM practices? The methods for evaluating water management practices range from relatively simple indicator methods to integration of multiple models, depending on the complexity of the problem and resources of the investigators. The two key findings and recommendations for meeting SWM objectives are: (1 all forms of water must be considered usable, and reusable, water resources; and (2 increasing agricultural crop water production represents the largest opportunity for reducing total water consumption, and will be required to meet global food security needs. The level of regional development should not dictate sustainability objectives, however local infrastructure conditions and financial capabilities should inform the details of water system design and evaluation.

  3. The Effectiveness of Noninvasive Interventions for Temporomandibular Disorders: A Systematic Review by the Ontario Protocol for Traffic Injury Management (OPTIMa) Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Kristi; Bohay, Richard; Côté, Pierre; van der Velde, Gabrielle; Sutton, Deborah; Wong, Jessica J; Yu, Hainan; Southerst, Danielle; Varatharajan, Sharanya; Mior, Silvano; Stupar, Maja; Shearer, Heather M; Jacobs, Craig; Taylor-Vaisey, Anne

    2016-03-01

    To determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of noninvasive interventions for temporomandibular disorders (TMD). We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Central register from 1990 to 2014 for effectiveness studies and the Cochrane Health Technology Assessment Database, EconLit, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, and Tufts Medical Center Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Register from 1990 to 2014 for cost-effectiveness studies. Random pairs of independent reviewers critically appraised eligible studies using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criteria. Evidence from eligible studies was synthesized using best-evidence synthesis methodology. Our search for effectiveness studies yielded 16,995 citations; 31 were relevant and 7 randomized controlled trials (published in 8 articles) had a low risk of bias. We found no relevant cost-effectiveness studies. The evidence suggests that for persistent TMD: (1) cognitive-behavioral therapy and self-care management lead to similar improvements in pain and disability but cognitive-behavioral therapy is more effective for activity interference and depressive symptoms; (2) cognitive-behavioral therapy combined with usual treatment provides short-term benefits in pain and ability to control pain compared with usual treatment alone; (3) intraoral myofascial therapy may reduce pain and improve jaw opening; and (4) structured self-care management may be more effective than usual treatment. The evidence suggests that occlusal devices may not be effective in reducing pain and improving motion for TMD of variable duration. Evidence on the effectiveness of biofeedback is inconclusive. The available evidence suggests that cognitive-behavioral therapy, intraoral myofascial therapy, and self-care management are therapeutic options for persistent TMD.

  4. Water, Politics and Development: Framing a Political Sociology of Water Resources Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollinga, P.P.; Bhat, A.; Cleaver, F.; Meinzen-Dick, R.; Molle, F.; Neef, A.; Subramanian, S.; Wester, P.

    2008-01-01

    EDITORIAL PREAMBLE: The first issue of Water Alternatives presents a set of papers that investigates the inherently political nature of water resources management. A Water, Politics and Development initiative was started at ZEF (Center for Development Research, Bonn, Germany) in 2004/2005 in the

  5. Developing Economic Arrangements for Water Resources Management : The potential of stakeholder oriented Water Valuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, L.M.; Halsema, van G.E.; Renault, D.

    2006-01-01

    As water is increasingly recognized as a scarce resource, the use of economic arrangements for water resources management seems increasingly promising. Experiences show that economic arrangements can contribute to a more efficient use of water resources but only if specific conditions are met, relat

  6. Urban-Water Harmony model to evaluate the urban water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yifan; Tang, Deshan; Wei, Yuhang; Yin, Sun

    2014-01-01

    Water resources in many urban areas are under enormous stress due to large-scale urban expansion and population explosion. The decision-makers are often faced with the dilemma of either maintaining high economic growth or protecting water resources and the environment. Simple criteria of water supply and drainage do not reflect the requirement of integrated urban water management. The Urban-Water Harmony (UWH) model is based on the concept of harmony and offers a more integrated approach to urban water management. This model calculates four dimensions, namely urban development, urban water services, water-society coordination, and water environment coordination. And the Analytic Hierarchy Process has been used to determine the indices weights. We applied the UWH model to Beijing, China for an 11-year assessment. Our findings show that, despite the severe stress inherent in rapid development and water shortage, the urban water relationship of Beijing is generally evolving in a positive way. The social-economic factors such as the water recycling technologies contribute a lot to this change. The UWH evaluation can provide a reasonable analysis approach to combine various urban and water indices to produce an integrated and comparable evaluation index. This, in turn, enables more effective water management in decision-making processes.

  7. Assessment of alternative water management options for irrigated agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhorar, R.K.; Smit, A.A.M.F.R.; Roest, C.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation study on alternative water management strategies was carried out for Sirsa Irrigation Circle in Haryana, covering an area of about 4800 km(2). Results showed that crop evapotranspiration and soil salinity development under reduction in canal water supply and increase in groundwater use,

  8. Modeling and analysis of collective management of water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmant, A.; van der Zaag, P.; Fortemps, P.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) recommends, among other things, that the management of water resources systems be carried out at the lowest appropriate level in order to increase the transparency, acceptability and efficiency of the decision-making process. Empowering water users and stakeholders transforms the decision-making process by enlarging the number of point of views that must be considered as well as the set of rules through which decisions are taken. This paper investigates the impact of different group decision-making approaches on the operating policies of a water resource. To achieve this, the water resource allocation problem is formulated as an optimization problem which seeks to maximize the aggregated satisfaction of various water users corresponding to different approaches to collective choice, namely the utilitarian and the egalitarian ones. The optimal operating policies are then used in simulation and compared. The concepts are illustrated with a multipurpose reservoir in Chile. The analysis of simulation results reveals that if this reservoir were to be managed by its water users, both approaches to collective choice would yield significantly different operating policies. The paper concludes that the transfer of management to water users must be carefully implemented if a reasonable trade-off between equity and efficiency is to be achieved.

  9. The role of eutrophication models in water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, van der D.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis the role of eutrophication models in water management is analysed. The thesis consists of an extended introduction followed by five Appendices with papers describing different mathematical models dealing with eutrophication in surface waters. At first systems analysis is described as

  10. Pathways to sustainable intensification through crop water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Graham K.; D'Odorico, Paolo; Seekell, David A.

    2016-09-01

    How much could farm water management interventions increase global crop production? This is the central question posed in a global modelling study by Jägermeyr et al (2016 Environ. Res. Lett. 11 025002). They define the biophysical realm of possibility for future gains in crop production related to agricultural water practices—enhancing water availability to crops and expanding irrigation by reducing non-productive water consumption. The findings of Jägermeyr et al offer crucial insight on the potential for crop water management to sustainably intensify agriculture, but they also provide a benchmark to consider the broader role of sustainable intensification targets in the global food system. Here, we reflect on how the global crop water management simulations of Jägermeyr et al could interact with: (1) farm size at more local scales, (2) downstream water users at the river basin scale, as well as (3) food trade and (4) demand-side food system strategies at the global scale. Incorporating such cross-scale linkages in future research could highlight the diverse pathways needed to harness the potential of farm-level crop water management for a more productive and sustainable global food system.

  11. Modeling and analysis of collective management of water resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tilmant

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM recommends, among other things, that the management of water resources systems be carried out at the lowest appropriate level in order to increase the transparency, acceptability and efficiency of the decision-making process. Empowering water users and stakeholders transforms the decision-making process by enlarging the number of point of views that must be considered as well as the set of rules through which decisions are taken. This paper investigates the impact of different group decision-making approaches on the operating policies of a water resource. To achieve this, the water resource allocation problem is formulated as an optimization problem which seeks to maximize the aggregated satisfaction of various water users corresponding to different approaches to collective choice, namely the utilitarian and the egalitarian ones. The optimal operating policies are then used in simulation and compared. The concepts are illustrated with a multipurpose reservoir in Chile. The analysis of simulation results reveals that if this reservoir were to be managed by its water users, both approaches to collective choice would yield significantly different operating policies. The paper concludes that the transfer of management to water users must be carefully implemented if a reasonable trade-off between equity and efficiency is to be achieved.

  12. The role of eutrophication models in water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, van der D.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis the role of eutrophication models in water management is analysed. The thesis consists of an extended introduction followed by five Appendices with papers describing different mathematical models dealing with eutrophication in surface waters. At first systems analysis is

  13. Promoting Sustainable Water Management in Area Development: A Regulatory Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijze, Anoeska

    2015-01-01

    Water management is an integral part of sustainable area/urban development, and this article examines the interplay between water law and governance in three cases in the Netherlands to determine what sort of written law can provide normative guidance during governance processes, whilst at the same

  14. Community-based management of water supply services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mogane-Ramahotswa, B

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important aspects of suitability of water supply is the ability of the community to manage its own scheme. Unlike in urban settlement institutional arrangements for rural water supply are rudimentary. Over the past decade...

  15. Emergence of Integrated Water Resources Management: measuring implementation in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, M.; Khanh, N.T.; Witter, M.; Rutten, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the changes in laws and regulations, such as the revised Law on Water Resources in 2012, have sought to provide a legal framework for the internationally recognized practices of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Vietnam. With IWRM being a novel approach for Vietnam, it would

  16. Water management paradigms in Iran: technical, social and ethical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balali, M.R.; Keulartz, F.W.J.; Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.

    2007-01-01

    In Iran, water scarcity is one of the main problems threatening food security. The country is confronted with the challenge to continue the expansion of food production to meet future demand without negative effects on the environment. To illuminate the problems and perspectives of water management

  17. Spatial Water Management: Supporting Participatory Planning and Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosen, H.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis introduces the reader to the new Dutch policy of water management, which combines conventional water engineering with a new policy which incorporates planning for flood areas. As this new policy has larger socio-economic implications and involves more stakes and stakeholders, implementin

  18. Drainage water management effects on tile discharge and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) fluxes from tile drained watersheds have been implicated in water quality studies of the Mississippi River Basin, but the contribution of tile drains to N export in headwater watersheds is not well understood. The objective of this study was to ascertain seasonal and annual contribution...

  19. System configuration for advanced water management in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queirazza, G.; Sigon, F.; Zagano, C. [Ente Nazionale per l`Energia Elettrica, Milan (Italy)

    1995-12-01

    Water ie required for power plant operation and electricity generation. The water demand is steadily increasing depending on the enrgy pro-capite demand, the available or innovative technologies for power generation and the need for emissions control. Water management is also required to comply with the regulatory trends and it agrees with the guidelines for the sustainable development, as recommended at the Rio conference (Agenda 21). In order to assess the design and the operating alternatives for the water system of power plants and the impact of innovative technologies, a simulation code has been developed. The ENEL proprietary WATERSOFT code is presented in this paper. Some significant results will be presented and discussed, within the frame of improving the water management and optimizing the overall performances of the actual water systems.

  20. Drinking-water safety: challenges for community-managed systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizak, S; Hrudey, Steve E

    2008-01-01

    A targeted review of documented waterborne disease outbreaks over the past decades reveals some recurring themes that should be understood by drinking-water suppliers. Evidence indicates the outbreaks are often linked to some significant change in conditions that provides a sudden challenge to a water system. Severe weather events, such as heavy rainfall or runoff from snow melt, as well as treatment process and system changes, are common risk factors for drinking-water outbreaks. Failure to recognise warning signs and complacency are important contributors to drinking water becoming unsafe. Drinking-water suppliers must focus on competence and vigilance in maintaining effective multiple barriers appropriate to the challenges facing the drinking-water system. Understanding the risk factors and failure modes of waterborne disease outbreaks is an essential component for effective management of community drinking-water supplies and ensuring the delivery of safe drinking-water to consumers.

  1. Using Water Transfers to Manage Supply Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characklis, G. W.

    2007-12-01

    Most cities currently rely on water supplies with sufficient capacity to meet demand under almost all conditions. However, the rising costs of water supply development make the maintenance of infrequently used excess capacity increasingly expensive, and more utilities are considering the use of water transfers as a means of more cost effectively meeting demand under drought conditions. Transfers can take place between utilities, as well as different user groups (e.g., municipal and agricultural), and can involve both treated and untreated water. In cases where both the "buyer" and "seller" draw water from the same supply, contractual agreements alone can facilitate a transfer, but in other cases new infrastructure (e.g., pipelines) will be required. Developing and valuing transfer agreements and/or infrastructure investments requires probabilistic supply/demand analyses that incorporate elements of both hydrology and economics. The complexity of these analyses increases as more sophisticated types of agreements (e. g., options) are considered, and as utilities begin to consider how to integrate transfers into long-term planning efforts involving a more diversified portfolio of supply assets. This discussion will revolve around the methods used to develop minimum (expected) cost portfolios of supply assets that meet specified reliability goals. Two different case studies, one in both the eastern and western U.S., will be described with attention to: the role that transfers can play in reducing average supply costs; tradeoffs between costs and supply reliability, and; the effects of different transfer agreement types on the infrastructure capacity required to complete the transfers. Results will provide insights into the cost savings potential of more flexible water supply strategies.

  2. Small Water System Management Program: 100 K Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunacek, G.S. Jr. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-29

    Purposes of this document are: to provide an overview of the service and potable water system presently in service at the Hanford Site`s 100 K Area; to provide future system forecasts based on anticipated DOE activities and programs; to delineate performance, design, and operations criteria; and to describe planned improvements. The objective of the small water system management program is to assure the water system is properly and reliably managed and operated, and continues to exist as a functional and viable entity in accordance with WAC 246-290-410.

  3. Radio resource management using geometric water-filling

    CERN Document Server

    He, Peter; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng

    2014-01-01

    This brief introduces the fundamental theory and development of managing radio resources using a water-filling algorithm that can optimize system performance in wireless communication. Geometric Water-Filling (GWF) is a crucial underlying tool in emerging communication systems such as multiple input multiple output systems, cognitive radio systems, and green communication systems. Early chapters introduce emerging wireless technologies and provide a detailed analysis of water-filling. The brief investigates single user and multi-user issues of radio resource management, allocation of resources

  4. Does structured patient education improve the recovery and clinical outcomes of patients with neck pain? A systematic review from the Ontario Protocol for Traffic Injury Management (OPTIMa) Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hainan; Côté, Pierre; Southerst, Danielle; Wong, Jessica J; Varatharajan, Sharanya; Shearer, Heather M; Gross, Douglas P; van der Velde, Gabrielle M; Carroll, Linda J; Mior, Silvano A; Ameis, Arthur; Jacobs, Craig L; Taylor-Vaisey, Anne L

    2016-12-01

    In 2008, the Bone and Joint Decade 2000 to 2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders recommended patient education for the management of neck pain. However, the effectiveness of education interventions has recently been challenged. To update the findings of the Bone and Joint Decade 2000 to 2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders and evaluate the effectiveness of structured patient education for the management of patients with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) or neck pain and associated disorders (NAD). Systematic review of the literature and best-evidence synthesis. Randomized controlled trials that compared structured patient education with other conservative interventions. Self-rated recovery, functional recovery (eg, disability, return to activities, work, or school), pain intensity, health-related quality of life, psychological outcomes such as depression or fear, or adverse effects. We systematically searched eight electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, DARE, PubMed, and ICL) from 2000 to 2012. Randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, and case-control studies meeting our selection criteria were eligible for critical appraisal. Random pairs of independent reviewers critically appraised eligible studies using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criteria. Scientifically admissible studies were summarized in evidence tables and synthesized following best-evidence synthesis principles. We retrieved 4,477 articles. Of those, nine were eligible for critical appraisal and six were scientifically admissible. Four admissible articles investigated patients with WAD and two targeted patients with NAD. All structured patient education interventions included advice on activation or exercises delivered orally combined with written information or as written information alone. Overall, as a therapeutic intervention, structured patient education was equal

  5. Aerospace vehicle water-waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, J. N.

    1973-01-01

    The collection and disposal of human wastes, such as urine and feces, in a spacecraft environment are performed in an aesthetic and reliable manner to prevent degradation of crew performance. The waste management system controls, transfers, and processes materials such as feces, emesis, food residues, used expendables, and other wastes. The requirements, collection, transport, and waste processing are described.

  6. Aerospace vehicle water-waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, J. N.

    1973-01-01

    The collection and disposal of human wastes, such as urine and feces, in a spacecraft environment are performed in an aesthetic and reliable manner to prevent degradation of crew performance. The waste management system controls, transfers, and processes materials such as feces, emesis, food residues, used expendables, and other wastes. The requirements, collection, transport, and waste processing are described.

  7. Working towards sustainable urban water management: the vulnerability blind spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werbeloff, L; Brown, R

    2011-01-01

    The unprecedented water scarcity in Australia coincides with the adoption of a new urban water rhetoric. The 'Security through Diversity' strategy has been adopted in a number of Australian cities as a new and innovative approach to urban water management. Although this strategy offers a more holistic approach to urban water management, in practice, the Security through Diversity strategy is largely being interpreted and implemented in a way that maintains the historical dependence on large scale, centralised water infrastructure and therefore perpetuates existing urban water vulnerabilities. This research explores the implementation of Security through Diversity as the new water scarcity response strategy in the cities of Perth and Melbourne. Through a qualitative study with over sixty-five urban water practitioners, the results reveal that the practitioners have absorbed the new Security through Diversity language whilst maintaining the existing problem and solution framework for urban water management. This can be explained in terms of an entrenched technological path dependency and cognitive lock-in that is preventing practitioners from more comprehensively engaging with the complexities of the Security through Diversity strategy, which is ultimately perpetuating the existing vulnerability of our cities. This paper suggests that greater engagement with the underlying purpose of the security though diversity strategy is a necessary first step to overcome the constraints of the traditional technological paradigm and more effectively reduce the continued vulnerability of Australian cities.

  8. Policy and Economics of Managed Aquifer Recharge and Water Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon B. Megdal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR and water banking are of increasing importance to water resources management. MAR can be used to buffer against drought and changing or variable climate, as well as provide water to meet demand growth, by making use of excess surface water supplies and recycled waters. Along with hydrologic and geologic considerations, economic and policy analyses are essential to a complete analysis of MAR and water banking opportunities. The papers included in this Special Issue fill a gap in the literature by revealing the range of economic and policy considerations relevant to the development and implementation of MAR programs. They illustrate novel techniques that can be used to select MAR locations and the importance and economic viability of MAR in semi-arid to arid environments. The studies explain how MAR can be utilized to meet municipal and agricultural water demands in water-scarce regions, as well as assist in the reuse of wastewater. Some papers demonstrate how stakeholder engagement, ranging from consideration of alternatives to monitoring, and multi-disciplinary analyses to support decision-making are of high value to development and implementation of MAR programs. The approaches discussed in this collection of papers, along with the complementary and necessary hydrologic and geologic analyses, provide important inputs to water resource managers.

  9. Challenges of Integrated Water Resources Management in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali Fulazzaky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The increased demands for water and land in Indonesia as a consequence of the population growth and economic development has reportedly have been accelerated from the year to year. The spatial and temporal variability of human induced hydrological changes in a river basin could affect quality and quantity of water. The challenge is that integrated water resources management (IWRM should cope with complex issues of water in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner, without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems. Even though the government of Indonesia has adopted new paradigm for water resources management by the enactment of Law No. 7/2004 on water resources, the implementation of IWRM may face the technical and managerial challenges. This paper briefly reviews the implementation of IWRM and related principles and provides an overview of potential water-related issues and progress towards implementation of IWRM in Indonesia. The availability of water and a broader range of water-related issues are identified. The recommended actions for improving the future IWRM are suggested. Challenges to improve the capacity buildings of IWRM related to enabling environment, institutional frameworks and management instruments are verified to contribute to the future directions for efficient problem-solving ability.

  10. Indigenous Practices of Water Management for Sustainable Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beshah M. Behailu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the possibility of incorporating traditional water management experiences into modern water management. After the literature review, two case studies are presented from Borana and Konso communities in southern Ethiopia. The study was conducted through interviews, discussions, and observations. The two cases were selected due to their long existence. Both communities have their own water source types, depending on local hydrogeological conditions. Borana is known for the so-called Ella (wells and Konso for Harta (ponds, which have been managed for more than five centuries. All government and development partners strive to achieve sustainable services in water supply and sanitation. Therefore, they design various management packages to engage the communities and keep the systems sustainable. However, the management components are often designed with little attention to local customs and traditions. The cases in the two communities show that traditional knowledge is largely ignored when replaced by modern one. However, the concepts of cost recovery, ownership experience, equity, enforcement, integrity, and unity, which are highly pronounced in modern systems, can also be found in the traditional water managements of Borana and Konso. Naturally, one shoe never fits all. Borana and Konso experiences are working for their own community. This research implies that when we plan a project or a program for a particular community, the starting point should be the indigenous practices and thoughts on life.

  11. Valuing flexibilities in the design of urban water management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yinghan; Cardin, Michel-Alexandre; Babovic, Vladan; Santhanakrishnan, Deepak; Schmitter, Petra; Meshgi, Ali

    2013-12-15

    Climate change and rapid urbanization requires decision-makers to develop a long-term forward assessment on sustainable urban water management projects. This is further complicated by the difficulties of assessing sustainable designs and various design scenarios from an economic standpoint. A conventional valuation approach for urban water management projects, like Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) analysis, fails to incorporate uncertainties, such as amount of rainfall, unit cost of water, and other uncertainties associated with future changes in technological domains. Such approach also fails to include the value of flexibility, which enables managers to adapt and reconfigure systems over time as uncertainty unfolds. This work describes an integrated framework to value investments in urban water management systems under uncertainty. It also extends the conventional DCF analysis through explicit considerations of flexibility in systems design and management. The approach incorporates flexibility as intelligent decision-making mechanisms that enable systems to avoid future downside risks and increase opportunities for upside gains over a range of possible futures. A water catchment area in Singapore was chosen to assess the value of a flexible extension of standard drainage canals and a flexible deployment of a novel water catchment technology based on green roofs and porous pavements. Results show that integrating uncertainty and flexibility explicitly into the decision-making process can reduce initial capital expenditure, improve value for investment, and enable decision-makers to learn more about system requirements during the lifetime of the project.

  12. Efficient Assessment of the Environment for Integral Urban Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Grit; Londong, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    Introduction: Sustainable water supply and sanitation is fundamental, especially in countries that are also particularly vulnerable to water-related problems. The Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach makes sure that water management is organised in a transdisciplinary way taking into account the river basin, the hydrologic system and the appendant organisation like culture, law and economics. The main objective of IWRM is the sustainable organisation of water resources quality and quantity (GWP and INBO 2009). However there are more important targets in sustainable use of water resources. New sanitation systems are focussing on adding value and maintaining essential resources in circular flow. Focussing on material fluxes can contribute on water quality, food security, sustainable use of renewable energy, adaption on water scarcity and also on rising water and sanitation demand because of rapid urban and suburban growth (Price and Vojinović 2011; Rost et al 2013; Stäudel et al 2014). Problem: There are several planning tools for IWRM as well as for urban water management. But to complete the IWRM approach for the resource oriented concept a systematic assessment tool is missing. The assessment of crucial indicators obviously requires a lot of data from different subjects/disciplines, in different scales of detail and in different accuracy and in data acquisition (Karthe et al 2014). On the one hand there will be data abundance and on the other hand the data can be unavailable or unfeasible for example because of scale and specification(Rost et al 2013). Such a complex integrated concept requires a clearly worked out structure for the way of managing and priority setting. Purpose: To get systematic in the complex planning process the toolbox model is going to develop. The assessment of the environmental screening (one part of the toolbox) is going to be presented in this paper. The first step of assessment leans on the assertion that each of the

  13. Book Review: Water Diplomacy: A Negotiated Approach to Managing Complex Water Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Faisal

    2013-01-01

    All nations have built their economies around water that is naturally available. Almost all sectors of the economy depend on water. Yet there is conflict among various users for the finite amount of water that is available. Managers and practitioners have long held the notion that competition rather than collaboration is the solution when there is conflict. Water Diplomacy: A Negotiated Approach to Managing Complex Water Networks, by Shafiqul Islam and Lawrence Susskind, provides a refreshingly compelling alternative to overcoming water conflicts. The book argues that the dynamic sociopolitical and socioeconomic constraints of water resources are best addressed in a "diplomacy" framework. The book rebuts, using several case studies, the technically rigid competition approach of today's water sharing practice.

  14. ISSUES ON THE ROLE OF EFFICIENT WATER PRICING FOR SUSTAINABLE WATER MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona FRONE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight some of the main issues raised by developing and implementing the most appropriate approach to water pricing, and to induce a sustainable water management. Therefore, we define the concept and utility of water demand management as one objective of efficient water pricing. Next we analyse the basic economics and some important theoretical insights of water pricing. We further with state the main four inter-correlated principles of sustainable water pricing (full-cost recovery, economic efficiency,equity and administrative feasability and the trends and challenges of their actual implementing in the water pricing policy of Romania and other EU countries. We end with a review of opinions, personal conclusions and recommendations on the actual opportunity, effectiveness and role of efficient water pricing in fulfilling the goals of sustainabilty.

  15. Management strategies for sustainable western water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Tyler; Sudeep Chandra; Gordon Grant

    2017-01-01

    With the effects of the dramatic western US drought still reverberating through the landscape, researchers gathered in advance of the 20th annual Lake Tahoe Summit to discuss western US water issues in the 21st century. This two-day workshop brought together ~40 researchers from universities and agencies (federal and state) to discuss the prospects that...

  16. Effects of water management on crop yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hack-ten Broeke, M.J.D.; Bartholomeus, R.; Kroes, J.G.; Dam, van J.C.; Bakel, van J.

    2015-01-01

    A new instrument for the quantification of agricultural crop yield reduction due to too wet, too dry or too salty conditions: what kind of instrument should that be? And could such an instrument be usable for the calculation of effects of climate scenarios? WaterVision Agriculture should be the answ

  17. Estimated water requirements : Stillwater Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An estimated 84,850 acre-feet of water are required annually to maintain 23,231 acres of marsh currently developed on the Stillwater WMA. An additional 34,003...

  18. Potable Water Quality Management Guidance Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    of lime-softened waters (increasing turbidity) may also be noticed. o For systems utilizing alum as their coagulant, aluminum carryover should be...unlike MF/UF), the reject stream could potentially have salts , metals and soluble organic compounds, resulting in more difficult and costly disposal

  19. Integrated Water Resources Management Improving Langat Basin Ecosystem Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazlin B. Mokhtar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystem provides us with all the goods and services that form the base of our economic, social cultural and spiritual life. Good scientific information will be required for managing the environment by using the Ecosystem approach. The groundwater is considered as a possible supplementary of alternative water source, and some factories already started shifting their water source from surface water to groundwater. Uncontrolled use of groundwater, however, may induce serious environmental problems, e.g., land subsidence, saltwater intrusion to the aquifer. The establishment of a balanced multi-sector and integrated groundwater resources and environmental management plan is deemed urgent to attain a sustainable groundwater resources use and to maintain a favorable groundwater quality in the Langat Basin. To achieve sustainable lifestyle in large scale ecosystem requires integrated and holistic approaches from all stakeholders. Through Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR it was determined a revolutionized water resources management, providing a sustainable supply while minimizing the environmental impact of surface storage. By using underground geologic formations to store water, by integrated water resources management advisory system (IWRMAS aquifer recharge can now easily applied to obviate water resource and environmental problems, including seasonal shortages, emergency storage, ground subsidence and saline intrusion.

  20. Change Ahead: Transient Scenarios for Long-term Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Beersma, Jules; Schellekens, Jaap

    2013-04-01

    While the use of an ensemble of transient scenarios is common in climate change studies, they are rarely used in water management studies. Present planning studies on long-term water management often use a few plausible futures for one or two projection years, ignoring the dynamic aspect of adaptation through the interaction between the water system and society. Over the course of time society experiences, learns and adapts to changes and events, making policy responses part of a plausible future, and thus the success of a water management strategy. Exploring transient scenarios and policy options over time can support decision making on water management strategies in an uncertain and changing environment. We have developed and applied such a method, called exploring adaptation pathways (Haasnoot et al., 2012; Haasnoot et al., 2011). This method uses multiple realisations of transient scenarios to assess the efficacy of policy actions over time. In case specified objectives are not achieved anymore, an adaptation tipping point (Kwadijk et al., 2010) is reached. After reaching a tipping point, additional actions are needed to reach the objectives. As a result, a pathway emerges. In this presentation we describe the development of transient scenarios for long term water management, and how these scenarios can be used for long term water management under uncertainty. We illustrate this with thought experiments, and results from computational modeling experiment for exploring adaptation pathways in the lower Rhine delta. The results and the thought experiments show, among others, that climate variability is at least just as important as climate change for taking decisions in water management. References Haasnoot, M., Middelkoop, H., Offermans, A., Beek, E., Deursen, W.A.v. (2012) Exploring pathways for sustainable water management in river deltas in a changing environment. Climatic Change 115, 795-819. Haasnoot, M., Middelkoop, H., van Beek, E., van Deursen, W