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Sample records for ontario forge company

  1. 78 FR 49605 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Ontario, Seneca, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Discontinuance of Service Exemption--in Ontario, Seneca, and Wayne Counties, NY Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has filed a verified...

  2. Manufacturing of Precision Forgings by Radial Forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, S.; Harrer, O.; Buchmayr, B.; Hofer, F.

    2011-01-01

    Radial forging is a multi purpose incremental forging process using four tools on the same plane. It is widely used for the forming of tool steels, super alloys as well as titanium- and refractory metals. The range of application goes from reducing the diameters of shafts, tubes, stepped shafts and axels, as well as for creating internal profiles for tubes in Near-Net-Shape and Net-Shape quality. Based on actual development of a weight optimized transmission input shaft, the specific features of radial forging technology is demonstrated. Also a Finite Element Model for the simulation of the process is shown which leads to reduced pre-processing effort and reduced computing time compared to other published simulation methods for radial forging. The finite element model can be applied to quantify the effects of different forging strategies.

  3. European Community research on forging of magnesium alloys (MagForge): state of affairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillekens, W.H.; Chevaleyre, F.; Gantar, G.

    2009-01-01

    While the interest in wrought magnesium applications is growing, forging of magnesium alloys in Europe and beyond is still restricted to a few specialized companies that operate for niche markets. Technical matters that relate to this are underdeveloped mechanical properties of available feedstock m

  4. European Community research on forging of magnesium alloys (MagForge): state of affairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillekens, W.H.; Chevaleyre, F.; Gantar, G.

    2009-01-01

    While the interest in wrought magnesium applications is growing, forging of magnesium alloys in Europe and beyond is still restricted to a few specialized companies that operate for niche markets. Technical matters that relate to this are underdeveloped mechanical properties of available feedstock

  5. Modeling of Closed-Die Forging for Estimating Forging Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Debashish; Das, Santanu; Chatterjee, Avik; Bhattacharya, Anirban

    2017-02-01

    Closed die forging is one common metal forming process used for making a range of products. Enough load is to exert on the billet for deforming the material. This forging load is dependent on work material property and frictional characteristics of the work material with the punch and die. Several researchers worked on estimation of forging load for specific products under different process variables. Experimental data on deformation resistance and friction were used to calculate the load. In this work, theoretical estimation of forging load is made to compare this value with that obtained through LS-DYNA model facilitating the finite element analysis. Theoretical work uses slab method to assess forging load for an axi-symmetric upsetting job made of lead. Theoretical forging load estimate shows slightly higher value than the experimental one; however, simulation shows quite close matching with experimental forging load, indicating possibility of wide use of this simulation software.

  6. PV gold rush in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Daniela

    2011-07-01

    As a result of the Green Energy Act, the installed PV capacity in the Canadian province of Ontario has tripled in the year 2010. A generous feed-in tariff, aiming at maximum local added value, has attracted numerous international manufacturers. However, the rigorous rules committing the companies to 60 % inland production have provoked harsh criticism. (orig.)

  7. The new forging process of a wheel hub drop forging

    OpenAIRE

    A. Gontarz

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of the research was working out a new flashless forming process of wheel hubforging in three-slide forging press (TSFP). It was assumed that the new process would be more effective thanthe forging processes applied in typical forging machines.Design/methodology/approach: The designing of the new process was based on the simulation by finiteelement method with the assumption of 3D state of strain. Calculations were made mainly for the analysis of thematerial flow kine...

  8. The new forging process of a wheel hub drop forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gontarz

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of the research was working out a new flashless forming process of wheel hubforging in three-slide forging press (TSFP. It was assumed that the new process would be more effective thanthe forging processes applied in typical forging machines.Design/methodology/approach: The designing of the new process was based on the simulation by finiteelement method with the assumption of 3D state of strain. Calculations were made mainly for the analysis of thematerial flow kinematics and the process loads parameters. Experimental research were also made determiningthe dependency of clamping load in the function of forming load. On the basis of the analysis, the formingprocess of a wheel hub drop forging on the TSFP was worked out.Findings: The results of research confirmed the possibility of flashless forming process of wheel hub forgingin TSFP with axial cavities. The main parameters limiting the forming processes of wheel hub forgings are:permissible upsetting ratio and reciprocal relation of forming and clamping forces.Research limitations/implications: The further research within the range of determining force parameters fordifferent types of material and schemata of forming in TSFP were considered as purposeful. The works dealingwith analysis of forming processes of different types of products in order to classify drop forgings possible toform in this press will be examined.Practical implications: The comparison of the new forming process with the forging process on hammershowed majority of advantages which include: decrease of time and energy, decrease of drop forging weight andmachining, decrease of material consumption.Originality/value: The new process of wheel hub forging forming with axial cavities was worked out. Theparameters important during designing of forming processes in TSFP were provided. The relations betweenforces of forming tools were also determined.

  9. Horizontal drilling in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidey, P.; Precul, L. [Sproule Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    A review of oil and gas production in Ontario was presented with particular reference to drilling activity between 1987 to mid 2002 when 1450 vertical wells were drilled, of which 1100 were for petroleum production and the remainder were for gas storage, observation wells, private gas wells and stratigraphic tests. Of the 1100 vertical wells drilled for petroleum production, 40 per cent became gas wells, 16 per cent became oil wells, 4 per cent became oil and gas wells, and 40 per cent were dry. During the same time period, 133 horizontal wells were also drilled, mostly for petroleum. The most active operator was Talisman Energy, which drilled 101 of the 133 horizontal wells. The remainder were drilled by 12 other companies. Of the horizontal wells, 64 per cent became oil wells, 19 per cent became gas wells, and 17 per cent were dry. This presentation included graphs depicting which oil and gas pools saw vertical or horizontal drilling during the designated time period, and explained how the wells were classified. Both horizontal and vertical well targets were illustrated. Particular reference was made to Talisman Energy's Lake Erie Drilling program which revealed that horizontal wells have an initial production rate that is 5 times that expected from vertical wells. The Hillman Pool case study revealed that the initial rate of the average horizontal well is less than half that of the average vertical well. Horizontal drilling in the Lake Erie Morpeth Gas pool has also been a commercial success. This paper demonstrates that operators have maintained Ontario's oil and gas production at high levels. In 1997 widespread horizontal drilling began taking place in Ontario, and since then, approximately 30 per cent of the wells drilled in the province have been horizontal. 16 figs.

  10. Instant forgedUI starter

    CERN Document Server

    Luiz, Joseandro

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.The book is a Starter guide to learning ForgedUI. This book will start by unfolding the installation and creating a simple application using Titanium and ForgedUI, followed by taking you through the features to model an engaging UI and generate multi-platform code with Titanium, while covering the best design practice for Apple and Android application development. Last but not least, you will also come across the available resources where you can

  11. Using of material-technological modelling for designing production of closed die forgings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, K.; Vorel, I.; Jeníček, Š.; Káňa, J.; Aišman, D.; Kotěšovec, V.

    2017-02-01

    Production of forgings is a complex and demanding process which consists of a number of forging operations and, in many cases, includes post-forge heat treatment. An optimized manufacturing line is a prerequisite for obtaining prime-quality products which in turn are essential to profitable operation of a forging company. Problems may, however, arise from modifications to the manufacturing route due to changing customer needs. As a result, the production may have to be suspended temporarily to enable changeover and optimization. Using material-technological modelling, the required modifications can be tested and optimized under laboratory conditions outside the plant without disrupting the production. Thanks to material-technological modelling, the process parameters can be varied rapidly in response to changes in market requirements. Outcomes of the modelling runs include optimum parameters for the forging part’s manufacturing route, values of mechanical properties, and results of microstructure analysis. This article describes the use of material-technological modelling for exploring the impact of the amount of deformation and the rate of cooling of a particular forged part from the finish-forging temperature on its microstructure and related mechanical properties.

  12. Identification of Project Risks & Risk Breakdown Structure In Manufacture of Heavy Forgings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K.Singh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Forging companies, especially in the business of manufacture of heavy forged parts are embedded in the supply chain of critical components of capital goods across various industries. These forged parts form a significant portion of the total raw material requirement of the capital goods equipment and is generally on the critical path of project schedule.Failure to meet delivery schedule poses huge threat to the success of the customer’s project. Delivery of these forged items is delayed in an event of failure to meet customer’s quality requirements.Various other uncertainties during the project lifecyclecan also cause delayed delivery. Accordingly, risk management methodologies when employed by the forging supplier to the manufacturing project can result in successful achievement of delivery timelines. The present study is intended to identify the risks (threats to quality and delivery in manufacture of heavy forged components and create a Risk breakdown structure (RBS as a reference for further risk planning by the forging supplier.

  13. Powder Metallurgy Forged Gear Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Unclassified) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) D. H. Ro, B. L. Ferguson, S. Pillay, D. T. Ostberg 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month...Method Water Atomized SelecCion -Initial Alloy Distribution Prealloyed -Particle Size Distribution -100 Mesh kForging Quality) Uxmtpaction -Lubricant Zinc

  14. Closed Die Hammer Forging of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chenna Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for the production of Inconel 718 (IN-718 hemispherical domes by closed die hammer forging is proposed. Different combination of operations employed for production are as follows: (i preforging + final forging + air cooling, (ii preforging + final forging + controlled cooling, (iii direct forging + controlled cooling, and (iv direct forging + air cooling. Last three combinations yielded a crack free hemispherical dome. The forged hemispherical domes were solution annealed at 980°C for 1 h and air cooled. The grain size of the domes at all locations was finer than ASTM No 4. Mechanical properties of the forged dome in solution treated and aged condition (STA were better than feedstock used.

  15. RESEARCH ON KNOWLEDGE-BASED CAPP SYSTEM FOR ROTOR FORGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Leigang; Deng Dongrnei; Liu Zhubai

    2000-01-01

    Guided by developing forging technology theory,designing rules on rotor forging process are summed up.Knowledge-based CAPP system for rotor forging is created.The system gives a rational and optimum process.

  16. Bathymetry of Lake Ontario

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Ontario has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  17. Research on Forging Die Design Ontology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wenlei; FAN Yushun

    2006-01-01

    Forging die design is heavily dependent on engineers' experiences. But traditional AI technologies can barely provide a standard knowledge representation style for knowledge transferring. This paper introduces ontology into forging die design. 3-layer forging die design ontology is built, which includes Meta-ontology, Domain-ontology and Bottom ontology. Further, by conceptualization, the concepts and their relations are formally addressed by primitives such as Term, Relation and Function etc, which are explicitly expressed by concept tree. Bottom ontology uses Knowledge Item and Prototype to represent and capture general knowledge for knowledge reuse and share. Forging die design ontology building approach is discussed for standard knowledge representation, knowledge mine and knowledge driven CAD design etc. And OWL language is employed for integration among different domain ontologies integration. Finally a locomotive forging die KBE system is presented to demonstrate this approach.

  18. Cross currents : hydroelectricity and the engineering of northern Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manore, J.L. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    1999-05-01

    The history of hydroelectric development in northern Ontario was reviewed and analysed with special emphasis on the developments along the Mattagami and Abitibi Rivers. The objective was to examine the important factors that shaped modern hydroelectric development in Canada. System builders, the privately owned Nesbitt Thomson Company, the publicly owned Hydro Electric Power Corporation of Ontario and the eventual evolution of the single power system under Ontario Hydro are chronicled. Broad historical themes such as the technological impacts, regionalism, indigenous rights, plus environmental and economic issues are examined, in addition to an appreciation of the importance of electricity in the manufacturing sector of Ontario, the impact of hydroelectric development on the northern environment and on the northern First Nations, who rely on rivers for their subsistence. Until fairly recently, government policies and interpretations of law often excluded the recognition of Aboriginal uses of river systems, thereby limiting First Nations` peoples ability to practice traditional ways of life. In essence, the book is an account of how the northeastern power system in Ontario shaped the social, political and natural environments and how the development of northeastern power sources by southern power developers shaped the regional interactions between Ontario`s north and south. refs., figs.

  19. Mechanics and forming theory of liquid metal forging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗守靖; 姜巨福; 王迎; 藤东东

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of steel liquid forging and aluminium alloy liquid forging, liquid metal forging was investigated, such as the assembly model, metal plastic flowing, the force-displacement curves, the harmonious equation, calculation of value of altitude deformation and determination of specific pressure of liquid metal forging. On the basis of the theory of metal plastic forming and the characteristics of liquid metal forging, the achievements on the mechanics and forming theory of liquid metal forging were given out by combining the theory and experiments systematically, and an important preparation for establishing liquid metal forging theory was suggested.

  20. International cooperation in cold forging technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Lange, K

    1992-01-01

    of the ICFG are personally elected by the Plenary as experts within the field, often representing national groups within cold forging. The main work within the ICFG is carried out in its subgroups which are established by the Plenary to collect, compile and evaluate data and eventually also produce data......International cooperation in the field of cold forging technology started in 1961 by formation of the OECD Group of Experts on Metal Forming. In 1967 this group was transformed into the International Cold Forging Group, ICFG, an independent body which has now been operative for 25 years. Members...

  1. Processing and Characterization of Sub-delta Solvus Forged Hemispherical Forgings of Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenna Krishna, S.; Rao, G. Sudarasana; Singh, Satish Kumar; Narayana Murty, S. V. S.; Venkatanarayana, G.; Jha, Abhay K.; Pant, Bhanu; Venkitakrishnan, P. V.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, microstructure and mechanical properties of 200 mm diameter Inconel 718 hemispherical domes processed at 1025 °C through closed die hammer forging have been investigated. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the forgings in radial and tangential directions were characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, impact testing, and tensile testing. Grain size of the forgings at three different locations was fine with an average grain size of ASTM No. 8-9. The typical tensile properties of the forgings in solution-treated and aged condition were ultimate tensile strength-1450 MPa, yield strength-1240 MPa, and ductility-25%. The fine grain size achieved in forgings has been attributed to delta phase present at grain boundaries which pinned the grains during forging and prevented grain coarsening.

  2. Forging of FeAl intermetallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, O.; Juarez, J.; Campillo, B.; Martinez, L. [UNAM, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Lab. de Cuernavaca; Schneibel, J.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Much activity has been concentrated on the development of intermetallic compounds with the aim of improving tensile ductility, fracture toughness and high notch sensitivity in order to develop an attractive combination of properties for high and low temperature applications. This paper reports experience in processing and forging of FeAl intermetallic of B2 type. During the experiments two different temperatures were employed, and the specimens were forged after annealing in air, 10{sup {minus}2} torr vacuum and argon. From the results it was learned that annealing FeAl in argon atmosphere prior to forging resulted in better deformation behavior than for the other two environments. For the higher forging temperature used in the experiments (700C), the as-cast microstructure becomes partially recrystallized.

  3. Mechanical Testing Development for Reservoir Forgings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenski, E.G.

    2000-05-22

    The goal of this project was to determine the machining techniques and testing capabilities required for mechanical property evaluation of commercially procured reservoir forgings. Due to the small size of these specific forgings, specialized methods are required to adequately machine and test these sub-miniature samples in accordance with the requirements of ASTM-E8 and ASTM-E9. At the time of project initiation, no capability existed at Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) to verify the physical properties of these reservoirs as required on the drawing specifications. The project determined the sample definitions, machining processes, and testing procedures to verify the physical properties of the reservoir forgings; specifically, tensile strength, yield strength, reduction of area, and elongation. In addition, a compression test method was also developed to minimize sample preparation time and provide a more easily machined test sample while maintaining the physical validation of the forging.

  4. Metallurgical modelling of superalloy disc isothermal forgings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R. W.

    1988-08-01

    The metallurgical structure of superalloy aeroengine disc forgings is a complex function of the forging operation parameters and the post forging heat treatment. It is often desirable to obtain certain specific structures in parts of the disc which are, for instance, resistant to crack propagation and this has traditionally been accomplished by means of a series of production trials. This expensive and time consuming procedure can be considerably shortened if the development of microstructure during the forging can be accurately modelled by a suitable computer code. Described here is such a model and its use in the design of isothermal forged components. The model discribed is a fully thermally coupled viscoplasticity finite element algorithm. It treats nodal velocities as the basic unknowns and both the mesh geometry and the various metallurgical structural terms are updated by a single step Euler scheme. Facilities are available for ensuring that surface nodes follow die shapes after impingement, that flow is incompressible and that suitable surface friction forces are applied. Throughout the whole forging process (which may involve the re-meshing of severely distorted elements), the metallurgical history of elements is retained so that the effects of subsequent heat treatments can be assessed.

  5. Open Source Telecommunication Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Liu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about companies whose core business is selling telecommunications products that lever open source projects. Open source telecommunications (OST companies operate in markets that are very different from typical software product markets. The telecommunications market is regulated, vertically integrated, and proprietary designs and special chips are widely used. For a telecommunications product to be useful, it must interact with both access network products and core network products. Due to specifications in Service Agreements Levels, penalties for failures of telecommunications products are very high. This article shares information that is not widely known, including a list of OST companies and the open source projects on which they depend, the size and diversity of venture capital investment in OST companies, the nature of the commercial product-open source software and company-project relationships, ways in which OST companies make money, benefits and risks of OST companies, and competition between OST companies. Analysis of this information provides insights into the ways in which companies can build business models around open source software. These findings will be of interest to entrepreneurs, top management teams of incumbent companies that sell telecommunications products, and those who care about Ontario's ability to compete globally.

  6. Ontario's Student Voice Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This article describes in some detail aspects of the Student Voice initiative funded and championed by Ontario's Ministry of Education since 2008. The project enables thousands of students to make their voices heard in meaningful ways and to participate in student-led research. Some students from grades 7 to 12 become members of the Student…

  7. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a high-resolution survey with towed electronic instrumentation along the Lake Ontario nearshore (720 km) at a 20 meter contour. The survey was conducted September 6-10, 2008 with a shorter 300 km survey conducted August 14-15 for comparing of temporal variability. ...

  8. Intelligent Control of a Novel Hydraulic Forging Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased demand for large-size forgings has led to developments and innovations of heavy-duty forging manipulators. Besides the huge carrying capacity, some robot features such as force perception, delicacy and flexibility, forging manipulators should also possess. The aim of the work is to develop a heavy-duty forging manipulator with robot features by means of combination of methods in mechanical, hydraulic, and control field. In this paper, through kinematic analysis of a novel forging manipulator, control strategy of the manipulator is proposed considering the function and motion of forging manipulators. Hybrid pressure/position control of hydraulic actuators in forging manipulator is realized. The feasibility of the control method has been verified by the experiments on a real prototype of the novel hydraulic forging manipulator in our institute. The intelligent control of the forging manipulator is performed with programmable logic controller which is suitable for industrial applications.

  9. Microstructural and mechanical evolutions during the forging step of the COBAPRESS, a casting/forging process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Frédéric; Desrayaud, Christophe; Bouvier, Véronique

    Aluminum casting/forging processes are used to produce parts for the automotive industry. In this study, we examined the influence of the forging step on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of an A356 aluminum alloy modified with strontium. Firstly, a design of samples which allows us to test mechanically the alloy before and after forging was created. A finite element analysis with the ABAQUS software predicts a maximum of strain in the core of the specimens. Observations with the EBSD technique confirm a more intense sub-structuration of the dendrite cells in this zone. Yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, elongation and fatigue lives were then improved for the casting/forging samples compared to the only cast specimens. The closure of the porosities and the improvement of the surface quality during the forging step enhance also the fatigue resistance of the samples.

  10. Preparing for open access : distribution rate order application to the Ontario Energy Board 1999-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-07

    The Ontario Hydro Services Company (OHSC) Inc. filed an application with the Ontario Energy Board (OEB) requesting grant of an order approving the revenue requirements for the Company`s distribution business, including those for distribution in remote communities, for the years 1999 and 2000, up until the point of open access. The revenue requirement for 1999 is $701 million, for the year 2000 it is $640 million. OHSC is a successor company to Ontario Hydro and it will become operational in its new incarnation on April 1, 1999. This marks the beginning of regulation of OHSC`s distribution business by the OEB, following the restructuring the electricity industry in Ontario. Restructuring ended the monopoly position of Ontario Hydro and introduced competition to the generation and retailing sectors, and regulation to the transmission and distribution sectors of the industry. The document sets out the circumstances leading up to the restructuring of the industry, the unbundling of Ontario Hydro into separate generation, transmission and distribution companies, outlines the new regulatory framework and provides the justification for the revenue requirements.

  11. A Knowledge base model for complex forging die machining

    OpenAIRE

    Mawussi, Kwamiwi; Tapie, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Recent evolutions on forging process induce more complex shape on forging die. These evolutions, combined with High Speed Machining (HSM) process of forging die lead to important increase in time for machining preparation. In this context, an original approach for generating machining process based on machining knowledge is proposed in this paper. The core of this approach is to decompose a CAD model of complex forging die in geometric features. Technological data and ...

  12. COSCO Container Lines Forging Ahead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiHaiyang

    2001-01-01

    COSCO Container Lines (COSCON) now has 107 container ships with a total capacity of over 210000 TEUs, six 5250TEU Super Panama container ships being the most advanced ships in the world. Operating in over 20 global shipping lines with ships calling over 100 ports in the world,COSCON is now one of the largest international shipping companies. With over 40 subsidiaries operating on shore, COSCON has become a comprehensive enterprise with international shipping as its main business.

  13. Near-Net Forging Technology Demonstration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, I. Keith

    1996-01-01

    Significant advantages in specific mechanical properties, when compared to conventional aluminum (Al) alloys, make aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys attractive candidate materials for use in cryogenic propellant tanks and dry bay structures. However, the cost of Al-Li alloys is typically five times that of 2219 aluminum. If conventional fabrication processes are employed to fabricate launch vehicle structure, the material costs will restrict their utilization. In order to fully exploit the potential cost and performance benefits of Al-Li alloys, it is necessary that near-net manufacturing methods be developed to off-set or reduce raw material costs. Near-net forging is an advanced manufacturing method that uses elevated temperature metal movement (forging) to fabricate a single piece, near-net shape, structure. This process is termed 'near-net' because only a minimal amount of post-forge machining is required. The near-net forging process was developed to reduce the material scrap rate (buy-to-fly ratio) and fabrication costs associated with conventional manufacturing methods. The goal for the near-net forging process, when mature, is to achieve an overall cost reduction of approximately 50 percent compared with conventional manufacturing options for producing structures fabricated from Al-Li alloys. This NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) sponsored program has been a part of a unique government / industry partnership, coordinated to develop and demonstrate near-net forging technology. The objective of this program was to demonstrate scale-up of the near-net forging process. This objective was successfully achieved by fabricating four integrally stiffened, 170- inch diameter by 20-inch tall, Al-Li alloy 2195, Y-ring adapters. Initially, two 2195 Al-Li ingots were converted and back extruded to produce four cylindrical blockers. Conventional ring rolling of the blockers was performed to produce ring preforms, which were then contour ring rolled to produce

  14. Dynamic Recrystallization Behavior of Microalloyed Forged Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jin; CHEN Jun; ZHAO Zhen; RUAN Xue-yu

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic recrystallization behavior of microalloyed forged steel was investigated with a compression test in the temperature range of 1 223--1 473 K and a strain rate of 0. 01--5 s-1. Activation energy was calculated to be 305. 9 kJ/mol by regression analysis. Modeling equations were developed to represent the dynamic reerystalliza-tion volume fraction and grain size. Parameters of the modeling equations were determined as a function of the Zener-Hollomon parameter. The developed modeling equation will be combined with finite element modeling to prediet microstructural change during the hot forging processing.

  15. Die forging of the alloys Az80 and Zk60

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurz, G.; Clauw, B.; Sillekens, W.H.; Letzig, D.

    2009-01-01

    Overall goal of the MagForge project is to provide tailored and cost-effective technologies for the industrial manufacturing of magnesium forged components. Scientific and technological aspects are new alloys/feedstock materials with improved performance, forging process modeling and design tools wi

  16. Forging Collaborative Partnerships: The Waterloo Neighborhood Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenewald, Anne

    The Forging Collaborative Partnerships Project in Waterloo, Iowa is a collaborative venture to assist voluntary agencies in developing tools and strategies to strengthen collaborative relationships among public and nonprofit child welfare agencies and other key stakeholders as they adopt a family-focused philosophy. This monograph details how the…

  17. Modelling and Testing of Friction in Forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge about friction is still limited in forging. The theoretical models applied presently for process analysis are not satisfactory compared to the advanced and detailed studies possible to carry out by plastic FEM analyses and more refined models have to be based on experimental testing...

  18. 29 CFR 1910.218 - Forging machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a man to reach the full length of the die without placing his hand or arm between the dies. (vii... specifications or dimensions shown in Table O-11. (2) Hydraulic forging presses. When dies are being changed or maintenance is being performed on the press, the following shall be accomplished: (i) The hydraulic pumps and...

  19. International Student Support Services at Ontario Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Clayton; Whiteside, Brenda; Blanchard, Suzanne; Martin, Chris

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the Ontario Committee on Student Affairs and the Ontario Undergraduate Student Alliance partnered to examine the availability and use of international student support services at Ontario universities. Results of the recently administered Ontario Committee on Student Affairs, Canadian Bureau of International Education, and…

  20. 2014 Accomplishments-Tritium aging studies on stainless steel: Fracture toughness properties of forged stainless steels-Effect of hydrogen, forging strain rate, and forging temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Michael J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-02-01

    Forged stainless steels are used as the materials of construction for tritium reservoirs. During service, tritium diffuses into the reservoir walls and radioactively decays to helium-3. Tritium and decay helium cause a higher propensity for cracking which could lead to a tritium leak or delayed failure of a tritium reservoir. The factors that affect the tendency for crack formation and propagation include: Environment; steel type and microstructure; and, vessel configuration (geometry, pressure, residual stress). Fracture toughness properties are needed for evaluating the long-term effects of tritium on their structural properties. Until now, these effects have been characterized by measuring the effects of tritium on the tensile and fracture toughness properties of specimens fabricated from experimental forgings in the form of forward-extruded cylinders. A key result of those studies is that the long-term cracking resistance of stainless steels in tritium service depends greatly on the interaction between decay helium and the steels’ forged microstructure. New experimental research programs are underway and are designed to measure tritium and decay helium effects on the cracking properties of stainless steels using actual tritium reservoir forgings instead of the experimental forgings of past programs. The properties measured should be more representative of actual reservoir properties because the microstructure of the specimens tested will be more like that of the tritium reservoirs. The programs are designed to measure the effects of key forging variables on tritium compatibility and include three stainless steels, multiple yield strengths, and four different forging processes. The effects on fracture toughness of hydrogen and crack orientation were measured for type 316L forgings. In addition, hydrogen effects on toughness were measured for Type 304L block forgings having two different yield strengths. Finally, fracture toughness properties of type 304L

  1. Modelling of defects in ingot forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter

    experimentally by utilizing downscaled lead model ingots (billets) being compressed by a tool with different lower die angles. Centreline defects, occurring due to the ingot casting processes, are modelled by drilling holes through the centreline of the cast billets. The experiments showed a marked influence...... are in closer agreement with the general understanding of the ingot forging process. Therefore porous metal plasticity should not be used solely when evaluating the soundness of the final, forged ingot based on FEM simulations. Based on an analysis of forming fracture limit diagrams combined with uncoupled...... ductile damage criteria, it is found that the normalized Cockcroft & Latham criterion is most suited for modelling damage in bulk metal forming, if the forming fracture limit diagram can be described by a straight line having a slope of -1/2. A damage criterion independent of slope is presented. Often...

  2. Decomposition of forging dies for machining planning

    CERN Document Server

    Tapie, Laurent; Anselmetti, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    This paper will provide a method to decompose forging dies for machining planning in the case of high speed machining finishing operations. This method lies on a machining feature approach model presented in the following paper. The two main decomposition phases, called Basic Machining Features Extraction and Process Planning Generation, are presented. These two decomposition phases integrates machining resources models and expert machining knowledge to provide an outstanding process planning.

  3. Decomposition of forging dies for machining planning

    OpenAIRE

    Tapie, Laurent; Mawussi, Kwamiwi; Anselmetti, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    International audience; This paper will provide a method to decompose forging dies for machining planning in the case of high speed machining finishing operations. This method lies on a machining feature approach model presented in the following paper. The two main decomposition phases, called Basic Machining Features Extraction and Process Planning Generation, are presented. These two decomposition phases integrates machining resources models and expert machining knowledge to provide an outs...

  4. Improvements in the process of boss bar upset forging into a horizontal forging machine with the aim of joint knuckle forging quality improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, D. L.; Nizamov, R. S.; Kharisov, I. Zh

    2016-06-01

    A new technique for tapered composing transition shaping has been put forward in the process of upset forging with the use of an experimental tool. The results of the upset forging process with the use of a new composing transition has been computer simulated.

  5. Public perceptions of energy issues in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-01

    In October 2004, the Environics Research Group conducted a telephone survey of 608 adult Ontarians to collect information on matters regarding energy; consumer confidence and protection; responsibilities of the Ontario Energy Board; and consumer information preferences. This report summarizes the key findings of the survey. According to the survey, the most important electricity and natural gas issue was identified as being price and cost issues, followed by reliability of supply, conservation, keeping utilities publicly owned, finding renewable sources of energy, and over-consumption. The survey revealed that Ontarians show much interest in conserving energy to save money, to protect the environment and ensure future energy supply, but they are generally sceptical that their interests are being protected on electricity and natural gas price issues. At least 9 in 10 Ontarians consider the tasks of the Ontario Energy Board to be important. The majority of Ontarians prefer to receive energy conservation information through the mail and from public regulators over a government department or a company. 10 tabs.

  6. The Dishwater Menace: Healthy Drinking Spaces and the Public Good in Post-Prohibition Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malleck, Dan

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines inter-bureaucracy tension, negotiation, and resolution in the case of the oversight of beverage room sanitation in Ontario in the 1930s and 1940s. Both the Liquor Control Board of Ontario (LCBO) and various public health authorities claimed authority over the health status of public drinking spaces. But the LCBO had legislative priority. The ensuing debates regarding health and cleanliness linked issues of beverage room glass sanitation to a biopolitical approach to public drinking. Developing a more scientifically sophisticated approach to beverage glass cleaning required a balancing of administrative priorities. Perfect sanitation was expensive and complicated, and the LCBO's mandate demanded attention to the financial viability of beverage rooms. The LCBO needed to forge a trade off between safety and viability, while maintaining a public drinking system that dissuaded illegal drinking. The subsequent compromise in beverage room glass sanitation tied contemporary chemical sanitizers to the challenging economics of depression-era beverage room management.

  7. Ontario Teachers' Deprofessionalization and Proletarianization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filson, Glen

    1988-01-01

    Discusses teachers' class location in capitalist societies in terms of major sociological perspectives. Identifies corporate capitalist class categories that distinguish professionals from proletarians, and applies these categories to Ontario teachers at different occupational levels. (44 references) (SV)

  8. A Knowledge base model for complex forging die machining

    CERN Document Server

    Mawussi, Kwamiwi; 10.1016/j.cie.2011.02.016

    2011-01-01

    Recent evolutions on forging process induce more complex shape on forging die. These evolutions, combined with High Speed Machining (HSM) process of forging die lead to important increase in time for machining preparation. In this context, an original approach for generating machining process based on machining knowledge is proposed in this paper. The core of this approach is to decompose a CAD model of complex forging die in geometric features. Technological data and topological relations are aggregated to a geometric feature in order to create machining features. Technological data, such as material, surface roughness and form tolerance are defined during forging process and dies design. These data are used to choose cutting tools and machining strategies. Topological relations define relative positions between the surfaces of the die CAD model. After machining features identification cutting tools and machining strategies currently used in HSM of forging die, are associated to them in order to generate mac...

  9. Influence of Forging on Static Pricing Scheme for Priority Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ji-cheng; SHI Bing-xin; YANG Xue-nan; LI Bo

    2005-01-01

    The influence of ISP's ( internet service provider) forging on static pricing scheme for priority services is analyzed. If ISP is honest, besides the price, after users enter the network market, it can't affect the market; if it forges, it can change its utility. The economical analysis proves that forging is possible, when ISP gains more than its loss, ISP will take the action. In response to forging, users may adapt their traffic allocation vectors to maximize their net benefit. If users will submit more traffic or in higher priority service class, ISP gains from the behavior, if users will submit less traffic or even exits the market, ISP 's utility decrease. The market is completely different from before, forging changes the market. Several examples are presented to illustrate the results. At the same time, how the utility function and the willingness to pay affect forging is discussed.

  10. Enhancement of Aluminum Alloy Forgings through Rapid Billet Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kervick, R.; Blue, C. A.; Kadolkar, P. B.; Ando, T.; Lu, H.; Nakazawa, K.; Mayer, H.; Mochnal, G.

    2006-06-01

    Forging is a manufacturing process in which metal is pressed, pounded or squeezed under great pressure and, often, under high strain rates into high-strength parts known as forgings. The process is typically performed hot by preheating the metal to a desired temperature before it is worked. The forging process can create parts that are stronger than those manufactured by any other metal working process. Forgings are almost always used where reliability and human safety are critical. Forgings are normally component parts contained inside assembled items such airplanes, automobiles, tractors, ships, oil drilling equipment, engines missiles, and all kinds of capital equipment Forgings are stronger than castings and surpass them in predictable strength properties, producing superior strength that is assured, part to part.

  11. An empirical model for friction in cold forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Eriksen, Morten; Tan, Xincai

    2002-01-01

    With a system of simulative tribology tests for cold forging the friction stress for aluminum, steel and stainless steel provided with typical lubricants for cold forging has been determined for varying normal pressure, surface expansion, sliding length and tool/work piece interface temperature...... of normal pressure and tool/work piece interface temperature. The model is verified by process testing measuring friction at varying reductions in cold forward rod extrusion. KEY WORDS: empirical friction model, cold forging, simulative friction tests....

  12. Numerical modelling of the forging process of rolls for rolling mills

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, J F; Castagne, S.; Zhang, Lihong; Habraken, Anne; Cescotto, Serge

    2000-01-01

    This article presents comparisons of forging processes between two flat tools, between two round tools, and at different forging temperatures. Simulation results help to recover and better understa,d long practice in the forging industry. Peer reviewed

  13. Is Ontario Hydro for sale? Provincial commission recommends dissolving Utility`s 90-year monopoly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-06-01

    The possible breakup and privatization of Ontario Hydro was discussed, triggered by the recent release of the Macdonald Commission report which found that `there is no longer a sound economic rationale for allowing a large monopoly to dominate the electricity system`. The essence of the Committee`s recommendation was (1) to allow all electricity generators, including out-of-province suppliers to compete on equal terms for Ontario business;, (2) operate Ontario Hydro`s four nuclear generation plants as separate competing entities and keep them in public ownership, (3) provide open non-discriminatory access to Ontario`s transmission system, (4) move responsibility for managing Ontario Hydro`s high-voltage transmission assets to an independent {sup T}ransmission Grid Company`, (5) reduce the number of distribution utilities from the current total of 307, and (6) create community-based organizations to serve remote communities that are not connected to the transmission system. The expectation is that competition will lead to lower energy prices and more choice for consumers. No action from the Ontario government is expected for several months, and not without extensive consultation with the industry and consumers.

  14. Photonics education and training in Ontario, Canada: an integrated plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantel, Marc; Beda, Johann

    2002-05-01

    Canada has established itself as a leader in photonics. Ontario in particular - home of giants such as JDS Uniphase, Nortel Networks, GSI Lumonics and an increasing number of successful start-up companies - has seen the demand for highly-qualified personnel in photonics grow exponentially in the past few years. The scarcity of these photonics experts has become - recent market woes not withstanding - the single most important impediment to the further growth of photonics companies. Nonetheless, it is mostly at the graduate school level that lasers and photonics are introduced to students, with only very few thus being trained in the field. Photonics Research Ontario has put together an aggressive plan to change this situation and present Optics, Lasers and Photonics at all levels in the education system, from grade school to graduate school. This paper will present this Photonics Education and Training plan, as well as other efforts being undertaken across Canada to address this crucial issue. The paper will focus especially on the training of Photonics Technicians and Technologists in Ontario's Community Colleges. The new curriculum designed for these programs will be presented, and the importance of industry support will be emphasized.

  15. Transboundary air pollution in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, D.; Reid, N.; De Brou, G.; Bloxam, R. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Energy, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-06-01

    This report examines the role of transboundary air pollution from an Ontario perspective, specifically the impacts of smog associated with both ground level ozone and fine particulate matter coming from the United States. Measurements and computer modeling have provided compelling evidence regarding the impact of transboundary pollution in Ontario. This paper presents an assessment of the human health and economic costs associated with transboundary air pollution. It also examines the impact of Ontario's emissions on other jurisdictions and reviews emission control programs, and initiatives and agreements that are being undertaken or considered to address these transboundary problems. Particular attention is given to the impacts of mercury and acid deposition. The report concludes that unique features exist in the regional climate that lead to elevated episodic conditions of poor air quality over southern Ontario. Transboundary transport of pollution is a very significant source of regionally elevated air quality levels in Ontario. Furthermore, there is an urgency to address the unacceptable health impacts and environmental consequences. 29 refs., 13 tabs., 33 figs., 1 app.

  16. Examples on cold forged aluminium components in automotive industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Kolsgaard, A.

    2000-01-01

    The present paper describes the possibilites of applying cold forging for manufacturing of light weight components in aluminium. A short description of the basic cold forming processes forms the basis for describing the great variety in design of cold forged components. Examples are mainly taken ...

  17. Kinematics at the Main Mechanism of a Railbound Forging Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Heavy payload forging manipulators are mainly characterized by large load output and large capacitive load input. The relationship between outputs and inputs will greatly influence the control and the reliability. Forging manipulators have become more prevalent in the industry today. They are used to manipulate objects to be forged. The most common forging manipulators are moving on a railway to have a greater precision and stability. They have been called the railbound forging manipulators. In this paper we analyze the general kinematics of the main mechanism from a such manipulator. Kinematic scheme shows a typical forging manipulator, with the basic motions in operation process: walking, motion of the tong and buffering. The lifting mechanism consists of several parts including linkages, hydraulic drives and motion pairs. The principle of type design from the viewpoints of the relationship between output characteristics and actuator inputs is discussed. An idea of establishing the incidence relationship between output characteristics and actuator inputs is proposed. These novel forging manipulators which satisfy certain functional requirements provide an effective help for the design of forging manipulators.

  18. Numerical Analysis on Rotary Forging Mechanism of a Flange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A numerical simulation on the rotary forging process of a flange is conducted by three-dimensional rigid-plastic finite element method. The states of stress and strain rate in the workpiece are analyzed and the forging mechanism of the flange is revealed. Moreover, the influence of the die configuration on the material flow is also analyzed.

  19. Examples on cold forged aluminium components in automotive industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Kolsgaard, A.

    2000-01-01

    The present paper describes the possibilites of applying cold forging for manufacturing of light weight components in aluminium. A short description of the basic cold forming processes forms the basis for describing the great variety in design of cold forged components. Examples are mainly taken ...... from automotive industry but in a few cases also from other industrial sectors to show the possibilities....

  20. Reforming Ontario Early Learning: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas; Date, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we address the reformation of Ontario early learning. Over the next 3 years, all 4- and 5-year-olds in Ontario (Canada) will be able to attend full-day early learning with child care, before and after school provided by the Government of Ontario Ministry of Education. The benefits of such a change are both academic and societal and are…

  1. Transmission system planning in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrie, D.; Macedo, F.X.; Mcconnach, J.S. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    In recent years, new and modified approaches to planning the large transmission system that serves the province of Ontario, Canada, have been necessary to accommodate the rapidly changing planning environment including slower uncertain growth, ageing of facilities, integration of demand side management and non utility generation options, increased competitiveness, increased financial stresses and affordable constraints. This paper describes some of the new and modified approaches and tools that have been adopted or are being developed by Ontario Hydro to cope with this changing environment. (author) 9 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Planktonic diatoms of Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinwand, Jerry F.

    1969-01-01

    The major species of diatoms in surface collections from Lake Ontario in September 1964 were Asterionella formosa, Fragilaria crotonensis, and Tabellaris fenestrata. Dominant species in the deep-water samples were Stephanodiscus astraea, S. astraea var. mintula, and F. crotonensis. The diatom flora in surface collections varied among several stations in the eastern end of the lake.

  3. Initial billet and forging dies shape optimization: Application on an axisymetrical forging with a hammer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanjuan; Labergere, Carl; Lafon, Pascal

    2011-05-01

    In metal forming process, the forging die design is the most important step for products quality control. Reasonable dies shape can not only reduce raw material cost but also improving material flow and eliminating defects. The main objective of this paper is to obtain some optimal parameters of the initial billet and forging dies shape according to the simulation results of a two-step metal forming process (platting step and forging step). To develop this metal forming process optimization system several numerical tools are required: geometric modelling (CATIA V5™), FEM analysis (ABAQUS®), work-flow control and optimization computation (MODEFRONTIER®). This study is done in three stages: simulating the two-step metal forming process, building surrogate meta-models to relate response and variables and optimizing the process by using advanced optimization algorithms. In this paper, a two-step axisymmetric metal forming project was studied as an example. By using our simulation model, we get 581 correct real simulation results totally. According to all these real values, we build the surrogate meta-models and obtain Pareto points for a two-objective optimization process. The choice of a solution in all Pareto points will be done by the engineer who can choose his best values according to their criterions of project.

  4. Study on the isothermal forging process of MB26 magnesium alloy adaptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wenchen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The isothermal forging process is an effective method to manufacture complex-shaped components of hard-to-work materials, such as magnesium alloys. This study investigates the isothermal forging process of an MB26 magnesium alloy adaptor with three branches. The results show that two-step forging process is appropriate to form the adaptor forging, which not only improves the filling quality but also reduces the forging load compared with one-step forging process. Moreover, the flow line is distributed along the contour of the complex-shaped adaptor forging.

  5. Medium carbon vanadium micro alloyed steels for drop forging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeszensky, Gabor; Plaut, Ronald Lesley

    1992-12-31

    Growing competitiveness of alternative manufacturing routes requires cost minimization in the production of drop forged components. The authors analyse the potential of medium carbon, vanadium microalloyed steels for drop forging. Laboratory and industrial experiments have been carried out emphasizing deformation and temperature cycles, strain rates and dwell times showing a typical processing path, associated mechanical properties and corresponding microstructures. The steels the required levels of mechanical properties on cooling after forging, eliminating subsequent heat treatment. The machinability of V-microalloyed steels is also improved when compared with plain medium carbon steels. (author) 17 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. The Canadian Niagara Power Company story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, N.R. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2005-07-01

    This book chronicles the history and contributions of the Canadian Niagara Power Company and its employees toward the establishment of electricity generation and distribution in Niagara Falls and Fort Erie, Ontario, dating back to its founding in 1892. Through historical photographs, maps and drawings, the book demonstrates the impact of electricity on the Niagara region. It emphasizes the many skills and jobs required to run the company that generated electricity and maintained a complete system to deliver power, metering, and billing services through the depression, wars, and postwar booms, even during lightning, snow and ice storms. The company began producing power in 1905 with what had been the world's largest-capacity turbines and generators that supplied power to both sides of the Niagara River. Initially, most of the electricity was exported to New York State. The company eventually expanded its Canadian customer service area from Niagara Falls, Ontario, to Fort Erie, Bridgeburg, Amigari, Ridgeway, Stevensville, Crystal Beach and Point Abino. Throughout its history, the Canadian Niagara Power Company provided power at a lower cost than its neighbouring competitors. The William Birch Rankine Generating Station became an important tourist attraction, showcasing the latest electrical appliances of the time in an effort to promote the use of electricity in homes and offices. Today, the station remains a tribute to the fact that natural beauty can coincide with industry. The book also chronicles the difficult business challenges caused by restructuring in the electric power industry in the 1990s, repairing aging equipment and applying the latest in automation and remote sensing technology. Today, the company as FortisOntario is expanding to other communities around Ontario. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Critical current densities in Bi-2223 sinter forgings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balachandran, U.; Fisher, B. L.; Goretta, K. C.; Harris, N. C.; Murayama, N.

    1999-07-23

    (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (Bi-2223) bars, prepared by sinter forging, exhibited good phase purity and strong textures with the c axes of the Bi-2223 grains parallel to the forging direction. The initial zero-field critical current density (J{sub c}) of the bars was 10{sup 3} A/cm{sup 2}, but because the forged bars were uncoated, this value decreased with repeated thermal cycling. J{sub c} as a function of applied magnetic field magnitude and direction roughly followed the dependencies exhibited by Ag-sheathed Bi-2223 tapes, but the forged bars were more strongly dependent on field strength and less strongly dependent on field angle.

  8. Valley Forge National Historical Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an ESRI polygon shapefile of tracts for Valley Forge NHP (VAFO). Tracts shown on inset maps A, B, and C were spatially adjusted (i.e., rubbersheeted) to...

  9. Total quality management of forged products through finite element simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, U.; Rachakonda, S.; Chandrasekharan, S.

    The paper reviews the entire thermo-mechanical history experienced by a complex shaped, high strength forged part during all stages of its manufacturing process, i.e. forging, heat treatment, and machining. It examines the current practice of selecting the process parameters using finite element simulation of forging and quenching operations on an individual basis. Some recent work related to the simulation of aging and machining operations is summarized. The capabilities of several well-known finite element codes for these individual simulations are compared. Then, an integrated simulation approach is presented which will permit the optimization of process parameters for all operations, as opposed to a single operation. This approach will ensure a total quality management of forged products by avoiding costly problems which, under the current practice, are detected only at the end of the manufacturing cycle, i.e. after final machining.

  10. The State of the Art in Cold Forging Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    1994-01-01

    the conversion coatings are based on zinc phosphates but different requirements to the coating properties have to be met in different cold forging operations. This is obtained by adopting different oxidants leading to different composition, layer thickness and morphology of the conversion coatings. Concerning...... a detailed description of the state of art for lubricant systems for cold forging of C-steels and low alloy steels as well as aluminium alloys including all the basic operations such as cleaning of the slugs, application of eventual conversion coating and lubrication. As regards cold forging of steel...... aluminium unalloyed and softer alloys like the AA 1000, 3000 and 6000 series can be cold forged with either grease, oil or zinc stearate whereas the harder alloys from series AA 2000, 5000 and 7000 require a conversion coating to carry the lubricant. Three different types of conversion coating are described...

  11. Microstructure optimization design methods of the forging process and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guangchun; ZHAO Guoqun; GUAN Jing

    2007-01-01

    A microstructure optimization design method of the forging process is proposed. The optimization goal is the fine grain size and homogeneous grain distribution. The optimization object is the forging process parameters and the shape of the preform die. The grain size sub-objective function, the forgings shape sub-objective function and the whole objective function including the shape and the grain size are established, espectively. The detailed optimization steps are given. The microstructure optimization program is developed using the micro-genetic algorithm and the finite element method. Then, the upsetting process of the cylindrical billet is analyzed using a self-developed program. The forging parameters and the shape of preform die of the upsetting process are optimized respectively. The fine size and homogenous distribution of the grain can be achieved by controlling the shape of the preform die and improving the friction condition.

  12. Mechanical properties of the as-forged and the forged-and-milled steels for reactor pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bong Sang; Yoon, Ji Hyun; Kim, Joo Hak; Oh, Yong Jun; Hong, Jun Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    The mechanical properties of the as-forged and the forged and milled SA508-Gr.3 reactor pressure vessel steels were evaluated. The full Charpy impact curves obtained for four different locations in test materials. The various data including yield strengths, tensile strengths, elongations were obtained from the tensile strengths, elongations were obtained from the tensile test results for two locations in test materials. The detailed test results were integrated and analysed in this report. 6 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  13. Market Myths and Facts - the Ontario Context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorey, S.

    2007-07-01

    The world has learned much about electricity markets and what they can and can't do over the past few years, but some myths persist. Why they persist is a subject for those who study politics, interests and influence. This paper provides a perspective on myths which have affected the reliable and economic delivery of electricity to customers, particularly with respect to transmission. Hydro One effectively provides the transmission network for the Province of Ontario, Canada. As Hydro One is a wires company, the paper is not intended to address the issues which affect the generation or conservation sectors of the industry, except where they directly relate to the wires. The proposition of this paper is that electricity transmission is best treated as an essential public good. Transmission as a market participant and a traded commodity has generally not worked with respect to assuring that the system continues to be developed to meet the basic need of customers for reliable and affordable electricity. (auth)

  14. RIGID-PLASTIC MECHANICAL MODEL FOR THE FORGING METHOD WITH HORIZONTAL V-SHAPED ANVIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhubai; NI Liyong; LIU Guohui; ZHANG Yongjun; ZHU Wenbo

    2006-01-01

    In order to decrease the anisotropy of mechanical properties, the rigid-plastic mechanical model for the forging method with horizontal V-shaped anvil is presented. The forging method,through the change of anvils shape, is able to control fibrous tissue direction, to improve the anisotropy of mechanical properties of axial forgings, to realize uniform forging. Therefore, the forging method can overcome the defect that conventional forging methods produce. The mechanism of the forging method with horizontal V-shaped anvil and the process of metal deformation are analyzed. The agreement of theoretical analysis with experimental study verifies the fact that the forging method with horizontal V-shaped anvil can control effectively the mechanical properties of axial forgings.

  15. CFOs and strategists: forging a common framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, A

    1992-01-01

    Companies have become increasingly polarized into two divergent camps: those who consider shareholder value the key to managing the company and those who put their faith in gaining competitive advantage. Indeed, that age-old debate between investing for the long term and showing outstanding short-term results is back - only this time the camps are flying banners with the new buzzwords of corporate America: competitive advantage and shareholder value. In this article, Alfred Rappaport attempts to settle the debate once and for all, arguing forcefully that establishing competitive advantage and creating shareholder value both stem from a common economic framework. In fact, long-term productivity is the hinge from which both sustainable competitive advantage and consistent results for the shareholder hang. But many managers refuse to accept this theory and cling to the mistaken belief that the market does not actually value the long-term productivity of their company but judges it only by its short-term performance. They then jump to a second mistaken conclusion: assuming they must depart from the shareholder-value model to improve their competitive position. Rappaport attacks these mistaken beliefs, showing that the stock market does value the long-term productivity of a company and that it is not necessary to depart from the shareholder-value model to improve a company's competitive position. Maximum returns for current shareholders will materialize only when managers maximize long-term shareholder value and deliver interim results that attest credibly to sustainable competitive advantage.

  16. Mannes of Forging and Perspectives of Knuckle Joint Presses Modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Antsifirov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article raises an issue to enhance technological forging capabilities on the known knuckle joint presses. It provides an illustrated overview of main design types of presses with crank-knuckle, toggle-knuckle, and knuckle joint mechanisms. The article also shows the advantages of the modernization way and improvement just of the active press equipment in terms of quality-to-price ratio, for example, as compared to the similar new foreign press equipment.It gives an overview of features, which provide forging processes owing to kinetic energy accumulated with the moving parts of the known designs of the knuckle joint presses depending on the drive actuating mechanism. Focused attention is drawn to forging on the knuckle joint presses for a time of contact with a work piece to be comparable with the duration of the work piece deformation process on hydraulic forging hammers. This allows us to forge thin-wall products with process automation compared to the forging hammers.Analysis of accumulating processes of kinetic energy by the moving parts of the knuckle joint presses has shown that presses driven by hydraulic cylinders or two screw hydraulic cylinder are the most optimal for technological operations as evidenced by references to domestic and foreign invention certificates and patents. The article presents disadvantages of forging on presses with hydraulic or pneumatic drive. It is a dependence of the deformation force, caused, mainly, by a force of the drive cylinder. The article gives linear movement rate quantities of press moving members depending on the drives of the actuating mechanism. Based on the above analysis of the features to manufacture work pieces on the knuckle joint presses, the article gives the rationale for the relevance of forging in a short period of time, provided that the moving parts of the press accumulate the required kinetic energy. This can be achieved only through modernization and improvement of forging

  17. Forces at the Main Mechanism of a Railbound Forging Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Forging manipulators have become more prevalent in the industry today. They are used to manipulate objects to be forged. The most common forging manipulators are moving on a railway to have a greater precision and stability. They have been called the railbound forging manipulators. In this paper we determine the driving forces of the main mechanism from such manipulator. Forces diagram shows a typical forging manipulator, with the basic motions in operation process: walking, motion of the tong and buffering. The lifting mechanism consists of several parts including linkages, hydraulic drives and motion pairs. Hydraulic drives are with the lifting hydraulic cylinder, the buffer hydraulic cylinder and the leaning hydraulic cylinder, which are individually denoted by c1, c2 and c3. In this work considering that the kinematics is being solved it determines the forces of the mechanism. In the first place shall be calculated all external forces from the mechanism (The inertia forces, gravitational forces and the force of the weight of the cast part. Is then calculated all the forces from couplers. 

  18. Defect analysis of complex-shape aluminum alloy forging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN De-bin; ZHANG Yan-qiu; WANG Yong; XU Fu-chang; XU Wen-chen; L(U) Yan

    2006-01-01

    The isothermal precision forging was applied for the purpose of forming aluminum alloy with complex shape. The complexity of forging is easy to lead to the occurrence of the defects, such as underfilling, folding, metal flow lines disturbance and fibre breaking. The reasons for the defects were analyzed on the basis of experiments and finite element method(FEM). The results show that the size of flash gutter bridge, the lubricating condition and the deformation process are the main factors influencing the filling qualities of complex-shape aluminum alloy forging. The folding defect is mainly caused by different velocities of filling cavities, fast flow of much metal in one direction and confluence of two or multi metal strands. Improper metal distribution in different regions can cause the flow lines disturbance and fast metal flow in one direction is also a cause of the flow lines disturbance According to the reasons, some measures were taken to improve the quality of the forged parts. These studies can contribute to offering some experiences in making process project and optimizing the process parameters for forging complex-shape aviation products.

  19. Examining Competition in Ontario's Higher Education Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhan, Bayan Yousef

    2017-01-01

    Financial challenges have forced many publicly funded academic institutions in Ontario to adopt a corporate model and to use market tools to compete in the higher education market and maintain their enrolment and revenue levels. This study has analyzed how competition affects publicly funded universities in Ontario. Competition was examined by…

  20. Libraries in Ontario: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/ontario.html Libraries in Ontario To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. Barrie Royal Victoria Regional Health Centre Health Library 201 Georgian Drive Barrie, ON L4M 6M2 CANADA ...

  1. Educational Information in Ontario: A Government Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, B. M.

    The Ontario Ministry of Education's role in funding educational research, and its procedures for the dissemination of educational research information are described. Two ministry initiatives are discussed in detail: the establishment of the Educational Information System for Ontario (EISO), a computerized search and retrieval service to access…

  2. Protectionist Measures in Postsecondary Ontario (Canada) TESL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambor, Paul Z.

    2012-01-01

    TESL in Ontario, Canada, seems to be on an inauspicious path by having set up non-tariff protectionist measures in an apparent attempt to keep out a multinational TESL workforce, effectively going against the spirit of globalization. This paper highlights some of the differences between South Korean TEFL and TESL in Ontario; for the most part…

  3. Analysis of reforming process of large distorted ring in final enlarging forging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazawa, Takeshi; Murai, Etsuo [Kushiro National College of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Kushiro, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    In the construction of reactors or pressure vessels for oil chemical plants and nuclear power stations, mono block open-die forging rings are often utilized. Generally, a large forged ring is manufactured by means of enlarging forging with reductions of the wall thickness. During the enlarging process the circular ring is often distorted and becomes an ellipse in shape. However the shape control of the ring is a complicated work. This phenomenon makes the matter still worse in forging of larger rings. In order to make precision forging of large rings, we have developed the forging method using a v-shape anvil. The v-shape anvil is geometrically adjusted to fit the distorted ring in the final circle and reform automatically the shape of the ring during enlarging forging. This paper has analyzed the reforming process of distorted ring by computer program based on F.E.M. and examined the effect on the precision of ring forging. (author)

  4. Basic rules for rheologic forging process of semisolid alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuming Xing; Lizhong Zhang; Jianbo Tan; Chuanlin Zheng; Hanwu Liu; Peng Zhang; Yunhui Du

    2004-01-01

    Semisolid mold forging is a major type of semisolid processing, which is different from neither traditional mold forging nor traditional permanent casting. However, processing defects are often seen in work pieces because of lacking available rules for the process design and control. Some basic rules for the process design and control, simply named the shortest flowing length, pressure filling and the minimum uplifting mold pressure, are advanced in the paper based on amount of researches and experiments. The equations to determine the major process parameters are given out such as the filling pressure, forming pressure and locking mold pressure for the process design and control. The rules and equations are experimentally proved available and applicable by several actual work pieces produced by the semisolid forging process.

  5. Precision forging technologies for magnesium alloy bracket and wheel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Fundamental investigations on precision forging technology of magnesium alloys were studied. As-cast billet prestraining and a new concept of hollow billet were proposed in order to reduce the maximum forming load. A scheme of isothermal forming and the use of combined female dies were adopted, which can improve the die filling capacity and ensure the manufacture of high quality forgings. By means of the developed technique, AZ80 alloy wheel and AZ31 alloy bracket were produced successfully at suitable process parameters and applied in the automotive industries. The results show that the hot compression of AZ80 magnesium alloy has the peak flow stresses of pre-strained alloy with finer grain, which are lower by 20% than those of as-cast alloy under the same deformation conditions. The forming load is related to contact area and average positive stress on interface during forging process.

  6. Isothermal forging of γ-TiAl based alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄朝晖

    2003-01-01

    The true stress-strain curves and processing window of Ti-47Al-2Cr-1Nb were set up through thermal physical simulation.A method for refinement of the as-cast+ HIPped structure was submitted,which included twostep deformation with a short intermediate heat-treatment between double deformations.The break-down operation of the canned ingot was performed by the isothermal forging processing mentioned above.The refining mechanism is characterized as breaking and bending of the as-cast+HIPped lamellae,dynamic recrystallization,and static globularization.Thus,a uniform and refined billet microstructure is obtained for the final component by forging operation.The deformation of a model disc is accomplished by the subsequent single-step isothermal forging at 1 100-1 150℃ using a closed compression die.

  7. Company analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenster, Per V.; Hussey, David

    This volume looks at the company appraisal as a whole, examining the continuing need to appraise companies as part of the continuing strategy process. Building from a sound basis of theory, the text aims to be practical and to give guidance to senior managers and others involved in the strategy p...

  8. Investigation of the influence of hybrid layers on the life time of hot forging dies

    OpenAIRE

    Legutko, S.; Meller, A.; Gajek, M.

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the issues related in the process of drop forging with special attention paid to the durability of forging tools. It presents the results of industrial investigation of the influence of hybrid layers on hot forging dies. The effectiveness of hybrid layers type nitrided layer/PVD coating applied for extending the life of forging tools whose working surfaces are exposed to such complex exploitation conditions as, among others, cyclically varying high thermal and mechanical ...

  9. New low-carbon steel for hot, warm, or cold forging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollilainen, V.; Hocksell, E. [Imatra Steel Oy Ab, Imatra Steelworks (Finland)

    2000-05-01

    The development of a new high-strength steel started from the needs of cold forging and continued into hot- and warm-forging areas. The steel has a very low carbon content (<0.1% C) and chromium-boron alloying. Its hardening is simple: just water quenching without tempering. Hot forgings of this steel are directly quenched from forging temperature, resulting in process cost savings and weight reduction. (orig.)

  10. Research on Integrated Casting and Forging Process of Aluminum Automobile Wheel

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qi; Cao, Miao; ZHANG, DAWEI; Zhang, Shuai; Sun, Jue

    2014-01-01

    Integrated casting and forging process (ICFP) is a new manufacturing method combining the advantages of both casting and forging. Aluminum structure parts, such as aluminum alloy automobile wheel, with complex shape and excellent mechanical properties can be produced by this process. The effects of different process parameters on the ICFP of the automobile wheel were simulated by Forge software. Microstructure of forging region and the nonforging region were studied by experiment. The results...

  11. Mechanical properties of forgings depending on the changes in shape and chemical composition of inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Híreš

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with mechanical properties of forgings used for special technology in cannon barrels production. The forgings are treated by elctroslag remelting technology (ESR to enhance its plastic properties and yield point. Described experiments are focused on mechanical properties and metallurgical quality (microstructure of steels from which are the forgings made. The article includes microstructure photographs and description of inclusions located in examined steels. Experimental results compare forgings treated by ESR and next ones without ESR.

  12. Fatigue in cold-forging dies: Tool life analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Hansen, P.; Bay, Niels; Grønbæk, J.;

    1999-01-01

    In the present investigation it is shown how the tool life of heavily loaded cold-forging dies can be predicted. Low-cycle fatigue and fatigue crack growth testing of the tool materials are used in combination with finite element modelling to obtain predictions of tool lives. In the models...... the number of forming cycles is calculated first to crack initiation and then during crack growth to fatal failure. An investigation of a critical die insert in an industrial cold-forging tool as regards the influence of notch radius, the amount and method of pre-stressing and the selected tool material...

  13. Improving durability of hot forging tools by applying hybrid layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gronostajski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with problems relating to the durability of the dies used for the hot forging of spur gears. The results of industrial tests carried out on dies with a hybrid layer (a nitrided layer (PN + physical vapor deposition (PVD coating applied to improve their durability are presented. Two types of hybrid layers, differing in their PVD coating, were evaluated with regard to their durability improvement effectiveness. The tests have shown that by applying hybrid layers of the nitrided layer/PVD coating type one can effectively increase the durability of hot forging tools.

  14. Fractography analysis of tool samples used for cold forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, K.V.

    2002-01-01

    Three fractured tool dies used for industrial cold forging have been investigated using light optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Two of the specimens were produced using the traditional Böhler P/M steel grade s790, while the lastspecimen was a third generation P/M steel produced...... using new technology developed by Böhler. All three steels have the same nominal composition of alloying elements. The failure in both types of material occurs as a crack formation at a notch inside ofthe tool. Generally the cold forging dies constructed in third generation steels have a longer lifetime...

  15. 77 FR 14445 - Application for a License To Export Steel Forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Application for a License To Export Steel Forging Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70(b) ``Public Notice of... Spain. December 15, 2011 head steel head steel February 7, 2012 forging. forging will be XR175...

  16. The prediction of the evolution of grain size of land-gear forging during the die-forging process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The land-gear forgings are the most important structure parts, made of high strength steel 300M. Because of the bad service environment, the microstructure and performance of the part are very strict requirements. In this article the evolution of grain size during the die-forging process is predicted, the volume fraction of dynamic recrystallization, grain refinement and development of grain size in-homogeneity, and the affection of billet shape on the grain size distribution are analyzed. The simulated results show that the grain size differences on the different billet positions are very large at the deformation beginning. But in final forging stage, the difference of the average grain size is smaller. At some center zones of the part the maximum difference of grain size is bigger than 100 μm.

  17. Nordion/Ontario Hydro programs to support the growth of gamma processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedward, D. A.; MacMillan, A. K.

    1993-07-01

    Over the past twenty years, Nordion International Inc. and Ontario Hydro have worked together to become the world's leading provider of products and services to support the gamma processing community. This paper details the abilities of these two companies to meet the current needs of the gamma irradiation industry. More importantly, it details their commitment to support the future growth and stability of gamma processing through both technical and financial assistance programs.

  18. New energy directions : a low-cost, low-risk electricity supply strategy for Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    The power system in the province of Ontario is inflexible and vulnerable to system breakdowns. It is also out of step with the needs of customers and technological trends in the electricity sector. This is due to its reliance on a centralized and limited source electricity generation. Ontario is faced with the need to increase its power supplies, modernize the electricity grid, and reduce the environmental impacts of conventional generation sources. This paper proposes a single-track strategy for addressing these issues. The proposal involves the following 3 significant changes to the centralized approach currently in place in Ontario: (1) meet the energy requirements through a combination of energy efficiency programs, new low-impact renewable supplies, and high-efficiency natural gas cogeneration or combined heat and power. The supply sources should be linked together in a distributed supply system which locates power supplies in the vicinity of high demand centres, (2) diversify the pool of power producers by encouraging the entry of power co-ops and investor-owned power companies, and (3) mandate the Independent Market Operator or other agency to secure incremental supply via a competitive bidding process for long-term supply contracts. Seven recommendations were made whereby the Ontario government should: (1) implement policies, regulations, and programs strongly promoting energy conservation and efficiency, (2) adopt policies that encourage the development of sustainable sources of electricity, (3) adopt policies that encourage the development of high-efficiency power plants, (4) ensure that emissions performance of new power plants in Ontario meet or exceed that of new natural gas-fired power plant, (5) direct the Independent Market Operator (IMO) to implement nodal pricing, (6) enter into long-term contracts with power-co-ops, municipal utilities, district energy companies, shopping centres, hospitals, manufacturing companies, and investor-owned power

  19. Numerical modelling of damage evolution in ingot forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Martins, Paulo A.F.; Bay, Niels Oluf;

    2015-01-01

    The ingot forging process is numerically simulated applying both the Shima-Oyane porous plasticity model as a coupled damage model and the uncoupled normalized Cockcroft & Latham criterion. Four different cases including two different lower die angles (120º and 180º) and two different sizes of fe...

  20. Vienna-Rotterdam: Forging the Future Urban strategies compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosemann, J.; Wigmans, G.

    1996-01-01

    De rol van de publieke planning en de mogelijkheid (en ook de wenselijkheid) om de stedelijke ontwikkeling in het postindustriële tijdperk te sturen zijn de centrale thema's van de conferentie "Vienna - Rotterdam: Forging the Future". De conferentie wordt georganiseerd door de bouwkundefaculteiten v

  1. Developments of New Lubricants for Cold Forging of Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Thomas; Christensen, Erik; Olesen, P.

    1997-01-01

    Two new lubricant systems for cold forging of stainless steel have been developed. The main component of these systems are FeCl3 and ZnCa2(PO4)2, respectively. Both lubricant systems have been tested using a backward extrusion test. The results show excellent lubricating properties with respect...

  2. 76 FR 168 - Heavy Forged Hand Tools From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... following classes or kinds of heavy forged hand tools from China: (1) Axes and adzes, (2) bars and wedges... four Domestic Like Products: (1) Axes, adzes, and hewing tools, other than machetes, with or without... Industries: (1) Domestic producers of axes, adzes and hewing tools, other than machetes, with or...

  3. Hot Forging of Nitrogen Alloyed Duplex Stainless Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.Chandramohan; S.S. Mohamed Nazirudeen; S.S. Ramakrishnan

    2007-01-01

    Duplex stainless steels are gaining global importance because of the need for a high strength corrosion resistant material. Three compositions of this group were selected with three different nitrogen contents viz, 0.15 wt pct (alloy 1), 0.23 wt pct (alloy 2) and 0.32 wt pct (alloy 3). The steels were melted in a high frequency induction furnace and hot forged to various reductions from 16% to 62%. In this work, the effect of hot forging on the ferrite content, hardness, yield strength, impact strength and grain orientation (texture) were studied. Fracture analysis on all the forged specimens using SEM reveals that a size reduction of 48% results in maximum ductility and impact strength as well as minimal ferrite content and grain size. Thus the mechanical properties are found to have a direct correlation to ferrite content and grain size. The highest impact strength was observed in specimens with the smallest grain size, which was observed in specimens forged to 48% reduction in size.

  4. Gao Qingmin:Forging a Legend Back to Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    SWORD-MAKER Gao Qingmin first dreamt of making swords when standing by his father at the furnace. As a teenager, he was apprenticed to his blacksmith father Gao Xikun, and schooled in stories of master ironsmiths Ou Yezi and Gan Jiang,both famous for forging highquality Tangxi swords.

  5. Parallelisation of seismic algorithms using PVM and FORGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedemeijer, H.; Cox, H.L.H.; Verschuur, D.J.; Ritsema, I.L.

    1996-01-01

    The processing of seismic data, for the imaging of the earth's subsurface, is pushing current computational possibilities to the limit. In this paper results are presented obtained by optimisation and parallelisation of two innovative seismic algorithms with the use of PVM and FORGE. It shows that w

  6. strength and ductility of forged 1200 aluminum alloy reinforced with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Results show that forged composites with 106μm had a tensile strength .... W. Ag. Sn. Co. % Composition 0.243 0.004 0.005 0.08 0.01. Element. Ni. Cr. Mo. % Composition .... parameters on the porosity content in Al(Mg)-Al2O3 cast particulate ...

  7. Trio Estonia esineb Lõuna-Ontarios

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Lõuna-Ontario muusikahuvilistel on tänu Eesti Sihtkapitalile Kanadas ja Cathedral Bluffs sümfooniaorkestrile harukordne võimalus saada oktoobrikuus osa kõrgetasemelise Trio Estonia musitseerimisest

  8. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1986. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  9. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1989. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  10. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1995. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  11. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1993. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  12. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1994. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  13. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1996. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  14. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1987. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  15. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1992. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  16. The Ontario Brain Institute: completing the circle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuss, Donald T

    2014-11-01

    The Province of Ontario recognized the pressing need to improve the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of brain disorders. It also recognized that maximizing the existing strengths through a province-wide integrated approach was a pivotal mechanism. To achieve this, the Province established the Ontario Brain Institute. The goal of this article is to introduce the elements of the Ontario Brain Institute to the neuroscience community: the motivation for establishing it, the philosophy behind its creation, the principles guiding its development, the rapid evolution of its functional structure, the tools available to achieve its vision, and the management structure to ensure success. The singular goal of the Province and the Ontario Brain Institute is a comprehensive system that assures that basic research is embedded in the clinical system and is facilitating product development to accelerate benefits to both health and the economy of health: science with impact.

  17. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1990. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  18. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1997. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  19. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1988. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  20. Occupational noise exposure in small scale hand tools manufacturing (forging) industry (SSI) in Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lakhwinder Pal; Bhardwaj, Arvind; Deepak, K K; Bedi, Raman

    2009-08-01

    Occupational noise has been recognized as hazardous for the human beings. A high noise level in forging shops is considered to lower the labour productivity and cause illness however occupational noise is being accepted as an integral part of the job. The present study has been carried out in 5 small scale hand tool forging units (SSI) of different sizes in Northern India in Punjab. Noise levels at various sections were measured. OSHA norms for hearing conservation has been incorporated which includes an exchange rate of 5 dB (A), criterion level at 90 dB (A), criterion time of 8 h, threshold level=80 dB (A), upper limit=140 dB (A) and with F/S response rate. Equivalent sound pressure level (L(eq)) has been measured in various sections of these plants. Noise at various sections like hammer section, cutting presses, punching, grinding and barrelling process was found to be >90 dB (A), which is greater than OSHA norms. A cross-sectional study on the basis of questionnaire has been carried out. The results of which revealed that 68% of the workers are not wearing ear protective equipments out of these 50% were not provided with PPE by the company. About 95% of the workers were suffering speech interference though high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. It has been established that the maximum noise exposure is being taken by the workers as they are working more than 8h a day for six days per week. More than 90% workers are working 12 to 24 h over time per week which lead to very high noise exposure i.e. 50 to 80% per week higher than exposure time/week in USA or European countries(15, 16)).

  1. Economic and market assessment of the Ontario air pollution prevention and control industry: A sector study for the Ontario Ministry of the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    This study is a comprehensive investigation into global air pollution prevention and control markets, with primary emphasis on domestic and U.S. markets, sponsored by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment. The objective of the study was to provide an assessment of Ontario's air pollution prevention and control market; identify opportunities for growth in niche markets; analyze the impact of global market forces; and to provide market intelligence to help companies improve their domestic and export market strategies. Findings of the report include: (1) the industry makes a significant contribution to the province's economy, with revenues of $ 823 million and providing 8,505 full-time equivalent jobs; (2) market growth is projected at the rate of 6 per cent domestically and more than 10 per cent globally on an annual basis over the next three years; (3) there is a marked difference in the perception of supply and demand side companies with respect to the influences on the air pollution prevention and control market, and the factors driving purchasing decisions; (4) domestic industrial buyers have been found to have no knowledge or appreciation for current and upcoming air pollution prevention and control technologies available in Ontario; (5) global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emission will add a new and significant dimension to air market demand; (6) the need to attract capital into technology research, development and commercialization is critically important given that technology will be the primary defining basis of competitive advantage in the sector; (7) over 92 per cent of the companies surveyed are selling products and services abroad, nevertheless, there are few successful companies which have taken a strategic, business-oriented approach to penetrating the export market; (8) the supply of experienced, value-adding personnel in technology innovation, business planning, marketing and export market development is insufficient for sector growth

  2. Honouring and Sustaining the Teaching Profession in Ontario. Ontario College of Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Linda R.; Adamson, Gary; Craig, Allan; Marrin, Mary; Squire, Frances A.

    This paper describes theoretical, political, and practical contexts for developing standards of practice for teaching, creating a framework for career-long professional learning and establishing a set of ethical standards for the profession. It positions the work of the Ontario College of Teachers within the broader context of Ontario education…

  3. Regulatory and institutional developments in the Ontario wine and grape industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carew R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Richard Carew,1 Wojciech J Florkowski21Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Summerland, BC, Canada; 2Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Georgia, Griffin, GA, USAAbstract: The Ontario wine industry has undergone major transformative changes over the last two decades. These have corresponded to the implementation period of the Ontario Vintners Quality Alliance (VQA Act in 1999 and the launch of the Winery Strategic Plan, "Poised for Greatness," in 2002. While the Ontario wine regions have gained significant recognition in the production of premium quality wines, the industry is still dominated by a few large wine companies that produce the bulk of blended or "International Canadian Blends" (ICB, and multiple small/mid-sized firms that produce principally VQA wines. This paper analyzes how winery regulations, industry changes, institutions, and innovation have impacted the domestic production, consumption, and international trade, of premium quality wines. The results of the study highlight the regional economic impact of the wine industry in the Niagara region, the success of small/mid-sized boutique wineries producing premium quality wines for the domestic market, and the physical challenges required to improve domestic VQA wine retail distribution and bolster the international trade of wine exports. Domestic success has been attributed to the combination of natural endowments, entrepreneurial talent, established quality standards, and the adoption of improved viticulture practices.Keywords: Ontario, wine, quality standards

  4. Company analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenster, Per V.; Hussey, David

    This volume looks at the company appraisal as a whole, examining the continuing need to appraise companies as part of the continuing strategy process. Building from a sound basis of theory, the text aims to be practical and to give guidance to senior managers and others involved in the strategy...... process. It is thus a book primarily aimed at managers, but should also be useful for MBA students undertaking strategy assignments It provides helpful, practical guidance and identifies weaknesses of traditional methods. It also presents a variety of tools which may be used in the appraisal process...

  5. Company profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Datacon was founded in 1986 and, since the beginning of 2005, has been part of the Dutch Besi group (BE Semiconductor Industries N.V.), an international group of companies operating in the semiconductor industry. Besi is a leading manufacturer of semiconductor die sorting, die bonding, packaging and plating equipment and provides the most cost efficient solution for RFID inlay production.

  6. Performance Assessment Method for a Forged Fingerprint Detection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong Nyuo; Jun, In-Kyung; Kim, Hyun; Shin, Woochang

    The threat of invasion of privacy and of the illegal appropriation of information both increase with the expansion of the biometrics service environment to open systems. However, while certificates or smart cards can easily be cancelled and reissued if found to be missing, there is no way to recover the unique biometric information of an individual following a security breach. With the recognition that this threat factor may disrupt the large-scale civil service operations approaching implementation, such as electronic ID cards and e-Government systems, many agencies and vendors around the world continue to develop forged fingerprint detection technology, but no objective performance assessment method has, to date, been reported. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a methodology designed to evaluate the objective performance of the forged fingerprint detection technology that is currently attracting a great deal of attention.

  7. Prevention of thinning at disc center during rotary forging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Presents the simulation and analysis of the rotary forging of a disc using a finite element method, which re veals the thinning at the disc center is caused by higher radial and tangential tensile stresses resulting from the local loading of a rotary die and acting at the center of a workpiece, and proposes a new design of rotary die with a hole opened in its center to prevent the continuous occurrence of shortening in the axial direction and elongation in the tan gential and radial directions, and concludes from simulation results that the rotary die with a hole opened in its center is effective for prevention of thinning or cracking at the center of a disc during rotary forging.

  8. Forging Alliances in Interdisciplinary Rehabilitation Research (FAIRR): A Logic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Simone V; Khetani, Mary A; Yinusa-Nyahkoon, Leanne; McManus, Beth; Gardiner, Paula M; Tickle-Degnen, Linda

    2017-07-01

    In a patient-centered care era, rehabilitation can benefit from researcher-clinician collaboration to effectively and efficiently produce the interdisciplinary science that is needed to improve patient-centered outcomes. The authors propose the use of the Forging Alliances in Interdisciplinary Rehabilitation Research (FAIRR) logic model to provide guidance to rehabilitation scientists and clinicians who are committed to growing their involvement in interdisciplinary rehabilitation research. We describe the importance and key characteristics of the FAIRR model for conducting interdisciplinary rehabilitation research.

  9. Forging process modeling of cone-shaped posts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuefeng Liu; Lingyun Wang; Li Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Using the rigid visco-plastic Finite Element Method (FEM), the process of forging for long cone-shaped posts made of aluminum alloys was modeled and the corresponding distributions of the field variables were obtained based on considering aberrance of grids, dynamic boundary conditions, non-stable process, coupled thermo-mechanical behavior and other special problems.The difficulties in equipment selection and die analysis caused by the long cone shape of post, as well as by pressure calculation were solved.

  10. Constitutive Equation of Superalloy In718 in Hammer Forging Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A constitutive equation reflecting the flow behavior ofSuperalloy In718 during the counter-blow hammer forging process was developed in terms of the relationship of flow stress and hot-deformation parameters, such as strain, strain rate, and deformation temperature. A new simplified approach for the complex multi-pass stress-strain curves has been attempted. The simulation curves calculated by constitutive equation are consistent with the experimental data.

  11. A Short Study of Large Rotary Forged Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    Bottom) 7 Microstructure at mid-wall of reheat treated rotary 25 forged cylinders - Martensite- Bainite 8 Martensitic microstructure of (a) normalized...also was unsatisfactory (Table 2). The microstructure at the mid-wall of both the top and bottom showed evidence of ferrite and bainite (Figs. 1 and...austenitized, and of bainite , showing that the material transformed to austenite had been in- adequately quenched, since martensite is the desired product

  12. Hot-forging Die Cavity Surface Layer Temperature Gradient Distribution and Determinant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huachang; WANG Guan; XIAO Han; WANG Hongfu

    2011-01-01

    Based on the car front-wheel-hub forging forming process of numerical simulation,the temperature gradient expression of forging model cavity near the surface layer was got ten,which illustrates that the forging temperature gradient is related to forging die materials thermal conductivity,specific heat and impact speed,and the correlation coefficient is 0.97.Under the different thermal conductivity,heat capacity and forging speed,the temperature gradient was compared with each other.The paper obtained the relevant laws,which illustrates the temperature gradient relates to these three parameters in a sequence of thermal conductivity > impact speed> specific heat capacity.To reduce thermal stress in the near-surface layer of hot forging cavity,the material with greater thermal conductivity coefficient and specific heat capacity should be used.

  13. Investigation of the influence of hybrid layers on the life time of hot forging dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Legutko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues related in the process of drop forging with special attention paid to the durability of forging tools. It presents the results of industrial investigation of the influence of hybrid layers on hot forging dies. The effectiveness of hybrid layers type nitrided layer/PVD coating applied for extending the life of forging tools whose working surfaces are exposed to such complex exploitation conditions as, among others, cyclically varying high thermal and mechanical loads, as well as intensive abrasion at raised temperature. The examination has been performed on a set of forging tools made of Unimax steel and intended for forging steel rings of gear box synchronizer in the factory FAS in Swarzedz (Poland.

  14. Influence of Processing Parameters on Grain Size Evolution of a Forged Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, L. A.; Páramo, P.; Salas Zamarripa, A.; de la Garza, M.; Guerrero-Mata, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure evolution of nickel-based superalloys has a great influence on the mechanical behavior during service conditions. Microstructure modification and the effect of process variables such as forging temperature, die-speed, and tool heating were evaluated after hot die forging of a heat-resistant nickel-based alloy. Forging sequences in a temperature range from 1253 to 1323 K were considered through experimental trials. An Avrami model was applied using finite element data to evaluate the average grain size and recrystallization at different evolution zones. It was observed that sequential forging at final temperatures below 1273 K provided greater grain refinement through time-dependent recrystallization phenomena. This investigation was aim to explore the influence of forging parameters on grain size evolution in order to design a fully homogenous and refined microstructure after hot die forging.

  15. Numerical simulation on forging process of TC4 alloy mounting parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Cheng; ZHANG Li-wen

    2006-01-01

    In order to eliminate forging defects appearing in production, based on the rigid-viscoplastic FEM principle, the DEFORM3D software package was employed to simulate the forming process of TC4 alloy mounting part and to optimize the process parameters. In this simulation, the temperature dependency of the thermal and mechanical properties of material was considered. Based on the simulation, the metal flow and thermomechanical field variables such as stress and damage are obtained.The simulation results show that the forging defects are caused by improper die dimension and the optimized die dimension was proposed. To verify the validity of simulation results, forging experiments were also carried out in a forging plant. The forging experiments show that the optimized die dimension can ensure the quality of forging part, and it can provide reference to improve and optimize die design process.

  16. Effect of Laser Preheating AISI 4140 Specimens for Micro-Forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung C.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many high performance and permanent service parts require suitable material characteristics-high fatigue strength is one of the most important characteristics. For this reason, surface treatment processes are essential to increase the material performance and avoid the use of costly ineffective material. There exist various surface treatment processes for various applications. Each process has advantages and disadvantages and hybridization can solve various problems. The micro-forging process delivers a controlled and uniform surface hardness, but the depth of the forged surface is limited. On the other hand, laser heat treatment can increase the hardness drastically, but the surface may become brittle, which reduces the fatigue life. Laser-assisted micro-forging is a novel hybrid process of laser heat treatment and micro-forging that has the potential to increase the forging depth and relax the stress caused by the high temperature of the forging process.

  17. Research on Integrated Casting and Forging Process of Aluminum Automobile Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Integrated casting and forging process (ICFP is a new manufacturing method combining the advantages of both casting and forging. Aluminum structure parts, such as aluminum alloy automobile wheel, with complex shape and excellent mechanical properties can be produced by this process. The effects of different process parameters on the ICFP of the automobile wheel were simulated by Forge software. Microstructure of forging region and the nonforging region were studied by experiment. The results show that die temperature, static pressure of the injection piston, forging speed, and material flow have significant influences on the process. Compared with nonforging region, the microstructure of forging region becomes finer, more uniform, and denser. Meanwhile, the casting defects can be removed and mechanical properties improved.

  18. Early Days for the Differentiation Policy Framework in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sianos, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities in Canada released "Ontario's Differentiation Policy Framework for Postsecondary Education" in 2013. This chapter examines the mandate as it pertains to the college sector.

  19. Lessons learned from Ontario wind energy disputes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Stewart; Mabee, Warren; Baxter, Jamie; Christidis, Tanya; Driver, Liz; Hill, Stephen; McMurtry, J. J.; Tomkow, Melody

    2016-02-01

    Issues concerning the social acceptance of wind energy are major challenges for policy-makers, communities and wind developers. They also impact the legitimacy of societal decisions to pursue wind energy. Here we set out to identify and assess the factors that lead to wind energy disputes in Ontario, Canada, a region of the world that has experienced a rapid increase in the development of wind energy. Based on our expertise as a group comprising social scientists, a community representative and a wind industry advocate engaged in the Ontario wind energy situation, we explore and suggest recommendations based on four key factors: socially mediated health concerns, the distribution of financial benefits, lack of meaningful engagement and failure to treat landscape concerns seriously. Ontario's recent change from a feed-in-tariff-based renewable electricity procurement process to a competitive bid process, albeit with more attention to community engagement, will only partially address these concerns.

  20. Assessing Ontario's Personal Support Worker Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Laporte

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In response to the growing role of personal support workers (PSWs in the delivery of health care services to Ontarians, the Ontario government has moved forward with the creation of a PSW registry. This registry will be mandatory for all PSWs employed by publicly funded health care employers, and has the stated objectives of better highlighting the work that PSWs do in Ontario, providing a platform for PSWs and employers to more easily access the labour market, and to provide government with information for human resources planning. In this paper we consider the factors that brought the creation of a PSW registry onto the Ontario government’s policy agenda, discuss how the registry is being implemented, and provide an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of this policy change.

  1. The Ontario Telemedicine Network: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Edward M

    2013-05-01

    This article describes the evolution, current status, and future prospects of the Ontario Telemedicine Network (OTN). Started in the late 1990s (and formally established in 2006), OTN is a not-for-profit corporation primarily funded by the Government of Ontario, Canada, that aims to improve access to and quality of care throughout the Province. It covers a land mass larger than France and serves a population of just over 13 million, the vast majority of which live in a narrow strip close to the U.S. border. Telemedicine has been effective in reducing travel to usual sources of care, reducing hospital admissions, and improving efficiency and prompt access to care. The diffusion of telemedicine is accelerating in Ontario, and it is becoming an integral part of the health system.

  2. The Effect of Corner Radii and Part Orientation on Stress Distribution of Cold Forging Die

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad B.  Abdullah; Kam S. Ling; Zahurin Samad

    2008-01-01

    One of the most critical problems in cold forging is the huge stresses generated from the deformation of metal leads to die failure. The distribution of stresses mainly depends on geometry of the die. An approach to optimal design in cold forging die geometry and orientation are presented in this paper. The impression cold forging dies of the Universal joint was generated using three-dimensional CAD modeling software, SolidWorks. This CAD modeling software coupled with FEA tools, COSMOSWorks....

  3. Measurement and Analysis on Hardness and Residual Stress of Heavy Forging after Heat Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The hardness and residual stress in the forging for cold roller during low temperature tempering, and the relationship of residual stress and cooling temperature of high temperature tempering for heavy forgings were studied. The stress relaxation constant at low temperature tempering and the elasto-plastisity inversion temperature at high temperature tempering were found. The results are of great importance to determine rational tempering cooling process of heavy forgings.

  4. Cross dies forging: A new method to reduce forging force & price up to 80% thanks to FEM method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansouri Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this article was to introduce a new method of forging which is called “Cross Die Forging”. In this method, the required force (load is reduced to the greatest possible degree through elimination of flash channel; however, this would also decrease the positive effect of flash channel, namely filling the gaps and pores within the mold. Cross die forging procedure provides a way for providing a better preform design which ensures that the mold is filled without allowing the material to enter the flash channel. This method has been invented based on the need to decrease the production costs and to use lower tonnage pressing devices for production of heavy parts. This method is an economical method only for parts that: A Has at least one plane of symmetry and the two ends that are perpendicular to the symmetry plane are flat; B Has a weight that makes it impossible to be manufactured by rolling or roll forging processes. Examples of such parts are valve’s body, T-junctions, etc.

  5. Residual Stresses in 21-6-9 Stainless Steel Warm Forgings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everhart, Wesley A.; Lee, Jordan D.; Broecker, Daniel J.; Bartow, John P.; McQueen, Jamie M.; Switzner, Nathan T.; Neidt, Tod M.; Sisneros, Thomas A.; Brown, Donald W.

    2012-11-14

    Forging residual stresses are detrimental to the production and performance of derived machined parts due to machining distortions, corrosion drivers and fatigue crack drivers. Residual strains in a 21-6-9 stainless steel warm High Energy Rate Forging (HERF) were measured via neutron diffraction. The finite element analysis (FEA) method was used to predict the residual stresses that occur during forging and water quenching. The experimentally measured residual strains were used to calibrate simulations of the three-dimensional residual stress state of the forging. ABAQUS simulation tools predicted residual strains that tend to match with experimental results when varying yield strength is considered.

  6. "Strengthening" Ontario Universities: A Neoliberal Reconstruction of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigas, Bob; Kuchapski, Renée

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews neoliberalism as an ideology that has influenced higher education generally and Ontario higher education in particular. It includes a discourse analysis of "Strengthening Ontario's Centres of Creativity, Innovation and Knowledge" (Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges, and Universities, 2012), a government discussion…

  7. Opening Doors to Nursing Degrees: A Proposal from Ontario's Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleges Ontario, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Ontario needs to expand nursing education options to improve access to the nursing profession, create better pathways amongst all nursing occupations, and build Ontario's capacity to meet the province's long-term nursing needs. Ontario's colleges are capable of playing a larger role within a long-term provincial strategy for sustaining and…

  8. A Report on Accounting Education in Ontario Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    A 1981 report on accounting education in Ontario universities, which was prepared by a study group of the Council of Ontario Universities (COU), is presented. The objective was to advise the COU on the feasibility of establishing a professional school or faculty of accounting in one or more Ontario universities. Attention was directed to the…

  9. SAFER - Company Snapshot - SAFER - Company Snapshot

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Company Snapshot is a concise electronic record of company identification, size, commodity information, and safety record, including the safety rating (if any),...

  10. A New Vision for Higher Education in Ontario: Submitted by the Presidents of Ontario's 24 Public Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleges Ontario, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Ontario has an opportunity to implement meaningful and transformational changes that exploit the potential for growth in the new economy and drive it's prosperity to unprecedented levels. But the threats to Ontario's future are just as great. Failing to move forward now with significant measures could leave Ontario unprepared for the challenges…

  11. Transforming Ontario's Apprenticeship Training System: Supplying the Tradespersons Needed for Sustained Growth--A Proposal from Ontario's Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleges Ontario, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Ontario's colleges share the provincial government's belief that apprenticeship must play a greater role in addressing skills shortages and contributing to innovative, high-performance workplaces that enhance Ontario's competitiveness. Given the severity of the economic downturn, Ontario faces an immediate, serious challenge as apprenticeship…

  12. Green tide: indoor marihuana cultivation and its impact on Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This paper discusses the apparent proliferation of marihuana grow-ops in Ontario over the last five years. Estimated revenues from indoor marihuana were detailed, as well as estimates of quantities of marihuana produced, forecasted trends and annual and weekly historical trends. The potential economic impact of this criminal activity was examined, with particular reference to increased police activities. The potential for fire and other human health risks included: exposure to mould associated with hydroponic cultivation and growth chemicals and higher concentrations of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. The socio-economic impact of grow ops were examined, with detailed estimates of law enforcement costs, insurance costs and costs to the justice system. Societal costs, such as environmental hazards, violence associated with organized crime, and the perceived threat to Ontario's children and communities were also outlined. Costs stemming from hydro theft were cited, including hydro repair and administration. Details of the bypass systems installed for hydro theft were also provided. It was concluded that it was unlikely that grow ops will be entirely eradicated. Measures that may limit the scope of grow ops included: developing avenues to increase effectiveness and efficiency of law enforcement approaches to grow ops, enhancing lines of communication and sharing of intelligence between police and other key stakeholders such as insurance companies, real estate agencies and banks and educating persons in the justice system on the issue of grow ops so that sentencing more accurately reflects the crime. It was recommended that lenient sentencing for marihuana possession and cultivation be re-examined. 70 refs., 12 tabs, 38 figs.

  13. Employer-Supported Child Care in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontario Ministry of Community and Social Services, Toronto.

    Six case studies describing current employer-supported child care services in Ontario are presented. The studies describe the PLADEC Day Care Center of the Kingston Psychiatric Hospital, the day care center at the Chedoke-McMaster Hospitals in Hamilton, the Early Learning Centre at Durham College in Oshawa, the Hydrokids day care center at the…

  14. Measuring Social Capital in Hamilton, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Simone, Dylan

    2012-01-01

    Social capital has been studied by academics for more than 20 years and within the past decade there has been an explosion of growth in research linking social capital to health. This paper investigates social capital in Hamilton, Ontario by way of a telephone survey of 1,002 households in three neighbourhood groups representing high, mixed and…

  15. Marketing the College Brand in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgerson, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Since inception of the Ontario college system in 1967, the quality of a diploma or certificate in comparison to a university degree has been perceived as an inferior rather than alternative academic credential. As public institutions, community colleges are mandated to respond to regional labour force needs, and to provide graduates who will…

  16. The fruit flies (Tephritidae) of Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen species of Tephritidae are newly recorded from Ontario, and alternative format keys are provided to the 31 genera and 72 species of fruit fly now known from, or likely to occur, in the province. Standard dichotomous keys to genera, and simplified field keys to genera and species are provide...

  17. Measuring Social Capital in Hamilton, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Simone, Dylan

    2012-01-01

    Social capital has been studied by academics for more than 20 years and within the past decade there has been an explosion of growth in research linking social capital to health. This paper investigates social capital in Hamilton, Ontario by way of a telephone survey of 1,002 households in three neighbourhood groups representing high, mixed and…

  18. Ontario's Quality Assurance Framework: A Critical Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, James

    2013-01-01

    Ontario's Quality Assurance Framework (QAF) is reviewed and found not to meet all five criteria proposed for a strong quality assurance system focused on student learning. The QAF requires a statement of student learning outcomes and a method and means of assessing those outcomes, but it does not require that data on achievement of intended…

  19. The Status of Benthos in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benthic community of Lake Ontario was dominated by an amphipod (Diporeia spp.) prior to the 1990’s. Two dreissenid mussel species D. polymorpha (zebra) and D. bugensis (quagga) were introduced in 1989 and 1991 via ballast water exchange. D. bugensis was observed as deep as 85...

  20. A new Friction and Lubrication Test for Cold Forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Wibom, Ole; Aalborg Nielsen, J

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a new friction and lubrication test for cold forging. The test allows controlled variation of the surface expansion in the range 0-2000%, the tool temperature in the range 20-270°C and the sliding length between 0 and infinite. Friction is decreasing with increasing temperature...... in the range 30-150°C. Above this temperature range friction increases. As regards lubricant performance Lubrication Limit Curves (LLC) are plotted in a sliding length-surface enlargement diagram with the tool temperature as a parameter. Larger tool temperature implies lower acceptable surface expansion...

  1. Environmentally Benign Lubricant Systems For Cold, Warm And Hot Forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The growing awareness of environmental issues and the requirements to establish solutions diminishing the impact on working environment as well as external environment has initiated ever increasing efforts to develop new, environmentally benign tribological systems for metal forming. The present...... paper gives an overview of these efforts substituting environmentally hazardous lubricants in cold, warm and hot forging. The paper is an extract of the keynote paper [3] written by the author together with eight co-authors referring to collected papers and other information from more than 30 different...

  2. Manufacturing involving forging of multiple objects in contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Zhang, W.; Martins, P.A.F.

    Finite element modeling of multi-object manufacturing processes is presented with supporting experiments. The underlying finite element implementation is based on the flow formulation and further coupled with thermal and electrical models to accomplish electro-thermo-mechanical simulation. All...... and dissimilar materials. While being plastically deformed against each other under increasing forging load, the parts dynamically develop their mutual contact interfaces. Comparisons of the final geometry as well as force-displacement curves are evaluated. The potential of simulated applications are discussed...

  3. Modeling Cavitation in ICE Pistons Made with Isothermal Forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Astanin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Possible causes for cavitations in parts made with an Al-Si eutectic alloy AK12D (AlSi12 were explored with mathematical and physical modeling with involved acoustic emission. Pores were formed from micro-cracks, which appear during the early stages of a deformation process, with the help of micro-stresses appearing at phase boundaries (Al/Si interface due to thermal expansion. At the design stage of isothermal forgings of such products it is recommended to provide a scheme of the deformed shape, which is under uniform compression, to compensate for the inter-phase stresses.

  4. 大锻件 KD 压实锻造工艺模拟研究%Simulation Research of Compaction Forging Process for Large Forgings with KD Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明昊; 王敬禹; 刘建红

    2013-01-01

      利用数值模拟方法对锻造过程中的锻造温度场、V型砧砧宽和布砧方式等工艺参数对锻件心部质量的影响进行了研究。结果表明,温度梯度、宽大V型砧和交替布砧的方式能够有效地提高锻件心部的压实效果。%The influence of the technological parameters during forging , such as forging temperature field, V shaped anvil width and anvil distribution mode on the quality of forging core is researched by numerical simulation .The result shows that the temperature gradient , V shaped wide anvil and alternating anvil distribution can effectively im-prove the compaction effect of forging core .

  5. 75 FR 67110 - Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... COMMISSION Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade... stainless steel flanges from India and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on forged stainless steel flanges from India...

  6. Forging; Heat Treating and Testing; Technically Oriented Industrial Materials and Process 1: 5898.05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course provides students with advanced and exploratory experience in the area of plastic deformation of metals and in the changing of the physical characteristics of metals by the controlled application and timed removal of heat. Course content includes goals, specific objectives, safety in forge work, forging tools and equipment, industrial…

  7. [Research on the inner wall condition monitoring method of ring forgings based on infrared spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xian-bin; Liu, Bin; Wei, Bin; Zhang, Yu-cun; Liu, Zhao-lun

    2015-01-01

    In order to grasp the inner wall condition of ring forgings, an inner wall condition monitoring method based on infrared spectra for ring forgings is proposed in the present paper. Firstly, using infrared spectroscopy the forgings temperature measurement system was built based on the three-level FP-cavity LCTF. The two single radiation spectra from the forgings' surface were got using the three-level FP-cavity LCTF. And the temperature measuring of the surface forgings was achieved according to the infrared double-color temperature measuring principle. The measuring accuracy can be greatly improved by this temperature measurement method. Secondly, on the basis of the Laplace heat conduction differential equation the inner wall condition monitoring model was established by the method of separating variables. The inner wall condition monitoring of ring forgings was realized via combining the temperature data and the forgings own parameter information. Finally, this method is feasible according to the simulation experiment. The inner wall condition monitoring method can provide the theoretical basis for the normal operating of the ring forgings.

  8. Microstructure Modeling of a Ni-Fe-Based Superalloy During the Rotary Forging Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyda, A.; Hernández-Muñoz, G. M.; Reyes, L. A.; Zambrano-Robledo, P.

    2016-06-01

    The microstructure evolution of Ni-Fe superalloys has a great influence on the mechanical behavior during service conditions. The rotary forging process offers an alternative to conventional bulk forming processes where the parts can be rotary forged with a fraction of the force commonly needed by conventional forging techniques. In this investigation, a numerical modeling of microstructure evolution for design and optimization of the hot forging operations has been used to manufacture a heat-resistant nickel-based superalloy. An Avrami model was implemented into finite element commercial platform DEFORM 3D to evaluate the average grain size and recrystallization during the rotary forging process. The simulations were carried out considering three initial temperatures, 980, 1000, and 1050 °C, to obtain the microstructure behavior after rotary forging. The final average grain size of one case was validated by comparing with results of previous experimental work of disk forging operation. This investigation was aimed to explore the influence of the rotary forging process on microstructure evolution in order to obtain a homogenous and refined grain size in the final component.

  9. MM 99.58 Physical modelling of Hammerhead forging, Vertical and Lateral load history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Eriksen, Morten; Wanheim, Tarras

    1999-01-01

    The present report presents a laboratory setup with hammerhead forging, where the vertical and lateral force history is obtained under different process conditions......The present report presents a laboratory setup with hammerhead forging, where the vertical and lateral force history is obtained under different process conditions...

  10. Winter Weather at Valley Forge 1777-1778: A Lesson in Climatic Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansley, Mary Jane; Pritchard, Sandra F.

    1987-01-01

    Notes that the story of George Washington's encampment at Valley Forge is seldom told without reference to the bitter cold winter Washington and his troops endured. Shows how to use historical reports of weather information to allow students to judge for themselves whether the winter at Valley Forge then was harsher than winters in the same area…

  11. RESEARCH ON THE WARM FORGING OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS:DEVELOPMENT OF A FORMULA TO DESCRIBE THE SOFTENING BEHAVIOR OF A2011 IN FORGING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.H. Zhang, K. Osakada; X. Y. Ruan

    2003-01-01

    To understand the forming behaviour of aluminum alloys, the upsetting test of alu-minum alloys at evaluated temperature is conducted. Because in warm forging theflow stress decreases with increasing straining, which is so-called work softening, noappropriate material formulation is available. For the evaluation of flow stress ofaluminum alloys in warm forging processes, in this paper, a formula is derived byanalyzing the stress data measured at various temperatures. It is demonstrated thatthe formula fits the flow stress obtained from experiment.

  12. 长轴类大锻件自由锻造工艺研究%Research on free-forging process of long-shaft heavy forging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 夏琴香; 李哲林; 谢合清; 潘勇

    2011-01-01

    The traditional forging technology was studied and improved. The 7. 8 t propeller-shaft heavy forging was forged through the 4 t electrohydraulic hammer using the reasonable steel ingot and by squaring with 300 mm width flat anvil, stretching, chamfering and rolling processes. Experimental result shows that the defects, such as the shrinkage cavity, porosity, etc., can be clogged by the reasonable forging process. High mechanical properties of the propeller shaft heavy forgings were obtained after quenching and tempering. The characteristics of simple tool, broad universal and large flexible of free forging were fully utilized in this research. The free-forging of long-shaft heavy forging was realized.%对传统的锻造工艺进行了研究和改进,通过合理选用钢锭及采用宽300 mm平砧压方、拔长、倒棱滚圆等工序,实现用4 t电液锤锻造7.8 t螺旋桨轴大锻件.试验结果证明,合理的锻造工艺路线锻合了钢锭内部的缩孔、疏松等缺陷,所获得的螺旋桨轴大锻件经过锻后调质热处理能得到较好的综合力学性能.项目的研究充分发挥了自由锻造工具简单、通用性强、灵活性大的特点,实现了长轴类大锻件的自由锻造.

  13. Simulation and analysis of hot forging process for industrial locking gear elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarefdoust, M.; Kadkhodayan, M.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper hot forging process for industrial locking gear elevators is simulated and analyzed. An increase in demand of industrial locking gear elevators with better quality and lower price caused the machining process to be replaced by hot forging process. Production of industrial locking gear elevators by means of hot forging process is affected by many parameters such as billet temperature, geometry of die and geometry of pre-formatted billet. In this study the influences of billet temperature on effective plastic strain, radius of die corners on internal stress of billet and thickness of flash on required force of press are investigated by means of computer simulation. Three-dimensional modeling of initial material and die are performed by Solid Edge, while simulation and analysis of forging are performed by Super Forge. Based on the computer simulation the required dies are designed and the workpieces are formed. Comparison of simulation results with experimental data demonstrates great compatibility.

  14. The development and production of thermo-mechanically forged tool steel spur gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, E. N.

    1973-01-01

    A development program to establish the feasibility and applicability of high energy rate forging procedures to tool steel spur gears was performed. Included in the study were relatively standard forging procedures as well as a thermo-mechanical process termed ausforming. The subject gear configuration utilized was essentially a standard spur gear having 28 teeth, a pitch diameter of 3.5 inches and a diametral pitch of 8. Initially it had been planned to use a high contact ratio gear design, however, a comprehensive evaluation indicated that severe forging problems would be encountered as a result of the extremely small teeth required by this type of design. The forging studies were successful in achieving gear blanks having integrally formed teeth using both standard and thermo-mechanical forging procedures.

  15. RESEARCH ON INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON A PRECISION FORGING PROCESS OF BLADE WITH A TENON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.L. Liu; H. Yang; T. Gao; M. Zhan; W. Cai

    2005-01-01

    The blade precision forging process is a forming process with high temperature and large plastic deformation. Interaction of deformation and heat conduction leads to large uneven distribution of temperature. The unevenness of temperature distribution has a great effect on mechanical properties and the microstructure of materials. So it is necessary to consider the influence of temperature on the precision forging process of blades. Taking a blade with a tenon into consideration, a 3D mechanical model in precision forging is built up. The distribution laws of temperature field and the influence of the temperature on the equivalent stress in the process are obtained by using 3-D coupled thermo-mechanical FEM code developed by the authors. The results obtained illustrate that the influence of the temperature field on the blade forging process is considerable. The achievements of predicting microstructure and mechanical properties for forged blades is significant.

  16. HYDROGEN-ASSISTED FRACTURE IN FORGED TYPE 304L AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Switzner, Nathan; Neidt, Ted; Hollenbeck, John; Knutson, J.; Everhart, Wes; Hanlin, R. [University of Missouri-Kansas City; Bergen, R. [Precision Metal Products; Balch, D. K. [Sandia Natl Laboratory

    2012-09-06

    Austenitic stainless steels generally have good resistance to hydrogen-assisted fracture; however, structural designs for high-pressure gaseous hydrogen are constrained by the low strength of this class of material. Forging is used to increase the low strength of austenitic stainless steels, thus improving the efficiency of structural designs. Hydrogen-assisted racture, however, depends on microstructural details associated with manufacturing. In this study, hydrogen-assisted fracture of forged type 304L austenitic stainless steel is investigated. Microstructural variation in multi-step forged 304L was achieved by forging at different rates and temperatures, and by process annealing. High internal hydrogen content in forged type 304L austenitic stainless steel is achieved by thermal precharging in gaseous hydrogen and results in as much as 50% reduction of tensile ductility.

  17. Characterization of a Viking Blade Fabricated by Traditional Forging Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, H.; Frazer, D.; Bailey, N.; Traylor, R.; Austin, J.; Pringle, J.; Bickel, J.; Connick, R.; Connick, W.; Hosemann, P.

    2016-12-01

    A team of students from the University of California, Berkeley, participated in a blade-smithing competition hosted by the Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society at the TMS 2015 144th annual meeting and exhibition. Motivated by ancient forging methods, the UC Berkeley team chose to fabricate our blade from historical smithing techniques utilizing naturally-occurring deposits of iron ore. This approach resulted in receiving the "Best Example of a Traditional Blade Process/Ore Smelting Technique" award for our blade named "Berkelium." First, iron-enriched sand was collected from local beaches. Magnetite (Fe3O4) was then extracted from the sand and smelted into individual high- and low-carbon steel ingots. Layers of high- and low-carbon steels were forge-welded together, predominantly by hand, to form a composite material. Optical microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Vickers hardness mechanical testing were conducted at different stages throughout the blade-making process to evaluate the microstructure and hardness evolution during formation. It was found that the pre-heat-treated blade microstructure was composed of ferrite and pearlite, and contained many nonmetallic inclusions. A final heat treatment was performed, which caused the average hardness of the blade edge to increase by more than a factor of two, indicating a martensitic transformation.

  18. Characterization of a Viking Blade Fabricated by Traditional Forging Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, H.; Frazer, D.; Bailey, N.; Traylor, R.; Austin, J.; Pringle, J.; Bickel, J.; Connick, R.; Connick, W.; Hosemann, P.

    2016-09-01

    A team of students from the University of California, Berkeley, participated in a blade-smithing competition hosted by the Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society at the TMS 2015 144th annual meeting and exhibition. Motivated by ancient forging methods, the UC Berkeley team chose to fabricate our blade from historical smithing techniques utilizing naturally-occurring deposits of iron ore. This approach resulted in receiving the "Best Example of a Traditional Blade Process/Ore Smelting Technique" award for our blade named "Berkelium." First, iron-enriched sand was collected from local beaches. Magnetite (Fe3O4) was then extracted from the sand and smelted into individual high- and low-carbon steel ingots. Layers of high- and low-carbon steels were forge-welded together, predominantly by hand, to form a composite material. Optical microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Vickers hardness mechanical testing were conducted at different stages throughout the blade-making process to evaluate the microstructure and hardness evolution during formation. It was found that the pre-heat-treated blade microstructure was composed of ferrite and pearlite, and contained many nonmetallic inclusions. A final heat treatment was performed, which caused the average hardness of the blade edge to increase by more than a factor of two, indicating a martensitic transformation.

  19. An Outbreak of Foodborne Botulism in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona R Loutfy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Botulism is a rare paralytic illness resulting from a potent neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Botulism in Canada is predominately due to C botulinum type E and affects mainly the First Nations and Inuit populations. The most recent outbreak of botulism in Ontario was in Ottawa in 1991 and was caused by C botulinum type A. We report an outbreak of foodborne type B botulism in Ontario, which implicated home-canned tomatoes. The outbreak was characterized by mild symptoms in two cases and moderately severe illness in one case. The investigation shows the importance of considering the diagnosis of botulism in patients presenting with cranial nerve and autonomic dysfunction, especially when combined with gastrointestinal complaints; it also highlights the importance of proper home canning technique.

  20. Upgrading the dosimetry at Ontario Hydro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirning, C.R. [Ontario Hydro, Whitby, ON (Canada). Health Physics Dept.

    1996-12-01

    Ontario Hydro has embarked upon a major programme to replace and upgrade its external dosimetry systems. In two year`s time, the utility expects to have two state-of-the-art dosimetry systems in place: a new TLD dosimetry of legal record that was designed nearly 30 years ago; and an electronic dosimetry system which could eventually replace the TLD as the primary system. (Author).

  1. Computer Οptimization of Geometric Form of Tool and Preform for Closed-die Forging of Compressor Blade Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Botkin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the software package DEFORM 3D when developing technology of isothermal forging workpiece blades it is possible to reduce the pre-production time, to improve the quality of forgings and increase lifetime of forging dies. Computer modeling allows to predict the formation of such defects during forging as notches and wrinkles, underfilling of die impression, to estimate tool loads. Preform shape and angular position of the blade simulator were optimized in order to minimize the lateral forces generated during the forging operation.

  2. Design and Analysis of a Forging Die for Manufacturing of Multiple Connecting Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megharaj, C. E.; Nagaraj, P. M.; Jeelan Pasha, K.

    2016-09-01

    This paper demonstrates to utilize the hammer capacity by modifying the die design such that forging hammer can manufacture more than one connecting rod in a given forging cycle time. To modify the die design study is carried out to understand the parameters that are required for forging die design. By considering these parameters, forging die is designed using design modelling tool solid edge. This new design now can produce two connecting rods in same capacity hammer. The new design is required to validate by verifying complete filing of metal in die cavities without any defects in it. To verify this, analysis tool DEFORM 3D is used in this project. Before start of validation process it is require to convert 3D generated models in to. STL file format to import the models into the analysis tool DEFORM 3D. After importing these designs they are analysed for material flow into the cavities and energy required to produce two connecting rods in new forging die design. It is found that the forging die design is proper without any defects and also energy graph shows that the forging energy required to produce two connecting rods is within the limit of that hammer capacity. Implementation of this project increases the production of connecting rods by 200% in less than previous cycle time.

  3. Research on Energy-Saving Production Scheduling Based on a Clustering Algorithm for a Forging Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Tong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is a buzzword of the 21st century. With the ever growing need for energy efficient and low-carbon production, it is a big challenge for high energy-consumption enterprises to reduce their energy consumption. To this aim, a forging enterprise, DVR (the abbreviation of a forging enterprise, is researched. Firstly, an investigation into the production processes of DVR is given as well as an analysis of forging production. Then, the energy-saving forging scheduling is decomposed into two sub-problems. One is for cutting and machining scheduling, which is similar to traditional machining scheduling. The other one is for forging and heat treatment scheduling. Thirdly, former forging production scheduling is presented and solved based on an improved genetic algorithm. Fourthly, the latter is discussed in detail, followed by proposed dynamic clustering and stacking combination optimization. The proposed stacking optimization requires making the gross weight of forgings as close to the maximum batch capacity as possible. The above research can help reduce the heating times, and increase furnace utilization with high energy efficiency and low carbon emissions.

  4. Gear hot forging process robust design based on finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xuewen, Chen [Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang (China); Won, Jung Dong [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    During the hot forging process, the shaping property and forging quality will fluctuate because of die wear, manufacturing tolerance, dimensional variation caused by temperature and the different friction conditions, etc. In order to control this variation in performance and to optimize the process parameters, a robust design method is proposed in this paper, based on the finite element method for the hot forging process. During the robust design process, the Taguchi method is the basic robust theory. The finite element analysis is incorporated in order to simulate the hot forging process. In addition, in order to calculate the objective function value, an orthogonal design method is selected to arrange experiments and collect sample points. The ANOVA method is employed to analyze the relationships of the design parameters and design objectives and to find the best parameters. Finally, a case study for the gear hot forging process is conducted. With the objective to reduce the forging force and its variation, the robust design mathematical model is established. The optimal design parameters obtained from this study indicate that the forging force has been reduced and its variation has been controlled

  5. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Eckert, Thomas H.; Schaner, Ted; Bowlby, James N.; Schleen, Larry P.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to maintain the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Ontario by stocking fry failed and the species was extirpated by the 1950s. Hatchery fish stocked in the 1960s did not live to maturity because of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation and incidental commercial harvest. Suppression of sea lampreys began with larvicide treatments of Lake Ontario tributaries in 1971 and was enhanced when the tributaries of Oneida Lake and Lake Erie were treated in the 1980s. Annual stocking of hatchery fish was resumed with the 1972 year class and peaked at about 1.8 million yearlings and 0.3 million fingerlings from the 1985–1990 year classes. Survival of stocked yearlings declined over 50% in the 1980 s and was negatively correlated with the abundance of lake trout > 550 mm long (r = −0.91, P < 0.01, n = 12). A slot length limit imposed by the State of New York for the 1988 fishing season reduced angler harvest. Angler harvest in Canadian waters was 3 times higher in eastern Lake Ontario than in western Lake Ontario. For the 1977–1984 year classes, mean annual survival rate of lake trout age 6 and older was 0.45 (range: 0.35–0.56). In U.S. waters during 1985–1992, the total number of lake trout harvested by anglers was about 2.4 times greater than that killed by sea lampreys. The number of unmarked lake trout < 250 mm long in trawl catches in 1978–1992 was not different from that expected due to loss of marks and failure to apply marks at the hatchery, and suggested that recruitment of naturally-produced fish was nil. However, many of the obstacles which may have impeded lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario during the 1980s are slowly being removed, and there are signs of a general ecosystem recovery. Significant recruitment of naturally produced lake trout by the year 2000, one interim objective of the rehabilitation plan for the Lake, may be achieved.

  6. Analysis of the thermo-mechanical deformations in a hot forging tool by numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    L-Cancelos, R.; Varas, F.; Martín, E.; Viéitez, I.

    2016-03-01

    Although programs have been developed for the design of tools for hot forging, its design is still largely based on the experience of the tool maker. This obliges to build some test matrices and correct their errors to minimize distortions in the forged piece. This phase prior to mass production consumes time and material resources, which makes the final product more expensive. The forging tools are usually constituted by various parts made of different grades of steel, which in turn have different mechanical properties and therefore suffer different degrees of strain. Furthermore, the tools used in the hot forging are exposed to a thermal field that also induces strain or stress based on the degree of confinement of the piece. Therefore, the mechanical behaviour of the assembly is determined by the contact between the different pieces. The numerical simulation allows to analyse different configurations and anticipate possible defects before tool making, thus, reducing the costs of this preliminary phase. In order to improve the dimensional quality of the manufactured parts, the work presented here focuses on the application of a numerical model to a hot forging manufacturing process in order to predict the areas of the forging die subjected to large deformations. The thermo-mechanical model developed and implemented with free software (Code-Aster) includes the strains of thermal origin, strains during forge impact and contact effects. The numerical results are validated with experimental measurements in a tooling set that produces forged crankshafts for the automotive industry. The numerical results show good agreement with the experimental tests. Thereby, a very useful tool for the design of tooling sets for hot forging is achieved.

  7. Effect of Technical Quality of Thermomechanical Die Forging of AA2099 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukaszek-Sołek A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigations of a multicomponent third-generation aluminium alloy, classified as AA2099. The actual forging conditions were determined basing on the assessment of the quality of side surface of specimens subjected to compression in Gleeble 3800 simulator and on flow curves of the alloy, as well as numerical modelling of forging process performed with application of QForm 3D v.7 software. Compression tests were realized at temperatures 400-500 °C, with a strain rate of 0.001-100 s-1, up to a specified constant true strain value of 0.9. Microstructure examination in as-delivered state was performed with application of Leica DM 4000M optical microscope. The obtained results of isothermal deformation of specimens were correlated with the analysis of a characteristic layered pancake-type microstructure. The simulation of die forging of a complex-shape forging (high-current contact tip used in power engineering at the temperature 500 °C, was performed. The shape of a forging makes it possible to fully analyse the influence of thermomechanical process conditions on technical quality of a product. The simulation of forging process showed full correctness of material flow, with no signs of instability. At the same time, the analysis of investigations allowed to prepare and realize the industrial forging trials for a forging of a very complex shape, in a single step, at the temperature 500 °C, with application of thermomechanical treatment. The forging attained high quality of shape and surface. Directional specimens were taken, in order to be subjected to microstructure examination and hardness testing. The data obtained from industrial tests, combined with the results of testing using Gleeble simulator as well as from numerical modelling, make up the guidelines for mechanical processing of AA2099 alloy at the temperatures 470-500 °C.

  8. Decomposition of forging die for high speed machining

    CERN Document Server

    Tapie, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Today's forging die manufacturing process must be adapted to several evolutions in machining process generation: CAD/CAM models, CAM software solutions and High Speed Machining (HSM). In this context, the adequacy between die shape and HSM process is in the core of machining preparation and process planning approaches. This paper deals with an original approach of machining preparation integrating this adequacy in the main tasks carried out. In this approach, the design of the machining process is based on two levels of decomposition of the geometrical model of a given die with respect to HSM cutting conditions (cutting speed and feed rate) and technological constrains (tool selection, features accessibility). This decomposition assists machining assistant to generate an HSM process. The result of this decomposition is the identification of machining features.

  9. Mechanism of Annealing Softening of Rolled or Forged Tool Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In order to reduce hardness of rolled or forged steels after annealing and improve processability, the diameter and dispersity of carbides were measured by SEM and quantitative metallography. The microstructure of annealed steel was analyzed by TEM. The effects of the factors such as solute atoms, carbides, grain boundary and interphase boundary were studied. The mechanism of annealing softening of steels was analyzed on the examples of steels H13, S5, S7, X45CrNiMo4, which are treated with new technology. The results showed that the softening of H13, S7, S5 is easier obtained by isothermal or slow cooling annealing from slightly below A1, but hardness of X45CrNiMo4 after annealing is reduced effectively by obtaining coarse lamellar pearlite. Economic results can be obtained from good processability.

  10. Numerical optimization of die geometry in open die forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Bay, Niels

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with numerical optimization of open die forging of large metallic ingots made by casting implying risk of defects, e.g. central pores. Different material hardening properties and die geometries are combined in order to investigate, which geometry gives rise to maximum closure...... of a centreline hole in a single compression operation. Friction is also taken into account. The numerical analysis indicates that a lower die angle of approximately 140o results in the largest centreline hole closure for a wide range of material hardening. The value of optimum die angle is not influenced...... by friction, which was found only to change the degree of centreline porosity closure in case of small lower die angle....

  11. Forging of Mg-alloys AZ31 and AZ80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehweger, B.; Karabet, A.; Duering, M. [Brandenburg University of Technology, Interdisciplinary Research Centre for Lightweight Materials ' ' Panta Rhei' ' , Konrad-Wachsmann-Allee 17, 03046 Cottbus (Germany); Schaeffer, L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2005-05-01

    Mg-wrought alloys recently became an engineer material of constantly increasing interest. The mechanical properties of extruded Mg-feedstock of the alloys AZ80 and AZ31 indicate their suitability for automotive applications in form of high-quality forgings. Therefore a detailed knowledge about the forming behaviour is of particular importance. In order to compare mechanical properties of available Mg-feedstock qualities compression tests at room temperature have been carried out by applying batches of AZ31- and AZ80-feedstock. Cylindrical specimens were made out of received continuously casted as well as extruded AZ31- and AZ80 - rods. A quantitative analysis of Mg-feedstock's microstructure has been carried out. The characterization of the deformability of applied Mg-feedstock under hot working conditions could be performed by means of uniaxial plain strain upsetting tests at temperatures between 300 and 450 C as well as logarithmic strain rates of 10{sup -1}, 1 and 10s{sup -1}. It is shown that the chosen parameter range ensures an enhanced deformability of continuously as well as extruded Mg-feedstock. The subsequently carried out determination of microstructural evolution could be related to obtained flow stress curves of applied batches of Mg-feedstock. Furthermore, FVM/FEM-systems have been employed in order to design a simplified geometry of heated forging dies suitable for forging tests. The tests have been carried out by means of a hydraulic press. During the tests their punch velocity has been varied between 1 and 40 mm/s. Hence numerically simulated results could be confirmed by practical tests. Exemplary forgings of a simplified shape were made out of all applied batches of Mg-feedstock. No remarkable failures have been detected. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Das Interesse an Mg-Knetlegierungen als Konstruktionswerkstoff fuer automobile Anwendung ist in juengster Zeit stark gewachsen. Daher ist eine detaillierte

  12. Follow-up of hearing thresholds among forge hammering workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, A.A.; Mikael, R.A.; Faris, R. (Ain Shams Univ., Abbasia, Cairo (Egypt))

    1989-01-01

    Hearing threshold was reexamined in a group of forge hammering workers investigated 8 years ago with consideration of the age effect and of auditory symptoms. Workers were exposed to impact noise that ranged from 112 to 139 dB(A)--at an irregular rate of 20 to 50 drop/minute--and a continuous background noise that ranged from 90 to 94 dB(A). Similar to what was observed 8 years ago, the present permanent threshold shift (PTS) showed a maximum notch at the frequency of 6 kHz and considerable elevations at the frequencies of 0.25-1 kHz. The age-corrected PTS and the postexposure hearing threshold were significantly higher than the corresponding previous values at the frequencies 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 8 kHz only. The rise was more evident at the low than at the high frequencies. Temporary threshold shift (TTS) values were significantly less than those 8 years ago. Contrary to the previous TTS, the present TTS were higher at low than at high frequencies. Although progression of PTS at the frequencies 0.25 and 0.5 kHz was continuous throughout the observed durations of exposure, progression at higher frequencies occurred essentially in the first 10 to 15 years of exposure. Thereafter, it followed a much slower rate. Tinnitus was significantly associated with difficulty in hearing the human voice and with elevation of PTS at all the tested frequencies, while acoustic after-image was significantly associated with increment of PTS at the frequencies 0.25-2 kHz. No relation between PTS and smoking was found. PTS at low frequencies may provide an indication of progression of hearing damage when the sensitivity at 6 and 4 kHz diminishes after prolonged years of exposure. Tinnitus and acoustic after-image are related to the auditory effect of forge hammering noise.

  13. Hot Superplastic Powder Forging for Transparent nanocrystalline Ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, W. Roger

    2006-05-22

    The program explored a completely new, economical method of manufacturing nanocrystalline ceramics, Hot Superplastic Powder Forging (HSPF). The goal of the work was the development of nanocrystalline/low porosity optically transparent zirconia/alumina. The high optical transparency should result from lack of grain boundary scattering since grains will be smaller than one tenth the wavelength of light and from elimination of porosity. An important technological potential for this process is manufacturing of envelopes for high-pressure sodium vapor lamps. The technique for fabricating monolithic nanocrystalline material does not begin with powder whose particle diameter is <100 nm as is commonly done. Instead it begins with powder whose particle diameter is on the order of 10-100 microns but contains nanocrystalline crystallites <<100 nm. Spherical particles are quenched from a melt and heat treated to achieve the desired microstructure. Under a moderate pressure within a die or a mold at temperatures of 1100C to 1300C densification is by plastic flow of superplastic particles. A nanocrystalline microstructure results, though some features are greater than 100nm. It was found, for instance, that in the fully dense Al2O3-ZrO2 eutectic specimens that a bicontinuous microstructure exists containing <100 nm ZrO2 particles in a matrix of Al2O3 grains extending over 1-2 microns. Crystallization, growth, phase development and creep during hot pressing and forging were studied for several compositions and so provided some details on development of polycrystalline microstructure from heating quenched ceramics.

  14. Laser-dispersing of forging tools using AlN-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noelke, C.; Luecke, M.; Kaierle, S.; Wesling, V.; Overmeyer, L.

    2014-02-01

    Forging tools for aluminum work pieces show an increased adhesive wear due to cold welding during the forging process. Laser dispersing offers at this point a great potential to fabricate protective layers or tracks with tailored properties that reduce abrasive or adhesive wear at the surface of highly stressed components. Using different process strategies, four metal ceramic compounds applied on two substrate geometries were investigated regarding their structural and mechanical properties and their performance level. The subsequent forging tests have pointed out a positive effect and less adhesive residuals on the laser dispersed tool surface.

  15. The Effect of Corner Radii and Part Orientation on Stress Distribution of Cold Forging Die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad B.  Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most critical problems in cold forging is the huge stresses generated from the deformation of metal leads to die failure. The distribution of stresses mainly depends on geometry of the die. An approach to optimal design in cold forging die geometry and orientation are presented in this paper. The impression cold forging dies of the Universal joint was generated using three-dimensional CAD modeling software, SolidWorks. This CAD modeling software coupled with FEA tools, COSMOSWorks. The paper emphasizes on effect of the corner radius and dies orientation on stress distribution.

  16. Forge, Arquillian, Swarm and Spring Boot: All play and no effort makes Simon a productive boy

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    During this live coding session, Simon will shine some light on a range productivity tools that make software development a pleasure rather than a chore. Simon will live code 2 applications; a Java EE application, with JBoss Forge which uses JPA, Bean Validation, REST and Angular. We’ll test this application using Arquillian from within JBoss Forge. We’ll also show how a Java EE microservice can be developed in Forge and run using JBoss Swarm. The second application will be developed on Spring Boot and using JRebel we’ll rapidly develop and run a Spring application. Attendees will learn how to write code productively using tools designed for developers.

  17. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of hypereutectic Al–Si alloy processed by liquid die forging

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F F Wu; S T Li; G A Zhang; F Jiang

    2014-08-01

    The microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of a hypereutectic Al–Si alloy processed by liquid die forging were investigated. It is found that the grain size of the primary Si was significantly reduced by liquid die forging with increased pressure. The volume fraction of eutectic silicon was decreased with increased pressure. By liquid die forging with pressure up to 180 MPa, the average size of the primary Si was reduced to about 18 m, which results in the remarkable increase in the fracture strength and hardness of the hypereutectic Al–Si alloy.

  18. Qualitative Research of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Aircraft Brackets Produced by a New Forging Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziubińska A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports a selection of numerical and experimental results of a new closed-die forging method for producing AZ31 magnesium alloy aircraft brackets with one rib. The numerical modelling of the new forming process was performed by the finite element method.The distributions of stresses, strains, temperature and forces were examined. The numerical results confirmed that the forgings produced by the new forming method are correct. For this reason, the new forming process was verified experimentally. The experimental results showed good agreement with the numerical results. The produced forgings of AZ31 magnesium alloy aircraft brackets with one rib were then subjected to qualitative tests.

  19. Research on forging method of marine long-shaft heaving forging%船用长轴类大锻件锻造工艺方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏琴香; 向可; 赵学智; 李一振

    2013-01-01

    船用长轴类大锻件是船舶动力装置的重要组成部分,其质量好坏直接影响船舶的推进特性和正常航行.本文以某船用中间轴为研究对象,对普通平砧锻造法、FM锻造法和上下砧不等宽锻造方法下的压方过程进行了数值模拟,应用数值模拟软件Deform-3D建立了相应的有限元模型,对坯料温度场、应力分布、锻造力和锻造效率进行了分析.结果表明:采用平砧锻造时,锻件的锻造效率最高,所需锻造力小,且表面温度下降最慢;采用FM法锻造时能获得较理想的压应力分布状态.%As the most important components of marine power installation, the quality of the long-axis heavy forgings has a direct influence on the hydrodynamic characteristics and normal voyage of marine. The squaring process of the marine intermediate shaft forged by flat anvil, FM method and the unequal flat anvil was simulated. The finite element model was established based on numerical simulation software Deform-3D, and the temperature field, stress distribution, forging force and forging efficiency were analyzed. The results show that comparing with the FM method and unequal flat anvil forging, when forging by flat anvil, the forming efficiency is the highest, the forging force is the smallest and the deceasing speed of the surface temperature of forging billet is the slowest; when forging by FM method, the ideal compressive stress distribution state can be obtained along the billet cross section.

  20. Insegnamiento dell'italiano nell'Ontario (The Teaching of Italian in Ontario)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verna, Anthony

    1972-01-01

    Paper read at the International Congress of Teachers of Italian held at the Universita Italiana per Stranieri in Perugia, Italy, August 27-28, 1971. Discusses the patterns of growth of Italian studies in Ontario at high school and university levels. (DS)

  1. Insegnamiento dell'italiano nell'Ontario (The Teaching of Italian in Ontario)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verna, Anthony

    1972-01-01

    Paper read at the International Congress of Teachers of Italian held at the Universita Italiana per Stranieri in Perugia, Italy, August 27-28, 1971. Discusses the patterns of growth of Italian studies in Ontario at high school and university levels. (DS)

  2. Theoretical and experimental research of hammer forging process of RIM from AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gontarz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of theoretical analysis and experimental tests of hammer forging process of rim part from AZ31 magnesium alloy are presented in this paper. On the basis of numerical simulation results, the analysis of limiting phenomena was made. These phenomena include: possibility of overlapping presence, not filling of die impression, overheating of material and cracks. The results of theoretical analysis provided the support for planning of experimental tests in industrial conditions. Forging tests were conducted in one of Polish forming plants, applying steam-air hammer of blow energy 63 kJ. On the basis of experimental verification, it was stated that it is possible to obtain rim forging from AZ31 alloy of assumed quality in the hammer forging process.

  3. Sensitivity Analysis Based Multiple Objective Preform Die Shape Optimal Design in Metal Forging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The multiple objective preform design optimization was put forward. The final forging's shape and deformation uniformity were considered in the multiple objective. The objective is to optimize the shape and the deformation uniformity of the final forging at the same time so that a more high integrate quality of the final forging can be obtained. The total objective was assembled by the shape and uniformity objective using the weight adding method. The preform die shape is presented by cubic B-spline curves. The control points of B-spline curves are used as the design variables. The forms of the total objective function, shape and uniformity sub-objective function are given. The sensitivities of the total objective function and the sub-objective functions with respect to the design variables are developed. Using this method, the preform die shape of an H-shaped forging process is optimally designed. The optimization results are very satisfactory.

  4. Spatial Vegetation Data for Valley Forge National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation and landcover of Valley Forge National Historical Park (VAFO) were mapped to the association level of the National Vegetation Classification System...

  5. Color Orthorectified Photomosaic for Valley Forge National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Orthorectified color infrared Imagine image of Valley Forge NHP. Produced from 49 color infrared photos taken September 1999. Orthorectification accomplished with...

  6. Simulation and Analysis of Microstructure Evolution of IN718 in Rotary Forgings by FEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhong-qi; MA Qiu; LIN Zhong-qin

    2008-01-01

    A numerical analysis was performed to study the influence of process parameters on the microstructure evolution of IN718 alloy in rotary forging using the finite element method (FEM).For this purpose,a constitutive equation considering the effects of strain hardening and dynamic softening of IN718 alloy was built.The constitutive equation and microstructure models were implemented into the finite element code to investigate the microstructure evolution during rotary forging subject to large deformations.The simulations were carried out in the ratio of initial height to diameter range 0.2-0.8,the angle of the rocker 3°-7° and the relative feed per revolution range 0.01-0.1 r-1.The research results revealed the deformation mechanism and the correlation of process parameters with the grain size evolution of IN718 alloy during rotary forging.These provide evidence for the selection of rotary forging parameters.

  7. Field Plot Points Modified for Valley Forge National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile includes the locations of vegetation classification sampling plots used to develop an association-level vegetation classification of Valley Forge...

  8. Air Quality in the Central Ontario Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbor, P. K.; Meng, F.; Singh, R.; Galvez, O.; Sloan, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    The Central Ontario Region (COR) is the most densely populated area in Canada. With a population of 7.3 million, it contains 23% of the total population of Canada. It extends from the extreme south west end of Ontario to the eastern end of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and includes the Niagara, Hamilton and Waterloo Regions,. The air quality of this region is frequently severely impaired in the summer months. In the larger metropolitan areas (Toronto and Hamilton) air pollution is a concern throughout the year. Local health authorities attribute about 1000 premature deaths per year in the GTA alone to air pollution. Average air pollution levels in Ontario have decreased significantly during the past 30 years, despite significant growth in both population and industry. The concentrations of SO2 and CO have decreased by over 80% and the concentration of NOX has decreased by about 50% over the past 26 years. Currently, the concentrations of NOX, CO, SO2 and VOCs in the COR are well below the Provincial and Federal air quality criteria. Ozone, PM2.5 and PM10, however, remain above the Provincial guidelines, so smog still remains a problem. The pollutants in the atmosphere of the COR are caused by both local emissions and long range transport. The COR contributes over 50% of the NOx, VOC and CO emissions in Ontario. Over 58% of NOX and CO emissions in the COR are due to mobile sources while about 50% of VOC and PM emissions are due to area sources. The proximity of the COR to the Canada-U.S. border makes it vulnerable to long range transport of pollutants stemming from the much larger population in the United States. The Canadian government, industries and non-governmental organizations are all taking steps to help reduce the level of pollution in Canada. The Canadian federal government also participates in extensive consultations and cooperative programs with the United States designed to reduce the mutually detrimental effects of cross-border pollution. These

  9. Municipal-Aboriginal Relations: An Ontario Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alia Hanif

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In Canada, there are many examples of respectful relationships between municipalities and Aboriginal communities. Where Aboriginal peoples have concerns with the actions or inaction of governments (be they federal, provincial or municipal governments, it is often municipalities that are directly affected by the measures taken by Aboriginal peoples to express their concerns. To help reduce possible conflicts at the municipal level and find shared solutions, the Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing of the Province of Ontario has been advising municipalities in the province on the benefits of engaging and developing relationships with Aboriginal peoples.

  10. Evaluation of network RTK in southern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi, Amir

    Network Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) has become popular in the past decade as an efficient method of precise, real-time positioning. Its relatively low cost and ease-of-use makes it a good candidate to replace static relative Global Positioning System (GPS) in, e.g., land surveying. A lack of previous studies aroused the interest of the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (MTO) to request York University to complete a comprehensive study of the performance of network RTK in southern Ontario and whether it is a suitable method for MTO control surveying. Extensive fieldwork campaigns in the winter of 2010 and summer of 2011 were carried out and ˜300 hours of static and ˜50 hours of kinematic network RTK data were collected from three different service providers. A set of metrics were defined to characterize the performance of network RTK: availability, time-to-first-fix, precision, accuracy, solution integrity and moving average filtering. The data were used to characterize the horizontal performance of network RTK services and the results along with a set of guidelines and specifications were provided (Saeidi et al., 2011; Bisnath et al., 2012). This thesis presents the horizontal network RTK performance evaluation, as well as the vertical and kinematic performance. The aforementioned metrics are used to evaluate the quality of network RTK in southern Ontario, and to compare to similar services available in other locations. The result have revealed expected ˜2-3 cm (95%) precision for the horizontal and vertical components; however, large horizontal and vertical biases were observed, which can be as high as 4 cm. The solution integrity has shown that typically, 3σ solution uncertainties are larger than the actual errors, unless large biases exist. Moving average filtering has confirmed that due to large outliers and spikes in the solutions, 1 second observation periods are not sufficient to provide a precise solution; larger observation windows should be used, e

  11. Numerical analysis of rheological and tribological behavior influence on 16MnCr5 forging fibering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrus, A.; Pintilie, D.; Nedelcu, R.

    2016-10-01

    The present research work is focus on the influence of the rheological constitutive equation and friction law formulation on 16MnCr5 forging fibering. Numerical analysis using FE Forge® and Abaqus code show the importance of the rheological softening terms on the metals fibers morphology and position coordinate. Calibration of friction law and sensitivity of softening parameters corresponding to a Hansel-Spittel rheological equation have been studied.

  12. Establishment of a Process for Creep Forging Aluminum Alloy Weapon Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    the important powder particle character- istics are mean particle size and size distribution, dendritic cell size and pattern, internal voids , and...Geometry Forging No. 26 (Fig. 53) showed excellent die filling except for a slight underfill at the tallest rib. Minor cracking also occurred over a small...Much cracking and underfill In rib detal1. 0.2 750 400 1 Some cracking Trimmed weight, 3.0 lb. 0.1 830 150 - Forged

  13. Development of strategies for saving energy by temperature reduction in warm forging processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Sonia; Santos, Maite; Vadillo, Leire; Idoyaga, Zuriñe; Valbuena, Óscar

    2016-10-01

    This paper is associated to the European policy of increasing efficiency in raw material and energy usage. This policy becomes even more important in sectors consuming high amount of resources, like hot forging industry, where material costs sums up to 50% of component price and energy ones are continuously raising. The warm forging shows a clear potential of raw material reduction (near-net-shape components) and also of energy saving (forging temperature under 1000°C). However and due to the increment of the energy costs, new solutions are required by the forging sector in order to reduce the temperature below 900°C. The reported research is based on several approaches to reduce the forging temperature applied to a flanged shaft of the automotive sector as demonstration case. The developed investigations have included several aspects: raw material, process parameters, tools and dies behavior during forging process and also metallographic evaluation of the forged parts. This paper summarizes analysis of the ductility and the admissible forces of the flanged shaft material Ck45 in as-supplied state (as-rolled) and also in two additional heat treated states. Hot compression and tensile tests using a GLEEBLE 3800C Thermo mechanical simulator have been performed pursuing this target. In the same way, a coupled numerical model based on Finite Element Method (FEM) has been developed to predict the material flow, the forging loads and the stresses on the tools at lower temperature with the new heat treatments of the raw material. In order to validate the previous development, experimental trials at 850 °C and 750 °C were carried out in a mechanical press and the results were very promising.

  14. Pedagogical over Punitive: The Academic Integrity Websites of Ontario Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This study is a snapshot of how Ontario universities are currently promoting academic integrity (AI) online. Rather than concentrating on policies, this paper uses a semiotic methodology to consider how the websites of Ontario's publicly funded universities present AI through language and image. The paper begins by surveying each website and…

  15. Ontario Kindergarten Teachers' Social Media Discussions about Full Day Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Meghan

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory netnographic study describes how a sample of Ontario kindergarten teachers perceive the new Ontario Full Day Kindergarten (FDK) curriculum. Discussions from teacher message boards, the comment sections of online news articles, and interviews with kindergarten teachers were analyzed and coded using a qualitative approach. Analysis…

  16. Education Governance Reform in Ontario: Neoliberalism in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between neoliberal ideology and the discourse and practice of education governance reform in Ontario over the last two decades. It focuses on changes in education governance introduced by successive Ontario governments: the NDP government from 1990 to 1995, the Progressive Conservative government from 1995 to…

  17. Liquidation of the company

    OpenAIRE

    Procházka, Michal

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with the liquidation of the company focusing on commercial companies. It describes whole process of liquidation from decision to liquidate to delete the company from the Commercial Register. The work also focuses on legal, accounting and tax site of liquidation. Accounting practices in the liquidation process are illustrated on the example of a fictive company.

  18. FEM Analysis and Experimental Verification of the Integral Forging Process for AP1000 Primary Coolant Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenglong; Yu, Xiaoyi; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Mingxian; Wu, Huanchun

    2016-10-01

    AP1000 primary coolant pipes must be manufactured by integral forging technology according to the designer—Westinghouse Electric Co. The characteristics of these large, special-shaped pipes create nonuniform temperatures, effective stress, and effective strain during shaping of the pipes. This paper presents a three-dimensional finite element simulation (3D FEM) of the integral forging process, and qualitatively evaluates the likelihood of forging defects. By analyzing the evolution histories of the three field variables, we concluded that the initial forging temperature should be strictly controlled within the interval 1123 K to 1423 K (850 °C to 1150 °C) to avoid second-phase precipitation. In the hard deformation zones, small strains do not contribute to recrystallization resulting in coarse grains. Conversely, in the free deformation zone, the large strains can contribute to the dynamic recrystallization, favoring grain refinement and closure of voids. Cracks are likely to appear, however, on the workpiece surface when forging leads to large deformations. Based on the simulation results, an eligible workpiece with good mechanical properties, few macroscopic defects, and favorable grain size has been successfully forged by experiments at an industrial scale, which validates the FEM simulation.

  19. Deformation, recrystallization, strength, and fracture of press-forged ceramic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Sapphire and ruby were very difficult to press-forge because they deformed without cracking only in a limited temperature range before they melted. Spinel crystals were somewhat easier and MgO, CaO, and TiC crystals much easier to forge. The degree of recrystallization that occurred during forging (which was related to the ease and type of slip intersections) varied from essentially zero in Al2O3 to complete (i.e., random polycrystalline bodies were produced) in CaO. Forging of bi- and polycrystalline bodies produced incoherent bodies as a result of grain-boundary sliding. Strengths of the forged crystals were comparable to those of dense polycrystalline bodies of similar grain size. However, forged and recrystallized CaO crystals were ductile at lower temperatures than dense hot-pressed CaO. This behavior is attributed to reduced grain-boundary impurities and porosity. Fracture origins could be located, indicating that fracture in the CaO occurs internally as a result of surface work hardening caused by machining.-

  20. Cancer nursing in Ontario: defining nursing roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Margaret I; Mings, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    The delivery of cancer care in Ontario is facing unprecedented challenges. Shortages in nursing, as in all professional disciplines, are having an impact on the delivery of cancer care. Oncology nurses have a major role to play in the delivery of optimum cancer care. Oncology nursing, when adequately defined and supported, can benefit the cancer delivery system, patients, and families. A primary nursing model is seen as being key to the delivery of optimum cancer care. Primary nursing as a philosophy facilitates continuity of care, coordination of a patient's care plan, and a meaningful ongoing relationship with the patient and his/her family. Primary nursing, when delivered in the collaboration of a nurse-physician team, allows for medical resources to be used appropriately. Defined roles enable nurses to manage patients within their scope of practice in collaboration with physicians. Enacting other nursing roles, such as nurse practitioners and advanced practice nurses, can also enable the health care system to manage a broader number of patients with more complex needs. This article presents a position paper originally written as the basis for an advocacy and education initiative in Ontario. It is shared in anticipation that the work may be useful to oncology nurses in other jurisdictions in their efforts to advance oncology nursing and improvement of patient care.

  1. The Northern Ontario School of Medicine: responding to the needs of the people and communities of Northern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Roger; Lanphear, Joel

    2008-12-01

    Northern Ontario, like many rural and remote regions around the world, has a chronic shortage of health professionals. Recognizing that medical graduates who have grown up in rural areas are more likely to practice in rural settings, the Government of Ontario, Canada established a new medical school with a social accountability mandate to contribute to improving the health of the peoples and communities of Northern Ontario. The Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM) is a joint initiative of Laurentian University in Sudbury and Lakehead University in Thunder Bay, cities one thousand kilometers apart. The NOSM model of medical education is built on several recent educational developments including rural-based medical education, social accountability of medical education and electronic distance education. This paper describes these developments as background to presenting the Northern Ontario School of Medicine as a socially accountable, geographically distributed rural-based medical school. NOSM MD PROGRAM: The school actively seeks to recruit students for the MD program from Northern Ontario or similar northern, rural, remote, Aboriginal, and Francophone backgrounds. The holistic, cohesive curriculum is grounded in Northern Ontario and relies heavily on broadband electronic communications to support distributed, community engaged learning. Students, both in classroom and clinical settings, explore cases as if they were physicians in Northern Ontario communities. Clinical education takes place in a wide range of community and health service settings so that students can experience the diversity of communities and cultures in Northern Ontario. Although NOSM is still in the early stages of development, there are encouraging signs that the school's evidence-based model of medical education will be successful in developing a sustainable, community responsive health workforce for Northern Ontario.

  2. Movement Synchrony Forges Social Bonds Across Group Divides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar eTuncgenc

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Group dynamics play an important role in the social interactions of both children and adults. A large amount of research has shown that merely being allocated to arbitrarily defined groups can evoke disproportionately positive attitudes toward one’s in-group and negative attitudes toward out-groups, and that these biases emerge in early childhood. This prompts important empirical questions with far-reaching theoretical and applied significance. How robust are these inter-group biases? Can biases be mitigated by behaviors known to bond individuals and groups together? How can bonds be forged across existing group divides? To explore these questions, we examined the bonding effects of interpersonal synchrony on minimally constructed groups in a controlled experiment. In-group and out-group bonding were assessed using questionnaires administered before and after a task in which groups performed movements either synchronously or non-synchronously in a between-participants design. We also developed an implicit behavioral measure, the Island Game, in which physical proximity was used as an indirect measure of interpersonal closeness. Self-report and behavioral measures showed increased bonding between groups after synchronous movement. Bonding with the out-group was significantly higher in the condition in which movements were performed synchronously than when movements were performed non-synchronously between groups. The findings are discussed in terms of their importance for the developmental social psychology of group dynamics as well as their implications for applied intervention programs.

  3. Forged seal detection based on the seal overlay metric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joong; Kong, Seong G; Lee, Young-Soo; Moon, Ki-Woong; Jeon, Oc-Yeub; Han, Jong Hyun; Lee, Bong-Woo; Seo, Joong-Suk

    2012-01-10

    This paper describes a method for verifying the authenticity of a seal impression imprinted on a document based on the seal overlay metric, which refers to the ratio of an effective seal impression pattern and the noise in the neighborhood of the reference impression region. A reference seal pattern is obtained by taking the average of a number of high-quality impressions of a genuine seal. A target seal impression to be examined, often on paper with some background texts and lines, is segmented out from the background by an adaptive threshold applied to the histogram of color components. The segmented target seal impression is then spatially aligned with the reference by maximizing the count of matching pixels. Then the seal overlay metric is computed for the reference and the target. If the overlay metric of a target seal is below a predetermined limit for the similarity to the genuine, then the target is classified as a forged seal. To further reduce the misclassification rate, the seal overlay metric is adjusted by the filling rate, which reflects the quality of inked pattern of the target seal. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method can detect elaborate seal impressions created by advanced forgery techniques such as lithography and computer-aided manufacturing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An Analysis Of The Industrial Forging Process Of Flange In Order To Reduce The Weight Of The Input Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gronostajski Z.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the industrial process of hot forging a flange. The authors developed several thermomechanical models of the forging process for which they carried out computer simulations using the MSC.Marc 2013 software. In the Jawor Forge flanges with a neck are manufactured by hot forging in crank presses with a maximum load of 25 MN. The input material, in the form of a square bar, is heated up to a temperature of 1150°C and then formed in three operations: upsetting, preliminary die forging and finishing die forging. The main aim of the studies and the numerical analyses, in which the geometry of the tools would be modified, was to maximally reduce the amount of the input material taking into account the capabilities of the Jawor Forge, and consequently to significantly reduce the production costs. Besides the Forge’s equipment resources, the main constraint for modifications was the flange-with-neck forging standard which explicitely defines the tolerances for this element. The studies, which included numerical modelling, infrared measurements and technological tests, consisted in changing the geometry of the tools and that of the forging preform. As a result, the optimum direction for modifications aimed at reducing the mass of the input material was determined. The best of the solutions, making it possible to produce a correct forging in the Jawor Forge operating conditions, were adopted whereby the weight of the preform was reduced by 6.11%. Currently research is underway aimed at the application of the proposed and verified modifications to other flange forgings.

  5. The Efficacy of Key Performance Indicators in Ontario Universities as Perceived by Key Informants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    The Ontario Ministry of Education and Training's Task Force on University Accountability first proposed key performance indicators (KPIs) for colleges and universities in Ontario in the early 1990s. The three main KPIs for Ontario universities are the rates of (1) graduation, (2) employment, and (3) Ontario Student Assistance Program loan default.…

  6. Global electricity company profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Global Electricity Company Profiles examines the operations and strategies of 60 of the leading electricity companies in the world. Through its analysis of the key players, the report provides a comprehensive review of the current state of the global electricity industry. Using electricity sales as its criteria, the most successful companies are compared in terms of their national, regional and global importance. Global Electricity Company Profiles provides an outline of each company, its structure and operations, as well as key financial data. The detailed performance benchmarking and review of expectations for future development for each individual company provide a wealth of invaluable strategic information not available elsewhere. (author)

  7. An Analysis Of The Industrial Forging Process Of Flange In Order To Reduce The Weight Of The Input Material

    OpenAIRE

    Gronostajski Z.; Hawryluk M.; Kaszuba M.; Misiun G.; Niechajowicz A.; Polak S.; Pawełczyk M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the industrial process of hot forging a flange. The authors developed several thermomechanical models of the forging process for which they carried out computer simulations using the MSC.Marc 2013 software. In the Jawor Forge flanges with a neck are manufactured by hot forging in crank presses with a maximum load of 25 MN. The input material, in the form of a square bar, is heated up to a temperature of 1150°C and then formed in three operations: upsetting, ...

  8. Strain-induced grain growth of cryomilled nanocrystalline Al in trimodal composites during forging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, B. [Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center, and Department of Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Simkin, B.; Majumdar, B. [Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Department, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Smith, C.; Bergh, M. van den [DWA Aluminum Composites, Chatsworth, CA 91311 (United States); Cho, K. [Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Sohn, Y.H., E-mail: Yongho.Sohn@ucf.edu [Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center, and Department of Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)

    2012-02-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grain growth of cryomilled nanocrystalline aluminum during hot forging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of hollow cone dark field imaging technique in TEM for grain size measurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grain growth model of strain, strain rate and temperature for forging optimization. - Abstract: Grain growth of nanocrystalline aluminum ({sup nc}Al) in trimodal Al metal-matrix-composites (MMCs) during hot forging was investigated. The {sup nc}Al phase formed through cryomilling of inert gas-atomized powders in liquid nitrogen has an average grain size down to 21 nm, exhibits excellent thermal stability. However, substantial grain growth of {sup nc}Al up to 63 nm was observed when the Al MMCs were thermo-mechanically processed even at relatively low temperatures. Grain growth of the cryomilled {sup nc}Al phase in trimodal Al MMCs after hot forging was documented with respect to temperature ranging from 175 Degree-Sign C to 287 Degree-Sign C, true strain ranging from 0.4 to 1.35 and strain rate ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 s{sup -1}. Hollow cone dark field imaging technique was employed to provide statistically confident measurements of {sup nc}Al grain size that ranged from 21 to 63 nm. An increase in forging temperature and an increase in true strain were correlated with an increase in grain size of {sup nc}Al. Results were correlated to devise a phenomenological grain growth model for forging that takes strain, strain rate and temperature into consideration. Activation energy for the grain growth during thermo-mechanical hot-forging was determined to be 35 kJ/mol, approximately a quarter of activation energy for bulk diffusion of Al and a half of activation energy for static recrystallization.

  9. Optimization and Mechanical Accuracy Reliability of a New Type of Forging Manipulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Kang; MA Chunxiang; ZHENG Maoqi; GAO Feng

    2015-01-01

    Researches on forging manipulator have enormous influence on the development of the forging industry and national economy. Clamp device and lifting mechanism are the core parts of forging manipulator, and have been studied for longer time. However, the optimization and mechanical accuracy reliability of them are less analyzed. Based on General Function(GF) set and parallel mechanism theory, proper configuration of 10t forging manipulator is selected firstly. A new type of forging manipulator driven by cylinders is proposed. After solved mechanical analysis of manipulator’s core mechanisms, expressions of force of cylinders are carried out. In order to achieve smaller force afforded by cylinders and better mechanical characteristics, some particular sizes of core mechanisms are optimized intuitively through the combined use of the genetic algorithms(GA) and GUI interface in MATLAB. Comparing with the original mechanisms, optimized clamp saves at least 8 percent efforts and optimized lifting mechanism 20 percent under maximum working condition. Finally, considering the existed manufacture error of components, mechanical accuracy reliability of optimized clamp, lifting mechanism and whole manipulator are demonstrated respectively based on fuzzy reliability theory. Obtained results show that the accuracy reliability of optimized clamp is bigger than 0.991 and that of optimized lifting mechanism is 0.995. To the whole manipulator under maximum working condition, that value exceeds 0.986 4, which means that optimized manipulator has high motion accuracy and is reliable. A new intuitive method is created to optimize forging manipulator sizes efficiently and more practical theory is utilized to analyze mechanical accuracy reliability of forging manipulator precisely.

  10. Making randomised trials more efficient: report of the first meeting to discuss the Trial Forge platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treweek, Shaun; Altman, Doug G; Bower, Peter; Campbell, Marion; Chalmers, Iain; Cotton, Seonaidh; Craig, Peter; Crosby, David; Davidson, Peter; Devane, Declan; Duley, Lelia; Dunn, Janet; Elbourne, Diana; Farrell, Barbara; Gamble, Carrol; Gillies, Katie; Hood, Kerry; Lang, Trudie; Littleford, Roberta; Loudon, Kirsty; McDonald, Alison; McPherson, Gladys; Nelson, Annmarie; Norrie, John; Ramsay, Craig; Sandercock, Peter; Shanahan, Daniel R; Summerskill, William; Sydes, Matt; Williamson, Paula; Clarke, Mike

    2015-06-05

    Randomised trials are at the heart of evidence-based healthcare, but the methods and infrastructure for conducting these sometimes complex studies are largely evidence free. Trial Forge ( www.trialforge.org ) is an initiative that aims to increase the evidence base for trial decision making and, in doing so, to improve trial efficiency.This paper summarises a one-day workshop held in Edinburgh on 10 July 2014 to discuss Trial Forge and how to advance this initiative. We first outline the problem of inefficiency in randomised trials and go on to describe Trial Forge. We present participants' views on the processes in the life of a randomised trial that should be covered by Trial Forge.General support existed at the workshop for the Trial Forge approach to increase the evidence base for making randomised trial decisions and for improving trial efficiency. Agreed upon key processes included choosing the right research question; logistical planning for delivery, training of staff, recruitment, and retention; data management and dissemination; and close down. The process of linking to existing initiatives where possible was considered crucial. Trial Forge will not be a guideline or a checklist but a 'go to' website for research on randomised trials methods, with a linked programme of applied methodology research, coupled to an effective evidence-dissemination process. Moreover, it will support an informal network of interested trialists who meet virtually (online) and occasionally in person to build capacity and knowledge in the design and conduct of efficient randomised trials.Some of the resources invested in randomised trials are wasted because of limited evidence upon which to base many aspects of design, conduct, analysis, and reporting of clinical trials. Trial Forge will help to address this lack of evidence.

  11. Epidemiology of Enterovirus D68 in Ontario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Peci

    Full Text Available In August 2014, children's hospitals in Kansas City, Missouri and Chicago, Illinois notified the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC about increased numbers of pediatric patients hospitalized with severe respiratory illness (SRI. In response to CDC reports, Public Health Ontario Laboratories (PHOL launched an investigation of patients being tested for enterovirus D-68 (EV-D68 in Ontario, Canada. The purpose of this investigation was to enhance our understanding of EV-D68 epidemiology and clinical features. Data for this study included specimens submitted for EV-D68 testing at PHOL from September 1, 2014 to October 31, 2014. Comparisons were made between patients who tested positive for the virus (cases and those testing negative (controls. EV-D68 was identified in 153/907 (16.8% of patients tested. In the logistic regression model adjusting for age, sex, setting and time to specimen collection, individuals younger than 20 years of age were more likely to be diagnosed with EV-D68 compared to those 20 and over, with peak positivity at ages 5-9 years. Cases were not more likely to be hospitalized than controls. Cases were more likely to be identified in September than October (OR 8.07; 95% CI 5.15 to 12.64. Routine viral culture and multiplex PCR were inadequate methods to identify EV-D68 due to poor sensitivity and inability to differentiate EV-D68 from other enterovirus serotypes or rhinovirus. Testing for EV-D68 in Ontario from July to December, 2014 detected the presence of EV-D68 virus among young children during September-October, 2014, with most cases detected in September. There was no difference in hospitalization status between cases and controls. In order to better understand the epidemiology of this virus, surveillance for EV-D68 should include testing of symptomatic individuals from all treatment settings and patient age groups, with collection and analysis of comprehensive clinical and epidemiological data.

  12. Epidemiology of Enterovirus D68 in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peci, Adriana; Winter, Anne-Luise; Warshawsky, Bryna; Booth, Tim F; Eshaghi, AliReza; Li, Aimin; Perusini, Stephen; Olsha, Romy; Marchand-Austin, Alex; Kristjanson, Erik; Gubbay, Jonathan B

    2015-01-01

    In August 2014, children's hospitals in Kansas City, Missouri and Chicago, Illinois notified the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) about increased numbers of pediatric patients hospitalized with severe respiratory illness (SRI). In response to CDC reports, Public Health Ontario Laboratories (PHOL) launched an investigation of patients being tested for enterovirus D-68 (EV-D68) in Ontario, Canada. The purpose of this investigation was to enhance our understanding of EV-D68 epidemiology and clinical features. Data for this study included specimens submitted for EV-D68 testing at PHOL from September 1, 2014 to October 31, 2014. Comparisons were made between patients who tested positive for the virus (cases) and those testing negative (controls). EV-D68 was identified in 153/907 (16.8%) of patients tested. In the logistic regression model adjusting for age, sex, setting and time to specimen collection, individuals younger than 20 years of age were more likely to be diagnosed with EV-D68 compared to those 20 and over, with peak positivity at ages 5-9 years. Cases were not more likely to be hospitalized than controls. Cases were more likely to be identified in September than October (OR 8.07; 95% CI 5.15 to 12.64). Routine viral culture and multiplex PCR were inadequate methods to identify EV-D68 due to poor sensitivity and inability to differentiate EV-D68 from other enterovirus serotypes or rhinovirus. Testing for EV-D68 in Ontario from July to December, 2014 detected the presence of EV-D68 virus among young children during September-October, 2014, with most cases detected in September. There was no difference in hospitalization status between cases and controls. In order to better understand the epidemiology of this virus, surveillance for EV-D68 should include testing of symptomatic individuals from all treatment settings and patient age groups, with collection and analysis of comprehensive clinical and epidemiological data.

  13. Feminism and women's health professions in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Tracey L; Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Historically, prevailing gender ideologies were an important element in both the exclusionary strategies employed by male occupational groups and the countervailing responses by female groups. The way in which evolving gender ideologies, and feminism in particular, influence the continuing struggle for greater status and recognition by female professions, however, remains to be fully explored. In this paper, we examine the impact and the role of feminism and feminist ideologies within three female professional projects: nursing, dental hygiene and midwifery in Ontario. We argue that feminism provides an ideology of opposition that enables leaders in these professions to battle against professional inequalities by laying bare the gender inequalities that underlie them. Framing their struggles in feminist terms, female professions also seek recognition for the uniquely female contribution they make to the health care division of labour. At the same time, there exists a tension between ideals of feminism and ideals of professionalism, that has the potential to undermine female professional projects.

  14. Oil heritage district : Lambton County Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, W. [Wendy Shearer Landscape Architect, Kitchener, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed a project conducted to assess the cultural heritage values of oil field equipment in Lambton County, Ontario. Oil was discovered in the region in 1858, after which a boom and bust cycle of exploration created a large rural-industrial landscape. The region now contains a unique collection of historic oil equipment. The region's industrial footprint is interwoven with village settlements, agricultural settlements, and a railway and road network linking the region to remote refineries. Oil wells in the region still operate using a jerker line system developed in the early twentieth century. The operational oil wells are subject to fluctuating oil prices and environmental protection requirements. The project presents a rare opportunity to place industrial heritage conservation directly in the hands of business operators and regulators, while also functioning as part of a living community. 2 figs.

  15. Expanding Scope of Practice for Ontario Optometrists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Bray

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, The Optometry Act, 1991 was amended to include The Designated Drugs and Standards of Practice Regulation which expanded the scope of practice for Ontario optometrists to include prescribing privileges from a specific list of drugs. The goals of the optometry reform were to increase access to care, decrease burden on medical and hospital resources and allow optometrists to practice to their full scope. The policy response was spurred by a recommendation from the Health Professions Regulatory Advisory Council and the prescribing precedence in other Canadian jurisdictions. Bill 171, The Health Systems Improvement Act, amended The Optometry Act, 1991, Section 4 to include the authorized act of prescribing designated drugs, while The Designated Drugs and Standards of Practice, passed on 6 April 2011, listed the individual drugs optometrists are authorized to prescribe. The resulting response of a specific list of authorized drugs was seen as a limiting and inflexible system that will require changes as newer drugs are developed.

  16. Forecasting Ontario's blood supply and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drackley, Adam; Newbold, K Bruce; Paez, Antonio; Heddle, Nancy

    2012-02-01

    Given an aging population that requires increased medical care, an increasing number of deferrals from the donor pool, and a growing immigrant population that typically has lower donation rates, the purpose of this article is to forecast Ontario's blood supply and demand. We calculate age- and sex-specific donation and demand rates for blood supply based on 2008 data and project demand between 2008 and 2036 based on these rates and using population data from the Ontario Ministry of Finance. Results indicate that blood demand will outpace supply as early as 2012. For instance, while the total number of donations made by older cohorts is expected to increase in the coming years, the number of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in the 70+ age group is forecasted grow from approximately 53% of all RBC transfusions in 2008 (209,515) in 2008 to 68% (546,996) by 2036. A series of alternate scenarios, including projections based on a 2% increase in supply per year and increased use of apheresis technology, delays supply shortfalls, but does not eliminate them without active management and/or multiple methods to increase supply and decrease demand. Predictions show that demand for blood products will outpace supply in the near future given current age- and sex-specific supply and demand rates. However, we note that the careful management of the blood supply by Canadian Blood Services, along with new medical techniques and the recruitment of new donors to the system, will remove future concerns. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  17. Epidemiology of myasthenia gravis in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiner, Ari; Widdifield, Jessica; Katzberg, Hans D; Barnett, Carolina; Bril, Vera; Tu, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Incidence and prevalence estimates in myasthenia gravis have varied widely. Recent studies based on administrative health data have large sample sizes but lack rigorous validation of MG cases, and have not examined the North American population. Our aim was to explore trends in MG incidence and prevalence for the years 1996-2013 in the province of Ontario, Canada (population 13.5 million). We employed a previously validated algorithm to identify MG cases. Linking with census data allowed for the calculation of crude- and age/sex-standardized incidence and prevalence rates for the years 1996-2013. The regional distribution of MG cases throughout the province was examined. Mean age at the first myasthenia gravis encounter was 60.2 ± 17.1 years. In 2013, there were 3611 prevalent cases in Ontario, and the crude prevalence rate was 32.0/100,000 population. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence rates rose consistently over time from 16.3/100,000 (15.4-17.1) in 1996 to 26.3/100,000 (25.4-27.3) in 2013. Standardized incidence rates remained stable between 1996 (2.7/100,000; 95% CL 2.3-3.0) and 2013 (2.3/100,000; 2.1-2.6). Incidence was highest in younger women and older men, and geographic variation was evident throughout the province. In conclusion, this large epidemiological study shows rising myasthenia gravis prevalence with stable incidence over time, which is likely reflective of patients living longer, possibly due to improved disease treatment. Our findings provide accurate information on the Canadian epidemiology of myasthenia gravis and burden for health care resources planning for the province, respectively.

  18. Influence of the Constitutive Flow Law in FEM Simulation of the Radial Forging Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Pantalé

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radial forging is a widely used forming process for manufacturing hollow products in transport industry. As the deformation of the workpiece, during the process, is a consequence of a large number of high-speed strokes, the Johnson-Cook constitutive law (taking into account the strain rate seems to be well adapted for representing the material behavior even if the process is performed under cold conditions. But numerous contributions concerning radial forging analysis, in the literature, are based on a simple elastic-plastic formulation. As far as we know, this assumption has yet not been validated for the radial forging process. Because of the importance of the flow law in the effectiveness of the model, our purpose in this paper is to analyze the influence of the use of an elastic-viscoplastic formulation instead of an elastic-plastic one for modeling the cold radial forging process. In this paper we have selected two different laws for the simulations: the Johnson-Cook and the Ludwik ones, and we have compared the results in terms of forging force, product's thickness, strains, stresses, and CPU time. For the presented study we use an AISI 4140 steel, and we denote a fairly good agreement between the results obtained using both laws.

  19. Structural changes of radial forging die surface during service under thermo-mechanical fatigue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nematzadeh, Fardin [Materials and Energy Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akbarpour, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: mreza.akbarpour@gmail.com [Materials and Energy Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kokabi, Amir Hosein; Sadrnezhaad, Seyed Khatiboleslam [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Radial forging is one of the modern open die forging techniques and has a wide application in producing machine parts. During operation at high temperatures, severe temperature change associated with mechanical loads and the resultant wearing of the die surface lead to intense variation in strain on the die surface. Therefore, under this operating condition, thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) occurs on the surface of the radial forging die. TMF decreases the life of the die severely. In the present research, different layers were deposited on a 1.2714 steel die by SMAW and GTAW, with a weld wire of UDIMET 520. The microstructure of the radial forging die surface was investigated during welding and service using an optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The results revealed that, after welding, the structure of the radial forging die surface includes the {gamma} matrix with a homogeneous distribution of fine semi-spherical carbides. The weld structure consisted mostly of columnar dendrites with low grain boundaries. Also, microstructural investigation of the die surface during operation showed that the weld structure of the die surface has remained without any considerable change. Only dendrites were deformed and broken. Moreover, grain boundaries of the dendrites were revealed during service.

  20. New design of process for cold forging to improve multi-stage gas fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Sung Huang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a process that solves the problem of the formation of cracks inside forged gas fittings in the cold forging process that arises from poor forging process design. DEFORM-3D forming software was utilized, and macroscopic experiments with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were conducted to investigate the processed structures and the distribution therein of metal flow lines, and to find the internal micro-cracks to determine whether the cold forging process is reasonable. Analytical results herein demonstrate that the stress and strain inside the gas fitting can be elucidated using metal forming software. Together with experimental results, they demonstrate that a concentration of stress damages the workpiece in the forming process. Moreover, as metal flow lines become narrower, the workpiece becomes more easily damaged. Consequently, the improved cold forging process that is described in this work should be utilized to reduce the occurrence of fine cracks and defects. Planning for proper die design and production, increasing the quality of products, and reducing the number of defective products promote industrial competitiveness.

  1. Non-isothermal FEM analyses of large-strain back extrusion forging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flower, E.C.; Hallquist, J.O.; Shapiro, A.B.

    1986-06-19

    Back extrusion forging is a complex metal forming operation dominated by large-strain, non-isothermal deformation. NIKE2D, a fully vectorized implicit finite-element program developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, was applied to a two-stage isothermal back extrusion forging process. Modeling of the forging process required special features in the FEM code such as friction and interactive rezoning that allows for remeshing of the distorted mesh while maintaining a complete history of all the state variables. To model conditions of the non-isothermal forging process required implementing TOPAZ2D, our LLNL-developed two-dimensional implicit finite element code for heat conduction analysis, as a subroutine into NIKE2D. The fully coupled version maintains all the original features of both codes and can account for the contribution of heat generation during plastic deformation. NIKE/TOPAZ-2D was applied to the piercing operation of the back extrusion forging process. The thermal deformation history of the die, punch, and workpiece and the effective plastic strains were calculated.

  2. Microstructure Evolution of Multi-Heat Forging and Numerical Simulation for 316LN Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Xing-Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure evolution has been studied by multi-heat forging experiments and numerical simulation in order to determine the reasonable forging technology of 316 LN steel. The microstructure evolution models were obtained by hot compressive tests and heat treatment tests of 316 LN steels. The one-heat and three-heat upsetting experiments were carried on. Meanwhile, the corresponding numerical simulations were performed. The results show that, the grain uniformity of three-heat upsetting is much better that of one-heat upsetting. The average grain size of three-heat upsetting is smaller than that of one-heat upsetting. So, the forging technology of multi-heat and little deformation should be adopted for 316 LN steel forging. By comparing experimental average grain sizes with simulated average grain sizes for three-heat upsetting, it is found that the simulated values are in agreement with experimental values, which shows that the numerical simulation can be employed to predict the forging microstructure evolution of 316 LN steel.

  3. Manufacturing of Nanostructured Rings from Previously ECAE-Processed AA5083 Alloy by Isothermal Forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Luis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing of a functional hollow mechanical element or ring of the AA5083 alloy previously equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE processed, which presents a submicrometric microstructure, is dealt with. For this purpose, the design of two isothermal forging dies (preform and final shape is carried out using the design of experiments (DOE methodology. Moreover, after manufacturing the dies and carrying out tests so as to achieve real rings, the mechanical properties of these rings are analysed as well as their microstructure. Furthermore, a comparison between the different forged rings is made from ECAE-processed material subjected to different heat treatments, previous to the forging stage. On the other hand, the ring forging process is modelled through the use of finite element simulation in order to improve the die design and to study the force required for the isothermal forging, the damage value, and the strain the material predeformed by ECAE has undergone. With this present research work, it is intended to improve the knowledge about the mechanical properties of nanostructured material and the applicability of this material to industrial processes that allow the manufacturing of functional parts.

  4. Modeling microstructure evolution in the delta process forging of superalloy IN718 turbine discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Zhang, Shihong; Cheng, Ming; Zhao, Zhong

    2013-05-01

    The microstructure development in the Delta Process (DP) forging of Superalloy IN718 turbine discs were predicted using the combined approach of axisymmetric finite element simulation and modeling for the dynamic recrystallization and grain growth. In order to establish the deformation constitutive equation and dynamic recrystallization models for the DP process of Superalloy IN718, the isothermal compression tests were carried out in the temperature range 950 to 1010 °C and strain rates range 0.001 to0.1s-1. Moreover, the isothermal heat treatment tests after hot deformation were conducted in the temperature range 950 to 1040°C to generate the grain growth model. The experimental results indicated the existence of the δ phase could make the activation energy of deformation increase. Furthermore, the existence of the δ phase could stimulate the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization, and the grain growth was restrained due to the pinning effect of δ phase. The predicted grain size and its distribution in the DP forging of Superalloy IN718 turbine discs were compared with the actual microstructures deformed by the hot die forging. It was found that the forging with uniform fine grains could be obtained by the application of DP process to the forging of the turbine disk, in which the alloy was pre-precipitated δ phase after the baiting in the original process.

  5. Forging of Naval Brass (ASTM B16) - Finite Element Analysis using Ls Dyna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subha Sankari, T.; Sangavi, S.; Paneerselvam, T.; Venkatraman, R.; Venkatesan, M.

    2016-09-01

    Forging is one of the important manufacturing process in which products like connecting rod, transmission shaft, clutch hubs and gears are produced. Finite element analysis (FEA) in forming techniques is of recent interest for the optimal design and determination of right manufacturing forming process. The data from the numerical results can help in providing the information for selecting the ideal process conditions. Thus aside from experimental values, simulation by the finite element analysis software's such as LS DYNA can be used for the analysis of strain distribution in forging processes. In the present work, Finite element simulation of open die forging of naval brass (ASTM B16) is done at an optimal temperature. An advanced multi physics simulation software package by the Livermore software technology cooperation LSTC - LS DYNA is utilized for the simulation of forging process. For the forging validation, experiment is conducted with a cylindrical billet having height 45 mm and diameter of 40mm. The numerical results are compared with that of experimental results carried out at the same temperature and dimensions for validation. The distribution of strain is analyzed. Energy analysis due to impact load is detailed. The simulation results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  6. Filling Rules of Bevel Gears in the Closed-die Cold Forging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huamin LIU; Liangju HUANG; Shenhua YANG; Shihong ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    The closed-died cold forging technology of the bevel gears used in Jada car was investigated. With the analysis of the strain field and velocity field of the plastic deformation and the endured forces of the dies, the filling rules forthe metal were analyzed by the elastic-plastic finite element method (FEM). The results show that there is a great difference among closed-die cold forging, extrusion and forging, as far as the metal flowing is concerned. The outer addendum cannot be filled completely in the closed-die cold forging of the bevel gears, and the round angle will be formed. But it does not influence the application of the bevel gears. At the beginning, the rigid area is formed in the cavity of the lower die. And then it will move upwards to supply the metal for the gear filling. For the closed-die cold forging of the bevel gears, the force acting on the upper die and the lower die is significantly different.

  7. Effect of Forging on Microstructure, Texture, and Uniaxial Properties of Cast AZ31B Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, D.; Shaha, S. K.; Behravesh, B.; Jahed, H.; Williams, B.

    2017-07-01

    The effect of open-die hot forging on cast AZ31B magnesium alloy was investigated in terms of the evolution of microstructure, texture, and mechanical properties. A refined microstructure with strong basal texture was developed in forged material. A significant increase in tensile yield and ultimate strengths by 143 and 23%, respectively, was determined as well. When tested in compression at room temperature, the forged alloy displayed significant in-plane asymmetry and unchanged yield strength compared to the cast alloy owing to the activation of 10\\bar{1}2} Microstructure and texture analysis of the fracture samples confirmed that the deformation of the forged samples was dominated by slip during tension and twin in compression. In comparison, both slip and twin were observed in the cast samples for similar testing conditions. The increase in strength of forging was attributed to the refinement of grains and the formation of strong basal texture, which activated the non-basal slip on the prismatic and pyramidal slip systems instead of extension twin.

  8. 基于Forge2D/3D的阀体胎模锻模拟分析%Simulation of Die-forging for Valve Based on Forge 2D/3D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康海鹏

    2012-01-01

    采用Forge 2D/3D有限元分析模拟软件,设计阀体胎模和坯料;经过模拟分析了成型过程中坯料的温度变化、整体的应力、应变、金属的流动趋势和流线分布等;通过生产验证了胎模和坯料设计的合理性和工艺的可行性.%The die and billet of a valve was designed by Forge 2D/3D software. The temperature, stress, strain, and metal flow trend of billet during the simulation was analyzed; the rationality of die, billet design and feasibility of process was validated by production.

  9. N2Vision technology application for direct identification of commercial hydrocarbons in Trenton-Black River Formations of Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agou, S. [Productive Geoscience Exploration Inc., Whitby, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    N2Vision seismic signal interpretation technology has been used to evaluate the petroleum and natural gas potential in the Trenton-Black River (TBR) formations of Ontario. The technology was developed in Russia in the 1980s to solve complex problems in frontier exploration. The N2Vision neural networks algorithm is a multilayer feed-forward neural network (MFFN) for pattern recognition and is based on data from existing wells collected over 20 years of method application. The algorithm recognizes hydrocarbons by establishing relationships between all attributes of the seismic field and data from existing wells. In Ontario, the algorithm was trained on data from many productive and non-productive wells from the researched and adjacent fields, as well as on seismic patterns of geological features obtained from the Yurubchen-Tokhom oil field in easter Siberia. The 2D seismic data was collected by different companies. It targeted shallower horizons and had non-consistent quality. The results of N2Vision were shown to be well correlated with the objective data. The common geological features of southern Ontario, Yurubchen field and the Baltic Syneclise were presented in this paper. All 3 regions are found in specific geodynamically prestressed and heated up zones that are represented primarily by shallow carbonates, leaching dolomites and highly permeable reservoirs with vertical fracturing. This paper demonstrated that the technology can greatly reduce the risk of selecting drilling locations, while significantly decreasing the cost of hydrocarbon exploration. tabs., figs.

  10. Forming ideas about health: a qualitative study of Ontario adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michaelson, Valerie; McKerron, Margaret; Davison, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    ... seeking out the information for a particular purpose. In this Ontario-based qualitative study, grounded theory methods were used to explore ways that health knowledge is obtained in adolescents (age 10-16...

  11. 2001 USACE LRE Topobathy Lidar: Lake Ontario (NY)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Office for Coastal Management received the 2001 Lake Ontario dataset with 2 separate metadata records in 2013 on a hard-drive device from the USGS Center for...

  12. Lake Ontario Tributaries: 2009-2010 Field Data Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2002, EPA began a program to regularly monitor U.S. tributaries to Lake Ontario for the critical pollutants. This report provides program results from 2009-2010, and identifies changes in the monitoring program from prior years.

  13. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Ontario, Quebec, and New York: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Ontario, Quebec, and New York during 1997. The primary purpose of the survey is to...

  14. Western and Central Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Western and Central Ontario during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey is to...

  15. MERGER ACCOUTING FOR COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Companies, especially nowadays, are characterized through great mobility, fast circulation of capital, occurring in their chase for profit. In this context, companies look for alliances, economical and political assistance. These objectives can materialize through merging of companies. The merger can be internal (between Romanian companies or transboundary, which includes foreign companies. In order to correctly reflect these events, the merger operations must be regulated and must respect national and international regulations. One important request concerning the merger operations is that the accounting values of the assets, debts and ownership equity must be brought to the present financial value.

  16. A checklist of the 67 mosquito species of Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Bryan V; Gasparotto, Alessio; Hunter, Fiona F

    2015-03-01

    We provide an updated checklist of 67 endemic mosquito species known from Ontario, Canada. Nine endemic species are added to the checklist found in Darsie and Ward (2005) : Aedes cantator, Ae. churchillensis, Ae. nigripes, Ae. pullatus, Anopheles perplexens, An. crucians, An. smaragdinus, Culex erraticus, and Cx. salinarius. Only 4 specimens of Ae. albopictus have been recorded in Ontario since 2001 despite concerted efforts to find this species; therefore, it is considered an "accidental" species and is excluded from the checklist.

  17. Comparison between hobbed and precision forged helical gears for automobile manual transaxle - on the prospect of form, precision, material specification and production cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooka, M.; Kawasaki, Y.; Hoguchi, T.; Tsujimoto, H.; Yamazaki, S.; Yoshinaga, M. [O-oka Co., Toyota (Japan); Moriwaki, I. [Kyoto Inst. of Tech. (Japan); Kagaya, C. [Chubu Univ., Kasugai (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes the comparison between hobbed and forged helical gears in terms of precision, deformation of heat-treatment, material specification and production cost. With the results the forged ones are superior to hobbed ones. (orig.)

  18. Numerical simulation of the dynamic recrystallization behaviour in hot precision forging helical gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In hot precision forging helical gears, the dynamic recrystallization phenomena will occur, which affect the microstructure of the formed part and in turn decide their mechanical properties. To investigate the effect of deformation temperature on the dynamic recrystallization in hot precision forging helical gears, a three dimensional (3D finite element (FE model was created by coupling the thermo-mechanical model with the microstructure evolution model developed based on the hot compressive experimental data of 20CrMnTiH steel. The hot precision forging process was simulated and the effect laws of the deformation temperature on the microstructure evolution the formed part were investigated. The results show that the dynamic recrystallization volume fraction and the average grain sizes increased with the increasing deformation temperature and the higher deformation temperature is beneficial to dynamic recrystallization and grain refinement.

  19. Modelling the void deformation and closure by hot forging of ingot castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Kotas, Petr;

    2012-01-01

    After solidification and cooling cast ingots contain voids due to improper feeding and volume shrinkage. Such voids are normally unwanted, so besides of forming the ingot to the desired shape, one of the purposes of the post processing of the ingot by hot forging is to close such voids by mechani......After solidification and cooling cast ingots contain voids due to improper feeding and volume shrinkage. Such voids are normally unwanted, so besides of forming the ingot to the desired shape, one of the purposes of the post processing of the ingot by hot forging is to close such voids...... and focuses on how the voids deform depending on their size and distribution in the ingot as well ashow the forging forces are applied....

  20. Analysis Of Potentiometric Methods Used For Crack Detection In Forging Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilc, Jozef; Drbúl, Mário; Stančeková, Dana; Varga, Daniel; Martinček, Juraj; Kuždák, Viktor

    2015-12-01

    Increased use of forging tools in mass production causes their increased wear and creates pressure to design more efficient renovation process. Renovation is complicated because of the identification of cracks expanding from the surface to the core material. Given that the production of forging tools is expensive, caused by the cost of tool steels and the thermo-chemical treatment, it is important to design forging tool with its easy renovation in mind. It is important to choose the right renovation technology, which will be able to restore the instrument to its original state while maintaining financial rentability. Choosing the right technology is difficult because of nitrided and heat-treated surface for high hardness and wear resistance. Article discusses the use of non-destructive method of detecting cracks taking into account the size of the cracks formed during working process.

  1. Application of geometric midline yield criterion to analysis of three-dimensional forging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO De-wen; WANG Gen-ji; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2008-01-01

    A kinematically admissible continuous velocity field was proposed for the analysis of three-dimensional forging. The linear yield criterion expressed by geometric midline of error triangle between Tresca and Twin shear stress yield loci on the π-plane, called GM yield criterion for short, was firstly applied to analysis of the velocity field for the forging. The analytical solution of the forging force with the effects of external zone and bulging parameter is obtained by strain rate inner product. Compression tests of pure lead are performed to compare the calculated results with the measured ones. The results show that the calculated total pressures are higher than the measured ones whilst the relative error is no more than 9.5%. It is implied that the velocity field is reasonable and the geometric midline yield criterion is available. The solution is still an upper-bound one.

  2. Design of relief-cavity in closed-precision forging of gears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左斌; 王宝雨; 李智; 郑明男; 朱小星

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the difficulty of material filling into the top region of tooth in hot precision forging of gears using the alternative die designs, relief-cavity designs in different sizes were performed on the top of die tooth. The influences of the conventional process and relief-cavity designs on corner filling, workpiece stress, die stress, forming load and material utilization were examined. Finite element simulation for tooth forming, die stress and forming load using the four designs was performed. The material utilization was further considered, and the optimal design was determined. The tooth form and forming load in forging trials ensured the validity of FE simulation. Tooth accuracy was inspected by video measuring machine (VMM), which shows the hot forged accuracy achieves the level of rough machining of gear teeth. The effects of friction on mode of metal flow and strain distribution were also discussed.

  3. A two-step superplastic forging forming of semi-continuously cast AZ70 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A two-step technology combined forging with superplastic forming has been developed to enhance the forgeability of semi-continuously cast AZ70 magnesium alloy and realize the application of the as-cast magnesium alloy in large deformation bullet shell. In the first step, fine-grained microstructure preforms that are suitable for superplastic forming were obtained by reasonably designing the size of the initial blanks with the specific height-to-diameter ratio, upsetting the blanks and subsequent annealing. In the second step, the heat treated preforms were forged into the end products at the superplastic conditions. The end products exhibit high quality surface and satisfied microstructure. Consequently, this forming technology that not only avoids complicating the material preparation but also utilizes higher strain rate superplastic provides a near net-shaped novel method on magnesium forging forming technology using as-cast billet.

  4. Large size austenitic stainless steel forgings for nuclear and cryogenic application - development, manufacturing and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Keizo; Suzuki, Komei; Sato, Ikuo; Murai, Etuso (Japan Steel Works Ltd., Muroran Plant, Hokkaido (Japan))

    1992-01-01

    The high quality one-piece large austenetic stainless steel forgings are required in the several components such as nuclear reactors and run tanks for rocket engine test stand in order to assure the structural integrity and to make it easy to fabricate and inspect the components. When the austenitic stainless steel forgings are increased in size, various problems must be overcome to assure the high quality forgings. The ingot making and hot working play an important role in determining the quality of the products. In such points, the lastest manufacturing techniques such as steel making of large size ingot and hot working to get uniform and fine grains are discussed together with the fundamental data of the material properties. (orig.).

  5. 论最小锻比%Statement of the Minimum Forging Ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任猛; 钱莉丽; 杜锦; 江盛龙

    2015-01-01

    The forging ratio is just a macro indicator and only shows the shape change of the forging cross section. The determinant parameters such as the anvil width ratio and reduction which influence on the inner deformation will be controlled and the acceptable products will be obtained with minimum forging ratio.%锻比作为一个宏观指标,只代表锻件所经历的截面形状变化。合理控制砧宽比、压下量等对内部变形起决定性作用的参数,可以在小锻比条件下生产合格产品。

  6. The Simulation and Analysis of the Closed Die Hot Forging Process by A Computer Simulation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipakkumar Gohil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research work is to study the variation of various parameters such as stress, strain, temperature, force, etc. during the closed die hot forging process. A computer simulation modeling approach has been adopted to transform the theoretical aspects in to a computer algorithm which would be used to simulate and analyze the closed die hot forging process. For the purpose of process study, the entire deformation process has been divided in to finite number of steps appropriately and then the output values have been computed at each deformation step. The results of simulation have been graphically represented and suitable corrective measures are also recommended, if the simulation results do not agree with the theoretical values. This computer simulation approach would significantly improve the productivity and reduce the energy consumption of the overall process for the components which are manufactured by the closed die forging process and contribute towards the efforts in reducing the global warming.

  7. The effects of thermomechanical history on the microstructure of a nickel-base superalloy during forging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, S., E-mail: 485354@swansea.ac.uk [College of Engineering, Bay Campus, Swansea University, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom); Li, W. [Rolls-Royce plc, PO Box 31, Derby DE24 8BJ (United Kingdom); Coleman, M. [College of Engineering, Bay Campus, Swansea University, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom); Johnston, R., E-mail: r.johnston@swansea.ac.uk [College of Engineering, Bay Campus, Swansea University, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-21

    The effect of thermo-mechanical history on hot compression behaviour and resulting microstructures of a nickel base superalloy is presented. Hot compression tests were carried out on HAYNES® 282® specimens to varying strains from 0.1 to 0.8. Both single pass and multi-pass tests were completed. 60 min inter-pass times were utilized to accurately replicate industrial forging practices. The effect of dynamic, metadynamic and static recrystallization during inter-pass times on flow stress was investigated. The resulting microstructures were analysed using scanning electron, optical microscopy and EBSD to relate grain size and homogeneity with flow stress data. The study showed a negligible difference between multi-pass and single pass tests for strain increments above 0.2. Therefore, when modelling similar low strain and strain rate forging processes in HAYNES® 282®, previous forging steps can be ignored.

  8. Finite element simulation of stretch forging using a mesh condensation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In order to reduce the computation time of finite element simulations of stretch forging process,a mesh condensation method is presented and applied to a three-dimensional rigid-viscoplastic finite element program.In this method,a conventional mesh for the whole zone of a workpiece is condensed to a computational mesh for the active deformation zone.Two vital problems are solved,which are automatic construction of the computational mesh and treatment of interfaces between the deformation zone and the rigid zone.The mesh condensation method is compared with conventional finite element method by simulations of a six-bite stretch forging process.Some simulation results including forging load,temperature distribution and effective strain distribution are illustrated.The efficiency and accuracy of this method are verified.

  9. Heuristic algorithm for planning and scheduling of forged pieces heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lenort

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a heuristic algorithm for planning and scheduling of forged pieces heat treatment which allows maximizing the capacity exploitation of the heat treatment process and the entire forging process. Five Focusing Steps continuous improvement process was selected as a methodological basis for the algorithm design. Its application was supported by simulation experiments performed on a dynamic computer model of the researched process. The experimental work has made it possible to elicit the general rules for planning and scheduling of the heat treatment process of forged pieces which reduce losses caused by equipment conversion and setup times, and which increase the throughput of this process. The HIPO diagram was used to design the algorithm.

  10. Design of Controlled Processing Conditions for Drop Forgings Made of Microalloy Steel Grades for Mining Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skubisz P.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of plastic processing and controlled cooling on microstructure and mechanical properties of experimental steel grades with microalloyed with Ti, V and/or Nb, varying in the content of Mo is presented as an offer for mining industry for replacement traditionally heat-treatable hardenability grades. The goal of the work is producing microstructure condition, which after controlled hot forging and direct heat treatment, involving quenching and self-tempering, are meant to provide good combination of mechanical properties, such as TYS 800 MPa, UTS 1050 MPa, elongation to fracture at least A5 15% and/or impact strength at room temperature KCV 60 J/cm2. Hardenability assessment and dilatometric examination allowed formulation of direct heat treatment guidelines, taking into consideration fields of temperature and strain in a typical hot forging process, estimated numerically, with the use of plastometric tests results, as well as the use of unique cooling cycles after forging.

  11. The Investigations of Friction under Die Surface Vibration in Cold Forging Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinming, Sha

    is undergoing vibration. In the experiments, die surface orientation, frequency and amplitude of vibration, vibrating wave form and the direction of vibration has been taken into account as the parameters which influence friction behaviour in forging process. The results reveal that friction could be reduced up......The objective of this thesis is to fundamentally study the influence of die surface vibration on friction under low frequency in metal forging processes. The research includes vibrating tool system design for metal forming, theoretical and experimental investigations, and finite element simulations...... on die surface vibration in forging process. After a general introduction to friction mechanisms and friction test techniques in metal forming, the application of ultrasonic vibration in metal forming, the influence of sliding velocity on friction is described. Some earlier investigations...

  12. Development of a 3D Finite Element code for Forging - An overview of the Brite/Euram project EFFORTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Olsson, David Dam

    2001-01-01

    equations for flow stress in cold as well as hot forging, determination of interface conditions, i.e. friction and heat transfer in cold and hot forging. The developments are validated by physical and numerical modeling and finally verified by analysis of some complex industrial examples....

  13. Multi-objective optimization of gear forging process based on adaptive surrogate meta-models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanjuan; Labergere, Carl; Lafon, Pascal; Daniel, Laurent

    2013-05-01

    In forging industry, net shape or near net shape forging of gears has been the subject of considerable research effort in the last few decades. So in this paper, a multi-objective optimization methodology of net shape gear forging process design has been discussed. The study is mainly done in four parts: building parametric CAD geometry model, simulating the forging process, fitting surrogate meta-models and optimizing the process by using an advanced algorithm. In order to maximally appropriate meta-models of the real response, an adaptive meta-model based design strategy has been applied. This is a continuous process: first, bui Id a preliminary version of the meta-models after the initial simulated calculations; second, improve the accuracy and update the meta-models by adding some new representative samplings. By using this iterative strategy, the number of the initial sample points for real numerical simulations is greatly decreased and the time for the forged gear design is significantly shortened. Finally, an optimal design for an industrial application of a 27-teeth gear forging process was introduced, which includes three optimization variables and two objective functions. A 3D FE nu merical simulation model is used to realize the process and an advanced thermo-elasto-visco-plastic constitutive equation is considered to represent the material behavior. The meta-model applied for this example is kriging and the optimization algorithm is NSGA-II. At last, a relatively better Pareto optimal front (POF) is gotten with gradually improving the obtained surrogate meta-models.

  14. Implementation of an agency to improve chronic kidney disease care in Ontario: lessons learned by the Ontario Renal Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Graham L; Iverson, Alex; Harvey, Rebecca; Blake, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, Ontario's Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care initiated the transfer of oversight and coordination of chronic kidney disease (CKD) care to the Ontario Renal Network (ORN) under the auspices of Cancer Care Ontario (CCO). The aim was to replicate the quality improvement and change management practices used for cancer control within CKD. Much of the ORN's first three years were dedicated to building the infrastructure necessary to bridge the gap between provincial policy and clinical practice. This article explores the accomplishments, challenges and lessons learned over that period. The results, which are applicable to the management of chronic diseases in Ontario, Canada, and internationally, confirm that sustainable change takes time and requires strong leadership, transparency, accountability and communication, supported by a solid foundation of data and evidence.

  15. The Development of a Ceramic Mold for Hot-Forging of Micro-Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christenson, Todd; Garino, Terry

    1999-06-25

    A new mold material has been developed for use in making rare-earth permanent magnet components with precise dimensions in the 10 to 1000 µm range by hot-forging. These molds are made from molds poly(methyl)methacrylate (PMMA) made by deep x-ray lithography (DXRL). An alumina bonded with colloidal silica has been developed for use in these molds. This material can be heated to 950°C without changing dimensions where it develops the strength needed to withstand the hot-fmging conditions (750°C, 100 MPa). In addition, it disintegrates in HF so that parts can be easily removed after forging.

  16. Simulative Testing of Friction and Lubrication in Cold Forging of Steel and Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceron, Ermanno; Bay, Niels; Aida, Tetsuo

    2012-01-01

    A new, simulative test of friction and lubrication in cold forging is developed by the authors. The test is based on a backward can extrusion process in which the workpiece rotates relatively to the conical punch. An analytical model is presented determining the friction stress from the measured ...... coating plus MoS2 and single bathe lubrication with PULS and aluminum provided with 6 different lubricant systems. The new test is so severe, that it is possible to break down the best lubrication systems for cold forging of steel and aluminum....

  17. An upper bound solution for closed die sinter forging of hexagonal shapes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Ranjan; S Kumar

    2004-06-01

    The paper reports on an investigation into the various aspects of closed die cold forging of hexagonal powder preforms, which have been compacted and sintered from atomized powder. It is found that for certain dimensional ratios of the preform, the die pressure is minimum. An attempt has been made determine the die pressures developed during the closed die forging of the hexagonal powder preform by using an upper bound approach. The results so obtained are discussed critically to illustrate the interaction of various process parameters involved and are presented graphically.

  18. Theoretical study on Cold Open Die Forging Process Optimization for Multipass Workability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaikwad Ajitkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold Workability limits strength enhancement of austenitic materials through cold deformation. The intrinsic workability is the material characteristic whereas state-of-stress workability is governed by nature of applied stress, strain rate and geometry of deformation zone. For Cold Open Die Forging (CODF, multipass workability is essential. In this work, FEM tool FORGE-3 is used to optimize CODF on hydraulic press by analysis of stress-strain profiles and use of Latham-Cockroft damage criterion. Study recommends optimized process parameters, die combinations and pass-schedules.

  19. Trial Production of Drum Forgings%鼓轮锻件的生产试制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广森; 张成霞; 陈国红; 黄冬凤; 刘垒; 丁宝平

    2013-01-01

    The abnormity cylinder forgings with big taper and small height is produced successfully by blanking with top flat anvil and bottom V shaped anvil , which lays the foundation to manufacture nuclear power tapered cylinder forgings.%采用上平、下V型砧制坯,成功生产了锥度大、高度小的异形筒体锻件,为公司在核电锥形筒体锻件生产方面打下了基础。

  20. THE FORMING OF MAGNESIUM ALLOY FORGINGS FOR AIRCRAFT AND AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dziubińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the theoretical and technological aspects of forming magnesium alloy parts for aircraft and automotive applications. The main applications of magnesium alloys in the aircraft and automotive industries are discussed. In addition, the forging technology for magnesium alloys is generally described, with a particular emphasis on wrought alloys. A brief outline of the state of the art in the forging of magnesium alloys is given based on a survey of the specialist literature and the results of previous research by the authors.

  1. High speed forging of solid powder discs of large slenderness ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Ranjan; S Kumar

    2004-10-01

    The paper reports an investigation into the forging of a solid powder circular disc with large slenderness ratio (L/D) between two flat dies at high speed. The deformation pattern during the operation is influenced by many factors, which interact with one another in a complex manner. The decisive factors are the interfacial conditions, initial relative density of the preform and the geometry of the preform. An attempt has been made to determine the die pressures developed during such forging, using an upper bound approach. The results so obtained are presented graphically and discussed critically to illustrate the interaction of various process parameters involved.

  2. 超大筒节锻造工艺的优化%Optimization of Forging Process for Large Shell Ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施熔刚; 张强升; 姜述杰; 张丽丹

    2013-01-01

    通过设计辅助工具方法及简化锻造工序对原有超大筒节锻件工艺进行改进,将原来锻造6火次出成品的锻造工艺改为4火次出成品,在确保产品质量的同时,有效的降低锻造生产成本,提高锻造生产效率.%The original forging process for large shell ring forging was improved through the methods of designing aid tools and simplifying forging process,that is,the original forging process of 6 fire times was instead of that of 4 fire times.The improved forging process can ensure product quality,reduce production costs and improve production efficiency.

  3. Quality legislation: lessons for Ontario from abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veillard, Jérémy; Tipper, Brenda; Klazinga, Niek

    2012-01-01

    While the Excellent Care for All Act, 2010 (ECFA Act) provides a comprehensive approach to stimulating quality improvement in healthcare, there are other examples of legislations articulating strategies aimed at the same goal but proposing different approaches. This paper reviews quality of care legislations in the Netherlands, the United States, England and Australia, compares those pieces of legislation with the ECFA Act and suggests lessons for Ontario in planning the next stages of its healthcare quality strategy. Notable among the commonalities that the EFCA Act shares with the selected examples of legislation are mandatory reporting of performance results at an organizational level and furthering quality improvement, evidence generation and performance monitoring. However, the EFCA Act does not include any elements of restructuring or competition, unlike some of the other examples. Key to successful transformation of the Ontario healthcare system will be to propose a package of changes that will deal systematically with all aspects of transformation sought (including structural changes, payments systems and elements of competition), will garner support from all the actors, and will be implemented consistently and persistently. Benchmarking on the implementation and impact of reforms with the countries presented in this paper may be an additional important step. Quality of care is a key focus of health system reforms, and in recent years many countries in the Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), including Canada, have developed strategies aimed at improving healthcare quality and patient safety (OECD 2010). Øvretveit and Klazinga propose that national strategies for quality of care can be targeted at different types of health system stakeholders: professionals, healthcare organizations, medical products and technologies, patients and financers (World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe 2008). The generic elements of these

  4. The Danish East India Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2005-01-01

    The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la......The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la...

  5. Canadian wind energy case studies : Toronto, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, the North Toronto Green Community created the Toronto Renewable Energy Co-operative (TREC) to work on the development of a wind turbine for the city of Toronto. By December 2002, a 750 KW turbine from Lagerwey BV in the Netherlands was installed along the shore of Lake Ontario. It represents one of the most innovative wind power projects, and the first urban wind turbine in North America. WindShare, a separate cooperative created by TREC owns and manages the Exhibition Place Turbine. Power was first generated in January 2003 with an annual output of 1.4 million kWh, the equivalent of reducing 1,400 tonnes of greenhouse gases annually. The total investment was about $1.7 million, with both the planning phase and operational phase of the project bringing in local economic benefits. Wind energy addresses public concerns over the environmental impacts of conventional electricity production. Wind is a renewable energy source that does not contribute to climate change, air and water pollution. In an average year, a 660 KW turbine can produce 2,000 MWh of electricity, enough to power 250 homes. Public support has been very positive for the Exhibition Place wind turbine, which is now a main tourist attraction. Interest in this project has prompted the creation of twelve new community co-ops province-wide. 1 fig.

  6. Characterization of Cracking and Crack Growth Properties of the C5A Aircraft Tie-Box Forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Smith, Stephen W.; Newman, John A.; Willard, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    Detailed destructive examinations were conducted to characterize the integrity and material properties of two aluminum alloy (7075-T6) horizontal stabilizer tie box forgings removed.from US. Air Force C5A and C5B transport aircraft. The C5B tie box forging was,found to contain no evidence of cracking. Thirteen cracks were found in the CSA,forging. All but one of the cracks observed in the C5A component were located along the top cap region (one crack was located in the bottom cap region). The cracks in the C5A component initiated at fastener holes and propagated along a highly tunneled intergranular crack path. The tunneled crack growth configuration is a likelv result of surface compressive stress produced during peening of the .forging suijace. The tie box forging ,fatigue crack growth, fracture and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) properties were characterized. Reported herein are the results of laboratory air ,fatigue crack growth tests and 95% relative humidity SCC tests conducted using specimens machined from the C5A ,forging. SCC test results revealed that the C5A ,forging material was susceptible to intergranular environmental assisted cracking: the C5A forging material exhibited a SCC crack-tip stress-intensity factor threshold of less than 6 MPadn. Fracture toughness tests revealed that the C5A forging material exhibited a fracture toughness that was 25% less than the C5B forging. The C5A forging exhibited rapid laboratory air fatigue crack growth rates having a threshold crack-tip stress-intensity factor range of less than 0.8 MPa sup m. Detailed fractographic examinations revealed that the ,fatigue crack intergranular growth crack path was similar to the cracking observed in the C5A tie box forging. Because both fatigue crack propagation and SCC exhibit similar intergranular crack path behavior, the damage mechanism resulting in multi-site cracking of tie box forgings cannot be determined unless local cyclic stresses can be quantified.

  7. The Ties That Bind: How Social Capital Is Forged and Forfeited in Teacher Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridwell-Mitchell, E. N.; Cooc, North

    2016-01-01

    The effects of social capital on school improvement make it important to understand how teachers forge, maintain, or forfeit collegial relationships. Two common explanations focused on formal organizational features and individual characteristics do not address how social capital accrues from informal dynamics of teachers' interactions in…

  8. 76 FR 8773 - Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade... steel flanges from India and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  9. Fabrication Improvement of Cold Forging Hexagonal Nuts by Computational Analysis and Experiment Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Yi Hsia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold forging has played a critical role in fasteners and has been applied to the automobile industry, construction industry, aerospace industry, and living products so that cold forging presents the opportunities for manufacturing more products. By using computer simulation, this study attempts to analyze the process of creating machine parts, such as hexagonal nuts. The DEFORM-3D forming software is applied to analyze the process at various stages in the computer simulation, and the compression test is also used for the flow stress equation in order to compare the differences between the experimental results and the equation that is built into the computer simulation software. At the same time, the metallography and hardness of experiments are utilized to understand the cold forging characteristics of hexagonal nuts. The research results would benefit machinery businesses to realize the forging load and forming conditions at various stages before the fastener formation. In addition to planning proper die design and production, the quality of the produced hexagonal nuts would be more stable to promote industrial competitiveness.

  10. Fatigue properties of high-strength materials used in cold-forging tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, P.; Skov-Hansen, P.

    1998-01-01

    In the present work classical analytical models are used to describe the static stress–strain curves, low-cycle fatigue properties and fatigue crack growth behaviour of high-strength materials for use in tools for metal-forming processes such as cold forging and extrusion. The paper describes...

  11. Numerical modeling of axi-symmetrical cold forging process by ``Pseudo Inverse Approach''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halouani, A.; Li, Y. M.; Abbes, B.; Guo, Y. Q.

    2011-05-01

    The incremental approach is widely used for the forging process modeling, it gives good strain and stress estimation, but it is time consuming. A fast Inverse Approach (IA) has been developed for the axi-symmetric cold forging modeling [1-2]. This approach exploits maximum the knowledge of the final part's shape and the assumptions of proportional loading and simplified tool actions make the IA simulation very fast. The IA is proved very useful for the tool design and optimization because of its rapidity and good strain estimation. However, the assumptions mentioned above cannot provide good stress estimation because of neglecting the loading history. A new approach called "Pseudo Inverse Approach" (PIA) was proposed by Batoz, Guo et al.. [3] for the sheet forming modeling, which keeps the IA's advantages but gives good stress estimation by taking into consideration the loading history. Our aim is to adapt the PIA for the cold forging modeling in this paper. The main developments in PIA are resumed as follows: A few intermediate configurations are generated for the given tools' positions to consider the deformation history; the strain increment is calculated by the inverse method between the previous and actual configurations. An incremental algorithm of the plastic integration is used in PIA instead of the total constitutive law used in the IA. An example is used to show the effectiveness and limitations of the PIA for the cold forging process modeling.

  12. Tribo-thermal fatigue of the steel used for the forging die construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumeanu, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Frequently the durability of the forging dies is firstly determined by the non-isothermal fatigue wear, which causes the cracks appearance on their internal surfaces, much more before their abrasion wear to reach the limit value. In these conditions it is necessary to design the forging dies firstly by the point of view of the non-isothermal fatigue wear. For a correctly choosing and using of metallic material, it is necessary to determine their intrinsic characteristics regarding its cyclic non-isothermal stresses durability. The experimental determination of these characteristics implies a lot of experiments, which are done in specific conditions, different from those used for isothermal mechanical fatigue durability determination. The paper presents the experimental results concerning intrinsic characteristic determination of the forging dies steel. Based on these results there were determined specific equations which characterize this kind of stresses, and the diagrams that represent their graphic image. These data can be used both in designing and exploitation of the forging dies.

  13. Effect of key factors on cold orbital forging of a spur bevel gear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄武豪; 董丽颖

    2016-01-01

    Cold orbital forging is an advanced spur bevel gear forming technology. Generally, the spur bevel gear in the cold orbital forging process is formed by two steps: the preforming step and the final step. Due to the great importance of the final step to gear forming and its complication with interactive factors, this work aims at examining the influence of key factors on the final step in cold orbital forging of a spur bevel gear. Using the finite element (FE) method and control variate method, the influence rules of four key factors, rotation velocity of the upper tool,n, feeding velocity of the lower tool,v, tilted angle of the upper tool,γ, friction factor between the tools and the billet,m, on the geometry and the deformation inhomogeneity of the cold orbital forged gear are thoroughly clarified. The research results show that the flash becomes more homogeneous with increasingv, increasingm, decreasing n or decreasingγ. And the deformation of the gear becomes more homogeneous with increasingv, decreasingn or decreasingγ. Finally, a corresponding experiment is conducted, which verifies the accuracy of FE simulation conclusions.

  14. Jernberg Industries, Inc: Forging Facility Uses Plant-Wide Assessment to Aid Conversion to Lean Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-10-01

    Jernberg Industries conducted a plant-wide assessment while converting to lean manufacturing at a forging plant. Seven projects were identified that could yield annual savings of $791,000, 64,000 MMBtu in fuel and 6 million kWh.

  15. Influence of the hydrostatic stress component on critical surface expansion in forging compound products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorm, T; Bay, Niels; Wanheim, Tarras

    1974-01-01

    of a superimposed hydrostatic pressure on the critical surface expansion during a forging process. The critical surface expansion appears to decrease with increasing hydrostatic pressure. This may be due to the fact that the close contact between the materials necessary to obtain bonding is created by a micro...

  16. Hot Cutting of Real-Time Cast-Forged GS Ductile Iron for Automotive Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouilland, Laurence; Mansori, Mohamed El

    2011-01-01

    In the global economy context, automotive industry suppliers have to keep a constant advance on products design and manufacturing process. Concerning automotive rods, the substitution of forged steel by spherical graphite iron (SG iron) with high mechanical properties constitutes a valid economic alternative. Such rods are produced using a complex coupled process: casting and forging followed by an austempered heat treatment. The forging operation is capable to shape the cast rod which introduces hot deformation to increase mechanical properties of net-shape SG iron rod. However, the intermediate re-heating between casting and forging must be avoided to keep competitive manufacturing costs. A major concern of this new process development is the cracks produced in rod's surface which are consecutive to hot spruing involved after casting operations. This issue is addressed in this paper which discusses the physical mechanisms involved in the hot ductile damage of SG iron. Hot cutting tests were performed to simulate the spruing operation which shows the close interactions between microstructure, machining parameters and resulting damages. The damage mechanisms in terms of crack initiation and its growth have been studied with respect to the constituent phases (austenite+graphite nodules), the cut surface morphology and the hot cutting performance.

  17. Social Work and Engineering Collaboration: Forging Innovative Global Community Development Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Dorie J.

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary programs in schools of social work are growing in scope and number. This article reports on collaboration between a school of social work and a school of engineering, which is forging a new area of interdisciplinary education. The program engages social work students working alongside engineering students in a team approach to…

  18. HaploForge: A Comprehensive Pedigree Drawing and Haplotype Visualisation Web Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekman, Mehmet; Medlar, Alan; Mozere, Monika; Kleta, Robert; Stanescu, Horia

    2017-08-14

    Haplotype reconstruction is an important tool for understanding the aetiology of human disease. Haplotyping infers the most likely phase of observed genotypes conditional on constraints imposed by the genotypes of other pedigree members. The results of haplotype reconstruction, when visualised appropriately, show which alleles are identical by descent despite the presence of untyped individuals. When used in concert with linkage analysis, haplotyping can help delineate a locus of interest and provide a succinct explanation for the transmission of the trait locus. Unfortunately, the design choices made by existing haplotype visualisation programs do not scale to large numbers of markers. Indeed, following haplotypes from generation to generation requires excessive scrolling back and forth. In addition, the most widely-used program for haplotype visualisation produces inconsistent recombination artefacts for the X chromosome. To resolve these issues, we developed HaploForge, a novel web application for haplotype visualisation and pedigree drawing. HaploForge takes advantage of HTML5 to be fast, portable and avoid the need for local installation. It can accurately visualise autosomal and X-linked haplotypes from both outbred and consanguineous pedigrees. Haplotypes are coloured based on identity by descent using a novel A* search algorithm and we provide a flexible viewing mode to aid visual inspection. HaploForge can currently process haplotype reconstruction output from Allegro, GeneHunter, Merlin and Simwalk. HaploForge is licensed under GPLv3 and is hosted and maintained via GitHub. Supplementary data is available from Bioinformatics online.

  19. eFORGE : A Tool for Identifying Cell Type-Specific Signal in Epigenomic Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeze, Charles E.; Paul, Dirk S.; van Dongen, Jenny; Butcher, Lee M.; Ambrose, John C.; Barrett, James E.; Lowe, Robert; Rakyan, Vardhman K.; Iotchkova, Valentina; Frontini, Mattia; Downes, Kate; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Laperle, Jonathan; Jacques, Pierre-ETienne; Bourque, Guillaume; Bergmann, Anke K.; Siebert, Reiner; Vellenga, Edo; Saeed, Sadia; Matarese, Filomena; Martens, Joost H. A.; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.; Teschendorff, Andrew E.; Herrero, Javier; Birney, Ewan; Dunham, Ian; Beck, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) provide an alternative approach for studying human disease through consideration of non-genetic variants such as altered DNA methylation. To advance the complex interpretation of EWAS, we developed eFORGE (http://eforge.cs.ucl.ac.uk/), a new stand-alone and

  20. Evaluation of Subsequent Heat Treatment Routes for Near-β Forged TA15 Ti-Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Sun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available TA15 Ti-alloy is widely used to form key load-bearing components in the aerospace field, where excellent service performance is needed. Near-β forging technology provides an attractive way to form these complicated Ti-alloy components but subsequent heat treatment has a great impact on the final microstructure and mechanical properties. Therefore evaluation and determination of the heat treatment route is of particular significance. In this paper, for the near-β forged TA15 alloy, the formation and evolution of microstructures under different subsequent heat treatment routes (annealing, solution and aging, toughening and strengthening were studied and the cooling mode after forging was also considered. Then, the type and characteristics of the obtained microstructures were discussed through quantitative metallographic analysis. The corresponding mechanical properties (tensile, impact toughness, and fracture toughness and effects of microstructural characteristics were investigated. Finally, for a required microstructure and performance a reasonable heat treatment route was recommended. The work is of importance for the application and development of near-β forging technology.

  1. Effects of Different Forging Processes on Microstructure Evolution for 316LN Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Dashan; Zhu, Lingling; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Peipei; Cui, Zhenshan

    2017-07-01

    Forging experiments were designed and carried out on a 3150 kN hydraulic press to investigate the effects of different processes on the microstructure evolution for 316LN steel. The forging processes included single-pass (upsetting) and multipass (stretching) deformations, and the experimental results indicated that the average grain size varied with forging processes. Moreover, the size had distinct differences at different positions in the workpiece. Meanwhile, numerical simulations were implemented to study the influence of temperature, strain, and strain rate on microstructure evolution. The results of experiments and simulations comprehensively demonstrated that dynamic, static, and meta-dynamic recrystallization could coexist in the hot forging process and that the recrystallization process could easily occur under the conditions of higher temperature, larger strain, and higher strain rate. Moreover, the temperature had more significant influence on both recrystallization and grain growth. A higher temperature could not only promote the recrystallization but also speed up the grain growth. Therefore, a lower temperature is beneficial to obtain refinement grains on the premise that the recrystallization can occur completely.

  2. Physical modeling and numerical simulation of V-die forging ingot with central void

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Bay, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulation and physical modeling performed on small-scale ingots made from pure lead, having a hole drilled through their centerline to mimic porosity, are utilized to characterize the deformation mechanics of a single open die forging compression stage and to identify the influence...

  3. Preform design optimization for forging process based on the topological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yong; Lu, Bin; Ou, Hengan; Cui, Zhenshan

    2013-05-01

    Preform design plays an important role in forging design especially for parts with complex shapes. In this paper, an attempt was made to develop a topological approach in the preform design of bulk metal forming processes based on the Bi-direction evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) strategy. In this approach, a new element addition and removal criteria based on the equivalent strain have been proposed for evaluating and optimizing the material flow in the forging process. To obtain a smooth preform boundary, a closed B-spline curve based on the least square approximation algorithm is employed to approximate the uneven surface of updated preform. An inhouse developed C♯ program has been employed to integrate the FE simluation, shape optimsation and surface approximation process. A 2D blade forging perform design problem are evaluate using the developed method. The results suggest that the optimized preform has shown better performance in improving the material flow and deformation uniformity during the forging. The results also demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of the developed preform design optimization method.

  4. Influence of forming velocity on the uniformity of microstructure of semisolid die forging 7075 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo TAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Liquid phase segregation frequently occurs in the process of semi solid die forging, which makes the parts appear "weak point" or "weak region", and usually, the "weak point" or "weak area" is the reason of crack and service condition failure. In order to analyze the influence factors of the liquid phase segregation of the semi solid die forging, DEFORM-3D is used for the numerical simulation of semi-solid die forging forming process of 7075 aluminum alloy, to study the influence rule of forming velocity on the forming process of cup part. Based on the simulation results, the rheological die forging forming of 7075 aluminum alloythe part is conducted to research the influence of forming velocity on the uniformity of microstructure by means of press machine and cup mould. The simulation and experimental results show that as the filling velocity is faster, the forming process is more unstable; under the condition of head temperature of 400 ℃, the forming pressure of 50 MPa, and the alloy temperature 628 ℃, as the forming velocity increases, the liquid phase segregation degree of cup part increases, and the microstructure is far from uniformity. The segregation degree is up to 18.2% as the forming velocity is 5 mm/s.

  5. Oxygen-isotope variations in post-glacial Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladyniuk, Ryan; Longstaffe, Fred J.

    2016-02-01

    The role of glacial meltwater input to the Atlantic Ocean in triggering the Younger Dryas (YD) cooling event has been the subject of controversy in recent literature. Lake Ontario is ideally situated to test for possible meltwater passage from upstream glacial lakes and the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) to the Atlantic Ocean via the lower Great Lakes. Here, we use the oxygen-isotope compositions of ostracode valves and clam shells from three Lake Ontario sediment cores to identify glacial meltwater contributions to ancient Lake Ontario since the retreat of the LIS (∼16,500 cal [13,300 14C] BP). Differences in mineralogy and sediment grain size are also used to identify changes in the hydrologic regime. The average lakewater δ18O of -17.5‰ (determined from ostracode compositions) indicates a significant contribution from glacial meltwater. Upon LIS retreat from the St. Lawrence lowlands, ancient Lake Ontario (glacial Lake Iroquois) lakewater δ18O increased to -12‰ largely because of the loss of low-18O glacial meltwater input. A subsequent decrease in lakewater δ18O (from -12 to -14‰), accompanied by a median sediment grain size increase to 9 μm, indicates that post-glacial Lake Ontario received a final pulse of meltwater (∼13,000-12,500 cal [11,100-10,500 14C] BP) before the onset of hydrologic closure. This meltwater pulse, which is also recorded in a previously reported brief freshening of the neighbouring Champlain Valley (Cronin et al., 2012), may have contributed to a weakening of thermohaline circulation in the Atlantic Ocean. After 12,900 cal [11,020 14C] BP, the meltwater presence in the Ontario basin continued to inhibit entry of Champlain seawater into early Lake Ontario. Opening of the North Bay outlet diverted upper Great Lakes water from the lower Great Lakes causing a period (12,300-8300 cal [10,400-7500 14C] BP) of hydrologic closure in Lake Ontario (Anderson and Lewis, 2012). This change is demarcated by a shift to higher δ18Olakewater

  6. Effect of Forging Allowance Value on the Power Consumption of Machining Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Mal'kova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aim is to develop and study possible energy-efficiency measures for machined forgings drawing on analysis of the impact of the allowance for machining and its scatter.The most sophisticated option to take into consideration the effect of the cut depth is the work-piece machining in which the forging allowance value results from the blank production.Research of power consumption was conducted for turning the cylindrical surface of 144 mm length and  1,5 33 0,5   diameter on forgings of the work-pieces "screw of steering control" made from steel 60PP. A radial dimension allowance at said cylindrical surface at six points of the five sections was sized to assess the allowance value dispersion. The size of the sample measurements at the control points was n = 600. Statistic processing has shown normal law of distribution and sample homogeneity.To analyze the results of experiments was calculated a range of allowances for this workpiece. Calculated minimum and maximum allowance per one side for rough lathing were, respectively, 0.905 mm and 1.905mm. It was found that 77% points under control lie in calculated range of allowance values. And there are no points out of the range on lesser side that proves a lack of rejects; but there are points out of the range on the bigger side, that will require additional costs for machining the specified surface, including the cost of electricity.There were three power consumption calculations based on factory- recommended duty: for processing the entire sample of forgings with an average allowance, for machining forgings allowances of which are within the recommended design range of allowance, and for processing the entire sample of forgings with a minimum value of allowance.It was found that elimination of allowance values which are outside the recommended range enables to reduce the power consumption, at least, by 6%, and the overall power consumption for processing the measured forgings

  7. Ontario tackles US and domestic air pollution sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2001-06-01

    The province of Ontario is taking strong action to reduce emission from major domestic sources, focusing on smog and climate change-causing emissions. For example, the province has introduced strict air emission limits and mandatory monitoring and reporting, placed a freeze on the sale of coal-fired generating plants by Ontario Hydro, and implemented new air quality initiatives to ensure that all Ontarians have early and improved access to air quality information. Ontario is also developing stringent emission caps, announced an expansion of mandatory emission reporting requirements to all industrial sectors, and introduced fines and long jail sentences for major environmental offences. In an effort to deal with transboundary environmental issues, Ontario recently intervened before US courts in support of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to cap emissions of nitrogen oxides from midwestern states. This action recognizes that smog and acid rain are regional issues that must be tackled through regional efforts, and draws attention to the fact that more than half of Ontario's smog comes from sources south of the border.

  8. Transboundary pollution and its effect on Ontario : fact sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-24

    The Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) has taken action to improve air quality in the province. Some measures include strict air emission limits and mandatory reporting requirements for the electric power generating sector. A freeze has been placed on the sale of all coal-fired generating plants pending environmental review. The Ontario Government pressured the Federal Government to reduce the sulphur content of gasoline and diesel fuel produced in Canada. This report stated that while it is recognized that half of Ontario's air pollution is caused by emissions from the U.S., the province considers smog and acid rain to be regional air issues that should be addressed using coordinated bilateral efforts. Ontario will commit to adopting the standards of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency if these standards will cap emissions of nitrogen oxides. This report presented a summary of simple facts regarding emissions of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, acid rain, as well as nuclear and fossil fueled power generation. The MOE has created several environmental programs such as the Anti-Smog Action Plan, Drive Clean Program, Smog Patrol, Partners in Air Program and the Climate Change Fund. It has also taken other initiatives such as the implementation of emission performance standards for power generation, updating air quality standards and investing $4 million into an air monitoring network. The ministry has offered resource materials for smog alert and has updated Ontario's gasoline volatility regulation. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  9. Bathymetry and absorbitivity of Titan's Ontario Lacus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A.G.; Wolf, A.S.; Aharonson, O.; Zebker, H.; Lorenz, R.; Kirk, R.L.; Paillou, P.; Lunine, J.; Wye, L.; Callahan, P.; Wall, S.; Elachi, C.

    2010-01-01

    Ontario Lacus is the largest and best characterized lake in Titan's south polar region. In June and July 2009, the Cassini RADAR acquired its first Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images of the area. Together with closest approach altimetry acquired in December 2008, these observations provide a unique opportunity to study the lake's nearshore bathymetry and complex refractive properties. Average radar backscatter is observed to decrease exponentially with distance from the local shoreline. This behavior is consistent with attenuation through a deepening layer of liquid and, if local topography is known, can be used to derive absorptive dielectric properties. Accordingly, we estimate nearshore topography from a radar altimetry profile that intersects the shoreline on the East and West sides of the lake. We then analyze SAR backscatter in these regions to determine the imaginary component of the liquid's complex index of refraction (Kappa). The derived value, Kappa = (6.1-1.3+1.7) x 10-4, corresponds to a loss tangent of tan Delta = (9.2-2.0+2.5) x 10-4 and is consistent with a composition dominated by liquid hydrocarbons. This value can be used to test compositional models once the microwave optical properties of candidate materials have been measured. In areas that do not intersect altimetry profiles, relative slopes can be calculated assuming the index of refraction is constant throughout the liquid. Accordingly, we construct a coarse bathymetry map for the nearshore region by measuring bathymetric slopes for eleven additional areas around the lake. These slopes vary by a factor of ~5 and correlate well with observed shoreline morphologies.

  10. Conclusion: The balanced company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    This concluding chapter brings together the various research findings of the book "The balanced company - organizing for the 21st Century" and develops a general overview of their implications for our understanding of the balancing processes unfolding in companies and organizations....

  11. Virtual Company and Modelbank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1996-01-01

    Ansøgning til Socrates programmet vedr. Tematisk netværk inden for området Virtual Company and Modelbank......Ansøgning til Socrates programmet vedr. Tematisk netværk inden for området Virtual Company and Modelbank...

  12. Allocation for manufacturing companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Assuring a high material availability for production is while reducing sourcing costs remains a major logistical challenge for producing companies. Lean economic processes, flexibility and responsiveness - beneficial both for the customer and for the supplier - are characteristics of an excellent customer-supplier relationship. Standard sourcing models offer a field-tested approach for setting up across company boarders processes.

  13. Huge court fight may be in offing as Ontario college considers penalty for maverick MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, C

    1999-03-23

    Physicians who practise alternative medicine are paying close attention to the case of an Ontario physician who was found guilty of professional misconduct. The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario says it is simply doing its job.

  14. The mortality of companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daepp, Madeleine I. G.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; West, Geoffrey B.; Bettencourt, Luís M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The firm is a fundamental economic unit of contemporary human societies. Studies on the general quantitative and statistical character of firms have produced mixed results regarding their lifespans and mortality. We examine a comprehensive database of more than 25 000 publicly traded North American companies, from 1950 to 2009, to derive the statistics of firm lifespans. Based on detailed survival analysis, we show that the mortality of publicly traded companies manifests an approximately constant hazard rate over long periods of observation. This regularity indicates that mortality rates are independent of a company's age. We show that the typical half-life of a publicly traded company is about a decade, regardless of business sector. Our results shed new light on the dynamics of births and deaths of publicly traded companies and identify some of the necessary ingredients of a general theory of firms. PMID:25833247

  15. Neurotoxic behavioral effects of Lake Ontario salmon diets in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzler, D.R. (State Univ. of New York, Oswego (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Six experiments were conducted to examine possible neurotoxic effects of the exposure to contaminants in Lake Ontario salmon administered through the diets of rats. Rats were fed different concentrations of fish (8%, 15% or 30%) in one of three diet conditions: Lake Ontario salmon, Pacific Ocean salmon, or laboratory rat chow only. Following 20 days on the diets, rats were tested for five minutes per day in a modified open field for one or three days. Lake Ontario salmon diets consistently produced significantly lower activity, rearing, and nosepoke behaviors in comparison with ocean salmon or rat chow diet conditions. A dose-response effect for concentration of lake salmon was obtained, and the attenuation effect occurred in males, females, adult or young animals, and postweaning females, with fish sampled over a five-year period. While only two of several potential contaminants were tested, both fish and brain analyses of mirex and PCBs relate to the behavioral effects.

  16. Standards for provision and accreditation of echocardiography in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Anthony J; Chan, Kwan L; Hughes, William G; Kingsbury, Kori J; Leong-Poi, Howard; Sasson, Zion; Wald, Robert

    2013-03-01

    In March of 2010, the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-term Care and Ontario Medical Association jointly commissioned a Working Group to make recommendations regarding the provision and accreditation of echocardiographic services in Ontario. That commission undertook a process to examine all aspects of the provision, reporting and interpretation of echocardiographic examinations, including the echocardiographic examination itself, facilities, equipment, reporting, indications, and qualifications of personnel involved in the acquisition and interpretation of studies. The result was development of a set of 54 performance standards and a process for accreditation of echocardiographic facilities, initially on a voluntary basis, but leading to a process of mandatory accreditation. This article, and its accompanying Supplemental Material, outline the mandate, process undertaken, standards developed, and accreditation process recommended.

  17. Parental perceptions of school-based influenza immunisation in Ontario, Canada: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    MacDougall, Donna; Crowe, Lois; Jennifer A Pereira; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Quach, Susan; Wormsbecker, Anne E; Ramsay, Hilary; Salvadori, Marina I; Russell, Margaret L; ,

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the perspectives of Ontario parents regarding the advantages and disadvantages of adding influenza immunisation to the currently existing Ontario school-based immunisation programmes. Design Descriptive qualitative study. Participants Parents of school-age children in Ontario, Canada, who were recruited using a variety of electronic strategies (social media, emails and media releases), and identified as eligible (Ontario resident, parent of one or more school-age child...

  18. The short-term impact of Ontario's generic pricing reforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Law

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Canadians pay amongst the highest generic drug prices in the world. In July 2010, the province of Ontario enacted a policy that halved reimbursement for generic drugs from the public drug plan, and substantially lowered prices for private purchases. We quantified the impact of this policy on overall generic drug expenditures in the province, and projected the impact in other provinces had they mimicked this pricing change. METHODS: We used quarterly prescription generic drug dispensing data from the IMS-Brogan CompuScript Audit. We used the price per unit in both the pre- and post-policy period and two economics price indexes to estimate the expenditure reduction in Ontario. Further, we used the post-policy Ontario prices to estimate the potential reduction in other provinces. RESULTS: We estimate that total expenditure on generic drugs in Ontario during the second half of 2010 was between $181 and $194 million below what would be expected if prices had remained at pre-policy level. Over half of the reduction in spending was due to savings on just 10 generic ingredients. If other provinces had matched Ontario's prices, their expenditures over during the latter half of 2010 would have been $445 million lower. DISCUSSION: We found that if Ontario's pricing scheme were adopted nationally, overall spending on generic drugs in Canada would drop at least $1.28 billion annually--a 5% decrease in total prescription drug expenditure. Other provinces should seriously consider both changes to their generic drug prices and the use of more competitive bulk purchasing policies.

  19. Future changes of temperature and heat waves in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Huang, Guohe; Huang, Wendy; Lin, Qianguo; Liao, Renfei; Fan, Yurui

    2017-05-01

    Apparent changes in the temperature patterns in recent years brought many challenges to the province of Ontario, Canada. As the need for adapting to climate change challenges increases, the development of reliable climate projections becomes a crucial task. In this study, a regional climate modeling system, Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS), is used to simulate the temperature patterns in Ontario. Three PRECIS runs with a resolution of 25 km × 25 km are carried out to simulate the present (1961-1990) temperature variations. There is a good match between the simulated and observed data, which validates the performance of PRECIS in reproducing temperature changes in Ontario. Future changes of daily maximum, mean, and minimum temperatures during the period 2071-2100 are then projected under the IPCC SRES A2 and B2 emission scenarios using PRECIS. Spatial variations of annual mean temperature, mean diurnal range, and temperature seasonality are generated. Furthermore, heat waves defined based on the exceedance of local climatology and their temporal and spatial characteristics are analyzed. The results indicate that the highest temperature and the most intensive heat waves are most likely to occur at the Toronto-Windsor corridor in Southern Ontario. The Northern Ontario, in spite of the relatively low projected temperature, would be under the risk of long-lasting heat waves, and thus needs effective measures to enhance its climate resilience in the future. This study can assist the decision makers in better understanding the future temperature changes in Ontario and provide decision support for mitigating heat-related loss.

  20. Proceedings of the 41. annual Ontario Petroleum Institute conference : Ontario - New York oil and gas conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    A wide range of issues relevant to the petroleum industry in both Ontario and northern New York state were addressed with particular reference to the potential for hydrocarbon plays in the shale and carbonate rocks of the region. The 21 presentations and poster sessions discussed a variety of topics including the sedimentology and petrology of oil and natural gas reservoirs, with emphasis on their depositional histories and geological correlations. This included a review of sequence stratigraphy, source rocks, and hydrodynamics of hydrocarbon fluid flow in fractured reservoirs. Many of the papers reviewed exploration methods, market economics, and enhanced recovery techniques such as well stimulation and horizontal drilling. Several presentations also reviewed the recent advances that have been made in remote sensing techniques, ground truth measurement acquisition, and seismic surveys. Eight of the 21 presentations were processed separately for inclusion in the database. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. Gas supermarket: Dawn pipeline junction rises as a trading hub on a continental scale in southwestern Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulkner, P.

    1999-11-01

    Dawn, Ontario, a small farming community near Sarnia's famed chemical valley is the site of the Union Gas Dawn Operations Centre. The region's capacity to store gas in geological formations beneath fertile fertile farm land will be used more and more with the completion of pipelines that will transmit more Alberta natural gas to markets in the eastern United States through Ontario. Its central location, a growing Ontario-Quebec market and prospects of more incoming gas appear to have conferred upon Dawn the status of a premier trading hub in Canada and maybe in North America, spurred on by regulatory regimes on both sides of the border that favour free trade in natural gas and the growing demand in the previously under-served northeastern United States materialize. The Dawn center trades gas for more than 100 energy companies, several of them electricity providers, that have been recently allowed to step into the market territory formerly occupied by Ontario Hydro. Natural gas is replacing coal burning power stations and to some extent, nuclear power in Ontario; the trend is also strong in the New England states, hence future demand for natural gas is likely to increase. It is this reasoning that underlies the construction of new pipelines, such as the Alliance Project, which will move gas from Alberta into the United States, back to Canada at Dawn, then back again into New York. If all goes according to plan, another new route called Millennium will run east from Dawn than travel under Lake Erie to join the Columbia Gas System that feeds New York City. Another line -- Vector -- that will geographically diversify west-east trading capabilities, also received FERC and NEB approval early in 1999. Yet another line by TriState, initially denied a US permit, recently received preliminary FERC approval, conditional upon approval by NEB. It is easy to see that with the spread of deregulation and competition, Dawn's role as a trading hub and as a storage

  2. Exploring the Gap between Teacher Certification and Permanent Employment in Ontario: An Integrative Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Allison; Ryan, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    The following integrative literature review illuminates the perceptible time gap that currently exists for new Ontario teachers graduating and moving from teacher preparation programs to permanent members of the Ontario teaching community. At a time of oversupply of teachers, many new teachers within Ontario and beyond its borders become…

  3. The Price of Restraint. Brief to the Ontario Council on University Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto. Committee on Operating Grants.

    The Council of Ontario Universities' 1978 brief on operating support is presented. Section I compares funding recommendations for 1978-79 put forward by the Council on Ontario Universities (COU) and the Ontario Council on University Affairs (OCUS) with the provisions made for that year by the Minister of College and Universities (MCU). Section 2…

  4. The Financial Position of Universities in Ontario: 1986. Report 86-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto. Research Div.

    Data on the financial position of Ontario's universities are provided. Statistical tables and graphs cover: expenditures per client served, 1977-1985; percentage increase in provincial operating grants and total budgetary expenditures, 1977-1986; Ontario Universities' share of provincial budgetary expenditures; growth of Ontario Gross Domestic…

  5. Ascending and Descending into the System: A Comparison of Broadcasting Media Programs in Ontario Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sianos, Helen

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 the Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities released Ontario's Differentiation Policy Framework for Postsecondary Education, for colleges and universities in the province. All 24 Ontario colleges responded to this Framework by presenting their Strategic Mandate Agreements (SMA). The Framework contrasts the original…

  6. 77 FR 30451 - Safety Zone; Olcott Fireworks, Lake Ontario, Olcott, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Olcott Fireworks, Lake Ontario, Olcott, NY... establish a temporary safety zone on Lake Ontario, Olcott, NY. This proposed rule is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Ontario during the Olcott fireworks display. The safety zone established...

  7. The Ontario Curriculum in the Arts and the Creative Economy Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Marisol

    2012-01-01

    The rhetoric of the creative economy agenda has influenced the revised Ontario curriculum in the arts for grades 9-12. Yet, increasing rhetorical and substantive support for a creative economy agenda in Ontario at large is not sufficiently reflected in the revised Ontario arts curriculum. The expanded agenda is not matched by expanded substantive…

  8. 77 FR 38492 - Safety Zone; Olcott Fireworks, Lake Ontario, Olcott, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Olcott Fireworks, Lake Ontario, Olcott, NY... temporary safety zone on Lake Ontario, Olcott, New York. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Ontario during the Olcott fireworks on July 3, 2012. The safety zone...

  9. SICHUAN GEOPHYSICAL COMPANY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Sichuan Geophysical Company (abbreviated as SCGC below), originally named Sichuan Geophysical Company of CNPC Sichuan Petroleum, was founded in 1956 and is a subsidiary of CNPC Chuanqing Drilling Engineering Company Limited. With more than 50 years' development, SCGC now owns almost 3800 employees and has become a big oil & gas seismic exploration engineering service enterprise with the characteristic mountain seismic exploration techniques, and its annual business turnover reaches nearly 2 billion RMB. It can provide the integrated seismic exploration engineering service including seismic data acquisition, processing, interpretation, and geological comprehensive evaluation in various complex regions for clients at home and abroad.

  10. Valuation of Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lisník

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with valuating telecommunications companies. Six groups operating mainly in the European countries are compared. The comparison is based on financial and techno-economic indicators.These indicators are used to value the company by the DCF method. However, many companies have only a very short history. To value these, classical methods like DCF or real options are not suitable. In this case, methods based on market confrontation seem to be efficient. A further exploration of these methods is also the topic of my graduate studies 

  11. 78 FR 11638 - Michigan Consolidated Gas Company, DTE Gas Company, DTE Gas Company; Notice of Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Michigan Consolidated Gas Company, DTE Gas Company, DTE Gas Company; Notice... Docket Nos. PR13-29-000, and PR13-30-000 (not consolidated), Michigan Consolidated Gas Company (MichCon) and DTE Gas Company (DTE Gas) filed to institute a name change to both itself from MichCon to DTE...

  12. 75 FR 13524 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas... of Application March 16, 2010. Take notice that on March 5, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company... other owners, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental...

  13. Cancer incidence and mortality from exposure to radon progeny among Ontario uranium miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaranjan, Garthika; Berriault, Colin; Do, Minh; Villeneuve, Paul J; Demers, Paul A

    2016-12-01

    The study objectives were to extend the follow-up of the Ontario uranium miners cohort, one of the largest cohorts of uranium miners with low cumulative exposures, to examine the relationship between radon exposure and lung cancer mortality and, for the first time incidence, and address gaps in the literature, including dose-response relationship between radon exposure and other cancer sites, and non-cancer mortality. The cohort of mine and mill workers was created using data from Canada's National Dose Registry and the Ontario Mining Master File. The follow-up for the cohort was recently extended for mortality (1954-2007) and for the first time includes cancer incidence (1969-2005). The Poisson regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and excess relative risks (ERR) and their 95% CIs with levels of cumulative radon exposure. The cohort consisted of 28 546 male miners with a mean cumulative radon exposure of 21.0 working level months (WLM). An increased risk of lung cancer and a dose-response relationship was observed with cumulative radon exposure. Miners exposed to >100 WLM demonstrated a twofold increase in the risk of lung cancer incidence (RR=1.89, CI 1.43 to 2.50) compared with the non-exposed group, and a linear ERR of 0.64/100 WLM (CI 0.43 to 0.85), with similar results observed for mortality. No association was observed for other cancer sites (stomach, leukaemia, kidney and extrathoracic airways) or non-cancer sites (cardiovascular diseases) with increasing cumulative exposure to radon. These findings suggest no increased risk of cancer sites other than lung or non-cancer mortality from relatively low cumulative exposure to radon. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Forming of Hollow Shaft Forging From Titanium Alloy Ti6Al4V by Means of Rotary Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomczak J.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents chosen results of theoretical-experimental works concerning forming of hollow shafts forgings from titanium alloys, which are applied in aviation industry. At the first stage of conducted analysis, the forging forming process was modeled by means of finite element method. Calculations were made using software Simufact Forming. On the basis of performed simulations optimal parameters of rotary compression process were determined. Next, experimental tests of forging forming in laboratory conditions were made. For the research needs, a forging aggregate, designed by the Authors, was used. Conducted research works confirmed the possibility of metal forming (by means of rotary compression of hollow shafts from hard workable titanium alloys. Numerous advantages of rotary compression process, make it attractive both for low series production (aircraft industry and for mass production (automotive industry.

  15. Effects of Cryogenic Forging and Anodization on the Mechanical Properties of AA 7075-T73 Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Teng-Shih; Liao, Tien-Wei; Hsu, Wen-Nong

    2016-03-01

    In this study, high-strength AA7075 alloy samples were cryogenically forged after annealing and then subjected to solution and aging treatments. The cryogenically forged 7075-T73 alloy samples displayed equiaxed fine grains associated with abundant fine precipitates in their matrix. Compared with conventional 7075-T73 alloy samples, the cryogenically forged samples exhibited an 8-12% reduction in tensile strength and an increased fatigue strength and higher corrosion resistance. The fatigue strength measured at 107 cycles was 225 MPa in the bare samples; the strength was increased to 250 MPa in the cryogenically forged samples. The effect of anodization on the corrosion resistance of the bare samples was improved from (E corr) -0.80 to -0.61 V.

  16. Fabrication and densification enhancement of SiC-particulate-reinforced copper matrix composites prepared via the sinter-forging process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammadmehdi Shabani; Mohammad Hossein Paydar; Mohammad Mohsen Moshksar

    2014-01-01

    The fabrication of copper (Cu) and copper matrix silicon carbide (Cu/SiCp) particulate composites via the sinter-forging process was investigated. Sintering and sinter-forging processes were performed under an inert Ar atmosphere. The influence of sinter-forging time, tempera-ture, and compressive stress on the relative density and hardness of the prepared samples was systematically investigated and subsequently com-pared with that of the samples prepared by the conventional sintering process. The relative density and hardness of the composites were enhanced when they were prepared by the sinter-forging process. The relative density values of all Cu/SiCp composite samples were observed to decrease with the increase in SiC content.

  17. A friction model for cold forging of aluminum, steel and stainless steel provided with conversion coating and solid film lubricant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Eriksen, Morten; Tan, Xincai

    2011-01-01

    Adopting a simulative tribology test system for cold forging the friction stress for aluminum, steel and stainless steel provided with typical lubricants for cold forging has been determined for varying normal pressure, surface expansion, sliding length and tool/work piece interface temperature...... of normal pressure and tool/work piece interface temperature. The model is verified by process testing measuring friction at varying reduction in cold forward rod extrusion....

  18. Omitted Costs, Inflated Benefits: Renewable Energy Policy in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Parker; Fox, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    The government of Ontario has adopted wind energy development as an alternative energy source. It enacted the Green Energy and Economy Act, May 2009, with the intention to fast track the approval process regarding industrial wind turbines. The Act legislated a centralized decision making process while removing local jurisdictional authority.…

  19. Shared Geospatial Metadata Repository for Ontario University Libraries: Collaborative Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forward, Erin; Leahey, Amber; Trimble, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Successfully providing access to special collections of digital geospatial data in academic libraries relies upon complete and accurate metadata. Creating and maintaining metadata using specialized standards is a formidable challenge for libraries. The Ontario Council of University Libraries' Scholars GeoPortal project, which created a shared…

  20. Constructing Bullying in Ontario, Canada: A Critical Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue; Tuters, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    As the prevalence and negative effects of bullying become widely known, people around the world seem desperate to solve the bullying "problem". A sizeable body of research about many aspects of bullying and a plethora of anti-bullying programmes and policies now exist. This critical policy analysis asks: how does Ontario, Canada's…

  1. Ontario District Embraces an Evolving Approach to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchetz, Denese; Witherow, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    The York Region District School Board is recognized as a high-performing district in Ontario, Canada, and has also garnered international attention. Visitors from across Canada, as well as Singapore, Finland, England, Scotland, Holland, the Bahamas, Korea, China, and Taiwan, have come to learn about its system and observe the teaching, learning,…

  2. Financial Literacy in Ontario: Neoliberalism, Pierre Bourdieu and the Citizen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing concepts from Pierre Bourdieu I argue that the implementation of financial literacy education in Ontario public schools will, if uncontested, support a neoliberal consumer habitus (subjectivity) at the expense of the critical citizen. This internalization of the neoliberal ethos assists state efforts to shift responsibility for…

  3. Prevalence of Problematic Video Gaming among Ontario Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nigel E.; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Ballon, Bruce; Cheung, Joyce T. W.; Adlaf, Edward M.; Henderson, Joanna; Chan, Vincy; Rehm, Jurgen; Hamilton, Hayley; Mann, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Video game playing has become a very popular activity among adolescents. Its impact on the mental health and well-being of players is just beginning to be explored. This paper reports on the prevalence of problematic gaming in a representative sample of 2,832 Ontario students in grades 7 to 12. The survey included questions about the school grade,…

  4. Revisiting Constructivist Teaching Methods in Ontario Colleges Preparing for Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    At the time of writing, the first community colleges in Ontario were preparing for transition to an accreditation model from an audit system. This paper revisits constructivist literature, arguing that a more pragmatic definition of constructivism effectively blends positivist and interactionist philosophies to achieve both student centred…

  5. Tidy Minds, Untidy Solutions: University Organization in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. Percy

    1984-01-01

    The Ontario Council of University Affairs was established to counsel the provincial government concerning higher education and to act as a buffer between institutions and government. However, with no statutory authority, its advice has been largely ignored or rejected. A 1983 commission to rectify the situation has not succeeded. (MSE)

  6. Administrators' Views on Teacher Evaluation: Examining Ontario's Teacher Performance Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Sachin

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the views of administrators (i.e., principals and vice-principals) in Ontario, Canada, with regard to the province's Teacher Performance Appraisal process. A total of 178 responses were collected from a survey that examined five areas: 1) preparation and training; 2) classroom observations; 3) preparing the formal evaluation;…

  7. Implications of Key Performance Indicator Issues in Ontario Universities Explored

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Since 1998, the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities in Ontario, Canada, has required that data on specific key performance indicators (KPIs) be made public by its publicly funded universities. The information is intended to be used by universities to demonstrate their achievements, to improve their programmes and services, and to…

  8. Constructing Bullying in Ontario, Canada: A Critical Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue; Tuters, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    As the prevalence and negative effects of bullying become widely known, people around the world seem desperate to solve the bullying "problem". A sizeable body of research about many aspects of bullying and a plethora of anti-bullying programmes and policies now exist. This critical policy analysis asks: how does Ontario, Canada's…

  9. Institutional Diversity in Ontario's University Sector: A Policy Debate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piché, Pierre G.; Jones, Glen A.

    2016-01-01

    In order to meet the demands in a cost-effective manner of an emerging knowledge society that is global in scope, structural higher education policy changes have been introduced in many countries with a focus on systemic and programmatic diversity. There has been an ongoing debate about institutional diversity in Ontario higher education,…

  10. Omitted Costs, Inflated Benefits: Renewable Energy Policy in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Parker; Fox, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    The government of Ontario has adopted wind energy development as an alternative energy source. It enacted the Green Energy and Economy Act, May 2009, with the intention to fast track the approval process regarding industrial wind turbines. The Act legislated a centralized decision making process while removing local jurisdictional authority.…

  11. Provoking Dialogue: A Short History of Outdoor Education in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, James

    2011-01-01

    History helps educators more clearly describe the role of outdoor education in improving society by fostering awareness of human-nature interconnections. Five branches have shaped outdoor education in Ontario: (1) agricultural education; (2) environmental education; (3) outdoor adventure education; (4) ecological education; and (5) climate change…

  12. How Ontario Spread Successful Practices across 5,000 Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, Avis

    2013-01-01

    Ontario embraced a provincial lead improvement plan that was designed to improve its 5,000 schools by focusing on literacy and numeracy, improving high school graduation, and improving public support for education. Its primary strategy was developing networks of educators and building their capacity for growth.

  13. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Conditions and Variability in Water Quality Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in recent years has increased regarding conditions in the nearshore of the Great Lakes. We conducted a high-resolution survey of the Lake Ontario nearshore along the 20 m contour using towed electronic instrumentation. The 720 km survey was conducted September 6-10, 20...

  14. Constructing Bullying in Ontario, Canada: A Critical Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue; Tuters, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    As the prevalence and negative effects of bullying become widely known, people around the world seem desperate to solve the bullying "problem". A sizeable body of research about many aspects of bullying and a plethora of anti-bullying programmes and policies now exist. This critical policy analysis asks: how does Ontario, Canada's…

  15. Financial Literacy in Ontario: Neoliberalism, Pierre Bourdieu and the Citizen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing concepts from Pierre Bourdieu I argue that the implementation of financial literacy education in Ontario public schools will, if uncontested, support a neoliberal consumer habitus (subjectivity) at the expense of the critical citizen. This internalization of the neoliberal ethos assists state efforts to shift responsibility for…

  16. Reliable positioning in a sparse GPS network, eastern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi Alinia, H.; Tiampo, K.; Atkinson, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Canada hosts two regions that are prone to large earthquakes: western British Columbia, and the St. Lawrence River region in eastern Canada. Although eastern Ontario is not as seismically active as other areas of eastern Canada, such as the Charlevoix/Ottawa Valley seismic zone, it experiences ongoing moderate seismicity. In historic times, potentially damaging events have occurred in New York State (Attica, 1929, M=5.7; Plattsburg, 2002, M=5.0), north-central Ontario (Temiskaming, 1935, M=6.2; North Bay, 2000, M=5.0), eastern Ontario (Cornwall, 1944, M=5.8), Georgian Bay (2005, MN=4.3), and western Quebec (Val-Des-Bois,2010, M=5.0, MN=5.8). In eastern Canada, the analysis of detailed, high-precision measurements of surface deformation is a key component in our efforts to better characterize the associated seismic hazard. The data from precise, continuous GPS stations is necessary to adequately characterize surface velocities from which patterns and rates of stress accumulation on faults can be estimated (Mazzotti and Adams, 2005; Mazzotti et al., 2005). Monitoring of these displacements requires employing high accuracy GPS positioning techniques. Detailed strain measurements can determine whether the regional strain everywhere is commensurate with a large event occurring every few hundred years anywhere within this general area or whether large earthquakes are limited to specific areas (Adams and Halchuck, 2003; Mazzotti and Adams, 2005). In many parts of southeastern Ontario and western Québec, GPS stations are distributed quite sparsely, with spacings of approximately 100 km or more. The challenge is to provide accurate solutions for these sparse networks with an approach that is capable of achieving high-accuracy positioning. Here, various reduction techniques are applied to a sparse network installed with the Southern Ontario Seismic Network in eastern Ontario. Recent developments include the implementation of precise point positioning processing on acquired

  17. Effects of Process Parameters on Deformation and Temperature Uniformity of Forged Ti-6Al-4V Turbine Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shiyuan; Zhu, Dahu; Hua, Lin; Qian, Dongsheng; Yan, Sijie; Yu, Fengping

    2016-11-01

    This work is motivated by the frequent occurrence of macro- and microdefects within forged Ti-6Al-4V turbine blades due to the severely nonuniform strain and temperature distributions. To overcome the problem of nonuniformity during the blade forging operation, firstly, a 2D coupled thermo-mechanical finite element approach using the strain-compensated Arrhenius-type constitutive model is employed to simulate the real movements and processing conditions, and its reliability is verified experimentally. Secondly, two evaluation indexes, standard deviation of equivalent plastic strain and standard deviation of temperature, are proposed to evaluate the uniformity characteristics within the forged blade, and the effects of four process parameters including the forging velocity, friction factor, initial workpiece temperature and dwell time on the uniformity of strain and temperature distributions are carefully studied. Finally, the numerically optimized combination of process parameters is validated by the application in a practical process. The parametric study reveals that a reasonable combination of process parameters considering the flow resistance, flow localization and the effects of deformation and friction heating is crucial for the titanium alloy blade forging with uniformity. This work can provide a significant guidance for the design and optimization of blade forging processes.

  18. Numerical simulation and experimental study for the die forging process of a high-speed railway brake disc hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingyue; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Long; LI, Dianzhong

    2013-05-01

    With the aim of manufacturing a near-net shape forging product of a brake disk hub for the high-speed railway, the die forging process was designed and optimized in this study. Firstly, based on the measured stress-strain curves at different strain rates and the thermal-physical parameters of 40Cr A steel, a finite element model for the forging process of a high-speed railway brake disc hub was established. Then, the temperature, stress and strain fields were studied and analyzed at the pre-forging and the finial-forging stages. Besides, in order to trace the stress and strain evolution, five points at different positions were chosen on the billet, and the comparison of the state conditions was made among these points. The results have demonstrated that the product can be well formed by an elaborately designed three-stage forging process, which may reduce the metal machine allowance and the producing cost effectively. Finally, an industrial trial was made and a machined product with sound quality was obtained.

  19. Effect of Hot Forging on Microstructural Evolution and Impact Toughness in Ultra-high Carbon Low Alloy Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kang, C. Y.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of a hot forging ratio on the microstructural variation and tensile properties of ultra-high carbon low alloy steel was investigated. Scanning electron microscopic analyses depict that with an increase in the hot forging ratio, the thickness of the network and acicular proeutectoid cementite decreased. Moreover, the lamella spacing and thickness of the eutectoid cementite decreased and broke up into particle shapes, which then became spheroidized as the hot forging ratio increased. Furthermore, when the forging ratio exceeded 65%, the network and acicular shape of the as-cast state disappeared. By increasing the hot forging ratio, the tensile strength and elongation remained below 50%, but they increased rapidly with an increase in the forging ratio. Strength and elongation were not affected by the thickness of the proeutectoid and eutectoid cementites, but were greatly affected by the shape of the proeutectoid cementite. Due to the decrease in the austenite grain size, as well as the spheroidization of the cementite, the tensile strength and elongation sharply increased.

  20. Backward can extrusion with conical,rotating punch as a cold forging tribology test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceron, Ermanno; Bay, Niels; Tetsuo, A.

    2011-01-01

    A new, simulative test of friction and lubrication in cold forging is developed by the authors. The test is based on a backward can extrusion process in which the workpiece rotates. An analytical model is presented determining the friction stress from the measured torque during testing combined...... with an analysis of the sliding velocity distribution along the punch nose. The latter is determined by FE analysis of the test. Results show friction stress for unalloyed low C-steel provided with different types of lubricants, e.g. phosphate coating plus soap, phosphate coating plus MoS2 and single bathe...... lubrication with PULS. The new test is so severe, that it is possible to break down the best lubrication systems for cold forging, such as phosphate coating plus soap and MoS2....

  1. MODELING OF MICROSTRUCTURAL EVOLUTION IN MICROALLOYED STEEL DURING HOT FORGING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Wang; J. Chen; Z. Zhao; X.Y. Ruan

    2006-01-01

    The microstructural evolution of microalloyed steel during hot forging process was investigated using physical simulation experiments. The dynamic recrystallized fraction was described by modifying Avrami's equation, the parameters of which were determined by single hit compression tests. Double hit compression tests were performed to model the equation describing the static recrystallized fraction, and the obtained predicted values were in good agreement with the measured values. Austenitic grain growth was modeled as: Dinc5=D05 +1.6×1032t·exp(-716870/RT) using isothermal tests. Furthermore, an equation describing the dynamic recrystallized grain size was given as Ddyn=3771·Z-0.2.The models of microstructural evolution could be applied to the numerical simulation of hot forging.

  2. Application of multi-grid method on the simulation of incremental forging processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Mohamad; Khaled, Mahmoud; Fourment, Lionel

    2016-10-01

    Numerical simulation becomes essential in manufacturing large part by incremental forging processes. It is a splendid tool allowing to show physical phenomena however behind the scenes, an expensive bill should be paid, that is the computational time. That is why many techniques are developed to decrease the computational time of numerical simulation. Multi-Grid method is a numerical procedure that permits to reduce computational time of numerical calculation by performing the resolution of the system of equations on several mesh of decreasing size which allows to smooth faster the low frequency of the solution as well as its high frequency. In this paper a Multi-Grid method is applied to cogging process in the software Forge 3. The study is carried out using increasing number of degrees of freedom. The results shows that calculation time is divide by two for a mesh of 39,000 nodes. The method is promising especially if coupled with Multi-Mesh method.

  3. Volume calculation of the spur gear billet for cold precision forging with average circle method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wangjun Cheng; Chengzhong Chi; Yongzhen Wang; Peng Lin; Wei Liang; Chen Li

    2014-01-01

    Forging spur gears are widely used in the driving system of mining machinery and equipment due to their higher strength and dimensional accuracy. For the purpose of precisely calculating the volume of cylindrical spur gear billet in cold precision forging, a new theoretical method named average circle method was put forward. With this method, a series of gear billet volumes were calculated. Comparing with the accurate three-dimensional modeling method, the accuracy of average circle method by theoretical calculation was estimated and the maximum relative error of average circle method was less than 1.5%, which was in good agreement with the experimental results. Relative errors of the calculated and the experimental for obtaining the gear billet volumes with reference circle method are larger than those of the average circle method. It shows that average circle method possesses a higher calculation accuracy than reference circle method (traditional method), which should be worth popularizing widely in calculation of spur gear billet volume.

  4. Fatigue life on a full scale test rig: Forged versus cast wind turbine rotor shafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, J.; Rauert, T.; Dalhoff, P.; Sander, M.

    2016-09-01

    To reduce uncertainties associated with the fatigue life of the highly safety relevant rotor shaft and also to review today's design practice, the fatigue behaviour will be tested on a full scale test rig. Until now tests on full scale wind turbine parts are not common. Therefore, a general lack of experience on how to perform accelerated life time tests for those components exists. To clarify how to transfer real conditions to the test environment, the arrangements and deviations for the upcoming experimental test are discussed in detail. In order to complete investigations of weight saving potentials, next to getting a better comprehension of the fatigue behaviour by executing a full scale test, a further outcome are suggestions for the usage of cast and forged materials regarding the fatigue and the remaining life of the rotor shaft. It is shown, that it is worthwhile to think about a material exchange for the forged rotor shaft.

  5. Study of Dynamic Characteristics for Hydraulic System on 300MN Die-forging Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqiang; Tan, Jianping

    2017-06-01

    The faults such as seal breakdown and pressure sensor damage occur in 300MN Die-forging press frequently. First, the fault phenomenon and harm of the hydraulic system was compiled statistics, the theoretical analysis of the hydraulic impact of hydraulic system are carried out based on the momentum theorem; Then, the co-simulation model of hydraulic system was established by AMESim and Simulink software and the correctness was verified. Finally, the dynamic characteristics of hydraulic system for the key working condition “forging stroke changing to mold collision” was analyzed, the influences rules of system parameters such as the leak gap of valve, diameter of water way pipeline, emulsion temperature and air contain act on hydraulic system are obtained. This conclusions have a theoretical guiding significance to the improvement and maintains of high pressure and large flow hydraulic system.

  6. Effect of multiaxial forging on microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-o.8Ca alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, N. Yu; Stepanov, N. D.; Salishchev, G. A.; Rokhlin, L. L.; Dobatkin, S. V.

    2014-08-01

    It was shown that multiaxial forging with continuous decrease of temperature from 450°C to 250°C turns coarse structure of the Mg-0.8Ca alloy in homogenized state with grain size of several hundreeds gm into fine structure with average grain size of about 2.1 gm. Refinement of structure is accompanied by drastic increase of mechanical properties: tensile yield strength increases from 50 MPa to 193 MPa, ultimate tensile strength increases from 78 to 308 MPa and elongation to fracture increases from 3.0% to 7.2%. The microstructural evolution during multiaxial forging is studied using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and EBSD analysis. The mechanisms responsible for refinement of microstructure are discussed

  7. Qualification of laser based additive production for manufacturing of forging Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junker Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass customization leads to very short product life cycles, so the costs of a tool have to be amortized with a low number of workpieces. Especially for highly loaded tools, like those for forging, that leads to expensive products. Therefore more economical production processes for tool manufacturing have to be investigated. As laser additive manufacturing is already used for the production of moulds for injection moulding, this technology maybe could also improve the forging tool production. Within this paper laser metal deposition, which is industrially used for tool repair, will be investigated for the use in tool manufacturing. Therefore a mechanical characterization of parts built with different laser process parameters out of the hot work tool steel 1.2709 is made by upsetting tests and hardness measurements. So the influence of the additive manufacturing process on the hardness distribution is analysed.

  8. Effect of interfacial friction during forging of solid powder discs of large slenderness ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Ranjan; S Kumar

    2004-10-01

    The paper reports an investigation into the effect of interfacial friction law during the forging of a powder circular disc with large slenderness ratio (L/D) between two flat dies. The deformation pattern during the operation is influenced by many factors, which interact with each other in a complex manner. The relative velocity between the work piece material and the die surface, together with high interfacial pressure and/or deformation modes, creates the conditions essential for adhesion in addition to sliding. The decisive factors are the interfacial conditions, initial relative density of the preform and geometry of the preform. An attempt has been made to determine the most realistic interfacial friction law and die pressures developed during such forging using an upper bound approach. The results so obtained are presented graphically and discussed critically to illustrate the interaction of various interfacial friction laws involved.

  9. A population on the rise: The origin of deepwater sculpin in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Amy B.; Scribner, Kim T.; Stott, Wendylee; Walsh, Maureen

    2017-01-01

    Deepwater sculpin, Myoxocephalus thompsonii, were thought to have been extirpated from Lake Ontario. However, in recent years, abundance has increased and recruitment has been documented. There are two hypotheses concerning the origin of the current Lake Ontario deepwater sculpin population. First, individuals from the upper Great Lakes may have recolonized Lake Ontario. Alternatively, the Lake Ontario population may have not been extirpated, and the remnant population has recovered naturally. To test these hypotheses, eight microsatellite loci were used to analyze samples from the current Lake Ontario population, museum specimens from the historic Lake Ontario population, and current upper Great Lakes populations. The genetic data suggest that historically throughout the Great Lakes, deepwater sculpin exhibited low levels of spatial genetic structure. Approximate Bayesian Computation analyses support the hypothesis that the current Lake Ontario population is more closely related to populations in the upper Great Lakes than to the historic Lake Ontario samples, indicating that the current Lake Ontario population likely resulted from recolonization from the Upper Great Lakes. The current Lake Ontario population has reduced allelic diversity relative to upper Great Lakes populations, indicating a possible founder effect. This study demonstrates the role life history variation can play in recolonization success. The pelagic larval phase of the deepwater sculpin allowed recolonization of Lake Ontario via passive larval drift.

  10. Evolution of the Ultrasonic Inspection of Heavy Rotor Forgings Over the Last Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, A.; Vrana, J.; Meiser, J.; Maximini, W.; Blaes, N.

    2010-02-01

    All types of heavy forgings that are used in energy machine industry, rotor shafts as well as discs, retaining rings or tie bolts are subject to extensive nondestructive inspections before they are delivered to the customer. Due to the availability of the parts in simple shapes, these forgings are very well suited for full volmetric inspections using ultrasound. In the beginning, these inspections were carried out manually, using straight beam probes and analogue equipment. Higher requirements in reliability, efficiency, safety and power output in the machines have lead to higher requirements for the ultrasonic inspection in the form of more scanning directions, higher sensitivity demands and improved documentation means. This and the increasing use of high alloy materials for ever growing parts, increase the need for more and more sophisticated methods for testing the forgings. Angle scans and sizing technologies like DGS have been implemented, and for more than 15 years now, mechanized and automated inspections have gained importance since they allow better documentation as well as easier evaluation of the recorded data using different views (B- C- or D-Scans), projections or tomography views. The latest major development has been the availability of phased array probes to increase the flexibility of the inspection systems. Many results of the ongoing research in ultrasonic's have not been implemented yet. Today's availability of fast computers, large and fast data storages allows saving RF inspection data and applying sophisticated signal processing methods. For example linear diffraction tomography methods like SAFT offer tools for 3D reconstruction of inspection data, simplifying sizing and locating of defects as well as for improving signal to noise ratios. While such methods are already applied in medical ultrasonic's, they are still to be implemented in the steel industry. This paper describes the development of the ultrasonic inspection of heavy forgings

  11. Determination and Analysis of Hardenability for Hot-Forging Die Steels with Deep-Hardening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    ERH end-quenching method was us ed to determine the hardenability of four kinds hot-forging die steels with dee p-hardening and hence the order of their hardenability was given. The tempering hardness of the steels was measured and the tempering resistance was studied. It was approved that ERH method is effective for the determination of hardenability of deep-hardening steel and the beginning of hardness drop in the ERH specimen is caused by bainite occurring.

  12. DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION DURING HOT FORGING FOR ENGINE STIGMATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Incorporated with constitutive relationship established by artificial neural networks (ANN), a coupled theroviscoplastic finite element procedure is developed for predicting the microstructure evolution in the hot forging process, considering the factors such as dynamic recrystallization, static recrystallization and grain growth etc. This software system is applied to predict the distributions of the grain size over the crosssection of stigmata, which is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The software can provide a fundament for optimizing technological parameters.

  13. Die Motions of New Forging Process Using IntermediateDie Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The die motions of a new forging process for automation with an intermediate die assembly called hamburger were analyzed through high-speed video pictures. The results showed that the upper die that is assembled in the hamburger and retained over the lower die collides few times with the ram and workpiece, but sound products can be obtained with less sticking in spite of the lowered impacts of hit.

  14. Clinical guidelines and the fate of medical autonomy in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappolt, S G

    1997-04-01

    Conceptually, clinical guidelines and professional autonomy have a paradoxical relationship. Despite being the quintessence of medical knowledge at the corporate level, guidelines diminish the clinical autonomy of individual practitioners, and therefore threaten medicine's justification for its autonomy. Theorists have argued that professional autonomy will be retained through elite dominance of practitioners, while comparative research suggests that economic autonomy can be traded off to retain clinical autonomy. Under government pressure to regulate the growth of Ontario physicians' fee-for-service public expenditure, the profession's representative organization, the Ontario Medical Association (OMA), promoted voluntary clinical guidelines, hoping to both constrain costs and preserve professional control over the content of medical care. The OMA collaborated with the Ministry of Health in developing guidelines and establishing a provincial centre for health service research. Ontario's practitioners disregarded the OMA's exhortations to implement clinical guidelines, suggesting that in the absence of external constraints, practitioners can subvert elite dominance. However, practitioners' unchecked clinical and economic autonomy, combined with evidence of wide provincial variations in medical care, served to legitimize the government's increasingly unilateral control over the schedule of insured medical services, and, in 1993, their imposition of a global cap on physicians' fee-for-service income pool. When analysed in the context of ongoing Ministry-OMA relations, the failure of the OMA's guidelines strategy to constrain medical service costs has expedited an overall decline in medical autonomy in Ontario. The emergence and course of Ontario's clinical guidelines movement is consistent with the view that medical autonomy is contingent upon broad class forces, and the conceptualization of professional organizations as instruments for mediated occupational control.

  15. Wear Improvement of Tools in the Cold Forging Process for Long Hex Flange Nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Shao-Yi; Shih, Po-Yueh

    2015-09-25

    Cold forging has played a critical role in fasteners and has been widely used in automotive production, manufacturing, aviation and 3C (Computer, Communication, and Consumer electronics). Despite its extensive use in fastener forming and die design, operator experience and trial and error make it subjective and unreliable owing to the difficulty of controlling the development schedule. This study used finite element analysis to establish and simulate wear in automotive repair fastener manufacturing dies based on actual process conditions. The places on a die that wore most quickly were forecast, with the stress levels obtained being substituted into the Archard equation to calculate die wear. A 19.87% improvement in wear optimization occurred by applying the Taguchi quality method to the new design. Additionally, a comparison of actual manufacturing data to simulations revealed a nut forging size error within 2%, thereby demonstrating the accuracy of this theoretical analysis. Finally, SEM micrographs of the worn surfaces on the upper punch indicate that the primary wear mechanism on the cold forging die for long hex flange nuts was adhesive wear. The results can simplify the development schedule, reduce the number of trials and further enhance production quality and die life.

  16. Non-destructive Testing of Forged Metallic Materials by Active Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, S.; Cadith, J.; Bouteille, P.; Legros, G.; Bodnar, J. L.; Detalle, V.

    2012-11-01

    Nowadays, infrared thermography is considered as the reference method in many applications such as safety, the inspection of electric installations, or the inspection of buildings' heat insulation. In recent years, the evolution of both material and data-processing tools also allows the development of thermography as a real non-destructive testing method. Thus, by subjecting the element to be inspected to an external excitation and by analyzing the propagation of heat in the examined zone, it is possible to highlight surface or subsurface defects such as cracks, delaminations, or corrosion. One speaks then about active infrared thermography. In this study, some results obtained during the collective studies carried out by CETIM and the University of Reims for the forging industry are presented. Various experimental possibilities offered by active thermography are presented and the interest in this method in comparison with the traditional non-destructive testing methods (penetrant testing and magnetic particle inspection) is discussed. For example, comparative results on a forged cracked hub, a steering joint, and a threaded rod are presented. They highlight the interest of infrared thermography stimulated by induction for forged parts.

  17. Wear Improvement of Tools in the Cold Forging Process for Long Hex Flange Nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Yi Hsia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cold forging has played a critical role in fasteners and has been widely used in automotive production, manufacturing, aviation and 3C (Computer, Communication, and Consumer electronics. Despite its extensive use in fastener forming and die design, operator experience and trial and error make it subjective and unreliable owing to the difficulty of controlling the development schedule. This study used finite element analysis to establish and simulate wear in automotive repair fastener manufacturing dies based on actual process conditions. The places on a die that wore most quickly were forecast, with the stress levels obtained being substituted into the Archard equation to calculate die wear. A 19.87% improvement in wear optimization occurred by applying the Taguchi quality method to the new design. Additionally, a comparison of actual manufacturing data to simulations revealed a nut forging size error within 2%, thereby demonstrating the accuracy of this theoretical analysis. Finally, SEM micrographs of the worn surfaces on the upper punch indicate that the primary wear mechanism on the cold forging die for long hex flange nuts was adhesive wear. The results can simplify the development schedule, reduce the number of trials and further enhance production quality and die life.

  18. FEA Based Tool Life Quantity Estimation of Hot Forging Dies Under Cyclic Thermo-Mechanical Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, B.-A.; Bouguecha, A.; Schäfer, F.; Hadifi, T.

    2011-01-01

    Hot forging dies are exposed during service to a combination of cyclic thermo-mechanical, tribological and chemical loads. Besides abrasive and adhesive wear on the die surface, fatigue crack initiation with subsequent fracture is one of the most frequent causes of failure. In order to extend the tool life, the finite element analysis (FEA) may serve as a means for process design and process optimisation. So far the FEA based estimation of the production cycles until initial cracking is limited as tool material behaviour due to repeated loading is not captured with the required accuracy. Material models which are able to account for cyclic effects are not verified for the fatigue life predictions of forging dies. Furthermore fatigue properties from strain controlled fatigue tests of relevant hot work steels are to date not available to allow for a close-to-reality fatigue life prediction. Two industrial forging processes, where clear fatigue crack initiation has been observed are considered for a fatigue analysis. For this purpose the relevant tool components are modelled with elasto-plastic material behaviour. The predicted sites, where crack initiation occurs, agree with the ones observed on the real die component.

  19. Multipass forging of Inconel 718 in the delta-Supersolvus domain: assessing and modeling microstructure evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouari Meriem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the evolution of the microstructure of Inconel 718 during multi-pass forging processes. During the forming process, the material is subjected to several physical phenomena such as work-hardening, recovery, recrystallization and grain growth. In this work, transformation kinetics are modeled in the δ-Supersolvus domain (T>Tsolvus where the alloy is single-phase, all the alloying elements being dissolved into the FCC matrix. Torsion tests were used to simulate the forging process and recrystallization kinetics was modeled using a discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DDRX two-site mean field model. The microstructure evolution under hot forging conditions is predicted in both dynamic and post-dynamic regimes based on the initial distribution of grain size and the evolution of dislocation density distribution during each step of the process. The model predicts recrystallization kinetics, recrystallized grain size distribution and stress–strain curve for different thermo-mechanical conditions and makes the connection between dynamic and post-dynamic regimes.

  20. Forming limit prediction of powder forging process by the energy-based elastoplastic damage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hung-Yang; Cheng, Jung-Ho; Huang, Cheng-Chao

    2004-06-01

    An energy-based elastoplastic damage model is developed and then applied to predict the deformation and fracture initiation in powder forging processes. The fracture mechanism is investigated by the newly proposed damage model, which is based on the plastic energy dissipation. The developed formulations are implemented into finite element program ABAQUS in order to simulate the complex loading conditions. The forming limits of sintered porous metals under various operational conditions are explored by comparing the relevant experiments with the finite element analyses. The sintered iron-powder preforms of various initial relative densities (RDs) and aspect ratios are compressed until crack initiates. The deformation level of the bulged billets at fracture stroke obtained from compressive fracture tests is utilized to validate the finite element model and then the forming limit diagrams are constructed with the validated model. This model is further verified by the gear blank forging. The fracture site and corresponding deformation level are predicted by the finite element simulations. Meanwhile, the gear forging experiment is performed on the sintered preforms. The predicted results agree well with the experimental observations.

  1. Effect of Alloying Elements on Thermal Wear of Cast Hot-Forging Die Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shu-qi; CHEN Kang-min; CUI Xiang-hong; JIANG Qi-chuan; HONG Bian

    2006-01-01

    The effect of main alloying elements on thermal wear of cast hot-forging die steels was studied. The wear mechanism was discussed. The results show that alloying elements have significant influences on the thermal wear of cast hot-forging die steels. The wear rates decrease with an increase in chromium content from 3% to 4% and molybdenum content from 2% to 3%, respectively. With further increase of chromium and molybdenum contents, chromium slightly reduces the wear resistance and molybdenum severely deteriorates the wear resistance with high wear rate. Lower vanadium/carbon ratio (1.5-2.5) leads to a lower wear resistance with higher wear rate. With an increase in vanadium/carbon ratio, the wear resistance of the cast steel substantially increases. When vanadium/carbon ratio is 3, the wear rate reaches the lowest value. The predominant mechanism of thermal wear of cast hot-forging die steels are oxidation wear and fatigue delamination. The Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 or lumps of brittle wear debris are formed on the wear surface.

  2. The coarsening effect of SA508-3 steel used as heavy forgings material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingqian Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available SA508Gr.3 steel is popularly used to produce core unit of nuclear power reactors due to its outstanding ability of anti-neutron irradiation and good fracture toughness. The forging process takes important role in manufacturing to refine the grain size and improve the material properties. But due to their huge size, heavy forgings cannot be cooled down quickly, and the refined grains usually have long time to grow in high temperature conditions. If the forging process is not adequately scheduled or implemented, very large grains up to millimetres in size may be found in this steel and cannot be eliminated in the subsequent heat treatment. To fix the condition which may causes the coarsening of the steel, hot upsetting experiments in the industrial production environment were performed under different working conditions and the corresponding grain sizes were measured and analysed. The observation showed that the grain will abnormally grow if the deformation is less than a critical value. The strain energy takes a critical role in the grain evolution. If dynamic recrystallization consumes the strain energy as much as possible, the normal grains will be obtained. While if not, the stored strain energy will promote abnormal growth of the grains.

  3. Computer-assisted Rheo-forging Processing of A356 Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. H.; Kang, C. G.

    2010-06-01

    Die casting process has been used widely for complex automotive products such as the knuckle, arm and etc. Generally, a part fabricated by casting has limited strength due to manufacturing defects by origin such as the dendrite structure and segregation. As an attempt to offer a solution to these problems, forging has been used as an alternative process. However, the forging process provides limited formability for complex shape products. Rheo-forging of metal offers not only superior mechanical strength but also requires significantly lower machine loads than solid forming processes. In order to produce semi-solid materials of the desired microstructure, a stirring process is applied during solidification of A356 aluminum molten state. This paper presents the results of an A356 aluminum alloy sample, which were obtained by experiment and by simulation using DEFORM 3D V6.1. Samples of metal parts were subsequently fabricated by using hydraulic press machinery. In order to compare the influence of loading method, two types of samples were fabricated: (1) samples fabricated under direct loading die sets (2) those fabricated under indirect loading die sets. The formability and defects, which were predicted by FEM simulation, were similar to those of samples used in practice.

  4. 2016 Accomplishments. Tritium aging studies on stainless steel. Forging process effects on the fracture toughness properties of tritium-precharged stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Michael J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-01

    Forged austenitic stainless steels are used as the materials of construction for pressure vessels designed to contain tritium at high pressure. These steels are highly resistant to tritium-assisted fracture but their resistance can depend on the details of the forging microstructure. During FY16, the effects of forging strain rate and deformation temperature on the fracture toughness properties of tritium-exposed-and-aged Type 304L stainless steel were studied. Forgings were produced from a single heat of steel using four types of production forging equipment – hydraulic press, mechanical press, screw press, and high-energy-rate forging (HERF). Each machine imparted a different nominal strain rate during the deformation. The objective of the study was to characterize the J-Integral fracture toughness properties as a function of the industrial strain rate and temperature. The second objective was to measure the effects of tritium and decay helium on toughness. Tritium and decay helium effects were measured by thermally precharging the as-forged specimens with tritium gas at 34.5 MPa and 350°C and aging for up to five years at -80°C to build-in decay helium prior to testing. The results of this study show that the fracture toughness properties of the as-forged steels vary with forging strain rate and forging temperature. The effect is largely due to yield strength as the higher-strength forgings had the lower toughness values. For non-charged specimens, fracture toughness properties were improved by forging at 871°C versus 816°C and Screw-Press forgings tended to have lower fracture toughness values than the other forgings. Tritium exposures reduced the fracture toughness values remarkably to fracture toughness values averaging 10-20% of as-forged values. However, forging strain rate and temperature had little or no effect on the fracture toughness after tritium precharging and aging. The result was confirmed by fractography which indicated that fracture modes

  5. Can Culture Act as an Enabler to Innovation? Exploring the Germany-Ontario Experience Regarding the Introduction of Green Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Irwin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the role that societal culture may play in terms of acting as an inhibitor or enabler when creating conditions conducive to innovative enterprise. To further understanding of this concept, the paper's authors explore different cultural influences and traditions of the country of Germany and the Canadian province of Ontario against the backdrop of the introduction of a government green energy policy and how local business reacts to new opportunities forthcoming from this shift in policy direction. The authors contend that the current Ontario psyche has contributed to an overall cultural drag on innovative activities. They demonstrate that in no place is this cultural impact more evident than the apparent lack of home-grown innovative activity surrounding green energy entrepreneurship; where, in spite of progressive and favourable provincial government policy, continued manufacturing growth is led by offshore companies The Ontario experience is in sharp contrast to current and historical German activity, when it comes to local innovation and advances in green energy. While Germany officially enacted their green energy act at the turn of the last century, experts agree that the German tenure with going green is in fact 35 to 40 years in the making. Although it has been contended that unique historical conditions such as postwar reconstruction and the reunification of the former East and West Germany have been significant contributing factors to Germany's embracing of sustainable energy, the authors of this paper contend that cultural factors such as the German sense of naturfreund; an overwhelming sense of being a nature-lover, may also play a significant role. In their exploration the authors build upon Hofstede's cultural dimension theory unpacking specific cultural components, as they compare actions and responses made by German and Ontarian policy-makers and business decision-makers.

  6. Design and Improve Forging Mould of Squareness Bol%方头螺栓的锻造模具的设计与改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连厚富; 齐永丰

    2014-01-01

    通过对方头螺栓胎模锻与自由锻优点的比较,介绍了通过充分利用胎模来生产锻件,可达到不断降低锻件毛坯重量,减少加工工时目的。设计合理的锻膜结构和不断改进锻模结构,是该工艺的关键。%By comparing the advantages between loose tooling forging with the free forging on forging square-head bolt , it is introduced that by utilizing membranes to produce forging can achieve forging blank to decrease weight and reduce the processing time . Reasonable design of forging die structure , mem-brane structure and the continuous improvement is the key to this process .

  7. Oil Companies Climb Global List

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JESSY ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    @@ Backed by the huge market size,China's energy companies have been ranked in the group of the world's largest industry players. On September 6th,eight companies from the Chinese mainland and six companies from Hong Kong SAR were included in this year's Platts Top 250 Energy Companies List.

  8. Influence on the quality of forgings long-axis heavy forgings in squaring process%压方圆角对长轴类大锻件质量影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光喜; 吴玉忠; 郭扬

    2015-01-01

    According to the characteristics of long-axis heavy forgings.The whole forging process of longaxis heavy forging was divided into three steps,including squaring,stretching and chamfering rounding.Researches of forging process are now focused on the optimization of stretching,but hardly on forging process optimization.By means of DEFORM-3D software,edge radius of V-shaped anvil were simulated and optimized from aspects of internal stress state,stress and the damage factor in squaring process.Results of Simulation show that appropriate edge radius of V-shaped anvil can prevent forging cracks and improve the quality of forgings.%长轴类大锻件的锻造过程一般分为压方、拔长和倒棱滚圆三大步骤,目前对锻造工艺研究较多的是拔长和倒棱滚圆的优化,很少有对压方工艺优化的研究。本文从V型砧边缘的圆角半径的大小来对长轴类大锻件的压方过程进行模拟优化,从锻件内部应力、应变及破坏因子三个方面进行对比分析。结果表明,适当增大V型砧边缘的圆角半径可以有效防止锻件裂纹的产生,为锻件的质量提高和结构设计提供一种有效、可靠的分析方法。

  9. Captive insurance companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The landscape of the business world is changing; and now, more than ever, business owners are recognizing that life is filled with risks: known risk, calculated risk, and unexpected risk. Every day, businesses thrive or fail based on understanding the risk of owning and operating their business, and business owners are recognizing that there are alternative risk financing mechanisms other than simply taking out a basket of standard coverage as recommended by your friendly neighborhood agent. A captive insurance company is an insurance company established to provide a broad range of risk management capabilities to affiliated companies. The captive is owned by the business owner and can provide insurance to the business for potential future losses, whether or not the losses are already covered by a commercial carrier or are "self-insured." The premiums paid by your business are tax deductible. Meanwhile, the premiums that your captive collects are tax-free up to $1.2 million annually.

  10. Companies as "Cyborgs"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Grahame

    This paper investigates the legal and commercial consequences of companies being considered as both an entity and a person in law – hence the notion of ‘cyborg’ in its title. It concentrates upon legal personhood and relates this particular feature to the issue of corporate citizenship. In turn...... corporate citizenship provides a link to considering the political role of companies, since in claiming citizenship they are implicitly at least claiming a particular set of political rights consequent upon that status, and announcing a particular politically constrained context associated...... with their operational characteristics. But what would be involved in granting companies full citizenship rights in the image of natural person citizenship? The paper explores this issue in connection to the differences between corporate social responsibility and an earlier idea of the socially responsible corporation...

  11. RESTRUCTURING COMPANIES UNDER CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezi Aviram SHAYB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nobody is planning to fail, but many companies are failing because of lack of planning. Real business experience showed during the years that crisis can be prevented, avoided or limited. If detected in time, the risks associated with the crisis can be mitigated and the effects can be diminished, with the condition that the actions required are done fast, in a sharp and accurate manner. When it comes, a crisis brings an intense level of pressure and under these conditions there is no time or room for mistakes. Delays, losing focus and lack of planning will bring a company one step away from failure. The right way to deal with crisis, if required measures are not done in time, is to minimize the losses and reposition in the best way possible. Analysing the success stories of some of the biggest and strongest companies in the world, led to an important conclusion: the majority of these companies were in the situation to face huge crises which threatened their ability to survive in certain moments, on their way to success. With the right planning and by setting a proper organisational structure, the negative aspects of the crisis can be turned into benefits and opportunities for the company. The most critical challenge for management is to assess the level of exposure to risk of the company and identify the key points to focus on in order to overcome the crisis and create value. In order to set up a strong plan in dealing with crisis, a business organisation needs reliable, efficient and effective tools and this is what this article is all about.

  12. RESTRUCTURING COMPANIES UNDER CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezi Aviram SHAYB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nobody is planning to fail, but many companies are failing because of lack of planning. Real business experience showed during the years that crisis can be prevented, avoided or limited. If detected in time, the risks associated with the crisis can be mitigated and the effects can be diminished, with the condition that the actions required are done fast, in a sharp and accurate manner. When it comes, a crisis brings an intense level of pressure and under these conditions there is no time or room for mistakes. Delays, losing focus and lack of planning will bring a company one step away from failure. The right way to deal with crisis, if required measures are not done in time, is to minimize the losses and reposition in the best way possible. Analysing the success stories of some of the biggest and strongest companies in the world, led to an important conclusion: the majority of these companies were in the situation to face huge crises which threatened their ability to survive in certain moments, on their way to success. With the right planning and by setting a proper organisational structure, the negative aspects of the crisis can be turned into benefits and opportunities for the company. The most critical challenge for management is to assess the level of exposure to risk of the company and identify the key points to focus on in order to overcome the crisis and create value. In order to set up a strong plan in dealing with crisis, a business organisation needs reliable, efficient and effective tools and this is what this article is all about.

  13. PREVENTION OF COMPANY RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCI U GHEORGHE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A company’s manager has to create and maintain a healthy internal control system. An efficient internal control system implies the implementation in the company of risk management. Each company, but also each individual, who tries to attain certain objectives, establishes the activities which lead to the achievement of goals and, at the same time, tries to identify as many “threats” as possible, in order to take the necessary measures to eliminate them. Thus, even if one is not familiar with the concepts of risk and risk management, one acts, consciously or not, for that purpose.

  14. Competitor Analysis : Company X

    OpenAIRE

    Valkama, Suvi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was to create a competitor analysis of the market of stainless steel swimming pools for the commissioner Company X, a company that will be set up in the near future. The thesis aimed at finding out the commissioner’s assets in producing stainless steel swimming pools as well as defining its competitive advantage. This was done by identifying the relative strengths and weaknesses of the main competitors named by the commissioner. Moreover, the purpose of the thesis wa...

  15. COMPANY ACTIVITY FINANCIAL RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caruntu Genu Alexandru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In economic and financial activity, risk is an inherent financial decisions, encountered in daily agenda of managers of companies. Unexpected changes in the price of a product development not only affect the financial results of a company, but can cause even bankruptcy. In fact, the nature of financial decisions involve uncertainty. Financial decisions are made based on cash flows under future contracts, which are par excellence incerte.Activitatea an enterprise that holds any weight in the industry is subject to risks, since it can not predict with certainty different components of its outcome (cost, quantity, price and operating cycle (purchase, processing, sales.

  16. Smart customers, dumb companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, C

    2000-01-01

    Customers today are being bombarded with an overwhelming array of choices. To alleviate customer frustration, say Steven Cristol and Peter Sealey in Simplicity Marketing, companies should stop creating new brands and product extensions. Better to consolidate product and service functions by following a four R approach: replace, repackage, reposition, and replenish. That's an outmoded, dictatorial view of markets, says Christopher Locke. Far from being stymied by choices, customers are rapidly becoming smarter than the companies that pretend to serve them. In this networked economy, people are talking among themselves, and that changes everything. Locke predicts we'll see a growing number of well-defined micromarkets--groups of customers converging in real time around entertaining and knowledgeable voices--such as NPR's car guys and the Motley Fool investment site. "Micromedia" Web sites will replace traditional advertising because they'll provide credible user-supplied news about products and services. Locke contends that an open exchange of information solves the "problem" of choice much better than manipulative strategies like simplicity or even permission marketing. Companies can participate in micromarkets through what Locke dubs "gonzo marketing." If Ford, for example, discovers that a subset of its employees are organic gardeners, it may offer support to a big independent organic-gardening Web site with donations and employee volunteers. This marketing effort would be driven not by advertising managers but by people with genuine interest in each micromarket, so it would have credibility with customers. With gonzo marketing, both companies and their markets will benefit.

  17. Pork in good company?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Perez-Cueto, Federico J.; de Barcellos, Marcia D.

    2013-01-01

    (odds ratio=1.30) as side dishes to pork meat. Substantial cross-cultural differences were revealed in line with typical pork consumption and meal composition habits in the respective countries. Finally, this study found that the company of family plays a significant role when choosing side dishes...

  18. Mortality incidence in outpatient anesthesia for dentistry in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkansah, P J; Haas, D A; Saso, M A

    1997-06-01

    Studies determining anesthesia mortality rates in dentistry have been published, yet a similar investigation has never been conducted in Canada. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine the incidence of mortality when general anesthesia or deep sedation was administered by qualified dentists in the province of Ontario. Mortality data were obtained from the years 1973 to 1995 inclusive. The number of general anesthetics and deep sedations administered annually by qualified in dental offices was calculated by surveying all oral and maxillofacial surgeons and dental anesthetists in Ontario in 1990 and 1995. The results provided an estimate of 2,830,000 cases from 1973 to 1995 inclusive. Over this time period there were four deaths associated with cases in which either an oral and maxillofacial surgeon or dental anesthetist administered the general anesthetic or deep sedation, yielding a mortality rate of 1.4 per 1,000,000. This mortality incidence is similar to rates already published for outpatient dentistry.

  19. Ontario's Poverty Reduction Strategy: A Critical Discourse Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbow, Sarah; Gorlick, Carolyne; Forchuk, Cheryl; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Berman, Helene

    2016-01-01

    This article overviews the second phase of a two-phase study which examined experiences of health and social exclusion among mothers experiencing homelessness in Ontario, Canada. A critical discourse analysis was employed to analyze the policy document, Realizing Our Potential: Ontario's Poverty Reduction Strategy, 2014-2019. In nursing, analysis of policy is an emerging form of scholarship, one that draws attention to the macro levels influencing health and health promotion, such as the social determinants of health, and the policies that impact them. The clear neo-liberal underpinnings, within the strategy, with a focus on productivity and labor market participation leave little room for an understanding of poverty reduction from a human rights perspective. Further, gender-neutrality rendered the poverty experienced by women, and mothers, invisible. Notably, there were a lack of deadlines, target dates, and thorough action and evaluation plans. Such absence troubles whether poverty reduction is truly a priority for the government, and society as a whole.

  20. 平锻机锻件缺陷分析及对策%Failure analysis and solution of forging parts manufactured by horizontal forging machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国杰

    2013-01-01

    Taking the 1250T horizontal forging machine as an example, the process characteristics of this machine have been introduced in the text. The failures like poor straightness of rod, pad injury, folding and mismatch of tool in the daily production have been analyzed and the solution has been put forward.%结合公司1250t平锻机,介绍此种设备生产锻件工艺特点,并对日常生产中遇到的杆部直线度超差、垫伤、折叠及错模等锻件缺陷进行分析并提出解决办法.

  1. Wastewater quality control at Sarnia (Ontario, Canada) petrochemical industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianna, Arlinda C. [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Souza, Eliane S.; Himmelman, William [Lambton College, Sarnia, ON (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Ontario industries are required by law to meet strict regulations under the provinces under MISA initiative (Municipal-Industrial Strategy for Abatement). The petroleum-petrochemical area was selected as a leader in the development of new environmental objectives, and monitoring and training programs. Sarnia has become a world leader in industrial environmental control systems and the approach toward zero emissions. 4 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Adaptation to climate change in the Ontario public health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paterson Jaclyn A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climate change is among the major challenges for health this century, and adaptation to manage adverse health outcomes will be unavoidable. The risks in Ontario – Canada’s most populous province – include increasing temperatures, more frequent and intense extreme weather events, and alterations to precipitation regimes. Socio-economic-demographic patterns could magnify the implications climate change has for Ontario, including the presence of rapidly growing vulnerable populations, exacerbation of warming trends by heat-islands in large urban areas, and connectedness to global transportation networks. This study examines climate change adaptation in the public health sector in Ontario using information from interviews with government officials. Methods Fifty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted, four with provincial and federal health officials and 49 with actors in public health and health relevant sectors at the municipal level. We identify adaptation efforts, barriers and opportunities for current and future intervention. Results Results indicate recognition that climate change will affect the health of Ontarians. Health officials are concerned about how a changing climate could exacerbate existing health issues or create new health burdens, specifically extreme heat (71%, severe weather (68% and poor air-quality (57%. Adaptation is currently taking the form of mainstreaming climate change into existing public health programs. While adaptive progress has relied on local leadership, federal support, political will, and inter-agency efforts, a lack of resources constrains the sustainability of long-term adaptation programs and the acquisition of data necessary to support effective policies. Conclusions This study provides a snapshot of climate change adaptation and needs in the public health sector in Ontario. Public health departments will need to capitalize on opportunities to integrate climate change into

  3. /sup 137/Cs radioactive dating of Lake Ontario sediment cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, T.E.; Breeden, J.; Komisarcik, K.; Porter, R.; Czuczwa, J.; Kaminski, R.; McVeety, B.D.

    1987-12-01

    The distribution of /sup 137/Cs in sediment cores from Lake Ontario provides estimates of the sediment accumulation rates. Geochronology with /sup 210/Pb dating and distribution of Ambrosia (ragweed) pollen compare well with /sup 137/Cs dating. These methods can determine with precision, changes in sedimentation occurring over the past 100 years or so. Typical sedimentation rates of 0.18-0.36 cm/yr were measured. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Ontario: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Naja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori has been classified by the World Health Organization as a type I carcinogen. Nearly 50% of the world’s population is estimated to be infected with H pylori. Prevalence patterns of the infection are different between developing and developed countries. The present study had two objectives – to estimate the prevalence of H pylori infection in Ontario, and to evaluate the relationship between the infection and various demographic characteristics and selected lifestyle factors.

  5. Postexposure Treatment and Animal Rabies, Ontario, 1958-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Christopher P.; Honig, Janet M.; Ball, David G. A.; Hauschildt, Peggy; LeBer, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between animal rabies and postexposure treatment (PET) in Ontario by examining the introduction of human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) in 1980 and the initiation of an oral rabies vaccination program for wildlife in 1989. Introducing HDCV led to an immediate doubling of treatments. Both animal rabies and human treatments declined rapidly after the vaccination program was introduced, but human treatments have leveled off at approximately 1,000 per year. PMID:11897079

  6. Ontario courts reaffirm right to marijuana for therapeutic purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Rémi

    2011-10-01

    In a judgment dated 11 April 20 11, the Ontario Superior Court declared that the Medical Marijuana Access Regulations (MMAR), and Sections 4 and 7 of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA), that prohibit the possession and production of cannabis, are unconstitutional because, in practice, they prevent effective access to marijuana for therapeutic purposes, and therefore violate Section 7 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (Charter).

  7. The Ecological History of Lake Ontario According to Phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allinger, L. E.; Reavie, E. D.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Ontario's water quality has fluctuated since European settlement and our understanding of the cause-and-effect linkages between observed ecosystem shifts and stressors are evolving and improving. Changes in the physical and chemical environment of the lake due to non-indigenous species, pollution, sedimentation, turbidity and climate change altered the pelagic primary producers, so algal assessments have been valuable for tracking long-term conditions. We present a chronological account of pelagic algal assessments and some nearshore areas to summarize past and present environmental conditions in Lake Ontario. This review particularly focuses on diatom-based assessments as their fossils in sediments have revealed the combined effects of environmental insults and recovery. This review recaps the long-term trends according to three unique regions: Hamilton Harbor, the main lake basin and the Bay of Quinte. We summarize pre-European settlement, eutrophication throughout most of the 20th century, subsequent water quality improvement due to nutrient reductions and filter-feeding dreissenid colonization and contemporary pelagic, shoreline and embayment impairments. Recent pelagic phytoplankton data suggest that although phytoplankton biovolume remains stable, species composition has shifted to an increase in spring eutrophic diatoms and summer blue-green algae. Continued monitoring and evaluation of historical data will assist in understanding and responding to the natural and anthropogenic drivers of Lake Ontario's environmental conditions. As such we have initiated a new paleolimnological investigation, supported by the Environmental Protection Agency-Great Lakes National Program Office, to reconstruct the long-term environmental history of Lake Ontario and will present preliminary results.

  8. The organization of district health councils in Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, F Maureen

    1982-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. This action research project with district health councils (DHCs) in Ontario, Canada, took place between 1976 and 1980. The purpose of the research was to identify the most effective forms of organization for DHCs, bodies set up to provide a local focus for planning and coordination of health services in the Province. The research method was based on social analysis, a method developed ove...

  9. Alberta's and Ontario's liquor boards: why such divergent outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Malcolm G

    2010-01-01

    The provinces of Alberta and Ontario have chosen very different methods to distribute alcoholic beverages: Alberta privatized the Alberta Liquor Control Board (ALCB) in 1993 and established a private market to sell beverage alcohol, while Ontario, in stark contrast, opted to retain and expand the Liquor Control Board of Ontario (LCBO). This article examines the reasons for the divergent policy choices made by Ralph Klein and Mike Harris' Conservative governments in each province. The article draws on John Kingdon's “multiple streams decision-making model,” to examine the mindsets of the key decision-makers, as well as “historical institutionalism,” to organize the pertinent structural, historical and institutional variables that shaped the milieu in which decision-makers acted. Unique, province-specific political cultures, histories, institutional configurations (including the relative influence of a number of powerful actors), as well as the fact that the two liquor control boards were on opposing trajectories towards their ultimate fates, help to explain the different decisions made by each government. Endogenous preference construction in this sector, furthermore, implies that each system is able to satisfy all relevant stakeholders, including consumers.

  10. Traffic pollution and health : international and Ontario experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, M.M. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). McMaster Inst. of Environment and Health]|[McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Family Medecine]|[Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Family Medecine]|[Toronto Univ., (Canada). Dept. of Public Health Sciences

    2006-07-01

    International and Ontario experience related to traffic pollution and health were discussed. The presentation opened with a table about deaths per day resulting from sulphur dioxide and smoke micrograms per cubic metre. It discussed the constituents of air pollution focusing on gas and particulates as well as atmospheric chemistry and indoor air pollution sources. Outdoor sources of air pollutants include naturally occurring pollutants such as volcanic eruptions, dust storms, vegetation emissions, and fires as well as human generated sources such as stationary and mobile sources and diesel engine pollution. Each type of pollutant was discussed in detail. Air pollution and human health was then presented in the context of traffic pollution and children, major epidemiologic studies of the health effects of pollutants, pollution and mortality in Vancouver, as well as other studies of a similar nature. The Hamilton/Toronto cohort study was one study that was highlighted in particular. The study concluded that living close to traffic in Hamilton and Toronto is associated with increased risk of circulatory disease hospital admissions and mortality. The presentation concluded with a discussion of air pollution and health in Ontario and recommendations made by the Ontario Medical Association. tabs., figs.

  11. Salmonella in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in southern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Claire; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Janecko, Nicol; Allan, Mike; McEwen, Scott A

    2011-04-01

    Numerous serotypes of Salmonella have been detected in a variety of wild animals, including raccoons (Procyon lotor). Raccoons are common, mid-size omnivores that live in close association with people in urban and rural areas in Ontario. Although raccoons are known to shed Salmonella, little is known about their potential long-term role in maintaining Salmonella infections. We sampled feces from raccoons in three areas of Ontario: one primarily urban site around Niagara, one primarily rural site north of Guelph, and the grounds of the Toronto Zoo, in 2007 to identify which serotypes of Salmonella were commonly shed by raccoons in southern Ontario. In addition, we conducted a longitudinal study at the Toronto Zoo site to determine if raccoons remain persistently infected with Salmonella. Salmonella was found in 45% of samples. The prevalence of Salmonella in raccoon feces ranged from 27% at the rural site to 65% at the urban site. We detected 16 serotypes of Salmonella in 83 positive samples. The most common serotype detected in raccoons from the rural and zoo sites was Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, whereas Salmonella Newport was detected most commonly in the urban site. Only one raccoon of 11 that were captured in four or more consecutive trapping sessions shed the same Salmonella serotype for two consecutive months, suggesting that raccoons regularly acquire new Salmonella serotypes from the environment.

  12. The potential for green power marketing in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, B. [EcoPathways Consulting Inc., Whitby, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A review of Ontario Hydro`s green power program was provided. Market research indicates that the public is interested in renewable energy, that a significant portion of the public claim to be `green` consumers, and that they are willing to pay a premium for green power. There is, however, very little actual experiential evidence to show who is truly willing to pay and what price would be acceptable. Sources of `green electricity` include renewables such as hydro, solar, wind, biomass from farm and forest waste, methane from landfills, and geothermal. Public support in Ontario, and in most other parts of Canada, is strong for investment by power utilities in `green electricity`. In a limited program, Ontario Hydro is currently offering greenpower pricing for some of its proposed green power projects. To those willing to pay, a premium of 4 cents per kWh will be added to the current costs from the electricity retailer. The general impression of industry experts is that the demand for green power is there, however, the supply is not. Continued delays and uncertainty about the power industry`s future structure are considered to be the major impediments to implementing the green program. 1 tab., 7 figs.

  13. The geographic distribution of tuberculosis and pyridoxine supply in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, M A; Yamada, J

    1995-12-01

    Acute poisoning with isoniazid causes generalized convulsions which should be treated with intravenous pyridoxine and a rapidly-acting anticonvulsant. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between the distribution of tuberculosis (as a proxy for isoniazid use) and acute care hospital supplies of intravenous pyridoxine (the antidote for isoniazid overdose). The distribution of tuberculosis was based on Ontario public health regions. The study was descriptive using simple linear regression to assess the degree of correlation. Only 15.6% of Ontario acute care hospitals have enough intravenous pyridoxine to treat an average isoniazid overdose. The distribution of tuberculosis and the number of hospitals in the region correlated best with hospital supplies of pyridoxine, although these variables explained only 22% and 23.7%, respectively, of the variation in supply. It does not appear that the distribution of tuberculosis is a major determinant of the availability of the isoniazid antidote, pyridoxine. Acute care hospitals in Ontario should re-evaluate their need for pyridoxine in light of the incidence of tuberculosis in their regions. Each hospital should stock at least 5 Gm of intravenous pyridoxine; additional amounts may be appropriate if there is an increased incidence in the area.

  14. Effect of forging parameters on low cycle fatigue behaviour of Al/basalt short fiber metal matrix composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthigeyan, R; Ranganath, G

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with metal matrix composites (MMCs) of Al 7075 alloy containing different weight percentage (2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10) basalt short fiber reinforcement and unreinforced matrix alloy. The samples were produced by the permanent stir casting technique. The casting ingots were cut into blanks to be forged in single stage and double stage, using MN press and graphite-based lubricant. The microstructures and fatigue properties of the matrix alloy and MMC samples were investigated in the as cast state and in the single and double stage forging operations. The microstructure results showed that the forged sample had a uniform distribution of the basalt short fiber throughout the specimens. Evaluation of the fatigue properties showed that the forged samples had higher values than those of the as cast counterparts. After forging, the enhancement of the fatigue strength of the matrix alloy was so significant and high in the case of 2.5 and 5.0 wt. percentage basalt short fiber reinforced MMC, and there was no enhancement in 7.5 and 10 weight percentages short fiber reinforced MMCs. The fracture damage was mainly due to decohesion at the matrix-fiber interface.

  15. Computer-Aided Design of Manufacturing Chain Based on Closed Die Forging for Hardly Deformable Cu-Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzyk, Maciej; Kuziak, Roman; Pidvysots'kyy, Valeriy; Nowak, Jarosław; Węglarczyk, Stanisław; Drozdowski, Krzysztof

    2013-07-01

    Two copper-based alloys were considered, Cu-1 pct Cr and Cu-0.7 pct Cr-1 pct Si-2 pct Ni. The thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties of these alloys are given in the paper and compared to pure copper and steel. The role of aging and precipitation kinetics in hardening of the alloys is discussed based upon the developed model. Results of plastometric tests performed at various temperatures and various strain rates are presented. The effect of the initial microstructure on the flow stress was investigated. Rheologic models for the alloys were developed. A finite element (FE) model based on the Norton-Hoff visco-plastic flow rule was applied to the simulation of forging of the alloys. Analysis of the die wear for various processes of hot and cold forging is presented as well. A microstructure evolution model was implemented into the FE code, and the microstructure and mechanical properties of final products were predicted. Various variants of the manufacturing cycles were considered. These include different preheating schedules, hot forging, cold forging, and aging. All variants were simulated using the FE method and loads, die filling, tool wear, and mechanical properties of products were predicted. Three variants giving the best combination of forging parameters were selected and industrial trials were performed. The best manufacturing technology for the copper-based alloys is proposed.

  16. Influence of die geometry and material selection on the behavior of protective die covers in closed-die forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingyan; Rosenstock, Dirk; Wolfgarten, Martin; Hirt, Gerhard

    2016-10-01

    Due to the fact that tooling costs make up to 30% of total costs of the final forged part, the tool life is always one main research topic in closed-die forging [1]. To improve the wear resistance of forging dies, many methods like nitriding and deposition of ceramic layers have been used. However, all these methods will lose its effect after a certain time, then tool repair or exchange is needed, which requires additional time and costs. A new method, which applies an inexpensive and changeable sheet metal on the forging die to protect it from abrasive wear, was firstly proposed in [2]. According to the first investigation, the die cover is effective for decreasing thermal and mechanical loads, but there are still several challenges to overcome in this concept, like wrinkling and thinning of the die cover. Therefore, an experimental study using different geometries and die cover materials is presented within this work. The results indicate the existence of feasible application cases of this concept, since conditions are found under which a die cover made of 22MnB5 still keeps its original shape even after 7 forging cycles.

  17. Production of A356 aluminum alloy wheels by thixo-forging combined with a low superheat casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shuncheng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The A356 aluminum alloy wheels were produced by thixo-forging combined with a low superheat casting process. The as-cast microstructure, microstructure evolution during reheating and the mechanical properties of thixo-forged wheels made from the A356 aluminum alloy were studied. The results show that the A356 aluminum alloy round billet with fine, uniform and non-dendritic grains can be obtained when the melt is cast at 635 篊. When the round billet is reheated at 600 篊 for 60 min, the non-dendritic grains are changed into spherical ones and the round billet can be easily thixo-forged into wheels. The tensile strength, yield strength and elongation of the thixo-forged wheels with T6 heat treatment are 327.6 MPa, 228.3 MPa and 7.8%, respectively, which are higher than those of a cast wheel. It is suggested that the thixo-forging combined with the low superheat casting process is an effective technique to produce aluminum alloy wheels with high mechanical properties.

  18. Effects of Low Temperature on Hydrogen-Assisted Crack Growth in Forged 304L Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Heather; San Marchi, Chris; Balch, Dorian; Somerday, Brian; Michael, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of low temperature on hydrogen-assisted crack propagation in forged 304L austenitic stainless steel. Fracture initiation toughness and crack-growth resistance curves were measured using fracture mechanics specimens that were thermally precharged with 140 wppm hydrogen and tested at 293 K or 223 K (20 °C or -50 °C). Fracture initiation toughness for hydrogen-precharged forgings decreased by at least 50 to 80 pct relative to non-charged forgings. With hydrogen, low-temperature fracture initiation toughness decreased by 35 to 50 pct relative to room-temperature toughness. Crack growth without hydrogen at both temperatures was microstructure-independent and indistinguishable from blunting, while with hydrogen microcracks formed by growth and coalescence of microvoids. Initiation of microvoids in the presence of hydrogen occurred where localized deformation bands intersected grain boundaries and other deformation bands. Low temperature additionally promoted fracture initiation at annealing twin boundaries in the presence of hydrogen, which competed with deformation band intersections and grain boundaries as sites of microvoid formation and fracture initiation. A common ingredient for fracture initiation was stress concentration that arose from the intersection of deformation bands with these microstructural obstacles. The localized deformation responsible for producing stress concentrations at obstacles was intensified by low temperature and hydrogen. Crack orientation and forging strength were found to have a minor effect on fracture initiation toughness of hydrogen-supersaturated 304L forgings.

  19. Investigation of fugitive dust emissions from nepheline syenite mine tailings near Nephton, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogungbemide, Damilare Immanuel

    A set of experiments was designed to investigate the factors--atmospheric and surficial--controlling fugitive dust emissions from the tailings ponds of UNIMIN Canada, a mining company that extracts and produces nepheline syenite (feldspar) at two adjacent sites (Nephton and Blue Mountain) located north of Havelock, Ontario. Using wind tunnel measurements, the combined influence of relative humidity and temperature (represented by the absolute matric potential, |psi|) on dust emission was quantified and modeled. About 300 experimental runs were conducted under various conditions of wind speed (4.5-6.25 ms -1), temperature (0-30°C) and relative humidity (10-70%). Generally, dust flux decreased as a logarithmic function of matric potential, with dust emission strongly suppressed for RH > 60% or |psi|climate and topographic conditions found at their sites, and also serve as a source of useful information and input data for atmospheric dispersion models, such as AERMOD and CALPUFF, whose accuracy depends on the quality of the input data such as the emission rate.

  20. A critical review of financial measures as reported in the Ontario hospital balanced scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, John; Tsasis, Peter; Porporato, Marcela

    2007-01-01

    For Ontario hospitals in Canada, the Financial Performance and Condition measures in the Ontario hospital balanced scorecard are especially of interest since in the foreseeable future, they may be linked to provincial government funding decisions. However, we find that these measures lack valuable information on key attributes that affect organizational performance. We suggest changes that focus on key drivers of performance and reflect the operational realities of Ontario hospitals.

  1. Magnetostriction of heavily deformed Fe–Co binary alloys prepared by forging and cold rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaura, Shin-ichi, E-mail: yamaura@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nakajima, Takashi [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Satoh, Takenobu; Ebata, Takashi [Tohoku Steel, Co., Ltd., 23 Nishigaoka, Murata, Murata-machi, Shibata 989-1393 (Japan); Furuya, Yasubumi [North Japan Research Institute for Sustainable Energy, Hirosaki University, 2-1-3 Matsubara, Aomori 030-0813 (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The as-forged Fe{sub 25}Co{sub 75} alloy shows the magnetostriction of 108 ppm. • The as-cold rolled Fe{sub 25}Co{sub 75} alloy shows the magnetostriction of 140 ppm. • Magnetostriction of Fe–Co alloy reached the maximum in a single bcc state. • Fcc phase is harmful to the increase in magnetostriction of Fe–Co alloy. • Fcc phase precipitation in Fe–Co alloy can be suppressed by cold rolling. - Abstract: Magnetostriction of Fe{sub 1−x}Co{sub x} (x = 50–90 at%) alloys prepared by forging and subsequent cold-rolling was studied as functions of alloy compositions and thermomechanical treatments. Magnetostriction of the as-forged Fe{sub 25}Co{sub 75} alloy was 108 ppm and that of the as-cold rolled Fe{sub 25}Co{sub 75} alloy measured parallel to the rolling direction (RD) was 128 ppm. The cold-rolled Fe{sub 25}Co{sub 75} alloy possessed a nearly {1 0 0}<0 1 1> texture, leading to the maximum magnetostriction of 140 ppm when measured at an angle of 45° to RD. Moreover, the fully annealed Fe{sub 25}Co{sub 75} and Fe{sub 20}Co{sub 80} alloys were gradually cold rolled and magnetostriction were measured. Results showed that the magnetostriction of those cold-rolled alloys drastically increased with increasing reduction rate. According to the XRD and TEM observations, intensity of the fcc peak gradually decreased with increasing reduction rate and that the alloys became to be in a bcc single state at a reduction rate higher than 90%, leading to a drastic increase in magnetostriction.

  2. Derivation of uranium residual radioactive material guidelines for the Aliquippa Forge site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monette, F.; Jones, L.; Yu, C.

    1992-09-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium were derived for the Aliquippa Forge site in Aliquippa, Pennsylvania. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the Aliquippa Forge site should not exceed a dose of 100 mrem/yr following decontamination. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation. Four potential scenarios were considered for the site; the scenarios vary with regard to time spent at the site, sources of water used, and sources of food consumed. The results of the evaluation indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded for uranium within 1,000 years, provided that the soil concentration of combined uranium (uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) at the Aliquippa Forge site does not exceed the following levels: 1,700 pCi/g for Scenario A (industrial worker: the expected scenario); 3,900 pCi/g for Scenario B (recreationist: a plausible scenario); 20 pCi/g for Scenario C (resident farmer using well water as the only water source: a possible but unlikely scenario), and 530 pCi/g for Scenario D (resident farmer using a distant water source not affected by site conditions as the only water source: a possible but unlikely scenario). The uranium guidelines derived in this report apply to the combined activity concentration of uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238 and were calculated on the basis of a dose of 100 mrem/yr.

  3. Marketing company profile: Consumer-led company features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Ivana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting point in defining modern company profile is its absolute orientation to customers. So called Customer-led companies are those which all their activities put toward customers instead of product which is offered. These companies try to make all their sectors to be oriented toward customers.

  4. Energy-efficiency in inductive heating of forging ingots; Energieeffizienz bei der induktiven Erwaermung von Schmiedebloecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padberg, Michael; Doetsch, Erwin [ABP Induction Systems, Dortmund (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    The continuously increasing importance of the CO{sub 2} balance and of conservation of resources is resulting in ever greater demands for high energy-efficiency in the process used for heating of forging ingots. Plant and process engineering play roles of parallel significance in the fulfillment of these requirements, and this article focuses on both in equal degree. The shares of the individual components in the overall energy consumption of an induction heating installation are therefore firstly determined, and their respective potentials for optimization then discussed. The quality of the heating process itself, and its optimum design for reduction of energy consumption, are then examined. (orig.)

  5. Influence of the milling strategy on the durability of forging tools

    OpenAIRE

    Ficko, Mirko; Balič, Jože; Gotlih, Karl; Pahole, Ivo; Studenčnik, Dejan

    2015-01-01

    The quality of a tool's surface has a direct influence on the number of well-produced parts. For the machining of an active tool surface, two technological processes are used: electrical discharge machining and high-speed milling. These two processes are used when machining new tools and for the repairing of used forging tools. In both cases, the material has already been thermally treated, so it has to be used for hard milling. Practical experience shows that the milling strategy has a big i...

  6. Forging partnerships between rural women with chronic conditions and their health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudney, Shirley; Weinert, Clarann; Kinion, Elizabeth

    2011-03-01

    Successful adaptation to chronic illness is enhanced by active client-health care provider partnerships. The purposes of this article are to (a) examine the health care partnership needs of western rural women with chronic illness who participated in a computer-based support and education project, (b) describe how the role of the women in the partnership can be maximized by the use of a personal health record and improving health literacy, and (c) discuss ways health care providers can enhance their role in the partnership by careful listening and creating environments conducive to forging productive client-provider partnerships.

  7. The Development Of Heating Curves For Open Die Forging Of Heavy Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołdasz A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the findings of research on developing heating curves of heavy parts for the open die forging process. Hot ingots are heated in a chamber furnace. The heating process of 10, 30, 50 Mg ingots was analyzed. In addition, bearing in mind their high susceptibility to fracture, the ingots were sorted into 3 heating groups, for which the initial furnace temperature was specified. The calculations were performed with self developed software Wlewek utilizing the finite element method for the temperature, stress and strain field computations.

  8. New lubricant systems for cold and warm forging – advantages and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    2011-01-01

    The increasing focus on environmental issues and the requirements to establish solutions diminishing the impact on working environment as well as external environment has strongly motivated the efforts to develop new, environmentally friendly tribological systems for metal forming production....... The present paper gives an overview of these efforts substituting environmentally hazardous lubricants in cold, warm and hot forging by new, more harmless lubricants. Introduction of these new lubricants, however, has some drawbacks due to lower limits of lubrication leading to risk of pick-up, poor product...

  9. Consolidation of nanostructured metal powders by rapid forging: Processing, modeling, and subsequent mechanical behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, G. R.; Milligan, W. W.

    1997-03-01

    Fe-10Cu powders containing 20-nm grains were produced by attritor milling of elemental powders in argon. A rapid powder forging technique was developed to consolidate the powders into fully dense compacts while maintaining nanoscale grain sizes. Grain growth during the consolidation was controlled by reducing the time of exposure at elevated temperature to a few minutes or less, a technique which is applicable to all materials and does not necessitate the addition of dispersoids. This was achieved by heating green compacts quickly using an induction heater, and then forging and rapidly cooling them back to room temperature. Forging was conducted in a protective argon atmosphere to limit contamination. Fully dense compacts were produced at relatively low temperatures, mainly due to the accelerated creep rates exhibited by the nanostructures. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis found an average grain size of 45 nm in the fully dense samples forged at 530°C. Indications are that finer grain sizes should be attainable by using slightly lower temperatures and higher pressures. The success of the technique (compared to hot-isostatic pressing (“hipping”)) is due to both reducing time at elevated temperatures and applying relatively high pressures. Microhardness tests revealed a significant strengthening effect due to grain size refinement, following a Hall-Petch relation. Compression testing at room temperature showed no strain hardening during plastic deformation, which occurred by shear banding. High strengths, up to 1800 MPa, were obtained at room temperature. Compression testing at 575°C revealed a significant strain rate dependence of mechanical behavior and also the possibility of superplastic behavior. Power-law creep was observed at 575°C, with very high steady-state creep rates on the order of 50 pct/s at 230 MPa. The consolidation process was successfully modeled by slightly modifying and applying the Arzt, Ashby, and

  10. Open die forging of large shafts with porosity defects – physical and numerical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Bay, Niels

    2013-01-01

    The aim and scope of this paper is centered to analyze the influence of the geometry of V-shaped dies on the closure of internal centerline porosity defects in ingots during multistep open-die forging. The investigation is performed with small scale physical models made from lead using V-shaped d...... conditions. The presentation is supported by finite element modelling using an in-house developed computer program and the overall investigation shows that better results in closure of centerline defects are obtained with a V-shaped die with 120º die angle....

  11. Building Company Loyalty System

    OpenAIRE

    Haniková, Alžběta

    2010-01-01

    The thesis discusses the importance of loyal customers, and loyalty system as a tool for building loyalty. It defines loyalty and customer satisfaction, it deals with the issue of customer retention. It describes the history and types of loyalty programs, important factors for deciding on their implementation and problems associated with them. The practical part is concerned with the clothing market, Orsay company and its Orsay Club loyalty systeme. The work also includes a survey of the loya...

  12. Building Company Loyalty System

    OpenAIRE

    Haniková, Alžběta

    2010-01-01

    The thesis discusses the importance of loyal customers, and loyalty system as a tool for building loyalty. It defines loyalty and customer satisfaction, it deals with the issue of customer retention. It describes the history and types of loyalty programs, important factors for deciding on their implementation and problems associated with them. The practical part is concerned with the clothing market, Orsay company and its Orsay Club loyalty systeme. The work also includes a survey of the loya...

  13. enjoy the company of

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳延延

    2004-01-01

    @@ 请先读一段文字: John is a clean-cut, great-looking guy who likes his father and mother, who frowns on drugs, who takes his profession seriously, who likes to have a good time, who enjoys the company of the opposite sex, and who has his own goals and values. He's a boy with no surprise up in his sleeve.

  14. Tribological Investigations of Hard-Faced Layers and Base Materials of Forging Dies with Different Kinds of Lubricants Applied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lazić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a procedure for choosing the right technology for reparative hard facing of damaged forging dies. Since they are subject to impact loads and cyclic temperature elevations, forging dies should be made of steel that is able to withstand great impact loads, maintain good mechanical properties at elevated temperatures and that is resistant to wear and thermal fatigue. For these reasons, forging dies are made of conditionally weldable alloy tool steels; however it makes hard facing of damaged tools even more difficult. In this paper, wear resistance of base materials, hard-faced layers and heat-affected zones are tribologically investigated when two different lubricants - pure synthetical oil LM 76 and LM 76 with 6% molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 are applied. Tribological investigations have shown that the wear resistance of the hard faced layers is considerably greater than the wear resistance of the base material. However, the base material has better properties concerning friction.

  15. Investigations into Deformation Characteristics during Open-Die Forging of SiCp Reinforced Aluminium Metal Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The deformation characteristics during open-die forging of silicon carbide particulate reinforced aluminium metal matrix composites (SiCp AMC at cold conditions are investigated. The material was fabricated by liquid stir casting method in which preheated SiC particles were mixed with molten LM6 aluminium casting alloy and casted in the silicon mould. Finally, preforms obtained were machined in required dimensions. Two separate cases of deformation, that is, open-die forging of solid disc and solid rectangular preforms, were considered. Both upper bound theoretical analysis and experimental investigations were performed followed by finite element simulation using DEFORM, considering composite interfacial friction law, barreling of preform vertical sides, and inertia effects, that is, effect of die velocity on various deformation characteristics like effective stress, strain, strain rate, forging load, energy dissipations, and height reduction. Results have been presented graphically and critically investigated to evaluate the concurrence among theoretical, experimental, and finite element based computational findings.

  16. 12 CFR 583.15 - Parent company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parent company. 583.15 Section 583.15 Banks and... SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.15 Parent company. The term parent company means any company which directly or indirectly controls any other company or companies....

  17. Organizational architecture of multinational companies

    OpenAIRE

    Sikorová, Lenka

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of the bachelor thesis Organizational Architecture of Multinational Companies is to elaborate the overview of organizational structures that are used by modern global companies. The thesis contains an analysis of such companies development, principles of functioning, pros and cons and the opportunities which these brings. It also contains a description of the basic concepts associated with organizational architecture such as globalization, multinational companies and organizatio...

  18. Investigation of the Occurrence of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus in Swine Herds Participating in an Area Regional Control and Elimination Project in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, A G; Friendship, R; Carpenter, J; Hand, K; Ojkic, D; Poljak, Z

    2017-02-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-specific genotypes in swine sites in Ontario (Canada) using molecular, spatial and network data from a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) regional control project. For each site, location, animal movement service provider (truck companies), PRRSV status and sequencing data of the open reading frame 5 (ORF5) were obtained. Three-kilometre buffers were created to evaluate neighbourhood characteristics for each site. Social network analysis was conducted on swine sites and trucking companies to assemble the network and define network components. Three different PRRSV genotypes were used as outcomes for statistical analysis based on the region's phylogenetic tree of the ORF5. Multivariable exact logistic regression was conducted to investigate the association between being positive for a specific genotype and two main exposures of interest: (i) having at least one neighbour within three km also positive for the same genotype outside the production system and (ii) having at least one positive site for the same genotype in the same truck network component outside the production system. Results showed that the importance of area spread and truck network on PRRSV occurrence differed according to genotype. Additionally, the Ontario PRRS database appears suitable for conducting regional disease investigations. Finally, the use of relatively new tools available for network, spatial and molecular analysis could be useful in investigation, control and prevention of endemic infectious diseases in animal populations.

  19. IMPLEMENTATION OF QUALITATIVE RULES IN COMPANY`S INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna WOLNOWSKA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the article there were presented chosen issues of quality management. Important role of information and work processes in companies were emphasized . Based on eight rules of quality management, TQM standards and ideas of discipline pioneers like Deming, Juran, Crosby and Shewart, author has constructed way of using chosen rules and assumptions to company`s information circulation. Analogy, suggested by author, has not only emphasized importance of information as a company`s resource, but also has pointed to possibility of improving ways of managing this information.

  20. Effects of boron additions and solutionizing treatments on microstructures and ductility of forged Ti–6Al–4V alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan, J.H.; Jiao, Z.B. [Center for Advanced Structural Materials, Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Chen, G. [Engineering Research Center of Materials Behavior and Design, Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Liu, C.T., E-mail: chainliu@cityu.edu.hk [Center for Advanced Structural Materials, Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-03-05

    Highlights: • Proper boron additions and heat-treatments improve the ductility of Ti64 alloys. • Coarse TiB precipitates embrittle the Ti64 alloys causing ductility loss. • Modified Ti64 forged alloys with high strength and high ductility are developed. - Abstract: The effects of boron additions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of forged Ti–6Al–4V alloys in different heat-treatment conditions have been characterized by both experimental studies and thermodynamic calculations. The results indicate a combination of proper post-forging treatments and B additions are helpful for control of the prior-β grain size and the volume fraction of α phase, thereby tuning the ductility of the forged Ti–6Al–4V alloys. However, the B-containing alloys exhibit a significant drop in ductility if the solutionizing temperature is too high, and this embrittlement is mainly due to the coarsening of brittle TiB borides. The mechanism in this case is due to the cleavage fracture of TiB rather than its debonding with the matrix, as indicated by the observation of the aligned TiB borides on the matching areas of both halves of the fracture surfaces. Thus, the TiB size and orientation, the prior-β grain size, and the volume fraction of the α phase all play important roles in controlling the mechanical properties of the forged Ti–6Al–4V alloys. The current findings shed light on the composition–microstructure–ductility relationship in the forged Ti–6Al–4V alloys.

  1. Organizational architecture of multinational company

    OpenAIRE

    Vrbová, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    The Bachelor's Thesis ,,Organizational architecture of multinational company" sets the target to analyse organizational structures used in multinational companies at present. In the teoretical section is briefly described development of this subject, basic concepts associated with organizational architecture such as globalization, multinational companies and organizational architecture. I also generalized main characteristics of organizational forms and describe their pros and cons. The pract...

  2. Selection of the optimal hard facing (HF technology of damaged forging dies based on cooling time t8/5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Arsić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In exploitation, the forging dies are exposed to heating up to very high temperatures, variable loads: compressive, impact and shear. In this paper, the reparatory hard facing of the damaged forging dies is considered. The objective was to establish the optimal reparatory technology based on cooling time t8/5 . The verification of the adopted technology was done by investigation of the hard faced layers microstructure and measurements of hardness within the welded layers’ characteristic zones. Cooling time was determined theoretically, numerically and experimentally.

  3. Experimental Research on the SizeMeasurement of the High Temperature ForgingBased on Multicolor CCD Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the size measurement accuracy of the high temperature forging's multicolor CCD image by using computerprograms, this paper obtained the high temperature forging's CCD image by multicolor CCD camera and its fact size by thevernier caliper on the forging field, and then measured the size of the high temperature forging from its CCD image, compared thesize from the CCD image and the size from the vernier caliper, the result shows that the measurement accuracy satisfied theindustrial production.

  4. Final Technical Report: Intensive Quenching Technology for Heat Treating and Forging Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronov, Michael A.

    2005-12-21

    Intensive quenching (IQ) process is an alternative way of hardening (quenching) steel parts through the use of highly agitated water and then still air. It was developed by IQ Technologies, Inc. (IQT) of Akron, Ohio. While conventional quenching is usually performed in environmentally unfriendly oil or water/polymer solutions, the IQ process uses highly agitated environmentally friendly water or low concentration water/mineral salt solutions. The IQ method is characterized by extremely high cooling rates of steel parts. In contrast to conventional quenching, where parts cool down to the quenchant temperature and usually have tensile or neutral residual surface stresses at the end of quenching. The IQ process is interrupted when the part core is still hot and when there are maximum compressive stresses deep into the parts, thereby providing hard, ductile, better wear resistant parts. The project goal was to advance the patented IQ process from feasibility to commercialization in the heat-treating and forging industries to reduce significantly energy consumption and environmental impact, to increase productivity and to enhance economic competitiveness of these industries as well as Steel, Metal Casting and Mining industries. To introduce successfully the IQ technology in the U.S. metal working industry, the project team has completed the following work over the course of this project: A total of 33 manufacturers of steel products provided steel parts for IQ trails. IQT conducted IQ demonstrations for 34 different steel parts. Our customers tested intensively quenched parts in actual field conditions to evaluate the product service life and performance improvement. The data obtained from the field showed the following: Service life (number of holes punched) of cold-work punches (provided by EHT customer and made of S5 shock-resisting steel) was improved by two to eight times. Aluminum extrusion dies provided by GAM and made of hot work H-13 steel outperformed the

  5. Study on Pot Forming of Induction Heater Type Rice Cookers by Forging Cast Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Mitsugi; Ohashi, Osamu

    This paper describes a study result on pot fabrication by the forging cast process of stainless steel with aluminum. Rice cooked with the new bowl-shaped pot for the induction heater type rice cookers is better tasting than rice cooked with the conventional cylindrical one, due to the achievement of better heat conduction and convection. The conventional pot is made of the clad sheet, consisting of stainless steel and aluminum. However, it is rather difficult to form a bowl shape from the clad sheet, primarily due to the problem of a material spring back. The fabrication of a new type of a pot was made possible by means of the adoption of a forging cast process instead of the clad sheet. In this process, iron powder is inserted between stainless steel and aluminum in order to alleviate the large difference on the coefficient of expansion between each material. It was made clear that the application of two kinds of iron particle, namely 10 μm size powder on the stainless steel side and 44 μm on the aluminum side, enables the joints to become strong enough. The joint strength of the new pot by this fabrication process was confirmed by the tests of the shear strength and the fatigue tests together with the stress analysis.

  6. Forging tool shape optimization using pseudo inverse approach and adaptive incremental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halouani, A.; Meng, F. J.; Li, Y. M.; Labergère, C.; Abbès, B.; Lafon, P.; Guo, Y. Q.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a simplified finite element method called "Pseudo Inverse Approach" (PIA) for tool shape design and optimization in multi-step cold forging processes. The approach is based on the knowledge of the final part shape. Some intermediate configurations are introduced and corrected by using a free surface method to consider the deformation paths without contact treatment. A robust direct algorithm of plasticity is implemented by using the equivalent stress notion and tensile curve. Numerical tests have shown that the PIA is very fast compared to the incremental approach. The PIA is used in an optimization procedure to automatically design the shapes of the preform tools. Our objective is to find the optimal preforms which minimize the equivalent plastic strain and punch force. The preform shapes are defined by B-Spline curves. A simulated annealing algorithm is adopted for the optimization procedure. The forging results obtained by the PIA are compared to those obtained by the incremental approach to show the efficiency and accuracy of the PIA.

  7. A Study On The Fabrication Of Iron Powder From Forging Scale Using Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin S.M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of hydrogen content, temperature, reaction time for the reduction of forging scale which is mainly composed of hematite (Fe2O3. All reductive reactions were performed over the temperature range of 700 to 1200°C as well as 0.1 to 1 atm of hydrogen partial pressures. The results showed that the mechanism for the reduction of iron oxides using hydrogen gas was not a simple process, but proceeded in multiple reduction stages thermodynamically. The iron oxide was almost completely reduced to metallic iron powder with 91 wt.% of iron content in the forging scale at 0.1 atm of hydrogen partial pressure. The content of iron was however found to be increased with increasing hydrogen partial pressure from 0.1 to 1 atm with regardless of temperatures. The metallic iron powder was obtained with the mean size of 100 μm and more porous structure was observed.

  8. Standard method of macroetch testing steel bars, billets, blooms, and forgings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 Macroetching, which is the etching of specimens for macrostructural examination at low magnifications, is a frequently used technique for evaluating steel products such as bars, billets, blooms, and forgings. 1.2 Included in this method is a procedure for rating steel specimens by a graded series of photographs showing the incidence of certain conditions. The method is limited in application to bars, billets, blooms, and forgings of carbon and low alloy steels. 1.3 A number of different etching reagents may be used depending upon the type of examination to be made. Steels react differently to etching reagents because of variations in chemical composition, method of manufacture, heat treatment and many other variables. Establishment of general standards for acceptance or rejection for all conditions is impractical as some conditions must be considered relative to the part in which it occurs. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is ...

  9. A Method For Producing Hollow Shafts By Rotary Compression Using A Specially Designed Forging Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomczak J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new method for manufacturing hollow shafts, where tubes are used as billet. First, the design of a specially designed forging machine for rotary compression is described. The machine is then numerically tested with regard to its strength, and the effect of elastic strains of the roll system on the quality of produced parts is determined. The machine’s strength is calculated by the finite element method using the NX Nastran program. Technological capabilities of the machine are determined, too. Next, the results of the modeling of the rotary compression process for a hollow stepped shafts by the finite element method are given. The process for manufacturing hollow shafts was modeled using the Simufact.Forming simulation program. The FEM results are then verified experimentally in the designed forging machine for rotary compression. The experimental results confirm that axisymmetric hollow shafts can be produced by the rotary compression method. It is also confirmed that numerical methods are suitable for investigating both machine design and metal forming processes.

  10. Advanced numerical models for the thermo-mechanical-metallurgical analysis in hot forging processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducato, Antonino; Fratini, Livan; Micari, Fabrizio

    2013-05-01

    In the paper a literature review of the numerical modeling of thermo-mechanical-metallurgical evolutions of a metal in hot forging operations is presented. In particular models of multiaxial loading tests are considered for carbon steels. The collected examples from literature regard phases transformations, also martensitic transformations, morphologies evolutions and transformation plasticity phenomena. The purpose of the tests is to show the correlation between the mechanical and the metallurgical behavior of a carbon steel during a combination of several types of loads. In particular a few mechanical tests with heat treatment are analyzed. Furthermore, Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy is considered. Such material is a multi-phasic alloy, at room temperature made of two main different phases, namely Alpha and Beta, which evolve during both cooling and heating stages. Several numerical applications, conducted using a commercial implicit lagrangian FEM code are presented too. This code can conduct tri-coupled thermo-mechanical-metallurgical simulations of forming processes. The numerical model has been used to carry out a 3D simulation of a forging process of a complex shape part. The model is able to take into account the effects of all the phenomena resulting from the coupling of thermal, mechanical and metallurgical events. As simulation results strongly depend on the accuracy of input data, physical simulation experiments on real-material samples are carried out to characterize material behavior during phase transformation.

  11. FORGE Canada Consortium: outcomes of a 2-year national rare-disease gene-discovery project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Chandree L; Majewski, Jacek; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Samuels, Mark E; Fernandez, Bridget A; Bernier, Francois P; Brudno, Michael; Knoppers, Bartha; Marcadier, Janet; Dyment, David; Adam, Shelin; Bulman, Dennis E; Jones, Steve J M; Avard, Denise; Nguyen, Minh Thu; Rousseau, Francois; Marshall, Christian; Wintle, Richard F; Shen, Yaoqing; Scherer, Stephen W; Friedman, Jan M; Michaud, Jacques L; Boycott, Kym M

    2014-06-01

    Inherited monogenic disease has an enormous impact on the well-being of children and their families. Over half of the children living with one of these conditions are without a molecular diagnosis because of the rarity of the disease, the marked clinical heterogeneity, and the reality that there are thousands of rare diseases for which causative mutations have yet to be identified. It is in this context that in 2010 a Canadian consortium was formed to rapidly identify mutations causing a wide spectrum of pediatric-onset rare diseases by using whole-exome sequencing. The FORGE (Finding of Rare Disease Genes) Canada Consortium brought together clinicians and scientists from 21 genetics centers and three science and technology innovation centers from across Canada. From nation-wide requests for proposals, 264 disorders were selected for study from the 371 submitted; disease-causing variants (including in 67 genes not previously associated with human disease; 41 of these have been genetically or functionally validated, and 26 are currently under study) were identified for 146 disorders over a 2-year period. Here, we present our experience with four strategies employed for gene discovery and discuss FORGE's impact in a number of realms, from clinical diagnostics to the broadening of the phenotypic spectrum of many diseases to the biological insight gained into both disease states and normal human development. Lastly, on the basis of this experience, we discuss the way forward for rare-disease genetic discovery both in Canada and internationally.

  12. The European Model Company Act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    2011-01-01

    European Company Law regulation is currently undergoing a reform. These reforms raise a number of regulatory questions, such as what should be the aims of companies' legislation, and how these aims should best be met by regulation. Many of the reforms and discussions (both on EU and national level......) on the organisation of company laws reflect an interesting paradigm shift. Whereas, previously company law was primarily focused on preventing abuse, there is now a trend towards legislation that promote commerce and satisfy the needs of business. This means that the goal of economic efficiency is having...... an increasing influence on the framing of company legislation, such as the choice between mandatory or default rules. This article introduces the project 'European Company Law and the choice of Regulatory Method' which is carried out in collaboration with the 'European Model Company Act Group'. The project aims...

  13. The burden of mental illness and addiction in ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasingham, Sujitha; Cairney, John; Manson, Heather; Rehm, Jürgen; Lin, Elizabeth; Kurdyak, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Objectif : Le service de Santé publique de l’Ontario et l’Institut pour les sciences évaluatives cliniques ont collaboré pour estimer le fardeau de la maladie attribuable aux trouble mentaux et aux toxicomanies en Ontario. Méthodes : Les années de vie ajustées en fonction de la santé ont servi à estimer le fardeau. Le concept est semblable aux années de vie ajustées en fonction de l’incapacité qui ont servi aux études sur le fardeau mondial de la maladie. Les sources de données sur les maladies mentales et les toxicomanies utilisées étaient notamment des données administratives sur la santé de la province de l’Ontario, des données d’enquête de Statistique Canada et du Centre de toxicomanie et de santé mentale, des données de l’état civil du Bureau du registraire général de l’Ontario, et des données de l’enquête épidémiologique américaine. Résultats : Les 5 affections dont le fardeau est le plus élevé sont : la dépression majeure, le trouble bipolaire affectif, les troubles liés à l’utilisation d’alcool (TUA), la phobie sociale, et la schizophrénie. Le fardeau de la dépression est le double de celui de l’affection mentale la plus proche (c’est-à-dire, le trouble bipolaire affectif) et est plus lourd que le fardeau combiné des 4 cancers les plus répandus en Ontario. Les TUA étaient le seul groupe de maladies dont une proportion substantielle du fardeau était attribuable au décès précoce. Les estimations du fardeau pour les autres affections étaient principalement attribuables à l’incapacité. Conclusions : Le fardeau de ces affections en Ontario est aussi plus lourd que celui d’autres affections, comme le cancer et les maladies infectieuses, ce qui s’explique en grande partie par la prévalence élevée, la chronicité, et l’âge de début de la plupart des troubles mentaux et des problèmes de toxicomanie. Les résultats servent de base importante à l’évaluation future des

  14. Windsor, Ontario Exposure Assessment Study: Design and Methods Validation of Personal, Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Windsor, Ontario Exposure Assessment Study evaluated the contribution of ambient air pollutants to personal and indoor exposures of adults and asthmatic children living in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. In addition, the role of personal, indoor, and outdoor air pollution exposures...

  15. CSR in TSL companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna DYCZKOWSKA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available TSL companies are characterized by high dynamics of an increase of incomes, and hence increased shipping. Owing to a rational policy in the area of the consolidation of production and distribution, they may boast of a better use of the means of transport. The purpose of this article is to present the activities in the area of the eco-friendly CSR aspect in the activities of TSL companies taking into consideration particularly logistic operators. The research methods used in the study include an analysis of secondary data, observations and comparative analyses. Road transport in the shipping structure comes first and it constitutes 84% of freights. In the year 2009, in Poland greenhouse gas emissions from road transport amounted to 42.5 million tons (4.84% of the EU member states and CO emissions were 41.9 million tons (analogically, 4.83% of environment pollutions in the European Union. This causes an emission of fumes into the atmosphere. The policy of sustainable development pursued by logistic operators under corporate social responsibility is a response to the abovementioned data. They take decisions concerning social and environmental aspects. The activities of TSL companies under CSR need to provide an answer to customer expectations and needs, and they have to cause an increase of competitiveness on the market. The selected four largest logistic operators conduct the following eco-friendly activities on the highest level: fume emission reports and the control of these emissions, transport of hazardous goods (ADR, voluntary services in the scope of environmental protection and cooperation with eco-friendly organizations. There are those activities which call for improvement: a limitation of the emission of fumes, waste management and sewage treatment policy.

  16. Competency assessment of microbiology medical laboratory technologists in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Marc; Fleming, Christine Ann

    2014-08-01

    Accreditation in Ontario, Canada, requires that licensed clinical laboratories participate in external quality assessment (also known as proficiency testing) and perform competency evaluation of their staff. To assess the extent of ongoing competency assessment practices, the Quality Management Program--Laboratory Services (QMP-LS) Microbiology Committee surveyed all 112 licensed Ontario microbiology laboratories. The questionnaire consisted of a total of 21 questions that included yes/no, multiple-choice, and short-answer formats. Participants were asked to provide information about existing programs, the frequency of testing, what areas are evaluated, and how results are communicated to the staff. Of the 111 responding laboratories, 6 indicated they did not have a formal evaluation program since they perform only limited bacteriology testing. Of the remaining 105 respondents, 87% perform evaluations at least annually or every 2 years, and 61% include any test or task performed, whereas 16% and 10% focus only on problem areas and high-volume complex tasks, respectively. The most common methods of evaluation were review of external quality assessment (EQA) challenges, direct observation, and worksheet review. With the exception of one participant, all communicate results to staff, and most take remedial action to correct the deficiencies. Although most accredited laboratories have a program to assess the ongoing competency of their staff, the methods used are not standardized or consistently applied, indicating that there is room for improvement. The survey successfully highlighted potential areas for improvement and allowed the QMP-LS Microbiology Committee to provide guidance to Ontario laboratories for establishing or improving existing microbiology-specific competency assessment programs.

  17. Deepwater sculpin status and recovery in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidel, Brian C.; Walsh, Maureen; Connerton, Michael J.; Lantry, Brian F.; Lantry, Jana R.; Holden, Jeremy P.; Yuille, Michael J.; Hoyle, James A.

    2017-01-01

    Deepwater sculpin are important in oligotrophic lakes as one of the few fishes that use deep profundal habitats and link invertebrates in those habitats to piscivores. In Lake Ontario the species was once abundant, however drastic declines in the mid-1900s led some to suggest the species had been extirpated and ultimately led Canadian and U.S. agencies to elevate the species' conservation status. Following two decades of surveys with no captures, deepwater sculpin were first caught in low numbers in 1996 and by the early 2000s there were indications of population recovery. We updated the status of Lake Ontario deepwater sculpin through 2016 to inform resource management and conservation. Our data set was comprised of 8431 bottom trawls sampled from 1996 to 2016, in U.S. and Canadian waters spanning depths from 5 to 225 m. Annual density estimates generally increased from 1996 through 2016, and an exponential model estimated the rate of population increase was ~ 59% per year. The mean total length and the proportion of fish greater than the estimated length at maturation (~ 116 mm) generally increased until a peak in 2013. In addition, the mean length of all deepwater sculpin captured in a trawl significantly increased with depth. Across all years examined, deepwater sculpin densities generally increased with depth, increasing sharply at depths > 150 m. Bottom trawl observations suggest the Lake Ontario deepwater sculpin population has recovered and current densities and biomass densities may now be similar to the other Great Lakes.

  18. Nongastrointestinal helminths in marten (Martes americana) from Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seville, R S; Addison, E M

    1995-10-01

    Six species of nongastrointestinal nematodes were recovered from 405 marten, (Martes americana), examined from six areas in Ontario, Canada in 1992 to 1993. Three species (Crenosoma petrowi, Eucoleus aerophilus, Filaroides martis) were found in the respiratory tract, one in the urinary bladder (Pearsonema plica), one in the kidney (Dioctophyme renale), and one in the musculature (Trichinella sp. larvae). This is the first report of F. martis and P. plica from this host. In addition a specimen of Dracunculus insignis collected from a marten pelt was received. Based on our results, martens are primary definitive hosts for few nongastrointestinal nematodes. Animals in more southern areas had greater species richness than those from higher latitudes.

  19. The identification of liquid ethane in Titan's Ontario Lacus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R H; Soderblom, L A; Soderblom, J M; Clark, R N; Jaumann, R; Barnes, J W; Sotin, C; Buratti, B; Baines, K H; Nicholson, P D

    2008-07-31

    Titan was once thought to have global oceans of light hydrocarbons on its surface, but after 40 close flybys of Titan by the Cassini spacecraft, it has become clear that no such oceans exist. There are, however, features similar to terrestrial lakes and seas, and widespread evidence for fluvial erosion, presumably driven by precipitation of liquid methane from Titan's dense, nitrogen-dominated atmosphere. Here we report infrared spectroscopic data, obtained by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) on board the Cassini spacecraft, that strongly indicate that ethane, probably in liquid solution with methane, nitrogen and other low-molecular-mass hydrocarbons, is contained within Titan's Ontario Lacus.

  20. Direct cost associated with acquired brain injury in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Amy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acquired Brain Injury (ABI from traumatic and non traumatic causes is a leading cause of disability worldwide yet there is limited research summarizing the health system economic burden associated with ABI. The objective of this study was to determine the direct cost of publicly funded health care services from the initial hospitalization to three years post-injury for individuals with traumatic (TBI and non-traumatic brain injury (nTBI in Ontario Canada. Methods A population-based cohort of patients discharged from acute hospital with an ABI code in any diagnosis position in 2004 through 2007 in Ontario was identified from administrative data. Publicly funded health care utilization was obtained from several Ontario administrative healthcare databases. Patients were stratified according to traumatic and non-traumatic causes of brain injury and whether or not they were discharged to an inpatient rehabilitation center. Health system costs were calculated across a continuum of institutional and community settings for up to three years after initial discharge. The continuum of settings included acute care emergency departments inpatient rehabilitation (IR complex continuing care home care services and physician visits. All costs were calculated retrospectively assuming the government payer’s perspective. Results Direct medical costs in an ABI population are substantial with mean cost in the first year post-injury per TBI and nTBI patient being $32132 and $38018 respectively. Among both TBI and nTBI patients those discharged to IR had significantly higher treatment costs than those not discharged to IR across all institutional and community settings. This tendency remained during the entire three-year follow-up period. Annual medical costs of patients hospitalized with a brain injury in Ontario in the first follow-up year were approximately $120.7 million for TBI and $368.7 million for nTBI. Acute care cost accounted for 46

  1. Re Inquiry into the Confidentiality of Health Records in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-30

    Several members of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police testified at hearings conducted by a commission appointed to study the confidentiality of health records. On approximately 300 occasions, the police had obtained medical information from physicians and hospitals in Ontario without the prior consent of the patient. The court established that the identity of persons who had furnished the information was privileged information for physicians and other persons subject to the control of a hospital board, but not for various employees of the hospital who were not subject to professional standards of discipline.

  2. Forging Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Ed

    2017-01-01

    Community colleges always have played an integral role in training workers for infrastructure- and transportation-related fields like truck driving, construction, welding and electrical work. If the $1 trillion infrastructure package proposed by President Donald Trump comes to pass, these fields will grow significantly, at least for a while, which…

  3. Ontario Universities Benefits Survey, 1987-88. Part I: Benefits Excluding Pensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of the 1987-1988 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: administration and insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave policy, Ontario health…

  4. The Social Habitus of Drama: The Ontario Drama Curriculum in Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author considers the place of drama in the formal curriculum in Ontario, Canada by considering its position in relation to curriculum theory and the texts that formally articulate it as a discipline to be taught in schools. The drama curriculum in Ontario aims to engage young people in activities and experiences that invite…

  5. Endoscopic Follow-Up of Positive Fecal Occult Blood Testing in the Ontario FOBT Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Paszat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Ontario FOBT Project is a pilot study of fecal occult blood testing (FOBT for colorectal cancer screening conducted among age-eligible volunteers (50 to 75 years in 12 of 37 public health regions in Ontario.

  6. The Relationship between Parental Substance Abuse and Child Maltreatment: Findings from the Ontario Health Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christine; MacMillan, Harriet L.; Jamieson, Ellen

    2003-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between reported exposure to child abuse and a history of parental substance abuse (alcohol and drugs) in a community sample in Ontario, Canada. Method: The sample consisted of 8,472 respondents to the Ontario Mental Health Supplement (OHSUP), a comprehensive population survey of mental health. The…

  7. Did Ontario's Zero Tolerance & Graduated Licensing Law Reduce Youth Drunk Driving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    On April 1, 1994, Ontario, Canada, instituted a new graduated driver license (GDL) system that effectively set the legal blood alcohol content (BAC) threshold at zero for the first few years of a youth's driving eligibility. I use data from the 1983-2001 Ontario Student Drug Use Surveys (OSDUS) to examine whether the Zero Tolerance (ZT) policy…

  8. Bologna through Ontario Eyes: The Case of the Advanced Diploma in Architectural Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Amy D.; Feltham, Mark; Trotter, Lane

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by Ontario's burgeoning interest in postsecondary student mobility, this article examines how elements of Europe's Bologna Process can help bridge the college--university divide of Ontario's postsecondary system. Via discourse analysis of relevant qualification frameworks and program standards, it argues that the current system…

  9. Development of FVSOntario: A Forest Vegetation Simulator Variant and application software for Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray E. Woods; Donald C. E. Robinson

    2008-01-01

    The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources is leading a government-industry partnership to develop an Ontario variant of the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS). Based on the Lake States variant and the PrognosisBC user-interface, the FVSOntarioproject is motivated by a need to model the impacts of intensive forest management...

  10. Driving Distance to Telemedicine Units in Northern Ontario as a Measure of Potential Access to Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Laurel D; Hogenbirk, John C

    2016-04-01

    The Ontario Telemedicine Network (OTN) uses technology to help make medical services more accessible to people in medically underserved rural and remote parts of Ontario, Canada. We examined access to OTN-enabled health and medical services in Northern Ontario, which has 775,000 people in communities scattered across an area of 803,000 km(2). We used ArcGIS Network Analyst (Esri, Redlands, CA) to conduct a service area analysis with travel time as a measure of potential access to care. We used road distance and speed limits to estimate travel time between Northern Ontario communities and the nearest OTN unit. In 2014 there were 2,331 OTN units, of which 552 (24%) were located in Northern Ontario. All seven communities in Northern Ontario with a population of 10,000 or greater had OTN units. Almost 97% of the 59 communities with 1,000-10,000 people were within 30 min of an OTN unit. The percentage of communities within 30 min steadily decreased with decreasing population size, to 58% for communities with fewer than 50 people. In total, 86% (690/802) of Northern Ontario communities were within an hour's drive of an OTN unit. This study showed that most Northern Ontario communities were within an hour's drive of an OTN unit. The current distribution of OTN units has the potential to increase access to medical services and to reduce the need for medically related travel for residents of these communities.

  11. Validation of Six Short and Ultra-short Screening Instruments for Depression for People Living with HIV in Ontario: Results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Stephanie KY; Boyle, Eleanor; Burchell, Ann;

    2015-01-01

    of current depression in HIV-positive patients attending HIV specialty care clinics in Ontario. Methods A multi-centre validation study was conducted in Ontario to examine the validity and accuracy of three instruments (the Center for Epidemiologic Depression Scale [CESD20], the Kessler Psychological...... Distress Scale [K10], and the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale [PHQ9]) and their short forms (CESD10, K6, and PHQ2) in diagnosing current major depression among 190 HIV-positive patients in Ontario. Results from the three instruments and their short forms were compared to results from the gold...... positive predictive value (0.49–0.58) at their optimal cut-points. Conclusion Among people in HIV care in Ontario, Canada, the three instruments and their short forms performed equally well and accurately. When further in-depth assessments become available, shorter instruments might find greater clinical...

  12. CHANGQING OILFIELD COMPANY PROMOTES COOPERATION WITH FOREIGN COMPANIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di Guanglong; Li Dongxun

    2001-01-01

    @@ PetroChina Changqing Oilfield Company has vigorously promoted cooperation with foreign companies in oil and gas exploration and development in Orodos basin. In partnership with US-based Halliburton International Inc., Baker Hughes Inc., Schlumberger Ltd. and BJ Corporation,the company has carried out acidizing and fracturing design and operation for almost 30 wells with acquisition of the equipment. The cooperation has achieved satisfactory results. At present, the company is under negotiation with Exxon-Mobil Corporation and Chevron Corporation on the cooperative natural gas development and application of Sulige and Mizhi gas fields. A large number of first-class international petroleum companies have expressed their great interest and willingness to cooperate with Changqing Oilfield Company. On 30 July, the Asian Exchange Association based in Japan sent a 24-member delegation to Changqing on its fourth tour to seek business opportunities.

  13. Factors associated with seat belt use: an evaluation from the Ontario Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, V S; Pitblado, J R; Bota, G W; Rowe, B H

    1998-01-01

    This study examines the factors associated with seat belt use for drivers and passengers in Ontario. Using the 1990 Ontario Health Survey, a population-based survey of non-institutionalized Ontario residents, factors associated with seat belt use among drivers and passengers were identified and are reported as unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR; 95% CI). Seat belt non-use in Ontario drivers was most strongly associated with younger age (p Seat belt non-use in passengers was associated with younger age (p seat belt use has been shown to reduce injuries in the event of a crash. Any strategy to increase seat belt use in Ontario should be targeted to involve both drivers and passengers. Attention should be paid to increasing seat belt usage by younger adults, males, and especially those living in northern and rural regions.

  14. 46 CFR 401.405 - Basic rates and charges on the St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Lake Ontario. 401.405 Section 401.405 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF... § 401.405 Basic rates and charges on the St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario. Except as provided in.... registered pilots in the St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario. (a) Area 1 (Designated Waters): Service...

  15. Optimization of Forging Process of Intermediate Shaft%中间轴锻造工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓琦; 李晓峰; 曹志远

    2013-01-01

    When producing the large asymmetrical flange etc hollow shaft parts with the conventional open die forging process, the flange side of hollow shaft part is very likely irregular offset and concave in center hole, which may affect the size of final forging and reduces the utilization rate of ingot. In this paper, a new forging process of intermediate shaft based on existing auxiliary tools is described and the confining of flange side center, end face deflection and offset irregularity of flange side were effectively improved and forging part with good size was obtained finally.%针对传统自由锻造工艺生产中间轴等非对称大法兰空心轴类件时,容易在法兰侧出现较为严重的偏摆和内孔凹心现象,影响最终锻件尺寸,坯料利用率低的缺点。介绍一种改进锻造工艺,在利用现有附具基础上,可有效克服中间轴锻件两端面内孔凹心、法兰长短面及其端面偏摆等技术难点,最终得到满足尺寸要求的锻件。

  16. Automated Determination of the Power Required and Selection of Electric Motors for Forging Fly-Press Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Karakoulidis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current work deals with appropriate selection of electric motors for forging fly-press machines. To solve the equation of motion of the electric drive of these mechanisms characterized by impact (pulsating load and presence of flywheel, numerical methods (calculus have been used.

  17. Dynamic strain aging precipitation of Mg17Al12 in AZ80 magnesium alloy during multi-directional forging process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Q. F.; Wang, G. S.; Wang, X. J.; Liu, F. Z.; Ban, C. Y.; Cui, J. Z.

    2017-05-01

    Dynamic aging precipitation of Mg17Al12 phases in AZ80 magnesium alloy was studied by multi-directional forging (MDF) with decreasing temperatures from 410 to 300 °C. The results show that the morphology of the dynamically precipitated β-Mg17Al12 phases (formed during forging process) exhibited granular shape. During the multi-directional forging process, the inhomogeneous dynamic precipitation of the β-Mg17Al12 phases result in the coexistence of the fine grains (with many granular Mg17Al12 phases) and coarse grains (without Mg17Al12 phases) in the samples. The fine grains (with many granular Mg17Al12 phases) area expands with the decreasing of final forging temperature. The inhomogenous Al content distribution in the Mg matrix leads to the non-uniform dynamic precipitation of the Mg17Al12 phase. These Mg17Al12 phase retards the growth of the DRX grains, which in turns results in the formation fine grains area during the during the MDF process with temperature decreasing.

  18. Forging New Cocoa Keys: The Impact of Unlocking the Cocoa Bean’s Genome on Pre-harvest Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forging New Cocoa Keys: The Impact of Unlocking the Cocoa Bean’s Genome on Pre-harvest Food Safety David N. Kuhn, USDA ARS SHRS, Miami FL Sometimes it's hard to see the value and application of genomics to real world problems. How will sequencing the cacao genome affect West African farmers? Thi...

  19. 31 CFR 370.40 - Can I be held accountable if my negligence contributes to a forged signature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can I be held accountable if my negligence contributes to a forged signature? 370.40 Section 370.40 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Submission of Transaction Requests Through the Bureau of the Public Debt § 370.40 Can I be held...

  20. Taking the Lead in Science Education: Forging Next-Generation Science Standards. International Science Benchmarking Report. Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    This appendix accompanies the report "Taking the Lead in Science Education: Forging Next-Generation Science Standards. International Science Benchmarking Report," a study conducted by Achieve to compare the science standards of 10 countries. This appendix includes the following: (1) PISA and TIMSS Assessment Rankings; (2) Courses and…

  1. PTA锻焊反应器的制造%Fabrication of Forge Welding PTA Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳

    2014-01-01

    The article introduces several key techniques for fabrication of large Cr-Mo steel forge welding reactor in PTA unit. The chemical composition of material should be controlled to improve the anti-tempered embrittlement ability for Cr-Mo steel; the advanced smelting process and forging technique should be used to assure the large forging quality;the cooling process of normalization for Cr-Mo steel head should be optimized to assure the material property;the reasonable welding process should be used to assure the welding quality of thick wall circumferential seam and reduce the fabrication cost;the overlay welding process should be optimized to assure the overlay welding quality in inner surface of reactor. Finally, it is very important for the Cr-Mo steel pressure vessel to use the proper heat treatment procedure.%本文对PTA装置上的大型铬钼钢锻焊反应器,在制造过程中的几个关键技术进行了介绍:控制材料的化学成分提高铬钼钢材料的抗回火脆化能力;采用先进的冶炼工艺和锻造技术保证大型锻件的质量;优化铬钼钢封头正火热处理中的冷却工艺来保证材料的性能指标;采用合理的焊接工艺,既保证了厚壁环焊缝的焊接质量,又降低了制造成本;优化堆焊工艺,保证了反应器内壁的堆焊质量;正确选择热处理规范,对铬钼钢压力容器至关重要。

  2. Regulating Traditional Chinese Medicine Practitioners and Acupuncturists in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen E. Randall

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the Ontario government passed the Traditional Chinese Medicine Act, which granted Traditional Chinese Medicine practitioners and Acupuncturists (TCM/A practitioners self-regulatory status under the Regulated Health Professions Act, 1991. The goal of the legislation was to create a new regulatory college that would set and enforce high standards of care and safety in order to enhance public protection and access to a range of traditional and alternative therapies. In April 2013, the College of Traditional Chinese Medicine Practitioners and Acupuncturists of Ontario was officially launched. Several factors account for the government’s decision to delegate self-regulatory authority to TCM/A practitioners through the creation of a regulatory college. In particular, the government’s decision seems to have been influenced by lobbying of some practitioners, greater public acceptance of alternative medicines, patient safety concerns related to acupuncture cases in the media, and the precedence of self-regulatory status being granted to these practitioners in other provinces. The degree to which the legislation has achieved its goals is difficult to determine given the short period of time the regulatory college has existed. However, the fact that the college has developed standards of practice to guide TCM/A practitioners and has a process in place to address public complaints is an early indication of movement toward achieving the policy’s goals.

  3. Linezolid resistance in Enterococcus faecium isolated in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Samir N; Memari, Nader; Shahinas, Dea; Toye, Baldwin; Jamieson, Frances B; Farrell, David J

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have described linezolid-resistant MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) occurring worldwide, including an outbreak of linezolid-resistant MRSA. The objective of this study was to determine if linezolid-resistant enterococci are present in clinical isolates in Ontario, Canada. From January 2010 to June 2012, all enterococcal isolates submitted to the Public Health Ontario Laboratory (PHOL) for confirmation of VRE and susceptibility testing were included in this study. Of 2829 enterococcal isolates tested, 12 Enterococcus faecium were found to be resistant to linezolid. All linezolid-resistant isolates were also resistant to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and vancomycin. In addition, 33% of isolates were non-susceptible to daptomycin, whereas 41% were resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin. Molecular characterization of these isolates showed that 8/12 isolates (66.7%) contained the mutation G2576T in 23S rRNA, which has been associated with linezolid resistance. Amplification and sequencing of L3- and L4-coding genes did not reveal mutations associated with linezolid resistance. One isolate contained the cfr gene, which is associated with linezolid resistance, and has been found in staphylococcal species and E. faecalis. These data show that occurrence of linezolid resistance is still rare among enterococcal isolates referred to PHOL though detection of cfr in E. faecium is concerning as it has the potential to disseminate among other enterococci.

  4. Concentration and biochemical gradients of seston in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick T.; Weidel, Brian C.; Paufve, Matthew R.; O'Malley, Brian P.; Watkins, James M.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Jones, Stuart E.

    2017-01-01

    Spatial variability in resource quantity and quality may have important implications for the distribution and productivity of primary consumers. In Lake Ontario, ecosystem characteristics suggest the potential for significant spatial heterogeneity in seston quantity and quality, particularly due to the potential for nearshore-offshore gradients in allochthonous nutrient supply, and the formation of a deep chlorophyll layer (DCL) in July. We assessed total and zooplankton food particle size-fractionated chlorophyll a concentrations, as well as carbon-to-phosphorus stoichiometry and essential fatty acid composition of seston across a distance-from-shore and depth transect. We observed time, sampling depth, and distance from shore to be the best predictors of chlorophyll a concentration. Resource quality was much more homogenous in space, but there were strong patterns through time, as both stoichiometric and fatty acid qualities in general were greatest in May, and lowest in July/August. We did observe a peak in essential fatty acid concentration near the DCL in during time of formation, possibly due to differences in phytoplankton community composition between the DCL and epilimnion. These results suggest the potential for a spatially and temporally dynamic resource base for consumers in Lake Ontario, which may be important in developing a broader understanding of variable consumer productivity.

  5. Introducing Midwifery-led Birth Centres to Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina A. Mattison

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Ontario, maternal health systems are changing, with an increasing variety of childbirth options being offered to low-risk pregnant women. Midwifery became a regulated profession in the province in 1994: providing primary care throughout pregnancy, labour and for up to six weeks postpartum. Currently there are three midwifery-led birth centres operating in Ontario, two of which opened in early 2014. The Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MoHLTC has launched these new birth centres in order to offer women more choice in health care provider and birth setting. This shift is representative of the MoHLTC’s push to move services out of hospitals and into community-based settings. While the birth centre initiative is in its early stages and a formal program evaluation is needed, it has the potential, if scaled up, to decrease the need for hospital beds as well as reduce health care costs through more appropriate care for low-risk pregnancies, leading to fewer interventions.

  6. Expanding the Scope of Practice for Pharmacists in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Edward Randall

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available On 15 December 2009 the Regulated Health Professions Statute Law Amendment Act, 2009 (Bill 179 received Royal Assent in Ontario. The resulting legislative amendments were intended to strengthen government oversight of the health regulatory colleges, promote interprofessional collaboration, and make better use of health professionals’ existing skills and training by enhancing the scope of practice for several health professions in order to improve health system efficiency. Among the most notable scope of practice enhancements were those given to pharmacists, who would be permitted to: modify and renew existing prescriptions, prescribe a limited range of drugs independent of a physician, and administer medications such as vaccinations via injection or inhalation. The reform was driven in large part by the government’s concerns related to the rising cost of health care, the public’s desire for greater access to services, and demonstrated successes of similar reforms in other jurisdictions. While the Ontario reform has had some clear success, such as expanding the public’s access to influenza vaccinations, to date, the evidence of achieving other goals remains weak. In particular, there is no clear evidence of improved health system efficiency and associated cost effectiveness. Moreover, it is possible that Ontario’s umbrella regulatory model may be making interprofessional collaboration more, rather than less, difficult to realize.

  7. Degrees of change: Steps towards an Ontario global warming strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivak, M.; Jessup, P.; Lourie, B.; Macdonald, M.; Makuch, Z.; Valiante, M.; Warner, B.

    1991-06-01

    The measures and policy strategies that would be required to achieve a 20% reduction in Ontario carbon dioxide emissions by 2005 are explored. Estimates of primary and secondary energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions for 1988 and 2005 are presented, and three strategies are examined in each end-use sector: energy efficiency, fuel switching, and renewable energy measures. For the residential, commercial, transport, industrial, and iron/steel industry sectors, a profile of CO{sub 2} emissions and energy intensity trends is offered, opportunities for CO{sub 2} reduction and measures to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions are described, and the economic and social implications are discussed. Natural gas cogeneration is examined as a technological option for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions and creating important opportunities for the Ontario economy. The role of energy utility reform in CO{sub 2} emissions reduction is assessed in an examination of the key factors needed for the design and implementation of demand side management programs that achieve high participation rates and significant reductions in energy demand. 102 refs., 6 figs., 53 tabs.

  8. Tobacco Retail Outlets and Vulnerable Populations in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O. Chaiton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest has been increasing in regulating the location and number of tobacco vendors as part of a comprehensive tobacco control program. The objective of this paper is to examine the distribution of tobacco outlets in a large jurisdiction, to assess: (1 whether tobacco outlets are more likely to be located in vulnerable areas; and (2 what proportion of tobacco outlets are located close to schools. Retail locations across the Province of Ontario from Ministry of Health Promotion data were linked to 2006 Census data at the neighbourhood level. There was one tobacco retail outlet for every 1,000 people over age 15 in Ontario. Density of outlets varied by public health unit, and was associated with the number of smokers. Tobacco outlets were more likely to be located in areas that had high neighbourhood deprivation, in both rural and urban areas. Outlets were less likely to be located in areas with high immigrant populations in urban areas, with the reverse being true for rural areas. Overall, 65% of tobacco retailers were located within 500 m of a school. The sale of tobacco products is ubiquitous, however, neighbourhoods with lower socio-economic status are more likely to have easier availability of tobacco products and most retailers are located within walking distance of a school. The results suggest the importance of policies to regulate the location of tobacco retail outlets.

  9. Introducing Midwifery-led Birth Centres to Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina A. Mattison

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Ontario, maternal health systems are changing, with an increasing variety of childbirth options being offered to low-risk pregnant women. Midwifery became a regulated profession in the province in 1994: providing primary care throughout pregnancy, labour and for up to six weeks postpartum. Currently there are three midwifery-led birth centres operating in Ontario, two of which opened in early 2014. The Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MoHLTC has launched these new birth centres in order to offer women more choice in health care provider and birth setting. This shift is representative of the MoHLTC’s push to move services out of hospitals and into community-based settings. While the birth centre initiative is in its early stages and a formal program evaluation is needed, it has the potential, if scaled up, to decrease the need for hospital beds as well as reduce health care costs through more appropriate care for low-risk pregnancies, leading to fewer interventions.

  10. The appropriateness and persistence of testosterone replacement therapy in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Diana; Yao, Zhan; Tadrous, Mina; Shah, Baiju R; Juurlink, David N; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Gomes, Tara

    2017-02-01

    To examine the concordance between testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) use and established reimbursement criteria, as well as compare the persistence of use among available formulations (injectable, oral, topical gel, transdermal patch) among elderly men in Ontario, Canada. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of men aged 66 years or older in Ontario newly treated with testosterone between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2012 using linked health administrative data. Continuous use was defined on the basis of prescription refills issued within 180 days of the preceding prescription. We studied men who received at least two consecutive TRT prescriptions. We estimated the prevalence of hypogonadism, human immunodeficiency virus, specialist visits and lab tests for serum testosterone prior to initiation of TRT to investigate concordance with prescribing criteria. We also performed a Kaplan-Meier analysis to test for differences in the median time to discontinuation among formulations. Among the 4797 men who received at least two TRT prescriptions, only 38.7% met the reimbursement criteria for use prior to initiating therapy. The median time to discontinuation differed significantly among formulations and was longest among recipients of oral TRT products (383 days), and lower for recipients of topical gels (319 days), injectable (283 days) and transdermal patches (160 days; Log-rank test p therapy, and many discontinue TRT within a year of initiation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Diagnostic Process of Company Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emese Tokarˇcíková

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an actual topic of how key factors of enterprise diagnostics can help to increase company productivity. Recognition and use of relevant internal and external information in this field determines the success of the enterprise. Application of the general diagnostic model of company productivity to the net income has been a frequent problem of company practice. This problem is of profit showing, which is an inevitable precondition for long-term company development and growth. Diagnostic access of company productivity allows recognition of specific problems in greater detail, which results from the activity of each company. This article also presents an introduction to the researched area of enterprise diagnostics, which opens opportunities for other publishing activities and can lead to information exchange.

  12. Forging Operation for Super-Large Main Shaft of Water Turbines%超大型轮机主轴锻造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓琦; 张建国; 季雪; 牛广斌

    2014-01-01

    某大型轮机主轴法兰直径φ2.65 m,总长近10 m,锻件重达150 t,其规格超出水压机车间现有附具的工作范围,很难用传统锻造方法进行整体锻造生产。为此设计出一种新的锻造方法并对现有附具进行改造,最终成功锻造出形状和尺寸合格的大型轮机主轴锻件。%The main shaft of a large water turbine has a flange diameter ofφ2.65 m and is 10 m long. The weight of the main shaft forging is 150 t. Such large forging can not be made with the operational tools of the forging workshop and the monobloc forging is difficult to make with conventional forging operation. For this reason, a new forging process is designed and the operational tools are modified. With this effort, the large main shaft forging that has acceptable shape and dimensions is made successfully.

  13. Investigating the effect of variable gutter technique as a novel method on vertical flow of material in closed die forging processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourbashiri, M.; Sedighi, M. [Iran University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Recently, Variable gutter technique has been introduced as a novel method in order to reduce waste materials in closed-die forging processes. In this paper, the capability of this method is investigated for a family of forged parts that the vertical flow of material is the last stage of forming process. As a case study, using the variable gutter technique, the amount of waste material is decreased about 50% for a sample forged part with a local rising. The results of FVM simulations and experiments confirmed the effectiveness of the variable gutter technique in such forging processes. The vertical flow of material in the die cavity (h parameter), as a criterion, for different gutter width and thickness dimensions was examined by FVM simulations. The results shown that the gutter thickness has more effect on vertical flow of material than the gutter width. By decreasing the gutter thickness and increasing the gutter width, the amount of vertical flow of material is increased about 120% and 29%, respectively. Finally, A/H ratio (A = Max width of sectional area of a forged part, H = Max height of a forged part) is proposed as shape complexity factor of a forged part. The results of FVM simulations are indicated that for the ratio of A/H > 2, the variable gutter thickness technique is more effective and can be successfully used to reduce the amount of waste materials.

  14. Survey of finance companies, 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Karen E. Dynan; Kathleen W. Johnson; Samuel M. Slowinski

    2002-01-01

    Against a backdrop of robust economic activity, the finance company sector expanded briskly over the second half of the 1990s. The value of receivables held by finance companies in the United States rose nearly 50 percent, or about 11 percent a year, between 1996 and 2000. Business lending remained finance companies' major line of activity; the importance to the sector of consumer lending and leasing declined slightly, and the importance of real estate lending rose a bit. These and other find...

  15. Benchmarking in Mobarakeh Steel Company

    OpenAIRE

    Sasan Ghasemi; Mohammad Nazemi; Mehran Nejati

    2008-01-01

    Benchmarking is considered as one of the most effective ways of improving performance in companies. Although benchmarking in business organizations is a relatively new concept and practice, it has rapidly gained acceptance worldwide. This paper introduces the benchmarking project conducted in Esfahan's Mobarakeh Steel Company, as the first systematic benchmarking project conducted in Iran. It aims to share the process deployed for the benchmarking project in this company and illustrate how th...

  16. Identification of Company Command Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    45 Virtual role plays ( VRPs ) could be used to measure many of the company command competencies identified in this project. In a VRP , the user...could play the role of a Company Commander who must deal with myriad crises, challenges, and potential opportunities. In a web- enabled VRP , the user...to be concerned about. Future research should create VRPs or other engaging assessments to determine proficiency levels on the identified company

  17. Company cases Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    2005-01-01

    IT - solitions. CSC wanted to buy DC to penetrate the Nordic market. Some effects can be mentioned: Employment in CSC - DK is in 2003 1,700 persons or 2,600 including other companies bought up recently. In innovation positive effects can be registered from contacts with CSC - International. Not only from access...... for government sector in Denmark. DC employed 1,000 persons and had a market share on 75 % in the market of large government institutions when it was taken over. Danish government wanted to sell DC in order to get more intensity in competion in IT - markets in general and especially in the market for public...... to technology but also from more focus on human beings and business.It has been important that CSC has respected Nordic values in worklife and that the CSC philosophy has been important and not so different from DC. The other case is from pharmaceutical industry in which Norwegian Nycomed buys DAK...

  18. The Balanced Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Controlling the sustainability of production processes and ethical employment of the work force in suppliers' production facilities far away from the home country has resulted in new challenges for managers. They now have to consider how important it is for customers, investors and employees to see...... that a company is respected in wider society and behaves according to ethical standards. Strategists and Leaders need to make balanced choices about long-term goals and the allocation of resources. They need to analyse, understand and adjust strategies to market, political, value and technology related changes...... in their environments. Communication specialists need to make balanced decisions which take the different value systems and assumptions of stakeholders into consideration. Change specialists need to balance the need for continuity and change. Managers need to make balanced decisions about whether to achieve goals...

  19. Marketing Strategy of Company

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlas, Vojtěch

    2009-01-01

    Cílem této diplomové práce s názvem "Marketingová strategie podniku" je nalezení vhodných nástrojů pomocí kterých bude analyzována stávající situace společnosti C&K a.s. v oblasti marketingové strategie. Pomocí aplikace nástrojů marketingu budou navžena opatření, jejichž aplikací by mělo dojít k zlepšení postavení společnosti na thu na němž se pohybuje. The main subject of this thesis named "Marketing strategy of company" is finding suitable tools which will help to analyse present situati...

  20. Network analysis of swine shipments in Ontario, Canada, to support disease spread modelling and risk-based disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorjee, S; Revie, C W; Poljak, Z; McNab, W B; Sanchez, J

    2013-10-01

    Understanding contact networks are important for modelling and managing the spread and control of communicable diseases in populations. This study characterizes the swine shipment network of a multi-site production system in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Data were extracted from a company's database listing swine shipments among 251 swine farms, including 20 sow, 69 nursery and 162 finishing farms, for the 2-year period of 2006 to 2007. Several network metrics were generated. The number of shipments per week between pairs of farms ranged from 1 to 6. The medians (and ranges) of out-degree were: sow 6 (1-21), nursery 8 (0-25), and finishing 0 (0-4), over the entire 2-year study period. Corresponding estimates for in-degree of nursery and finishing farms were 3 (0-9) and 3 (0-12) respectively. Outgoing and incoming infection chains (OIC and IIC), were also measured. The medians (ranges) of the monthly OIC and IIC were 0 (0-8) and 0 (0-6), respectively, with very similar measures observed for 2-week intervals. Nursery farms exhibited high measures of centrality. This indicates that they pose greater risks of disease spread in the network. Therefore, they should be given a high priority for disease prevention and control measures affecting all age groups alike. The network demonstrated scale-free and small-world topologies as observed in other livestock shipment studies. This heterogeneity in contacts among farm types and network topologies should be incorporated in simulation models to improve their validity. In conclusion, this study provided useful epidemiological information and parameters for the control and modelling of disease spread among swine farms, for the first time from Ontario, Canada. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.