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Sample records for ontario canada petrochemical

  1. Wastewater quality control at Sarnia (Ontario, Canada) petrochemical industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianna, Arlinda C. [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Souza, Eliane S.; Himmelman, William [Lambton College, Sarnia, ON (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Ontario industries are required by law to meet strict regulations under the provinces under MISA initiative (Municipal-Industrial Strategy for Abatement). The petroleum-petrochemical area was selected as a leader in the development of new environmental objectives, and monitoring and training programs. Sarnia has become a world leader in industrial environmental control systems and the approach toward zero emissions. 4 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Protectionist Measures in Postsecondary Ontario (Canada) TESL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambor, Paul Z.

    2012-01-01

    TESL in Ontario, Canada, seems to be on an inauspicious path by having set up non-tariff protectionist measures in an apparent attempt to keep out a multinational TESL workforce, effectively going against the spirit of globalization. This paper highlights some of the differences between South Korean TEFL and TESL in Ontario; for the most part…

  3. Epidemiology of myasthenia gravis in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiner, Ari; Widdifield, Jessica; Katzberg, Hans D; Barnett, Carolina; Bril, Vera; Tu, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Incidence and prevalence estimates in myasthenia gravis have varied widely. Recent studies based on administrative health data have large sample sizes but lack rigorous validation of MG cases, and have not examined the North American population. Our aim was to explore trends in MG incidence and prevalence for the years 1996-2013 in the province of Ontario, Canada (population 13.5 million). We employed a previously validated algorithm to identify MG cases. Linking with census data allowed for the calculation of crude- and age/sex-standardized incidence and prevalence rates for the years 1996-2013. The regional distribution of MG cases throughout the province was examined. Mean age at the first myasthenia gravis encounter was 60.2 ± 17.1 years. In 2013, there were 3611 prevalent cases in Ontario, and the crude prevalence rate was 32.0/100,000 population. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence rates rose consistently over time from 16.3/100,000 (15.4-17.1) in 1996 to 26.3/100,000 (25.4-27.3) in 2013. Standardized incidence rates remained stable between 1996 (2.7/100,000; 95% CL 2.3-3.0) and 2013 (2.3/100,000; 2.1-2.6). Incidence was highest in younger women and older men, and geographic variation was evident throughout the province. In conclusion, this large epidemiological study shows rising myasthenia gravis prevalence with stable incidence over time, which is likely reflective of patients living longer, possibly due to improved disease treatment. Our findings provide accurate information on the Canadian epidemiology of myasthenia gravis and burden for health care resources planning for the province, respectively.

  4. A checklist of the 67 mosquito species of Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Bryan V; Gasparotto, Alessio; Hunter, Fiona F

    2015-03-01

    We provide an updated checklist of 67 endemic mosquito species known from Ontario, Canada. Nine endemic species are added to the checklist found in Darsie and Ward (2005) : Aedes cantator, Ae. churchillensis, Ae. nigripes, Ae. pullatus, Anopheles perplexens, An. crucians, An. smaragdinus, Culex erraticus, and Cx. salinarius. Only 4 specimens of Ae. albopictus have been recorded in Ontario since 2001 despite concerted efforts to find this species; therefore, it is considered an "accidental" species and is excluded from the checklist.

  5. Constructing Bullying in Ontario, Canada: A Critical Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue; Tuters, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    As the prevalence and negative effects of bullying become widely known, people around the world seem desperate to solve the bullying "problem". A sizeable body of research about many aspects of bullying and a plethora of anti-bullying programmes and policies now exist. This critical policy analysis asks: how does Ontario, Canada's…

  6. Constructing Bullying in Ontario, Canada: A Critical Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue; Tuters, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    As the prevalence and negative effects of bullying become widely known, people around the world seem desperate to solve the bullying "problem". A sizeable body of research about many aspects of bullying and a plethora of anti-bullying programmes and policies now exist. This critical policy analysis asks: how does Ontario, Canada's…

  7. Constructing Bullying in Ontario, Canada: A Critical Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue; Tuters, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    As the prevalence and negative effects of bullying become widely known, people around the world seem desperate to solve the bullying "problem". A sizeable body of research about many aspects of bullying and a plethora of anti-bullying programmes and policies now exist. This critical policy analysis asks: how does Ontario, Canada's…

  8. Future changes of temperature and heat waves in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Huang, Guohe; Huang, Wendy; Lin, Qianguo; Liao, Renfei; Fan, Yurui

    2017-05-01

    Apparent changes in the temperature patterns in recent years brought many challenges to the province of Ontario, Canada. As the need for adapting to climate change challenges increases, the development of reliable climate projections becomes a crucial task. In this study, a regional climate modeling system, Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS), is used to simulate the temperature patterns in Ontario. Three PRECIS runs with a resolution of 25 km × 25 km are carried out to simulate the present (1961-1990) temperature variations. There is a good match between the simulated and observed data, which validates the performance of PRECIS in reproducing temperature changes in Ontario. Future changes of daily maximum, mean, and minimum temperatures during the period 2071-2100 are then projected under the IPCC SRES A2 and B2 emission scenarios using PRECIS. Spatial variations of annual mean temperature, mean diurnal range, and temperature seasonality are generated. Furthermore, heat waves defined based on the exceedance of local climatology and their temporal and spatial characteristics are analyzed. The results indicate that the highest temperature and the most intensive heat waves are most likely to occur at the Toronto-Windsor corridor in Southern Ontario. The Northern Ontario, in spite of the relatively low projected temperature, would be under the risk of long-lasting heat waves, and thus needs effective measures to enhance its climate resilience in the future. This study can assist the decision makers in better understanding the future temperature changes in Ontario and provide decision support for mitigating heat-related loss.

  9. Photonics education and training in Ontario, Canada: an integrated plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantel, Marc; Beda, Johann

    2002-05-01

    Canada has established itself as a leader in photonics. Ontario in particular - home of giants such as JDS Uniphase, Nortel Networks, GSI Lumonics and an increasing number of successful start-up companies - has seen the demand for highly-qualified personnel in photonics grow exponentially in the past few years. The scarcity of these photonics experts has become - recent market woes not withstanding - the single most important impediment to the further growth of photonics companies. Nonetheless, it is mostly at the graduate school level that lasers and photonics are introduced to students, with only very few thus being trained in the field. Photonics Research Ontario has put together an aggressive plan to change this situation and present Optics, Lasers and Photonics at all levels in the education system, from grade school to graduate school. This paper will present this Photonics Education and Training plan, as well as other efforts being undertaken across Canada to address this crucial issue. The paper will focus especially on the training of Photonics Technicians and Technologists in Ontario's Community Colleges. The new curriculum designed for these programs will be presented, and the importance of industry support will be emphasized.

  10. Nongastrointestinal helminths in marten (Martes americana) from Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seville, R S; Addison, E M

    1995-10-01

    Six species of nongastrointestinal nematodes were recovered from 405 marten, (Martes americana), examined from six areas in Ontario, Canada in 1992 to 1993. Three species (Crenosoma petrowi, Eucoleus aerophilus, Filaroides martis) were found in the respiratory tract, one in the urinary bladder (Pearsonema plica), one in the kidney (Dioctophyme renale), and one in the musculature (Trichinella sp. larvae). This is the first report of F. martis and P. plica from this host. In addition a specimen of Dracunculus insignis collected from a marten pelt was received. Based on our results, martens are primary definitive hosts for few nongastrointestinal nematodes. Animals in more southern areas had greater species richness than those from higher latitudes.

  11. Parental perceptions of school-based influenza immunisation in Ontario, Canada: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    MacDougall, Donna; Crowe, Lois; Jennifer A Pereira; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Quach, Susan; Wormsbecker, Anne E; Ramsay, Hilary; Salvadori, Marina I; Russell, Margaret L; ,

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the perspectives of Ontario parents regarding the advantages and disadvantages of adding influenza immunisation to the currently existing Ontario school-based immunisation programmes. Design Descriptive qualitative study. Participants Parents of school-age children in Ontario, Canada, who were recruited using a variety of electronic strategies (social media, emails and media releases), and identified as eligible (Ontario resident, parent of one or more school-age child...

  12. Human exposure to soil contaminants in subarctic Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Stephanie Reyes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical contaminants in the Canadian subarctic present a health risk with exposures primarily occurring via the food consumption. Objective: Characterization of soil contaminants is needed in northern Canada due to increased gardening and agricultural food security initiatives and the presence of known point sources of pollution. Design: A field study was conducted in the western James Bay Region of Ontario, Canada, to examine the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (ΣDDT, other organochlorines, and metals/metalloids in potentially contaminated agriculture sites. Methods: Exposure pathways were assessed by comparing the estimated daily intake to acceptable daily intake values. Ninety soil samples were collected at random (grid sampling from 3 plots (A, B, and C in Fort Albany (on the mainland, subarctic Ontario, Canada. The contaminated-soil samples were analysed by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Results: The range of ΣDDT in 90 soil samples was below the limit of detection to 4.19 mg/kg. From the 3 soil plots analysed, Plot A had the highest ΣDDT mean concentration of 1.12 mg/kg, followed by Plot B and Plot C which had 0.09 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. Concentrations of other organic contaminants and metals in the soil samples were below the limit of detection or found in low concentrations in all plots and did not present a human health risk. Conclusions: Exposure analyses showed that the human risk was below regulatory thresholds. However, the ΣDDT concentration in Plot A exceeded soil guidelines set out by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment of 0.7 mg/kg, and thus the land should not be used for agricultural or recreational purposes. Both Plots B and C were below threshold limits, and this land can be used for agricultural purposes.

  13. Competency assessment of microbiology medical laboratory technologists in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Marc; Fleming, Christine Ann

    2014-08-01

    Accreditation in Ontario, Canada, requires that licensed clinical laboratories participate in external quality assessment (also known as proficiency testing) and perform competency evaluation of their staff. To assess the extent of ongoing competency assessment practices, the Quality Management Program--Laboratory Services (QMP-LS) Microbiology Committee surveyed all 112 licensed Ontario microbiology laboratories. The questionnaire consisted of a total of 21 questions that included yes/no, multiple-choice, and short-answer formats. Participants were asked to provide information about existing programs, the frequency of testing, what areas are evaluated, and how results are communicated to the staff. Of the 111 responding laboratories, 6 indicated they did not have a formal evaluation program since they perform only limited bacteriology testing. Of the remaining 105 respondents, 87% perform evaluations at least annually or every 2 years, and 61% include any test or task performed, whereas 16% and 10% focus only on problem areas and high-volume complex tasks, respectively. The most common methods of evaluation were review of external quality assessment (EQA) challenges, direct observation, and worksheet review. With the exception of one participant, all communicate results to staff, and most take remedial action to correct the deficiencies. Although most accredited laboratories have a program to assess the ongoing competency of their staff, the methods used are not standardized or consistently applied, indicating that there is room for improvement. The survey successfully highlighted potential areas for improvement and allowed the QMP-LS Microbiology Committee to provide guidance to Ontario laboratories for establishing or improving existing microbiology-specific competency assessment programs.

  14. Linezolid resistance in Enterococcus faecium isolated in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Samir N; Memari, Nader; Shahinas, Dea; Toye, Baldwin; Jamieson, Frances B; Farrell, David J

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have described linezolid-resistant MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) occurring worldwide, including an outbreak of linezolid-resistant MRSA. The objective of this study was to determine if linezolid-resistant enterococci are present in clinical isolates in Ontario, Canada. From January 2010 to June 2012, all enterococcal isolates submitted to the Public Health Ontario Laboratory (PHOL) for confirmation of VRE and susceptibility testing were included in this study. Of 2829 enterococcal isolates tested, 12 Enterococcus faecium were found to be resistant to linezolid. All linezolid-resistant isolates were also resistant to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and vancomycin. In addition, 33% of isolates were non-susceptible to daptomycin, whereas 41% were resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin. Molecular characterization of these isolates showed that 8/12 isolates (66.7%) contained the mutation G2576T in 23S rRNA, which has been associated with linezolid resistance. Amplification and sequencing of L3- and L4-coding genes did not reveal mutations associated with linezolid resistance. One isolate contained the cfr gene, which is associated with linezolid resistance, and has been found in staphylococcal species and E. faecalis. These data show that occurrence of linezolid resistance is still rare among enterococcal isolates referred to PHOL though detection of cfr in E. faecium is concerning as it has the potential to disseminate among other enterococci.

  15. Local Authorities’ contribution on Gastronomy Tourism Development: the case of Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Karagiannis, Dimitris; METAXAS, Theodore

    2017-01-01

    The role of Local Government (LG) in achieving tourism development is extremely important. A characteristic example is the province of Ontario in Canada, which managed with the assistance of the Ministries of Tourism and Culture and with the cooperation of the private sector, to create an effective tourism development tool promote the region through its gastronomy - Ontario Culinary Tourism Alliance (OCTA), a non-profit, industry driven organization which leads the implementation of the provi...

  16. Prevalence of paratuberculosis in the dairy goat and dairy sheep industries in Ontario, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Cathy A.; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula;

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to estimate the prevalence of paratuberculosis in the small ruminant dairy industries in Ontario, Canada. Blood and feces were sampled from 580 goats and 397 sheep (lactating and 2 y of age or older) that were randomly selected.......8%) and for dairy sheep was 48.3% (95% PI: 27.6% to 74.3%). These data indicate that a paratuberculosis control program for small ruminants is needed in Ontario....

  17. Environmental equity in Canada: an empirical investigation into the income distribution of pollution in Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Jerrett, M; Eyles, J.; Cole, D; Reader, S.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to contribute to the growing environmental justice debate by exploring environmental equity in the forty-nine counties of Ontario, Canada. We use multiple regression analysis to address a central research question: what variables predict the location of pollution emissions? Data were extracted from the 1993 National Pollutant Release Inventory and the 1991 Census of Canada to assess relationships among socioeconomic class variables, industrial and land-use variables,...

  18. Comparing health system performance assessment and management approaches in the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Tawfik-Shukor (Ali); N.S. Klazinga (Niek); O.A. Arah (Onyebuchi)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Given the proliferation and the growing complexity of performance measurement initiatives in many health systems, the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada expressed interests in cross-national comparisons in an effort to promote knowledge transfer and best practise. To support thi

  19. Comparing health system performance assessment and management approaches in the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Tawfik-Shukor (Ali); N.S. Klazinga (Niek); O.A. Arah (Onyebuchi)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Given the proliferation and the growing complexity of performance measurement initiatives in many health systems, the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada expressed interests in cross-national comparisons in an effort to promote knowledge transfer and best practise. To support

  20. Comparing health system performance assessment and management approaches in the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Tawfik-Shukor (Ali); N.S. Klazinga (Niek); O.A. Arah (Onyebuchi)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Given the proliferation and the growing complexity of performance measurement initiatives in many health systems, the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada expressed interests in cross-national comparisons in an effort to promote knowledge transfer and best practise. To support

  1. The Muirkirk Mammoth : A Late Pleistocene woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) skeleton from southern Ontario, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harington, C. R.; Mol, Dick; van der Plicht, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The Muirkirk Mammoth, found in 1895 2.4 km northeast of the village of Muirkirk in southern Ontario, is the most complete woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) skeleton known from Canada. Approximate tusk measurements and extreme wear on the sixth molars indicate it is best referred to an old male.

  2. The Muirkirk Mammoth : A Late Pleistocene woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) skeleton from southern Ontario, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harington, C. R.; Mol, Dick; van der Plicht, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The Muirkirk Mammoth, found in 1895 2.4 km northeast of the village of Muirkirk in southern Ontario, is the most complete woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) skeleton known from Canada. Approximate tusk measurements and extreme wear on the sixth molars indicate it is best referred to an old male.

  3. Discovery of the Western Palearctic bee, Megachile (Pseudomegachile) ericetorum, (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), in Ontario Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bees of North America are very diverse, including over 3500 species. Approximately thirty of these bee species are not native to this continent. Recently another non-native bee, Megachile (Pseudomegachile) ericetorum, was found in a naturalized area in Ontario, Canada. This bee nests in holes...

  4. Salmonella in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in southern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Claire; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Janecko, Nicol; Allan, Mike; McEwen, Scott A

    2011-04-01

    Numerous serotypes of Salmonella have been detected in a variety of wild animals, including raccoons (Procyon lotor). Raccoons are common, mid-size omnivores that live in close association with people in urban and rural areas in Ontario. Although raccoons are known to shed Salmonella, little is known about their potential long-term role in maintaining Salmonella infections. We sampled feces from raccoons in three areas of Ontario: one primarily urban site around Niagara, one primarily rural site north of Guelph, and the grounds of the Toronto Zoo, in 2007 to identify which serotypes of Salmonella were commonly shed by raccoons in southern Ontario. In addition, we conducted a longitudinal study at the Toronto Zoo site to determine if raccoons remain persistently infected with Salmonella. Salmonella was found in 45% of samples. The prevalence of Salmonella in raccoon feces ranged from 27% at the rural site to 65% at the urban site. We detected 16 serotypes of Salmonella in 83 positive samples. The most common serotype detected in raccoons from the rural and zoo sites was Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, whereas Salmonella Newport was detected most commonly in the urban site. Only one raccoon of 11 that were captured in four or more consecutive trapping sessions shed the same Salmonella serotype for two consecutive months, suggesting that raccoons regularly acquire new Salmonella serotypes from the environment.

  5. Comparing health system performance assessment and management approaches in the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klazinga Niek S

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the proliferation and the growing complexity of performance measurement initiatives in many health systems, the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada expressed interests in cross-national comparisons in an effort to promote knowledge transfer and best practise. To support this cross-national learning, a study was undertaken to compare health system performance approaches in The Netherlands with Ontario, Canada. Methods We explored the performance assessment framework and system of each constituency, the embeddedness of performance data in management and policy processes, and the interrelationships between the frameworks. Methods used included analysing governmental strategic planning and policy documents, literature and internet searches, comparative descriptive tables, and schematics. Data collection and analysis took place in Ontario and The Netherlands. A workshop to validate and discuss the findings was conducted in Toronto, adding important insights to the study. Results Both Ontario and The Netherlands conceive health system performance within supportive frameworks. However they differ in their assessment approaches. Ontario's Scorecard links performance measurement with strategy, aimed at health system integration. The Dutch Health Care Performance Report (Zorgbalans does not explicitly link performance with strategy, and focuses on the technical quality of healthcare by measuring dimensions of quality, access, and cost against healthcare needs. A backbone 'five diamond' framework maps both frameworks and articulates the interrelations and overlap between their goals, themes, dimensions and indicators. The workshop yielded more contextual insights and further validated the comparative values of each constituency's performance assessment system. Conclusion To compare the health system performance approaches between The Netherlands and Ontario, Canada, several important conceptual and contextual issues must be addressed

  6. Epidemiology of serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease in Ontario, Canada, 2000 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Vica

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD caused by serogroup B is the last major serogroup in Canada to become vaccine-preventable. The anticipated availability of vaccines targeting this serogroup prompted an assessment of the epidemiology of serogroup B disease in Ontario, Canada. Methods We retrieved information on confirmed IMD cases reported to Ontario’s reportable disease database between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010 and probabilistically-linked these cases to Public Health Ontario Laboratory records. Rates were calculated with denominator data obtained from Statistics Canada. We calculated a crude number needed to vaccinate using the inverse of the infant ( Results A total of 259 serogroup B IMD cases were identified in Ontario over the 11-year period. Serogroup B was the most common cause of IMD. Incidence ranged from 0.11 to 0.27/100,000/year, and fluctuated over time. Cases ranged in age from 13 days to 101 years; 21.4% occurred in infants, of which 72.7% were Conclusions Although rare, the proportion of IMD caused by serogroup B has increased and currently causes most IMD in Ontario, with infants having the highest risk of disease. Although serogroup B meningococcal vaccines are highly anticipated, our findings suggest that decisions regarding publicly funding serogroup B meningococcal vaccines will be difficult and may not be based on disease burden alone.

  7. Optimizing the detection of venous invasion in colorectal cancer: The Ontario, Canada, experience and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather eDawson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Venous invasion (VI is a well-established independent prognostic indicator in colorectal cancer (CRC. Its accurate detection is particularly important in stage II CRC as it may influence the decision to administer adjuvant therapy. The Royal College of Pathologists (RCPath of the United Kingdom state that VI should be detected in at least 30% of CRC resection specimens. However, our experience in Ontario, Canada suggests that this (conservative benchmark is rarely met. This article highlights the Ontario experience with respect to VI reporting and the key role that careful morphologic assessment, elastin staining and knowledge transfer has played in improving VI detection provincially and beyond.

  8. Regulating Traditional Chinese Medicine Practitioners and Acupuncturists in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen E. Randall

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the Ontario government passed the Traditional Chinese Medicine Act, which granted Traditional Chinese Medicine practitioners and Acupuncturists (TCM/A practitioners self-regulatory status under the Regulated Health Professions Act, 1991. The goal of the legislation was to create a new regulatory college that would set and enforce high standards of care and safety in order to enhance public protection and access to a range of traditional and alternative therapies. In April 2013, the College of Traditional Chinese Medicine Practitioners and Acupuncturists of Ontario was officially launched. Several factors account for the government’s decision to delegate self-regulatory authority to TCM/A practitioners through the creation of a regulatory college. In particular, the government’s decision seems to have been influenced by lobbying of some practitioners, greater public acceptance of alternative medicines, patient safety concerns related to acupuncture cases in the media, and the precedence of self-regulatory status being granted to these practitioners in other provinces. The degree to which the legislation has achieved its goals is difficult to determine given the short period of time the regulatory college has existed. However, the fact that the college has developed standards of practice to guide TCM/A practitioners and has a process in place to address public complaints is an early indication of movement toward achieving the policy’s goals.

  9. Tobacco Retail Outlets and Vulnerable Populations in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O. Chaiton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest has been increasing in regulating the location and number of tobacco vendors as part of a comprehensive tobacco control program. The objective of this paper is to examine the distribution of tobacco outlets in a large jurisdiction, to assess: (1 whether tobacco outlets are more likely to be located in vulnerable areas; and (2 what proportion of tobacco outlets are located close to schools. Retail locations across the Province of Ontario from Ministry of Health Promotion data were linked to 2006 Census data at the neighbourhood level. There was one tobacco retail outlet for every 1,000 people over age 15 in Ontario. Density of outlets varied by public health unit, and was associated with the number of smokers. Tobacco outlets were more likely to be located in areas that had high neighbourhood deprivation, in both rural and urban areas. Outlets were less likely to be located in areas with high immigrant populations in urban areas, with the reverse being true for rural areas. Overall, 65% of tobacco retailers were located within 500 m of a school. The sale of tobacco products is ubiquitous, however, neighbourhoods with lower socio-economic status are more likely to have easier availability of tobacco products and most retailers are located within walking distance of a school. The results suggest the importance of policies to regulate the location of tobacco retail outlets.

  10. Trends in the Aggressiveness of End-of-Life Cancer Care in the Universal Health Care System of Ontario, Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thi H. Ho; Lisa Barbera; Refik Saskin; Hong Lu; Bridget A. Neville; Craig C. Earle

    2011-01-01

    To describe trends in the aggressiveness of end-of-life (EOL) cancer care in a universal health care system in Ontario, Canada, between 1993 and 2004, and to compare with findings reported in the United States...

  11. Public awareness of income-related health inequalities in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankardass Ketan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Continued action is needed to tackle health inequalities in Canada, as those of lower income continue to be at higher risk for a range of negative health outcomes. There is arguably a lack of political will to implement policy change in this respect. As a result, we investigated public awareness of income-related health inequalities in a generally representative sample of Ontarians in late 2010. Methods Data were collected from 2,006 Ontario adults using a telephone survey. The survey asked participants to agree or disagree with various statements asserting that there are or are not health inequalities in general and by income in Ontario, including questions pertaining to nine specific conditions for which inequalities have been described in Ontario. A multi-stage process using binary logistic regression determined whether awareness of health inequalities differed between participant subgroups. Results Almost 73% of this sample of Ontarians agreed with the general premise that not all people are equally healthy in Ontario, but fewer participants were aware of health inequalities between the rich and the poor (53%–64%, depending on the framing of the question. Awareness of income-related inequalities in specific outcomes was considerably lower, ranging from 18% for accidents to 35% for obesity. Conclusions This is the first province-wide study in Canada, and the first in Ontario, to explore public awareness on health inequalities. Given that political will is shaped by public awareness and opinion, these results suggest that greater awareness may be required to move the health equity agenda forward in Ontario. There is a need for health equity advocates, physicians and researchers to increase the effectiveness of knowledge translation activities for studies that identify and explore health inequalities.

  12. Regulating Traditional Chinese Medicine Practitioners and Acupuncturists in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen E. Randall

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the Ontario government passed the Traditional Chinese Medicine Act, which granted Traditional Chinese Medicine practitioners and Acupuncturists (TCM/A practitioners self-regulatory status under the Regulated Health Professions Act, 1991. The goal of the legislation was to create a new regulatory college that would set and enforce high standards of care and safety in order to enhance public protection and access to a range of traditional and alternative therapies. In April 2013, the College of Traditional Chinese Medicine Practitioners and Acupuncturists of Ontario was officially launched. Several factors account for the government’s decision to delegate self-regulatory authority to TCM/A practitioners through the creation of a regulatory college. In particular, the government’s decision seems to have been influenced by lobbying of some practitioners, greater public acceptance of alternative medicines, patient safety concerns related to acupuncture cases in the media, and the precedence of self-regulatory status being granted to these practitioners in other provinces. The degree to which the legislation has achieved its goals is difficult to determine given the short period of time the regulatory college has existed. However, the fact that the college has developed standards of practice to guide TCM/A practitioners and has a process in place to address public complaints is an early indication of movement toward achieving the policy’s goals. Le gouvernement de l'Ontario a fait voter en 2006 la Loi sur les praticiens en médecine traditionnelle chinoise, qui accorde aux praticiens en médecine traditionnelle chinoise et aux acupuncteurs (praticiens en MTC/A le statut de profession autonome dans le cadre la Loi sur les professions de la santé réglementées de 1991. Le but de la Loi était de créer un ordre professionnel capable d'établir et appliquer des normes de qualité et de sécurité des soins, ceci dans le but d

  13. A descriptive study of reportable gastrointestinal illnesses in Ontario, Canada, from 2007 to 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Vrbova Linda; Johnson Karen; Whitfield Yvonne; Middleton Dean

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Gastrointestinal illnesses (GI) continue to pose a substantial burden in terms of morbidity and economic impact in Canada. We describe the epidemiology of reportable GI in Ontario by characterizing the incidence of each reportable GI, as well as associated demographics, clinical outcomes, seasonality, risk settings, and likely sources of infection. Methods Reports on laboratory confirmed cases of amebiasis, botulism, campylobacteriosis, cryptosporidiosis, cyclosporiasis, g...

  14. Lead pellet ingestion and liver-lead concentrations in upland game birds from southern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreager, N; Wainman, B C; Jayasinghe, R K; Tsuji, L J S

    2008-02-01

    One-hundred twenty-three gizzards from upland game birds (chukar, Alectoris chukar; and common pheasant, Phasianus colchicus) harvested by hunters in southern Ontario, Canada, were examined for lead pellet ingestion by manual examination of gizzard contents and by radiography. Lead pellets were found to be ingested by chukars (6/76; 8%) and the common pheasant (16/47; 34%). Further, 13% (17/129) of the bird (wild turkey, Meleagris gallopavo; Hungarian partridge, Perdix perdix; chukar; and common pheasant) livers analyzed had elevated lead concentrations (> or =6 microg/g wet weight [ww]). Liver-lead concentrations above Health Canada's guideline for human consumption of fish protein (shotshell for hunting.

  15. Sensitivity of GRACE-derived estimates of groundwater-level changes in southern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachborn, Ellen; Berg, Aaron; Levison, Jana; Ambadan, Jaison Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Amidst changing climates, understanding the world's water resources is of increasing importance. In Ontario, Canada, low water conditions are currently assessed using only precipitation and watershed-based stream gauges by the Conservation Authorities in Ontario and the Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry. Regional groundwater-storage changes in Ontario are not currently measured using satellite data by research institutes. In this study, contributions from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data are compared to a hydrogeological database covering southern Ontario from 2003 to 2013, to determine the suitability of GRACE total water storage estimates for monitoring groundwater storage in this location. Terrestrial water storage data from GRACE were used to determine monthly groundwater storage (GWS) anomaly values. GWS values were also determined by multiplying groundwater-level elevations (from the Provincial Groundwater Monitoring Network wells) by specific yield. Comparisons of GRACE-derived GWS to well-based GWS data determined that GRACE is sufficiently sensitive to obtain a meaningful signal in southern Ontario. Results show that GWS values produced by GRACE are useful for identifying regional changes in groundwater storage in areas with limited available hydrogeological characterization data. Results also indicate that GRACE may have an ability to forecast changes in groundwater storage, which will become useful when monitoring climate shifts in the near future.

  16. Focal mechanisms and variations in tectonic stress fields in eastern Canada (western Quebec and southern Ontario)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharzadeh Sadegh, Parisa

    Earthquakes in western Quebec and southern Ontario present a major contribution to the natural hazards in south eastern Canada due to their proximity to major population centres. However, the seismic characteristics of the events in these regions have not been well documented. Improved knowledge of earthquake distribution and seismic controlling mechanisms provides a great benefit for earthquake hazard analysis in eastern Canada. The available information about the tectonic stress indicators, including focal mechanisms, was compiled for Canada prior to 1994. The present research is concentrated mainly on determination of the focal mechanisms and hypocentre locations of the earthquakes after 1993 with M > 3.5 to characterize the present-day regional and local stress fields in southern Ontario and western Quebec. An attempt was also made to differentiate local zones with comparatively homogeneous tectonic stresses orientation and seismic regimes, thus providing information for future re-assessment of the seismic hazard in each region. Considering seismic parameters such as the trend of the epicentres, focal depths and the state of stress of the events along with their tectonic settings, ten distinct clusters have been proposed for western Quebec and two clusters of events were determined for southern Ontario with comparatively consistent focal mechanisms. The locations and characteristics of seismicity clusters appear to be consistent with the hypothesis that they are near the locations of large historic and prehistoric events, and represent exceptionally persistent aftershocks of past large earthquakes.

  17. Parental perceptions of school-based influenza immunisation in Ontario, Canada: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Donna; Crowe, Lois; Pereira, Jennifer A; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Quach, Susan; Wormsbecker, Anne E; Ramsay, Hilary; Salvadori, Marina I; Russell, Margaret L

    2014-06-05

    To understand the perspectives of Ontario parents regarding the advantages and disadvantages of adding influenza immunisation to the currently existing Ontario school-based immunisation programmes. Descriptive qualitative study. Parents of school-age children in Ontario, Canada, who were recruited using a variety of electronic strategies (social media, emails and media releases), and identified as eligible (Ontario resident, parent of one or more school-age children, able to read/write English) on the basis of a screening questionnaire. We used stratified purposeful sampling to obtain maximum variation in two groups: parents who had ever immunised at least one child against influenza or who had never done so. We conducted focus groups (teleconference or internet forum) and individual interviews to collect data. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Ontario, Canada. Of the 55 participants, 16 took part in four teleconference focus groups, 35 in 6 internet forum focus groups and four in individual interviews conducted between October 2012 and February 2013. Participants who stated that a school-based influenza immunisation programme would be worthwhile for their child valued its convenience and its potential to reduce influenza transmission without interfering with the family routine. However, most thought that for a programme to be acceptable, it would need to be well designed and voluntary, with adequate parental control and transparent communication between the key stakeholder groups of public health, schools and parents. These results will benefit decision-makers in the public health and education sectors as they consider the advantages and disadvantages of immunising children in schools as part of a system-wide influenza prevention approach. Further research is needed to assess the perceptions of school board and public health stakeholders. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  18. Isotope hydrology of the Chalk River Laboratories site, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Zell; Neymark, Leonid; King-Sharp, K.J.; Gascoyne, Mel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of hydrochemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater (fracture water) and porewater, and physical property and water content measurements of bedrock core at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site in Ontario. Density and water contents were determined and water-loss porosity values were calculated for core samples. Average and standard deviations of density and water-loss porosity of 50 core samples from four boreholes are 2.73 ± 12 g/cc and 1.32 ± 1.24 percent. Respective median values are 2.68 and 0.83 indicating a positive skewness in the distributions. Groundwater samples from four deep boreholes were analyzed for strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and uranium (234U/238U) isotope ratios. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope analyses and selected solute concentrations determined by CRL are included for comparison. Groundwater from borehole CRG-1 in a zone between approximately +60 and −240 m elevation is relatively depleted in δ18O and δ2H perhaps reflecting a slug of water recharged during colder climatic conditions. Porewater was extracted from core samples by centrifugation and analyzed for major dissolved ions and for strontium and uranium isotopes. On average, the extracted water contains 15 times larger concentration of solutes than the groundwater. 234U/238U and correlation of 87Sr/86Sr with Rb/Sr values indicate that the porewater may be substantially older than the groundwater. Results of this study show that the Precambrian gneisses at Chalk River are similar in physical properties and hydrochemical aspects to crystalline rocks being considered for the construction of nuclear waste repositories in other regions.

  19. Glyphosate residues in rural groundwater, Nottawasaga River Watershed, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stempvoort, Dale R; Spoelstra, John; Senger, Natalie D; Brown, Susan J; Post, Ryan; Struger, John

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of glyphosate residues (glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA) in shallow groundwater in a catchment dominated by agriculture, and to examine the potential for this groundwater to store and transmit these compounds to surface waters. Glyphosate residues were found in some of the groundwater samples collected in riparian (surface seeps), upland (mostly glyphosate and AMPA were detected in 10.5 and 5.0%, respectively, of the groundwater samples analyzed as part of this study. All concentrations of glyphosate were well below Canadian guidelines for drinking water quality and for protection of aquatic life. Seasonal differences in concentrations in riparian seeps were possibly related to cycles of weather, herbicide application and degradation of glyphosate. Highest concentrations were at upland sites (663 ng L(-1) of glyphosate, 698 ng L(-1) of AMPA), apparently related to localized applications. Most glyphosate detections in wetlands were >0.5 km distant from possible areas of application, and, combined with other factors, suggest an atmospheric transport and deposition delivery mechanism. In both upland and wetland settings, highest glyphosate concentrations were sometimes not at the shallowest depths, indicating influence of hydrological factors. The glyphosate/AMPA detections in riparian seeps demonstrated that these compounds are persistent enough to allow groundwater to store and transmit glyphosate residues to surface waters. Detections in the wetlands support earlier evidence that atmospheric transport and deposition may lead to glyphosate contamination of environments not intended as targets of applications. This interpretation is further supported by detections of both glyphosate and AMPA in precipitation samples collected in the same watershed. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Pest Management Science © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of

  20. GPS coordinate time series measurements in Ontario and Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi Alinia, Hadis; Tiampo, Kristy F.; James, Thomas S.

    2017-01-01

    New precise network solutions for continuous GPS (cGPS) stations distributed in eastern Ontario and western Québec provide constraints on the regional three-dimensional crustal velocity field. Five years of continuous observations at fourteen cGPS sites were analyzed using Bernese GPS processing software. Several different sub-networks were chosen from these stations, and the data were processed and compared to in order to select the optimal configuration to accurately estimate the vertical and horizontal station velocities and minimize the associated errors. The coordinate time series were then compared to the crustal motions from global solutions and the optimized solution is presented here. A noise analysis model with power-law and white noise, which best describes the noise characteristics of all three components, was employed for the GPS time series analysis. The linear trend, associated uncertainties, and the spectral index of the power-law noise were calculated using a maximum likelihood estimation approach. The residual horizontal velocities, after removal of rigid plate motion, have a magnitude consistent with expected glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). The vertical velocities increase from subsidence of almost 1.9 mm/year south of the Great Lakes to uplift near Hudson Bay, where the highest rate is approximately 10.9 mm/year. The residual horizontal velocities range from approximately 0.5 mm/year, oriented south-southeastward, at the Great Lakes to nearly 1.5 mm/year directed toward the interior of Hudson Bay at stations adjacent to its shoreline. Here, the velocity uncertainties are estimated at less than 0.6 mm/year for the horizontal component and 1.1 mm/year for the vertical component. A comparison between the observed velocities and GIA model predictions, for a limited range of Earth models, shows a better fit to the observations for the Earth model with the smallest upper mantle viscosity and the largest lower mantle viscosity. However, the

  1. GPS coordinate time series measurements in Ontario and Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi Alinia, Hadis; Tiampo, Kristy F.; James, Thomas S.

    2017-06-01

    New precise network solutions for continuous GPS (cGPS) stations distributed in eastern Ontario and western Québec provide constraints on the regional three-dimensional crustal velocity field. Five years of continuous observations at fourteen cGPS sites were analyzed using Bernese GPS processing software. Several different sub-networks were chosen from these stations, and the data were processed and compared to in order to select the optimal configuration to accurately estimate the vertical and horizontal station velocities and minimize the associated errors. The coordinate time series were then compared to the crustal motions from global solutions and the optimized solution is presented here. A noise analysis model with power-law and white noise, which best describes the noise characteristics of all three components, was employed for the GPS time series analysis. The linear trend, associated uncertainties, and the spectral index of the power-law noise were calculated using a maximum likelihood estimation approach. The residual horizontal velocities, after removal of rigid plate motion, have a magnitude consistent with expected glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). The vertical velocities increase from subsidence of almost 1.9 mm/year south of the Great Lakes to uplift near Hudson Bay, where the highest rate is approximately 10.9 mm/year. The residual horizontal velocities range from approximately 0.5 mm/year, oriented south-southeastward, at the Great Lakes to nearly 1.5 mm/year directed toward the interior of Hudson Bay at stations adjacent to its shoreline. Here, the velocity uncertainties are estimated at less than 0.6 mm/year for the horizontal component and 1.1 mm/year for the vertical component. A comparison between the observed velocities and GIA model predictions, for a limited range of Earth models, shows a better fit to the observations for the Earth model with the smallest upper mantle viscosity and the largest lower mantle viscosity. However, the

  2. Lottery promotions at the point-of-sale in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinac, Lynn C; Cohen, Joanna E; Reynolds, Jennifer; Robinson, Daniel J; Lavack, Anne; Korn, David

    2011-06-01

    We documented the extent of point-of-sale (POS) lottery promotions in Ontario, Canada and the relationship between lottery promotions and store and city characteristics. This is the first quantitative study of POS lottery promotions. A total of 366 stores-independent and chain convenience stores, gas stations and grocery stores-were visited across 20 cities in Ontario. Data collectors unobtrusively observed the type of lottery promotions in each store and completed a data collection checklist. A lottery promotion index was created and hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was conducted to examine the relationship between extent of lottery promotions and independent variables such as neighbourhood socioeconomic status and city prevalence of lottery ticket purchasing. POS lottery promotions were widespread across Ontario, with the highest level of promotion found in independent convenience stores. In the multivariable HLM model, none of the remaining independent variables remained statistically significant, except for store type. Lottery promotions are extensive at the POS in Ontario. These findings can help initiate discussions around the appropriateness and possible future regulation of this form of advertising.

  3. Stakeholder Perceptions of Unit Based Waste Disposal Schemes in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin Lakhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines stakeholder perceptions of pay as you throw schemes (PAYT in Ontario, Canada. Using a combination of panel and semi-structured survey data from provincial municipalities, focus is placed on analyzing: (a the effects of PAYT systems on municipal recycling rates and program costs (b stakeholder perceptions on the perceived effectiveness of PAYT policy (c how locality affects PAYT program costs and affect municipal recycling rates and (d the impact of Ontario’s “one Blue Box per household” provision on PAYT schemes. The results of the analysis show that while the implementation of PAYT schemes do increase municipal recycling rates, there are opportunities for further improvement. In Ontario, the effectiveness of PAYT policy is impaired by inconsistent enforcement, administrative burden, and the inadequate capacity of household recycling bins (“blue bins”.

  4. Behavior, movements, and demographics of rabid raccoons in Ontario, Canada: management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosatte, Rick; Sobey, Kirk; Donovan, Dennis; Bruce, Laura; Allan, Mike; Silver, Andrew; Bennett, Kim; Gibson, Mark; Simpson, Holly; Davies, Chris; Wandeler, Alex; Muldoon, Frances

    2006-07-01

    During 1999-2003, 127 cases of raccoon variant rabies were reported in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in Ontario, Canada. Raccoons accounted for 98% (125/127) of the reported cases with behaviors/conditions including aggression, fighting with dogs, ataxia, vocalizations, appearance of being sick, and the presence of porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) quills. Seventy-eight percent of the rabid raccoons were adults. Juveniles were underrepresented (22%) compared with the adult/juvenile ratios found in nonrabid Ontario raccoon populations. Of the known aged raccoons, 83% were raccoons had evidence of having had a litter during the year in which they were found to be rabid. The majority of rabid raccoons were reported during the fall, winter, and spring, suggesting a relationship between raccoon behavioral activities such as denning and breeding and the timing of rabies outbreaks. Multiple cases of raccoon rabies occurred at several barns, suggesting that those structures serve as focal points of rabies transmission as a result of denning activities. Movements of five rabid raccoons (range 1,564-4,143 m) were not different from movements of nonrabid raccoons in Ontario. Sixty-six percent of the rabid animals were submitted by government staff, stressing the importance of those agencies in rabies control and surveillance operations. Increased knowledge of the behaviors of rabid raccoons should assist in the development of management strategies for rabies.

  5. Patterns of and reasons for tooth extractions in general dental practice in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, H; Locker, D; Kay, E J

    1996-06-01

    While substantial proportions of the population of Ontario, Canada continue to have teeth extracted, little is known about the reasons for this loss. In this survey of Ontario general dental practitioners, 128 dentists provided information on 6143 patients they saw during a reference week. Approximately one-in-seven of these patients had or were going to have one or more extractions as part of their current course of treatment. The mean number of extractions for patients having at least one tooth taken out was 2.3 (SD = 2.5). Emergency patients were more likely than regular patients to have at least one extraction but, on average, had fewer teeth taken out. Orthodontic considerations were the main reason for tooth loss in childhood, caries continued to be an important cause of tooth loss at all ages and periodontal disease accounted for more teeth lost after 40 years of age than caries. This study differs from almost all others in finding that, overall, more permanent teeth were extracted because of periodontal disease than because of caries. The former accounted for 35.9% of teeth lost and the latter for 28.9%. While this may be due to methodological differences between this and other studies, it is consistent with epidemiological data on periodontal disease in the Ontario population and data showing that Ontarians receive little in the way of periodontal care.

  6. Tourism climatology for camping: a case study of two Ontario parks (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewer, Micah J.; Scott, Daniel; Gough, William A.

    2015-08-01

    Climate and weather act as central motivators for the travel decisions of tourists. Due to their seasonality, these factors determine the availability and quality of certain outdoor recreational activities. Park visitation in Ontario, Canada, has been identified as a weather sensitive tourism and recreation activity. This study used a survey-based approach to identify and compare stated weather preferences and thresholds, as well as weather-related decision-making for campers at two provincial parks in Ontario, Canada. The two parks were selected for differing physical and environmental characteristics (forested lake versus coastal beach). Statistically significant differences were detected between the two parks in relation to the importance of weather and weather-based decision-making. Specific temperatures that were considered ideal and thresholds that were too cool and too warm were identified for both parks, both during the day and the night. Heavy rain and strong winds were the most influential factors in weather-related decision-making and on-site behavioural adaptations. Beach campers placed greater importance on the absence of rain and the presence of comfortable temperatures compared to forest campers. In addition, beach campers were more likely to leave the park early due to incremental weather changes. The results of this study suggest that beach campers are more sensitive to weather than forest campers.

  7. Validation of Algorithms to Identify Invasive Electrophysiology Procedures Using Administrative Data in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sheldon M; Webster, Lauren; Calzavara, Andrew; Wijeysundera, Harindra C

    2017-06-01

    Administrative database research can provide insight into the real-world effectiveness of invasive electrophysiology procedures. However, no validated algorithm to identify these procedures within administrative data currently exists. To develop and validate algorithms to identify atrial fibrillation (AF), atrial flutter (AFL), supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) catheter ablation procedures, and diagnostic electrophysiology studies (EPS) within administrative data. Algorithms consisting of physician procedural billing codes and their associated most responsible hospital diagnosis codes were used to identify potential AF, AFL, SVT catheter ablation procedures and diagnostic EPS within large administrative databases in Ontario, Canada. The potential procedures were then limited to those performed between October 1, 2011 and March 31, 2013 at a single large regional cardiac center (Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center) in Ontario, Canada. These procedures were compared with a gold-standard cohort of patients known to have undergone invasive electrophysiology procedures during the same time period at the same institution. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of each algorithm was determined. Algorithms specific to each of AF, AFL, and SVT ablation were associated with a moderate sensitivity (75%-86%), high specificity (95%-98%), positive (95%-98%), and negative (99%) predictive values. The best algorithm to identify diagnostic EPS was less optimal with a sensitivity of 61% and positive predictive value of 88%. Algorithms using a combination of physician procedural billing codes and accompanying most responsible hospital diagnosis may identify catheter ablation procedures within administrative data with a high degree of accuracy. Diagnostic EPS may be identified with reduced accuracy.

  8. Planning for long, wide conservation corridors on private lands in the Oak Ridges Moraine, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Graham S; Eagles, Paul F J

    2007-06-01

    We explored the role of conservation biology in the planning of a natural-heritage system that includes long, wide conservation corridors situated primarily on private lands, and established to connect natural core areas in the Oak Ridges Moraine of Ontario, Canada. We based our review on government documents, semi-structured interviews with participants involved in this land-use planning process, and our involvement with the issue from 1990 through 2002. Conservation biology had a major influence on the outcome of the land-use planning process for this moraine. The landform was identified as an area of value by the environmental movement within the context of a number of ongoing government studies that began in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Conservation biologists and planners in government, the environmental movement, and the private sector carried out work related to conservation biology, including inventories and the development and application of criteria for the delineation of core areas and conservation corridors. Once the political timing was favorable (2001-2002), decision makers linked the science of conservation biology to planning policies and law in Ontario. The Oak Ridges Moraine land-use planning process was precedent setting in Canada, and possibly internationally. To our knowledge this is the first time long, wide conservation corridors on private lands were regulated through land-use-planning legislation and led to restrictions on urban development and aggregate resource extraction.

  9. Genetic characterization of small ruminant lentiviruses circulating in naturally infected sheep and goats in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santry, Lisa A; de Jong, Jondavid; Gold, Alexander C; Walsh, Scott R; Menzies, Paula I; Wootton, Sarah K

    2013-07-01

    Maedi-visna virus (MVV) and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) are related members of a group of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) that infect sheep and goats. SRLVs are endemic in many countries, including Canada. However, very little is known about the genetic characteristics of Canadian SRLVs, particularly in the province of Ontario. Given the importance of surveillance and eradication programs for the control of SRLVs, it is imperative that the diagnostic tests used to identify infected animals are sensitive to local strains of SRLVs. The aim of this work was to characterize SRLV strains circulating in Ontario and to evaluate the variability of the immunodominant regions of the Gag protein. In this study, the nearly complete gag sequence of 164 SRLVs, from 130 naturally infected sheep and 32 naturally infected goats from Ontario, was sequenced. Animals belonged to distantly located single and mixed species (sheep and goats) farms. Ovine lentiviruses from the same farm tended to cluster more closely together than did caprine lentiviruses from the same farm. Sequence analysis revealed a higher degree of heterogeneity among the caprine lentivirus sequences with an average inter-farm pairwise DNA distance of 10% and only 5% in the ovine lentivirus group. Interestingly, amplification of SRLVs from ELISA positive sheep was successful in 81% of cases, whereas amplification of SRLV proviral DNA was only possible in 55% of the ELISA positive goat samples; suggesting that a significant portion of caprine lentiviruses circulating in Ontario possess heterogeneity at the primer binding sites used in this study. Sequences of sheep and goat SRLVs from Ontario were assembled into phylogenetic trees with other known SRLVs and were found to belong to sequence groups A2 and B1, respectively, as defined by Shah et al. (2004a). A novel caprine lentivirus with a pairwise genetic difference of 15.6-25.4% relative to other group B subtypes was identified. Thus we suggest

  10. Analysis of passive-sampler monitored atmospheric ammonia at 74 sites across southern Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. H. Yao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Weekly/biweekly concentrations of atmospheric NH3 were collected using passive samplers at 74 sites across southern Ontario, Canada during the period from June 2006 to March 2007 with tens of sites running as early as March 2006. The annual average of NH3 (AAN at all the sites across southwestern Ontario was over 1 µg m–3, a value that was recently proposed as the new critical level for protecting vegetation. High ANN values (3.6–6.1 µg m–3 were observed at eight sites located inside the intensive livestock production zones. The AAN values at the sites across southeastern Ontario were generally less than 1 µg m–3 and the values were less than 0.4 µg m–3 at non-agricultural sites. Regional transport from the southwest region to the southeast region was identified to be the main contributor to the observed NH3 at the southeastern non-agricultural sites. However, different transport mechanisms were proposed in different seasons. The transport of NH3 produced through bi-directional air-surface exchange along air mass trajectories was believed to be the main mechanism in the hot seasons while the transport of NH4NO3 produced at source locations followed by its evaporation at receptor sites was thought to be dominant in the cold seasons. A sharp increase in NH3 concentration was surprisingly observed at 20 out of the 74 sites during the coldest two weeks when ambient temperature was lower than −7 °C, and cannot be explained by known sources or with existing knowledge. Recently developed NH3 emission inventory for southern Ontario was also evaluated with the measurement data and emissions within two small zones were identified to be potentially underestimated.

  11. Deceased Organ Donation Registration and Familial Consent among Chinese and South Asians in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Alvin Ho-ting; McArthur, Eric; Maclean, Janet; Isenor, Cynthia; Prakash, Versha; Kim, S. Joseph; Knoll, Greg; Shah, Baiju; Garg, Amit X.

    2015-01-01

    Objective For various reasons, people of Chinese (China, Hong Kong or Taiwan) and South Asian (Indian subcontinent) ancestry (the two largest ethnic minority groups in Ontario, Canada) may be less likely to register for deceased organ donation than the general public, and their families may be less likely to consent for deceased organ donation at the time of death. Methods We conducted two population-based studies: (1) a cross-sectional study of deceased organ donor registration as of May 2013, and (2) a cohort study of the steps in proceeding with deceased organ donation for patients who died in hospital from October 2008 to December 2012. Results A total of 49 938 of 559 714 Chinese individuals (8.9%) and 47 774 of 374 291 South Asians (12.8%) were registered for deceased organ donation, proportions lower than the general public (2 676 260 of 10 548 249 (25.4%). Among the 168 703 Ontarians who died in a hospital, the families of 33 of 81 Chinese (40.1%; 95% CI: 30.7%-51.6%) and 39 of 72 South Asian individuals (54.2%; 95% CI: 42.7-65.2%) consented for deceased organ donation, proportions lower than the general public (68.3%; 95% CI: 66.4%-70.0%). Conclusions In Ontario, Canada Chinese and South Asian individuals are less likely to register and their families are less likely to consent to deceased organ donation compared to the remaining general public. There is an opportunity to build support for organ and tissue donation in these two large ethnic communities in Canada. PMID:26230320

  12. Intervenable factors associated with suicide risk in transgender persons: a respondent driven sampling study in Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Greta R Bauer; Scheim, Ayden I; Pyne, Jake; Travers, Robb; Hammond, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Background Across Europe, Canada, and the United States, 22–43 % of transgender (trans) people report a history of suicide attempts. We aimed to identify intervenable factors (related to social inclusion, transphobia, or sex/gender transition) associated with reduced risk of past-year suicide ideation or attempt, and to quantify the potential population health impact. Methods The Trans PULSE respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey collected data from trans people age 16+ in Ontario, Canada, i...

  13. The epidemiology of travel-related Salmonella Enteritidis in Ontario, Canada, 2010–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tighe Mary-Kathryn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increases in the number of salmonellosis cases due to Salmonella Enteritidis (SE in 2010 and 2011 prompted a public health investigation in Ontario, Canada. In this report, we describe the current epidemiology of travel-related (TR SE, compare demographics, symptoms and phage types (PTs of TR and domestically-acquired (DA cases, and estimate the odds of acquiring SE by region of the world visited. Methods All incident cases of culture confirmed SE in Ontario obtained from isolates and specimens submitted to public health laboratories were included in this study. Demographic and illness characteristics of TR and DA cases were compared. A national travel survey was used to provide estimates for the number of travellers to various destinations to approximate rates of SE in travellers. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of acquiring SE when travelling to various world regions. Results Overall, 51.9% of SE cases were TR during the study period. This ranged from 35.7% TR cases in the summer travel period to 65.1% TR cases in the winter travel period. Compared to DA cases, TR cases were older and were less likely to seek hospital care. For Ontario travellers, the adjusted odds of acquiring SE was the highest for the Caribbean (OR 37.29, 95% CI 17.87-77.82 when compared to Europe. Certain PTs were more commonly associated with travel (e.g., 1, 4, 5b, 7a, Atypical than with domestic infection. Of the TR cases, 88.9% were associated with travel to the Caribbean and Mexico region, of whom 90.1% reported staying on a resort. Within this region, there were distinct associations between PTs and countries. Conclusions There is a large burden of TR illness from SE in Ontario. Accurate classification of cases by travel history is important to better understand the source of infections. The findings emphasize the need to make travellers, especially to the Caribbean, and health professionals who provide advice to

  14. Educators' Beliefs about Raising Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Issues in the Schools: The Experience in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Margaret; Dimito, Anne

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the experiences of 132 LGBT and heterosexual teachers and school administrators in Ontario, Canada. Participants completed a survey that asked about their comfort addressing LGBT issues in the school setting, how safe they felt, how active they were, and their perceptions of barriers. There were few differences between the…

  15. Educators' Beliefs about Raising Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Issues in the Schools: The Experience in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Margaret; Dimito, Anne

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the experiences of 132 LGBT and heterosexual teachers and school administrators in Ontario, Canada. Participants completed a survey that asked about their comfort addressing LGBT issues in the school setting, how safe they felt, how active they were, and their perceptions of barriers. There were few differences between the…

  16. A Bioecological Framework to Evaluate Communicative Participation Outcomes for Preschoolers Receiving Speech-Language Therapy Interventions in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Barbara J.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Preschool Speech and Language Program (PSLP) in Ontario, Canada, is a publicly funded intervention service for children from birth to 5 years with communication disorders. It has begun a population-level programme evaluation of children's communicative participation outcomes following therapy. Data are currently being collected for…

  17. Microsatellite analysis of the Genetic Diversity of Asian Longhorned Beetles from an Invasive Population in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian Longhorned Beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky) were discovered in Ontario, Canada in 2003 at a commercial warehouse site, where they likely arrived on solid wood packing materials from China. Trees in the area were heavily scarred with oviposition sites, and larvae and adult beetle...

  18. Visible Minority Librarians of Canada at Ontario Library Association Super Conference, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Kumaran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the panel presentation offered at the Ontario Library Association Super Conference in January 2013. Six of the ten founding members of Visible Minority Librarians of Canada (ViMLoC Network were able to attend and offer a panel presentation on the challenges faced by visible minority librarians. Topics varied from finding the right job, education, lack of financial support, upgrading skills, lack of mentorship opportunities, and socialization at work. Although Canada has always been a land of immigrants, the social makeup of immigration has shifted from Eastern Europe to the Middle East, Africa and Asia. There is an influx of immigrants to historically not so popular destinations such as Saskatoon and Winnipeg. Are there more visible minority librarians in Canada as a result? If not, will there be room for them? Based on feedback received at this presentation, ViMLoC will focus on two major projects: gathering statistics on the number of visible minority librarians working for Canadian institutions, and creating a mentorship program.

  19. Assessing the relationship between dental appearance and the potential for discrimination in Ontario, Canada

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    Jamie Moeller

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poor oral health is influenced by a variety of individual and structural factors. It disproportionately impacts socially marginalized people, and has implications for how one is perceived by others. This study assesses the degree to which residents of Canada’s most populated province, Ontario, recognize income-related oral health inequalities and the degree to which Ontarians blame the poor for these differences in health, thus providing an indirect assessment of the potential for prejudicial treatment of the poor for having bad teeth. Data were used from a provincially representative survey conducted in Ontario, Canada in 2010 (n=2006. The survey asked participants questions about fifteen specific conditions (e.g. dental decay, heart disease, cancer for which inequalities have been described in Ontario, and whether participants agreed or disagreed with various statements asserting blame for differences in health between social groups. Binary logistic regression was used to determine whether assertions of blame for differences in health are related to perceptions of oral health conditions. Oral health conditions are more commonly perceived as a problem of the poor when compared to other diseases and conditions. Among those who recognize that oral conditions more commonly affect the poor, particular socioeconomic and demographic characteristics predict the blaming of the poor for these differences in health, including sex, age, education, income, and political voting intention. Social and economic gradients exist in the recognition of, and blame for, oral health conditions among the poor, suggesting a potential for discrimination amongst socially marginalized groups relative to dental appearance. Expanding and improving programs that are targeted at improving the oral and dental health of the poor may create a context that mitigates discrimination.

  20. Factors influencing workers to follow food safety management systems in meat plants in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Brita; Wilcock, Anne; Aung, May

    2009-06-01

    Small and medium sized food businesses have been slow to adopt food safety management systems (FSMSs) such as good manufacturing practices and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP). This study identifies factors influencing workers in their implementation of food safety practices in small and medium meat processing establishments in Ontario, Canada. A qualitative approach was used to explore in-plant factors that influence the implementation of FSMSs. Thirteen in-depth interviews in five meat plants and two focus group interviews were conducted. These generated 219 pages of verbatim transcripts which were analysed using NVivo 7 software. Main themes identified in the data related to production systems, organisational characteristics and employee characteristics. A socio-psychological model based on the theory of planned behaviour is proposed to describe how these themes and underlying sub-themes relate to FSMS implementation. Addressing the various factors that influence production workers is expected to enhance FSMS implementation and increase food safety.

  1. Comparing spatial accessibility to conventional medicine and complementary and alternative medicine in Ontario, Canada.

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    Meyer, Stephen P

    2012-03-01

    Health care investigations rarely consider conventional medicine (CM) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) simultaneously and spatial accessibility empirical research that incorporates both CM and CAM locations is novel. In this study, residents within municipalities of the Ontario province of Canada are compared in terms of spatial accessibility to a range of health care supplier 'destinations'. While areas with larger urban agglomerations generally exhibit superior levels of spatial accessibility to health care and diversity in medical service choice in comparison to more peripheral areas, considerable heterogeneity in accessibility occurs in both urban and rural settings. This study's identification of subtle spatial imbalances appends the literature by more precisely qualifying the typically reported 'urban-rich, rural-poor' assessment of health care service condition and also reinforces the need for policy-makers to appraise health care spatial accessibility differentials as a function of both CM and CAM endowment.

  2. Meteorological Influences on Seasonal Variation of Fine Particulate Matter in Cities over Southern Ontario, Canada

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    Jane Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines meteorological impacts on seasonal variation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 in southern Ontario, Canada. After analyzing PM2.5 data at 12 cities in the region in 2006, we found that PM2.5 concentrations were 30–40% higher in summer (7–15 μg/m3 than in winter (4–11 μg/m3. High PM2.5 episodes occurred more frequently in warmer seasons. Analyses of surface meteorology, weather maps, and airflow trajectories suggest that these PM2.5 episodes were often related to synoptic transport of pollutants from highly polluted areas in the United States. The southerly or southwesterly winds associated with midlatitude cyclones play an important role in such transport. A typical weather pattern favoring the transport is suggested. When it was hot, humid, and stagnant with southerly or southwesterly winds, the likelihood of high PM2.5 occurrences was high. The Greater Golden Horseshoe and Southwestern Ontario regions had higher PM2.5 (6–12 μg/m3 annually than the northern region (4–6 μg/m3, reflecting combined effects of meteorology, regional transport, and local emissions. In the future, PM2.5 transport from the United States will likely increase in abundance because of possible prolonged accumulation at the pollution sources as the frequency of the midlatitude cyclones may reduce under climate change.

  3. Paratuberculosis on small ruminant dairy farms in Ontario, Canada: A survey of management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Cathy A; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David

    2016-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to determine the risk factors for dairy goat herds and dairy sheep flocks testing positive for paratuberculosis (PTB) in Ontario, Canada. A questionnaire was administered to 50 producers during a farm visit in which concurrently, 20 randomly selected, lactating animals over the age of 2 years underwent sampling for paratuberculosis testing. Only 1 of 50 farms (2.0%) was closed to animal movement, whereas 96.6% of dairy goat farms and 94.1% of sheep farms purchased livestock from other producers. Only 10.3% of dairy goat, and no dairy sheep farms used artificial insemination. Manure was spread on grazing pastures by 65.5% and 70.6% of dairy goat and dairy sheep farms, respectively. Because of the high true-prevalence of paratuberculosis infection detected, no risk factor analysis could be performed. This study demonstrates that biosecurity practices conducive to transmission of PTB are highly prevalent in Ontario small ruminant dairy farms.

  4. Examining non-suicidal self-injury among adolescents with mental health needs, in Ontario, Canada.

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    Stewart, Shannon L; Baiden, Philip; Theall-Honey, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents with mental health needs and specific factors associated with NSSI among adolescents aged 14 to 18 years who received mental health services in adult mental health facilities in Ontario, Canada. Data on 2,013 adolescents were obtained from the Ontario Mental Health Reporting System using the Resident Assessment Instrument-Mental Health (RAI-MH) and were analyzed using logistic regression. Approximately, 20.2% (407 adolescents) of the sample engaged in NSSI within the last 12 months. Results from multivariate logistic regression indicate that females were 2.19 times more likely to engage in NSSI than males. Intentional misuse of prescription medication emerged as the most important factor associated with NSSI. Other factors found to be associated with NSSI included multiple psychiatric admissions, sexual abuse, use of alcohol, mood disorders (e.g., depression), adjustment disorders, personality disorders and symptoms of depression. The article discusses the implications of the findings, with suggestions for future research.

  5. Evolving trends in head and neck cancer epidemiology: Ontario, Canada 1993-2010.

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    Mifsud, Matthew; Eskander, Antoine; Irish, Jonathan; Gullane, Patrick; Gilbert, Ralph; Brown, Dale; de Almeida, John R; Urbach, David R; Goldstein, David P

    2017-09-01

    Given the dramatic changes in global head and neck cancer epidemiology, the purpose of this study was to present the findings of our investigation on patterns of head and neck cancer incidence/survival within the province of Ontario, Canada. Temporal variations in age/sex adjusted incidence and survival were analyzed for all incident head and neck cancer cases (n = 20 781) managed within Ontario from 1993-2010. From 1993-2010, the incidence of oropharyngeal (average annual percentage change [AAPC] 4.56%; P < .001) and salivary gland (AAPC 4.99%; P < .001) carcinomas increased, whereas oral cavity (AAPC -1.44%; P < .001) and laryngeal/hypopharyngeal (AAPC -3.20%; P < .001) carcinomas declined, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remained static (AAPC 0.28%; P = .72). A general trend for improved 5-year overall survival (OS), was observed for all tumor sites. Consistent with previous studies, our results suggest a simultaneous decline in tobacco-associated and increase in human papillomavirus (HPV)-mediated carcinomas. The rising incidence of salivary malignancy and improvement in 5-year OS are novel findings, in need of future investigation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Suffocation using plastic bags: a retrospective study of suicides in Ontario, Canada.

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    Bullock, M J; Diniz, D

    2000-05-01

    One hundred and ten cases of suicidal suffocation using a plastic bag were identified in the files of the Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario, Canada, between 1993 and 1997. The records were reviewed to determine the demographic characteristics of this group compared with all cases of suicide in Ontario, the scene information, autopsy findings and toxicology results. Most suicides occurred in people over 60 years of age, with older women making up a considerable proportion of cases as compared with other methods of suicide. In 40% of cases the deceased was suffering from a serious illness. Autopsy findings were usually minimal, with facial, conjunctival and visceral petechiae present in a minority of cases. One or more drugs were detected in the blood in 92.6% of cases where toxicologic testing was performed. Benzodiazepines, diphenhydramine and antidepressants were the most common drugs found, with diphenhydramine the most common drug present at an elevated concentration. Information at the scene from "right to die" societies was uncommon. One quarter of decedents took additional measures, besides the use of drugs or alcohol, to ensure the rapidity, certainty or comfort of their death. This study further elucidates the characteristics of this uncommon method of suicide. It emphasizes additional scene findings, such as the presence of dust masks, physical restraints and modification of the plastic bag that may be of use to death investigators in determining the correct manner of death.

  7. Integrating Hydrology and Historical Geography in an Interdisciplinary Environmental Masters Program in Northern Ontario, Canada

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    Greer, Kirsten; James, April

    2016-04-01

    Research in hydrology and other sciences are increasingly calling for new collaborations that "…simultaneously explore the biogeophysical, social and economic forces that shape an increasingly human-dominated global hydrologic system…" (Vorosmarty et al. 2015, p.104). With many environmental programs designed to help students tackle environmental problems, these initiatives are not without fundamental challenges (for example, they are often developed around a single epistemology of positivism). Many environmental graduate programs provide narrow interdisciplinary training (within the sciences, or bridging to the social sciences) but do not necessarily engage with the humanities. Geography however, has a long tradition and history of bridging the geophysical, social sciences, and humanities. In this paper, we reflect on new programming in an Interdisciplinary Master's program in Northern Ontario, Canada, inspired by the rich tradition of geography. As Canada Research Chairs trained in different geographical traditions (historical geography and hydrology), we aim to bring together approaches in the humanities and geophysical sciences to understand hydrological and environmental change over time. We are teaching in a small, predominantly undergraduate University located in Northern Ontario, Canada, a region shaped significantly by colonial histories and resource development. The Masters of Environmental Studies/Masters of Environmental Sciences (MES/MESc) program was conceived from a decade of interdisciplinary dialogue across three undergraduate departments (Geography, Biology and Chemistry, History) to promote an understanding of both humanistic and scientific approaches to environmental issues. In the fall of 2015, as part of our 2015-2020 Canada Research Chair mandates, we introduced new initiatives to further address the integration of humanities and sciences to our graduate program. We believe the new generation of environmental scientists and practioners

  8. Alternative health care consultations in Ontario, Canada: A geographic and socio-demographic analysis.

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    Williams, Allison M; Kitchen, Peter; Eby, Jeanette

    2011-06-22

    An important but understudied component of Canada's health system is alternative care. The objective of this paper is to examine the geographic and socio-demographic characteristics of alternative care consultation in Ontario, Canada's largest province. Data is drawn from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS Cycle 3.1, 2005) for people aged 18 or over (n = 32,598) who had a consultation with an alternative health care provider. Four groups of consultations are examined: (1) all consultations (2) massage therapy (3) acupuncture, and (4) homeopath/naturopath. Descriptive statistics, mapping and logistic regression modeling are employed to analyze the data and to compare modalities of alternative health care use. In 2005, more than 1.2 million adults aged 18 or over consulted an alternative health care provider, representing about 13% of the total population of Ontario. The analysis revealed a varied geographic pattern of consultations across the province. Consultations were fairly even across the urban to rural continuum and rural residents were just as likely to consult a provider as their urban counterparts. From a health perspective, people with a chronic condition, lower health status and self-perceived unmet health care needs were more likely to see an alternative health provider. Women with chronic conditions such as fibromyalgia, high blood pressure, chronic fatigue syndrome and chemical sensitivities were more likely to see an alternative provider if they felt their health care needs were not being met. The analysis revealed that geography is not a factor in determining alternative health care consultations in Ontario. By contrast, there is a strong association between these consultations and socio-demographic characteristics particularly age, sex, education, health and self-perceived unmet health care needs. The results underscore the importance of women's health needs as related to alternative care use. The paper concludes that there is a need for

  9. Alternative health care consultations in Ontario, Canada: A geographic and socio-demographic analysis

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    Eby Jeanette

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important but understudied component of Canada's health system is alternative care. The objective of this paper is to examine the geographic and socio-demographic characteristics of alternative care consultation in Ontario, Canada's largest province. Methods Data is drawn from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS Cycle 3.1, 2005 for people aged 18 or over (n = 32,598 who had a consultation with an alternative health care provider. Four groups of consultations are examined: (1 all consultations (2 massage therapy (3 acupuncture, and (4 homeopath/naturopath. Descriptive statistics, mapping and logistic regression modeling are employed to analyze the data and to compare modalities of alternative health care use. Results In 2005, more than 1.2 million adults aged 18 or over consulted an alternative health care provider, representing about 13% of the total population of Ontario. The analysis revealed a varied geographic pattern of consultations across the province. Consultations were fairly even across the urban to rural continuum and rural residents were just as likely to consult a provider as their urban counterparts. From a health perspective, people with a chronic condition, lower health status and self-perceived unmet health care needs were more likely to see an alternative health provider. Women with chronic conditions such as fibromyalgia, high blood pressure, chronic fatigue syndrome and chemical sensitivities were more likely to see an alternative provider if they felt their health care needs were not being met. Conclusions The analysis revealed that geography is not a factor in determining alternative health care consultations in Ontario. By contrast, there is a strong association between these consultations and socio-demographic characteristics particularly age, sex, education, health and self-perceived unmet health care needs. The results underscore the importance of women's health needs as related to

  10. Public opinion towards supervised injection facilities and heroin-assisted treatment in Ontario, Canada.

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    Cruz, Michelle Firestone; Patra, Jayadeep; Fischer, Benedikt; Rehm, Jürgen; Kalousek, Kate

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, controversial interventions such as 'heroin-assisted treatment' (HAT) and 'supervised injection facilities' (SIFs) have been established in attempts to minimise the high morbidity and mortality consequences of illicit drug use. This paper examines public opinion towards HAT and SIF using data from the 2003 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) Monitor, a representative population survey conducted among adults residing in Ontario, Canada. Data relating specifically to SIFs and HAT were isolated from the main database (n=885); agreement scores were collapsed to create a scale and analysed using independent sample t-tests and ANOVAs. Results revealed that 60 percent (n=530) of the sample agreed that SIFs should be made available to injection drug users, while 40 percent (n=355) disagreed. When asked about the provision of HAT, a similar pattern emerged. Variables significantly associated with positive opinions toward SIFs and HAT were: income; higher education; the use of cocaine or cannabis within the last 12 months; being in favour of cannabis decriminalisation; support of needle exchange in prison; view of illicit drug users as ill people; and agreement that drug users are in need of public support. Given the current political climate and the tentative position of SIFs and HAT in Canada, understanding the public's opinion is crucial for the feasibility and long-term sustainability of these interventions.

  11. Women's Experiences of Publicly Funded Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing in Ontario, Canada: Considerations for Health Technology Policy-Making.

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    Vanstone, Meredith; Yacoub, Karima; Giacomini, Mita; Hulan, Danielle; McDonald, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) via fetal DNA in maternal blood has been publicly funded in Ontario, Canada, for high-risk women since 2014. We solicited women's experiences and values related to this new health technology to describe how this test is currently being used in Ontario and to provide information about patient priorities to inform future policy decisions about the use of NIPT. Guided by constructivist grounded theory methodology, we interviewed 38 women who had diverse personal experiences with NIPT. Participants' accounts of their values for decision making about NIPT heavily relied on three mutually modulating factors: timing, accuracy, and risk. The values expressed by women conflict with the way that publicly funded NIPT has typically been implemented in Ontario. We offer recommendations for how NIPT might be integrated into prenatal care pathways in a way more consistent with women's values.

  12. Agricultural Monitoring in Northeastern Ontario, Canada, Using Multi-Temporal Polarimetric RADARSAT-2 Data

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    Jeffrey W. Cable

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze how changes in acquisition time and incidence angle affect various C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR polarimetric intensities, co-polarized phase information, polarimetric response plots and decomposition parameters for various crops typical of Northern Ontario, Canada. We examine how these parameters may be used to monitor the growth stages of five common cash crops, namely, barley (Hordeum vulgare, canola (Brassica napus, oat (Avena sativa, soybean (Glycine max and wheat (Triticum spp.. In total, nine RADARSAT-2 polarimetric images were analyzed across a 14-week period beginning in June and ending in September 2011 using two incidence angles of approximately 26° and 41°. As expected, the backscatter intensities for all targets were found to show a higher response when acquired at the steeper incidence angle (26°. All cash crop targets showed a rise and fall in backscatter response over the course of the growing season, coinciding with changing growth stages. Slight phase differences were observed for cereal crops, possibly due to one of the polarizations penetrating between the rows allowing double-bounce to occur. The polarimetric response plots and decompositions offered insight into the scattering mechanisms of each crop type, generally showing an increase in volume scattering as the crops reached maturity. Specifically, the contributions of the crops increased towards the volume scattering component and zones 4 and 2, as the crops matured in regards to the Freeman-Durden and Cloude-Pottier decompositions respectively. Overall, soybean and canola showed a more similar response in comparison to the cereal cash crops. Although the study focused on Northern Ontario, it is anticipated that these results would be relevant in investigations of multi-temporal RADARSAT-2 for agricultural zones with similar crop types.

  13. Signs and symptoms of methylmercury contamination in a First Nations community in Northwestern Ontario, Canada.

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    Takaoka, Shigeru; Fujino, Tadashi; Hotta, Nobuyuki; Ueda, Keishi; Hanada, Masanobu; Tajiri, Masami; Inoue, Yukari

    2014-01-15

    In 1970, fish caught in the English-Wabigoon River system in northwestern Ontario, Canada, were found to be contaminated with mercury coming from a chlor-alkali plant in the province. In the 1970s, patients exhibiting some of the symptoms of the Hunter-Russell syndrome (e.g. paresthesias, visual field constriction, ataxia, impaired hearing, and speech impairment) were reported by some researchers. However attempts to diagnose the patients as suffering from methylmercury poisoning proved to be controversial. In order to research the presence of methylmercury contamination, and show that the patients, through eating contaminated fish, were suffering from methylmercury poisoning, we studied the results of subjective complaints, neurological findings, and quantitative somatosensory measurements gathered in Grassy Narrows Indian Reservation, Ontario, in March, 2010. At that time, the population of the Grassy Narrows settlement was around 900. Ninety-one residents volunteered to be examined. From them, we selected 80 people who were older than 15 years old, and divided them into two groups. Canadian Younger (CY): 36 residents who were from 16 to 45 years old. Canadian Older (CO): 44 residents who were from 46 to 76 years old. We compared them to Japanese Exposed (JE): 88 methylmercury exposed residents from the Minamata district in Japan, and Japanese Control (JC): 164 control residents from non-polluted areas in Japan. Complaints and abnormal neurological findings were more prevalent and quantitative sensory measurements were worse in the two Canadian groups and the Japanese Exposed group than in the Japanese Control group. Complaints, neurological findings and quantitative sensory measurements were similar in Canadian Older and Japanese Exposed. The results for Canadian Younger fell between those of Canadian Older and Japanese Control. These findings indicate that the clinical signs and symptoms of the residents of Grassy Narrows are almost the same as those recorded

  14. Leisure-time physical activity patterns and correlates among pregnant women in Ontario, Canada.

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    Gaston, Anca; Vamos, Cheryl A

    2013-04-01

    Physical activity significantly impacts public health as it reduces the risk of chronic diseases and provides numerous protective factors during pregnancy. Although Canadian guidelines recommend regular physical activity for healthy pregnant women, little is known about their leisure-time physical activity patterns. This study compared the physical activity levels of pregnant and non-pregnant women and examined socio-demographic and health correlates of physical activity during pregnancy. Canadian Community Health Survey data (2005-2008) from 623 pregnant women and 20,392 non-pregnant women aged 15-49 years in Ontario, Canada were examined. The prevalence of regular physical activity (15 or more minutes on at least 3 days of the week) was 58.3 % [95 % CI 52.9, 63.4], among pregnant women and 66.9 % [95 % CI 65.8, 68.0] among non-pregnant women. However, the prevalence of meeting Canadian guidelines for physical activity during pregnancy (30 or more minutes on at least 4 days of the week) was only 23.3 %, [95 % CI 19.4, 27.7] among pregnant women and 33.6 % [95 % CI 32.7, 34.6] among non-pregnant women. Pregnant women were less likely to be meeting guidelines if they were single, divorced, separated or widowed, a visible minority, had a household income between $20,000 and $79,999, and reported being in good or fair/poor health; when it came to education, women who had completed high school were more likely to be meeting guidelines. Few pregnant women in Ontario are meeting guidelines for physical activity during pregnancy. Results indicate that promoting physical activity during pregnancy should remain a public health priority.

  15. Survey of information technology in Intensive Care Units in Ontario, Canada

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    Hallett David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Intensive Care Unit (ICU is a data-rich environment where information technology (IT may enhance patient care. We surveyed ICUs in the province of Ontario, Canada, to determine the availability, implementation and variability of information systems. Methods A self-administered internet-based survey was completed by ICU directors between May and October 2006. We measured the spectrum of ICU clinical data accessible electronically, the availability of decision support tools, the availability of electronic imaging systems for radiology, the use of electronic order entry and medication administration systems, and the availability of hardware and wireless or mobile systems. We used Fisher's Exact tests to compare IT availability and Classification and Regression Trees (CART to estimate the optimal cut-point for the number of computers per ICU bed. Results We obtained responses from 50 hospitals (68.5% of institutions with level 3 ICUs, of which 21 (42% were university-affiliated. The majority electronically accessed laboratory data and imaging reports (92% and used picture archiving and communication systems (PACS (76%. Other computing functions were less prevalent (medication administration records 46%, physician or nursing notes 26%; medication order entry 22%. No association was noted between IT availability and ICU size or university affiliation. Sites used clinical information systems from15 different vendors and 8 different PACS systems were in use. Half of the respondents described the number of computers available as insufficient. Wireless networks and mobile computing systems were used in 23 ICUs (46%. Conclusion Ontario ICUs demontrate a high prevalence of the use of basic information technology systems. However, implementation of the more complex and potentially more beneficial applications is low. The wide variation in vendors utilized may impair information exchange, interoperability and uniform data collection.

  16. Mental health and substance use among bisexual youth and non-youth in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lori E; Bauer, Greta R; MacLeod, Melissa A; Robinson, Margaret; MacKay, Jenna; Dobinson, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that bisexuals have poorer health outcomes than heterosexuals, gays, or lesbians, particularly with regard to mental health and substance use. However, research on bisexuals is often hampered by issues in defining bisexuality, small sample sizes, and by the failure to address age differences between bisexuals and other groups or age gradients in mental health. The Risk & Resilience Survey of Bisexual Mental Health collected data on 405 bisexuals from Ontario, Canada, using respondent-driven sampling, a network-based sampling method for hidden populations. The weighted prevalence of severe depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 20) was 4.7%, possible anxiety disorder (OASIS ≥ 8) was 30.9%, possible post-traumatic stress disorder (PCL-C ≥ 50) was 10.8%, and past year suicide attempt was 1.9%. With respect to substance use, the weighted prevalence of problem drinking (AUDIT ≥ 5) was 31.2%, and the weighted prevalence of illicit polydrug use was 30.5%. Daily smoking was low in this sample, with a weighted prevalence of 7.9%. Youth (aged 16-24) reported significantly higher weighted mean scores on depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, and higher rates of past year suicidal ideation (29.7% vs. 15.2%) compared with those aged 25 and older. The burden of mental health and substance use among bisexuals in Ontario is high relative to population-based studies of other sexual orientation groups. Bisexual youth appear to be at risk for poor mental health. Additional research is needed to understand if and how minority stress explains this burden.

  17. Mental health and substance use among bisexual youth and non-youth in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori E Ross

    Full Text Available Research has shown that bisexuals have poorer health outcomes than heterosexuals, gays, or lesbians, particularly with regard to mental health and substance use. However, research on bisexuals is often hampered by issues in defining bisexuality, small sample sizes, and by the failure to address age differences between bisexuals and other groups or age gradients in mental health. The Risk & Resilience Survey of Bisexual Mental Health collected data on 405 bisexuals from Ontario, Canada, using respondent-driven sampling, a network-based sampling method for hidden populations. The weighted prevalence of severe depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 20 was 4.7%, possible anxiety disorder (OASIS ≥ 8 was 30.9%, possible post-traumatic stress disorder (PCL-C ≥ 50 was 10.8%, and past year suicide attempt was 1.9%. With respect to substance use, the weighted prevalence of problem drinking (AUDIT ≥ 5 was 31.2%, and the weighted prevalence of illicit polydrug use was 30.5%. Daily smoking was low in this sample, with a weighted prevalence of 7.9%. Youth (aged 16-24 reported significantly higher weighted mean scores on depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, and higher rates of past year suicidal ideation (29.7% vs. 15.2% compared with those aged 25 and older. The burden of mental health and substance use among bisexuals in Ontario is high relative to population-based studies of other sexual orientation groups. Bisexual youth appear to be at risk for poor mental health. Additional research is needed to understand if and how minority stress explains this burden.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC)-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Ontario, Canada, 2008-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijet, Nathalie; Sheth, Prameet M.; Lastovetska, Olga; Chung, Catherine; Patel, Samir N.; Melano, Roberto G.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of detailed reports of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing enterobacteria in Ontario, Canada, we perform a molecular characterization of KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae submitted to the provincial reference laboratory from 2008 to 2011. Susceptibility profiles were accessed by E-test. Molecular types of isolates were determined by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing. Screening of ß-lactamase genes was performed by multiplex PCR and alleles were identified by DNA sequencing. The genetic platform of blaKPC gene was analyzed by PCR. Plasmid replicons were typed using PCR-based typing approach. KPC-plasmids were also evaluated by S1 nuclease-PFGE and Southern blot. Thirty unique clinical isolates (26 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 2 Enterobacter cloacae, 1 Citrobacter freundii and 1 Raoultella ornithinolytica) were identified as blaKPC positive: 4 in 2008, 3 in 2009, 10 in 2010 and 13 in 2011. The majority exhibited resistance to carbapenems, cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones and two isolates were also resistant to colistin. The isolates harbored blaKPC-2 (n = 23) or blaKPC-3 (n = 7). blaTEM-1 (n = 27) was commonly detected and occasionally blaOXA-1 (n = 3) and blaCTX-M-15 (n = 1). As expected, all K. pneumoniae isolates carried blaSHV-11. blaKPC genes were identified on Tn4401a (n = 20) or b (n = 10) isoforms, on plasmids of different sizes belonging to the incompatibility groups IncFIIA (n = 19), IncN (n = 3), IncI2 (n = 3), IncFrep (n = 2) and IncA/C (n = 1). The occurrence of KPC ß-lactamase in Ontario was mainly associated with the spread of the K. pneumoniae clone ST258. PMID:25549365

  19. Molecular characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Ontario, Canada, 2008-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Tijet

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of detailed reports of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC-producing enterobacteria in Ontario, Canada, we perform a molecular characterization of KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae submitted to the provincial reference laboratory from 2008 to 2011. Susceptibility profiles were accessed by E-test. Molecular types of isolates were determined by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing. Screening of ß-lactamase genes was performed by multiplex PCR and alleles were identified by DNA sequencing. The genetic platform of blaKPC gene was analyzed by PCR. Plasmid replicons were typed using PCR-based typing approach. KPC-plasmids were also evaluated by S1 nuclease-PFGE and Southern blot. Thirty unique clinical isolates (26 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 2 Enterobacter cloacae, 1 Citrobacter freundii and 1 Raoultella ornithinolytica were identified as blaKPC positive: 4 in 2008, 3 in 2009, 10 in 2010 and 13 in 2011. The majority exhibited resistance to carbapenems, cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones and two isolates were also resistant to colistin. The isolates harbored blaKPC-2 (n = 23 or blaKPC-3 (n = 7. blaTEM-1 (n = 27 was commonly detected and occasionally blaOXA-1 (n = 3 and blaCTX-M-15 (n = 1. As expected, all K. pneumoniae isolates carried blaSHV-11. blaKPC genes were identified on Tn4401a (n = 20 or b (n = 10 isoforms, on plasmids of different sizes belonging to the incompatibility groups IncFIIA (n = 19, IncN (n = 3, IncI2 (n = 3, IncFrep (n = 2 and IncA/C (n = 1. The occurrence of KPC ß-lactamase in Ontario was mainly associated with the spread of the K. pneumoniae clone ST258.

  20. Spatial analysis of drumlins within the Arran, Guelph, and Galt drumlin fields of southern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclachlan, John

    2016-04-01

    Reconstruction of former ice conditions and glacier dynamics in previously glaciated terrains requires understanding of the processes and controls on the development of subglacial landforms such as drumlins. This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the spatial distribution of drumlins identified from digital elevation model (DEM) data within three drumlin fields in southern Ontario, Canada (the Arran, Galt and Guelph drumlin fields) formed in the Late Wisconsin by the Ontario and Georgian Bay ice lobes of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Detailed field description of a partially excavated drumlin within the Guelph drumlin field provides firther insight to compliment the geomorphometric analysis. Drumlins are identified and their morphological parameters documented using a computer-based process that allows direct comparison of forms within and between individual fields. Statistical analysis of the morphological characteristics and spatial distribution of drumlins within each of the three drumlin fields, using kernel density and nearest neighbour analysis, indicates that drumlins of particular types show distinct patterns of clustering that appear to be are related to several different factors including length of time under ice, bedrock topography, and ice velocity. Sediments exposed in an excavated drumlin within the Guelph drumlin field show a relatively undisturbed older fluvial or glaciofluvial crudely stratified sands draped by a thin veneer of coarse grained deformation till. This stratigraphy is similar to that described from modern drumlins in Iceland and is consistent with models of drumlin formation by subglacial deformation processes. The methodology of drumlin analysis can be applied to the study of any drumlin field with an adequate coverage of digital spatial data. The ability to consistently identify and characterize drumlin morphology and distribution will allow more objective and systematic comparison of these landforms both within and between

  1. LiDAR Sampling Density for Forest Resource Inventories in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Etheridge

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades there has been an abundance of research demonstrating the utility of airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR for predicting forest biophysical/inventory variables at the plot and stand levels. However, to date there has been little effort to develop a set of protocols for data acquisition and processing that would move governments or the forest industry towards cost-effective implementation of this technology for strategic and tactical (i.e., operational forest resource inventories. The goal of this paper is to initiate this process by examining the significance of LiDAR data acquisition (i.e., point density for modeling forest inventory variables for the range of species and stand conditions representing much of Ontario, Canada. Field data for approximately 200 plots, sampling a broad range of forest types and conditions across Ontario, were collected for three study sites. Airborne LiDAR data, characterized by a mean density of 3.2 pulses m−2 were systematically decimated to produce additional datasets with densities of approximately 1.6 and 0.5 pulses m−2. Stepwise regression models, incorporating LiDAR height and density metrics, were developed for each of the three LiDAR datasets across a range of forest types to estimate the following forest inventory variables: (1 average height (R2(adj = 0.75–0.95; (2 top height (R2(adj = 0.74–0.98; (3 quadratic mean diameter (R2(adj = 0.55–0.85; (4 basal area (R2(adj = 0.22–0.93; (5 gross total volume (R2(adj = 0.42–0.94; (6 gross merchantable volume (R2(adj = 0.35–0.93; (7 total aboveground biomass (R2(adj = 0.23–0.93; and (8 stem density (R2(adj = 0.17–0.86. Aside from a few cases (i.e., average height and density for some stand types, no decimation effect was observed with respect to the precision of the prediction of the majority of forest variables, which suggests that a mean density of 0.5 pulses m−2 is sufficient for plot and stand level

  2. Efficacy of closantel against ivermectin- and fenbendazole-resistant Haemonchus sp. in sheep in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westers, T; Jones-Bitton, A; Menzies, P; Van Leeuwen, J; Poljak, Z; Peregrine, A S

    2016-09-15

    In Ontario, Canada, widespread resistance to ivermectin and fenbendazole, the only readily available ovine anthelmintics, has been documented, primarily in Haemonchus sp. In other parts of the world, closantel has been used to control such infections; however, the drug was not currently licensed for use in Canada and the USA. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on six client-owned farms in Ontario in 2013 and 2014 to determine the efficacy of closantel (Flukiver(®) 5% Oral Suspension, Elanco Animal Health, 10mg/kg bodyweight) against ivermectin- and fenbendazole-resistant Haemonchus sp. infections in periparturient ewes and grazing lambs. Three farms were randomly assigned to treat all ewes, and three farms were randomly assigned to selectively treat individual ewes at lambing, using predetermined criteria. Fecal samples were collected from a minimum of 15 randomly selected ewes and 13 lambs per group on each farm at the time of treatment and approximately 14days later. Trichostrongyle-type fecal egg counts (FEC) were performed using a modified McMaster technique with a lower detection limit of 8.3 eggs per gram of feces (epg). Haemonchus-specific FECs were determined by multiplying FECs by the proportion of Haemonchus sp. identified from coproculture for each farm; Haemonchus-specific FEC reductions were calculated for each farm. Twenty grazing lambs had FECs conducted monthly, and when mean monthly FECs surpassed 200 epg, all lambs were randomly allocated to either closantel, positive control (ivermectin, fenbendazole, or levamisole) or negative control groups. Pre-treatment Haemonchus-specific mean FECs ranged from 27 to 3359 epg in ewes and 0-5698 epg in lambs. Efficacy of closantel against Haemonchus sp. ranged from 99% (95% CI: 97%-99%) to 100% in recently lambed ewes on all farms in both years (total n=274 ewes), and from 99% (95% CI: 98%-99%) to 100% in grazing lambs in both years on all but one farm (total n=171 lambs). On the latter farm, a whole

  3. A Coupled Snow Operations-Skier Demand Model for the Ontario (Canada) Ski Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Marc; Scott, Daniel; Steiger, Robert; Rutty, Michelle; Johnson, Peter; Vilella, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The multi-billion dollar global ski industry is one of the tourism subsectors most directly impacted by climate variability and change. In the decades ahead, the scholarly literature consistently projects decreased reliability of natural snow cover, shortened and more variable ski seasons, as well as increased reliance on snowmaking with associated increases in operational costs. In order to develop the coupled snow, ski operations and demand model for the Ontario ski region (which represents approximately 18% of Canada's ski market), the research utilized multiple methods, including: a in situ survey of over 2400 skiers, daily operations data from ski resorts over the last 10 years, climate station data (1981-2013), climate change scenario ensemble (AR5 - RCP 8.5), an updated SkiSim model (building on Scott et al. 2003; Steiger 2010), and an agent-based model (building on Pons et al. 2014). Daily snow and ski operations for all ski areas in southern Ontario were modeled with the updated SkiSim model, which utilized current differential snowmaking capacity of individual resorts, as determined from daily ski area operations data. Snowmaking capacities and decision rules were informed by interviews with ski area managers and daily operations data. Model outputs were validated with local climate station and ski operations data. The coupled SkiSim-ABM model was run with historical weather data for seasons representative of an average winter for the 1981-2010 period, as well as an anomalously cold winter (2012-13) and the record warm winter in the region (2011-12). The impact on total skier visits and revenues, and the geographic and temporal distribution of skier visits were compared. The implications of further climate adaptation (i.e., improving the snowmaking capacity of all ski areas to the level of leading resorts in the region) were also explored. This research advances system modelling, especially improving the integration of snow and ski operations models with

  4. Perinatal suicide in Ontario, Canada: a 15-year population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriadis, Sophie; Wilton, Andrew S; Kurdyak, Paul A; Rhodes, Anne E; VonderPorten, Emily H; Levitt, Anthony; Cheung, Amy; Vigod, Simone N

    2017-08-28

    Death by suicide during the perinatal period has been understudied in Canada. We examined the epidemiology of and health service use related to suicides during pregnancy and the first postpartum year. In this retrospective, population-based cohort study, we linked health administrative databases with coroner death records (1994-2008) for Ontario, Canada. We compared sociodemographic characteristics, clinical features and health service use in the 30 days and 1 year before death between women who died by suicide perinatally, women who died by suicide outside of the perinatal period and living perinatal women. The perinatal suicide rate was 2.58 per 100 000 live births, with suicide accounting for 51 (5.3%) of 966 perinatal deaths. Most suicides occurred during the final quarter of the first postpartum year, with highest rates in rural and remote regions. Perinatal women were more likely to die from hanging (33.3% [17/51]) or jumping or falling (19.6% [10/51]) than women who died by suicide non-perinatally (p = 0.04). Only 39.2% (20/51) had mental health contact within the 30 days before death, similar to the rate among those who died by suicide non-perinatally (47.7% [762/1597]; odds ratio [OR] 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40-1.25). Compared with living perinatal women matched by pregnancy or postpartum status at date of suicide, perinatal women who died by suicide had similar likelihood of non-mental health primary care and obstetric care before the index date but had a lower likelihood of pediatric contact (64.5% [20/31] v. 88.4% [137/155] at 30 days; OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.10-0.58). The perinatal suicide rate for Ontario during the period 1994-2008 was comparable to international estimates and represents a substantial component of Canadian perinatal mortality. Given that deaths by suicide occur throughout the perinatal period, all health care providers must be collectively vigilant in assessing risk. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  5. Molecular analysis of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Vanessa G; Farrell, David J; Rebbapragada, Anuradha; Tan, Jingyuan; Tijet, Nathalie; Perusini, Stephen J; Towns, Lynn; Lo, Stephen; Low, Donald E; Melano, Roberto G

    2011-02-01

    Surveillance of gonococcal antimicrobial resistance and the molecular characterization of the mechanisms underlying these resistance phenotypes are essential in order to establish correct empirical therapies, as well as to describe the emergence of new mechanisms in local bacterial populations. To address these goals, 149 isolates were collected over a 1-month period (October-November 2008) at the Ontario Public Health Laboratory, Toronto, Canada, and susceptibility profiles (8 antibiotics) were examined. Mutations in previously identified targets or the presence of some enzymes related to resistance (r), nonsusceptibility (ns) (resistant plus intermediate categories), or reduced susceptibility (rs) to the antibiotics tested were also studied. A significant proportion of nonsusceptibility to penicillin (PEN) (89.2%), tetracycline (TET) (72.3%), ciprofloxacin (CIP) (29%), and macrolides (erythromycin [ERY] and azithromycin; 22.3%) was found in these strains. Multidrug resistance was observed in 18.8% of the collection. Although all the strains were susceptible to spectinomycin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) (ceftriaxone and cefixime), 9.4% of them displayed reduced susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. PBP 2 mosaic structures were found in all of these ESC(rs) isolates. Alterations in the mtrR promoter, MtrR repressor (TET(r), PEN(ns), ESC(rs), and ERY(ns)), porin PIB (TET(r) and PEN(ns)), and ribosomal protein S10 (TET(r)) and double mutations in gyrA and parC quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) (CIP(r)) were associated with and presumably responsible for the resistance phenotypes observed. This is the first description of ESC(rs) in Canada. The detection of this phenotype indicates a change in the epidemiology of this resistance and highlights the importance of continued surveillance to preserve the last antimicrobial options available.

  6. Canadian Rheumatology Association Meeting, The Westin Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, February 8-11, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Earl D

    2017-05-01

    The 72nd Annual Meeting of The Canadian Rheumatology Association (CRA) was held at The Westin Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, February 8-11, 2017. The program consisted of presentations covering original research, symposia, awards, and lectures. Highlights of the meeting include the following 2017 award winners: Dr. Vinod Chandran, Young Investigator; Dr. Jacques P. Brown, Distinguished Investigator; Dr. David Robinson, Teacher-Educator; Dr. Michel Zummer, Distinguished Rheumatologist; Ms. Rebecca Gole, Best Abstract on SLE Research by a Trainee - Ian Watson Award; Ms. Bailey Russell, Best Abstract on Clinical or Epidemiology Research by a Trainee - Phil Rosen Award; Dr. Sahil Koppikar and Dr. Henry Averns, Practice Reflection Award; Dr. Shirine Usmani, Best Abstract on Basic Science Research by a Trainee; Ms. Carol Dou, Best Abstract for Research by an Undergraduate Student; Dr. Dania Basodan, Best Abstract on Research by a Rheumatology Resident; Dr. Claire Barber, Best Abstract on Adult Research by Young Faculty; Ms. Audrea Chen, Best Abstract by a Medical Student; Dr. Kun Huang, Best Abstract by a Post-Graduate Resident; and Dr. Ryan Lewinson, Best Abstract by a Post-Graduate Research Trainee. Lectures and other events included a Keynote Lecture by Jonathon Fowles: Exercise is Medicine: Is Exercise a Good or Bad Thing for People with Arthritis?; State of the Art Lecture by Matthew Warman: Insights into Bone Biology and Therapeutics Gleaned from the Sustained Investigation of Rare Diseases; Dunlop-Dottridge Lecture by Allen Steere: Lyme Disease: A New Problem for Rheumatologists in Canada; and the Great Debate: Be it Resolved that the Least Expensive Treatment Should be Chosen. Switch, Switch, Switch! Arguing for: Jonathan Chan and Antonio Avina, and against: Marinka Twilt and Glen Hazlewood. Topics such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, Sjögren syndrome, psoriatic arthritis, spondyloarthritis, vasculitis, osteoarthritis

  7. Monitoring cover crops using radar remote sensing in southern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, J.; Huang, X.; Liu, J.; Wang, J.

    2016-12-01

    Information on agricultural land surface conditions is important for developing best land management practices to maintain the overall health of the fields. The climate condition supports one harvest per year for the majority of the field crops in Canada, with a relative short growing season between May and September. During the non-growing-season months (October to the following April), many fields are traditionally left bare. In more recent year, there has been an increased interest in planting cover crops. Benefits of cover crops include boosting soil organic matters, preventing soil from erosion, retaining soil moisture, and reducing surface runoff hence protecting water quality. Optical remote sensing technology has been exploited for monitoring cover crops. However limitations inherent to optical sensors such as cloud interference and signal saturation (when leaf area index is above 2.5) impeded its operational application. Radar remote sensing on the other hand is not hindered by unfavorable weather conditions, and the signal continues to be sensitive to crop growth beyond the saturation point of optical sensors. It offers a viable means for capturing timely information on field surface conditions (with or without crop cover) or crop development status. This research investigated the potential of using multi-temporal RADARSAT-2 C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data collected in 2015 over multiple fields of winter wheat, corn and soybean crops in southern Ontario, Canada, to retrieve information on the presence of cover crops and their growth status. Encouraging results have been obtained. This presentation will report the methodology developed and the results obtained.

  8. Does Predation Influence the Seasonal and Diel Timing of Moose Calving in Central Ontario, Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Brent R; Mills, Kenneth J; Middel, Kevin R; Benson, John F; Obbard, Martyn E

    2016-01-01

    Birth synchrony is well documented among ungulates and is hypothesised to maximize neonate survival, either by minimizing the risk of predation through predator swamping or by synchronising birthing with increased seasonal food availability. We used encapsulated vaginal implant transmitters to locate and capture neonatal moose calves and document the seasonal and diel timing of parturition in two adjacent study areas with different predation pressure in central Ontario, Canada. We tested the hypothesis that predation promotes earlier and more synchronous birth of moose calves. Across both areas, proportionately more births occurred during the afternoon and fewer than expected occurred overnight. Mean date of calving averaged 1.5 days earlier and calving was also more synchronous in the study area with heavier predation pressure, despite average green-up date and peak Normalized Difference Vegetation Index date occurring 2 days later in this study area than in the area receiving lighter predation pressure. We encourage analysis of data on timing of parturition from additional study areas experiencing varying degrees of predation pressure to better clarify the influence of predation in driving seasonal and diel timing of parturition in temperate ungulates.

  9. Bioaccessibility of uranium in soil samples from Port Hope, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Slobodan V; Pan, Pujing; Wong, Larry

    2012-08-21

    Adequate assessment of human health risk of uranium contamination at hazardous waste sites, which is an important step in determining the cleanup strategy, is based on bioavailability data. Bioavailability of uranium from contaminated soil has not been properly determined yet. Bioaccessibility is an in vitro conservative estimate of bioavailability and is thus frequently used for site-specific risk assessment. Bioaccessibility of uranium was measured in 33 soil samples from the Port Hope area in Ontario, Canada, by the physiologically based extraction test (PBET). Higher bioaccessibility values in the gastric plus intestinal phase, 48.4% ± 16.8%, than in the gastric phase, 20.8% ± 11.7%, are very probably the result of more efficient extraction of uranium from soil by intestinal fluid rich in carbonate ions. The observed variability of measured bioaccessibility values is discussed in light of the results of scanning electron microscope examination of the soil samples. Uranium bioaccessibility values in both gastric (acidic) and gastric plus intestinal (neutral) phases are higher in soil samples with smaller uranium-bearing particles and lower in samples where the uranium-bearing particles are larger. We postulate that the most important reason for variability of measured bioaccessibility values in Port Hope soil samples may be the difference in particle size of uranium-bearing particles.

  10. An examination of the health information seeking experiences of women in rural Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.N. Wathen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Women are active information seekers, particularly in the context of managing health for themselves and their families. Rural living may present particular challenges and opportunities for women in their health information seeking. Method. Forty women living in a rural part of Ontario, Canada were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. They were asked about their health information seeking for both chronic and acute concerns. Analysis. Interview transcripts were organized using NVivo software (version 6 and analysed using a coding scheme iteratively developed by both authors. Results. Emerging themes included: the context of rural living, information and health literacy, the role of unanticipated information intermediaries in the search process, and the mis-match between assumptions made by 'the system' about sources of information, and women's lived realities. Conclusion. . There are unique challenges and enablers to health information seeking for women living in rural areas, including the role of formal, informal and ICT-based information intermediaries, the availability to women of required literacies for health information seeking and uptake. Research findings such as those presented in this paper can assist in better understanding both the contexts of information seeking, as well as the preferences and behaviour of those with information needs.

  11. Medical physics staffing for radiation oncology: a decade of experience in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Jerry J; Clark, Brenda G; Patterson, Michael S; Beaulieu, Luc; Sharpe, Michael B; Schreiner, L John; MacPherson, Miller S; Van Dyk, Jacob

    2012-01-05

    The January 2010 articles in The New York Times generated intense focus on patient safety in radiation treatment, with physics staffing identified frequently as a critical factor for consistent quality assurance. The purpose of this work is to review our experience with medical physics staffing, and to propose a transparent and flexible staffing algorithm for general use. Guided by documented times required per routine procedure, we have developed a robust algorithm to estimate physics staffing needs according to center-specific workload for medical physicists and associated support staff, in a manner we believe is adaptable to an evolving radiotherapy practice. We calculate requirements for each staffing type based on caseload, equipment inventory, quality assurance, educational programs, and administration. Average per-case staffing ratios were also determined for larger-scale human resource planning and used to model staffing needs for Ontario, Canada over the next 10 years. The workload specific algorithm was tested through a survey of Canadian cancer centers. For center-specific human resource planning, we propose a grid of coefficients addressing specific workload factors for each staff group. For larger scale forecasting of human resource requirements, values of 260, 700, 300, 600, 1200, and 2000 treated cases per full-time equivalent (FTE) were determined for medical physicists, physics assistants, dosimetrists, electronics technologists, mechanical technologists, and information technology specialists, respectively.

  12. Measurement and Correlation of Ambient VOCs in Windsor, Ontario, Canada and Detroit, Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L. J.; You, H.; Xu, X.; Molaroni, S.; Lemke, L.; Weglicki, L.; Krouse, H.; Krajenta, R.

    2009-05-01

    An air quality study has been carried out in Windsor, Ontario, Canada and Detroit, Michigan, USA as part of a pilot research study undertaken by the Geospatial Determinants of Health Outcomes Consortium (GeoDHOC), a multidisciplinary, international effort aimed at understanding the health effects of air pollution in urban environments. Exposure to volatile organic compounds has long been associated with adverse health conditions such as atrophy of skeletal muscles, loss of coordination, neurological damage, dizziness, throat, nose, and eye irritation, nervous system depression, liver damage, and respiratory symptoms. Twenty-six species of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitored during a 2-week period in September, 2008 at 100 sites across Windsor and Detroit, using 3M # 3500 Organic Vapour Monitors. Ten species with highest concentrations were selected for further investigation; Toluene (mean concentration =4.14 μm/m3), (m+p)-Xylene (2.30 μm/m3), Hexane (1.87 μm/m3), Benzene (1.37 μm/m3), 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene (0.87 μm/m3), Dichloromethane (0.77 μm/m3), Ethylbenzene (0.68 μm/m3), o-Xylene (0.63 μm/m3), n-Decane (0.42 μm/m3), and 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene (0.39 μm/m3). Comparison to a similar investigation in Sarnia, Ontario in October 2005 revealed that the mean concentrations of VOCs were higher in Windsor-Detroit for all species by a significant margin (31-958%), indicating substantial impact of local industrial and vehicular emissions in the WindsorVDetroit area. For most VOCs, the concentrations were higher in Detroit than in Windsor. The mean concentration of total VOC was 9.7 μm/m3 in Windsor, which is slightly higher than that in Sarnia in 2005 (7.9 um/m3), whilst total VOC concentration in Detroit was much higher (16.5 μm/m3). There were strong correlations among several of the 10 species, with the highest Pearson correlation coefficients (r=0.78 - 0.99, p<0.05) amongst the BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) group

  13. An analysis of the relationship between bulk tank milk quality and wash water quality on dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, N R; Kelton, D F; Hand, K J; MacNaughton, G; Berke, O; Leslie, K E

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify regions at high risk for bacterial water or milk contamination, as well as risk factors associated with high bacteria counts in raw milk in Ontario, Canada. Between 2003 and 2004, the Dairy Farmers of Ontario (DFO) tested water samples from 5,421 farms in Ontario for the presence of Escherichia coli and coliforms. The water samples were collected as "point-of-use" samples, meaning that each sample was taken from a tap or water hose in the milk house as soon as the water was turned on. Routine, monthly raw milk bacterial counts were determined by DFO using BactoScan (Foss, Hillerød, Denmark). BactoScan data were retrieved from DFO for all of the farms with water test results. The prevalence of samples with E. coli and coliforms in water and elevated bacteria counts in raw milk was 13.6, 53.8, and 2.8%, respectively. The spatial analysis, using a scan statistic, revealed 1 coliform and 3 E. coli clusters of contaminated water, but no clusters of elevated milk bacteria counts in raw milk in southern Ontario. The coliform water contamination cluster was the largest, with a radius of approximately 200 km. Regression analysis indicated that risk factors associated with the occurrence of high levels of bacteria in raw milk were elevated average monthly somatic cell count, increased total milk production, cooler seasons of the year, and the presence of E. coli in wash water.

  14. Characterization and virulence of Beauveria spp. recovered from emerald ash borer in southwestern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johny, Shajahan; Kyei-Poku, George; Gauthier, Debbie; Frankenhuyzen, Kees van; Krell, Peter J

    2012-09-15

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive wood boring beetle that is decimating North America's ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). To find effective and safe indigenous biocontrol agents to manage EAB, we conducted a survey in 2008-2009 of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) infecting EAB in five outbreak sites in southwestern Ontario, Canada. A total of 78 Beauveria spp. isolates were retrieved from dead and mycosed EAB cadavers residing in the phloem tissues of dead ash barks, larval frass extracted from feeding galleries under the bark of dead trees. Molecular characterization using sequences of the ITS, 5' end of EF1-α and intergenic Bloc region fragments revealed that Beauveria bassiana and Beauveria pseudobassiana were commonly associated with EAB in the sampled sites. Based on phylogenetic analysis inferred from ITS sequences, 17 of these isolates clustered with B. bassiana, which further grouped into three different sub-clades. However, the combined EF1-α and Bloc sequences detected five genotypes among the three sub-clades. The remaining 61 isolates clustered with B. pseudobassiana, which had identical ITS sequences but were further subdivided into two genotypes by variation in the EF1-α and Bloc regions. Initial virulence screening against EAB adults of 23 isolates representing the different clades yielded 8 that produced more than 90% mortality in a single concentration assay. These isolates differed in virulence based on LC(50) values estimated from multiple concentration bioassay and based on mean survival times at a conidia concentration of 2×10(6) conidia/ml. B. bassiana isolate L49-1AA was significantly more virulent and produced more conidia on EAB cadavers compared to the other indigenous isolates and the commercial strain B. bassiana GHA suggesting that L49-1AA may have potential as a microbiological control agent against EAB.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Southern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Claire M; Janecko, Nicol; Allan, Mike; Boerlin, Patrick; Chalmers, Gabhan; Kozak, Gosia; McEwen, Scott A; Reid-Smith, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in fecal Escherichia coli isolates from raccoons (Procyon lotor) living in Ontario, Canada. From June to October 2007, we trapped raccoons in three areas: one primarily urban site around Niagara, one primarily rural site north of Guelph, and one at the Toronto Zoo. In addition, we conducted a longitudinal study at the Toronto Zoo site to investigate the temporal dynamics of fecal E. coli and AMR in raccoons. Reduced susceptibility to ≥1 antimicrobial agent was detected in E. coli isolates from 19% of 16 raccoons at the urban site, 17% of 29 raccoons from the rural site, and 42% of 130 samples collected from 59 raccoons at the zoo site. Raccoons from the zoo site were significantly more likely to shed E. coli with reduced susceptibility to ≥1 antimicrobial agent than animals from the rural site (odds ratio [OR], 3.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17 to 12.09; P = 0.02). Resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (and the associated bla(CMY-2) gene) was detected in two animals from the zoo site and one animal from the rural site. Serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis show that raccoons on the zoo grounds harbor a diverse assemblage of E. coli, with rapid bacterial turnover within individuals over time. Our study indicates that raccoons may shed resistant bacteria of public health significance and that raccoons have the potential to disseminate these bacteria throughout their environment.

  16. Facebook use among early-career veterinarians in Ontario, Canada (March to May 2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijs, Cynthia A; Coe, Jason B; Christofides, Emily; Muise, Amy; Desmarais, Serge

    2013-04-15

    To explore the nature and content of information publicly posted to Facebook by early-career veterinarians. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Sample-352 early-career veterinarians. Publicly accessible Facebook profiles were searched online from March to May 2010 for profiles of early-career veterinarians (graduates from 2004 through 2009) registered with the College of Veterinarians of Ontario, Canada. The content of veterinarians' Facebook profiles was evaluated and then categorized as low, medium, or high exposure in terms of the information a veterinarian had publicly posted to Facebook. Through the use of content analysis, high-exposure profiles were further analyzed for publicly posted information that may have posed risks to an individual's or the profession's public image. Facebook profiles for 352 of 494 (71%) registered early-career veterinarians were located. One-quarter (25%) of profiles were categorized as low exposure (ie, high privacy), over half (54%) as medium exposure (i.e., medium privacy), and 21% as high exposure (i.e., low privacy). Content analysis of the high-exposure profiles identified publicly posted information that may pose risks to an individual's or the profession's reputation, including breaches of client confidentiality, evidence of substance abuse, and demeaning comments toward others. Almost a quarter of veterinarians' Facebook profiles viewed in the present study contained publicly available content of a questionable nature that could pose a risk to the reputation of the individual, his or her practice, or the veterinary profession. The increased use of Facebook and all types of social media points to the need for raised awareness by veterinarians of all ages of how to manage one's personal and professional identities online to minimize reputation risks for individuals and their practices and to protect the reputation and integrity of the veterinary profession.

  17. Secondary vegetation succession on jack pine (Pinus banksiana) cutovers in northeastern Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiveau, Daniel

    2000-07-01

    The effects of different harvesting and site preparation methods on competing vegetation were studied in nine jack pine (Pinus banksiana) cutovers in northeastern Ontario, Canada. Six different treatments plus glyphosate herbiciding and no herbiciding were applied: 1) tree-length harvesting followed by trenching, and full-tree harvesting followed by five site preparations, 2) no site preparation, 3) trenching and 4) blading and compaction as well as blading followed by two planting densities, 5) 1.2m and 6) 2m. Competing vegetation was assessed preharvest and years 1, 2, 3, and 5 postharvest. Data was also available from nine juvenile sites as well as nine semimature sites. Data collection consisted of coverage values of each species as well as structural data for main life forms in height classes. Growth and health data of the planted jack pine seedlings were also available. The data was analyzed using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA), diversity indices and tabular analysis. Three years after the herbicide application there is no difference between the total coverage in the halfplots that have received herbiciding and those that have not, but an alteration of the relative abundance of species groups has developed; glyphosate herbiciding promotes grasses over shrubs. When no site preparation is applied, shrubs increase and compete with the seedlings, whose growth is cut in half compared to the ones that have been site prepared by trenching. Five years after blading, and blading plus compaction, there is still very little vegetation in the research plots, but there is no reduction of the survival rate and growth of the jack pine seedlings. More dense planting after this treatment leads to more competing vegetation, probably due to increased availability of moisture. Grasses do not seem to be affected by compaction and pioneer mosses are promoted by this treatment but compaction leads to a significant reduction of the total coverage of competing vegetation

  18. Provenance of buried esker groundwater: the case of Vars-Winchester esker aquifer, Eastern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauriol, Jacques

    2016-02-01

    An innovative mode of groundwater recharge to a buried esker aquifer is considered. The current conceptual model affords a natural safeguard to underlying aquifers from the overlying muds. A hypothesis of groundwater recharge to a buried esker aquifer via preferential pathways across its overlying muds is tested here by heuristic numerical one-dimensional and two-dimensional modeling simulations. The hypothesis has been tested against two other conventionally accepted scenarios involving: (1) distal esker outcrop areas and (2) remote shallow-bedrock recharge areas. The main evidence comes from documented recharge pressure pulses in the overlying mud aquitard and in the underlying esker hydraulic-head time series for the Vars-Winchester esker aquifer in Eastern Ontario, Canada. These perturbations to the potentiometric surface are believed to be the aquifer response to recharge events. The migration rate of these pressure pulses is directly related to the hydraulic diffusivity of the formation. The measured response time and response amplitude between singular radar precipitation events and well hydrographs constituted the heuristic model calibration targets. The main evidence also includes mud-layering deformation (water escape features) which was observed in seismic surveys of the over-esker muds. These disturbed stratigraphic elements provide a realistic mechanism for migrating water to transit through the muds. The effective hydraulic conductivities of these preferential pathways in the muds were estimated to be between 2 × 10-6 and 7 × 10-6 m/s. The implications of these findings relate to the alleged natural safeguard of these overlying muds.

  19. Publicly funded medical savings accounts: expenditure and distributional impacts in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Jeremiah; Guindon, G Emmanuel; Rynard, Vicki; Morgan, Steve

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents the findings from simulations of the introduction of publicly funded medical savings accounts (MSAs) in the province of Ontario, Canada. The analysis exploits a unique data set linking population-based health survey information with individual-level information on all physician services and hospital services utilization over a four-year period. The analysis provides greater detail along three dimensions than have previous analyses: (1) the distributional impacts of publicly funded MSAs across individuals of differing health statuses, incomes, ages, and current expenditures; (2) the impact of differing degrees of risk adjustment for MSA contributions; and (3) the impact of MSA funding over multiple years, incorporating year-to-year variation in spending at the individual level. In addition, it analyses more plausible designs for publicly funded MSAs than the existing studies. Government uses information available from year t - 1 to allocate its budget for year t in a manner that is ex ante fiscally neutral for the public sector: the government first withholds funds equal to expected catastrophic insurance payments under the MSA plan, and then allocates only the balance to individual MSA accounts. The government captures the savings associated with reduced health-care utilization under MSAs and we examine deductibles that vary by income rather than by current health-care expenditures. The impacts on public expenditures under these designs are more modest than in the previous studies and under plausible assumptions MSAs are predicted to decrease public expenditures. MSAs, however, are also predicted to have unavoidable negative distributional consequences with respect to both public expenditures and out-of-pocket spending.

  20. Hf isotope evidence for effective impact melt homogenisation at the Sudbury impact crater, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Gavin G.; Petrus, Joseph A.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Daly, J. Stephen; Kamber, Balz S.

    2017-10-01

    We report on the first zircon hafnium-oxygen isotope and trace element study of a transect through one of the largest terrestrial impact melt sheets. The differentiated melt sheet at the 1.85 Ga, originally ca. 200 km in diameter Sudbury impact crater, Ontario, Canada, yields a tight range of uniform zircon Hf isotope compositions (εHf(1850) of ca. -9 to -12). This is consistent with its well-established crustal origin and indicates differentiation from a single melt that was initially efficiently homogenised. We propose that the heterogeneity in other isotopic systems, such as Pb, in early-emplaced impact melt at Sudbury is associated with volatility-related depletion during the impact cratering process. This depletion leaves the isotopic systems of more volatile elements more susceptible to contamination during post-impact assimilation of country rock, whereas the systems of more refractory elements preserve initial homogeneities. Zircon oxygen isotope compositions in the melt sheet are also restricted in range relative to those in the impacted target rocks. However, they display a marked offset approximately one-third up the melt sheet stratigraphy that is interpreted to be a result of post-impact assimilation of 18O-enirched rocks into the base of the cooling impact melt. Given that impact cratering was a more dominant process in the early history of the inner Solar System than it is today, and the possibility that impact melt sheets were sources of ex situ Hadean zircon grains, these findings may have significance for the interpretation of the early zircon Hf record. We speculate that apparent εHf-time arrays observed in the oldest terrestrial and lunar zircon datasets may be related to impact melting homogenising previously more diverse crust. We also show that spatially restricted partial melting of rocks buried beneath the superheated impact melt at Sudbury provided a zircon crystallising environment distinct to the impact melt sheet itself.

  1. Food consumption patterns in the Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada: a cross-sectional telephone survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook Angela

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The demographics and lifestyles of Canadians are changing, thereby influencing food choices and food preparation in the home. Although different dietary practices are associated with increased risk of foodborne illness, our ability to evaluate food consumption trends and assess risks associated with foodborne illness is limited by lack of data on current eating habits and consumer food safety practices. The objective of this study was to describe, for the first time, the food consumption patterns in a Canadian-based population from a food safety perspective, in order to establish baseline data on actual food intake of individuals. Method A cross-sectional telephone survey of 2,332 randomly selected residents of Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada (C-EnterNet pilot site was conducted between November 2005 and March 2006. Food intake was assessed using a 7-day dietary recall method. Results Certain food items were consumed more than others among the same food groups, and consumption of many food items varied by gender and age. Specific foods considered high-risk for the transmission of certain enteric pathogens were significantly more likely to be consumed by males (i.e. unpasteurized juice, bean sprouts, and undercooked meat and elderly individuals (i.e. undercooked eggs. The majority of households prepared and consumed most meals at home, allocating an average of 44 minutes to prepare a meal. Conclusion Baseline data on actual food intake is useful to public health professionals and food safety risk assessors for developing communication messages to consumers and in foodborne outbreak investigations.

  2. Transient bacterial contamination of the dual-porosity aquifer at Walkerton, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Stephen R. H.; Smart, C. Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Contamination of the Paleozoic carbonate aquifer at Walkerton (Ontario, Canada) by pathogenic bacteria following heavy rain in May 2000 resulted in 2,300 illnesses and seven deaths. Subsequent tracer testing showed that there was rapid groundwater flow in the aquifer, and also rapid exchange between the aquifer and the ground surface. Electrical conductivity (EC) profiling during a 3-day pumping test showed that most flow was through bedding-plane fractures spaced about 10 m apart, that there were substantial contrasts in EC in the major fracture flows, and that there were rapid changes over time. Total coliform sampling revealed transient groundwater contamination, particularly after heavy rain and lasting up to a few days. These characteristics can be understood in terms of the dual-porosity nature of the aquifer. Most of the storage is in the matrix, but this can be considered to be static in the short term. Almost all transport is through the fracture network, which has rapid groundwater flow (˜100 m/day) and rapid transmission of pressure pulses due to the high hydraulic diffusivity. Rapid recharge can occur through thin and/or fractured overburden and at spring sites where flow is reversed by pumping during episodes of surface flooding. These characteristics facilitated the ingress of surface-derived bacteria into the aquifer, and their rapid transport within the aquifer to pumping wells. Bacterial presence is common in carbonate aquifers, and this can be explained by the well-connected, large-aperture fracture networks in these dual-porosity aquifers, even though many, such as at Walkerton, lack karst landforms.

  3. Respiratory virus infection and risk of invasive meningococcal disease in central Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashleigh R Tuite

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In temperate climates, invasive meningococcal disease (IMD incidence tends to coincide with or closely follow peak incidence of influenza virus infection; at a seasonal level, increased influenza activity frequently correlates with increased seasonal risk of IMD. METHODS: We evaluated 240 cases of IMD reported in central Ontario, Canada, from 2000 to 2006. Associations between environmental and virological (influenza A, influenza B and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV exposures and IMD incidence were evaluated using negative binomial regression models controlling for seasonal oscillation. Acute effects of weekly respiratory virus activity on IMD risk were evaluated using a matched-period case-crossover design with random directionality of control selection. Effects were estimated using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Multivariable negative binomial regression identified elevated IMD risk with increasing influenza A activity (per 100 case increase, incidence rate ratio = 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.06, 1.31. In case-crossover models, increasing weekly influenza A activity was associated with an acute increase in the risk of IMD (per 100 case increase, odds ratio (OR  = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.28 to 3.23. Increasing weekly RSV activity was associated with increased risk of IMD after adjusting for RSV activity in the previous 3 weeks (per 100 case increase, OR = 4.31, 95% CI: 1.14, 16.32. No change in disease risk was seen with increasing influenza B activity. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified an acute effect of influenza A and RSV activity on IMD risk. If confirmed, these finding suggest that influenza vaccination may have the indirect benefit of reducing IMD risk.

  4. The role of transboundary flow on 1995 ozone levels in Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, D.; Fraser, D.; Kiely, P.; Brou, G. de; Dong, W. [Ontario Ministry of Environmental and Energy, Etobicoke, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Exceedances of the ozone criterion in Ontario are often widespread and associated with episodes. Here an episode refers to distinct meteorological events in which there is the simultaneous occurrence of widespread (hundreds of kilometers) elevated ozone levels (greater than 80 ppb maximum hourly concentration). An examination of the ozone data for 1995 (based on 45 monitoring sites) indicates that there were 16 such episode days in Ontario. This was slightly higher than the numbers reported in 1992 to 1994. The trend in the number of ozone episode days in Ontario over the past 17 years show the highest frequencies in 1988, 1991 and 1983. Associated air parcel back trajectories on the 16 episode days all show transboundary flows from the neighboring states of the U.S. Typically air parcels traversed regions south-southwest of southwestern Ontario. In 1995 there were, however, a number of episode days with associated southeasterly flows compared to that experienced in previous years. For example, there were about 25 such cases in 1995 compared to 8% in 1991 and none in 1988. On ozone excursion days (exceedances of 124 ppb) in Michigan, transboundary flows were significant and ozone levels in Ontario were generally high. These results support the concept of a common airshed between Ontario and neighboring states and that southern Ontario is located often within the northern edge of the ozone problem area in eastern North America.

  5. Will free trade in electricity between Ontario/Canada and the U.S. improve air quality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plagiannakos, T. [Ontario Power Generation Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2000-10-01

    The impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on electricity trade between Canada and the United States is assessed. Results of this study indicate that free trade in electricity between Ontario and the U.S. will not affect air quality since both Canada and the United States have made significant reductions in emissions and are committed to further reductions and tighter NOx emission standards in the future. In the short-term, however, if open access takes place before tighter NOx emission standards take effect, emissions could increase and adversely affect air quality both in Canada and the U.S. To reduce the extent of air quality deterioration it is proposed that (1) environmental regulations take into consideration regional differences, (2) emission standards for electricity generators in Canada and the U.S. continue to converge to ensure competition on a level playing field, (3) electricity trading programs be harmonized to enable generation companies to take advantage of opportunities for reducing emissions at the lowest cost, (4) Canada and the U.S. establish a process for harmonizing future environmental regulations for mercury emissions, long-term targets for sulphur dioxide and NOx emissions as well as for particulates emissions. 4 refs., 21 figs.

  6. Promoting the Everyday: Pro-Sharia Advocacy and Public Relations in Ontario, Canada's "Sharia Debate"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jennifer A Selby

    2013-01-01

    .... Instead, I argue that the "Sharia Debate" served as a catalyst for mainstream conservative Muslim groups in Ontario to develop public relations apparatuses that better facilitate the perspectives of everyday religious conservatives in the public sphere.

  7. Azithromycin resistance is coevolving with reduced susceptibility to cephalosporins in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Vanessa G; Seah, Christine; Martin, Irene; Melano, Roberto G

    2014-05-01

    Azithromycin (AZM) is routinely recommended as a component of dual therapy for gonorrhea in combination with third-generation cephalosporins (3GC). In this study, we examined the prevalence of AZM-resistant (AZM(r)) Neisseria gonorrhoeae from July 2010 to February 2013, assessed the rate of concurrent cephalosporin resistance under the current treatment recommendations, and analyzed the clonal distribution of AZM(r) isolates in Ontario, Canada. Nineteen AZM(r) clinical isolates (one per patient; MIC, ≥2 μg/ml) were included in the study. Susceptibility profiles of these isolates to 11 antibiotics, molecular typing, characterization of macrolide resistance mechanisms, and penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) patterns were determined for all the isolates. Two groups were defined based on AZM(r) level; group A isolates displayed high-level resistance (MIC, ≥2,048 μg/ml) due to mutations (A2143G) in the four copies of the 23S rRNA rrl gene, and group B isolates had moderate resistance to AZM (MICs, 2 to 8 μg/ml, C2599T mutation in the rrl gene), with a subgroup belonging to sequence type 3158 (ST3158) (n = 8), which also showed reduced susceptibility to 3GC (MICs, 0.12 to 0.25 μg/ml, PBP2 pattern XXXIV). This AZM(r) phenotype was not observed in previous provincial surveillance in 2008 (the ST3158 clone was found, with AZM MICs of 0.25 to 0.5 μg/ml associated with mtrR mutations). We hypothesized that the AZM mutant prevention concentration (MPC) in the ST3158 subpopulation we found in 2008 was higher than the MPC in wild-type isolates (AZM MIC, ≤0.031 μg/ml), increasing the chances of additional selection of AZM(r) mutations. Full AZM resistance is now emerging in this clone together with reduced susceptibility to 3GC, threatening the future efficacy of these antibiotics as therapeutic options for treatment of gonorrhea.

  8. A cohort study relating urban green space with mortality in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Paul J; Jerrett, Michael; Su, Jason G; Burnett, Richard T; Chen, Hong; Wheeler, Amanda J; Goldberg, Mark S

    2012-05-01

    Parks and green space areas are important to human health for psychological and physiological reasons. There have been few evaluations of access to green space on mortality. This paper describes a cohort study of approximately 575,000 adults, 35 years of age and older, who resided in 10 urban areas in Ontario, Canada, between 1982 and 1986. Individuals were identified from income tax filings, and vital status was determined up to December 31, 2004 through record linkage to the Canadian Mortality Data Base. Place of residence was defined by postal code data that were extracted from income tax filings. Urban green space was defined by Landsat satellite retrievals with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and this was assigned to individuals' place of residence at inception into the cohort using both a 30 m grid cell and a 500 m buffer. The proportional hazards model was used to estimate rate ratios (RRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for selected underlying causes of death. The rate ratios were adjusted for income, marital status, ambient air pollution, and contextual neighborhood characteristics. About 187,000 subjects died during follow-up. An increase in the interquartile range of green space, using a 500 m buffer, was associated with reduced non-accidental mortality (RR=0.95, 95% CI=0.94-0.96). Reductions in mortality with increased residential green space were observed for each underlying cause of death; the strongest association was found for respiratory disease mortality (RR=0.91, 95% CI=0.89-0.93). Risk estimates were essentially unchanged after adjusting for ambient air pollution. Our study suggests that green space in urban environments was associated with long-term reduction in mortality although this finding should be interpreted cautiously as this association may be influenced by residual confounding of sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Further research is needed to: confirm these findings, better understand the

  9. Primary care physician characteristics associated with cancer screening: a retrospective cohort study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofters, Aisha K; Ng, Ryan; Lobb, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    Primary care physicians can serve as both facilitators and barriers to cancer screening, particularly for under-screened groups such as immigrant patients. The objective of this study was to inform physician-targeted interventions by identifying primary care physician characteristics associated with cancer screening for their eligible patients, for their eligible immigrant patients, and for foreign-trained physicians, for their eligible immigrant patients from the same world region. A population-based retrospective cohort study was performed, looking back 3 years from 31 December 2010. The study was performed in urban primary care practices in Ontario, Canada's largest province. A total of 6303 physicians serving 1,156,627 women eligible for breast cancer screening, 2,730,380 women eligible for cervical screening, and 2,260,569 patients eligible for colorectal screening participated. Appropriate breast screening was defined as at least one mammogram in the previous 2 years, appropriate cervical screening was defined as at least one Pap test in the previous 3 years, and appropriate colorectal screening as at least one fecal occult blood test in the previous 2 years or at least one colonoscopy or barium enema in the previous 10 years. Just fewer than 40% of physicians were female, and 26.1% were foreign trained. In multivariable analyses, physicians who attended medical schools in the Caribbean/Latin America, the Middle East/North Africa, South Asia, and Western Europe were less likely to screen their patients than Canadian graduates. South Asian-trained physicians were significantly less likely to screen South Asian women for cervical cancer than other foreign-trained physicians who were seeing region-congruent patients (adjusted odds ratio: 0.56 [95% confidence interval 0.32-0.98] versus physicians from the USA, Australia and New Zealand). South Asian patients were the most vulnerable to under-screening, and decreasing patient income quintile was consistently

  10. Mortality and Disease in Wild Turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) in Ontario, Canada, from 1992 to 2014: A Retrospective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Amanda M; Jardine, Claire M; Campbell, G Douglas; Nemeth, Nicole M

    2016-09-01

    Wild turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) were extirpated from Ontario, Canada, in the early 1900s due to unregulated over-hunting and habitat loss. Despite a successful reintroduction program and strong population numbers, information regarding the health of wild turkeys in Ontario is scarce. A 22-yr (1992-2014) retrospective study was performed to evaluate diagnostic data, including the cause(s) and contributors to death, in wild turkeys submitted to the Ontario-Nunavut node of the Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative (n = 56). Noninfectious diagnostic findings (39/56; 69.6%) were more common than infectious, with emaciation recognized most frequently (n = 19; 33.9%) followed by trauma (n = 11, 19.6%). The majority of deaths due to emaciation occurred in winter and spring (17/18; 94.4%), which is consistent with lack of access to or availability of food resources. Morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases was diagnosed in 16 (28.6%) wild turkeys. Avian poxvirus was the most common infectious cause of disease (n = 7; 12.5%), followed by bacterial infections (n = 5; 8.9%), the most common of which was Pasteurella multocida . Zinc phosphide toxicosis (n = 7; 12.5%) occurred in two incidents involving multiple birds. This study aims to provide baseline data that can be used for reference and comparison in future wild turkey disease surveillance and population monitoring studies.

  11. Early detection of emerald ash borer infestation using multisourced data: a case study in the town of Oakville, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kongwen; Hu, Baoxin; Robinson, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) poses a significant economic and environmental threat to ash trees in southern Ontario, Canada, and the northern states of the USA. It is critical that effective technologies are urgently developed to detect, monitor, and control the spread of EAB. This paper presents a methodology using multisourced data to predict potential infestations of EAB in the town of Oakville, Ontario, Canada. The information combined in this study includes remotely sensed data, such as high spatial resolution aerial imagery, commercial ground and airborne hyperspectral data, and Google Earth imagery, in addition to nonremotely sensed data, such as archived paper maps and documents. This wide range of data provides extensive information that can be used for early detection of EAB, yet their effective employment and use remain a significant challenge. A prediction function was developed to estimate the EAB infestation states of individual ash trees using three major attributes: leaf chlorophyll content, tree crown spatial pattern, and prior knowledge. Comparison between these predicted values and a ground-based survey demonstrated an overall accuracy of 62.5%, with 22.5% omission and 18.5% commission errors.

  12. Contributions to the faunistics and bionomics of Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) in northeastern North America: discoveries made through study of the University of Guelph Insect Collection, Ontario, Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Brunke; Stephen Marshall

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Staphylinidae (Rove Beetles) from northeastern North America deposited in the University of Guelph Insect Collection (Ontario, Canada) were curated from 2008–2010 by the first author. The identification of this material has resulted in the recognition of thirty-five new provincial or state records, six new Canadian records, one new record for the United States and two new records for eastern Canada. All records are for subfamilies other than Aleocharinae and Pselaphinae, which will b...

  13. A melt inclusion study of the Sudbury Igneous Complex (Ontario, Canada): preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Kathleen; Hanley, Jacob; Kontak, Daniel; Ames, Doreen

    2013-04-01

    The 1.85 Ga Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC), Ontario, Canada, is an intrusive complex representing the crystallized melt sheet that formed within a large impact crater. The SIC has been extensively studied due to its rich endowment in magmatic sulfide ores (Ni-Cu-PGEs). The nature and origin of the SIC melt sheet and its subsequent evolution still remain controversial. In this study, analyses of primary melt inclusions hosted in cumulus apatite within three mafic units of the SIC (gabbro, norite and sublayer quartz diorite) are used to decipher the thermometric and chemical characteristics of the evolving melt sheet as it crystallized. Apatite-hosted melt inclusions commonly display a negative crystal shape, occur parallel to the c-axis, and often occur within a central growth zone, which suggest a primary origin. The compositions of coeval (co-entrapped) melt inclusions are distinct and may represent either the products of immiscibility (low or high temperature field; c.f. the Skaergaard Intrusion: Jakobsen et al., Geology, 2005), or a product of early, high-temperature, impact-generated emulsification (prior to and independent of crystallization of the melt sheet). The compositions of homogenized (1100-1200oC for 3 hrs) melt inclusions, determined by SEM-EDS and EMP analyses of opened, homogenized melt inclusions, equate to two distinct compositions: (1) Type-I are SiO2-rich, ranging from tonalitic to granodioritic in composition (60-70 wt% SiO2, up to 11 wt% FeO); and (2) Type-II are Fe-rich with syenogabbroic to essexitic to alkali gabbroic compositions (27-49 wt% SiO2, 16-44 wt% FeO). Trace element data, obtained by LA-ICPMS analyses of single inclusions and surrounding host apatite, are used to infer D values between apatite and the two melt types, and between the coexisting melt types. Apparent Dap-melt values for both Type-I and Type-II inclusions show that the REE, Sr, and Y are compatible in apatite, and As is weakly compatible or incompatible in apatite

  14. Impact of long term wetting on pore water chemistry in a peat bog in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Jonas; Blodau, Christian; Holger Knorr, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    Peatlands of the northern hemisphere store a remarkable amount of carbon but also contribute to global methane emissions. As large areas in the boreal and subarctic zone are considered to undergo significant climate change it is necessary to understand how these ecosystems react to altered environmental conditions. Since not only temperatures but also precipitation is likely to increase in these regions, it is of particular interest to understand the impact of raised water tables and changing local hydrological flow patterns on peatlands' carbon cycle. We chose a pristine bog that was partly flooded by a reservoir lake created 60 years ago in Ontario, Canada. Water management in the reservoir resulted in seasonal flooding, shifting hydrological flow patterns and vegetation gradients. The impact of partial flooding on pore water chemistry and DIC and CH4 concentrations were studied within surface peat layers. Samples were taken with pore water peepers along the vegetation- and flooding gradient. Turnover rates of DIC and methane were calculated from obtained concentration profiles and peat porosity under the assumption that transport is dominated by diffusion. Values of pH changed remarkably from 4 within the undisturbed bog part to almost 8 at the lake shore. Ca2+ and Mg2+ were the only ions that showed significant distribution patterns with readily increasing concentrations towards the lake water body. CH4 and DIC concentrations also increased towards the lake and peaked in around 100 cm depth right at the shore with maximum concentrations being 2766 μmol L-1 for CH4 and 7543 μmol L-1 for DIC, respectively. Turnover rates also increased towards the shore albeit some uncertainty lies in this finding as steady state condition required for calculations were probably not established and transport was not only dominated by diffusion. Maximum CH4 production rates were modeled to be 36 nmol cm-3 d-1 and maximum DIC production was calculated to 64 nmol cm-3 d-1. Ca2

  15. Contribution to the freshwater gastrotrich fauna of wetland areas of southwestern Ontario (Canada) with redescriptions of seven species and a check-list for North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwank, Peter; Kånneby, Tobias

    2014-06-05

    This study gives additional, detailed information on the freshwater gastrotrich species described and reported from the southwestern regions of Ontario and New Brunswick, Canada by Schwank (1990). Aspidiophorus ontarioniensis, Chaetonotus (Chaetonotus) furculatus, Chaetonotus (Chaetonotus) ontariensis, Chaetonotus (Primochaetus) annae, Ichthydium malleum, Lepidodermella forficulata and Setopus lemnicola are all redescribed. In addition, a complete list of freshwater species currently known from North America is given.

  16. Assessing the Impact of Pilot School Snack Programs on Milk and Alternatives Intake in 2 Remote First Nation Communities in Northern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Michelle; Hanning, Rhona M.; Gates, Allison; McCarthy, Daniel D.; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Canadian Aboriginal youth have poorer diet quality and higher rates of overweight and obesity than the general population. This research aimed to assess the impact of simple food provision programs on the intakes of milk and alternatives among youth in Kashechewan and Attawapiskat First Nations (FNs), Ontario, Canada. Methods: A pilot…

  17. Youth Environmental Science Outreach in the Mushkegowuk Territory of Subarctic Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagatzides, Jim D.; Kozlovic, Daniel R.; De Iuliis, Gerry; Liberda, Eric N.; General, Zachariah; Liedtke, Jeff; McCarthy, Daniel D.; Gomez, Natalya; Metatawabin, Daniel; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2011-01-01

    We connected youth of the Mushkegowuk Territory (specifically Fort Albany First Nation) with environmental science and technology mentors in an outreach program contextualized to subarctic Ontario that addressed some of the environmental concerns identified by members of Fort Albany First Nation. Most activities were community-based centering on…

  18. Youth Environmental Science Outreach in the Mushkegowuk Territory of Subarctic Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagatzides, Jim D.; Kozlovic, Daniel R.; De Iuliis, Gerry; Liberda, Eric N.; General, Zachariah; Liedtke, Jeff; McCarthy, Daniel D.; Gomez, Natalya; Metatawabin, Daniel; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2011-01-01

    We connected youth of the Mushkegowuk Territory (specifically Fort Albany First Nation) with environmental science and technology mentors in an outreach program contextualized to subarctic Ontario that addressed some of the environmental concerns identified by members of Fort Albany First Nation. Most activities were community-based centering on…

  19. Negotiating public and professional interests: a rhetorical analysis of the debate concerning the regulation of midwifery in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoel, Philippa; James, Susan

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates the uneasy process of integrating midwifery's alternative, women-centered model of childbirth care within the medically-dominated healthcare system in Canada. It analyses the impure processes of rhetorical identification and differentiation that characterized the debate about how to regulate midwifery in Ontario by examining a selection of submissions from diverse health care groups with vested interest in the debate's outcome. In divergent ways, these groups strategically appeal to the value of the "public interest" in order to advance professional concerns. The study considers the implications of this rhetorical process for re-defining midwifery's distinctive professional identity in relation to other health professions, to the state, and to the women for whom midwives care. Likewise, it suggests the relevance of rhetorical analysis for understanding the discursive formation and re-formation of health models, values, and professions in Western culture.

  20. Temporal and spatial trends of mercury in fish collected in the English-Wabigoon river system in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinghorn, April; Solomon, Patricia; Chan, Hing Man

    2007-01-01

    The First Nations communities of Grassy Narrows and Wabaseemong (Ontario, Canada) have been impacted by mercury pollution since the 1960s. This study was implemented with the objective of providing these communities with information on current mercury concentrations in their catch, in order to make appropriate fish consumption choices. A total of 851 fish samples, including Walleye, Northern Pike, Large-mouth Bass, and Whitefish, were collected from thirteen lakes and rivers. Total mercury was measured and the relationship between fish length, mercury concentration, and lake of origin were assessed. It was found that fish from most of the lakes exhibit a positive relationship between length and mercury accumulation. Mercury concentrations in fish collected from Clay Lake, closest to the original source of contamination, are higher than those from other lakes. Mercury concentrations have declined over the last 25 years but the gradient of contamination was still observed. Results were communicated to the communities for public health purposes.

  1. State risk discourse and the regulatory preservation of traditional medicine knowledge: The case of acupuncture in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, Nadine; Boon, Heather; Muzzin, Linda; Welsh, Sandy

    2016-12-01

    Several United Nations bodies have advised countries to actively preserve Traditional Medicine (TM) knowledge and prevent its misappropriation in regulatory structures. To help advance decision-making around this complex regulatory issue, we examine the relationship between risk discourse, epistemology and policy. This study presents a critical, postcolonial analysis of divergent risk discourses elaborated in two contrasting Ontario (Canada) government reports preceding that jurisdiction's regulation of acupuncture, the world's most widely practised TM therapy. The earlier (1996) report, produced when Ontario's regulatory lobby was largely comprised of Chinese medicine practitioners, presents a risk discourse inclusive of biomedical and TM knowledge claims, emphasizing the principle of regulatory 'equity' as well as historical and sociocultural considerations. Reflecting the interests of an increasingly biomedical practitioner lobby, the later (2001) report uses implicit discursive means to exclusively privilege Western scientific perspectives on risk. This report's policy recommendations, we argue, suggest misappropriation of TM knowledge. We advise regulators to consider equitable adaptations to existing policy structures, and to explicitly include TM evidentiary perspectives in their pre-regulatory assessments.

  2. Practices for the disbudding and dehorning of dairy calves by veterinarians and dairy producers in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Charlotte B; LeBlanc, Stephen J; Haley, Derek B; Lissemore, Kerry D; Godkin, M Ann; Duffield, Todd F

    2016-12-01

    Disbudding and dehorning dairy calves is very common, despite the introduction of polled genetics to most dairy breeds. Appropriate pain-control practices for these procedures affect both calf welfare and public perception of the dairy industry. Previously published work has shown that North American dairy producers have not widely adopted use of these medications for disbudding or dehorning. However, since the last published work examining these practices in Canada, changes regarding awareness, availability, and future requirements for pain control have occurred in the industry. With this in mind, online and telephone surveys of both veterinarians (n=238) and dairy producers (n=603) in Ontario, Canada, were conducted in the fall of 2014 with a goal of describing current disbudding and dehorning practices and examining factors associated with the adoption of pain control use. Approximately three-quarters of dairy producers reported performing disbudding or dehorning themselves, whereas the remainder used a veterinarian or technician. Almost all (97%) of the veterinarians surveyed reported using local anesthetic, 62% used sedation, and 48% used a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Producer use of local anesthetic was 62%, 38% used sedation and 24% used a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Seventy-eight percent of veterinarian disbudding or dehorning was done before 8wk of age, whereas 64% of dairy producers performed this procedure before 8wk of age. Seventy-two percent of veterinarians and 63% of producers reported changing their disbudding or dehorning practices over the past 10 yr; of producers that changed their practices, 73% cited their herd veterinarian as influential. The use of pain control described in these surveys is higher than previously reported in Ontario. Identification of factors associated with best practices, or the lack of adoption of these practices, may help veterinarians target appropriate educational opportunities for their dairy clients.

  3. Network analysis of swine shipments in Ontario, Canada, to support disease spread modelling and risk-based disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorjee, S; Revie, C W; Poljak, Z; McNab, W B; Sanchez, J

    2013-10-01

    Understanding contact networks are important for modelling and managing the spread and control of communicable diseases in populations. This study characterizes the swine shipment network of a multi-site production system in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Data were extracted from a company's database listing swine shipments among 251 swine farms, including 20 sow, 69 nursery and 162 finishing farms, for the 2-year period of 2006 to 2007. Several network metrics were generated. The number of shipments per week between pairs of farms ranged from 1 to 6. The medians (and ranges) of out-degree were: sow 6 (1-21), nursery 8 (0-25), and finishing 0 (0-4), over the entire 2-year study period. Corresponding estimates for in-degree of nursery and finishing farms were 3 (0-9) and 3 (0-12) respectively. Outgoing and incoming infection chains (OIC and IIC), were also measured. The medians (ranges) of the monthly OIC and IIC were 0 (0-8) and 0 (0-6), respectively, with very similar measures observed for 2-week intervals. Nursery farms exhibited high measures of centrality. This indicates that they pose greater risks of disease spread in the network. Therefore, they should be given a high priority for disease prevention and control measures affecting all age groups alike. The network demonstrated scale-free and small-world topologies as observed in other livestock shipment studies. This heterogeneity in contacts among farm types and network topologies should be incorporated in simulation models to improve their validity. In conclusion, this study provided useful epidemiological information and parameters for the control and modelling of disease spread among swine farms, for the first time from Ontario, Canada. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Microstructural analysis of calcite-filled fractures inherited from basement structures, southern Ontario, Canada: long term instability of the craton?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, Jennifer; Schneider, David

    2016-04-01

    Intra-cratonic regions are generally characterized by tectonic stability and low seismicity. In southern Ontario, Canada, moderate levels of seismicity have been recorded over the last few decades reaching magnitudes of 5 MN, indicating that the geosphere is not as stable as predicted. The stratigraphy of the region consists of Ordovician limestone with a thickness of ~200 m that unconformably overlays the Mesoproterozoic crystalline Grenville Province. Subsequent tectonism including repeated Paleozoic orogenies and rifting along the east coast of North America has reactivated Proterozoic structures that have propagated into the overlying carbonate platform forming mesoscopic-scale brittle structures. Exposed along the shores of Lake Ontario are decameter-scale fracture zones, with a fracture spacing of 0.5 to 10 meters. The dominant fracture set trends E-W, and often forms conjugate sets with less prominent NNE-oriented fractures. More locally, an older NW-oriented fracture set is cross cut by the E-W and NNE oriented fractures. Regionally, there have been six directions of maximum horizontal stress in southern Ontario since the Precambrian, with the current orientation of maximum stress oriented ENE as a consequence of far field Atlantic ridge-push forces generated at distant plate boundaries. Calcite mineralization along fractured surfaces locally form sub-horizontal slickenside fabrics which are covered by a layer of euhedral calcite crystals, suggesting that fracture dilation (and fluid flow) occurred after fracture slip to allow the growth of calcite crystals. Due to the proximity of the carbonate units to the crystalline basement, we expect the calcitic veins to be enriched in rare earth elements and are presently conducting geochemical analyses. The calcite veins and surfaces vary from 2.5 cm to 1 mm thicknesses, often with larger calcite crystals in the center of the vein and smaller crystals at the vein boundaries, likely representing nucleation on small

  5. Specialized multi-disciplinary heart failure clinics in Ontario, Canada: an environmental scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijeysundera Harindra C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-disciplinary heart failure (HF clinics have been shown to improve outcomes for HF patients in randomized clinical trials. However, it is unclear how widely available specialized HF clinics are in Ontario. Also, the service models of current clinics have not been described. It is therefore uncertain whether the efficacy of HF clinics in trials is generalizable to the HF clinics currently operating in the province. Methods As part of a comprehensive evaluation of HF clinics in Ontario, we performed an environmental scan to identify all HF clinics operating in 2010. A semi-structured interview was conducted to understand the scope of practice. The intensity and complexity of care offered were quantified through the use of a validated instrument, and clinics were categorized as high, medium or low intensity clinics. Results We identified 34 clinics with 143 HF physicians. We found substantial regional disparity in access to care across the province. The majority of HF physicians were cardiologists (81%, with 81% of the clinics physically based in hospitals, of which 26% were academic centers. There was a substantial range in the complexity of services offered, most notably in the intensity of education and medication management services offered. All the clinics focused on ambulatory care, with only one having an in-patient focus. None of the HF clinics had a home-based component to care. Conclusions Multiple HF clinics are currently operating in Ontario with a wide spectrum of care models. Further work is necessary to understand which components lead to improved patient outcomes.

  6. High uptake of HIV testing in pregnant women in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Remis

    Full Text Available In 1999, Ontario implemented a policy to offer HIV counseling and testing to all pregnant women and undertook measures to increase HIV testing. We evaluated the effectiveness of the new policy by examining HIV test uptake, the number of HIV-infected women identified and, in 2002, the HIV rate in women not tested during prenatal care. We analyzed test uptake among women receiving prenatal care from 1999 to 2010. We examined HIV test uptake and HIV rate by year, age and health region. In an anonymous, unlinked study, we determined the HIV rate in pregnant women not tested. Prenatal HIV test uptake in Ontario increased dramatically, from 33% in the first quarter of 1999 to 96% in 2010. Test uptake was highest in younger women but increased in all age groups. All health regions improved and experienced similar test uptake in recent years. The HIV rate among pregnant women tested in 2010 was 0.13/1,000; in Toronto, the rate was 0.28 per 1,000. In the 2002 unlinked study, the HIV rate was 0.62/1,000 among women not tested in pregnancy compared to 0.31/1,000 among tested women. HIV incidence among women who tested more than once was 0.05/1,000 person-years. In response to the new policy in Ontario, prenatal HIV testing uptake improved dramatically among women in all age groups and health regions. A reminder to physicians who had not ordered a prenatal HIV test appeared to be very effective. In 2002, the HIV rate in women who were not tested was twice that of tested women: though 77% of pregnant women had been tested, only 63% of HIV-infected women were tested. HIV testing uptake was estimated at 98% in 2010.

  7. Osteoporosis management and fractures in the Métis of Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Jandoc, Racquel; Jembere, Nathaniel; Khan, Saba; Russell, Storm J.; Allard, Yvon; Cadarette, Suzanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Half of Métis citizens, compared to less than 10 % of the general population of Ontario, reside in northern regions, with little access to bone mineral density (BMD) testing. Métis citizens had lower sex-specific and age-standardized rates of BMD testing, yet similar rates of fracture (both sexes) and pharmacotherapy (women only). Purpose To examine osteoporosis management and common osteoporosis-related fractures among Métis citizens compared to the general population of older adults...

  8. A study on the levels of radioactivity in fish samples from the experimental lakes area in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Rennie, Michael D; Sadi, Baki; Zhang, Weihua; St-Amant, Nadereh

    2016-03-01

    To better understand background radiation levels in country foods, a total of 125 fish samples were collected from three lakes (Lake 226, Lake 302 and Lake 305) in the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Ontario of Canada during the summer of 2014. Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides ((226)Ra, (210)Pb and (210)Po) as well as anthropogenic radionuclides ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) were measured. This study confirmed that (210)Po is the dominant contributor to radiation doses resulting from fish consumption. While concentrations of (210)Pb and (226)Ra were below conventional detection limits, (210)Po was measured in almost all fish samples collected from the ELA. The average concentration was about 1.5 Bq/kg fresh weight (fw). None of the fish samples analysed in this study contained any detectable levels of (134)Cs. An average (137)Cs level of 6.1 Bq/kg fw was observed in freshwater fishes harvested in the ELA, almost twice that of samples measured in the National Capital Region of Canada in 2014 and more than 20 times higher than the levels observed in marine fish harvested from the Canadian west coast in 2013 and 2014. However, it is important to note that the concentrations of (137)Cs in fish samples from these inland lakes are considered very low from a radiological protection perspective. The resulting radiation dose for people from fish consumption would be a very small fraction of the annual dose from exposure to natural background radiation in Canada. The results indicate that fishes from inland lakes do not pose a radiological health concern.

  9. Pleistocene glacio-lacustrine deltaic deposits of the Scarborough Formation, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, R. I.; Martini, I. P.

    1986-04-01

    The late Pleistocene Scarborough Formation of the Lake Ontario Basin represents a lacustrine-deltaic sequence strongly affected by a nearby glacier. It shows gradual upward coarsening and thickening of layers from varve-like, clay-rich rhythmites at the base to channelized cross-bedded sands at the top. Thick, lensing, "massive" layers (Cm) of silty sand are found interstratified with thin layers of silt and clay in the lower and middle parts of the sequence. These "massive" layers were probably formed by subaqueous gravity flows of material in part derived directly from a glacier. Absence of pebbles and of other features such as glacial silt-pellets suggests dispersal away from the foot of the glacier rather than deposition under floating ice. Varve-like rhythmites, pollen and insect fauna indicate subarctic to arctic climatic conditions at the time of sediment deposition. The large amount of sand in the upper part of the formation is best explained as derived from active outwash fans. Similar fans were formed during the last deglaciation in southern Ontario and can be observed on the landscape.

  10. Experience, training and confidence among small, non-community drinking water system operators in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Wendy; McEwen, Scott A; Pintar, Katarina; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Young, Ian; Papadopoulos, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    The water operator plays an important role in water safety; however, little published research exists that has examined this role. The purpose of this study was to develop a greater understanding of the experience, existing knowledge, confidence and future training needs of the small, non-community drinking water operator in Ontario in order to help guide future outreach and training opportunities. A cross-sectional telephone survey of 332 small, non-community drinking water operators in Ontario was conducted in July and August 2011. Survey questions pertained to respondents' experience as operators, formal training, perceived importance of water safety issues, confidence in handling water safety issues, and future training needs. Approximately 16% (54/330) of respondents had one year or less experience as a water operator, and 60% (199/332) reported that being a water operator was not a chosen profession. Only 37% (124/332) of operators reported completing operator training. Respondents reported a preference for online training courses or on-site training (compared with a classroom setting). Low training rates, inexperience, and in certain situations, low confidence, among many small water system operators highlight a need to provide continued support to the development of ongoing training opportunities in this population.

  11. Utilization of cardiac computed tomography angiography and outpatient invasive coronary angiography in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roifman, Idan; Rezai, Mohammad R; Wijeysundera, Harindra C; Chow, Benjamin J W; Wright, Graham A; Tu, Jack V

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac computed tomography angiography (coronary CTA) has emerged as a non-invasive method of diagnosing coronary artery disease. The extent of utilization and uptake of this technology since initiation of its funding by the government of Ontario is unknown. The aim of our study was to examine coronary CTA utilization and the rates of elective invasive coronary angiography and revascularization before and after funding initiation. We studied all coronary CTAs performed on adults in Ontario after initiation of funding. We also used an interrupted time series analysis to compare the average monthly rates of invasive angiography and revascularization before and after initiation of funding. There was an initial steep increase in age-and sex-standardized rates of coronary CTA from 5.0 to 11.4/100,000 over the first two quarters after funding initiation. Afterwards, there was a gradual increase in utilization from 11.4 to 17.1/100,000 over two subsequent calendar years. There was a significant reduction in both the mean monthly outpatient invasive coronary angiography (from 20.7 to 19.9 per 100,000 (p = 0.0004)) and revascularization (from 4.9 to 4.4 per 100,000 (p utilization. The increasing use of coronary CTA was associated with a reduction in both the rates of invasive angiography and revascularization. Copyright © 2015 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Biochar-based bioenergy and its environmental impact in Northwestern Ontario Canada:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krish Homagain; Chander Shahi; Nancy Luckai; Mahadev Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Biochar is normally produced as a by-product of bioenergy. However, if biochar is produced as a co-product with bioenergy from sustainably managed forests and used for soil amendment, it could pro-vide a carbon neutral or even carbon negative solution for current envi-ronmental degradation problems. In this paper, we present a comprehen-sive review of biochar production as a co-product of bioenergy and its implications. We focus on biochar production with reference to biomass availability and sustainability and on biochar utilization for its soil amendment and greenhouse gas emissions reduction properties. Past studies confirm that northwestern Ontario has a sustainable and sufficient supply of biomass feedstock that can be used to produce bioenergy, with biochar as a co-product that can replace fossil fuel consumption, increase soil productivity and sequester carbon in the long run. For the next step, we recommend that comprehensive life cycle assessment of bio-char-based bioenergy production, from raw material collection to biochar application, with an extensive economic assessment is necessary for making this technology commercially viable in northwestern Ontario.

  13. Factors influencing the occurrence and distribution of neonicotinoid insecticides in surface waters of southern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struger, John; Grabuski, Josey; Cagampan, Steve; Sverko, Ed; McGoldrick, Daryl; Marvin, Christopher H

    2017-02-01

    The widespread use of neonicotinoid insecticides and recent increased regulatory scrutiny requires the generation of monitoring data with sufficient scope and resolution to provide decision makers with a better understanding of occurrence and distribution in the environment. This study presents a wide-scale investigation of neonicotinoid insecticides used across the range of agricultural activities from fifteen surface water sites in southern Ontario. Using statistical analysis, the correlation of individual compounds with land use was investigated, and the relationship between neonicotinoid occurrence and hydrologic parameters in calibrated water courses was also assessed. Of the five neonicotinoids studied, imidacloprid, clothianidin and thiamethoxam exhibited detection rates above 90% at over half the sites sampled over a three year period (2012-2014). At two sites in southwestern Ontario, the Canadian Federal freshwater guideline value for imidacloprid (230 ng/L) was exceeded in roughly 75% of the samples collected. For some watersheds, there were correlations between the occurrence of neonicotinoids and precipitation and/or stream discharge. Some watersheds exhibited seasonal maxima in concentrations of neonicotinoids in spring and fall, particularly for those areas where row crop agriculture is predominant; these seasonal patterns were absent in some areas characterized by a broad range of agricultural activities.

  14. A population based time series analysis of asthma hospitalisations in Ontario, Canada: 1988 to 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upshur Ross EG

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a common yet incompletely understood health problem associated with a high morbidity burden. A wide variety of seasonally variable environmental stimuli such as viruses and air pollution are believed to influence asthma morbidity. This study set out to examine the seasonal patterns of asthma hospitalisations in relation to age and gender for the province of Ontario over a period of 12 years. Methods A retrospective, population-based study design was used to assess temporal patterns in hospitalisations for asthma from April 1, 1988 to March 31, 2000. Approximately 14 million residents of Ontario eligible for universal healthcare coverage during this time were included for analysis. Time series analyses were conducted on monthly aggregations of hospitalisations. Results There is strong evidence of an autumn peak and summer trough seasonal pattern occurring every year over the 12-year period (Fisher-Kappa (FK = 23.93, p > 0.01; Bartlett Kolmogorov Smirnov (BKS = 0.459, p Conclusions A clear and consistent seasonal pattern was observed in this study for asthma hospitalisations. These findings have important implications for the development of effective management and prevention strategies.

  15. Identifying and evaluating patterns of prescription opioid use and associated risks in Ontario, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomes, T.

    2017-01-01

    Opioid prescribing and related adverse events are one of the key public health issues facing policy-makers in both the United States and Canada, leading to the loss of tens of thousands of lives annually. The core objective of this thesis was to inform and evaluate related drug-policy

  16. First report of QoI insensitive Cercospora beticola on sugarbeet in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercospora beticola causes Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris) and is the most destructive foliar disease of sugarbeet worldwide. The QoI fungicide pyraclostrobin has been an important management tool for CLS in Canada since 2003. Beginning in 2010 some growers reported unsatisf...

  17. Mode shifting in school travel mode: examining the prevalence and correlates of active school transport in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buliung Ron

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies examining the correlates of school transport commonly fail to make the distinction between morning and afternoon school trips. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of mode shift from passive in the morning to active in the afternoon among elementary and secondary school students in Ontario, Canada. Methods Data were derived from the 2009 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS. 3,633 students in grades 7 through 12 completed self-administered questionnaires. Socio-demographic, behavioural, psychological, and environmental predictors of active school transport (AST were assessed using logistic regression. Results Overall, 47% and 38% of elementary school students reported AST to and from school, respectively. The corresponding figures were 23% and 32% for secondary school students. The prevalence of AST varied temporarily and spatially. There was a higher prevalence of walking/biking found for elementary school students than for secondary school students, and there was an approximate 10% increase in AST in the afternoon. Different correlates of active school transport were also found across elementary and secondary school students. For all ages, students living in urban areas, with a shorter travel time between home and school, and having some input to the decision making process, were more likely to walk to and from school. Conclusions Future research examining AST should continue to make the analytic distinction between the morning and afternoon trip, and control for the moderating effect of age and geography in predicting mode choice. In terms of practice, these variations highlight the need for school-specific travel plans rather than 'one size fits all' interventions in promoting active school transport.

  18. High-risk driving attitudes and everyday driving violations of car and racing enthusiasts in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim-Yenier, Zümrüt; Vingilis, Evelyn; Wiesenthal, David L; Mann, Robert E; Seeley, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Attitudes and individual difference variables of car and racing enthusiasts regarding high-risk behaviors of street racing and stunt driving have recently been investigated. Positive attitudes toward high-risk driving, personality variables such as driver thrill seeking, and other self-reported risky driving acts were associated with these behaviors. However, probable relationships among high-risk driving tendencies, everyday driving behaviors, and negative road safety outcomes have remained largely unexamined. This study aimed to investigate the associations among car and racing enthusiasts' high-risk driving attitudes, self-reported everyday driving violations (i.e., ordinary and aggressive violations), and self-reported negative outcomes (i.e., collisions and driving offense citations). A web-based survey was conducted with members and visitors of car club and racing websites in Ontario, Canada. Data were obtained from 366 participants. The questionnaire included 4 attitude measures-(1) attitudes toward new penalties for Ontario's Street Racers, Stunt and Aggressive Drivers Legislation; (2) attitudes toward new offenses of stunt driving under the same legislation; (3) general attitudes toward street racing and stunt driving; (4) comparison of street racing with other risky driving behaviors-self-reported driving violations (i.e., ordinary and aggressive violations); self-reported collisions and offense citations; and background and driving questions (e.g., age, driving frequency). Results revealed that attitudes toward stunt driving offenses negatively and general attitudes toward street racing and stunt driving positively predicted ordinary violations, which, in turn, predicted offense citations. Moreover, general attitudes toward street racing and stunt driving positively predicted aggressive violations, which, in turn, predicted offense citations. The findings indicate that positive high-risk driving attitudes may be transferring to driving violations in

  19. Attractiveness of employment sectors for physical therapists in Ontario, Canada (1999-2007): implication for the long term care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Michel D; Hastie, Robyn; Oñate, Känecy; Gamble, Brenda; Deber, Raisa B; Verrier, Molly C

    2012-05-29

    Recruiting and retaining health professions remains a high priority for health system planners. Different employment sectors may vary in their appeal to providers. We used the concepts of inflow and stickiness to assess the relative attractiveness of sectors for physical therapists (PTs) in Ontario, Canada. Inflow was defined as the percentage of PTs working in a sector who were not there the previous year. Stickiness was defined as the transition probability that a physical therapist will remain in a given employment sector year-to-year. A longitudinal dataset of registered PTs in Ontario (1999-2007) was created, and primary employment sector was categorized as 'hospital', 'community', 'long term care' (LTC) or 'other.' Inflow and stickiness values were then calculated for each sector, and trends were analyzed. There were 5003 PTs in 1999, which grew to 6064 by 2007, representing a 21.2% absolute growth. Inflow grew across all sectors, but the LTC sector had the highest inflow of 32.0%. PTs practicing in hospitals had the highest stickiness, with 87.4% of those who worked in this sector remaining year-to-year. The community and other employment sectors had stickiness values of 78.2% and 86.8% respectively, while the LTC sector had the lowest stickiness of 73.4%. Among all employment sectors, LTC had highest inflow but lowest stickiness. Given expected increases in demand for services, understanding provider transitional probabilities and employment preferences may provide a useful policy and planning tool in developing a sustainable health human resource base across all employment sectors.

  20. Attractiveness of employment sectors for physical therapists in Ontario, Canada (1999-2007: implication for the long term care sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landry Michel D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruiting and retaining health professions remains a high priority for health system planners. Different employment sectors may vary in their appeal to providers. We used the concepts of inflow and stickiness to assess the relative attractiveness of sectors for physical therapists (PTs in Ontario, Canada. Inflow was defined as the percentage of PTs working in a sector who were not there the previous year. Stickiness was defined as the transition probability that a physical therapist will remain in a given employment sector year-to-year. Methods A longitudinal dataset of registered PTs in Ontario (1999-2007 was created, and primary employment sector was categorized as ‘hospital’, ‘community’, ‘long term care’ (LTC or ‘other.’ Inflow and stickiness values were then calculated for each sector, and trends were analyzed. Results There were 5003 PTs in 1999, which grew to 6064 by 2007, representing a 21.2% absolute growth. Inflow grew across all sectors, but the LTC sector had the highest inflow of 32.0%. PTs practicing in hospitals had the highest stickiness, with 87.4% of those who worked in this sector remaining year-to-year. The community and other employment sectors had stickiness values of 78.2% and 86.8% respectively, while the LTC sector had the lowest stickiness of 73.4%. Conclusion Among all employment sectors, LTC had highest inflow but lowest stickiness. Given expected increases in demand for services, understanding provider transitional probabilities and employment preferences may provide a useful policy and planning tool in developing a sustainable health human resource base across all employment sectors.

  1. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Stephanie K Y; Boyle, E.; Cairney, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Current studies of depression among people living with HIV focus on describing its point prevalence. Given the fluctuating nature of depression and its profound impacts on clinical and quality-of-life outcomes, this study aimed to examine the prevalence, recurrence and incidence...... to afford housing-related expenses. Conclusions: Depressive symptoms are prevalent and likely to recur among people living with HIV. Our results support the direction of Ontario's HIV/AIDS Strategy to 2026, which addresses medical concerns associated with HIV (such as depression) and the social drivers...... of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and demonstrate the need for long-term support and routine management of depression, particularly for individuals at high risk. © 2016...

  2. Socio-economic impact of wood biomass utilization for energy production and its impact on small communities in Northwestern Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanzida Baten, C.; Pulkki, R. (Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada), Faculty of Natural Resources Management), e-mail: csanzida@lakeheadu.ca, e-mail: rpulkki@lakehaedu.ca

    2010-07-01

    Bioenergy refers to all forms of renewable energy that are derived from plant materials produced by photosynthesis. Biomass fuels can be derived from wood, agricultural crops and other organic residues. These fuels can be obtained from many sources in Canada, including sawmills, woodworking shops, forest operations and farms. This study deals with the socio-economic aspects of bioenergy development. Normally, the socio-economic impact of bioenergy can be measured in terms of economic indices, such as employment, monetary gains, etc. Recently some pulp and paper mills in northwestern Ontario have initiated bioenergy plants to generate heat and electricity for their use. The Ontario Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure is investigating the possibility of replacing coal with renewable forest biomass as feedstock for the Atikokan Power Generating Station (APGS) located in northwestern Ontario. The APGS has already successfully tested 100 % wood biomass feedstock instead of coal. This study evaluates the socio-economic impacts of wood biomass utilization for energy production in small communities in northwestern Ontario Canada. (orig.)

  3. Patterns of physician prescribing for opioid maintenance treatment in Ontario, Canada in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qi; Khuu, Wayne; Spithoff, Sheryl; Kiran, Tara; Kahan, Meldon; Tadrous, Mina; Martins, Diana; Leece, Pamela; Gomes, Tara

    2017-08-01

    Despite concerns surrounding high patient volumes in methadone clinics, little is known about the practice patterns of opioid maintenance therapy (OMT) providers in Ontario. We examined the distribution of these services and how physician characteristics differ based on prescribing volume. We conducted a cross-sectional study among prescribers of methadone or buprenorphine to Ontario public drug beneficiaries in 2014 by stratifying physicians into low- (lower 50%), moderate- (51-89%) and high-volume (top 10%) prescribers. We summarized the distribution of OMT prescription days dispensed and urine drug screens (UDS) ordered using Lorenz curves and examined physician characteristics using descriptive statistics. We identified 893 OMT prescribers in 2014. Physicians were mostly male (67.5%; N=603), and middle-aged (median was 50). High-volume methadone providers (N=57) prescribed approximately 56% (N=4,115,322) of the total days of methadone (Gini coefficient=0.76, 95% CI 0.74-0.79) while high-volume buprenorphine providers (N=64) prescribed 61% (N=589,463) of the total days of buprenorphine (Gini coefficient=0.78, 95% CI 0.75-0.80). On average, each high-volume methadone prescriber treated 435 OMT patients and billed 43 UDS per patient, while each high-volume buprenorphine prescriber treated 64 OMT patients and billed 22 UDS per patient. Daily OMT patient volume was on average 74 for high-volume methadone prescribers and 6 for high-volume buprenorphine prescribers. OMT services are highly concentrated among a small portion of OMT providers who carry high daily patient volumes. Future research should examine the quality of primary care received by their patients to better elucidate the possible consequences of this highly unequal distribution of services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of exposure to swine influenza viruses in Ontario (Canada) finisher herds in 2004 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Zvonimir; Friendship, Robert M; Carman, Susy; McNab, W Bruce; Dewey, Catherine E

    2008-01-01

    The epidemiology of influenza in the North American swine population has changed since the emergence of a triple-reassortant H3N2 influenza virus. Although seen previously in North America, the Ontario swine population had likely been free of viruses of the reassortant H3N2 lineage until 2005. The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency and distribution of exposure to H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes in the Ontario finisher pig population prior to and after the H3N2 outbreak that occurred in 2005. This included investigating prevalence and spatial distribution of positive herds, assessing proportion of random variation at different hierarchical levels, and evaluating selected demographic factors and management procedures as potential risk factors. In total, 919 and 978 sera collected in cross-sectional studies from 46 and 49 finisher herds in 2004 and 2005 were tested by a H1N1 subtype-specific and a H3N2 subtype-specific commercial ELISA. For the H1N1 subtype, the point prevalence of positive herds (>3 reactors) was 19.5% and 30.6% in 2004 and 2005, respectively. For the H3N2 subtype the point prevalence of positive herds (>3 reactors) was 6.5% and 40.8% in 2004 and 2005, respectively. Sera from 2004 that were positive on H3N2 ELISA did not cross-react with any of the H3N2 variants used as antigen on a sequential HI test. Only herds positive for H3N2 subtype in 2005 clustered in space (Pbanks as a useful resource for retrospective comparisons.

  5. Chronic disease management and the home-care alternative in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsasis, Peter

    2009-08-01

    The pressure on our health-care system to deliver efficient, quality and cost-effective care is increasing. The debate on its sustainability is also expanding. These challenges can be managed with revisions to our health-care policy frameworks governing how and what public health-care services are delivered. Chronic disease management and home care can together ease many of the present and future pressures facing the health-care system. However, the current level of investment and the present policy are not effectively supporting movement in this direction. Updating the Canada Health Act to reflect the realities of our health-care system, and developing policies to support the areas of interdisciplinary teamwork and system integration are needed to facilitate chronic disease management and home care in Canada. This article lays out the challenges, highlights the impending issues and suggests a framework for moving forward.

  6. Outbreaks of West Nile virus in captive waterfowl in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sherri L; Campbell, G Douglas; Nemeth, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    The detrimental effects of West Nile virus (WNV) have been well characterized in several taxonomic groups of North American birds, such as corvids and raptors. Relatively less is known about the virus' effects in waterfowl species, many of which are abundant in North America and occupy habitats, for example wetlands and marshes, likely to harbour dense mosquito populations. In two successive years, outbreaks of WNV-associated disease were observed in waterfowl at a rehabilitation centre. In the present report, clinical and pathological findings are provided for seven mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and one Canada goose (Branta canadensis) that developed acute disease and either died or were killed humanely. The most severe and consistent microscopic lesion in mallards was myocardial degeneration and coagulative necrosis consistent with acute heart failure. The Canada goose had necrotizing myocarditis. Other lesions included pulmonary perivascular oedema, lymphoplasmacytic hepatitis, and splenic and bursal lymphoid depletion. WNV infection was confirmed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining. Myofibres within all cardiac muscle layers had positive immunohistochemical staining, as did blood vessel walls in the heart and spleen. These results suggest that juvenile mallards are highly susceptible to fatal WNV-associated cardiac failure, and confirm that adult Canada geese are susceptible to fatal WNV-associated disease. The synchronous timing of clinical disease and death in these waterfowl are consistent with WNV mosquito-borne infections within a WNV transmission focus during the summer (July and August) of 2012 and 2013.

  7. Source-receptor relationships for speciated atmospheric mercury at the remote experimental lakes area, Northwestern Ontario, Canada

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    I. Cheng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Source-receptor relationships for speciated atmospheric mercury measured at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA, Northwestern Ontario, Canada were investigated using various receptor-based approaches. The data used in this study include gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, mercury bound to fine airborne particles (< 2.5 μm (PHg, reactive gaseous mercury (RGM, major inorganic ions, sulphur dioxide, nitric acid gas, ozone, and meteorological variables, all of which were measured between May 2005 and December 2006. The source origins identified were related to transport of industrial and combustion emissions (associated with elevated GEM, photochemical production of RGM (associated with elevated RGM, road-salt particles with adsorption of gaseous Hg (associated with elevated PHg and RGM, crustal/soil emissions, and background pollution. Back trajectory modelling illustrated that a remote site, like the ELA, is affected by distant Hg point sources in Canada and the United States. The sources identified from correlation analysis, principal components analysis and K-means cluster analysis were generally consistent. The discrepancies between the K-means and Hierarchical cluster analysis were the clusters related to transport of industrial/combustion emissions, photochemical production of RGM, and crustal/soil emissions. Although it was possible to assign the clusters to these source origins, the trajectory plots for the Hierarchical clusters were similar to some of the trajectories belonging to several K-means clusters. This likely occurred because the variables indicative of transport of industrial/combustion emissions were elevated in at least two or more of the clusters, which means this Hg source was well-represented in the data.

  8. Evaluation of the Johne's disease risk assessment and management plan on dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Laura; Sorge, Ulrike S; DeVries, Trevor J; Godkin, Ann; Lissemore, Kerry; Kelton, David F

    2015-10-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is a production-limiting gastrointestinal disease in cattle. To minimize the effects of JD, the Ontario dairy industry launched the Ontario Johne's Education and Management Assistance Program in 2010. As part of the program, trained veterinarians conducted a risk assessment and management plan (RAMP), an on-farm questionnaire where high RAMP scores are associated with high risk of JD transmission. Subsequently, veterinarians recommended farm-specific management practices for JD prevention. Milk or serum ELISA results from the milking herd were used to determine the herd ELISA status (HES) and within-herd prevalence. After 3.5 yr of implementation of the program, the aim of this study was to evaluate the associations among RAMP scores, HES, and recommendations. Data from 2,103 herds were available for the analyses. A zero-inflated negative binomial model for the prediction of the number of ELISA-positive animals per farm was built. The model included individual RAMP questions about purchasing animals in the logistic portion, indicating risks for between-herd transmission, and purchasing bulls, birth of calves outside the designated calving area, colostrum and milk feeding management, and adult cow environmental hygiene in the negative binomial portion, indicating risk factors for within-herd transmission. However, farms which fed low-risk milk compared with milk replacer had fewer seropositive animals. The model additionally included the JD herd history in the negative binomial and the logistic portion, indicating that herds with a JD herd history were more likely to have at least 1 positive animal and to have a higher number of positive animals. Generally, a positive association was noted between RAMP scores and the odds of receiving a recommendation for the respective risk area; however, the relationship was not always linear. For general JD risk and calving area risk, seropositive herds had higher odds of receiving recommendations compared

  9. Vernacular Knowledge and Water Management – Towards the Integration of Expert Science and Local Knowledge in Ontario, Canada

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    Hugh Simpson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex environmental problems cannot be solved using expert science alone. Rather, these kinds of problems benefit from problem-solving processes that draw on 'vernacular' knowledge. Vernacular knowledge integrates expert science and local knowledge with community beliefs and values. Collaborative approaches to water problem-solving can provide forums for bringing together diverse, and often competing, interests to produce vernacular knowledge through deliberation and negotiation of solutions. Organised stakeholder groups are participating increasingly in such forums, often through involvement of networks, but it is unclear what roles these networks play in the creation and sharing of vernacular knowledge. A case-study approach was used to evaluate the involvement of a key stakeholder group, the agricultural community in Ontario, Canada, in creating vernacular knowledge during a prescribed multi-stakeholder problem-solving process for source water protection for municipal supplies. Data sources – including survey questionnaire responses, participant observation, and publicly available documents – illustrate how respondents supported and participated in the creation of vernacular knowledge. The results of the evaluation indicate that the respondents recognised and valued agricultural knowledge as an information source for resolving complex problems. The research also provided insight concerning the complementary roles and effectiveness of the agricultural community in sharing knowledge within a prescribed problem-solving process.

  10. HIV-related stigma in pregnancy and early postpartum of mothers living with HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Allyson; Wagner, Anne C; Greene, Saara; Loutfy, Mona R

    2017-02-01

    HIV-related stigma is associated with many psychological challenges; however, minimal research has explored how perceived HIV-related stigma intersects with psychosocial issues that mothers living with HIV may experience including depression, perceived stress and social isolation. The present study aims to describe the correlates and predictors of HIV-related stigma in a cohort of women living with HIV (WLWH) from across Ontario, Canada during pregnancy and early postpartum. From March 2011 to December 2012, WLWH ≥ 18 years (n = 77) completed a study instrument measuring independent variables including sociodemographic characteristics, perceived stress, depression symptoms, social isolation, social support and perceived racism in the third trimester and 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum. Multivariable linear regression was employed to explore the relationship between HIV-related stigma and multiple independent variables. HIV-related stigma generally increased from pregnancy to postpartum; however, there were no significant differences in HIV-related stigma across all study time points. In multivariable regression, depression symptoms and perceived racism were significant predictors of overall HIV-related stigma from pregnancy to postpartum. The present analysis contributes to our understanding of HIV-related stigma throughout the pregnancy-motherhood trajectory for WLWH including the interactional relationship between HIV-related stigma and other psychosocial variables, most notably, depression and racism.

  11. Aerial distribution of ONRAB baits as a tactic to control rabies in raccoons and striped skunks in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosatte, R C; Donovan, D; Davies, J C; Allan, M; Bachmann, P; Stevenson, B; Sobey, K; Brown, L; Silver, A; Bennett, K; Buchanan, T; Bruce, L; Gibson, M; Beresford, A; Beath, A; Fehlner-Gardiner, C; Lawson, K

    2009-04-01

    During August 2006 and 2007, baits containing oral rabies vaccine, live adenovirus vector, known as ONRAB , were aerially distributed in SW Ontario, Canada. Bait acceptance during 2006 was 62 and 74% in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in areas baited at 150 baits/km(2) and 75 and 77% in plots baited at 300 baits/km(2). During 2007, bait acceptance for raccoons ranged between 59% and 80%, and 83% and 87%, in areas baited at 75 and 400 baits/km(2), respectively. Bait acceptance by skunks varied among plots (5-24%). Rabies virus-specific seroconversion during 2006 averaged 66 and 81% in raccoons in areas baited at 150 and 300 baits/km(2), respectively. During 2007, seroconversion by raccoons was 76 and 84% in areas baited at 75 and 400 baits/km(2), respectively. Seroconversion by skunks varied among plots (17-51%). Vaccine efficacy, as judged by the percentage of animals that consumed a bait and seroconverted, averaged 79 and 87% during 2006 for raccoons in areas baited at 150 and 300 baits/km(2), respectively, and 81 and 90% in areas baited during 2007 at 75 and 400 baits/km(2), respectively. Because tetracycline marking was poor in skunks, an estimate of vaccine efficacy was not possible. Aerial distribution of ONRAB vaccine baits seems to be a feasible tactic for controlling rabies in skunks and raccoons.

  12. Clay mineralogical evidence of a bioclimatically-affected soil, Rouge River basin, South-Central Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, W. C.

    2015-01-01

    Holocene soils in drainage basins of South-Central Ontario, Canada, are generally Fluvisols (Entisols) in floodplains transitioning to Brunisols (Inceptisols), Luvisols (Alfisols) and Podzols (Spodosols) in older terraces and in the glaciated tableland. A single landslide sourced from the highest fluvial terrace in the Rouge basin, with a rubble drop of ~ 12 m emplaced a lobe-shaped mass of reworked stream gravel, glaciolacustrine sediment and till, emplaced approximately 6 m above mean water level at a height roughly equivalent to previously dated mid-Holocene terraces and soils. Clay mineralogy of the soil formed in this transported regolith produced the usual semi-detrital/pedogenic distribution of 1:1 (Si:Al = 1:1), 2:1 and 2:1:1 clay minerals as well as primary minerals consisting of plagioclase feldspar, quartz, mica and calcite. Unexpectedly, the presence of moderate amounts of Ca-smectite in the Bk and Ck horizons, relative to a clay-mineral depleted parent material (Cuk), argues for a soil hydrological change affecting the wetting depth in the deposit. The presence of the uncommon 'maidenhair fern' (Adiantum pedantum) in the mass wasted deposit, a plant capable of high evapotranspiration, is interpreted as producing a bioclimatic disruption limiting soil water penetration to near root depth (wetting depth), thus producing a clay mineral anomaly.

  13. Primary Care Physician Panel Size and Quality of Care: A Population-Based Study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahrouge, Simone; Hogg, William; Younger, Jaime; Muggah, Elizabeth; Russell, Grant; Glazier, Richard H

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the number of patients under a primary care physician's care (panel size) and primary care quality indicators. We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study of fee-for-service and capitated interprofessional and non-interprofessional primary health care practices in Ontario, Canada between April 2008 and March 2010, encompassing 4,195 physicians with panel sizes ≥1,200 serving 8.3 million patients. Data was extracted from multiple linked, health-related administrative databases and covered 16 quality indicators spanning 5 dimensions of care: access, continuity, comprehensiveness, and evidence-based indicators of cancer screening and chronic disease management. The likelihood of being up-to-date on cervical, colorectal, and breast cancer screening showed relative decreases of 7.9% (P indicators (4 medication-based and 4 screening-based) showed no significant association with panel size. The likelihood of individuals with a new diagnosis of congestive heart failure having an echocardiogram, however, increased by a relative 8.1% (P hospitalization rates for ambulatory-care-sensitive conditions (P = .04) and a 10.8% decrease in non-urgent emergency department visits (P = .004). Continuity was highest with medium panel sizes (P management or access indicators. We found no panel size threshold above which quality of care suffered. © 2016 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  14. From pharmaco-therapy to pharmaco-prevention: trends in prescribing to older adults in Ontario, Canada, 1997-2006

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    Wang Li

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The developed world is undergoing a demographic transition with greater numbers of older adults and higher rates of chronic disease. Most elder care is now provided by primary care physicians, who prescribe the majority of medications taken by these patients. Despite these significant trends, little is known about population-level prescribing patterns to primary care patients aged 65+. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study to examine 10-year prescribing trends among family physicians providing care to patients aged 65+ in Ontario, Canada. Results Both crude number of prescription claims and prescription rates (i.e., claims per person increased dramatically over the 10-year study period. The greatest change was in prescribing patterns for females aged 85+. Dramatic increases were observed in the prescribing of preventive medications, such as those to prevent osteoporosis (+2,347% and lipid-lowering agents (+697%. And lastly, the number of unique classes of medications prescribed to older persons has increased, with the proportion of older patients prescribed more than 10 classes of medications almost tripling during the study period. Conclusions Prescribing to older adults by family physicians increased substantially during the study period. This raises important concerns regarding quality of care, patient safety, and cost sustainability. It is evident that further research is urgently needed on the health outcomes (both beneficial and harmful associated with these dramatic increases in prescribing rates.

  15. A Content Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of the Seasonal Flu Vaccine in Ontario, Canada, October 2001 to March 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Samantha B; Lu, Stephanie K; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Smale, Bryan; MacDougall, Heather; Pearce, Alex R

    2016-10-01

    Seasonal flu vaccine uptake has fallen dramatically over the past decade in Ontario, Canada, despite promotional efforts by public health officials. Media can be particularly influential in shaping the public response to seasonal flu vaccine campaigns. We therefore sought to identify the nature of the relationship between risk messages about getting the seasonal flu vaccine in newspaper coverage and the uptake of the vaccine by Ontarians between 2001 and 2010. A content analysis was conducted to quantify risk messages in newspaper content for each year of analysis. The quantification allowed us to test the correlation between the frequency of risk messages and vaccination rates. During the time period 2001-2010, vaccination rates were positively and significantly related to the frequency of risk messages in newspaper coverage (r = .691, p Newspaper coverage plays an important role in shaping public response to seasonal flu vaccine campaigns. Public health officials should work alongside media to ensure that the public are exposed to information necessary for making informed decisions regarding vaccination.

  16. Exploring the Concern about Food Allergies among Secondary School and University Students in Ontario, Canada: A Descriptive Analysis

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    Shannon E. Majowicz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to explore the perceived risk of food allergies among students in Ontario, Canada. We analyzed blinding questions (“I am concerned about food allergies”; “food allergies are currently a big threat to my health” from three existing food safety surveys, given to high school and university undergraduate students (n=3,451 circa February 2015, using descriptive analysis, and explored how concern related to demographics and self-reported cooking ability using linear regression. Overall, high school students were neutral in their concern, although Food and Nutrition students specifically were significantly less concerned (p=0.002 than high school students overall. University undergraduates were moderately unconcerned about food allergies. Concern was highest in younger students, decreasing between 13 and 18 years of age and plateauing between 19 and 23 years. Among students aged 13–18 years, concern was higher among those who worked or volunteered in a daycare and who had previously taken a food preparation course. Among students aged 19–23 years, concern was higher among females and those with less advanced cooking abilities. Concern was significantly correlated with perceiving food allergies as a personal threat. This study offers a first exploration of perceived risk of food allergies among this demographic and can guide future, more rigorous assessments.

  17. Ontario, Canada, high school teachers as enforcers in the war on drugs: what their students see and say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, J; Albanes, R; Amitay, O

    1999-08-01

    This paper examines how high school teachers interact with students on the subject of marijuana. Results, based on 49 focus groups with 278 high school students in Ontario, Canada, reveal three basic assumptions of the students: 1) only some teachers can actually tell when a student is high on marijuana; 2) many teachers have tried marijuana or continue to use it; and 3) individual teachers vary in how they respond to students who are high. Results suggest that changes in the relationship between marijuana and authority account in large part for the seeming reluctance of so many teachers to exercise their mandate to discipline students who use marijuana. The reasons for this are twofold: 1) many teachers do not see use of marijuana of and by itself as a threat to their authority; and 2) teachers who choose to confront users run the risk of having their authority and independence of action undermined once they report infractions to administrators who have authority over teachers and students alike.

  18. Examining job tenure and lost-time claim rates in Ontario, Canada, over a 10-year period, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morassaei, Sara; Breslin, F Curtis; Shen, Min; Smith, Peter M

    2013-03-01

    We sought to examine the association between job tenure and lost-time claim rates over a 10-year period in Ontario, Canada. Data were obtained from workers' compensation records and labour force survey data from 1999 to 2008. Claim rates were calculated for gender, age, industry, occupation, year and job tenure group. A multivariate analysis and examination of effect modification were performed. Differences in injury event and source of injury were also examined by job tenure. Lost-time claim rates were significantly higher for workers with shorter job tenure, regardless of other factors. Claim rates for new workers differed by gender, age and industry, but remained relatively constant at an elevated rate over the observed time period. This study is the first to examine lost-time claim rates by job tenure over a time period during which overall claim rates generally declined. Claim rates did not show a convergence by job tenure. Findings highlight that new workers are still at elevated risk, and suggest the need for improved training, reducing exposures among new workers, promoting permanent employment, and monitoring work injury trends and risk factors.

  19. The effect of feeder location on pollen collection by bumble bees in a tomato greenhouse in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbán, Levente L; Plowright, C M S; Plowright, R C

    2012-02-01

    The foraging behavior of bumble bees (Bombus impatiens Cresson) was examined as a function of feeder location containing sugar solution in a commercial tomato greenhouse in Manotick, Ontario, Canada. The feeders were located within the nest-box (fed-close) or placed 1.5 m away (fed-far) and the placement of the two types of colonies was counterbalanced over time. No effect of feeder location was found in colony activity levels or in pollen load size. A foraging trade-off between sugar solution and pollen collection, however, was found: the proportion of foraging trips in which pollen was brought back was significantly reduced for fed-far colonies, which contrasts with our laboratory study in which the opposite effect was found. We interpret our findings as possibly reflecting a limitation in pollen supply in the greenhouse: an already possibly strained ability to find and bring back pollen to the colony was accentuated by increasing the task demands of collecting sugar solution.

  20. Airborne Pollen Concentrations and Emergency Room Visits for Myocardial Infarction: A Multicity Case-Crossover Study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichenthal, Scott; Lavigne, Eric; Villeneuve, Paul J; Reeves, François

    2016-04-01

    Few studies have examined the acute cardiovascular effects of airborne allergens. We conducted a case-crossover study to evaluate the relationship between airborne allergen concentrations and emergency room visits for myocardial infarction (MI) in Ontario, Canada. In total, 17,960 cases of MI were identified between the months of April and October during the years 2004-2011. Daily mean aeroallergen concentrations (pollen and mold spores) were assigned to case and control periods using central-site monitors in each city along with daily measurements of meteorological data and air pollution (nitrogen dioxide and ozone). Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression models adjusting for time-varying covariates. Risk of MI was 5.5% higher (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.4, 7.6) on days in the highest tertile of total pollen concentrations compared with days in the lowest tertile, and a significant concentration-response trend was observed (P pollen concentrations, with the largest risks being observed during May (odds ratio = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.35) and June (odds ratio = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.22), when tree and grass pollen are most common. Mold spore concentrations were not associated with MI. Our findings suggest that airborne pollen might represent a previously unidentified environmental risk factor for myocardial infarction.

  1. Trends in the seasonal length and opening dates of a winter road in the western James Bay region, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Yukari; Gough, William A.; Butler, Ken; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2016-07-01

    In northern Canada, winter roads are essential for communities. The duration of the winter road season depends on particular meteorological conditions. In this study, we investigated whether there is a temporal relationship between seasonal weather trends and the historical opening dates of the James Bay Winter Road in Ontario's Far North. The statistical significance of the temporal trends and their magnitude are determined by the Mann-Kendall test and the Theil-Sen method. Results showed that decreasing trends in the freezing degree-days (FDDs) are statistically significant, along with the statistically significant increasing trends of monthly averages of both T min and T mean during the winter months in the western James Bay region for the 1961-2014 period. However, there were no statistically significant linkages between opening dates and FDDs detected, perhaps due to the paucity of opening dates data, although early opening dates in the last 10 years may be the result of larger FDDs. The FDDs during the months of October through December were more closely linked to opening dates than FDDs that were calculated up the opening date (including January dates), suggesting the key role of preconditioning during late fall and early winter. The lowest FDDs for the months of October to December that resulted in a viable winter road were 380 degree-days (°C). This threshold can be potentially used as a lower threshold for winter roads.

  2. Trends in the seasonal length and opening dates of a winter road in the western James Bay region, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Yukari; Gough, William A.; Butler, Ken; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2017-08-01

    In northern Canada, winter roads are essential for communities. The duration of the winter road season depends on particular meteorological conditions. In this study, we investigated whether there is a temporal relationship between seasonal weather trends and the historical opening dates of the James Bay Winter Road in Ontario's Far North. The statistical significance of the temporal trends and their magnitude are determined by the Mann-Kendall test and the Theil-Sen method. Results showed that decreasing trends in the freezing degree-days (FDDs) are statistically significant, along with the statistically significant increasing trends of monthly averages of both T min and T mean during the winter months in the western James Bay region for the 1961-2014 period. However, there were no statistically significant linkages between opening dates and FDDs detected, perhaps due to the paucity of opening dates data, although early opening dates in the last 10 years may be the result of larger FDDs. The FDDs during the months of October through December were more closely linked to opening dates than FDDs that were calculated up the opening date (including January dates), suggesting the key role of preconditioning during late fall and early winter. The lowest FDDs for the months of October to December that resulted in a viable winter road were 380 degree-days (°C). This threshold can be potentially used as a lower threshold for winter roads.

  3. Modeling Woody Biomass Procurement for Bioenergy Production at the Atikokan Generating Station in Northwestern Ontario, Canada

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    Thakur Upadhyay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient procurement and utilization of woody biomass for bioenergy production requires a good understanding of biomass supply chains. In this paper, a dynamic optimization model has been developed and applied to estimate monthly supply and procurement costs of woody biomass required for the Atikokan Generating Station (AGS in northwestern Ontario, based on its monthly electricity production schedule. The decision variables in the model are monthly harvest levels of two types of woody biomass, forest harvest residues and unutilized biomass, from 19,315 forest depletion cells (each 1 km2 for a one year planning horizon. Sixteen scenarios are tested to examine the sensitivity of the cost minimization model to changing economic and technological parameters. Reduction in moisture content and improvement of conversion efficiency showed relatively higher reductions in monthly and total costs of woody biomass feedstock for the AGS. The results of this study help in understanding and designing decision support systems for optimal biomass supply chains under dynamic operational frameworks.

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among veterinary staff in Ontario, Canada (2002: Implications for teratogenic risk

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    Soldin Offie

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii infection is embryotoxic in humans. It is mainly transmitted through raw/undercooked meat and ingestion of oocysts in cat feces. There remains controversy about the actual risk of cats transmitting the disease to humans. Our primary objective was to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibody among veterinary staff, to ascertain whether they have an increased risk through occupational exposure. Our secondary objective was to examine their practices regarding cats, toxoplasma infection, and pregnancy. Methods Veterinary staff attending the 2002 Annual Ontario Veterinary Medical Association Conference were invited to discuss their toxoplasma seroprevalence. Interested attendees completed a questionnaire and a physician drew blood samples to determine T. gondii titres using the ELISA IgG test. Results We collected 161 completed questionnaires, and 141 blood samples. There were 20 (14.2%, CI95%:8.4–19.9% reactive titres among the veterinarian staff (80% females aged 30–45. All were regularly exposed to cats, washed their hands when in contact and few wore gloves routinely. Conclusions These findings of low positive rates may be used to reassure veterinary staff that their exposure to cats does not appear to increase their risk of contracting toxoplasma infection and that pregnant women are not at an increased risk by owning a cat.

  5. Wind Power Deployment: The Role of Public Participation in Decision-Making Process in Ontario, Canada

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    Anahita A. Jami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A wider use of renewable energy is emerging as a viable solution to meet the increasing demand for global energy while contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, current literature on renewable energy, particularly on wind power, highlights the social barriers and public opposition to renewable energy investment. One solution to overcome the public opposition, which is recommended by scholars, is to deploy a collaborative approach. Relatively little research has specifically focused on the role of effective communication and the use of a knowledge-broker in collaborative decision-making. This study attempts to fill this gap through the proposition of a participatory framework that highlights the role of the knowledge-broker in a wind project decision-making process. In this paper, five illustrative wind projects in Ontario are used to highlight the current situation with public participation and to address how the proposed framework could have improved the process. Based on the recommended collaborative framework, perception must shift from the dominant view of the public as “a risk to be managed” towards “a resource that can be tapped”. The developers need to improve sharing what they know and foster co-learning around questions and concerns.

  6. The effect of temperature on arson incidence in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakoulias, Niko; Kielasinska, Ewa

    2016-05-01

    Studies of crime and weather have largely excluded arson from empirical and theoretical consideration, yet weather could influence arson frequency over short time frames, influencing the motivation and activity of potential arsonists, as well as the physical possibility of fire ignition. This study aims to understand the role of weather on urban arson in order to determine its role in explaining short-term variations in arson frequency. We use data reported to the Ontario Fire Marshall's office of arson events in the City of Toronto between 1996 and 2007 to estimate the effect of temperature, precipitation, wind conditions and air pressure on arson events while controlling for the effects of holidays, weekends and other calendar-related events. We find that temperature has an independent association with daily arson frequency, as do precipitation and air pressure. In this study area, cold weather has a larger influence on arson frequency than hot weather. There is also some evidence that extremely hot and cold temperatures may be associated with lower day-time arson frequency, while night-time arson seems to have a simpler positive linear association with temperature.

  7. Search for chronic beryllium disease among sarcoidosis patients in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Marcos; Fritscher, Leandro G; Al-Musaed, Ahmed M; Balter, Meyer S; Hoffstein, Victor; Mazer, Bruce D; Maier, Lisa A; Liss, Gary M; Tarlo, Susan M

    2011-06-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is clinically similar to other granulomatous diseases such as sarcoidosis. It is often misdiagnosed if a thorough occupational history is not taken. When appropriate, a beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests (BeLPT) need to be performed. We aimed to search for CBD among currently diagnosed pulmonary sarcoidosis patients and to identify the occupations and exposures in Ontario leading to CBD. Questionnaire items included work history and details of possible exposure to beryllium. Participants who provided a history of previous work with metals underwent BeLPTs and an ELISPOT on the basis of having a higher pretest probability of CBD. Among 121 sarcoid patients enrolled, 87 (72%) reported no known previous metal dust or fume exposure, while 34 (28%) had metal exposure, including 17 (14%) with beryllium exposure at work or home. However, none of these 34 who underwent testing had positive test results. Self-reported exposure to beryllium or metals was relatively common in these patients with clinical sarcoidosis, but CBD was not confirmed using blood assays in this population.

  8. Elevated blood-lead levels in first nation people of Northern Ontario Canada: policy implications.

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    Tsuji, L J S; Wainman, B C; Martin, I D; Weber, J-P; Sutherland, C; Liberda, E N; Nieboer, E

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the preliminary impact of the Canadian "non-toxic" shotshell policy, for the hunting of migratory game birds, by examining blood-lead levels of First Nations people living in sub-arctic Canada. If the use of lead shotshell was the major source of lead exposure as has been postulated and the ban on the use of lead shotshell for hunting migratory birds was immediately effective, we would expect that blood-lead levels would be typical of a geographic area remote from industrialization. Our findings present some concern in that approximately 18% of the 196 First Nations people examined had blood-lead levels > or =100 microg/L.

  9. First Report of the Fig Cyst Nematode, Heterodera fici Kirjanova, on Fig Tree, Ficus carica, in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengcheng; Henry, Neil; Yu, Qing

    2017-06-01

    Although fig trees are a popular ornamental fruit tree in subtropical regions, some hardy species, such as Ficus carica, have been grown in the west coast of British Columbia and southern Ontario in Canada. The fig cyst nematode, Heterodera fici Kirjanova, is a pest on fig plants, and the heavy infestation can cause retarded growth and yellowing of leaves (Maqbool et al., 1987). In the spring of 2016, a sample of rhizosphere from a potted fig (F. carica) seedling was submitted to the Nematology Laboratory, Canadian Food Inspection Agency. The sample was collected from a nursery in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada, during an inspection to support export certification. The fig trees in the nursery had been grown in the outside fields during the growing seasons and potted and moved to indoor during the winters for last 3 years. The sample was subjected to a nematode extraction process, including decanting and sieving and misting, and lemon-shaped cysts and second-stage juveniles of Heterodera sp. were recovered from the sample examined. The morphological and molecular analyses of the cysts, vulval cone, and second-stage juveniles from both the roots and the crushed cysts identified the species as Heterodera fici Kirjanova. The cysts were characterized by their dark brown color and lemon shape, as well as distinct necks and vulval cones. The vulval cones were observed having an ambifenestrate fenestra (Fig. 1AFig. 1Photomicrographs of Heterodera fici on fig tree from Ontario, Canada. A, B. Cyst vulval cones with the ambifenestrate fenestra in A) and well-developed underbridge and bullae in B). C-E. The second-stage juveniles from a crushed cyst with the whole body in C), the anterior region in D) and the posterior region in E).), dome-shaped bullae scattered around the underbridge plane (Fig. 1B), well-developed underbridge (Fig. 1B), and coarse zig-zag ridges surrounding the fenestra on the surface. The cyst measurements (n = 3) were length 608.7 ± 91.6 (506

  10. Quantitative assessment of upstream source influences on total gaseous mercury observations in Ontario, Canada

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    D. Wen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hourly total gaseous mercury (TGM concentrations at three monitoring sites (receptors in Ontario were predicted for four selected periods at different seasons in 2002 using the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT model, which transports Lagrangian air parcels backward in time from the receptors to provide linkages to the source region in the upwind area. The STILT model was modified to deal with Hg deposition and high stack Hg emissions. The model-predicted Hg concentrations were compared with observations at three monitoring sites. Estimates of transport errors (uncertainties in simulated concentrations due to errors in wind fields are also provided that suggest such errors can reach approximately 10% of simulated concentrations. Results from a CMAQ chemical transport model (CTM simulation in which the same emission and meteorology inputs were used are also reported. The comparisons show that STILT-predicted Hg concentrations usually agree better with observations than CMAQ except for a subset of cases that are subject to biases in the coarsely resolved boundary conditions. In these comparisons STILT captures high frequency concentration variations better than the Eulerian CTM, likely due to its ability to account for the sub-grid scale position of the receptor site and to minimize numerical diffusion. Thus it is particularly valuable for the interpretation of plumes (short-term concentration variations that require the use of finer mesh sizes or controls on numerical diffusion in Eulerian models. We report quantitative assessments of the relative importance of different upstream sources for the selected episodes, based on emission fluxes and STILT footprints. The STILT simulations indicate that natural sources (which include re-emission from historical anthropogenic activities contribute much more than current-day anthropogenic emissions to the Hg concentrations observed at the three sites.

  11. Quantitative assessment of upstream source influences on total gaseous mercury observations in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hourly total gaseous mercury (TGM concentrations at three monitoring sites (receptors in Ontario were predicted for four selected periods at different seasons in 2002 using the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT model, which transports Lagrangian air parcels backward in time from the receptors to provide linkages to the source region in the upwind area. The STILT model was modified to deal with Hg deposition and high stack Hg emissions. The model-predicted Hg concentrations were compared with observations at three monitoring sites. Estimates of transport errors (uncertainties in simulated concentrations due to errors in wind fields are also provided that suggest such errors can reach approximately 10% of simulated concentrations. Results from a CMAQ chemical transport model (CTM simulation in which the same emission and meteorology inputs were used are also reported. The comparisons show that STILT-predicted Hg concentrations usually agree better with observations than CMAQ except for a subset of cases that are subject to biases in the coarsely resolved boundary conditions. STILT captures high frequency concentration variations better than the Eulerian CTM, due to its ability to account for near-field influences that are not resolved by typical grid sizes in Eulerian CTMs. Thus it is particularly valuable for the interpretation of plumes (short-term concentration variations that require complex sub-grid treatments in Eulerian models. We report quantitative assessments of the relative importance of different upstream sources for the selected episodes, based on emission fluxes and STILT footprints. The STILT simulations indicate that natural sources (which include re-emission from historical anthropogenic activities contribute much more than current-day anthropogenic emissions to the Hg concentrations observed at the three sites.

  12. The effectiveness and resilience of phosphorus management practices in the Lake Simcoe watershed, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, J.; Futter, M. N.; Palmer, M.; Whitehead, P. G.; Baulch, H. M.; Woods, D.; Jin, L.; Oni, S. K.; Dillon, P. J.

    2016-09-01

    Uncertainty surrounding future climate makes it difficult to have confidence that current nutrient management strategies will remain effective. This study used monitoring and modeling to assess current effectiveness (% phosphorus reduction) and resilience (defined as continued effectiveness under a changing climate) of best management practices (BMPs) within five catchments of the Lake Simcoe watershed, Ontario. The Integrated Catchment Phosphorus model (INCA-P) was used, and monitoring data were used to calibrate and validate a series of management scenarios. To assess current BMP effectiveness, models were run over a baseline period 1985-2014 with and without management scenarios. Climate simulations were run (2070-2099), and BMP resilience was calculated as the percent change in effectiveness between the baseline and future period. Results demonstrated that livestock removal from water courses was the most effective BMP, while manure storage adjustments were the least. Effectiveness varied between catchments, influenced by the dominant hydrological and nutrient transport pathways. Resilience of individual BMPs was associated with catchment sensitivity to climate change. BMPs were most resilient in catchments with high soil water storage capacity and small projected changes in frozen-water availability and in soil moisture deficits. Conversely, BMPs were less resilient in catchments with larger changes in spring melt magnitude and in overland flow proportions. Results indicated that BMPs implemented are not always those most suited to catchment flow pathways, and a more site-specific approach would enhance prospects for maintaining P reduction targets. Furthermore, BMP resilience to climate change can be predicted from catchment physical properties and present-day hydrochemical sensitivity to climate forcing.

  13. Attitudes toward waste to energy facilities and impacts on diversion in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Jamie; Ho, Yvonne; Rollins, Yvonne; Maclaren, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    Despite progress in residential waste diversion, residual waste - that fraction which cannot be recycled or composted - must continue to be managed by municipalities. Zero waste and environmental groups worry that waste-to-energy (WtE) incinerators discourage diversion, while both incineration and landfill have been stigmatized in the popular consciousness such that WtE incinerators in particular are being cancelled more often than they are approved. We conducted a mail-back survey of 217 residents in Toronto, Durham and Peel, Ontario, to understand attitudes toward diversion, levels of support for WtE incineration and WtE landfill (landfill gas recovery) facilities, and predictors of facility support. Contrary to experiences elsewhere, diversion seems threatened by WtE when measured as attitudes with 18%, and 14% agreeing that they would be less inclined to divert recyclable/compostable materials if they knew materials went to a WtE landfill or incinerator. When forced to choose between four options landfill or incineration with and without energy recovery, WtE incineration is most preferred (65%) and landfill without WtE is the least preferred option (61%). However, measurement has a large influence on public opinion results in the sense that support for WtE incineration drops to 43% when asked as a "vote in favor" question and to only 36% when measured as a 4-item index of support. When the indexes of support for landfill and WtE incineration are modeled, the prominence of odor in the landfill model distinguishes it from the WtE incinerator model which is dominated more by community and concern about health effects. Implications for policy are discussed, particularly mandatory diversion targets to accompany WtE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Using Operational Weather Data to Schedule Fungicide Sprays on Tomatoes in Southern Ontario, Canada.

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    Gillespie, T. J.; Srivastava, B.; Pitblado, R. E.

    1993-03-01

    A fungicide-spray scheduling scheme for tomatoes called TOM-CAST (tomato forecaster) was adapted for use with operational weather data in order to increase the number of users by eliminating the need for in-field measurements of hourly temperature and leaf wetness duration. Such schemes reduce cost, environmental risk, and the development of resistance to the fungicide. Duration of wetness was estimated as the length of time that the dewpoint depression (TTd) remained between two specified limits, indicating the onset and offset of wetness. Several methods of obtaining the necessary temperature and dewpoint data were investigated. The preferred method, considering accuracy and simplicity, involved synthesis of hourly temperatures from locally observed daily maximum and minimum temperatures, and estimation of dewpoints from two Environment Canada hourly weather stations. With appropriate calibration, the scheme was able to match the number of sprays required by TOM-CAST exactly or within one spray.

  15. Population-based passive tick surveillance and detection of expanding foci of blacklegged ticks Ixodes scapularis and the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi in Ontario, Canada.

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    Nelder, Mark P; Russell, Curtis; Lindsay, L Robbin; Dhar, Badal; Patel, Samir N; Johnson, Steven; Moore, Stephen; Kristjanson, Erik; Li, Ye; Ralevski, Filip

    2014-01-01

    We identified ticks submitted by the public from 2008 through 2012 in Ontario, Canada, and tested blacklegged ticks Ixodes scapularis for Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Among the 18 species of ticks identified, I. scapularis, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes cookei and Amblyomma americanum represented 98.1% of the 14,369 ticks submitted. Rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest in Ontario's Eastern region; D. variabilis in Central West and Eastern regions; I. cookei in Eastern and South West regions; and A. americanum had a scattered distribution. Rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest from children (0-9 years old) and older adults (55-74 years old). In two health units in the Eastern region (i.e., Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District and Kingston-Frontenac and Lennox & Addington), the rate of submission for engorged and B. burgdorferi-positive blacklegged ticks was 47× higher than the rest of Ontario. Rate of spread for blacklegged ticks was relatively faster and across a larger geographic area along the northern shore of Lake Ontario/St. Lawrence River, compared with slower spread from isolated populations along the northern shore of Lake Erie. The infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi in blacklegged ticks increased in Ontario over the study period from 8.4% in 2008 to 19.1% in 2012. The prevalence of B. burgdorferi-positive blacklegged ticks increased yearly during the surveillance period and, while increases were not uniform across all regions, increases were greatest in the Central West region, followed by Eastern and South West regions. The overall infection prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in blacklegged ticks was 0.3%. This study provides essential information on ticks of medical importance in Ontario, and identifies demographic and geographic areas for focused public education on the prevention of tick bites and tick-borne diseases.

  16. Global Distribution and Evolutionary History of Enterovirus D68, with Emphasis on the 2014 Outbreak in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshaghi, Alireza; Duvvuri, Venkata R.; Isabel, Sandra; Banh, Philip; Li, Aimin; Peci, Adriana; Patel, Samir N.; Gubbay, Jonathan B.

    2017-01-01

    Despite its first appearance in 1962, human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been recognized as an emerging respiratory pathogen in the last decade when it caused outbreaks and clusters in several countries including Japan, the Philippines, and the Netherlands. The most recent and largest outbreak of EV-D68 associated with severe respiratory illness took place in North America between August 2014 and January 2015. Between September 1 and October 31 2014, EV-D68 infection was laboratory confirmed among 153/907 (16.9%) persons tested for the virus in Ontario, Canada, using real time RT-PCR and subsequent genotyping by sequencing of partial VP1 gene. In order to understand the evolutionary history of the 2014 North American EV-D68 outbreak, we conducted phylogenetic and phylodynamic analyses using available partial VP1 genes (n = 469) and NCBI available whole genome sequences (WGS) (n = 38). The global EV-D68 phylogenetic tree (n = 469) reconfirms the divergence of three distinct clades A, B, and C from the prototype EV-D68 Fermon strain as previously documented. Two sub-clades (B1 and B2) were identified, with most 2014 EV-D68 outbreak strains belonging to sub-cluster B2b2 (one of the two emerging clusters within sub-clade B2), with two signature substitutions T650A and M700V in BC and DE loops of VP1 gene, respectively. The close homology between WGS of strains from Ontario (n = 2) and USA (n = 21) in the recent EV-D68 outbreak suggests genetic relatedness and also a common source for the outbreak. The time of most recent common ancestor of EV-D68 and the 2014 EV-D68 outbreak strain suggest that the viruses possibly emerged during 1960–1961 and 2012–2013, respectively. We observed lower mean evolutionary rates of global EV-D68 using WGS data than estimated with partial VP1 gene sequences. Based on WGS data, the estimated mean rate of evolution of the EV-D68 B2b cluster was 9.75 × 10-3 substitutions/site/year (95% BCI 4.11 × 10-3 to 16 × 10-3).

  17. Uncovering the hidden part of a large ice stream of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, northern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veillette, J. J.; Roy, M.; Paulen, R. C.; Ménard, M.; St-Jacques, G.

    2017-01-01

    This investigation was prompted by an enigmatic ice-flow anomaly (Area A) on the Glacial Map of Canada which covers about 10 000 km2 in the Hearst/Kapuskasing area of northeastern Ontario. It consists of streamlined landforms and striations indicative of a major ice flow toward 130° oriented at right angle to another toward 220°. Both are late glacial flows but long-lasting disagreement exists regarding their relative age. The analysis of aerial photographs and satellite images in conjunction with a detailed survey of bedrock cross-striated surfaces over an area of about 30 000 km2 within and around Area A clearly indicate that the 130° flow preceded the 220° flow. The earlier conflicting interpretations within Area A are attributed mainly to the sporadic occurrence of relict striated surfaces formed by older southwestward (220°-240°) Wisconsinan ice flows that have locally escaped destruction by late glacial flows, with the result that the southwestward flows are older (Wisconsinan) at some sites and younger (late glacial 220°) at others relative to the 130° flow. When considered with other factors such as the maximum elevation reached by the youngest late glacial flow, these ice-flow relationships indicate that Area A is the outcropping southern part of a much larger ESE ice-flow system, which is probably related to a large fluted belt located to the north and that was identified as the Winisk Ice Stream. The distal part of the ice stream, except for Area A, escaped detection by remote sensing mapping methods because depositional and erosional features associated with it are masked by deposits laid down by the younger (220°, Cochrane) ice flow and/or by postglacial marine and organic deposits (or were destroyed by the younger ice flow). The only reliable indicators of the passage of the ice stream in this "buried" section are ESE relict striations crossed by SW striations. The advancing ice stream toward the ESE not only preceded the late Cochrane 220

  18. Retrograde fluids in the Archean Shawmere anorthosite, Kapuskasing Structural Zone, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, William M.; Morrison, Jean

    The Archean Shawmere anorthosite lies within the granulite facies portion of the Kapuskasing Structural Zone (KSZ), Ontario, and is crosscut by numerous linear alteration veins containing calcite+quartz+/- dolomite+/-zoisite+/-clinozoisite+/-margarite+/-paragonite+/-chlorite. These veins roughly parallel the trend of the Ivanhoe Lake Cataclastic Zone. Equilibria involving clinozoisite+margarite+quartz+/-calcite +/-plagioclase show that the vein minerals were stable at T0.9. Thus, vein formation, while clearly retrograde, spanned a range of temperatures, and fluid compositions evolved from H2O-rich to CO2-rich. The calcite in the retrograde veins has δ18O values that range from 8.4 to 11.2‰ (average=+9.7+/-0.9‰) and δ13C values that range from -3.9 to -1.6‰ (average=-3.1+/-0.6‰). These values indicate that the fluids from which calcite precipitated underwent extensive exchange with the anorthosite and other crustal lithologies. The fluids may have been initially derived either from devolatilization of metamorphic rocks or crystallization of igneous rocks in the adjacent Abitibi subprovince. Vein quartz contains CO2-rich fluid inclusions (final melting T=-57.0 to -58.7°C) that range in size from 5 to 17 μm. Measured homogenization temperatures (T h) range from -44.0 to 14.5°C, however for most inclusions (46 of S1), T h=-44.0 to -21.1°C (ρCO2 1.13 to 1.05g/cm3). At 400 to 600°C, these densities correspond to pressures of 3.5 to 7 kbar, which is the best estimate of pressures of vein formation. It has been argued that some high density CO2-rich fluid inclusions found in the KSZ were formed during peak metamorphism and thus document the presence of a CO2-rich fluid during peak granulite facies metamorphism (Rudnick et al. 1984). The association of high density CO2-rich fluid inclusions with clearly retrograde veins documents the formation of similar composition and density inclusions after the peak of metamorphism. Thus, the coincidence of entrapment

  19. British History is Their History: Britain and the British Empire in the History Curriculum of Ontario, Canada and Victoria, Australia 1930-1975

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    Stephen J Jackson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the evolving conceptions of national identity in Canada and Australia through an analysis of officially sanctioned history textbooks in Ontario, Canada and Victoria, Australia. From the 1930s until the 1950s, Britain and the British Empire served a pivotal role in history textbooks and curricula in both territories. Textbooks generally held that British and imperial history were crucial to the Canadian and Australian national identity. Following the Second World War, textbooks in both Ontario and Victoria began to recognize Britain’s loss of power, and how this changed Australian and Canadian participation in the British Empire/Commonwealth. But rather than advocate for a complete withdrawal from engagement with Britain, authors emphasized the continuing importance of the example of the British Empire and Commonwealth to world affairs. In fact, participation in the Commonwealth was often described as of even more importance as the Dominions could take a more prominent place in imperial affairs. By the 1960s, however, textbook authors in Ontario and Victoria began to change their narratives, de-emphasizing the importance of the British Empire to the Canadian and Australian identity. Crucially, by the late 1960s the new narratives Ontarians and Victorians constructed claimed that the British Empire and national identity were no longer significantly linked. An investigation into these narratives of history will provide a unique window into officially acceptable views on imperialism before and during the era of decolonization.

  20. How do people attribute income-related inequalities in health? A cross-sectional study in Ontario, Canada.

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    Aisha Lofters

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Substantive equity-focused policy changes in Ontario, Canada have yet to be realized and may be limited by a lack of widespread public support. An understanding of how the public attributes inequalities can be informative for developing widespread support. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to examine how Ontarians attribute income-related health inequalities. METHODS: We conducted a telephone survey of 2,006 Ontarians using random digit dialing. The survey included thirteen questions relevant to the theme of attributions of income-related health inequalities, with each statement linked to a known social determinant of health. The statements were further categorized depending on whether the statement was framed around blaming the poor for health inequalities, the plight of the poor as a cause of health inequalities, or the privilege of the rich as a cause of health inequalities. RESULTS: There was high agreement for statements that attributed inequalities to differences between the rich and the poor in terms of employment, social status, income and food security, and conversely, the least agreement for statements that attributed inequalities to differences in terms of early childhood development, social exclusion, the social gradient and personal health practices and coping skills. Mean agreement was lower for the two statements that suggested blame for income-related health inequalities lies with the poor (43.1% than for the three statements that attributed inequalities to the plight of the poor (58.3% or the eight statements that attributed inequalities to the privilege of the rich (58.7%. DISCUSSION: A majority of this sample of Ontarians were willing to attribute inequalities to the social determinants of health, and were willing to accept messages that framed inequalities around the privilege of the rich or the plight of the poor. These findings will inform education campaigns, campaigns aimed at increasing public support

  1. How do people attribute income-related inequalities in health? A cross-sectional study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofters, Aisha; Slater, Morgan; Kirst, Maritt; Shankardass, Ketan; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Substantive equity-focused policy changes in Ontario, Canada have yet to be realized and may be limited by a lack of widespread public support. An understanding of how the public attributes inequalities can be informative for developing widespread support. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to examine how Ontarians attribute income-related health inequalities. We conducted a telephone survey of 2,006 Ontarians using random digit dialing. The survey included thirteen questions relevant to the theme of attributions of income-related health inequalities, with each statement linked to a known social determinant of health. The statements were further categorized depending on whether the statement was framed around blaming the poor for health inequalities, the plight of the poor as a cause of health inequalities, or the privilege of the rich as a cause of health inequalities. There was high agreement for statements that attributed inequalities to differences between the rich and the poor in terms of employment, social status, income and food security, and conversely, the least agreement for statements that attributed inequalities to differences in terms of early childhood development, social exclusion, the social gradient and personal health practices and coping skills. Mean agreement was lower for the two statements that suggested blame for income-related health inequalities lies with the poor (43.1%) than for the three statements that attributed inequalities to the plight of the poor (58.3%) or the eight statements that attributed inequalities to the privilege of the rich (58.7%). A majority of this sample of Ontarians were willing to attribute inequalities to the social determinants of health, and were willing to accept messages that framed inequalities around the privilege of the rich or the plight of the poor. These findings will inform education campaigns, campaigns aimed at increasing public support for equity-focused public policy, and knowledge

  2. Differences in the importance of weather and weather-based decisions among campers in Ontario parks (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewer, Micah J.; Scott, Daniel J.; Gough, William A.

    2017-05-01

    Parks and protected areas represent an important resource for tourism in Canada, in which camping is a common recreational activity. The important relationship between weather and climate with recreation and tourism has been widely acknowledged within the academic literature. Howbeit, the need for activity-specific assessments has been identified as an on-going need for future research in the field of tourism climatology. Furthermore, very little is known about the interrelationships between personal characteristics and socio-demographics with weather preferences and behavioural thresholds. This study uses a stated climate preferences approach (survey responses) to explore differences in the importance of weather and related weather-based decisions among summer campers in Ontario parks. Statistically significant differences were found among campers for each of the four dependent variables tested in this study. Physically active campers placed greater importance on weather but were still more tolerant of adverse weather conditions. Older campers placed greater importance on weather. Campers travelling shorter distances placed greater importance on weather and were more likely to leave the park early due to adverse weather. Campers staying for longer periods of time were less likely to leave early due to weather and were willing to endure longer durations of adverse weather conditions. Beginner campers placed greater importance on weather, were more likely to leave early due to weather and recorded lower temporal weather thresholds. The results of this study contribute to the study of tourism climatology by furthering understanding of how personal characteristics such as gender, age, activity selection, trip duration, distance travelled, travel experience and life cycles affect weather preferences and decisions, focusing this time on recreational camping in a park tourism context.

  3. Impact of air pollution on hospital admissions in Southwestern Ontario, Canada: Generating hypotheses in sentinel high-exposure places

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    Luginaah Isaac N

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Southwestern Ontario (SWO in Canada has been known as a 'hot spot' in terms of environmental exposure and potential effects. We chose to study 3 major cities in SWO in this paper. We compared age-standardized hospital admission ratios of Sarnia and Windsor to London, and to generate hypotheses about potential pollutant-induced health effects in the 'Chemical Valley', Sarnia. Methods The number of daily hospital admissions was obtained from all hospitals in London, Windsor and Sarnia from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2000. We used indirect age adjustment method to obtain standardized admissions ratios for males and females and we chose London as the reference population. This process of adjustment was to apply the age-specific admission rates of London to the population of Sarnia and Windsor in order to yield expected admissions. The observed number of admissions was then compared to the expected admissions in terms of a ratio. These standardized admissions ratios and their corresponding confidence intervals were calculated for Sarnia and Windsor. Results Our findings showed that Sarnia and Windsor had significantly higher age-adjusted hospital admissions rates compared to London. This finding was true for all admissions, and especially pronounced for cardiovascular and respiratory admissions. For example, in 1996, the observed number of admissions in Sarnia was 3.11 (CI: 2.80, 3.44 times for females and 2.83 (CI: 2.54, 3.14 times for males as would be expected by using London's admission rates. Conclusion Since hospital admissions rates were significantly higher in 'Chemical Valley' as compared to both London and Windsor, we hypothesize that these higher rates are pollution related. A critical look at the way ambient air quality and other pollutants are monitored in this area is warranted. Further epidemiological research is needed to verify our preliminary indications of harmful effects in people living in 'Chemical

  4. Disparities in attendance at diabetes self-management education programs after diagnosis in Ontario, Canada: a cohort study

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    Cauch-Dudek Karen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients newly-diagnosed with diabetes require self-management education to help them understand and manage the disease. The goals of the study were to determine the frequency of diabetes self-management education program utilization by newly-diagnosed patients, and to evaluate whether there were any demographic or clinical disparities in utilization. Methods Using population-level health care data, all 46,553 adults who were diagnosed with any type of non-gestational diabetes in Ontario, Canada between January and June 2006 were identified. They were linked with a diabetes self-management education program registry to identify those who attended within 6 months of diagnosis. The demographic and clinical characteristics of attendees and non-attendees were compared. Results A total of 9,568 (20.6% patients attended a diabetes self-management education program within 6 months of diagnosis. Younger age, increasing socioeconomic status, and the absence of mental health conditions or other medical comorbidity were associated with attendance. Patients living in rural areas, where access to physicians may be limited, were markedly more likely to attend. Recent immigrants were 40% less likely to attend self-management education programs than longer-term immigrants or nonimmigrants. Conclusion Only one in five newly-diagnosed diabetes patients attended a diabetes self-management education program. Demographic and clinical disparities in utilization persisted despite a publicly-funded health care system where patients could access these services without direct charges. Primary care providers and education programs must ensure that more newly-diagnosed diabetes patients receive self-management education, particularly those who are older, poorer, sicker, or recent immigrants.

  5. Geography, deer, and host biodiversity shape the pattern of Lyme disease emergence in the Thousand Islands Archipelago of Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werden, Lisa; Barker, Ian K; Bowman, Jeff; Gonzales, Emily K; Leighton, Patrick A; Lindsay, L Robbin; Jardine, Claire M

    2014-01-01

    In the Thousand Islands region of eastern Ontario, Canada, Lyme disease is emerging as a serious health risk. The factors that influence Lyme disease risk, as measured by the number of blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) vectors infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, are complex and vary across eastern North America. Despite study sites in the Thousand Islands being in close geographic proximity, host communities differed and both the abundance of ticks and the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection in them varied among sites. Using this archipelago in a natural experiment, we examined the relative importance of various biotic and abiotic factors, including air temperature, vegetation, and host communities on Lyme disease risk in this zone of recent invasion. Deer abundance and temperature at ground level were positively associated with tick abundance, whereas the number of ticks in the environment, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection, and the number of infected nymphs all decreased with increasing distance from the United States, the presumed source of this new endemic population of ticks. Higher species richness was associated with a lower number of infected nymphs. However, the relative abundance of Peromyscus leucopus was an important factor in modulating the effects of species richness such that high biodiversity did not always reduce the number of nymphs or the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection. Our study is one of the first to consider the interaction between the relative abundance of small mammal hosts and species richness in the analysis of the effects of biodiversity on disease risk, providing validation for theoretical models showing both dilution and amplification effects. Insights into the B. burgdorferi transmission cycle in this zone of recent invasion will also help in devising management strategies as this important vector-borne disease expands its range in North America.

  6. Life cycle emissions and cost of producing electricity from coal, natural gas, and wood pellets in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimin; McKechnie, Jon; Cormier, Denis; Lyng, Robert; Mabee, Warren; Ogino, Akifumi; Maclean, Heather L

    2010-01-01

    The use of coal is responsible for (1)/(5) of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Substitution of coal with biomass fuels is one of a limited set of near-term options to significantly reduce these emissions. We investigate, on a life cycle basis, 100% wood pellet firing and cofiring with coal in two coal generating stations (GS) in Ontario, Canada. GHG and criteria air pollutant emissions are compared with current coal and hypothetical natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) facilities. 100% pellet utilization provides the greatest GHG benefit on a kilowatt-hour basis, reducing emissions by 91% and 78% relative to coal and NGCC systems, respectively. Compared to coal, using 100% pellets reduces NO(x) emissions by 40-47% and SO(x) emissions by 76-81%. At $160/metric ton of pellets and $7/GJ natural gas, either cofiring or NGCC provides the most cost-effective GHG mitigation ($70 and $47/metric ton of CO2 equivalent, respectively). The differences in coal price, electricity generation cost, and emissions at the two GS are responsible for the different options being preferred. A sensitivity analysis on fuel costs reveals considerable overlap in results for all options. A lower pellet price ($100/metric ton) results in a mitigation cost of $34/metric ton of CO2 equivalent for 10% cofiring at one of the GS. The study results suggest that biomass utilization in coal GS should be considered for its potential to cost-effectively mitigate GHGs from coal-based electricity in the near term.

  7. Effect of question design on dietary information solicited during veterinarian-client interactions in companion animal practice in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMartin, Clare; Wheat, Hannah C; Coe, Jason B; Adams, Cindy L

    2015-06-01

    To establish the types of initial questions used by veterinarians in companion animal practice to solicit nutritional history information from owners of dogs and cats, the dietary information elicited, and the relationship between initial question-answer sequences and later nutrition-related questions. Cross-sectional qualitative conversation analytic study. 98 appointments featuring 15 veterinarians drawn from an observational study of 284 videotaped veterinarian-client-patient visits involving 17 veterinarians in companion animal practices in eastern Ontario, Canada. Veterinarian and client talk related to patient nutrition was identified and transcribed; conversation analysis was then used to examine the orderly design and details of talk within and across turns. Nutrition-related discussions occurred in 172 visits, 98 of which contained veterinarian-initiated question-answer sequences about patient nutritional history (99 sequences in total, with 2 sequences in 1 visit). The predominant question format used by veterinarians was a what-prefaced question asking about the current content of the patient's diet (75/99). Overall, 63 appointments involved a single what-prefaced question in the first turn of nutrition talk by the veterinarian (64 sequences in total). Dietary information in client responses was typically restricted to the brand name, the subtype (eg, kitten), or the brand name and subtype of a single food item. When additional diet questions were subsequently posed, they typically sought only clarification about the food item previously mentioned by the client. Results suggested that question design can influence the accuracy and completeness of a nutritional history. These findings can potentially provide important evidence-based guidance for communication training in nutritional assessment techniques.

  8. An application of data envelopment analysis to investigate the efficiency of lumber industry in northwestern Ontario, Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thakur Prasad Upadhyay; Chander Shahi; Mathew Leitch; Reino Pulkki

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at exploring the technical efficiency of lumber industry in northwestern Ontario,Canada using data envelopment analysis (DEA).The DEA model analyzes relative technical efficiency of lumber mills with disproportionate inputs and outputs by dividing the 10-year time series data,for inputs and outputs of 24 lumber mills,over two periods (1999-2003 and 2004-2008).Four inputs,namely,material (log volume),labour (man-hours),two types of energy (hog-fuel and electricity),and one output (lumber volume) are used in this study.The trend analysis shows an annual reduction of 10%,13% and 13% for lumber output,log consumption (input) and number of employees,respectively,during the period 1999-2008.The results from DEA with two scenarios with energy inputs and without energy inputs,for the two periods are found to be mixed and interesting.While some mills have improved their performance in terms of best use of available scarce inputs in the second period,some have shown negative per cent change in efficiency.In the with energy input and the without energy input scenario,some of the mills show a reduction in efficiency in the second period from the first period,with the highest estimated reductions of-13.9% and-47.6%,respectively.A possible explanation for these negative performances of mills in the latter period is the decline in production in the second period compared to the first period,where these mills were not able to adjust their inputs (mostly labour) as proportional lay-offs might not have been possible.These results provide policy makers and industry stakeholders with an improved understanding of the trends of efficiency and employment as well as reallocation opportunities of future inputs in order to increase benefits from this sector.

  9. Health and safety matters! Associations between organizational practices and personal support workers' life and work stress in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeytinoglu, Isik U; Denton, Margaret; Brookman, Catherine; Davies, Sharon; Sayin, Firat K

    2017-06-21

    The home and community care sector is one of the fastest growing sectors globally and most prominently in mature industrialized countries. Personal support workers (PSWs) are the largest occupational group in the sector. This paper focuses on the emotional health of PSWs working in the home and community care sector in Ontario, Canada. The purpose of this paper is to present evidence on the associations between PSWs' life and work stress and organizational practices of full-time and guaranteed hours, and PSWs' perceptions of support at work and preference for hours. Data come from our 2015 survey of 1543 PSWs. Dependent variables are life and work stress. Independent variables are: objective organizational practices of full-time and guaranteed hours, and subjective organizational practices of perceived support at work, and preferred hours of work. Descriptive statistics, correlations and ordinary least square regression analyses with collinearity tests are conducted. Organizational practices of employing PSWs in full-time or guaranteed hours are not associated with their life and work stress. However, those who perceive support from their organizations are also the ones reporting lower life and work stress. In addition, those PSWs perceiving support from their supervisor report lower work stress. PSWs would like to work in their preferred hours, and those who prefer to work more hours report lower life and work stress, and conversely, those who prefer to work less hours report life and work stress. For PSWs in home and community care, perceived support from their organizations and supervisors, and employment in preferred hours are important factors related to their life and work stress.

  10. A social pedagogy approach to residential care: balancing education and placement in the development of an innovative child welfare residential program in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharabaghi, Kiaras; Groskleg, Ron

    2010-01-01

    This paper chronicles the exploration and development of a residential program of the child welfare authority of Renfrew County in Ontario, Canada. Recognizing that virtually its entire population of youth in care was failing to achieve positive outcomes in education, Renfrew County Family and Children Services embarked on a program development process that included many unique elements within the Ontario child welfare context. This process introduced the theoretical framework of social pedagogy to the provision of residential care, and it replaced the idea of psychotherapy as the primary agent of change for youth with the concept of living and learning. The result is a template for the Ottawa River Academy, a living and learning program for youth in care that exemplifies the possibilities embedded in creative thought, attention to research and evidence, and a preparedness to transcend traditional assumptions with respect to service designs and business models for residential care in child welfare.

  11. Geostatistical mapping of leakance in a regional aquitard, Oak Ridges Moraine area, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbarats, A. J.; Hinton, M. J.; Logan, C. E.; Sharpe, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    The Newmarket Till forms a regionally extensive aquitard separating two major aquifer systems in the Greater Toronto area, Canada. The till is incised, and sometimes eroded entirely, by a network of sand- and gravel-filled channels forming productive aquifers and, locally, high-conductivity windows between aquifer systems. Leakage through the till may also be substantial in places. This study investigates the spatial variability of aquitard leakance in order to assess the relative importance of recharge processes to the lower aquifers. With a large database derived from water-well records and containing both hard and soft information, the Sequential Indicator Simulation method is used to generate maps of aquitard thickness and window probability. These can be used for targeting channel aquifers and for identifying potential areas of recharge to the lower aquifers. Conductivities are modeled from sparse data assuming that their correlation range is much smaller than the grid spacing. Block-scale leakances are obtained by upscaling nodal values based on simulated conductivity and thickness fields. Under the "aquifer-flow'' assumption, upscaling is performed by arithmetic spatial averaging. Histograms and maps of upscaled leakances show that heterogeneities associated with aquitard windows have the largest effect on regional groundwater flow patterns. Résumé. La moraine glaciaire de Newmarket constitue un imperméable d'extension régionale séparant deux systèmes aquifères dans la région du Grand Toronto (Canada). La moraine est entaillée, et parfois entièrement érodée, par un réseau de chenaux comblés de sables et de graviers formant des aquifères productifs et, localement, des «fenêtres», zones à forte conductivité hydraulique reliant les systèmes aquifères. Une drainance au travers de la moraine peut également être significative par endroits. Cette étude s'intéresse à la variabilité spatiale de la drainance au travers de l

  12. HIV, gender, race, sexual orientation, and sex work: a qualitative study of intersectional stigma experienced by HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada.

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    Carmen H Logie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences of stigma and discrimination and coping methods among HIV-positive women from marginalized communities. We conducted 15 focus groups with HIV-positive women in five cities across Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of diverse HIV-positive women. Focus group participants (n = 104; mean age = 38 years; 69% ethnic minority; 23% lesbian/bisexual; 22% transgender described stigma/discrimination and coping across micro (intra/interpersonal, meso (social/community, and macro (organizational/political realms. Participants across focus groups attributed experiences of stigma and discrimination to: HIV-related stigma, sexism and gender discrimination, racism, homophobia and transphobia, and involvement in sex work. Coping strategies included resilience (micro, social networks and support groups (meso, and challenging stigma (macro. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive women described interdependent and mutually constitutive relationships between marginalized social identities and inequities such as HIV-related stigma, sexism, racism, and homo/transphobia. These overlapping, multilevel forms of stigma and discrimination are representative of an intersectional model of stigma and discrimination. The present findings also suggest that micro, meso, and macro level factors simultaneously present barriers to health and well being--as well as opportunities for coping--in HIV-positive women's lives

  13. Permineralized Callixylon woods from the Late Devonian Cleveland Shale of Ohio, U.S.A. and that of Kettle Point, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitaley, S; Cai, C

    2001-03-01

    Two permineralized woods are described in this paper, one from the Late Devonian Cleveland Shale of Ohio, USA and the other from the Late Devonian Huron Shale of Kettle Point, Ontario, Canada. Both samples of wood are satisfactorily preserved with primary and secondary xylem but without cortex and bark. Both are identified as Callixylon. They differ in specific characters from each other and from other described species. Hence two new species are designated, Callixylon beckii and Callixylon huronensis, respectively, to accommodate them in the class Progymnospermopsida (Progymnospermophyta) under the group Archaeopteridales.

  14. Identification of potential regional sources of atmospheric total gaseous mercury in Windsor, Ontario, Canada using hybrid receptor modeling

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    U. S. Akhtar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Windsor (Ontario – the automotive capital of Canada does not have any significant mercury (Hg sources. However, Windsor experiences trans-boundary air pollution as it is located immediately downwind of industrialized regions of the United States of America. A study was conducted in 2007 aimed to identify the potential regional sources of total gaseous mercury (TGM and investigate the effects of regional sources and other factors on seasonal variability of TGM concentrations in Windsor.

    TGM concentration was measured at the University of Windsor campus using a Tekran® 2537A Hg vapour analyzer. An annual mean of 2.02±1.63 ng/m3 was observed in 2007. The average TGM concentration was high in the summer (2.48 ng/m3 and winter (2.17 ng/m3, compared to spring (1.88 ng/m3 and fall (1.76 ng/m3. Hybrid receptor modeling potential source contribution function (PSCF was used by incorporating 72-h backward trajectories and measurements of TGM in Windsor. The results of PSCF were analyzed in conjunction with the Hg emissions inventory of North America (by state/province to identify regions affecting Windsor. In addition to annual modeling, seasonal PSCF modeling was also conducted. The potential source region was identified between 24–61° N and 51–143° W. Annual PSCF modeling identified major sources southwest of Windsor, stretching from Ohio to Texas. The emissions inventory also supported the findings, as Hg emissions were high in those regions. Results of seasonal PSCF modeling were analyzed to find the combined effects of regional sources, meteorological conditions, and surface reemissions, on intra-annual variability of Hg concentrations. It was found that the summer and winter highs of atmospheric Hg can be attributed to areas where large numbers of coal fired power plants are located in the USA. Weak atmospheric dispersion due to low winds and high reemission from surfaces due

  15. Biogeochemical factors influencing net mercury methylation in contaminated freshwater sediments from the St. Lawrence River in Cornwall, Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avramescu, Mary-Luyza; Yumvihoze, Emmanuel [Biology Department, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie Curie, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Hintelmann, Holger [Chemistry Department, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Ridal, Jeff [St. Lawrence River Institute of Environmental Sciences, 2 Belmont Street, Cornwall, ON, K6H 4Z1 (Canada); Fortin, Danielle, E-mail: dfortin@uottawa.ca [Earth Science Department, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Lean, David R.S. [Biology Department, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie Curie, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2011-02-01

    The activity of various anaerobic microbes, including sulfate reducers (SRB), iron reducers (FeRP) and methanogens (MPA) has been linked to mercury methylation in aquatic systems, although the relative importance of each microbial group in the overall process is poorly understood in natural sediments. The present study focused on the biogeochemical factors (i.e. the relative importance of various groups of anaerobic microbes (FeRP, SRB, and MPA) that affect net monomethylmercury (MMHg) formation in contaminated sediments of the St. Lawrence River (SRL) near Cornwall (Zone 1), Ontario, Canada. Methylation and demethylation potentials were measured separately by using isotope-enriched mercury species ({sup 200}Hg{sup 2+} and MM{sup 199}Hg{sup +}) in sediment microcosms treated with specific microbial inhibitors. Sediments were sampled and incubated in the dark at room temperature in an anaerobic chamber for 96 h. The potential methylation rate constants (K{sub m}) and demethylation rates (K{sub d}) were found to differ significantly between microcosms. The MPA-inhibited microcosm had the highest potential methylation rate constant (0.016 d{sup -1}), whereas the two SRB-inhibited microcosms had comparable potential methylation rate constants (0.003 d{sup -1} and 0.002 d{sup -1}, respectively). The inhibition of methanogens stimulated net methylation by inhibiting demethylationand by stimulating methylation along with SRB activity. The inhibition of both methanogens and SRB was found to enhance the iron reduction rates but did not completely stop MMHg production. The strong positive correlation between K{sub m} and Sulfate Reduction Rates (SRR) and between K{sub d} and Methane Production Rates (MPR) supports the involvement of SRB in Hg methylation and MPA in MMHg demethylation in the sediments. In contrast, the strong negative correlation between K{sub d} and Iron Reduction Rates (FeRR) shows that the increase in FeRR corresponds to a decrease in demethylation

  16. Identification of potential regional sources of atmospheric total gaseous mercury in Windsor, Ontario, Canada using hybrid receptor modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Xu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Windsor (Ontario, Canada experiences trans-boundary air pollution as it is located on the border immediately downwind of industrialized regions of the United States of America. A study was conducted in 2007 to identify the potential regional sources of total gaseous mercury (TGM and investigate the effects of regional sources and other factors on seasonal variability of TGM concentrations in Windsor.

    TGM concentration was measured at the University of Windsor campus using a Tekran® 2537A Hg vapour analyzer. An annual mean of 2.02±1.63 ng/m3 was observed in 2007. The average TGM concentration was high in the summer (2.48±2.68 ng/m3 and winter (2.17±2.01 ng/m3, compared to spring (1.88±0.78 ng/m3 and fall (1.76±0.58 ng/m3. Hybrid receptor modeling potential source contribution function (PSCF was used by incorporating 72-h backward trajectories and measurements of TGM in Windsor. The results of PSCF were analyzed in conjunction with the Hg emissions inventory of North America (by state/province to identify regions affecting Windsor. In addition to annual modeling, seasonal PSCF modeling was also conducted. The potential source region was identified between 24–61° N and 51–143° W. Annual PSCF modeling identified major sources southwest of Windsor, stretching from Ohio to Texas. The emissions inventory also supported the findings, as Hg emissions were high in those regions. Results of seasonal PSCF modeling were analyzed to find the combined effects of regional sources, meteorological conditions, and surface re-emissions, on seasonal variability of Hg concentrations. It was found that the summer and winter highs of atmospheric Hg can be attributed to areas where large numbers of coal fired power plants are located in the USA. Weak atmospheric dispersion due to low winds and high re-emission from surfaces due to higher temperatures also contributed to high concentrations in

  17. The solid-phase controls on the mobility of heavy metals at the Copper Cliff tailings area, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, R. G.; Blowes, D. W.; Jambor, J. L.; Robertson, W. D.

    1998-10-01

    The Copper Cliff Tailings Disposal Area, located near Sudbury, Ontario, covers an area of approximately 2200 ha and constitutes more than 10% of the total area of all mine tailings in Canada. The area has been utilized since 1936, receiving sulphide-containing tailings from the Inco Sudbury operations. Field measurements of pore-gas oxygen and carbon dioxide in the vadose zone indicate that sulphide oxidation has progressed to depths of 1.6 m to 1.7 m within the tailings. The oxidation of sulphide minerals within the vadose zone, and the accompanying dissolution of carbonate and aluminosilicate minerals within these tailings releases SO 4, Fe(II) and other metals to the pore water. In the vadose and saturated zones, concentrations of Fe and Ni exceed 10100 mg/l and 2210 mg/l, respectively. These high concentrations of dissolved metals are attenuated by a series of precipitation, coprecipitation and adsorption reactions. The precipitation of secondary sulphate and hydroxide phases also create hardpan layers at or near the oxidation front. Geochemical modelling of the pore-water chemistry suggests that pH-buffering reactions are occurring within the shallow oxidized zones, and that secondary-phase precipitation is occurring at or near the underlying hardpan and transition zones. Mineralogical study of the tailings confirmed the presence of jarosite, gypsum and goethite within the shallow tailings, suggesting that these phases are controlling the dissolved concentrations of Fe, SO 4 and Ca. Extraction experiments conducted on the tailings solids indicate that the constituents contained in the water-soluble fraction of the shallow, weathered tailings are derived from the original pore water and the dissolution of highly soluble phases such as gypsum. The acid-leachable fraction of the weathered tailings accounts for up to 25% of the heavy metals, and the reducible fraction may contain up to 100% of the heavy metals within the shallow, weathered tailings. Based on the

  18. Avian Assemblages Differ between Old-Growth and Mature White Pine Forests of Ontario, Canada: A Role for Supercanopy Trees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Anthony. Kirk

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We predicted that bird diversity and abundance of some bird species would be higher in old-growth stands than in mature pine stands because of the greater structural diversity in old growth. We also predicted that patch size of stands should be influential. To test these predictions, we modeled counts of 79 bird species from 52 stands in 5 regions in the province of Ontario, Canada in relation to habitat at the local and landscape extents. Neither total species richness nor abundance differed between stand types. No significant difference was found in bird assemblages between stand types using ordination analysis. However, more Neotropical migrants were found in old-growth stands than in mature stands, while the reverse was true for short-distance migrants. Twenty-five species had higher counts in old-growth stands - three significantly so: Brown Creeper Certhia americana, Northern Parula Setophaga americana, and Scarlet Tanager Piranga olivacea. Supercanopy pine (> 60 cm dbh was a significant (P 40 cm/dbh was a significant positive predictor for Brown Creeper, Pine Warbler Setophaga pinus, and total species richness. The density of supercanopy and medium/large pine explained a small but significant amount of variation in bird assemblages (1%, after considering age, other tree variables (9%, and landscape metrics. Patch size was significant for Evening Grosbeak Coccothraustes vespertinus and total abundance. According to receiver operating characteristic (ROC thresholds, Brown Creeper required a minimum of 62 stems/ha of medium/large pine. Pileated Woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus and Black-throated Green Warbler required a minimum of 14 and 23 stems/ha of supercanopy pine, respectively. Blackburnian Warbler Setophaga fusca required a minimum stand age of 66 years. Current targets in shelterwood seed cuts for pine appear to be just within range for Brown Creeper - at least for the first cut, but not for subsequent cuts. We recommend that forest

  19. An application of the edge effect in measuring accessibility to multiple food retailer types in Southwestern Ontario, Canada

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    Arku Godwin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trends in food retailing associated with the consolidation of smaller-format retailers into fewer, larger-format supercentres have left some rural areas with fewer sources of nutritious, affordable food. Access to nutritious, affordable food is essential for good dietary habits and combating health issues such as type-2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Many studies on food environments use inaccurate or incomplete methods for locating food retailers, which may be responsible for mischaracterising food deserts. This study uses databases of every residence in and every food retailer in and around Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada. Residences were geocoded to their precise address, and network analysis techniques were performed in a geographic information system (GIS to determine distances between every residence and different types of food retailers (grocery stores, fast food, fruit and vegetable sources, grocery stores plus fruit and vegetable sources, variety stores, both when considering and neglecting facilities outside the area of study, to account for a deficiency in analysis termed the 'edge effect'. Results Analysis of household accessibility to food outlets by neighbourhood socioeconomic distress level indicated that residents in the most distressed neighbourhoods tended to have better accessibility to all types of food retailers. In the most distressed neighbourhoods, 79 percent of residences were within walking distance of a grocery store, compared to only 10 percent in the least distressed neighbourhoods. When the edge effect was neglected, 37 percent of distance estimates proved inaccurate. Average accessibility to all food retailer types improved dramatically when food outlets adjacent to the study area were considered, thereby controlling for the edge effect. Conclusion By neglecting to consider food retailers just outside study area boundaries, previous studies may significantly over-report the

  20. An application of the edge effect in measuring accessibility to multiple food retailer types in southwestern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Richard C; Gilliland, Jason A; Arku, Godwin

    2011-05-15

    Trends in food retailing associated with the consolidation of smaller-format retailers into fewer, larger-format supercentres have left some rural areas with fewer sources of nutritious, affordable food. Access to nutritious, affordable food is essential for good dietary habits and combating health issues such as type-2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Many studies on food environments use inaccurate or incomplete methods for locating food retailers, which may be responsible for mischaracterising food deserts. This study uses databases of every residence in and every food retailer in and around Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada. Residences were geocoded to their precise address, and network analysis techniques were performed in a geographic information system (GIS) to determine distances between every residence and different types of food retailers (grocery stores, fast food, fruit and vegetable sources, grocery stores plus fruit and vegetable sources, variety stores), both when considering and neglecting facilities outside the area of study, to account for a deficiency in analysis termed the 'edge effect'. Analysis of household accessibility to food outlets by neighbourhood socioeconomic distress level indicated that residents in the most distressed neighbourhoods tended to have better accessibility to all types of food retailers. In the most distressed neighbourhoods, 79 percent of residences were within walking distance of a grocery store, compared to only 10 percent in the least distressed neighbourhoods. When the edge effect was neglected, 37 percent of distance estimates proved inaccurate. Average accessibility to all food retailer types improved dramatically when food outlets adjacent to the study area were considered, thereby controlling for the edge effect. By neglecting to consider food retailers just outside study area boundaries, previous studies may significantly over-report the actual distance necessary to travel for food. Research on

  1. Analyzing the Correlation between Deer Habitat and the Component of the Risk for Lyme Disease in Eastern Ontario, Canada: A GIS-Based Approach

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    Dongmei Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis, caused by the bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, is an emerging vector-borne infectious disease in Canada. According to the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC, by the year 2020, 80% of Canadians will live in Lyme endemic areas. An understanding of the association of Ixodes scapularis, the main vector of Lyme disease, with it hosts is a fundamental component in assessing changes in the spatial distribution of human risk for Lyme disease. Through the application of Geographic Information System (GIS mapping methods and spatial analysis techniques, this study examines the population dynamics of the black-legged Lyme tick and its primary host, the white-tailed deer, in eastern Ontario, Canada. By developing a habitat suitability model through a GIS-based multi-criteria decision making (MCDM analysis, the relationship of the deer habitat suitability map was generated and the results were compared with deer harvest data. Tick submission data collected from two public health units between 2006 and 2012 were used to explore the relationship between endemic ticks and deer habitat suitability in eastern Ontario. The positive correlation demonstrated between the deer habitat suitability model and deer harvest data allows us to further analyze the association between deer habitat and black-legged ticks in our study area. Our results revealed that the high tick submission number corresponds with the high suitability. These results are useful for developing management strategies that aim to prevent Lyme from becoming a threat to public health in Canada. Further studies are required to investigate how tick survival, behaviour and seasonal activity may change with projected climate change.

  2. Risk factors for carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp and Escherichia coli in pet dogs from volunteer households in Ontario, Canada, in 2005 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Erin K; Pearl, David L; Janecko, Nicol; Finley, Rita L; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Weese, J Scott; Peregrine, Andrew S

    2015-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine pet-related management factors associated with the carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp and Escherichia coli in a population of pet dogs. SAMPLE 138 dogs from 84 households in Ontario, Canada. PROCEDURES From October 2005 through May 2006, dogs and households in Ontario, Canada, were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Fecal samples were submitted for culture of Salmonella spp and E coli, which provided 515 bacterial isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for household and dog were created to identify pet-related management factors associated with antimicrobial resistance. RESULTS Bacterial species, feeding a homemade diet or adding homemade food to the diet, feeding a raw diet or adding anything raw to the diet, feeding a homemade raw food diet, and feeding raw chicken in the past week were significant risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in this population of dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, several potentially important pet-related risk factors for the carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp and E coli in pet dogs were identified. Further evaluation of risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in dogs may lead to development of evidence-based guidelines for safe and responsible dog ownership and management to protect the public, especially pet owners who are immunocompromised.

  3. Evaluating risk factors for endemic human Salmonella Enteritidis infections with different phage types in Ontario, Canada using multinomial logistic regression and a case-case study approach

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    Varga Csaba

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying risk factors for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE infections in Ontario will assist public health authorities to design effective control and prevention programs to reduce the burden of SE infections. Our research objective was to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various phage types (PT in Ontario, Canada. We hypothesized that certain PTs (e.g., PT8 and PT13a have specific risk factors for infection. Methods Our study included endemic SE cases with various PTs whose isolates were submitted to the Public Health Laboratory-Toronto from January 20th to August 12th, 2011. Cases were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire that included questions pertaining to demographics, travel history, clinical symptoms, contact with animals, and food exposures. A multinomial logistic regression method using the Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Model procedure and a case-case study design were used to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various PTs in Ontario, Canada. In the multinomial logistic regression model, the outcome variable had three categories representing human infections caused by SE PT8, PT13a, and all other SE PTs (i.e., non-PT8/non-PT13a as a referent category to which the other two categories were compared. Results In the multivariable model, SE PT8 was positively associated with contact with dogs (OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.01-4.68 and negatively associated with pepper consumption (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.13-0.94, after adjusting for age categories and gender, and using exposure periods and health regions as random effects to account for clustering. Conclusions Our study findings offer interesting hypotheses about the role of phage type-specific risk factors. Multinomial logistic regression analysis and the case-case study approach are novel methodologies to evaluate associations among SE infections with different PTs and various risk factors.

  4. China Petrochemical Corporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China Petrochemical Corporation (Sinopec Group) is a super-large petroleum and petrochemical enterprise group, established in July 1998 on the basis of the former China Petrochemical Corporation. Sinopec Group is a state-owned company solely invested by the state, function ing as a state-authorized investment organization in which the state holds the controlling share. Headquartered in Beijing, Sinopec Group has a registered capital of 182 billion yuan. The board chairman of Sinopec Group is its legal representative.

  5. 加拿大安大略省中医针灸发展概述%Overview of acupuncture development in Ontario Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王方; 吴滨江

    2012-01-01

    The history of acupuncture in Ontario, Canada was traced, and the current status as well as the prospection were introduced in this paper. Statistics showed that the history of acupuncture in Ontario started in the 1880s, and it was only popular in China Town and Chinese community. In the 1970s, it gradually merged into the mainstream of the society, and entered into a growing period. With the tide of Chinese immigration in the 1980s and 1990s, acupuncture matured rapidly. In 2006, the "Traditional Chinese Medicine Act" was passed in Ontario, it was considered as a milestone in the history of acupuncture. At present, just like the other 23 health care professions, acupuncture has already be included into the legislation system, and become a component of Ontario's health care system. At the same time, the law and regulation may also promote the establishment of "pure Chinese Medicine " in Ontario.%追溯中医针灸在加拿大安大略省的历史进程,介绍其现状和发展前景.史料研究显示,安大略省中医针灸始于19世纪80年代,并只限于华人圈、唐人街.20世纪70年代,逐步融入主流社会,缓慢成长;80-90年代,随着大量华人移民的来到,中医针灸迅速发展成熟.2006年“传统中医药法案”诞生,它是安大略省中医针灸发展的里程碑.目前,中医针灸专业受到“立法规管”,和其他23个医疗专业一样,成为安大略省医疗系统的组成部分;同时,“立法规管”也将促成当地“纯中医”局面的形成.

  6. Describing the linkages of the immigration, refugees and citizenship Canada permanent resident data and vital statistics death registry to Ontario's administrative health database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Maria; Lebenbaum, Michael; Lam, Kelvin; Chong, Nelson; Azimaee, Mahmoud; Iron, Karey; Manuel, Doug; Guttmann, Astrid

    2016-10-21

    Ontario, the most populous province in Canada, has a universal healthcare system that routinely collects health administrative data on its 13 million legal residents that is used for health research. Record linkage has become a vital tool for this research by enriching this data with the Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada Permanent Resident (IRCC-PR) database and the Office of the Registrar General's Vital Statistics-Death (ORG-VSD) registry. Our objectives were to estimate linkage rates and compare characteristics of individuals in the linked versus unlinked files. We used both deterministic and probabilistic linkage methods to link the IRCC-PR database (1985-2012) and ORG-VSD registry (1990-2012) to the Ontario's Registered Persons Database. Linkage rates were estimated and standardized differences were used to assess differences in socio-demographic and other characteristics between the linked and unlinked records. The overall linkage rates for the IRCC-PR database and ORG-VSD registry were 86.4 and 96.2 %, respectively. The majority (68.2 %) of the record linkages in IRCC-PR were achieved after three deterministic passes, 18.2 % were linked probabilistically, and 13.6 % were unlinked. Similarly the majority (79.8 %) of the record linkages in the ORG-VSD were linked using deterministic record linkage, 16.3 % were linked after probabilistic and manual review, and 3.9 % were unlinked. Unlinked and linked files were similar for most characteristics, such as age and marital status for IRCC-PR and sex and most causes of death for ORG-VSD. However, lower linkage rates were observed among people born in East Asia (78 %) in the IRCC-PR database and certain causes of death in the ORG-VSD registry, namely perinatal conditions (61.3 %) and congenital anomalies (81.3 %). The linkages of immigration and vital statistics data to existing population-based healthcare data in Ontario, Canada will enable many novel cross-sectional and longitudinal studies to

  7. HIV, Gender, Race, Sexual Orientation, and Sex Work: A Qualitative Study of Intersectional Stigma Experienced by HIV-Positive Women in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H.; James, LLana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R.

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada. Methods and Findings We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences of stigma and discrimination and coping methods among HIV-positive women from marginalized communities. We conducted 15 focus groups with HIV-positive women in five cities across Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of diverse HIV-positive women. Focus group participants (n = 104; mean age = 38 years; 69% ethnic minority; 23% lesbian/bisexual; 22% transgender) described stigma/discrimination and coping across micro (intra/interpersonal), meso (social/community), and macro (organizational/political) realms. Participants across focus groups attributed experiences of stigma and discrimination to: HIV-related stigma, sexism and gender discrimination, racism, homophobia and transphobia, and involvement in sex work. Coping strategies included resilience (micro), social networks and support groups (meso), and challenging stigma (macro). Conclusions HIV-positive women described interdependent and mutually constitutive relationships between marginalized social identities and inequities such as HIV-related stigma, sexism, racism, and homo/transphobia. These overlapping, multilevel forms of stigma and discrimination are representative of an intersectional model of stigma and discrimination. The present findings also suggest that micro, meso, and macro level factors simultaneously present barriers to health and well being—as well as opportunities for coping—in HIV-positive women's lives. Understanding the

  8. Characterizing the Effects of Extreme Cold Using Real-time Syndromic Surveillance, Ontario, Canada, 2010-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanStone, Nancy; van Dijk, Adam; Chisamore, Timothy; Mosley, Brian; Hall, Geoffrey; Belanger, Paul; Michael Moore, Kieran

    Morbidity and mortality from exposure to extreme cold highlight the need for meaningful temperature thresholds to activate public health alerts. We analyzed emergency department (ED) records for cold temperature-related visits collected by the Acute Care Enhanced Surveillance system-a syndromic surveillance system that captures data on ED visits from hospitals in Ontario-for geographic trends related to ambient winter temperature. We used 3 Early Aberration Reporting System algorithms of increasing sensitivity-C1, C2, and C3-to determine the temperature at which anomalous counts of cold temperature-related ED visits occurred in northern and southern Ontario from 2010 to 2016. The C2 algorithm was the most sensitive detection method. Results showed lower threshold temperatures for Acute Care Enhanced Surveillance alerts in northern Ontario than in southern Ontario. Public health alerts for cold temperature warnings that are based on cold temperature-related ED visit counts and ambient temperature may improve the accuracy of public warnings about cold temperature risks.

  9. Scale and watershed features determine lake chemistry patterns across physiographic regions in the far north of Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef MacLeod

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the far north of Ontario (>50°N latitude, like climate warming and increased industrial development, will have direct effects on watershed characteristics and lakes. To better understand the nature of remote northern lakes that span the Canadian Shield and Hudson Bay Lowlands, and to address the pressing need for limnological data for this vast, little-studied area of Ontario, lake chemistry surveys were conducted during 2011-2012. Lakes at the transition between these physiographic regions displayed highly variable water chemistry, reflecting the peatland landscape with a mix of bog and fen watersheds, and variations in the extent of permafrost. In the transition area, Shield and Lowlands lakes could not be clearly differentiated based on water chemistry; peat cover decouples, to varying degrees, the lakes from the influences of bedrock and surficial deposits. Regional chemistry differences were apparent across a much broader area of northern Ontario, due to large-scale spatial changes in geology and in the extent of peatlands and permafrost.  Shield lakes in the far northwest of Ontario had Ca, Mg, and TP concentrations markedly higher than those of many Lowlands lakes and previously studied Shield lakes south of 50°N, related to an abundance of lacustrine and glacial end-moraine deposits in the north.

  10. Distribution and potential significance of a gull fecal marker in urban coastal and riverine areas of southern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand the distribution of gull fecal contamination in urban areas of southern Ontario, we used a gull-targeted PCR assay against 1309 water samples collected from 15 urban coastal and riverine locations during 2007. Approximately, 58 % of the water samples tested w...

  11. Opportunities, ethical challenges, and lessons learned from working with peer research assistants in a multi-method HIV community-based research study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen; James, Llana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R

    2012-10-01

    We discuss ethical challenges and opportunities experienced by peer research assistants (PRAs) in a multi-method HIV community-based research study in Ontario, Canada. We review lessons learned and best practices based on our experience conducting a qualitative investigation of research priorities with diverse women living with HIV (WLWH) and implementation of a cross-sectional survey with African, Caribbean, and Black WLWH. While some opportunities were similar across research phases for PRAs (e.g., skill building), distinct challenges emerged in qualitative and quantitative phases. For example, our training did not adequately prepare PRAs with focus group facilitation skills; at times, survey implementation became counseling sessions. Researchers should assess how best to support PRAs as part of multi-method research processes.

  12. Finding Common Ground: A Critical Review of Land Use and Resource Management Policies in Ontario, Canada and their Intersection with First Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser McLeod

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an in-depth analysis of selective land use and resource management policies in the Province of Ontario, Canada. It examines their relative capacity to recognize the rights of First Nations and Aboriginal peoples and their treaty rights, as well as their embodiment of past Crown–First Nations relationships. An analytical framework was developed to evaluate the manifest and latent content of 337 provincial texts, including 32 provincial acts, 269 regulatory documents, 16 policy statements, and 5 provincial plans. This comprehensive document analysis classified and assessed how current provincial policies address First Nation issues and identified common trends and areas of improvement. The authors conclude that there is an immediate need for guidance on how provincial authorities can improve policy to make relationship-building a priority to enhance and sustain relationships between First Nations and other jurisdictions.

  13. Investigation of the Occurrence of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus in Swine Herds Participating in an Area Regional Control and Elimination Project in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, A G; Friendship, R; Carpenter, J; Hand, K; Ojkic, D; Poljak, Z

    2017-02-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-specific genotypes in swine sites in Ontario (Canada) using molecular, spatial and network data from a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) regional control project. For each site, location, animal movement service provider (truck companies), PRRSV status and sequencing data of the open reading frame 5 (ORF5) were obtained. Three-kilometre buffers were created to evaluate neighbourhood characteristics for each site. Social network analysis was conducted on swine sites and trucking companies to assemble the network and define network components. Three different PRRSV genotypes were used as outcomes for statistical analysis based on the region's phylogenetic tree of the ORF5. Multivariable exact logistic regression was conducted to investigate the association between being positive for a specific genotype and two main exposures of interest: (i) having at least one neighbour within three km also positive for the same genotype outside the production system and (ii) having at least one positive site for the same genotype in the same truck network component outside the production system. Results showed that the importance of area spread and truck network on PRRSV occurrence differed according to genotype. Additionally, the Ontario PRRS database appears suitable for conducting regional disease investigations. Finally, the use of relatively new tools available for network, spatial and molecular analysis could be useful in investigation, control and prevention of endemic infectious diseases in animal populations.

  14. Variability in riparian zone potential and actual evapotranspiration in a 1st order agricultural catchment in Southern Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. English

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Micrometeorological and hydrological measurements were made over one growing season using automatic weather stations and weighing lysimeters at several locations within a multiple land-use agricultural catchment in Southern Ontario. This paper compares modelled potential evapotranspiration (PET and measured actual evapotranspiration (AET values obtained from the soil weighing lysimeters, and determines the spatial variability in riparian zone AET in a multiple land-use agricultural watershed in Southern Ontario. Two sites were chosen in two different riparian areas of the watershed, representing the surface conditions dominant in the upper and lower reaches of the basin. The results indicated that AET was higher in the northern end of the basin than in the southern portion of the basin, while the hydrological and energy balance components were similar at both sites. The causes of the different rates are attributed to the surrounding vegetation on adjacent fields and the differing wind regimes.

  15. Pilot project to investigate over-wintering of free-living gastrointestinal nematode larvae of sheep in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzon, Laura C; Menzies, Paula I; VanLeeuwen, John; Shakya, Krishna P; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Avula, Jacob; Jansen, Jocelyn T; Peregrine, Andrew S

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the overwintering survival and infectivity of free-living gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) stages on pasture. The presence of GIN larvae was assessed on 3 sheep farms in Ontario with a reported history of clinical haemonchosis, by collecting monthly pasture samples over the winter months of 2009/2010. The infectivity of GIN larvae on spring pastures was evaluated using 16 tracer lambs. Air and soil temperature and moisture were recorded hourly. Free-living stages of Trichostrongylus spp. and Nematodirus spp. were isolated from herbage samples. Gastrointestinal nematodes were recovered from all tracer lambs on all farms; Teladorsagia sp. was the predominant species. Very low levels of Haemonchus contortus were recovered from 1 animal on 1 farm. The results suggest that Haemonchus larvae do not survive well on pasture, while Teladorsagia sp., Trichostrongylus spp. and Nematodirus spp. are able to overwinter on pasture in Ontario and are still infective for sheep in the spring.

  16. Assessing the distribution of volatile organic compounds using land use regression in Sarnia, "Chemical Valley", Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Luginaah Isaac N; Atari Dominic

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Land use regression (LUR) modelling is proposed as a promising approach to meet some of the challenges of assessing the intra-urban spatial variability of ambient air pollutants in urban and industrial settings. However, most of the LUR models to date have focused on nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. This study aimed at developing LUR models to predict BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene and o-xylene) concentrations in Sarnia, 'Chemical Valley', Ontario,...

  17. On-farm study of human contact networks to document potential pathways for avian influenza transmission between commercial poultry farms in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, T E; Guerin, M T; Kelton, D; Ribble, C; Stephen, C

    2011-12-01

    Human movements associated with poultry farming create contact networks that might facilitate transmission of avian influenza (AI) between farms during outbreaks. In Canada, no information is available about how these networks connect poultry farms. The purpose of this study was to document human contacts between commercial poultry farms in Ontario, Canada, to learn how AI might be transmitted during outbreaks. We used face-to-face interviews with people entering the farm biosecurity perimeter on four layer, one turkey and three broiler breeder poultry farms in Ontario to collect information on between-farm contacts and biosecurity practices. Over a four-day study period on each farm, a median of 10.5 people entered the farm biosecurity perimeter (range 2-31). Ninety-six per cent (111/118) of people consented to be interviewed. Of these, fifty-three per cent (59/111) had contact with one or more (median 2, degree range 1-14) other poultry farms within 72 h. A median of 25 (range 7-65) human contacts linked study farms to other poultry farms. The mean distance of between-farm contacts was 53 km. Eighty-six per cent of people who answered the biosecurity questions (94/109) reported using one or more biosecurity practices. However, on 7/8 farms, at least one person reported that they did not use any biosecurity practices. Fifty per cent of social visitors used biosecurity, whereas 96% of all other people used biosecurity. Ninety-two per cent of people that entered the poultry barns (46/50) used one or more biosecurity practices, whereas 81% of people (48/59) that did not enter the poultry barns used one or more biosecurity practices. Because our study documented farm visitors who did not use any biosecurity practices and moved between commercial poultry farms, we suggest that rapid trace-out of human movements is as important as containment zoning to limiting disease spread during an outbreak of highly pathogenic AI in Ontario. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Contributions to the faunistics and bionomics of Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) in northeastern North America: discoveries made through study of the University of Guelph Insect Collection, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunke, Adam J; Marshall, Stephen A

    2011-01-12

    Staphylinidae (Rove Beetles) from northeastern North America deposited in the University of Guelph Insect Collection (Ontario, Canada) were curated from 2008-2010 by the first author. The identification of this material has resulted in the recognition of thirty-five new provincial or state records, six new Canadian records, one new record for the United States and two new records for eastern Canada. All records are for subfamilies other than Aleocharinae and Pselaphinae, which will be treated in future publications as collaborative projects. Range expansions of ten exotic species to additional provinces and states are reported. The known distributions of each species in northeastern North America are summarized and presented as maps, and those species with a distinctive habitus are illustrated with color photographs. Genitalia and/or secondary sexual characters are illustrated for those species currently only identifiable on the basis of dissected males. The majority of the new records are in groups that have been recently revised, demonstrating the importance of curation and local insect surveys to the understanding of biodiversity, even for taxa and areas considered 'relatively well-known'.

  19. Contributions to the faunistics and bionomics of Staphylinidae (Coleoptera in northeastern North America: discoveries made through study of the University of Guelph Insect Collection, Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Brunke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylinidae (Rove Beetles from northeastern North America deposited in the University of Guelph Insect Collection (Ontario, Canada were curated from 2008-2010 by the first author. The identification of this material has resulted in the recognition of thirty-five new provincial or state records, six new Canadian records, one record for the United States and two new records for eastern Canada. All records are for subfamilies other than Aleocharinae and Pselaphinae, which will be treated in future publications as collaborative projects. Range expansions of ten exotic species to additional provinces and states are reported. The known distributions of each species in northeastern North America are summarized as maps and those species with a distinctive habitus are illustrated with color photographs. Genitalia and/or secondary sexual characters are illustrated for those species currently only identifiable on the basis of dissected males. The majority of the new records are in groups that have been recently revised, demonstrating the importance of curation and local insect surveys to the understanding of biodiversity, even for taxa and areas considered ‘relatively well-known’.

  20. 加拿大安大略省职前教师教育研究%The Research of Pre -service Teacher Education in Ontario Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范丽波; 王鹏; 徐来群; 张元敏; 张东旭; 周春安; 吴玉华

    2015-01-01

    Taking the introduction of the Canadian education system as a starting point firstly,this paper gives a brief overview of the current status of education for the pre -service teachers in Canada.Besides,based on the situation in the province of Ontario,comparative study of the pre -service teacher educations between different provinces has been performed.There is significantly difference of teacher education in the curriculum structure and hours setting among different provinces in Canada.%本文首先从介绍加拿大教育体制为出发点,简要概述了加拿大职前教师教育现状。并主要以安大略省为主,对比研究了各省之间职前教师教育的差异。加拿大不同省之间,教师教育在课程结构和学时设置上具有明显的不同。

  1. A total diet study and probabilistic assessment risk assessment of dietary mercury exposure among First Nations living on-reserve in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juric, Amanda K; Batal, Malek; David, Will; Sharp, Donald; Schwartz, Harold; Ing, Amy; Fediuk, Karen; Black, Andrew; Tikhonov, Constantine; Chan, Hing Man

    2017-10-01

    Methyl Mercury (MeHg) exposure is a global environmental health concern. Indigenous peoples around the world are susceptible to MeHg exposure from often higher fish consumption compared to general populations. The objective of this study was to estimate dietary exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) among First Nations living on-reserve in the province of Ontario, Canada. A total diet study was constructed based on a 24-h recall from the First Nations Food, Nutrition, and Environment Study (FNFNES), and measured contaminant concentrations from Health Canada for market foods, and FNFNES for traditional foods. A probabilistic assessment of annual and seasonal traditional food consumptions was conducted for 1429 adult participants. Results were compared to exposures in the general Canadian population and reference values from Health Canada for adults and women of childbearing age (ages 19-50). Results indicated traditional foods to be the primary contributor to the dietary total MeHg intake (72%). The average dietary total MeHg exposure in the First Nations population in Ontario (0.039μg/kg/d) was 1.6 times higher than the general Canadian population; however, the majority (97.8%) of the population was below the reference values. Mercury concentrations in participants' hair samples (n = 744) ranged from 0.03 to 13.54µg/g, with an average of 0.64µg/g (geometric average of 0.27µg/g). Less than 1% of the population had a hair mercury value above the 6µg/g level, and 1.3% of women of child bearing age had values greater than 2µg/g. Fish species contributing to the MeHg intake included pickerel-walleye, pike, perch and trout. Only 7.9% of the population met the recommended fish consumption rate of two, 3.5oz servings per week from the American Heart Association. Therefore, consumption of lower trophic level fish can be promoted to provide the maximum nutritional benefit with minimal risk of MeHg exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Twenty-first century probabilistic projections of precipitation over Ontario, Canada through a regional climate model ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuquan; Huang, Guohe; Liu, Jinliang

    2016-06-01

    In this study, probabilistic projections of precipitation for the Province of Ontario are developed through a regional climate model ensemble to help investigate how global warming would affect its local climate. The PRECIS regional climate modeling system is employed to perform ensemble simulations, driven by a set of boundary conditions from a HadCM3-based perturbed-physics ensemble. The PRECIS ensemble simulations are fed into a Bayesian hierarchical model to quantify uncertain factors affecting the resulting projections of precipitation and thus generate probabilistic precipitation changes at grid point scales. Following that, reliable precipitation projections throughout the twenty-first century are developed for the entire province by applying the probabilistic changes to the observed precipitation. The results show that the vast majority of cities in Ontario are likely to suffer positive changes in annual precipitation in 2030, 2050, and 2080 s in comparison to the baseline observations. This may suggest that the whole province is likely to gain more precipitation throughout the twenty-first century in response to global warming. The analyses on the projections of seasonal precipitation further demonstrate that the entire province is likely to receive more precipitation in winter, spring, and autumn throughout this century while summer precipitation is only likely to increase slightly in 2030 s and would decrease gradually afterwards. However, because the magnitude of projected decrease in summer precipitation is relatively small in comparison with the anticipated increases in other three seasons, the annual precipitation over Ontario is likely to suffer a progressive increase throughout the twenty-first century (by 7.0 % in 2030 s, 9.5 % in 2050 s, and 12.6 % in 2080 s). Besides, the degree of uncertainty for precipitation projections is analyzed. The results suggest that future changes in spring precipitation show higher degree of uncertainty than other

  3. Maximizing petrochemicals from refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, B.; Foley, T.; Frey, S. [UOP, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2007-07-01

    New fuel quality requirements and high growth rates for petrochemicals are providing both challenges and opportunities for refineries. A key challenge in refineries today is to improve of the value of the products from the FCC unit. In particular, light FCC naphtha and LCO are prime candidates for improved utilization. Processing options have been developed focusing on new opportunities for these traditional fuel components. The Total Petrochemicals/UOP Olefin Cracking Process cracks C4-C8 olefins to produce propylene and ethylene. This process can be integrated into FCC units running at all severity levels to produce valuable light olefins while reducing the olefin content of the light FCC naphtha. Integration of the Olefin Cracking Process with an FCC unit can be accomplished to allow a range of operating modes which can accommodate changing demand for propylene, cracked naphtha and alkylate. Other processes developed by UOP allow for upgrading LCO into a range of products including petrochemical grade xylenes, benzene, high cetane diesel and low sulfur high octane gasoline. Various processing options are available which allow the products from LCO conversion to be adjusted based on the needs and opportunities of an individual refinery, as well as the external petrochemical demand cycles. This presentation will examine recent refining and petrochemical trends and highlight new process technologies that can be used to generate additional revenue from petrochemical production while addressing evolving clean fuel demands. (orig.)

  4. Reforming Ontario Early Learning: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas; Date, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we address the reformation of Ontario early learning. Over the next 3 years, all 4- and 5-year-olds in Ontario (Canada) will be able to attend full-day early learning with child care, before and after school provided by the Government of Ontario Ministry of Education. The benefits of such a change are both academic and societal and are…

  5. Exploring the relationships between small non-community drinking water system characteristics and water system performance in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Wendy; Young, Ian; Pearl, David; Jones-Bitton, Andria; McEwen, Scott A; Pintar, Katarina; Papadopoulos, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of this work were to investigate the relationships between characteristics of small non-community drinking water systems (SDWSs) and the performance of these systems with respect to Escherichia coli testing and risk ratings. Ontario-wide SDWS data were analysed using regression models with outcomes of (1) having an adverse E. coli test result in the 12 months prior to the last inspection and (2) the SDWS risk rating (high/medium vs. low risk) that is assigned by public health inspectors. Almost 34% (2,364/7,003) of SDWSs did not utilize treatment, more commonly for ground water than surface supplies (P water with treatment (OR = 2.00; 95% CI 1.23-3.24) and surface water with treatment (OR = 1.97; 95% CI 1.05-3.71) compared to ground water with no treatment. The odds of having a water system rated high or medium compared to low risk was greater if the water system operated seasonally (OR = 1.36; 95% CI 1.17-1.59), had an adverse E. coli test result (OR = 1.66; 95% CI 1.09-2.53), and in specific facility types. This research helps to inform existing training opportunities available to SDWS operators in Ontario, and to better standardize the SDWS risk assessment process.

  6. Site specific risk assessment of an energy-from-waste/thermal treatment facility in Durham Region, Ontario, Canada. Part B: Ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollson, Christopher A; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Knopper, Loren D; Dan, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    The regions of Durham and York in Ontario, Canada have partnered to construct an energy-from-waste (EFW) thermal treatment facility as part of a long term strategy for the management of their municipal solid waste. In this paper we present the results of a comprehensive ecological risk assessment (ERA) for this planned facility, based on baseline sampling and site specific modeling to predict facility-related emissions, which was subsequently accepted by regulatory authorities. Emissions were estimated for both the approved initial operating design capacity of the facility (140,000 tonnes per year) and the maximum design capacity (400,000 tonnes per year). In general, calculated ecological hazard quotients (EHQs) and screening ratios (SRs) for receptors did not exceed the benchmark value (1.0). The only exceedances noted were generally due to existing baseline media concentrations, which did not differ from those expected for similar unimpacted sites in Ontario. This suggests that these exceedances reflect conservative assumptions applied in the risk assessment rather than actual potential risk. However, under predicted upset conditions at 400,000 tonnes per year (i.e., facility start-up, shutdown, and loss of air pollution control), a potential unacceptable risk was estimated for freshwater receptors with respect to benzo(g,h,i)perylene (SR=1.1), which could not be attributed to baseline conditions. Although this slight exceedance reflects a conservative worst-case scenario (upset conditions coinciding with worst-case meteorological conditions), further investigation of potential ecological risk should be performed if this facility is expanded to the maximum operating capacity in the future.

  7. Decreased health care utilization and health care costs in the inpatient and emergency department setting following initiation of ketogenic diet in pediatric patients: The experience in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Sharon; Donner, Elizabeth; RamachandranNair, Rajesh; Grabowski, Jennifer; Jetté, Nathalie; Duque, Daniel Rodriguez

    2017-03-01

    To assess the change in inpatient and emergency department utilization and health care costs in children on the ketogenic diet for treatment of epilepsy. Data on children with epilepsy initiated on the ketogenic diet (KD) Jan 1, 2000 and Dec 31, 2010 at Ontario pediatric hospitals were linked to province wide inpatient, emergency department (ED) data at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. ED and inpatient visits and costs for this cohort were compared for a maximum of 2 years (730days) prior to diet initiation and for a maximum of 2 years (730days) following diet initiation. KD patient were compared to matched group of children with epilepsy who did not receive the ketogenic diet (no KD). Children on the KD experienced a mean decrease in ED visits of 2.5 visits per person per year [95% CI (1.5-3.4)], and a mean decrease of 0.8 inpatient visits per person per year [95% CI (0.3-1.3)], following diet initiation. They had a mean decrease in ED costs of $630 [95% CI (249-1012)] per person per year and a median decrease in inpatient costs of $1059 [IQR: 7890; pdiet experienced a mean reduction of 2.1 ED visits per child per year [95% CI (1.0-3.2)] and a mean decrease of 0.6 [95% CI (0.1-1.1)] inpatient visits per child per year. Patients on the KD experienced a reduction of $442 [95% CI (34.4-850)] per child per year more in ED costs than the matched group. The ketogenic diet group had greater median decrease in inpatient costs per child per year than the matched group [pketogenic diet, experienced decreased ED and inpatient visits as well as costs following diet initiation in Ontario, Canada. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Spread of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD in Ontario (Canada swine herds: Part I. Exploratory spatial analysis

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    Young Beth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The systemic form of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD, also known as postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS was initially detected in the early 1990s. Starting in 2004, the Canadian swine industry experienced considerable losses due to PCVAD, concurrent with a shift in genotype of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2. Objectives of the current study were to explore spatial characteristics of self-reported PCVAD distribution in Ontario between 2004 and 2008, and to investigate the existence and nature of local spread. Results The study included 278 swine herds from a large disease-monitoring project that included porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS virus-positive herds identified by the diagnostic laboratory, and PRRS virus-negative herds directly from the target population. Herds were included if they had growing pigs present on-site and available geographical coordinates for the sampling site. Furthermore, herds were defined as PCVAD-positive if a producer reported an outbreak of circovirus associated disease, or as PCVAD-negative if no outbreak was noted. Spatial trend was investigated using generalized additive models and time to PCVAD outbreak in a herd using Cox's proportional hazard model; spatial and spatio-temporal clustering was explored using K-functions; and location of most likely spatial and spatio-temporal clusters was investigated using scan statistics. Over the study period, the risk of reporting a PCVAD-positive herd tended to be higher in the eastern part of the province after adjustment for herd PRRS status (P = 0.05. This was partly confirmed for spread (Partial P P = 0.06 existence of spatio-temporal clustering of PCVAD and detection of a spatio-temporal cluster (P = 0.04. Conclusions In Ontario, PCVAD has shown a general trend, spreading from east-to-west. We interpret the existence of spatio-temporal clustering as evidence of spatio-temporal aggregation of PCVAD

  9. Spatiotemporal dynamics and demographic profiles of imported Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections in Ontario, Canada (1990-2009.

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    Mark P Nelder

    Full Text Available We examined malaria cases reported to Ontario's public health surveillance systems from 1990 through 2009 to determine how temporal scale (longitudinal, seasonal, spatial scale (provincial, health unit, and demography (gender, age contribute to Plasmodium infection in Ontario travellers. Our retrospective study included 4,551 confirmed cases of imported malaria reported throughout Ontario, with additional analysis at the local health unit level (i.e., Ottawa, Peel, and Toronto. During the 20-year period, Plasmodium vivax accounted for 50.6% of all cases, P. falciparum (38.6%, Plasmodium sp. (6.0%, P. ovale (3.1%, and P. malariae (1.8%. During the first ten years of the study (1990-1999, P. vivax (64% of all cases was the dominant agent, followed by P. falciparum (28%; however, during the second ten years (2000-2009 the situation reversed and P. falciparum (55% dominated, followed by P. vivax (30%. The prevalence of P. falciparum and P. vivax cases varied spatially (e.g., P. falciparum more prevalent in Toronto, P. vivax more prevalent in Peel, temporally (e.g. P. falciparum incidence increased during the 20-year study, and demographically (e.g. preponderance of male cases. Infection rates per 100,000 international travellers were estimated: rates of infection were 2× higher in males compared to females; rates associated with travel to Africa were 37× higher compared to travel to Asia and 126× higher compared to travel to the Americas; rates of infection were 2.3-3.5× higher in June and July compared to October through March; and rates of infection were highest in those 65-69 years old. Where exposure country was reported, 71% of P. falciparum cases reported exposure in Ghana or Nigeria and 63% of P. vivax cases reported exposure in India. Our study provides insights toward improving pre-travel programs for Ontarians visiting malaria-endemic regions and underscores the changing epidemiology of imported malaria in the province.

  10. Association between fish consumption, dietary omega-3 fatty acids and persistent organic pollutants intake, and type 2 diabetes in 18 First Nations in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marushka, Lesya; Batal, Malek; David, William; Schwartz, Harold; Ing, Amy; Fediuk, Karen; Sharp, Donald; Black, Andrew; Tikhonov, Constantine; Chan, Hing Man

    2017-07-01

    First Nations (FNs) populations in Canada experience a disproportionally higher rate of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to the general population. Recent data suggest that a high consumption of fish may help prevent T2D. On the other hand, fish might also be a potential source of environmental contaminants which could potentially be a risk factor for T2D. To investigate the potential associations between self-reported T2D and consumption of locally-harvested fish, dietary long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FAs) and persistent organic pollutants intake among adult FNs living on reserve in Ontario. Data from the First Nations Food Nutrition and Environment Study, which included a cross-sectional study of 1429 Ontario FNs adults living in 18 communities across 4 ecozones in 2012 were analyzed. Social and lifestyle data were collected using household interviews. The consumption of locally-harvested fish was estimated using a traditional food frequency questionnaire along with portion size information obtained from 24hr recalls. Fish samples were analyzed for the presence of contaminants including dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Dietary intakes of DDE and PCBs were estimated using community-specific levels of DDE/PCBs in fish species. Multiple logistic regression models adjusted for potential covariates including age, gender, body mass index, physical activity, total energy intake, smoking, and education were developed. The prevalence of T2D in Ontario FNs was 24.4%. A significant positive association between fish consumption of one portion per week and more and T2D compared to no fish consumption was found (OR=2.5 (95% CI: 1.38-4.58). Dietary DDE and PCBs intake was positively associated with T2D (OR=1.09 (95%CI: 1.05-1.75) for DDE and OR=1.07 (95%CI: 1.004-1.27) for PCBs) per unit increase in DDE/PCBs while n-3-FAs intake, adjusted for DDE/PCBs intake, showed an inverse effect against T2D among older individuals

  11. Comparing ELISA test-positive prevalence, risk factors and management recommendations for Johne's disease prevention between organic and conventional dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Laura; Sorge, Ulrike S; DeVries, Trevor; Godkin, Ann; Lissemore, Kerry; Kelton, David

    2015-11-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic, infectious disease in cattle. Between 2010 and 2013, a voluntary JD control program was successfully launched in Ontario, Canada, including a Risk Assessment and Management Plan (RAMP) and JD ELISA testing of the entire milking herd. Over the last decade, the organic dairy sector has been growing. However, organic farming regulations and philosophies may influence the risk for JD transmission on Ontario organic dairy farms. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate differences in JD ELISA test positive prevalence, risk factors for JD and recommendations for JD prevention between organic and conventional dairy herds in Ontario. RAMP results (i.e. RAMP scores and recommendations) and ELISA results were available for 2103 dairy herds, including 42 organic herds. If available, additional data on milk production, milk quality, and herd characteristics were gathered. Organic and conventional herds had a similar herd-level JD ELISA test-positive prevalence (26.2% and 27.2%, respectively). Organic herds (4.2%) had a higher within-herd JD ELISA test-positive prevalence compared to conventional herds (2.3%) if they had at least one JD test-positive animal on the farm. Organic farms had lower risk scores for biosecurity (9 points lower), and higher scores in the calving (7 points higher) and the calf-rearing management areas (4 points higher). After accounting for RAMP score, organic farms received fewer recommendations for the calving management area (Odds Ratio=0.41) and more recommendations in the adult cow management area (Odds Ratio=2.70). A zero-inflated negative binomial model was built with purchase of animals and the herd size included in the logistic portion of the model. Herd type (organic or conventional), colostrum and milk feeding practices, average bulk tank somatic cell count, and presence of non-Holstein breeds were included in the negative binomial portion of the model. Organic farms had a higher number of

  12. High heterogeneity of HIV-related sexual risk among transgender people in Ontario, Canada: a province-wide respondent-driven sampling survey

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    Bauer Greta R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of HIV-related risk in trans (transgender, transsexual, or transitioned people have most often involved urban convenience samples of those on the male-to-female (MTF spectrum. Studies have detected high prevalences of HIV-related risk behaviours, self-reported HIV, and HIV seropositivity. Methods The Trans PULSE Project conducted a multi-mode survey using respondent-driven sampling to recruit 433 trans people in Ontario, Canada. Weighted estimates were calculated for HIV-related risk behaviours, HIV testing and self-reported HIV, including subgroup estimates for gender spectrum and ethno-racial groups. Results Trans people in Ontario report a wide range of sexual behaviours with a full range of partner types. High proportions – 25% of female-to-male (FTM and 51% of MTF individuals – had not had a sex partner within the past year. Of MTFs, 19% had a past-year high-risk sexual experience, versus 7% of FTMs. The largest behavioural contributors to HIV risk were sexual behaviours some may assume trans people do not engage in: unprotected receptive genital sex for FTMs and insertive genital sex for MTFs. Overall, 46% had never been tested for HIV; lifetime testing was highest in Aboriginal trans people and lowest among non-Aboriginal racialized people. Approximately 15% of both FTM and MTF participants had engaged in sex work or exchange sex and about 2% currently work in the sex trade. Self-report of HIV prevalence was 10 times the estimated baseline prevalence for Ontario. However, given wide confidence intervals and the high proportion of trans people who had never been tested for HIV, estimating the actual prevalence was not possible. Conclusions Results suggest potentially higher than baseline levels of HIV; however low testing rates were observed and self-reported prevalences likely underestimate seroprevalence. Explicit inclusion of trans people in epidemiological surveillance statistics would provide much

  13. Detection of Lyme Disease Bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, in Blacklegged Ticks Collected in the Grand River Valley, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John D.; Foley, Janet E.; Anderson, John F.; Clark, Kerry L.; Durden, Lance A.

    2017-01-01

    We document the presence of blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, in the Grand River valley, Centre Wellington, Ontario. Overall, 15 (36%) of 42 I. scapularis adults collected from 41 mammalian hosts (dogs, cats, humans) were positive for the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Using real-time PCR testing and DNA sequencing of the flagellin (fla) gene, we determined that Borrelia amplicons extracted from I. scapularis adults belonged to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), which is pathogenic to humans and certain domestic animals. Based on the distribution of I. scapularis adults within the river basin, it appears likely that migratory birds provide an annual influx of I. scapularis immatures during northward spring migration. Health-care providers need to be aware that local residents can present with Lyme disease symptoms anytime during the year. PMID:28260991

  14. Recurrence of inguinal hernias repaired in a large hernia surgical specialty hospital and general hospitals in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Atiqa; Bell, Chaim M; Stukel, Thérèse A; Urbach, David R

    2016-02-01

    The effect of hospital specialization on the risk of hernia recurrence after inguinal hernia repair is not well described. We studied Ontario residents who had primary elective inguinal hernia repair at an Ontario hospital between 1993 and 2007 using population-based, administrative health data. We compared patients from a large hernia specialty hospital (Shouldice Hospital) with those from general hospitals to determine the risk of recurrence. We studied 235 192 patients, 27.7% of whom had surgery at Shouldice hospital. The age-standardized proportion of patients who had a recurrence ranged from 5.21% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.94%-5.49%) among patients who had surgery at the lowest volume general hospitals to 4.79% (95% CI 4.54%-5.04%) who had surgery at the highest volume general hospitals. In contrast, patients who had surgery at the Shouldice Hospital had an age-standardized recurrence risk of 1.15% (95% CI 1.05%-1.25%). Compared with patients who had surgery at the lowest volume hospitals, hernia recurrence among those treated at the Shouldice Hospital was significantly lower after adjustment for the effects of age, sex, comorbidity and income level (adjusted hazard ratio 0.21, 95% CI 0.19-0.23, p hernia repair at Shouldice Hospital was associated with a significantly lower risk of subsequent surgery for recurrence than repair at a general hospital. While specialty hospitals may have better outcomes for treatment of common surgical conditions than general hospitals, these benefits must be weighed against potential negative impacts on clinical care and the financial sustainability of general hospitals.

  15. Managing tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima) in parks and protected areas: a case study of Rondeau Provincial Park (Ontario, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloche, Colette; Murphy, Stephen D

    2006-06-01

    The Carolinian Life Zone in southwestern Ontario, Canada is valued because it represents an almost disjunct ecosystem (i.e., one that is typical of the mid-Atlantic United States, rather than the rest of Canada or the nearby states in the United States). The landscape of the Carolinian Life Zone has undergone dramatic transformation, especially in recent decades as agriculture, urbanization, and recreation have intensified. One of the most apparent changes is the invasion of exotic plant species that exacerbates the need for mass restoration efforts. Within the Carolinian Life Zone, Rondeau Provincial Park has experienced an influx of nonindigenous, invasive species in recent years. Tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima) is one example. The infestation is still relatively localized to (mainly) the park, slowly spreading, and manageable as long as something is done immediately. We examined the effects of hand-pulling and mulching, cut stump and glyphosate application, cut stump alone, and the EZJect Capsule Injection System (using glyphosate) on the management of A. altissima within the park. Cut stump and glyphosate treatment was most effective and efficient in its control of young A. altissima shoots because it limits disturbance and has acceptable capital and operating costs. Hand-pulling and mulching was the second choice, mainly because of the risk of additional disturbance that increased shoot densities 1 year after treatment. Cut stump alone was not effective, worsened the infestation, and is not recommended for this species. The EZJect system was effective at managing mature, seed-producing shoots, although the somewhat higher capital costs mean that the system probably should be purchased for management of several invasive tree species to make it more cost-effective.

  16. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benazzi, E.; Alario, F

    2004-07-01

    In 2003, refining margins showed a clear improvement that continued throughout the first three quarters of 2004. Oil companies posted significantly higher earnings in 2003 compared to 2002, with the results of first quarter 2004 confirming this trend. Due to higher feedstock prices, the implementation of new capacity and more intense competition, the petrochemicals industry was not able to boost margins in 2003. In such difficult business conditions, aggravated by soaring crude prices, the petrochemicals industry is not likely to see any improvement in profitability before the second half of 2004. (author)

  17. Reduced metals concentrations of water, sediment and hyalella azteca from lakes in the vicinity of the sudbury metal smelters, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhaimi-Othman, M; Pascoe, D; Borgmann, U; Norwood, W P

    2006-06-01

    Hyalella azteca (Crustacea: Amphipoda), water and sediments from 12 circum-neutral lakes between Sudbury and North Bay in Ontario, Canada were sampled in August 1998 and analyzed for 10 metals including Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, Co, Mo, V, Ba and Ti. Statistical analyses showed that concentrations of the metals in H. azteca, water and sediment differed significantly (ANOVA, Pazteca and Mo in water). There was a trend of declining metal concentration, especially for Cu, Ni and Co (in water, Hyalella and sediment), with distance from the smelters indicating the reduced impact of atmospheric pollution. Metal concentrations of lakes (water) in the Sudbury area were found to be lower compared to data from the 1970s and 1980s indicating an improvement in water quality. Metal concentrations in field-collected amphipods compared favorably with those measured in the laboratory in animals exposed to deep-water sediments, provided metal concentrations were not extremely low (e.g., Pb) and that water chemistry differences (e.g., pH) were taken into account for some metals (especially Cd). In general bioaccumulation of metals in H. azteca was predicted better from surface water than from sediment total metal.

  18. The Potential Use of Agroforestry Community Gardens as a Sustainable Import-Substitution Strategy for Enhancing Food Security in Subarctic Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Oelbermann

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of food insecurity experienced by northern First Nations partially results from dependence on an expensive import-based food system that typically lacks nutritional quality and further displaces traditional food systems. In the present study, the feasibility of import substitution by Agroforestry Community Gardens (AFCGs as socio-ecologically and culturally sustainable means of enhancing food security was explored through a case study of Fort Albany First Nation in subarctic Ontario, Canada. Agroforestry is a diverse tree-crop agricultural system that has enhanced food security in the tropics and subtropics. Study sites were selected for long-term agroforestry research to compare Salix spp. (willow-dominated AFCG plots to a “no tree” control plot in Fort Albany. Initial soil and vegetative analysis revealed a high capacity for all sites to support mixed produce with noted modifications, as well as potential competitive and beneficial willow-crop interactions. It is anticipated that inclusion of willow trees will enhance the long-term productive capacity of the AFCG test plots. As an adaptable and dynamic system, AFCGs have potential to act as a more reliable local agrarian system and a refuge for culturally significant plants in high-latitude First Nation socio-ecological systems, which are particularly vulnerable to rapid cultural, climatic, and ecological change.

  19. A systematic approach to selecting the best probability models for annual maximum rainfalls - A case study using data in Ontario (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong-Huy; El Outayek, Sarah; Lim, Sun Hee; Nguyen, Van-Thanh-Van

    2017-10-01

    Many probability distributions have been developed to model the annual maximum rainfall series (AMS). However, there is no general agreement as to which distribution should be used due to the lack of a suitable evaluation method. This paper presents hence a general procedure for assessing systematically the performance of ten commonly used probability distributions in rainfall frequency analyses based on their descriptive as well as predictive abilities. This assessment procedure relies on an extensive set of graphical and numerical performance criteria to identify the most suitable models that could provide the most accurate and most robust extreme rainfall estimates. The proposed systematic assessment approach has been shown to be more efficient and more robust than the traditional model selection method based on only limited goodness-of-fit criteria. To test the feasibility of the proposed procedure, an illustrative application was carried out using 5-min, 1-h, and 24-h annual maximum rainfall data from a network of 21 raingages located in the Ontario region in Canada. Results have indicated that the GEV, GNO, and PE3 models were the best models for describing the distribution of daily and sub-daily annual maximum rainfalls in this region. The GEV distribution, however, was preferred to the GNO and PE3 because it was based on a more solid theoretical basis for representing the distribution of extreme random variables.

  20. Elevated contaminants contrasted with potential benefits of ω-3 fatty acids in wild food consumers of two remote first nations communities in northern Ontario, Canada.

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    Timothy A Seabert

    Full Text Available Indigenous communities in Boreal environments rely on locally-harvested wild foods for sustenance. These foods provide many nutritional benefits including higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; such as ω-3 than what is commonly found in store-bought foods. However, wild foods can be a route of exposure to dietary mercury and persistent organic pollutants (POPs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. Here, we show a strong association between the frequency of wild food consumption in adults (N=72 from two remote First Nations communities of Northern Ontario and environmental contaminants in blood (POPs and hair (mercury. We observed that POPs and mercury were on average 3.5 times higher among those consuming wild foods more often, with many frequent wild food consumers exceeding Canadian and international health guidelines for PCB and mercury exposures. Contaminants in locally-harvested fish and game from these communities were sufficiently high that many participants exceeded the monthly consumption limits for methylmercury and PCBs. Those consuming more wild foods also had higher proportions of potentially beneficial ω-3 fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. These results show that the benefits of traditional dietary choices in Boreal regions of Canada must be weighed against the inherent risks of contaminant exposure from these foods.

  1. Prevalence of texting while driving and other risky driving behaviors among young people in Ontario, Canada: Evidence from 2012 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Sean; Pek, Simon; Morrish, Jayne; Ruf, Megan

    2015-11-01

    This paper reports on the prevalence of texting while driving and other risky driving behaviors by age and gender in two large samples of youth aged 16-19 years in Ontario, Canada. In Study 1 (N=6133), we found that males reported more frequent texting while driving and speeding than females and, in terms of age, sixteen year olds reported frequent texting while driving than older participants. In Study 2 (N=4450), which was conducted two years later, males again reported more frequent texting while driving, however there was no difference in the rate of talking on the phone while driving among males and females. Participants also reported on experiences that led to a significant reduction in their texting while driving. The most common reasons were the perceived danger of texting while driving, laws and fines against texting while driving, and observing close-calls and accidents experienced by other people. The results of both studies suggest that driving-related risk-taking behaviors co-occur and that young passengers in vehicles, including 14 and 15 year olds, are bystanders to texting while driving. Finally, there was a substantial decline in the prevalence of texting while driving across the studies. In Study 1, 27% of participants reported "sometimes" to "almost always" texting while driving compared to 6% of participants in Study 2. Limitations and implications for public campaigns targeted youth distracted driving are discussed.

  2. Comparison of municipal solid waste management systems in Canada and Ghana: a case study of the cities of London, Ontario, and Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asase, Mizpah; Yanful, Ernest K; Mensah, Moses; Stanford, Jay; Amponsah, Samuel

    2009-10-01

    Integrated waste management has been accepted as a sustainable approach to solid waste management in any region. It can be applied in both developed and developing countries. The difference is the approach taken to develop the integrated waste management system. This review looks at the integrated waste management system operating in the city of London, Ontario-Canada and how lessons can be drawn from the system's development and operation that will help implement a sustainable waste management system in the city of Kumasi, Ghana. The waste management system in London is designed such that all waste generated in the city is handled and disposed of appropriately. The responsibility of each sector handling waste is clearly defined and monitored. All major services are provided and delivered by a combination of public and private sector forces. The sustainability of the waste management in the city of London is attributed to the continuous improvement strategy framework adopted by the city based on the principles of integrated waste management. It is perceived that adopting a strategic framework based on the principles of integrated waste management with a strong political and social will, can transform the current waste management in Kumasi and other cities in developing countries in the bid for finding lasting solutions to the problems that have plagued the waste management system in these cities.

  3. Reason-Giving and Medical Futility: Contrasting Legal and Social Discourse in the United States With the United Kingdom and Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosslet, Gabriel T; Baker, Mary; Pope, Thaddeus M

    2016-09-01

    Disputes regarding life-prolonging treatments are stressful for all parties involved. These disagreements are appropriately almost always resolved with intensive communication and negotiation. Those rare cases that are not require a resolution process that ensures fairness and due process. We describe three recent cases from different countries (the United States, United Kingdom, and Ontario, Canada) to qualitatively contrast the legal responses to intractable, policy-level disputes regarding end-of-life care in each of these countries. In so doing, we define the continuum of clinical and social utility among different types of dispute resolution processes and emphasize the importance of public reason-giving in the societal discussion regarding policy-level solutions to end-of-life treatment disputes. We argue that precedential, publicly available, written rulings for these decisions most effectively help to move the social debate forward in a way that is beneficial to clinicians, patients, and citizens. This analysis highlights the lack of such rulings within the United States.

  4. A case-control study of long-term exposure to ambient volatile organic compounds and lung cancer in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Paul J; Jerrett, Michael; Brenner, Darren; Su, Jason; Chen, Hong; McLaughlin, John R

    2014-02-15

    Few studies have investigated associations between nonoccupational exposure to ambient volatile organic compounds and lung cancer. We conducted a case-control study of 445 incident lung cancers and 948 controls (523 hospital, 425 general population) in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, between 1997 and 2002. Participants provided information on several risk factors, including tobacco use, secondhand exposure to cigarette smoke, obesity, and family history of cancer. Exposure to benzene, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen dioxide was estimated using land-use regression models. Exposures were linked to residential addresses to estimate exposure at the time of interview, 10 years before interview, and across past residences (time-weighted average). Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios. Analyses involving the population-based controls found that an interquartile-range increase in the time-weighted average benzene concentration (0.15 µg/m(3)) across previous residences was associated with lung cancer (odds ratio = 1.84, 95% confidence interval: 1.26, 2.68). Similarly, an interquartile-range increase in the time-weighted average nitrogen dioxide concentration (4.8 ppb) yielded an odds ratio of 1.59 (95% confidence interval: 1.19, 2.12). Our study suggests that long-term exposure to ambient volatile organic compounds and nitrogen dioxide at relatively low concentrations is associated with lung cancer. Further work is needed to evaluate joint relationships between these pollutants, smoking, and lung cancer.

  5. Multimorbidity and healthcare utilization among home care clients with dementia in Ontario, Canada: A retrospective analysis of a population-based cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondor, Luke; Maxwell, Colleen J.; Hogan, David B.; Gruneir, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Background For community-dwelling older persons with dementia, the presence of multimorbidity can create complex clinical challenges for both individuals and their physicians, and can contribute to poor outcomes. We quantified the associations between level of multimorbidity (chronic disease burden) and risk of hospitalization and risk of emergency department (ED) visit in a home care cohort with dementia and explored the role of continuity of physician care (COC) in modifying these relationships. Methods and findings A retrospective cohort study using linked administrative and clinical data from Ontario, Canada, was conducted among 30,112 long-stay home care clients (mean age 83.0 ± 7.7 y) with dementia in 2012. Multivariable Fine–Gray regression models were used to determine associations between level of multimorbidity and 1-y risk of hospitalization and 1-y risk of ED visit, accounting for multiple competing risks (death and long-term care placement). Interaction terms were used to assess potential effect modification by COC. Multimorbidity was highly prevalent, with 35% (n = 10,568) of the cohort having five or more chronic conditions. In multivariable analyses, risk of hospitalization and risk of ED visit increased monotonically with level of multimorbidity: sub-hazards were 88% greater (sub-hazard ratio [sHR] = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.72–2.05, p investigate health system and other factors that may modify patients’ risk of health outcomes. PMID:28267802

  6. Healthy eating index-C is positively associated with family dinner frequency among students in grades 6-8 from Southern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, S J; Hanning, R M; McGoldrick, K; Brown, K S

    2010-05-01

    Unhealthy eating behaviours may contribute to the rising prevalence of childhood obesity in Canada. The purpose of this study was to describe family dinner frequency (FDF) and its associations with overall diet quality. The sample included grades six (n=372), seven (n=429) and eight (n=487) students from Southern Ontario. Data were collected with the Food Behaviour Questionnaire, including a single 24-h dietary recall and questions about individual meals. Diet quality was calculated using the Healthy Eating Index-C (HEI-C), which is a recently modified diet quality index. The majority of participants (65%) reported frequent family dinner meals (6-7 days/week versus 20% on 3-5 days/week and 15% on 0-2 days/week). Diet quality scores were higher among participants reporting 6-7 dinners/week (HEI-C=66.2 versus 62.1 and 62.8 for 0-2 and 3-5 days/week, respectively, Pdinner (Pfamily dinner meals were positively associated with daily diet quality and negatively associated with breakfast and lunch skipping. Promoting family dinner meals in healthy living intervention strategies is advised.

  7. Paying for primary care: a cross-sectional analysis of cost and morbidity distributions across primary care payment models in Ontario Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudoler, David; Laporte, Audrey; Barnsley, Janet; Glazier, Richard H; Deber, Raisa B

    2015-01-01

    Policy-makers desire an optimal balance of financial incentives to improve productivity and encourage improved quality in primary care, while also avoiding issues of risk-selection inherent to capitation-based payment. In this paper we analyze risk-selection in capitation-based payment by using administrative data for patients (n = 11,600,911) who were rostered (i.e., signed an enrollment form, or received a majority of care) with a primary care physician (n = 8621) in Ontario, Canada in 2010/11. We analyze this data using a relative distribution approach and compare distributions of patient costs and morbidity across primary care payment models. Our results suggest a relationship between being in a capitation-based payment scheme and having low cost patients (and presumably healthy patients) compared to fee-for-service physicians. However, we do not have evidence that physicians in capitation-based models are reducing the care they provide to sick and high cost patients. These findings suggest there is a relationship between payment type and risk-selection, particularly for low-cost and healthy patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lichens and mosses as monitors of industrial activity associated with uranium mining in Northern Ontario, Canada. Pt. 1. Field procedures, chemical analysis and inter-species comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boileau, L.J.R.; Beckett, P.J.; Lavoie, P.; Richardson, D.H.S. (Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry); Nieboer, E. (McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biochemistry)

    1982-07-01

    A modified X-ray fluorescence spectrometry technique allowed the detection of uranium in cryptograms with a detection limit of 0.5 to 1 ..mu..g U g/sup -1/ of plant material. The levels of five elements (Ti, Fe, Ni, Pb and U) in 109 lichen and 98 moss samples collected around two uranium mining communities in northeastern Ontario, Canada, are reported. Similar metal accumulation tendencies were observed for the pair of lichens, Cladonia rangiferina and C. mitis, and for the moss pair, Pleurozium schreberi and Dicranum spp. This interchangeability, combined with favourable availability, made the above species the most useful biological monitors. Inter-elemental content comparisons employing Pearson's linear correlation statistic indicated a strong positive association among the pairs iron/titanium, and uranium/lead. Somewhat weaker positive correlations were observed in the individual comparisons of uranium levels with iron, or titanium, or nickel content. The associations between elements in mosses and lichens were in excellent agreement with the grouping based on the composition of the local uranium ores and tailings.

  9. Factors affecting the implementation of complex and evolving technologies: multiple case study of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bak Kate

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research regarding the decision to adopt and implement technological innovations in radiation oncology is lacking. This is particularly problematic since these technologies are often complex and rapidly evolving, requiring ongoing revisiting of decisions regarding which technologies are the most appropriate to support. Variations in adoption and implementation decisions for new radiation technologies across cancer centres can impact patients' access to appropriate and innovative forms of radiation therapy. This study examines the key steps in the process of adopting and implementing intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT in publicly funded cancer centres and identifies facilitating or impeding factors. Methods A multiple case study design, utilizing document analysis and key informant interviews was employed. Four cancer centres in Ontario, Canada were selected and interviews were conducted with radiation oncologists, medical physicists, radiation therapists, and senior administrative leaders. Results Eighteen key informants were interviewed. Overall, three centres made fair to excellent progress in the implementation of IMRT, while one centre achieved only limited implementation as of 2009. Key factors that influenced the extent of IMRT implementation were categorized as: 1 leadership, 2 training, expertise and standardization, 3 collaboration, 4 resources, and 5 resistance to change. Conclusion A framework for the adoption and implementation of complex and evolving technologies is presented. It identifies the key factors that should be addressed by decision-makers at specific stages of the adoption/implementation process.

  10. Assessing the responses of creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) and pearl dace (Semotilus margarita) to metal mine effluents using in situ artificial streams in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Monique G; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Hruska, Kimberly A; Glozier, Nancy E

    2006-01-01

    Mining of the world's second-largest nickel deposits in the area of Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, has caused acidification and metal saturation of some catchments. We conducted artificial stream studies in the years 2001 and 2002 to assess the effects of treated metal mine effluents (MMEs) from three different mining operations discharging to Junction Creek, Sudbury, on two fish species, creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) and pearl dace (Semotilus margarita). Treatments tested for 35 to 41 d included reference water, Garson MME (30%), Nolin MME (20%), and Copper Cliff MME (45%). In 2001, effects on chub included reduced survival and depressed testosterone levels (fivefold reduction) after exposure to all MMEs. In 2002, chub and dace survival were reduced to less than 60% in the Copper Cliff and Garson treatments. In addition, the total body weights of male and female dace were reduced after exposure to the Garson and Copper Cliff treatments. In 2001 and 2002, responses were most common to the 45% Copper Cliff and 30% Garson effluents, with consistent increases in nickel, rubidium, strontium, iron, lithium, thallium, and selenium observed across treatment waters and body tissues. More work is required to link observed effects to field effects and to identify multitrophic level responses of the ecosystem to the MMEs. The artificial stream studies provided a mechanism to identify changes in the endpoints of relevant fish species exposed to present-day metal mine discharges independent of historical depositions of metals in the Sudbury area.

  11. Applications of low altitude remote sensing in agriculture upon farmers' requests--a case study in northeastern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhua; Walters, Dan; Kovacs, John M

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of the low altitude remote sensing (LARS) industry in recent years, their practical application in precision agriculture seems all the more possible. However, only a few scientists have reported using LARS to monitor crop conditions. Moreover, there have been concerns regarding the feasibility of such systems for producers given the issues related to the post-processing of images, technical expertise, and timely delivery of information. The purpose of this study is to showcase actual requests by farmers to monitor crop conditions in their fields using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Working in collaboration with farmers in northeastern Ontario, we use optical and near-infrared imagery to monitor fertilizer trials, conduct crop scouting and map field tile drainage. We demonstrate that LARS imagery has many practical applications. However, several obstacles remain, including the costs associated with both the LARS system and the image processing software, the extent of professional training required to operate the LARS and to process the imagery, and the influence from local weather conditions (e.g. clouds, wind) on image acquisition all need to be considered. Consequently, at present a feasible solution for producers might be the use of LARS service provided by private consultants or in collaboration with LARS scientific research teams.

  12. The abiotic and biotic factors limiting establishment of predatory fishes at their expanding northern range boundaries in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alofs, Karen M; Jackson, Donald A

    2015-06-01

    There is a poor understanding of the importance of biotic interactions in determining species distributions with climate change. Theory from invasion biology suggests that the success of species introductions outside of their historical ranges may be either positively (biotic acceptance) or negatively (biotic resistance) related to native biodiversity. Using data on fish community composition from two survey periods separated by approximately 28 years during which climate was warming, we examined the factors influencing the establishment of three predatory centrarchids: Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu), Largemouth Bass (M. salmoides), and Rock Bass (Ambloplites rupestris) in lakes at their expanding northern range boundaries in Ontario. Variance partitioning demonstrated that, at a regional scale, abiotic factors play a stronger role in determining the establishment of these species than biotic factors. Pairing lakes within watersheds where each species had established with lakes sharing similar abiotic conditions where the species had not established revealed both positive and negative relationships between the establishment of centrarchids and the historical presence of other predatory species. The establishment of these species near their northern range boundaries is primarily determined by abiotic factors at a regional scale; however, biotic factors become important at the lake-to-lake scale. Studies of exotic species invasions have previously highlighted how spatial scale mediates the importance of abiotic vs. biotic factors on species establishment. Our study demonstrates how concepts from invasion biology can inform our understanding of the factors controlling species distributions with changing climate.

  13. MOSSES AS BIOINDICATORS OF AIR POLLUTION ALONG AN URBAN–AGRICULTURAL TRANSECT IN THE CREDIT RIVER WATERSHED, SOUTHERN ONTARIO, CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cowden

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The activities associated with urbanization, such as vehicular traffic and industrial processes, lead to elevated emissions of atmospheric pollutants. Measuring the spatial extent of these pollutants is pivotal to identifying areas of concern and assessing mitigation measures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative deposition of heavy metals and nitrogen using moss species along an urban–agricultural transition in the Credit River Watershed, southern Ontario. Thirteen species of moss were collected from Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum dominated forest stands across the study area, with only one moss species (Atrichum altercristatum commonly occurring. Heavy metal concentrations were variable between species; the Coefficient of Variation (CV for the majority of metals (Al, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, As, Sb and Pb was greater than ~50% across species. Nonetheless, metals exhibited similar trends, with the highest concentrations for Fe, followed by Al > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Ni > V > As > Cd > Sb > Hg across species. Heavy metal concentrations in Atrichum altercristatum exhibited lower variability between sites, with CV < 33% for most metals (Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Pb and Hg. Further, many metal concentrations were strongly correlated (e.g., Al, V, Cr, Fe, and As; r ≤ 0.90 suggesting common emission sources, such as wind blown dust from agricultural activities or vehicular traffic, both predominant throughout the watershed.

  14. Assessing the distribution of volatile organic compounds using land use regression in Sarnia, "Chemical Valley", Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luginaah Isaac N

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Land use regression (LUR modelling is proposed as a promising approach to meet some of the challenges of assessing the intra-urban spatial variability of ambient air pollutants in urban and industrial settings. However, most of the LUR models to date have focused on nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. This study aimed at developing LUR models to predict BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene and o-xylene concentrations in Sarnia, 'Chemical Valley', Ontario, and model the intra-urban variability of BTEX compounds in the city for a community health study. Method Using Organic Vapour Monitors, pollutants were monitored at 39 locations across the city of Sarnia for 2 weeks in October 2005. LUR models were developed to generate predictor variables that best estimate BTEX concentrations. Results Industrial area, dwelling counts, and highways adequately explained most of the variability of BTEX concentrations (R2: 0.78 – 0.81. Correlations between measured BTEX compounds were high (> 0.75. Although most of the predictor variables (e.g. land use were similar in all the models, their individual contributions to the models were different. Conclusion Yielding potentially different health effects than nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, modelling other air pollutants is essential for a better understanding of the link between air pollution and health. The LUR models developed in these analyses will be used for estimating outdoor exposure to BTEX for a larger community health study aimed at examining the determinants of health in Sarnia.

  15. Sex and Gender Diversity Among Transgender Persons in Ontario, Canada: Results From a Respondent-Driven Sampling Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheim, Ayden I.; Bauer, Greta R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest that as many as 1 in 200 adults may be trans (transgender, transsexual, or transitioned). Knowledge about dimensions of sex and gender in trans populations is crucial to development of inclusive policy, practice, and research, but limited data have been available, particularly from probability samples. The Trans PULSE community-based research project surveyed trans Ontarians (n = 433) in 2009–2010 using respondent-driven sampling. Frequencies were weighted by recruitment probability to produce estimates for the networked Ontario trans population. An estimated 30% of trans Ontarians were living their day-to-day lives in their birth gender, and 23% were living in their felt gender with no medical intervention. In all, 42% were using hormones, while 15% of male-to-female spectrum persons had undergone vaginoplasty and 0.4% of female-to-male spectrum persons had had phalloplasty. Of those living in their felt gender, 59% had begun to do so within the past four years. A minority of trans Ontarians reported a linear transition from one sex to another, yet such a trajectory is often assumed to be the norm. Accounting for this observed diversity, we recommend policy and practice changes to increase social inclusion and service access for trans persons, regardless of transition status. PMID:24750105

  16. Associations between stomach cancer incidence and drinking water contamination with atrazine and nitrate in Ontario (Canada) agroecosystems, 1987-1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, J A; Waltner-Toews, D; Abernathy, T; Smit, B; Shoukri, M

    1999-10-01

    Nitrate and atrazine are two chemicals that are heavily used in certain sectors of agriculture. They are suspected to be associated with the development of certain types of tumours. Existing data were obtained on the incidence of specific types of cancers, contamination of drinking water with atrazine and nitrate, and related agricultural practices for the 40 ecodistricts in the province of Ontario. The data were merged into a georelational database for geographical and statistical analyses. Weighted (by population size) least squares regression analyses were conducted while controlling for confounding socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Maximum likelihood spatial error models were estimated when least square regression error terms were found to be spatially autocorrelated using the Moran's I statistic. Atrazine contamination levels (range 50-649 ng/l, maximum acceptable concentration [MAC] = 60000 ng/l) were positively associated (P < 0.05) with stomach cancer incidence and negatively associated with colon cancer incidence. Nitrate levels, (range 0-91 mg/l, MAC = 10 mg/l) were negatively associated with stomach cancer incidence. The associations found at the ecodistrict level, both positive and negative, if confirmed by other studies, raise serious questions about maximum allowable limits for atrazine, as well as possibilities of complex trade-offs among disease outcomes, and interactions of biophysical and social mechanisms which might explain them. Although the negative associations appear to have no direct biological explanations, such counter-intuitive outcomes may occur in complex systems where social and biological variables interact.

  17. Sex and gender diversity among transgender persons in Ontario, Canada: results from a respondent-driven sampling survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheim, Ayden I; Bauer, Greta R

    2015-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest that as many as 1 in 200 adults may be trans (transgender, transsexual, or transitioned). Knowledge about dimensions of sex and gender in trans populations is crucial to development of inclusive policy, practice, and research, but limited data have been available, particularly from probability samples. The Trans PULSE community-based research project surveyed trans Ontarians (n=433) in 2009-2010 using respondent-driven sampling. Frequencies were weighted by recruitment probability to produce estimates for the networked Ontario trans population. An estimated 30% of trans Ontarians were living their day-to-day lives in their birth gender, and 23% were living in their felt gender with no medical intervention. In all, 42% were using hormones, while 15% of male-to-female spectrum persons had undergone vaginoplasty and 0.4% of female-to-male spectrum persons had had phalloplasty. Of those living in their felt gender, 59% had begun to do so within the past four years. A minority of trans Ontarians reported a linear transition from one sex to another, yet such a trajectory is often assumed to be the norm. Accounting for this observed diversity, we recommend policy and practice changes to increase social inclusion and service access for trans persons, regardless of transition status.

  18. Early Days for the Differentiation Policy Framework in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sianos, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities in Canada released "Ontario's Differentiation Policy Framework for Postsecondary Education" in 2013. This chapter examines the mandate as it pertains to the college sector.

  19. A comparative analysis of current microbial water quality risk assessment and management practices in British Columbia and Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Gemma; Harris, Leila; Cook, Christina; Prystajecky, Natalie

    2014-01-15

    Bacteria, protozoa and viruses are ubiquitous in aquatic environments and may pose threats to water quality for both human and ecosystem health. Microbial risk assessment and management in the water sector is a focus of governmental regulation and scientific inquiry; however, stark gaps remain in their application and interpretation. This paper evaluates how water managers practice microbial risk assessment and management in two Canadian provinces (BC and Ontario). We assess three types of entities engaged in water management along the source-to-tap spectrum (watershed agencies, water utilities, and public health authorities). We analyze and compare the approaches used by these agencies to assess and manage microbial risk (including scope, frequency, and tools). We evaluate key similarities and differences, and situate them with respect to international best practices derived from literatures related to microbial risk assessment and management. We find considerable variability in microbial risk assessment frameworks and management tools in that approaches 1) vary between provinces; 2) vary within provinces and between similar types of agencies; 3) have limited focus on microbial risk assessment for ecosystem health and 4) diverge considerably from the literature on best practices. We find that risk assessments that are formalized, routine and applied system-wide (i.e. from source-to-tap) are limited. We identify key limitations of current testing methodologies and looking forward consider the outcomes of this research within the context of new developments in microbial water quality monitoring such as tests derived from genomics and metagenomics based research. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Physician perspectives on care of individuals with severe mobility impairments in primary care in Southwestern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Colleen; Lee, Joseph; Milligan, James; Hillier, Loretta M; Bauman, Craig

    2016-07-01

    Despite the high health risks associated with severe mobility impairments, individuals with physical disabilities are less likely to receive the same level of primary care as able-bodied persons. This study explores family physicians' perspectives on primary care for individuals with mobility impairments to identify and better understand the challenges that prevent equitable service delivery to this group of patients. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in the autumn of 2012 with a purposeful sample of 20 family physicians practising in Southwestern Ontario to gather their perspectives of the personal and professional barriers to healthcare delivery for individuals with mobility impairments, including perceptions of challenges, contributing reasons and possible improvements. A thematic analysis was conducted on the transcripts generated from the interviews to identify perceptions of existing barriers and gaps in care, needs and existing opportunities for improving primary care for this patient population. Eight themes emerged from the interviews that contributed to understanding the perceived challenges of providing care to patients with mobility impairments: transportation barriers, knowledge gaps and practice constraints resulting in episodic care rather than preventive care, incongruence between perceived and actual accessibility to care, emergency departments used as centres for primary care, inattention to mobility issues among specialist and community services, lack of easily accessible practice tools, low patient volumes impact decision-making regarding building decreased motivation to expand clinical capacity due to low patient volume, and lastly, remuneration issues. Despite this patient population presenting with high healthcare needs and significant barriers and care gaps in primary care, low prevalence rates negatively impact the acquisition of necessary equipment and knowledge required to optimally care for these patients in typical primary care

  1. Methane fluxes measured by eddy covariance and static chamber techniques at a temperate forest in central ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Methane flux measurements were carried out at a temperate forest (Haliburton Forest and Wildlife Reserve in central Ontario (45°17´11´´ N, 78°32´19´´ W from June–October, 2011. Continuous measurements were made by an off-axis integrated cavity output spectrometer Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyzer (FGGA from Los Gatos Research Inc. that measures methane (CH4 at 10 Hz sampling rates. Fluxes were calculated from the gas measurements in conjunction with wind data collected by a 3-D sonic anemometer using the eddy covariance (EC method. Observed methane fluxes showed net uptake of CH4 over the measurement period with an average uptake flux (± standard deviation of the mean of −2.7 ± 0.13 nmol m−2 s−1. Methane fluxes showed a seasonal progression with average rates of uptake increasing from June through September and remaining high in October. This pattern was consistent with a decreasing trend in soil moisture content at the monthly time scale. On the diurnal timescale, there was evidence of increased uptake during the day, when the mid-canopy wind speed was at a maximum. These patterns suggest that substrate supply of CH4 and oxygen to methanotrophs, and in certain cases hypoxic soil conditions supporting methanogenesis in low-slope areas, drive the observed variability in fluxes. A network of soil static chambers used at the tower site showed close agreement with the eddy covariance flux measurements. This suggests that soil-level microbial processes, and not abiological leaf-level CH4 production, drive overall CH4 dynamics in temperate forest ecosystems such as Haliburton Forest.

  2. Methane fluxes measured by eddy covariance and static chamber techniques at a temperate forest in central ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. M.; Murphy, J. G.; Geddes, J. A.; Winsborough, C. L.; Basiliko, N.; Thomas, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    Methane flux measurements were carried out at a temperate forest (Haliburton Forest and Wildlife Reserve) in central Ontario (45°17´11´´ N, 78°32´19´´ W) from June-October, 2011. Continuous measurements were made by an off-axis integrated cavity output spectrometer Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyzer (FGGA) from Los Gatos Research Inc. that measures methane (CH4) at 10 Hz sampling rates. Fluxes were calculated from the gas measurements in conjunction with wind data collected by a 3-D sonic anemometer using the eddy covariance (EC) method. Observed methane fluxes showed net uptake of CH4 over the measurement period with an average uptake flux (± standard deviation of the mean) of -2.7 ± 0.13 nmol m-2 s-1. Methane fluxes showed a seasonal progression with average rates of uptake increasing from June through September and remaining high in October. This pattern was consistent with a decreasing trend in soil moisture content at the monthly time scale. On the diurnal timescale, there was evidence of increased uptake during the day, when the mid-canopy wind speed was at a maximum. These patterns suggest that substrate supply of CH4 and oxygen to methanotrophs, and in certain cases hypoxic soil conditions supporting methanogenesis in low-slope areas, drive the observed variability in fluxes. A network of soil static chambers used at the tower site showed close agreement with the eddy covariance flux measurements. This suggests that soil-level microbial processes, and not abiological leaf-level CH4 production, drive overall CH4 dynamics in temperate forest ecosystems such as Haliburton Forest.

  3. Radium-226 in water, sediments, and fish from lakes near the city of Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clulow, F V; Davé, N K; Lim, T P; Avadhanula, R

    1998-01-01

    Ra-226 was measured by alpha-emission spectroscopy in water, sediments, and fish (tissues and gut contents), from five lakes in a watershed containing U mining and milling operations at Elliot Lake, Ontario, and from control lakes in an adjacent non-industrialized watershed. Ra-226 transfer parameters from lake water and sediments to fish tissues, and annual intakes by humans consuming fish, were estimated. Mean dissolved 226Ra levels ranged from approximately 76 mBq litre(-1) in water of the most affected lake, to Ra-226 levels in lake trout muscle were low and showed erratic variation among lakes whereas levels in whitefish muscle did not vary significantly among study and control sites. Lake herring (= cisco, Coregonus artedii), a planktivorous fish taken only from Quirke Lake, had mean 226Ra levels of 18 and 1.4 mBq g(-1) dry wt in bone and muscle, respectively. Gut 226Ra levels, highest in lake trout from McCabe and Quirke Lakes (126 +/- 53, 64 +/- 44 mBq g(-1) dry wt, respectively), and just detectable in McCabe and Elliot Lake whitefish (24 +/- 2, 36 +/- 14 mBq g(-1) dry wt, respectively), were below detection in lake trout and whitefish from other lakes. Concentration ratios (CRs) of 226Ra from water to muscle ranged from 8 to 14 in lake trout, 7 to 14 in whitefish, and 4 to 6 in lake herring. The water to bone CRs varied from 81 to 142, 314 to 548, and 126 to 272 in the same species. CRs were always 2 mSv year(-1)) and the public dose limit (5 mSv year(-1)).

  4. Factors influencing veterinarian referral to oncology specialists for treatment of dogs with lymphoma and osteosarcoma in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoewen, Debbie L; Coe, Jason B; MacMartin, Clare; Stone, Elizabeth A; Dewey, Catherine E

    2013-11-15

    To elucidate factors influencing practitioner decisions to refer dogs with cancer to veterinary oncology specialists. Cross-sectional study. 2,724 Ontario primary care companion animal veterinarians. Practitioners were invited to participate in a survey involving clinical scenarios of canine cancer patients, offered online and in paper format from October 2010 through January 2011. Analyses identified factors associated with the decision to refer patients to veterinary oncology specialists. 1,071 (39.3%) veterinarians responded, of which 603 (56.3%) recommended referral for dogs with multicentric lymphoma and appendicular osteosarcoma. Most (893/1,059 [84.3%]) practiced within < 2 hours' drive of a specialty referral center, and most (981/1,047 [93.7%]) were completely confident in the oncology service. Few (230/1,056 [21.8%] to 349/1,056 [33.0%]) were experienced with use of chemotherapeutics, whereas more (627/1,051 [59.7%]) were experienced with amputation. Referral was associated with practitioner perception of patient health status (OR, 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 2.07), the interaction between the client's bond with the dog and the client's financial status, practitioner experience with treating cancer (OR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.63 to 4.77), how worthwhile practitioners considered treatment to be (OR, 1.66 to 3.09; 95% CI, 1.08 to 4.72), and confidence in the referral center (OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1. 11 to 4.34). Several factors influenced practitioner decisions to refer dogs with lymphoma or osteosarcoma for specialty care. Understanding factors that influence these decisions may enable practitioners to appraise their referral decisions and ensure they act in the best interests of patients, clients, and the veterinary profession.

  5. Chemical and Petrochemical Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This publication is a background document on the global chemical and petrochemical sector for the IEA publication Energy Technology Transitions in Industry (IEA, 2009). It provides further, more detailed information on the methodology and data issues for energy efficiency indicators for the sector. The indicators discussed offer insight regarding the energy efficiency improvement potential in the short- to medium-term (by proven technologies).

  6. Prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal nematodes on 32 organic and conventional commercial sheep farms in Ontario and Quebec, Canada (2006-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mederos, A; Fernández, S; VanLeeuwen, J; Peregrine, A S; Kelton, D; Menzies, P; LeBoeuf, A; Martin, R

    2010-06-24

    In order to characterize the epidemiology of sheep gastrointestinal nematodes in organic and conventional flocks in Canada, a longitudinal study was carried out from May 2006 to March 2008 on 32 purposively selected farms in Ontario (ON) and Quebec (QC): 8 certified organic (CO), 16 non-certified organic (NCO), and 8 conventional (C) farms. On each farm, 10 ewes and 10 female lambs were selected. Farm visits were undertaken monthly during the grazing season, and twice in the winter. At each visit, individual fecal samples were taken, and pasture samples were obtained during the grazing season. In addition, body condition score was recorded for all sheep. Fecal egg counts per gram of feces (EPGs) were determined for all fecal samples, and infective larvae (L(3)) were identified in fecal samples (lambs and ewes separately) and pasture samples from farms. Necropsies of 14 lambs from 7 of the 23 Ontario farms were performed at the end of the grazing season in 2006. The mean EPG for year 1 (May 2006 to March 2007) was 181 (range=0-9840) and 351 (range=0-18,940) for the ewes in ON and QC, respectively, and for the lambs was 509 (range=0-25,020) and 147 (range=0-3060) for ON and QC, respectively. During year 2 (April 2007 to March 2008), the mean EPG was 303 (range=0-21,160) and 512 (range=0-22,340) for the ewes in ON and QC, respectively, and for lambs was 460 (range=0-26,180) and 232 (range=0-8280) for ON and QC, respectively. Although the overall mean EPGs were not remarkably high, there were months of higher EPG such as May-June for ewes and July-August for lambs in both provinces. Pasture infectivity was highest in May-June and September. There was a general trend for the CO farms to have lower mean EPG than NCO and C farms. Fecal cultures demonstrated that the most predominant nematode genera were Teladorsagia sp., Haemonchus sp. and Trichostrongylus spp. Pasture infectivity was highest during June-July (984 L3/kg DM) in ON farms and September (mean=436 L3/kg DM) in

  7. Performance and Cost-Effectiveness of Computed Tomography Lung Cancer Screening Scenarios in a Population-Based Setting: A Microsimulation Modeling Analysis in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Ten Haaf

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST results indicate that computed tomography (CT lung cancer screening for current and former smokers with three annual screens can be cost-effective in a trial setting. However, the cost-effectiveness in a population-based setting with >3 screening rounds is uncertain. Therefore, the objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening in a population-based setting in Ontario, Canada, and evaluate the effects of screening eligibility criteria.This study used microsimulation modeling informed by various data sources, including the Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP, Ontario Cancer Registry, smoking behavior surveys, and the NLST. Persons, born between 1940 and 1969, were examined from a third-party health care payer perspective across a lifetime horizon. Starting in 2015, 576 CT screening scenarios were examined, varying by age to start and end screening, smoking eligibility criteria, and screening interval. Among the examined outcome measures were lung cancer deaths averted, life-years gained, percentage ever screened, costs (in 2015 Canadian dollars, and overdiagnosis. The results of the base-case analysis indicated that annual screening was more cost-effective than biennial screening. Scenarios with eligibility criteria that required as few as 20 pack-years were dominated by scenarios that required higher numbers of accumulated pack-years. In general, scenarios that applied stringent smoking eligibility criteria (i.e., requiring higher levels of accumulated smoking exposure were more cost-effective than scenarios with less stringent smoking eligibility criteria, with modest differences in life-years gained. Annual screening between ages 55-75 for persons who smoked ≥40 pack-years and who currently smoke or quit ≤10 y ago yielded an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $41,136 Canadian dollars ($33,825 in May 1, 2015, United States dollars per life-year gained

  8. It 'makes you feel more like a person than a patient': patients' experiences receiving home-based primary care (HBPC) in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Carrier, Tracy; Sinha, Samir K; Nowaczynski, Mark; Akhtar, Sabrina; Seddon, Gayle; Pham, Thuy-Nga Tia

    2017-03-01

    The lack of effective systems to appropriately manage the health and social care of frail older adults - especially among those who become homebound - is becoming all the more apparent. Home-based primary care (HBPC) is increasingly being promoted as a promising model that takes into account the accessibility needs of frail older adults, ensuring that they receive more appropriate primary and community care. There remains a paucity of literature exploring patients' experiences with HBPC programmes. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of patients accessing HBPC delivered by interprofessional teams, and their perspectives on the facilitators and barriers to this model of care in Ontario, Canada. Using certain grounded theory principles, we conducted an inductive qualitative content analysis of in-depth patient interviews (n = 26) undertaken in the winter of 2013 across seven programme sites exploring the lived experiences and perspectives of participants receiving HBPC. Themes emerged in relation to patients' perceptions regarding the preference for and necessity of HBPC, the promotion of better patient care afforded by the model in comparison to office-based care, and the benefits of and barriers to HBPC service provision. Underlying patterns also surfaced related to patients' feelings and emotions about their quality of life and satisfaction with HBPC services. We argue that HBPC is well positioned to serve frail homebound older adults, ensuring that patients receive appropriate primary and community care - which the office-based alternative provides little guarantee - and that they will be cared for, pointing to a model that may not only lead to greater patient satisfaction but also likely contributes to bettering the quality of life of a highly vulnerable population.

  9. Importance of ICD-10 coding directive change for acute gastroenteritis (unspecified) for rotavirus vaccine impact studies: illustration from a population-based cohort study from Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah E; Deeks, Shelley L; Rosella, Laura C

    2015-09-15

    In Ontario, Canada, we conducted an evaluation of rotavirus (RV) vaccine on hospitalizations and Emergency Department (ED) visitations for acute gastroenteritis (AGE). In our original analysis, any one of the International Classification of Disease, Version 10 (ICD-10) codes was used for outcome ascertainment: RV-specific- (A08.0), viral- (A08.3, A08. 4, A08.5), and unspecified infectious- gastroenteritis (A09). Annual age-specific rates per 10,000 population were calculated. The average monthly rate of AGE hospitalization for children under age two increased from 0.82 per 10,000 from January 2003 to March 2009, to 2.35 over the period of April 2009 to March 31, 2013. Similar trends were found for ED consultations and in other age groups. A rise in events corresponding to the A09 code was found when the outcome definition was disaggregated by ICD-10 code. Documentation obtained from the World Health Organization confirmed that a change in directive for the classification of unspecified gastroenteritis occurred with the release of ICD-10 in April 2009. AGE events previously classified under the code K52.9, are now classified under code A09.9. Based on change in the classification of unspecified gastroenteritis we modified our outcome definition to also include unspecified non-infectious-gastroenteritis (K52.9). We recommend other investigators consider using both A09.9 and K52.9 ICD-10 codes for outcome ascertainment in future rotavirus vaccine impact studies to ensure that all unspecified cases of AGE are captured, especially if the study period spans 2009.

  10. Site specific risk assessment of an energy-from-waste thermal treatment facility in Durham Region, Ontario, Canada. Part A: Human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollson, Christopher A; Knopper, Loren D; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Jayasinghe, Ruwan

    2014-01-01

    The regions of Durham and York in Ontario, Canada have partnered to construct an energy-from-waste thermal treatment facility as part of a long term strategy for the management of their municipal solid waste. This paper presents the results of a comprehensive human health risk assessment for this facility. This assessment was based on extensive sampling of baseline environmental conditions (e.g., collection and analysis of air, soil, water, and biota samples) as well as detailed site specific modeling to predict facility-related emissions of 87 identified contaminants of potential concern. Emissions were estimated for both the approved initial operating design capacity of the facility (140,000 tonnes per year) and for the maximum design capacity (400,000 tonnes per year). For the 140,000 tonnes per year scenario, this assessment indicated that facility-related emissions are unlikely to cause adverse health risks to local residents, farmers, or other receptors (e.g., recreational users). For the 400,000 tonnes per year scenarios, slightly elevated risks were noted with respect to inhalation (hydrogen chloride) and infant consumption of breast milk (dioxins and furans), but only during predicted 'upset conditions' (i.e. facility start-up, shutdown, and loss of air pollution control) that represent unusual and/or transient occurrences. However, current provincial regulations require that additional environmental screening would be mandatory prior to expansion of the facility beyond the initial approved capacity (140,000 tonnes per year). Therefore, the potential risks due to upset conditions for the 400,000 tonnes per year scenario should be more closely investigated if future expansion is pursued.

  11. The impact of land use, season, age, and sex on the prevalence and intensity of Baylisascaris procyonis infections in raccoons (Procyon lotor) from Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Claire M; Pearl, David L; Puskas, Kirstie; Campbell, Doug G; Shirose, Lenny; Peregrine, Andrew S

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of land use, demographic factors, and season on the prevalence and intensity of Baylisascaris procyonis infections in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Ontario, Canada. From March to October 2012, we recorded the number of B. procyonis in the intestinal tracts of raccoons submitted to the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre for necropsy. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between the presence of B. procyonis and age (adult, juvenile), sex, land use (suburban/urban, rural), and season (March-June and July-October); negative binomial regression models were used to examine associations between the number of worms and the same variables. We detected B. procyonis in 38% (95% confidence interval 30-47%) of raccoons examined (n=128). In univariable models, the presence of B. procyonis was significantly associated with age, land use, and season (Praccoons were significantly more likely to be infected with B. procyonis than suburban/urban female raccoons. However, later in the summer (July-October), the opposite was true. The median number of worms in the intestinal tracts of infected raccoons was 3 (range 1-116). Worm number was significantly associated with age and season in univariable models; in the multivariable model, juvenile raccoons had significantly more worms than adults, and the impact of season on the number of worms varied with land use and sex. A better understanding of the epidemiology of B. procyonis in raccoons is important for developing appropriate strategies to reduce the risk of human exposure to B. procyonis from the environment.

  12. Giving voice to food insecurity in a remote indigenous community in subarctic Ontario, Canada: traditional ways, ways to cope, ways forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Kelly; Hanning, Rhona M; Desjardins, Ellen; Tsuji, Leonard J S

    2013-05-02

    Food insecurity is a serious public health issue for Aboriginal people (First Nations [FN], Métis, and Inuit) living in Canada. Food security challenges faced by FN people are unique, especially for those living in remote and isolated communities. Conceptualizations of food insecurity by FN people are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of food insecurity by FN adults living in a remote, on-reserve community in northern Ontario known to have a high prevalence of moderate to severe food insecurity. A trained community research assistant conducted semi-directed interviews, and one adult from each household in the community was invited to participate. Questions addressed traditional food, coping strategies, and suggestions to improve community food security and were informed by the literature and a community advisory committee. Thematic data analyses were carried out and followed an inductive, data-driven approach. Fifty-one individuals participated, representing 67% of eligible households. The thematic analysis revealed that food sharing, especially with family, was regarded as one of the most significant ways to adapt to food shortages. The majority of participants reported consuming traditional food (wild meats) and suggested that hunting, preserving and storing traditional food has remained very important. However, numerous barriers to traditional food acquisition were mentioned. Other coping strategies included dietary change, rationing and changing food purchasing patterns. In order to improve access to healthy foods, improving income and food affordability, building community capacity and engagement, and community-level initiatives were suggested. Findings point to the continued importance of traditional food acquisition and food sharing, as well as community solutions for food systems change. These data highlight that traditional and store-bought food are both part of the strategies and solutions participants suggested

  13. Atmospheric exchange of carbon dioxide and methane of a small water body and a floating mat in the Luther Marsh peatland, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Magdalena; Berger, Sina; Blodau, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Recent investigations have suggested that small water bodies cover larger areas in northern peatlands than previously assumed. Their role in the carbon cycle and gas exchange rates are poorly constrained so far. To address this issue we measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes on a small water body (ca. 700 m2) and the surrounding floating mat in the Luther Marsh peatland in Ontario, Canada from July to September 2014. To this end we used closed chambers combined with a portable Los Gatos high-resolution trace gas analyzer at different water depths and distances from the shore on the pond and with different dominating plant types on the floating mat surrounding the pond. In addition, CO2 concentrations were recorded in high temporal resolution using an infrared sensor system during selected periods. Air and water temperature, humidity and temperature of the floating mat, wind speed and direction, photosynthetically active radiation, air pressure and relative humidity were also recorded as auxiliary data at the study site. The results show that pond and floating mat were sources of methane throughout the whole measuring period. Methane emissions via the ebullition pathway occurred predominantly near the shore and on the floating mat. During the daytime measurements the floating mat acted as a net sink and the pond as a net source of CO2. The dynamics of CO2 exchange was also strongly time dependent, as CO2 emissions from the pond strongly increased after mid-August. This suggests that photosynthesis was more affected by seasonal decline than respiration process in the pond and that the allochthonous component of the CO2 flux increased in relative importance towards fall.

  14. Nurse-led health promotion interventions improve quality of life in frail older home care clients: lessons learned from three randomized trials in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle-Reid, Maureen; Browne, Gina; Gafni, Amiram

    2013-02-01

    This paper explores the lessons learned from a series of three randomized controlled trials that included 498 community-living frail older adults (≥65 years) using home care services in Southern Ontario, Canada. Each study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of different multi-component nurse-led health promotion and disease prevention (HPDP) interventions. The nurse-led HPDP interventions were 6- or 12-month multi-component and evidence-based strategies targeting known risk factors for functional decline and frailty. Across the three studies, a common approach was used to measure the change in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) (SF-36) and the costs of use of health services (Health and Social Services Utilization Inventory) from baseline to the end of the intervention. The main lesson learned from the three studies is that nurse-led HPDP interventions for frail older home care clients provide greater improvements in HRQOL compared with usual home care. Such approaches are highly acceptable to this population and can be implemented using existing home care resources. Nurse-led HPDP interventions should include multiple home visits, multidimensional screening and assessment, multi-component evidence-based HPDP strategies, intensive case management, inter-professional collaboration, providers with geriatric training and experience, referral to and coordination of community services, and theory use. The results of the three trials underscore the need to reinvest in nurse-led HPDP interventions in home care to optimize HRQOL and promote ageing in place in the target population of frail older adults. More studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of additional nurse-led HPDP interventions in other contexts and settings. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Associations between HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, gender discrimination, and depression among HIV-positive African, Caribbean, and Black women in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen; James, Llana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona

    2013-02-01

    Abstract African, Caribbean, and Black (ACB) women are greatly overrepresented in new HIV infections in comparison with Canada's general population. Social and structural factors such as HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, and racial discrimination converge to increase vulnerability to HIV infection among ACB women by reducing access to HIV prevention services. Stigma and discrimination also present barriers to treatment, care, and support and may contribute to mental health problems. We administered a cross-sectional survey to HIV-positive ACB women (n=173) across Ontario in order to examine the relationships between HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, racial discrimination, and depression. One-third of participants reported moderate/severe depression scores using the Beck Depression Inventory Fast-Screen guidelines. Hierarchical block regression, moderation, and mediation analyses were conducted to measure associations between independent (HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, racial discrimination), moderator/mediator (social support, resilient coping), and dependent (depression) variables. Findings included: (1) HIV-related stigma was associated with increased depression; (2) resilient coping was associated with reduced depression but did not moderate the influence of HIV-related stigma on depression; and (3) the effects of HIV-related stigma on depression were partially mediated through resilient coping. HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, and racial discrimination were significantly correlated with one another and with depression, highlighting the salience of examining multiple intersecting forms of stigma. Generalizability of findings may be limited due to nonrandom sampling. Findings emphasize the importance of multi-component interventions, including building resilient coping skills, mental health promotion and assessment, and stigma reduction programs.

  16. A Structural Equation Model of HIV-Related Stigma, Racial Discrimination, Housing Insecurity and Wellbeing among African and Caribbean Black Women Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H.; Jenkinson, Jesse I. R.; Earnshaw, Valerie; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R.

    2016-01-01

    African and Caribbean Black women in Canada have new HIV infection rates 7 times higher than their white counterparts. This overrepresentation is situated in structural contexts of inequities that result in social, economic and health disparities among African and Caribbean Black populations. Economic insecurity is a distal driver of HIV vulnerability, reducing access to HIV testing, prevention and care. Less is known about how economic insecurity indicators, such as housing security, continue to influence the lives of women living with HIV following HIV-positive diagnoses. The aim of this study was to test a conceptual model of the pathways linking HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, housing insecurity, and wellbeing (depression, social support, self-rated health). We implemented a cross-sectional survey with African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV in 5 Ontario cities, and included 157 participants with complete data in the analyses. We conducted structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation to evaluate the hypothesized conceptual model. One-fifth (22.5%; n = 39) of participants reported housing insecurity. As hypothesized, racial discrimination had significant direct effects on: HIV-related stigma, depression and social support, and an indirect effect on self-rated health via HIV-related stigma. HIV-related stigma and housing insecurity had direct effects on depression and social support, and HIV-related stigma had a direct effect on self-rated health. The model fit the data well: χ2 (45, n = 154) = 54.28, p = 0.387; CFI = 0.997; TLI = 0.996; RMSEA = 0.016. Findings highlight the need to address housing insecurity and intersecting forms of stigma and discrimination among African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV. Understanding the complex relationships between housing insecurity, HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, and wellbeing can inform multi-level interventions to reduce stigma and enhance health. PMID

  17. Giving voice to food insecurity in a remote indigenous community in subarctic Ontario, Canada: traditional ways, ways to cope, ways forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Food insecurity is a serious public health issue for Aboriginal people (First Nations [FN], Métis, and Inuit) living in Canada. Food security challenges faced by FN people are unique, especially for those living in remote and isolated communities. Conceptualizations of food insecurity by FN people are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of food insecurity by FN adults living in a remote, on-reserve community in northern Ontario known to have a high prevalence of moderate to severe food insecurity. Methods A trained community research assistant conducted semi-directed interviews, and one adult from each household in the community was invited to participate. Questions addressed traditional food, coping strategies, and suggestions to improve community food security and were informed by the literature and a community advisory committee. Thematic data analyses were carried out and followed an inductive, data-driven approach. Results Fifty-one individuals participated, representing 67% of eligible households. The thematic analysis revealed that food sharing, especially with family, was regarded as one of the most significant ways to adapt to food shortages. The majority of participants reported consuming traditional food (wild meats) and suggested that hunting, preserving and storing traditional food has remained very important. However, numerous barriers to traditional food acquisition were mentioned. Other coping strategies included dietary change, rationing and changing food purchasing patterns. In order to improve access to healthy foods, improving income and food affordability, building community capacity and engagement, and community-level initiatives were suggested. Conclusions Findings point to the continued importance of traditional food acquisition and food sharing, as well as community solutions for food systems change. These data highlight that traditional and store-bought food are both part of the

  18. Ozone treatment and the depletion of detectable pharmaceuticals and atrazine herbicide in drinking water sourced from the upper Detroit River, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wenyi; Bennett, Erin R; Letcher, Robert J

    2006-07-01

    The depletion and degradation of pharmacologically active compounds (PhACs) and pesticides as a function of ozonation in drinking water treatment processes is not well studied. The A.H. Weeks drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) serves the City of Windsor, Ontario Canada, and incorporates ozone treatment into the production of drinking water. This DWTP also operates a real-time, scaled down pilot plant, which has two parallel streams, conventional and ozone plus conventional treatments. In this study water samples were collected from key points in the two streams of the pilot plant system to determine the depletion and influence of seasonal changes in water processing parameters on eighteen major PhACs (and metabolites) and seven s-triazines herbicides. However, only carbamazepine (antiepileptic), caffeine (stimulant), cotinine (metabolite of nicotine) and atrazine were consistently detectable in the raw water intake (low to sub-ng/L level). Regardless of the seasonality, the flocculation-coagulation and dual media filtration steps without ozone treatment resulted in no decrease in analyte concentrations, while decreases of 66-100% (undetectable, method detection limits 0.05-1 ng/L) of the analyte concentrations were observed when ozone treatment was part of the water processing. These findings demonstrate that ozone treatment is highly effective in depleting carbamazepine, caffeine, cotinine, and atrazine, and thus is highly influential in the fate of these compounds in drinking water treatment regardless of the seasonal time frame. Currently very few Canadian DWTPs incorporate ozonation into conventional treatment, which suggests that human exposure to these compounds via drinking water consumption may be an issue in affected communities.

  19. Impacts of future climate change on river discharge based on hydrological inference: A case study of the Grand River Watershed in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Huang, Guohe; Wang, Xiuquan; Han, Jingcheng; Fan, Yurui

    2016-04-01

    Over the recent years, climate change impacts have been increasingly studied at the watershed scale. However, the impact assessment is strongly dependent upon the performance of the climatic and hydrological models. This study developed a two-step method to assess climate change impacts on water resources based on the Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) modeling system and a Hydrological Inference Model (HIM). PRECIS runs provided future temperature and precipitation projections for the watershed under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change SRES A2 and B2 emission scenarios. The HIM based on stepwise cluster analysis is developed to imitate the complex nonlinear relationships between climate input variables and targeted hydrological variables. Its robust mathematical structure and flexibility in predictor selection makes it a desirable tool for fully utilizing various climate modeling outputs. Although PRECIS and HIM cannot fully cover the uncertainties in hydro-climate modeling, they could provide efficient decision support for investigating the impacts of climate change on water resources. The proposed method is applied to the Grand River Watershed in Ontario, Canada. The model performance is demonstrated with comparison to observation data from the watershed during the period 1972-2006. Future river discharge intervals that accommodate uncertainties in hydro-climatic modeling are presented and future river discharge variations are analyzed. The results indicate that even though the total annual precipitation would not change significantly in the future, the inter-annual distribution is very likely to be altered. The water availability is expected to increase in Winter while it is very likely to decrease in Summer over the Grand River Watershed, and adaptation strategies would be necessary.

  20. A Structural Equation Model of HIV-Related Stigma, Racial Discrimination, Housing Insecurity and Wellbeing among African and Caribbean Black Women Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Jenkinson, Jesse I R; Earnshaw, Valerie; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R

    African and Caribbean Black women in Canada have new HIV infection rates 7 times higher than their white counterparts. This overrepresentation is situated in structural contexts of inequities that result in social, economic and health disparities among African and Caribbean Black populations. Economic insecurity is a distal driver of HIV vulnerability, reducing access to HIV testing, prevention and care. Less is known about how economic insecurity indicators, such as housing security, continue to influence the lives of women living with HIV following HIV-positive diagnoses. The aim of this study was to test a conceptual model of the pathways linking HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, housing insecurity, and wellbeing (depression, social support, self-rated health). We implemented a cross-sectional survey with African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV in 5 Ontario cities, and included 157 participants with complete data in the analyses. We conducted structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation to evaluate the hypothesized conceptual model. One-fifth (22.5%; n = 39) of participants reported housing insecurity. As hypothesized, racial discrimination had significant direct effects on: HIV-related stigma, depression and social support, and an indirect effect on self-rated health via HIV-related stigma. HIV-related stigma and housing insecurity had direct effects on depression and social support, and HIV-related stigma had a direct effect on self-rated health. The model fit the data well: χ2 (45, n = 154) = 54.28, p = 0.387; CFI = 0.997; TLI = 0.996; RMSEA = 0.016. Findings highlight the need to address housing insecurity and intersecting forms of stigma and discrimination among African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV. Understanding the complex relationships between housing insecurity, HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, and wellbeing can inform multi-level interventions to reduce stigma and enhance health.

  1. A Structural Equation Model of Factors Contributing to Quality of Life Among African and Caribbean Women Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Ahmed, Uzma; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R

    2017-03-01

    African and Caribbean Black (ACB) women in Canada are disproportionately impacted by new HIV infections. ACB women's HIV vulnerability is shaped by contexts of stigma and discrimination. HIV-related stigma compromises quality of life (QOL) among women living with HIV (WLWH), yet scant research has examined concomitant effects of racial discrimination and HIV-related stigma on QOL. We used data from a cross-sectional survey with ACB WLWH in Ontario (n = 173) to test a conceptual model of pathways between HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, depression, social support, and QOL. We conducted structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation to test the model. In independent models, HIV-related stigma was associated with lower QOL, and depression partially mediated the association between HIV-related stigma and QOL. In the simultaneous model, HIV-related stigma had significant direct effects on depression, social support, and an indirect effect on QOL. When social support was added as a mediator, the direct effect between HIV-related stigma and QOL was no longer significant, suggesting mediation. Racial discrimination had significant direct effects on HIV-related stigma, depression, and social support and an indirect effect on QOL. QOL was associated with higher social support and lower depression scores. The model fit the data well: χ(2) = 203.266, degrees of freedom (DF): 112, p discrimination was associated with increased HIV-related stigma, and HIV-related stigma and racial discrimination compromised QOL. Findings suggest the need for multilevel interventions to reduce stigma and discrimination, address depression, and build social support to improve QOL among ACB WLWH.

  2. Variations in Sense of Place Across Immigrant Status and Gender in Hamilton, Ontario; Saskatoon, Saskatchewan; and, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, Melissa; Williams, Allison

    Past research in Hamilton, Ontario has found that age and longevity of residence are positively associated with evaluations of sense of place (SoP); further, evaluations of SoP between immigrants and Canadian-born individuals have shown no clear pattern (Williams et al. 2010; Williams and Kitchen 2012). This paper builds on this work by further examining evaluations of SoP among both immigrants and Canadian-born residents and across gender in Hamilton, while expanding the study to two other small-to-medium sized cities: Saskatoon, Saskatchewan and, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. This paper has two objectives: (1) to establish measures of SoP across immigrant status and gender in Hamilton, Saskatoon, and Charlottetown; and, (2) to determine how SoP varies according to immigrant status, length of residence in Canada, age, income, and neighbourhood length of residence across the three city sites. Telephone survey data (n = 1,132) was used to compare evaluations of SoP across various groups and to construct an ordered logistic regression model for SoP. Results suggest that immigrants tended to rate their SoP lower than their Canadian-born counterparts. Hamilton residents were found to rate their SoP lowest, followed by Saskatoon residents and, finally, Charlottetown residents. Younger individuals, those with lower income levels, and those with shorter neighbourhood residency in the cities concerned were more likely to have lower evaluations of SoP. This research suggests that greater attention is needed to nurture immigrants' connection with their new home.

  3. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constancio, Silva

    2006-07-01

    In 2004, refining margins showed a clear improvement that persisted throughout the first three quarters of 2005. This enabled oil companies to post significantly higher earnings for their refining activity in 2004 compared to 2003, with the results of the first half of 2005 confirming this trend. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady rise in the naphtha price, higher cash margins enabled a turnaround in 2004 as well as a clear improvement in oil company financial performance that should continue in 2005, judging by the net income figures reported for the first half-year. Despite this favorable business environment, capital expenditure in refining and petrochemicals remained at a low level, especially investment in new capacity, but a number of projects are being planned for the next five years. (author)

  4. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benazzi, E

    2003-07-01

    Down sharply in 2002, refining margins showed a clear improvement in the first half-year of 2003. As a result, the earnings reported by oil companies for financial year 2002 were significantly lower than in 2001, but the prospects are brighter for 2003. In the petrochemicals sector, slow demand and higher feedstock prices eroded margins in 2002, especially in Europe and the United States. The financial results for the first part of 2003 seem to indicate that sector profitability will not improve before 2004. (author)

  5. Modelling sediment-microbial dynamics in the South Nation River, Ontario, Canada: Towards the prediction of aquatic and human health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droppo, I G; Krishnappan, B G; Liss, S N; Marvin, C; Biberhofer, J

    2011-06-01

    Runoff from agricultural watersheds can carry a number of agricultural pollutants and pathogens; often associated with the sediment fraction. Deposition of this sediment can impact water quality and the ecology of the river, and the re-suspension of such sediment can become sources of contamination for reaches downstream. In this paper a modelling framework to predict sediment and associated microbial erosion, transport and deposition is proposed for the South Nation River, Ontario, Canada. The modelling framework is based on empirical relationships (deposition and re-suspension fluxes), derived from laboratory experiments in a rotating circular flume using sediment collected from the river bed. The bed shear stress governing the deposition and re-suspension processes in the stream was predicted using a one dimensional mobile boundary flow model called MOBED. Counts of live bacteria associated with the suspended and bed sediments were used in conjunction with measured suspended sediment concentration at an upstream section to allow for the estimation of sediment associated microbial erosion, transport and deposition within the modelled river reach. Results suggest that the South Nation River is dominated by deposition periods with erosion only occurring at flows above approximately 250 m(3) s(-1) (above this threshold, all sediment (suspended and eroded) with associated bacteria are transported through the modelled reach). As microbes are often associated with sediments, and can survive for extended periods of time, the river bed is shown to be a possible source of pathogenic organisms for erosion and transport downstream during large storm events. It is clear that, shear levels, bacteria concentrations and suspended sediment are interrelated requiring that these parameters be studied together in order to understand aquatic microbial dynamics. It is important that any management strategies and operational assessments for the protection of human and aquatic health

  6. Tracing sources of crustal contamination using multiple S and Fe isotopes in the Hart komatiite-associated Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposit, Abitibi greenstone belt, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, R. S.; Bekker, A.; Houlé, M. G.; Wing, B. A.; Rouxel, O. J.

    2016-10-01

    Assimilation by mafic to ultramafic magmas of sulfur-bearing country rocks is considered an important contributing factor to reach sulfide saturation and form magmatic Ni-Cu-platinum group element (PGE) sulfide deposits. Sulfur-bearing sedimentary rocks in the Archean are generally characterized by mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes that is a result of atmospheric photochemical reactions, which produces isotopically distinct pools of sulfur. Likewise, low-temperature processing of iron, through biological and abiotic redox cycling, produces a range of Fe isotope values in Archean sedimentary rocks that is distinct from the range of the mantle and magmatic Fe isotope values. Both of these signals can be used to identify potential country rock assimilants and their contribution to magmatic sulfide deposits. We use multiple S and Fe isotopes to characterize the composition of the potential iron and sulfur sources for the sulfide liquids that formed the Hart deposit in the Shaw Dome area within the Abitibi greenstone belt in Ontario (Canada). The Hart deposit is composed of two zones with komatiite-associated Ni-Cu-PGE mineralization; the main zone consists of a massive sulfide deposit at the base of the basal flow in the komatiite sequence, whereas the eastern extension consists of a semi-massive sulfide zone located 12 to 25 m above the base of the second flow in the komatiite sequence. Low δ56Fe values and non-zero δ34S and Δ33S values of the komatiitic rocks and associated mineralization at the Hart deposit is best explained by mixing and isotope exchange with crustal materials, such as exhalite and graphitic argillite, rather than intrinsic fractionation within the komatiite. This approach allows tracing the extent of crustal contamination away from the deposit and the degree of mixing between the sulfide and komatiite melts. The exhalite and graphitic argillite were the dominant contaminants for the main zone of mineralization and the eastern

  7. Libraries in Ontario: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/ontario.html Libraries in Ontario To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. Barrie Royal Victoria Regional Health Centre Health Library 201 Georgian Drive Barrie, ON L4M 6M2 CANADA ...

  8. Estimating the number of human cases of ceftiofur-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg in Québec and Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Simon J G; Carson, Carolee A; Finley, Rita L; Thomas, M Kate; Reid-Smith, Richard J; McEwen, Scott A

    2014-11-01

    A stochastic model was used to estimate the number of human cases of ceftiofur-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg in Québec and Ontario attributable to chicken consumption and excess cases attributable to human prior antimicrobial consumption. The annual mean incidence of S. Heidelberg (Québec/Ontario) decreased from 70/62 cases per 100 000 in 2004 to 29/30 cases per 100 000 in 2007 (Québec)/2008 (Ontario), increasing to 59/45 cases per 100 000 in 2011. The annual mean incidence of ceftiofur-resistant cases from chicken decreased from 8/7 cases per 100 000 in 2004 to 1/1 cases per 100 000 in 2007 (Québec)/2008 (Ontario), increasing to 7/5 cases per 100 000 in 2011. The annual mean total number of excess ceftiofur-resistant cases from chicken attributable to human prior antimicrobial consumption (Québec/Ontario) decreased from 71/123 in 2004 to 6/24 in 2007 (Québec)/2008 (Ontario), but increased to 62/91 in 2011. This model will support future work to determine the increased severity, mortality and healthcare costs for ceftiofur-resistant Salmonella Heidelberg infections. These results provide a basis for the evaluation of future public health interventions to address antimicrobial resistance.

  9. Changes in Agricultural Regions of Southern Ontario in Canada base on Sample Farms%加拿大安大略省南部农业地域的变化——农场案例调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏飞

    2011-01-01

    基于1999年与2009年对加拿大南安大略地域的肉牛饲养、奶牛饲养、养猪、玉米种植、烟叶种植和果树栽培等6个案例农场的实地调查,分析了南安大略地域的农业经营的特征.1950年之前农业的地域差异并不明显,随着第二次世界大战后农业生产技术的改良与农业机械化的普及,开始形成以特定农作物生产为主的农业地域.在1960与1970年代肉牛与奶酪地域、园艺农业地域、玉米地域、果树地域、烟叶地域的区分明显.而1980至2000年代农业地域的变化不大,说明近20年间南安大略地域的农业生产平稳变化不大.%In this paper the author tried to analyze changes in agricultural regions of southern Ontario in Canada based on fieldwork, and make clear their structure of change. Agricultural regions didn' t differ greatly in southern Ontario before 1950. Along agricultural technology of production are improved and mechanization of agriculture are spread since World War Ⅱ, the region for special crops production came into southern Ontario. It can clear distinguish between cattle farm, dairy farm, hog farm, grain farm, tobacco farm and fruit farm during 1960s and 1970s in southern Ontario. However, changes of agricultural region in southern Ontario aren't too clear during 1980s and 2000s, it explain agricultural production are stable on this time.

  10. Academic Accommodations for Postsecondary Students with Mental Health Disabilities in Ontario, Canada: A Review of the Literature and Reflections on Emerging Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condra, Mike; Dineen, Mira; Gills, Helen; Jack-Davies, Anita; Condra, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of students with mental health disabilities (MHDs) are enrolling at Canadian colleges and universities. This review examines the challenges and complexities of meeting the unique needs of these students at Ontario's postsecondary institutions, with a specific focus on the issue of academic accommodations. These complexities…

  11. Longitudinal study on the seroprevalence of avian influenza, leptospirosis, and tularemia in an urban population of raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Claire; Lindsay, L Robbin; Nicholson, Vivian M; Ojkic, Davor; Prescott, John F

    2011-01-01

    Raccoons (Procyon lotor) live at high densities, often in close association with people, in urban areas in Ontario and have been implicated as potential reservoirs of numerous zoonotic disease agents. We collected 137 blood samples from 61 apparently healthy raccoons in a small area of Toronto, Ontario, from June to October 2007 as part of a longitudinal study to determine the seasonal patterns of seroprevalence of Francisella tularensis, avian influenza, and Leptospira. In addition, we collected 35 urine samples by cystocentesis from 23 animals to look for evidence of urinary shedding of Leptospira. All samples were serologically negative for F. tularensis and avian influenza. Nineteen of 61 animals (31%) were positive for Leptospira antibodies in one or more trapping periods. The seroprevalence of Leptospira increased from 5% in June to 38% in October. Of the 19 positive animals, 14 were seropositive for serogroup Grippotyphosa, 4 for serogroup Pomona, and 1 for both serogroups Australis and Grippotyphosa. Raccoons were seronegative to serovars representative of serogroups Autumnalis, Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Sejroe. Only one urine sample was culture positive for Leptospira (2.9%). Although we found evidence that raccoons in this study were exposed to leptospires belonging to serogroup Grippotyphosa, likely serovar Grippotyphosa, during the summer and able to shed leptospires in urine, further work is required to determine the importance of raccoons as reservoirs of Leptospira in Ontario.

  12. HEAVY METAL ANALYSIS IN RED OAK (QUERCUS RUBRA POPULATIONS FROM A MINING REGION IN NORTHERN ONTARIO (CANADA: EFFECT OF SOIL LIMING AND ANALYSIS OF GENETIC VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Tran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dynamic of metals in soil and plants and population diversity in Northern Ontario is essential in determining progress toward ecosystem sustainability in reclaimed sites. The objectives of the present study were to assess the levels of metal content in soils and their accumulation in red oak plants from limed and unlimed sites. Genetic variation in red oak populations from the Northern Ontario region was also analyzed. The levels of soil acidity was lower in limed areas compared to un limed sites, an indication of the prolonged beneficial effect of liming 20 to 30 years ago on soil toxicity. The levels of total metals were very high for most elements, but the proportion of metals that were bio available and readily available to plants was very small. The enrichment factors were16.78, 4.98 and 2.94 for total arsenic, copper and nickel, respectively. The Translocation Factor (TF values for available metals from soil to branches were high. There was more metal accumulation in leaves compared to branches. The degrees of genetic variability in red oak populations from limed and unlimed areas were compared using ISSR markers. The levels of polymorphic loci were moderate to high ranging from 44 to 65%. There were no significant differences in polymorphisms between areas that were limed and unlimed. Overall the red oak populations in stressed areas in Northern Ontario are sustainable.

  13. Transmission system planning in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrie, D.; Macedo, F.X.; Mcconnach, J.S. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    In recent years, new and modified approaches to planning the large transmission system that serves the province of Ontario, Canada, have been necessary to accommodate the rapidly changing planning environment including slower uncertain growth, ageing of facilities, integration of demand side management and non utility generation options, increased competitiveness, increased financial stresses and affordable constraints. This paper describes some of the new and modified approaches and tools that have been adopted or are being developed by Ontario Hydro to cope with this changing environment. (author) 9 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Looking inside the black box: a theory-based process evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial of printed educational materials (the Ontario printed educational message, OPEM to improve referral and prescribing practices in primary care in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemyre Louise

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Randomised controlled trials of implementation strategies tell us whether (or not an intervention results in changes in professional behaviour but little about the causal mechanisms that produce any change. Theory-based process evaluations collect data on theoretical constructs alongside randomised trials to explore possible causal mechanisms and effect modifiers. This is similar to measuring intermediate endpoints in clinical trials to further understand the biological basis of any observed effects (for example, measuring lipid profiles alongside trials of lipid lowering drugs where the primary endpoint could be reduction in vascular related deaths. This study protocol describes a theory-based process evaluation alongside the Ontario Printed Educational Message (OPEM trial. We hypothesize that the OPEM interventions are most likely to operate through changes in physicians' behavioural intentions due to improved attitudes or subjective norms with little or no change in perceived behavioural control. We will test this hypothesis using a well-validated social cognition model, the theory of planned behaviour (TPB that incorporates these constructs. Methods/design We will develop theory-based surveys using standard methods based upon the TPB for the second and third replications, and survey a subsample of Ontario family physicians from each arm of the trial two months before and six months after the dissemination of the index edition of informed, the evidence based newsletter used for the interventions. In the third replication, our study will converge with the "TRY-ME" protocol (a second study conducted alongside the OPEM trial, in which the content of educational messages was constructed using both standard methods and methods informed by psychological theory. We will modify Dillman's total design method to maximise response rates. Preliminary analyses will initially assess the internal reliability of the measures and use

  15. Cross-sectional examination of the association of co-occurring alcohol misuse and traumatic brain injury on mental health and conduct problems in adolescents in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Gabriela; Mann, Robert E; Boak, Angela; Adlaf, Edward M; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D

    2016-11-10

    This study describes the impact of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hazardous drinking on mental health and behavioural issues among Ontario adolescents. In particular, we assessed the incremental co-occurrence of hazardous drinking with a history of TBI, in comparison to experiencing just one of these conditions. A cross-sectional subsample of 3130 Ontario adolescents attending grades 9-12, and aged 10-21 were surveyed in 2013 as a part of the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health's Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey. Recent (past year) and former (lifetime and excluding the last year) TBI were defined as trauma to the head that resulted in loss of consciousness for at least 5 min or overnight hospitalisation. Current hazardous drinking was derived using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). An estimated 11.8% of Ontario adolescents (95% CI 10.1% to 13.8%) reported a history of former TBI and were not hazardous drinkers; 4.0% (95% CI 2.9% to 5.5%) reported recent TBI and were not hazardous drinkers; 13.7% (95% CI 12.3% to 15.3%) were hazardous drinkers who never had a TBI; 4.1% (95% CI 2.9% to 5.8%) had former TBI with co-occurring hazardous drinking; and 2.2% (95% CI 1.6% to 3.0%) had recent TBI with co-occurring hazardous drinking. Most odds increased significantly and were two to three times higher for reporting compromised mental health, violent and non-violent conduct behaviours, and reported victimisation for classifying as a hazardous drinker at the time of testing with co-occurring either former or recent TBI compared to classifying as not having either of these conditions. Adolescents classified as hazardous drinkers with former TBI had numerous and higher ORs for conduct behaviours than those with recent TBI. Results emphasise the strong interplay between TBI and hazardous drinking and point to the need for integrating prevention efforts to reduce these conditions and their co-occurrence among adolescents. Published by the BMJ

  16. Variations in Sense of Place Across Immigrant Status and Gender in Hamilton, Ontario; Saskatoon, Saskatchewan; and, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Past research in Hamilton, Ontario has found that age and longevity of residence are positively associated with evaluations of sense of place (SoP); further, evaluations of SoP between immigrants and Canadian-born individuals have shown no clear pattern (Williams et al. 2010; Williams and Kitchen 2012). This paper builds on this work by further examining evaluations of SoP among both immigrants and Canadian-born residents and across gender in Hamilton, while expanding the study to two other s...

  17. The relationship between quality of work life and location of cross-training among obstetric nurses in urban northeastern Ontario, Canada: A population-based cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behdin Nowrouzi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the quality of work life of registered nurses working in obstetrics at 4 hospitals in northeastern Ontario and explore demographic and occupational factors related to nurses’ quality of work life (QWL. Material and Methods: A stratified random sample of registered nurses (N = 111 selected from the 138 eligible registered nurses (80.4% of staff in the labor, delivery, recovery, and postpartum areas at the 4 hospitals participated. Logistic regression analyses were used to consider QWL in relation to the following: 1 demographic factors, and 2 stress, employment status and educational attainment. Results: In the logistic regression model, the odds of a higher quality of work life for nurses who were cross trained (nurses who can work across all areas of obstetrical care were estimated to be 3.82 (odds ratio = 3.82, 95% confidence interval: 1.01–14.5 times the odds of a higher quality of work life for nurses who were not cross trained. Conclusions: This study highlights a relationship between quality of work life and associated factors including location of cross-training among obstetrical nurses in northeastern Ontario. These findings are supported by the qualitative interviews that examine in depth their relationship to QWL. Given the limited number of employment opportunities in the rural and remote regions, it is paramount that employers and employees work closely together in creating positive environments that promote nurses’ QWL.

  18. Iron and aluminum soil/paleosol extractions as age/environment indicators: Some examples from a catchment in southern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, William C.; Hancock, Ronald G. V.; Somelar, Peeter; Milan, Alison

    2016-10-01

    Various chemical extractions of Fe and Al from bulk soil samples, including Na-pyrophosphate (Fep, Alp), acid ammonium oxalate (Feo, Alo), and Na-dithionite (Fed, Ald), have been used over the last half century to distinguish soil ages over varying time frames from 102 to 106 years and even as far into antiquity as the Oligocene (30 × 106) years. Problems with mineral/chemical uniformity of sediments, free drainage of open system profiles, and variable climate over long time frames have produced problems and uncertainties as to just what each extraction removes from the bulk material analyzed. Some problems have been resolved by the work of Parfitt and Childs (1988); but some persist, especially with respect to the solubility of some extractant forms and the actual composition of others, particularly Alp, Alo, and Ald. A recent test of soils and paleosols in a fluvial chronosequence in southern Ontario illustrates the soil-paleosol evolutionary time trend over a period of ~ 11 ky, essentially post-Iroquois time in the Ontario basin (Jackson et al., 2000). This work highlights the importance of isolated, free draining weathering systems, mineral uniformity, and new relationships between secondary forms of Fed and Ald, the latter previously considered of little importance in age relationship quests.

  19. Creating High-Quality Health Care Workplaces. A Background Paper for Canadian Policy Research Networks' National Roundtable (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, October 29, 2001). CPRN Work Network Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehoorn, Mieke; Lowe, Graham S.; Rondeau, Kent V.; Schellenberg, Grant; Wagar, Terry H.

    Insights from a variety of research streams were synthesized to identify the key ingredients of a high-quality work environment in Canada's health care sector and ways of achieving high-quality workplaces in the sector. The following sets of interacting factors were considered: (1) the work environment and the human resource practices that shape…

  20. Test Review: Wechsler, D. (2014),"Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fifth Edition: Canadian 322 (WISC-V[superscript CDN])." Toronto, Ontario: Pearson Canada Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Damien C.; Kennedy, Kathleen E.; Aquilina, Alexandra M.

    2016-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fifth Edition: Canadian (WISC-V[superscript CDN]; Wechsler, 2014) is published by Pearson Canada Assessment. The WISC-V[superscript CDN] is a norm-referenced, individually administered intelligence battery that provides a comprehensive diagnostic profile of the cognitive strengths and weaknesses of…

  1. Sources and temporal variations of constrained PMF factors obtained from multiple-year receptor modeling of ambient PM2.5 data from five speciation sites in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofowote, Uwayemi M.; Su, Yushan; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Rastogi, Ankit K.; Brook, Jeff; Hopke, Philip K.

    2015-05-01

    The Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) network operates five fine particulate matter (PM2.5) speciation sites in Ontario. Data from 2005 to 2010 from these sites were subjected to constrained positive matrix factorization (PMF) to obtain factors of particulate matter pollution. Eight factors were found to be common across the sites. These constrained factors were particulate sulfate and nitrate, aged combustion aerosols, biomass/wood combustion, non-ferrous metal smelting, crustal matter, steel works, and road salt. Other factors found at these sites were largely related to local sources in their respective neighbourhoods. Diagnostic results from constraining the PMF factors could be used to select the appropriate post-PMF analyses as they reveal the factors that were expected to have regional or local sources. Interpretation of the spatial trends of factors was guided by the extent of similarity of target ratios across the five sites as determined by their coefficient of variation (C.V.). On average, particulate sulfate had PM2.5 mass contributions that ranged from 7% (Wallaceburg) to 36% (Simcoe) and nitrate species ranged from 7% (Simcoe) to 23% (Windsor). A clear low rural - high urban divide for particulate nitrate was also observed. These non-uniform impacts across the sites indicate that a single representative location is not suitable for studying PM2.5 in Ontario. Temporal variations showed greater abundance of particulate sulfate in the summer and particulate nitrate in the winter respectively. Yearly median values of the sulfate factor that is largely energy-related have been declining for most sites since peaking in 2007. A trajectory ensemble model, simplified quantitative transport bias analysis (sQTBA) was used to identify potential source regions of the constrained sulfate and nitrate factors while radial plots of the conditional probability function (CPF) were used to explore the more locally-sourced factors. The US Midwest, east

  2. The relationship between quality of work life and location of cross-training among obstetric nurses in urban northeastern Ontario, Canada: A population-based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrouzi, Behdin; Lightfoot, Nancy; Carter, Lorraine; Larivière, Michel; Rukholm, Ellen; Schinke, Robert; Belanger-Gardner, Diane

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the quality of work life of registered nurses working in obstetrics at 4 hospitals in northeastern Ontario and explore demographic and occupational factors related to nurses' quality of work life (QWL). A stratified random sample of registered nurses (N = 111) selected from the 138 eligible registered nurses (80.4%) of staff in the labor, delivery, recovery, and postpartum areas at the 4 hospitals participated. Logistic regression analyses were used to consider QWL in relation to the following: 1) demographic factors, and 2) stress, employment status and educational attainment. In the logistic regression model, the odds of a higher quality of work life for nurses who were cross trained (nurses who can work across all areas of obstetrical care) were estimated to be 3.82 (odds ratio = 3.82, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-14.5) times the odds of a higher quality of work life for nurses who were not cross trained. This study highlights a relationship between quality of work life and associated factors including location of cross-training among obstetrical nurses in northeastern Ontario. These findings are supported by the qualitative interviews that examine in depth their relationship to QWL. Given the limited number of employment opportunities in the rural and remote regions, it is paramount that employers and employees work closely together in creating positive environments that promote nurses' QWL. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  3. Knowledge, Perceptions and Attitudes toward Chronic Pain and Its Management: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Frontline Pharmacists in Ontario, Canada.

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    Tejal Patel

    Full Text Available The treatment of chronic pain consumes a significant share of primary care. Community and family health team pharmacists frequently see patients with chronic pain, thus have the opportunity to improve their care. To assess the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of Ontario pharmacists, we invited 5,324 Ontario pharmacists, to participate in an online survey we developed using Qualtrics. The 31-question survey gathered demographic information, assessed pharmacists' knowledge of three chronic pain conditions; chronic lower back pain (CLBP, eight true/false statements; chronic headache disorder (CHD, eight true/false statements and painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN, seven true/false statements, and their attitudes toward and perceptions of patients with these conditions, and knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of opioids in pain management. We received 688 responses (12.9% and 392 pharmacists completed the survey. The mean age of respondents was 48.5 years and 48.5% were male. More than 50% of respondents were in practice for more than 20 years and 58.7% worked 25-40 hours per week. The mean knowledge scores were 4.5/8, 5.5/8, and 5.3/8 for CBLP, CHD, and PDN respectively. While 95% of respondents were aware of the increasing death rates due to opioid use, only half were familiar with the Canadian guideline for safe opioid prescribing for non-cancer use. Responses were compared based on gender, time in practice and location of practice. Pharmacists with more than ten years of experience scored significantly higher than those with less experience. Fewer differences were found in comparisons of gender and location of practice. Safe and effective care of chronic pain patients, particularly with opioids, will require additional pharmacist education.

  4. Knowledge, Perceptions and Attitudes toward Chronic Pain and Its Management: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Frontline Pharmacists in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tejal; Chang, Feng; Mohammed, Heba Tallah; Raman-Wilms, Lalitha; Jurcic, Jane; Khan, Ayesha; Sproule, Beth

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of chronic pain consumes a significant share of primary care. Community and family health team pharmacists frequently see patients with chronic pain, thus have the opportunity to improve their care. To assess the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of Ontario pharmacists, we invited 5,324 Ontario pharmacists, to participate in an online survey we developed using Qualtrics. The 31-question survey gathered demographic information, assessed pharmacists' knowledge of three chronic pain conditions; chronic lower back pain (CLBP, eight true/false statements); chronic headache disorder (CHD, eight true/false statements) and painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN, seven true/false statements), and their attitudes toward and perceptions of patients with these conditions, and knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of opioids in pain management. We received 688 responses (12.9%) and 392 pharmacists completed the survey. The mean age of respondents was 48.5 years and 48.5% were male. More than 50% of respondents were in practice for more than 20 years and 58.7% worked 25-40 hours per week. The mean knowledge scores were 4.5/8, 5.5/8, and 5.3/8 for CBLP, CHD, and PDN respectively. While 95% of respondents were aware of the increasing death rates due to opioid use, only half were familiar with the Canadian guideline for safe opioid prescribing for non-cancer use. Responses were compared based on gender, time in practice and location of practice. Pharmacists with more than ten years of experience scored significantly higher than those with less experience. Fewer differences were found in comparisons of gender and location of practice. Safe and effective care of chronic pain patients, particularly with opioids, will require additional pharmacist education.

  5. Incremental health care costs for chronic pain in Ontario, Canada: a population-based matched cohort study of adolescents and adults using administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Mary-Ellen; Taddio, Anna; Katz, Joel; Shah, Vibhuti; Krahn, Murray

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about the economic burden of chronic pain and how chronic pain affects health care utilization. We aimed to estimate the annual per-person incremental medical cost and health care utilization for chronic pain in the Ontario population from the perspective of the public payer. We performed a retrospective cohort study using Ontario health care databases and the electronically linked Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) from 2000 to 2011. We identified subjects aged ≥12 years from the CCHS with chronic pain and closely matched them to individuals without pain using propensity score matching methods. We used linked data to determine mean 1-year per-person health care costs and utilization for each group and mean incremental cost for chronic pain. All costs are reported in 2014 Canadian dollars. After matching, we had 19,138 pairs of CCHS respondents with and without chronic pain. The average age was 55 years (SD = 18) and 61% were female. The incremental cost to manage chronic pain was $1742 per person (95% confidence interval [CI], $1488-$2020), 51% more than the control group. The largest contributor to the incremental cost was hospitalization ($514; 95% CI, $364-$683). Incremental costs were the highest in those with severe pain ($3960; 95% CI, $3186-$4680) and in those with most activity limitation ($4365; 95% CI, $3631-$5147). The per-person cost to manage chronic pain is substantial and more than 50% higher than a comparable patient without chronic pain. Costs are higher in people with more severe pain and activity limitations.

  6. Windsor, Ontario Exposure Assessment Study: Design and Methods Validation of Personal, Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Windsor, Ontario Exposure Assessment Study evaluated the contribution of ambient air pollutants to personal and indoor exposures of adults and asthmatic children living in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. In addition, the role of personal, indoor, and outdoor air pollution exposures...

  7. Estimating potential epidemic size following introduction of a long-incubation disease in scale-free connected networks of milking-cow movements in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, C; Ribble, C; Kelton, D; McNab, B

    2011-05-01

    We used the movements of adult milking cows among farms enrolled in the Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) program in Ontario to explore the size of an epidemic that might result from farm-to-farm movements of cows in the Province if a reportable long-incubation infection like tuberculosis (TB) were introduced and not detected for 1-3 years after introduction. A directed network was created for each year (2004-2006) using all pairs of individual shipments, defined as the movement of one or more cows on a single day, from a single source DHI farm to a single recipient DHI farm. A 3-year network was also developed that included all cow shipments that took place during these 3 years. The lower and upper bounds of potential maximal epidemic size were estimated using four network-analysis measures: (1) the farm out-degree, (2) the size of the largest strong and weak components, (3) the bow-tie approach, classifying farms into six different areas of a directed network and (4) the infection chain of a farm. All four of the DHI movement networks were found to be small-world, indicating that infection could spread over considerable distances by shipments that linked potentially distant clusters of farms. The networks were also scale-free, indicating most farms had relatively few connections to other farms, while there were a few highly connected farms. Characterization of the yearly networks showed that 41-47% of DHI farms were not involved in any cow shipments and were therefore not at risk of infection from this movement network; furthermore, if infection were introduced into a DHI farm that shipped animals that year, the infection would have stopped at that farm (or at least, not been passed on by shipment of adult milking cows) >50% of the time, and 75% of the time only one more DHI farm would have become infected through animal movements. Compared to the infection chain, which accounted for both the direction and the time sequence of shipments in the movement network, the

  8. What do hospital decision-makers in Ontario, Canada, have to say about the fairness of priority setting in their institutions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Douglas K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Priority setting, also known as rationing or resource allocation, occurs at all levels of every health care system. Daniels and Sabin have proposed a framework for priority setting in health care institutions called 'accountability for reasonableness', which links priority setting to theories of democratic deliberation. Fairness is a key goal of priority setting. According to 'accountability for reasonableness', health care institutions engaged in priority setting have a claim to fairness if they satisfy four conditions of relevance, publicity, appeals/revision, and enforcement. This is the first study which has surveyed the views of hospital decision makers throughout an entire health system about the fairness of priority setting in their institutions. The purpose of this study is to elicit hospital decision-makers' self-report of the fairness of priority setting in their hospitals using an explicit conceptual framework, 'accountability for reasonableness'. Methods 160 Ontario hospital Chief Executive Officers, or their designates, were asked to complete a survey questionnaire concerning priority setting in their publicly funded institutions. Eight-six Ontario hospitals completed this survey, for a response rate of 54%. Six close-ended rating scale questions (e.g. Overall, how fair is priority setting at your hospital?, and 3 open-ended questions (e.g. What do you see as the goal(s of priority setting in your hospital? were used. Results Overall, 60.7% of respondents indicated their hospitals' priority setting was fair. With respect to the 'accountability for reasonableness' conditions, respondents indicated their hospitals performed best for the relevance (75.0% condition, followed by appeals/revision (56.6%, publicity (56.0%, and enforcement (39.5%. Conclusions For the first time hospital Chief Executive Officers within an entire health system were surveyed about the fairness of priority setting practices in their

  9. Compositional variability of crude oils and source kerogen in the Silurian carbonate-evaporite sequences of the eastern Michigan Basin, Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obermajer, M.; Fowler, M.G.; Snowdon, L.R.; Macqueen, R.W. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2000-12-01

    A suite of oil and rock samples from the Middle Silurian Guelph-Salina interval in the south of Ontario was selected to perform biomarker analyses. The results of the analysis indicated that the oils present in the Guelph reef reservoirs belong to the same family and they seem to show a carbonate source rock deposited in a hypersaline, strongly reducing environment. The biomarkers possessed high concentrations of acyclic isoprenoids with pristane lower than phytane, gammacerane in large quantities, prominent C{sub 34} and C{sub 35} homohopanes. Brown, laminated dolostone lithofacies rock samples, found in the stratigraphical strata next to the Guelph-Salina interval, displayed similarities in composition with the reef-hosted oils. Good source potential was detected during the analysis of the rock samples, and significant quantities of marine Type II kerogen were found. A structured, identifiable algal component was common, even if most of the organic matter is amorphous. A contribution from microbial organisms was suspected, since a broad distribution of n-paraffins, containing a somewhat high concentration of C{sub 21+} members and large quantities of acyclic isoprenoids was present in the samples. Pristane lower than phytane suggested highly anoxic bottom waters, possibly combined with hypersaline conditions. Broad C{sub 31}-C{sub 35} extended hopane profile with prominent C{sub 34} homohopane and high concentration of gammacerane seem to indicate reducing conditions. Periods of recurrence of back-reef lagoonal and inter-biothermal paleodepositional conditions during the deposition of both the Guelph Platform and Salina Group carbonates is explained by the geochemical similarities among the samples. A genetic relationship is indicated by the geochemical correlation of extracts and oils. An early generation of hydrocarbons took place in this interval, as demonstrated by the presence of bitumen and hydrocarbon fluid inclusions in the Guelph samples. A close

  10. Analysis of 44 Cases before the Landlord and Tenant Board Involving Bed Bug Infestations in Ontario, Canada: Focus on Adjudicator Decisions Based on Entomological/Pest Management Evidence and Accountability under the Residential Tenancy Act and Other Applicable Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryks, Sam

    2011-01-01

    The resurgence of bed bugs in major urban centres in North America has resulted in conflict between landlords and tenants. This is commonly focused on attribution of blame for source of infestation, on responsibility, on costs for preparation, treatment and losses, and for compensation as rent abatement and/or alternative temporary housing. In Ontario, Canada, these issues are often decided by adjudicators at the Landlord and Tenant Board hearing claims, counter-claims and defense by legal representation (lawyers and paralegals) as well as through mediation. Evidence in these hearings may include photographs, invoices for costs as well as testimony by tenants, landlords and “expert witnesses” who are most often pest control firms representing their landlord clients. A total of 44 Landlord and Tenant Board adjudicated cases available online were analyzed. The analysis included elements of the decisions such as adjudicator, claimant (landlord or tenant), basis of claim, review of evidence, amount of claim, amount awarded, and evaluation of the quality of the evidence. The results of the analysis of these findings are discussed. Recommendations for improvement of adjudicator decisions on the basis of knowledge of bed bug biology and Integrated Pest Management best practices are presented as well as the importance of education of tenants and landlords to a process of mutual trust, support and accountability. PMID:26467732

  11. Analysis of 44 Cases before the Landlord and Tenant Board Involving Bed Bug Infestations in Ontario, Canada: Focus on Adjudicator Decisions Based on Entomological/Pest Management Evidence and Accountability under the Residential Tenancy Act and Other Applicable Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryks, Sam

    2011-07-19

    The resurgence of bed bugs in major urban centres in North America has resulted in conflict between landlords and tenants. This is commonly focused on attribution of blame for source of infestation, on responsibility, on costs for preparation, treatment and losses, and for compensation as rent abatement and/or alternative temporary housing. In Ontario, Canada, these issues are often decided by adjudicators at the Landlord and Tenant Board hearing claims, counter-claims and defense by legal representation (lawyers and paralegals) as well as through mediation. Evidence in these hearings may include photographs, invoices for costs as well as testimony by tenants, landlords and "expert witnesses" who are most often pest control firms representing their landlord clients. A total of 44 Landlord and Tenant Board adjudicated cases available online were analyzed. The analysis included elements of the decisions such as adjudicator, claimant (landlord or tenant), basis of claim, review of evidence, amount of claim, amount awarded, and evaluation of the quality of the evidence. The results of the analysis of these findings are discussed. Recommendations for improvement of adjudicator decisions on the basis of knowledge of bed bug biology and Integrated Pest Management best practices are presented as well as the importance of education of tenants and landlords to a process of mutual trust, support and accountability.

  12. Serosorting and recreational drug use are risk factors for diagnosis of genital infection with chlamydia and gonorrhoea among HIV-positive men who have sex with men: results from a clinical cohort in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Ramandip; Allen, Vanessa G; Gardner, Sandra; Moravan, Veronika; Raboud, Janet; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Kaul, Rupert; Mazzulli, Tony; McGee, Frank; Rourke, Sean B; Burchell, Ann N

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Rates of chlamydia and gonorrhoea have been rising in urban centres in Canada, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Our objective was to identify behavioural risk factors for diagnosis with chlamydia and gonorrhoea in this population, with a focus on the HIV status of sexual partners. Methods The OHTN Cohort Study follows people in HIV care across Ontario. We restricted the analysis to 1997 MSM who completed questionnaires in 2010–2013 at one of seven clinics that submit all chlamydia and gonorrhoea tests to the provincial public health laboratory; we obtained test results via record linkage. We estimated cumulative incidences using Kaplan–Meier methods and identified risk factors for diagnosis of a composite outcome (chlamydia or gonorrhoea infection) using Cox regression. Results At follow-up, there were 74 new chlamydia/gonorrhoea diagnoses with a 12-month cumulative incidence of 1.7% (95% CI 1.1% to 2.2%). Risk factors for chlamydia/gonorrhoea diagnosis were: 5+ HIV-positive partners (HR=3.3, 95% CI 1.4 to 7.8; reference=none) and recreational drug use (HR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.9). Conclusions Heightened risks with recreational drug use and multiple HIV-positive partners suggest that chlamydia/gonorrhoea may have achieved high prevalence in certain sexual networks among HIV-positive MSM. Interventions to promote safer sex and timely testing among MSM are needed. PMID:27154185

  13. The epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in older adults from 2007 to 2014 in Ontario, Canada: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Shalini; Policarpio, Michelle E.; Wong, Kenney; Gubbay, Jonathan; Fediurek, Jill; Deeks, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Ontario, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been sequentially introduced into the publicly funded childhood vaccination program since 2005. A 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23) has been routinely recommended for adults aged 65 years and older since 1996. To determine the effect of herd immunity, we examined the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in adults aged 65 years and older. Methods: Invasive pneumococcal disease is a provincially reportable disease. We were therefore able to conduct a descriptive epidemiologic analysis that included assessing time trends for patients aged 65 years and older using surveillance data from 2007 to 2014. Using serotype information within the surveillance data, cases were grouped into categories according to vaccine type and periods and then compared using Poisson regression. Results: A total of 3825 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease were reported among adults aged 65 years and older, for an overall annualized incidence of 25.4 cases per 100 000 population. There was a decrease in incidence due to serotypes included in 7-valent PCV (3.0 to 0.7 cases per 100 000 population) (p herd immunity from the childhood program. A burden of illness due to unique PPV23 serotypes and those that are not covered by a vaccine exists and has increased over time. PMID:27730119

  14. Observations of OM/OC and specific attenuation coefficients (SAC in ambient fine PM at a rural site in central Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W. Chan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ambient particulate matter (PM samples were collected on quartz filters at a rural site in central Ontario during an intensive study in 2007. The concentrations of organic carbon (OC, pyrolysis organic carbon (POC, and elemental carbon (EC were determined by thermal analysis. The concentrations are compared to the organic aerosol mass concentration (OM measured with an Aerodyne C-ToF Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS and to the particle absorption coefficient (basp obtained from a Radiance Research Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP. The total organic mass to organic carbon ratios (OM/OC and specific attenuation coefficients (SAC=basp/EC are derived. Proportionality of the POC mass with the oxygen mass in the aerosols estimated from the AMS offers a potential means to estimate OM/OC from thermal measurements only. The mean SAC for the study is 3.8±0.3 m2 g−1. It is found that the SAC is independent of or decrease with increasing particle mass loading, depending on whether or not the data are separated between aerosols dominated by more recent anthropogenic input and aerosols dominated by longer residence time or biogenic components. There is no evidence to support an enhancement of light absorption by the condensation of secondary material to particles, suggesting that present model simulations built on such an assumption may overestimate atmospheric warming by BC.

  15. Observations of OM/OC and specific attenuation coefficients (SAC) in ambient fine PM at a rural site in central Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, T. W.; Huang, L.; Leaitch, W. R.; Sharma, S.; Brook, J. R.; Slowik, J. G.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Brickell, P. C.; Liggio, J.; Li, S.-M.; Moosmüller, H.

    2010-03-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) samples were collected on quartz filters at a rural site in central Ontario during an intensive study in 2007. The concentrations of organic carbon (OC), pyrolysis organic carbon (POC), and elemental carbon (EC) were determined by thermal analysis. The concentrations are compared to the organic aerosol mass concentration (OM) measured with an Aerodyne C-ToF Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and to the particle absorption coefficient (basp) obtained from a Radiance Research Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP). The total organic mass to organic carbon ratios (OM/OC) and specific attenuation coefficients (SAC=basp/EC) are derived. Proportionality of the POC mass with the oxygen mass in the aerosols estimated from the AMS offers a potential means to estimate OM/OC from thermal measurements only. The mean SAC for the study is 3.8±0.3 m2 g-1. It is found that the SAC is independent of or decrease with increasing particle mass loading, depending on whether or not the data are separated between aerosols dominated by more recent anthropogenic input and aerosols dominated by longer residence time or biogenic components. There is no evidence to support an enhancement of light absorption by the condensation of secondary material to particles, suggesting that present model simulations built on such an assumption may overestimate atmospheric warming by BC.

  16. Strengths and limitations of assessing influenza vaccine effectiveness using routinely collected, passive surveillance data in Ontario, Canada, 2007 to 2012: balancing efficiency versus quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, R D; Winter, A L; Rosella, L C; Olsha, R; Gubbay, J B; Skowronski, D M; Crowcroft, N S

    2015-04-23

    Prompt evaluation of annual influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) is important. IVE is estimated in Ontario using a test-negative design (TND) within a national sentinel surveillance network (SPSN). To explore alternative approaches, we applied the screening method (SM) during five seasons spanning 2007 to 2012 to passive surveillance data to determine whether routinely collected data could provide unbiased IVE estimates. Age-adjusted SM-IVE estimates, excluding 2008/09 pandemic cases and cases with missing immunisation status, were compared with TND-IVE estimates in SPSN participants, adjusted for age, comorbidity, week of illness onset and interval to specimen collection. In four seasons, including the 2009 pandemic, the SM underestimated IVE (22–39% seasonal; 72% pandemic) by 20 to 35% relative to the TND-IVE (58–63% seasonal; 93% pandemic), except for the 2010/11 season when both estimates were low (33% and 30%, respectively). Half of the cases in the routine surveillance data lacked immunisation information; imputing all to be unimmunised better aligned SM-IVE with TND-IVE, instead overestimating in four seasons by 4 to 29%. While the SM approach applied to routine data may offer the advantage of timeliness, ease and efficiency, methodological issues related to completeness of vaccine information and/or case ascertainment may constitute trade-offs in reliability.

  17. The influence of peat volume change and vegetation on the hydrology of a kettle-hole wetland in Southern Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Whittington

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Links between local hydrology and vegetation type exist in wetlands, yet it is unclear what role peat volume change plays in these interactions. We measured peat volume change and hydraulic conductivity (Kfield at three contrasting sites located on the quaking vegetation mat of a kettle-hole peatland in southern Ontario. The three sites had visibly different plant communities and were named, according to their dominant vegetation, Sedge (Carex spp., Typha (Typha angustifolia and Carr (Cornus stolonifera. Peat was also collected for laboratory studies of peat volume change, vertical (Kv and horizontal (Kh hydraulic conductivity and the effect of compression on hydraulic conductivity (Kc.In the field, the water table rose throughout the study period, resulting in swelling of the peat. Peat volume change above the -100 cm layer was 11.2%, 6.0% and 3.8% at the Sedge, Typha, and Carr sites respectively. In laboratory samples, a falling water table caused compression of the peat below the structured surface mat, and relative peat volume change between the sites followed the same pattern as in the field. Kfield, Kv and Kh generally decreased with depth from ca. 10-2 to 10-6 cm s-1. In the surface layers (0 to -50cm K trended Carr>Typha>Sedge, whereas the reverse trend was observed in deeper peat. Artificial compression affected K only in the uppermost layers (0 to -15cm. The decline in Kc with compression also trended Sedge>Typha>Carr. Differences in peat volume change and K are probably related to differences in vegetation and soil structure, and may be important for maintaining suitable growing conditions within each community.

  18. Epidemiology of Salmonella on the Paws and in the Faeces of Free-Ranging Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) in Southern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondo, K J; Pearl, D L; Janecko, N; Boerlin, P; Reid-Smith, R J; Parmley, J; Jardine, C M

    2016-06-01

    Raccoons are common in urban and rural environments and can carry a wide range of bacteria, including Salmonella, that can negatively affect human and livestock health. Although previous studies have reported that raccoons shed a variety of Salmonella serovars in their faeces, it is unknown whether Salmonella is carried on raccoon paws. Our objective was to compare the prevalence of Salmonella on the paws and in the faeces of raccoons in south-western Ontario. Raccoons were sampled in a repeat cross-sectional study on five swine farms and five conservation areas from May to October 2012. A total of 416 paired faecal and paw samples were collected from 285 individual raccoons. Salmonella was detected in 18% (75/416; 95% CI, 14-22%) and 27% (111/416; 95% CI, 22-31%) of paw and faecal samples, respectively. Salmonella was detected only on paws in 8% (35/416; 95% CI, 5.9-11.5%), only in faeces in 17% (71/416; 95% CI, 13.6-21.0%) and on both paws and in faeces in 10% (40/416; 95% CI, 7.0-12.9%) of raccoon captures. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to examine associations between the presence of Salmonella and age (adult, juvenile), sex (male, female), location type (swine farm, conservation area), sample type (faeces, paw) and season (May-July and August-October). Random intercepts were included to account for clustering by individual animal and location. Significant differences, that varied by sample type and season, were noted in the prevalence of Salmonella carriage between sexes. Raccoons can carry Salmonella serovars known to infect humans and livestock on their paws and/or in their faeces and therefore have the potential to mechanically and biologically disseminate Salmonella among livestock facilities and human recreational areas. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Leaf Area Index (LAI Estimation in Boreal Mixedwood Forest of Ontario, Canada Using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR and WorldView-2 Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Treitz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaf Area Index (LAI is an important input variable for forest ecosystem modeling as it is a factor in predicting productivity and biomass, two key aspects of forest health. Current in situ methods of determining LAI are sometimes destructive and generally very time consuming. Other LAI derivation methods, mainly satellite-based in nature, do not provide sufficient spatial resolution or the precision required by forest managers for tactical planning. This paper focuses on estimating LAI from: (i height and density metrics derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR; (ii spectral vegetation indices (SVIs, in particular the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI; and (iii a combination of these methods. For the Hearst Forest of Northern Ontario, in situ measurements of LAI were derived from digital hemispherical photographs (DHPs while remote sensing variables were derived from low density LiDAR (i.e., 1 m−2 and high spatial resolution WorldView-2 data (2 m. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR models were generated using these variables. Results from these analyses demonstrate: (i moderate explanatory power (i.e., R2 = 0.53 for LiDAR height and density metrics that have proven to be related to canopy structure; (ii no relationship when using SVIs; and (iii no significant improvement of LiDAR models when combining them with SVI variables. The results suggest that LiDAR models in boreal forest environments provide satisfactory estimations of LAI, even with narrow ranges of LAI for model calibration. Models derived from low point density LiDAR in a mixedwood boreal environment seem to offer a reliable method of estimating LAI at high spatial resolution for decision makers in the forestry community. This method can be easily incorporated into simultaneous modeling efforts for forest inventory variables using LiDAR.

  20. Time-resolved measurements of black carbon light absorption enhancement in urban and near-urban locations of Southern Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W. Chan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study a photoacoustic spectrometer (PA, a laser-induced incandescence instrument system (LII and an aerosol mass spectrometer were operated in parallel for in situ measurements of black carbon (BC light absorption enhancement. Results of a thermodenuder experiment using ambient particles in Toronto are presented first to show that LII measurements of BC are not influenced by particle coating while the PA response is enhanced and also that the nature of this enhancement is influenced by particle morphology. Comparisons of ambient PA and LII measurements at four different locations (suburban Toronto; a street canyon with heavy diesel bus traffic in Ottawa; adjacent to a commuter highway in Ottawa and; regional background air in and around Windsor, Ontario, show that the different meteorological conditions and atmospheric processes result in different particle light absorption enhancement and hence the specific attenuation coefficient (SAC. Depending upon location of measurement and the BC spherule diameter (primary particle size – PPS measurement from the LII, the SAC varies from 2.6±0.04 to 22.5±0.7 m2 g−1. Observations from this study also show the active surface area of the BC aggregate, inferred from PPS, is an important parameter for inferring the degree of particle collapse of a BC particle. The predictability of the overall BC light absorption enhancement in the atmosphere depends not only on the coating mass but also on the source of the BC and on our ability to predict or measure the change in particle morphology as particles evolve.

  1. Constraining the factor analytical solutions obtained from multiple-year receptor modeling of ambient PM2.5 data from five speciation sites in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofowote, Uwayemi M.; Su, Yushan; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Rastogi, Ankit K.; Brook, Jeff; Hopke, Philip K.

    2015-05-01

    Rotational ambiguity in factor analyses leads to solutions that are not always consistent with reality. The inherent non-negativity constraints in positive matrix factorization (PMF) help to prevent factor solutions from becoming overly unrealistic, but they are not sufficient to prevent unwanted rotations that could manifest in factors that should have similar compositions varying across multiple sites. The Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) network operates five fine particulate matter (PM2.5) speciation sites in Ontario. Data from these sites from 2005 to 2010 were subjected to PMF to obtain factors representing sources of particulate matter. Eight factors were found to be common across these sites. These factors had profiles that varied greatly from one site to the other, suggesting that the PMF solutions were impacted by some rotational ambiguity. New features in the EPA PMF V5 program allow the use of a priori information to impose mathematical constraints that guide the evolution of the factor solutions. These constraints reduce the rotational space. In situations where major emissions sources are known and located in the neighborhood of receptors, or emissions inventories and literature source profiles exist, it is easy to use these profiles to force the factor solutions to conform to the expected signatures. In our case, reported source profiles were neither available nor applicable due to the large spatial span of potential sources and receptor sites. This work describes how such constraints can be generated and used in these complex situations. The fundamental principle explored in this work is the concept of 'stiffness' of PMF solutions to identify the desirable non-rotating factors.

  2. Timing of Deformation in the Central Metasedimentary Belt Boundary Thrust Zone (CMBbtz), southern Ontario, Canada, from Electron Microprobe Dating of Monazite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, M. J.; Dunn, S. R.; Peck, W. H.; Jercinovic, M. J.; Williams, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    In the Grenville Province of Southern Ontario, the Central Metasedimentary Belt boundary thrust zone (CMBbtz) is a crustal-scale tectonic boundary between the older, granulite-facies Central Gneiss Belt to the NW and the younger, amphibolite-facies Central Metasedimentary Belt to the SE. Although there are a range of tectonic models for the CMBbtz, most workers agree it is a major tectonic boundary that accommodated ductile thrusting and crustal shortening during the Ottawan phase of the Grenville Orogeny (~1080-1020 Ma). Some studies suggest that ductile thrusting in the CMBbtz was roughly synchronous with synorogenic extensional collapse below an orogenic lid. Previous geochronological studies also provide evidence of earlier deformation and/or metamorphic events in the CMBbtz, although the relation between deformation in the CMBbtz to the Elzeviran (~1230 Ma) and Shawinigan (~1180 Ma) orogenies is unclear. Our study is the first to report in situ electron microprobe monazite (mnz) dates from amphibolite-grade ortho- and para-gneisses of the CMBbtz. Our results are broadly consistent with other chronometers. We present dates from 132 age-domains within 83 mnz grains in 14 samples. Although our data provide strong evidence for deformation and metamorphism along the length of the CMBbtz during the Ottawan (1080-1020 Ma), we also report two other clusters of ages: 1140-1110 Ma and 1230-1170 Ma. The latter cluster falls between the widely accepted ranges for the Elzeviran and Shawinigan orogenies. In addition, some individual outcrops, particularly those in Killaloe and Minden, show mnz ages spanning over 200 m.y., and the setting and compositions of individual monazite domains allow us to link mnz growth to episodes of garnet growth during multiple events. Together these data indicate an unexpectedly continuous and long-lived period of deformation and metamorphism in the CMBbtz.

  3. Anthropogenic mercury deposition in Flin Flon Manitoba and the Experimental Lakes Area Ontario (Canada): A multi-lake sediment core reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, Johan A; Kirk, Jane L; Muir, Derek C G; Evans, Marlene; Yang, Fan; Keating, Jonathan; Parsons, Matthew T

    2017-02-18

    High-resolution records of anthropogenic mercury (Hg) deposition were constructed from 9 lakes located 5-75km from the Flin Flon, Manitoba smelter (formerly one of North America's largest atmospheric Hg point sources) and 5 lakes in Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), Ontario; a region remote from major Hg point sources. Anthropogenic Hg deposition, as both a flux and inventory, was determined after accounting for lake-specific natural Hg background concentrations, changes in sedimentation and sediment focusing. Results show that records of anthropogenic flux and inventory of Hg were remarkably consistent among the ELA lakes, but varied by 2 orders of magnitude among Flin Flon lakes. The relation between Hg inventories (normalized for prevailing wind direction) and distance from the smelter was used to estimate the total Hg fallout within a 50km radius in 5year time-steps, thus providing a quantitative spatial-temporal Hg depositional history for the Flin Flon region. The same relation solved for 8 cardinal directions weighted by the inverse of the previously applied wind direction normalization generates a map of Hg inventory and deposition on the landscape (Supplementary video). This novel application of sediment core data constructs a landscape model and allows for a visualization of contaminant deposition with respect to a point major source in both space and time. The propensity for Hg to undergo long-range, even global transport explains why Hg deposition within 50km of Flin Flon was ~11% of estimated releases. That is until smelter releases were reduced >10-fold (post-2000), after which observed deposition exceeded smelter releases, suggesting landscape re-emission/remobilization of legacy Hg is a major ongoing regional source of Hg.

  4. A cross-sectional study examining the prevalence and risk factors for anti-microbial-resistant generic Escherichia coli in domestic dogs that frequent dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, T D; Pearl, D L; Finley, R L; Leonard, E K; Janecko, N; Reid-Smith, R J; Weese, J S; Peregrine, A S; Sargeant, J M

    2014-06-01

    Anti-microbial resistance can threaten health by limiting treatment options and increasing the risk of hospitalization and severity of infection. Companion animals can shed anti-microbial-resistant bacteria that may result in the exposure of other dogs and humans to anti-microbial-resistant genes. The prevalence of anti-microbial-resistant generic Escherichia coli in the faeces of dogs that visited dog parks in south-western Ontario was examined and risk factors for shedding anti-microbial-resistant generic E. coli identified. From May to August 2009, canine faecal samples were collected at ten dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, Canada. Owners completed a questionnaire related to pet characteristics and management factors including recent treatment with antibiotics. Faecal samples were collected from 251 dogs, and 189 surveys were completed. Generic E. coli was isolated from 237 of the faecal samples, and up to three isolates per sample were tested for anti-microbial susceptibility. Eighty-nine percent of isolates were pan-susceptible; 82.3% of dogs shed isolates that were pan-susceptible. Multiclass resistance was detected in 7.2% of the isolates from 10.1% of the dogs. Based on multilevel multivariable logistic regression, a risk factor for the shedding of generic E. coli resistant to ampicillin was attending dog day care. Risk factors for the shedding of E. coli resistant to at least one anti-microbial included attending dog day care and being a large mixed breed dog, whereas consumption of commercial dry and home cooked diets was protective factor. In a multilevel multivariable model for the shedding of multiclass-resistant E. coli, exposure to compost and being a large mixed breed dog were risk factors, while consumption of a commercial dry diet was a sparing factor. Pet dogs are a potential reservoir of anti-microbial-resistant generic E. coli; some dog characteristics and management factors are associated with the prevalence of anti

  5. Time-resolved measurements of black carbon light absorption enhancement in urban and near-urban locations of southern Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W. Chan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study a photoacoustic spectrometer (PA, a laser-induced incandescence instrument system (LII and an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer were operated in parallel for in-situ measurements of black carbon (BC light absorption enhancement. Results of a thermodenuder experiment using ambient particles in Toronto are presented first to show that LII measurements of BC are not influenced by the presence of non-refractory material thus providing true atmospheric BC mass concentrations. In contrast, the PA response is enhanced when the non-refractory material is internally mixed with the BC particles. Through concurrent measurements using the LII and PA the specific absorption cross-section (SAC can be quantified with high time resolution (1 min. Comparisons of ambient PA and LII measurements from four different locations (suburban Toronto; a street canyon with diesel bus traffic in Ottawa; adjacent to a commuter highway in Ottawa and; regional background air in and around Windsor, Ontario, show that different impacts from emission sources and/or atmospheric processes result in different particle light absorption enhancements and hence variations in the SAC. The diversity of measurements obtained, including those with the thermodenuder, demonstrated that it is possible to identify measurements where the presence of externally-mixed non-refractory particles obscures direct observation of the effect of coating material on the SAC, thus allowing this effect to be measured with more confidence. Depending upon the time and location of measurement (urban, rural, close to and within a lake breeze frontal zone, 30 min average SAC varies between 9 ± 2 and 43 ± 4 m2 g−1. Causes of this variation, which were determined through the use of meteorological and gaseous measurements (CO, SO2, O3, include the particle emission source, airmass source region, the degree of atmospheric processing. Observations from this study

  6. The Ontario printed educational message (OPEM) trial to narrow the evidence-practice gap with respect to prescribing practices of general and family physicians: a cluster randomized controlled trial, targeting the care of individuals with diabetes and hypertension in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwarenstein, Merrick; Hux, Janet E; Kelsall, Diane; Paterson, Michael; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Davis, Dave; Laupacis, Andreas; Evans, Michael; Austin, Peter C; Slaughter, Pamela M; Shiller, Susan K; Croxford, Ruth; Tu, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Background There are gaps between what family practitioners do in clinical practice and the evidence-based ideal. The most commonly used strategy to narrow these gaps is the printed educational message (PEM); however, the attributes of successful printed educational messages and their overall effectiveness in changing physician practice are not clear. The current endeavor aims to determine whether such messages change prescribing quality in primary care practice, and whether these effects differ with the format of the message. Methods/design The design is a large, simple, factorial, unblinded cluster-randomized controlled trial. PEMs will be distributed with informed, a quarterly evidence-based synopsis of current clinical information produced by the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Canada, and will be sent to all eligible general and family practitioners in Ontario. There will be three replicates of the trial, with three different educational messages, each aimed at narrowing a specific evidence-practice gap as follows: 1) angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, hypertension treatment, and cholesterol lowering agents for diabetes; 2) retinal screening for diabetes; and 3) diuretics for hypertension. For each of the three replicates there will be three intervention groups. The first group will receive informed with an attached postcard-sized, short, directive "outsert." The second intervention group will receive informed with a two-page explanatory "insert" on the same topic. The third intervention group will receive informed, with both the above-mentioned outsert and insert. The control group will receive informed only, without either an outsert or insert. Routinely collected physician billing, prescription, and hospital data found in Ontario's administrative databases will be used to monitor pre-defined prescribing changes relevant and specific to each replicate, following delivery of the educational messages. Multi-level modeling will be

  7. The Ontario printed educational message (OPEM trial to narrow the evidence-practice gap with respect to prescribing practices of general and family physicians: a cluster randomized controlled trial, targeting the care of individuals with diabetes and hypertension in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimshaw Jeremy

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are gaps between what family practitioners do in clinical practice and the evidence-based ideal. The most commonly used strategy to narrow these gaps is the printed educational message (PEM; however, the attributes of successful printed educational messages and their overall effectiveness in changing physician practice are not clear. The current endeavor aims to determine whether such messages change prescribing quality in primary care practice, and whether these effects differ with the format of the message. Methods/design The design is a large, simple, factorial, unblinded cluster-randomized controlled trial. PEMs will be distributed with informed, a quarterly evidence-based synopsis of current clinical information produced by the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Canada, and will be sent to all eligible general and family practitioners in Ontario. There will be three replicates of the trial, with three different educational messages, each aimed at narrowing a specific evidence-practice gap as follows: 1 angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, hypertension treatment, and cholesterol lowering agents for diabetes; 2 retinal screening for diabetes; and 3 diuretics for hypertension. For each of the three replicates there will be three intervention groups. The first group will receive informed with an attached postcard-sized, short, directive "outsert." The second intervention group will receive informed with a two-page explanatory "insert" on the same topic. The third intervention group will receive informed, with both the above-mentioned outsert and insert. The control group will receive informed only, without either an outsert or insert. Routinely collected physician billing, prescription, and hospital data found in Ontario's administrative databases will be used to monitor pre-defined prescribing changes relevant and specific to each replicate, following delivery of the educational messages. Multi

  8. Sinopec to Acquire Maoming Petrochem Giant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Sinopec Corp. is considering a plan to purchase Maoming Petrochemical Company from its parent company next year, said Zhang Jiaren, director and vice president of Sinopec Corp. Maoming Petrochemical Company in Guangdong Province is one of the country's two oil refining enterprises with the production capacity exceeding 10 million tons.

  9. A multilevel examination of gender differences in the association between features of the school environment and physical activity among a sample of grades 9 to 12 students in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hobin Erin P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Creating school environments that support student physical activity (PA is a key recommendation of policy-makers to increase youth PA. Given males are more active than females at all ages, it has been suggested that investigating gender differences in the features of the environment that associate with PA may help to inform gender-focused PA interventions and reduce the gender disparity in PA. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore gender differences in the association between factors of the school environment and students' time spent in PA. Methods Among a sample of 10781 female and 10973 male students in grades 9 to 12 from 76 secondary schools in Ontario, Canada, student- and school-level survey PA data were collected and supplemented with GIS-derived measures of the built environment within 1-km buffers of the 76 schools. Results Findings from the present study revealed significant differences in the time male and female students spent in PA as well as in some of the school- and student-level factors associated with PA. Results of the gender-specific multilevel analyses indicate schools should consider providing an alternate room for PA, especially for providing flexibility activities directed at female students. Schools should also consider offering daily physical education programming to male students in senior grades and providing PA promotion initiatives targeting obese male students. Conclusions Although most variation in male and female students' time spent in PA lies between students within schools, there is sufficient between-school variation to be of interest to practitioners and policy-makers. More research investigating gender differentials in environment factors associated with youth PA are warranted.

  10. A multilevel examination of gender differences in the association between features of the school environment and physical activity among a sample of grades 9 to 12 students in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobin, Erin P; Leatherdale, Scott T; Manske, Steve; Dubin, Joel A; Elliott, Susan; Veugelers, Paul

    2012-01-24

    Creating school environments that support student physical activity (PA) is a key recommendation of policy-makers to increase youth PA. Given males are more active than females at all ages, it has been suggested that investigating gender differences in the features of the environment that associate with PA may help to inform gender-focused PA interventions and reduce the gender disparity in PA. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore gender differences in the association between factors of the school environment and students' time spent in PA. Among a sample of 10781 female and 10973 male students in grades 9 to 12 from 76 secondary schools in Ontario, Canada, student- and school-level survey PA data were collected and supplemented with GIS-derived measures of the built environment within 1-km buffers of the 76 schools. Findings from the present study revealed significant differences in the time male and female students spent in PA as well as in some of the school- and student-level factors associated with PA. Results of the gender-specific multilevel analyses indicate schools should consider providing an alternate room for PA, especially for providing flexibility activities directed at female students. Schools should also consider offering daily physical education programming to male students in senior grades and providing PA promotion initiatives targeting obese male students. Although most variation in male and female students' time spent in PA lies between students within schools, there is sufficient between-school variation to be of interest to practitioners and policy-makers. More research investigating gender differentials in environment factors associated with youth PA are warranted.

  11. Resource Construction Mode of Ontario Scholars Portal in Canada and Its Enlightenment%加拿大安大略省学术门户Scholars Portal的资源建设模式及其启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严丹

    2012-01-01

    加拿大安大略省大学图书馆联盟(OCUL)的重要项目及其成果Scholars Portal具有独特的资源建设模式和发展理念,其在OCUL的领导下重点在电子期刊和电子图书建设方面进行联盟运作,具有严密的组织架构、整合统一的检索平台、共享的基础设施、永久的资源保存等特色。Scholars Portal的运作模式对我国图书馆加强区域联盟资源建设与组织运行、重视数字资源的本地存储与长期保存、提升信息资源的整合力度与易用水平等方面具有启示意义和借鉴作用。%Scholars Portal is the most important and successful program of the Ontario Council of University Libraries(OCUL) in Canada,it has the unique resources construction mode and development concept.It focuses on the operation and construction of e-journals and e-books under the leadership of OCUL,and has several characteristics such as scientific organization structure,integrated and unified search platform,shared infrastructure and permanent resources conservation.The operation of Scholars Portal could give some advice and enlightenments to the development of our libraries,such as reinforcing the resources construction and operation of regional consortia,attaching importance to local-storage and long-stem storage of digital resources,and promoting integration efforts and easy-to-use level of information resources.

  12. The interaction of large amplitude internal seiches with a shallow sloping lakebed: observations of benthic turbulence in Lake Simcoe, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Remo; Wells, Mathew G

    2013-01-01

    Observations of the interactions of large amplitude internal seiches with the sloping boundary of Lake Simcoe, Canada show a pronounced asymmetry between up- and downwelling. Data were obtained during a 42-day period in late summer with an ADCP and an array of four thermistor chains located in a 5 km line at the depths where the thermocline intersects the shallow slope of the lakebed. The thermocline is located at depths of 12-14 m during the strongly stratified period of late summer. During periods of strong westerly winds the thermocline is deflected as much as 8 m vertically and interacts directly with the lakebed at depth between 14-18 m. When the thermocline was rising at the boundary, the stratification resembles a turbulent bore that propagates up the sloping lakebed with a speed of 0.05-0.15 m s(-1) and a Froude number close to unity. There were strong temperature overturns associated with the abrupt changes in temperature across the bore. Based on the size of overturns in the near bed stratification, we show that the inferred turbulent diffusivity varies by up to two orders of magnitude between up- and downwellings. When the thermocline was rising, estimates of turbulent diffusivity were high with KZ ∼10(-4) m(2)s(-1), whereas during downwelling events the near-bed stratification was greatly increased and the turbulence was reduced. This asymmetry is consistent with previous field observations and underlines the importance of shear-induced convection in benthic bottom boundary layers of stratified lakes.

  13. Ontario District Embraces an Evolving Approach to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchetz, Denese; Witherow, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    The York Region District School Board is recognized as a high-performing district in Ontario, Canada, and has also garnered international attention. Visitors from across Canada, as well as Singapore, Finland, England, Scotland, Holland, the Bahamas, Korea, China, and Taiwan, have come to learn about its system and observe the teaching, learning,…

  14. Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines

    CERN Document Server

    Jaoude, Abdo Abou; El-Tawil, Khaled; Noura, Hassan; Ouladsine, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.

  15. Decision and Order in the matter of a joint application by De Beers Canada Inc., Hydro One Networks Inc. and Five Nations Energy Inc. for an Order or Orders pursuant to section 92 of the Ontario Energy Board Act, 1998 granting leave to construct transmission facilities that will connect De Beers Canada Inc.'s planned Victor Diamond Mine, located approximately 90 kilometers west of Attawapiskat, to Ontario's transmission grid[In the matter of the Ontario Energy Board Act, 1998, S.O. 1998, c. 15, Schedule B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaplin, C.; Nowina, P.; Sommerville, P.

    2005-07-18

    De Beers Canada Inc. plans to open the Victor Mine, a new diamond mine located 90 km west of the First Nations community of Attawapiskat in Northern Ontario. Both Hydro One and Five Nations Energy Inc. (FNEI) are the licensed power transmitters in the area. As such, these 3 stakeholders jointly applied to the Ontario Energy Board in late December 2004 to construct certain power transmission facilities. This application refers to the construction of transmission facilities that will connect De Beers' proposed Victor Mine to FNEI's transmission system. The joint application was revised in April 2005 to propose the construction of a 100 km single circuit 115 kV transmission line with 477 kilo-circular-mil (kcmil) conductor between the Victor Mine and FNEI's transformer station at Attawapiskat. It also proposed a 170 km single circuit 115 kV transmission line with 477 kcmil conductor between the transmission station at Kashechewan and Hydro One's Moosonee Switching Station and a 144 km of single circuit 115 kV transmission line with 795 kcmil conductor between Hydro One's Moosonee switching station and Hydro One's facilities at Otter Rapids generating station. The project also includes a new transmission station and associated facilities at the Victor Mine, modifications to FNEI's transmission stations at Attawapiskat and Kashechewan, and modifications to Hydro One's Moosonee switching station and facilities at Otter Rapids generating station. The estimated cost of the proposed facilities is $93.6 million. The Board noted that the project is needed to provide electrical supply to the Mine in 2007. The Board also examined whether the capital costs and operating, maintenance and administrative costs for the project were reasonable. It questioned what impact the project will have on transmission rates, and on reliability of supply. It also questioned whether the joint applicants have taken measures to mitigate power losses on the

  16. GOVERNMENT TO REGULATE COAL-PETROCHEMICALS INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Chinese Government will soon issue an industry policy to regulate the coal-chemicals sector, after a circular in August ordered local authorities to tighten their grip on the approval of new coal-to-petrochemicals projects in China.

  17. Bright Prospect Ahead for Petrochemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Shuhong

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's petrochemical industry will show better performance in the year of 2010,Feng Shili,deputy secretary general with the China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Association(CPCIA),recently told China's news media in Beijing.

  18. Chemical composition and mutagenic assessment of petrochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    their chemical composition and genotoxic effects on cell reproduction. Two petrochemicals, air liquid ... some potentially mutagenic heavy metals. The effects of the ... shows good correlation with mammalian test systems. (Fiskesjö, 1985a).

  19. Association of total energy intake and macronutrient consumption with colorectal cancer risk: results from a large population-based case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Zhuoyu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet is regarded as one of the most important environmental factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC risk. A recent report comprehensively concluded that total energy intake does not have a simple relationship with CRC risk, and that the data were inconsistent for carbohydrate, cholesterol and protein. The objective of this study was to identify the associations of CRC risk with dietary intakes of total energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and alcohol using data from a large case-control study conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL and Ontario (ON, Canada. Methods Incident colorectal cancer cases (n = 1760 were identified from population-based cancer registries in the provinces of ON (1997-2000 and NL (1999-2003. Controls (n = 2481 were a random sample of residents in each province, aged 20-74 years. Family history questionnaire (FHQ, personal history questionnaire (PHQ, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ were used to collect study data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of intakes of total energy, macronutrients and alcohol with CRC risk. Results Total energy intake was associated with higher risk of CRC (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.21-2.01, p-trend = 0.02, 5th versus 1st quintile, whereas inverse associations emerged for intakes of protein (OR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.69-1.00, p-trend = 0.06, 5th versus 1st quintile, carbohydrate (OR: 0.81, 95%CI: 0.63-1.00, p-trend = 0.05, 5th versus 1st quintile and total dietary fiber (OR: 0.84, 95% CI:0.67-0.99, p-trend = 0.04, 5th versus 1st quintile. Total fat, alcohol, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and cholesterol were not associated with CRC risk. Conclusion This study provides further evidence that high energy intake may increase risk of incident CRC, whereas diets high in protein, fiber, and carbohydrate may reduce the risk of the disease.

  20. Lessons learned from Ontario wind energy disputes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Stewart; Mabee, Warren; Baxter, Jamie; Christidis, Tanya; Driver, Liz; Hill, Stephen; McMurtry, J. J.; Tomkow, Melody

    2016-02-01

    Issues concerning the social acceptance of wind energy are major challenges for policy-makers, communities and wind developers. They also impact the legitimacy of societal decisions to pursue wind energy. Here we set out to identify and assess the factors that lead to wind energy disputes in Ontario, Canada, a region of the world that has experienced a rapid increase in the development of wind energy. Based on our expertise as a group comprising social scientists, a community representative and a wind industry advocate engaged in the Ontario wind energy situation, we explore and suggest recommendations based on four key factors: socially mediated health concerns, the distribution of financial benefits, lack of meaningful engagement and failure to treat landscape concerns seriously. Ontario's recent change from a feed-in-tariff-based renewable electricity procurement process to a competitive bid process, albeit with more attention to community engagement, will only partially address these concerns.

  1. The Ontario Telemedicine Network: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Edward M

    2013-05-01

    This article describes the evolution, current status, and future prospects of the Ontario Telemedicine Network (OTN). Started in the late 1990s (and formally established in 2006), OTN is a not-for-profit corporation primarily funded by the Government of Ontario, Canada, that aims to improve access to and quality of care throughout the Province. It covers a land mass larger than France and serves a population of just over 13 million, the vast majority of which live in a narrow strip close to the U.S. border. Telemedicine has been effective in reducing travel to usual sources of care, reducing hospital admissions, and improving efficiency and prompt access to care. The diffusion of telemedicine is accelerating in Ontario, and it is becoming an integral part of the health system.

  2. A critical review of financial measures as reported in the Ontario hospital balanced scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, John; Tsasis, Peter; Porporato, Marcela

    2007-01-01

    For Ontario hospitals in Canada, the Financial Performance and Condition measures in the Ontario hospital balanced scorecard are especially of interest since in the foreseeable future, they may be linked to provincial government funding decisions. However, we find that these measures lack valuable information on key attributes that affect organizational performance. We suggest changes that focus on key drivers of performance and reflect the operational realities of Ontario hospitals.

  3. Whether integrating refining and petrochemical business can provide opportunities for development of petrochemical industry in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Zoran M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of 90s of last century both the petroleum industry and petrochemical industry have operated in difficult circumstances. In particularly, margins of petroleum and petrochemical industry were exacerbated during global economic crisis in 2008-2009 years. At that time, as one option that could be the solution, the global analysts had started to more intense investigate the benefits of Refining-Petrochemical Integration. Shortly afterwards, more and more petroleum refineries and petrochemical manufacturers began to see the future in this kind of operational, managerial, marketing and commercial connection. This paper evaluates, in particular, the achieved level of integration of refinery and petrochemical businesses in Central and South-Eastern Europe. And specifically, the paper identifies current capabilities and future chances of linking this kind of integration between Serbian refining and petrochemical players. The viability of integration between possible actors and benefits of every single refining-petrochemical interface in Serbia depend on many factors, and therefore each integrated system is unique and requires prior serious Cost Benefit Analysis.

  4. Petrochemical refinery and integrated petrochemical complexes; Refinaria petroquimica e complexos petroquimicos integrados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Patricia C. dos; Seidl, Peter R.; Borschiver, Suzana [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Global demand for light olefins points to strong prospects for growth, stimulating investments in overall productive capacity. With propylene demand growing slightly faster than that of ethylene, rising prices and difficulties in supplies of petrochemical feedstocks (mainly naphtha and natural gas), steam crackers alone are not able to fill the light olefins gap nor do they allow extraordinary margins. As petrochemical market dynamics also influence refining activities, there has been significant progress in the development of technologies for petrochemical refining, such as Petrochemical FCC. This petrochemistry-refining integration offers great opportunities for synergism since both industries share many common challenges, like more severe environmental requirements and optimizing the use of utilities. However, in the case of valuation of non-conventional oils (which tend to increase in importance in oil markets), to take full advantage of this opportunity to add value to low cost streams, deep conversion and treatment processes are of great significance in refining scheme to have enough feedstock for cracking. In this context, a petrochemical refinery seems to be an important alternative source of petrochemicals and may be integrated or not to a petrochemical complex. (author)

  5. Ontario Universities Benefits Survey, 1987-88. Part I: Benefits Excluding Pensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of the 1987-1988 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: administration and insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave policy, Ontario health…

  6. The Social Habitus of Drama: The Ontario Drama Curriculum in Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author considers the place of drama in the formal curriculum in Ontario, Canada by considering its position in relation to curriculum theory and the texts that formally articulate it as a discipline to be taught in schools. The drama curriculum in Ontario aims to engage young people in activities and experiences that invite…

  7. The Relationship between Parental Substance Abuse and Child Maltreatment: Findings from the Ontario Health Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christine; MacMillan, Harriet L.; Jamieson, Ellen

    2003-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between reported exposure to child abuse and a history of parental substance abuse (alcohol and drugs) in a community sample in Ontario, Canada. Method: The sample consisted of 8,472 respondents to the Ontario Mental Health Supplement (OHSUP), a comprehensive population survey of mental health. The…

  8. Did Ontario's Zero Tolerance & Graduated Licensing Law Reduce Youth Drunk Driving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    On April 1, 1994, Ontario, Canada, instituted a new graduated driver license (GDL) system that effectively set the legal blood alcohol content (BAC) threshold at zero for the first few years of a youth's driving eligibility. I use data from the 1983-2001 Ontario Student Drug Use Surveys (OSDUS) to examine whether the Zero Tolerance (ZT) policy…

  9. Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Actes de la Rencontre Annuelle 2002 du Groupe Canadien d'Etude en Didactique des Mathematiques (26th, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, May 24-28, 2002)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmt, Elaine, Ed.; Davis, Brent, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This submission contains the Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (CMESG), held at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario. The CMESG is a group of mathematicians and mathematics educators who meet annually to discuss mathematics education issues at all levels of learning. The aims of the Study…

  10. Proceedings of the 2009 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Actes de la Rencontre Annuelle 2009 du Groupe Canadien d'Etude en Didactique des Mathematiques (33rd, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 5-June 9, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljedahl, Peter, Ed.; Oesterle, Susan, Ed.; Abu-Bakare, Veda, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This submission contains the Proceedings of the 2009 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (CMESG), held at York University in Toronto, Ontario. The CMESG is a group of mathematicians and mathematics educators who meet annually to discuss mathematics education issues at all levels of learning. The aims of the Study Group…

  11. Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Actes de la Rencontre Annuelle 2005 du Groupe Canadien d'Etude en Didactique des Mathematiques (29th, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, May 27-31, 2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljedahl, Peter, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This submission contains the Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (CMESG), held at the University of Ottawa in Ottawa, Ontario. The CMESG is a group of mathematicians and mathematics educators who meet annually to discuss mathematics education issues at all levels of learning. The aims of the…

  12. Unique Measles Virus in Canada

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-08-24

    Dr. Shelley Deeks, chief of communicable diseases at Public Health Ontario, discusses a measles outbreak in Canada.  Created: 8/24/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/24/2017.

  13. Waste minimization in a petrochemical company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anan, Marcelo [Oxiteno S.A., Industria e Comercio, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    A way to manage industrial effluents consists in reducing their generation or treating them when elimination or minimization is economically unachievable. This work aims to present the modifications adopted in a petrochemical plant to adequate and, or, reduce the generation of industrial effluent. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Harbor Expansion Facilitates Crude and Petrochemicals Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Douwei Harbor attracting petrochem investment Substantial progress has been made in the preliminary preparation of Douwei Harbor project in Hui'an, Fujian Province. It is one of the major four transfer ports in China planned by the Ministry of Transportation. A number of projects, with a total investment approaching 10 billion yuan,will come under construction in the harbor zone.

  15. Administrators' Views on Teacher Evaluation: Examining Ontario's Teacher Performance Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Sachin

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the views of administrators (i.e., principals and vice-principals) in Ontario, Canada, with regard to the province's Teacher Performance Appraisal process. A total of 178 responses were collected from a survey that examined five areas: 1) preparation and training; 2) classroom observations; 3) preparing the formal evaluation;…

  16. Implications of Key Performance Indicator Issues in Ontario Universities Explored

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Since 1998, the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities in Ontario, Canada, has required that data on specific key performance indicators (KPIs) be made public by its publicly funded universities. The information is intended to be used by universities to demonstrate their achievements, to improve their programmes and services, and to…

  17. The Northern Ontario School of Medicine: responding to the needs of the people and communities of Northern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Roger; Lanphear, Joel

    2008-12-01

    Northern Ontario, like many rural and remote regions around the world, has a chronic shortage of health professionals. Recognizing that medical graduates who have grown up in rural areas are more likely to practice in rural settings, the Government of Ontario, Canada established a new medical school with a social accountability mandate to contribute to improving the health of the peoples and communities of Northern Ontario. The Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM) is a joint initiative of Laurentian University in Sudbury and Lakehead University in Thunder Bay, cities one thousand kilometers apart. The NOSM model of medical education is built on several recent educational developments including rural-based medical education, social accountability of medical education and electronic distance education. This paper describes these developments as background to presenting the Northern Ontario School of Medicine as a socially accountable, geographically distributed rural-based medical school. NOSM MD PROGRAM: The school actively seeks to recruit students for the MD program from Northern Ontario or similar northern, rural, remote, Aboriginal, and Francophone backgrounds. The holistic, cohesive curriculum is grounded in Northern Ontario and relies heavily on broadband electronic communications to support distributed, community engaged learning. Students, both in classroom and clinical settings, explore cases as if they were physicians in Northern Ontario communities. Clinical education takes place in a wide range of community and health service settings so that students can experience the diversity of communities and cultures in Northern Ontario. Although NOSM is still in the early stages of development, there are encouraging signs that the school's evidence-based model of medical education will be successful in developing a sustainable, community responsive health workforce for Northern Ontario.

  18. Cross currents : hydroelectricity and the engineering of northern Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manore, J.L. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    1999-05-01

    The history of hydroelectric development in northern Ontario was reviewed and analysed with special emphasis on the developments along the Mattagami and Abitibi Rivers. The objective was to examine the important factors that shaped modern hydroelectric development in Canada. System builders, the privately owned Nesbitt Thomson Company, the publicly owned Hydro Electric Power Corporation of Ontario and the eventual evolution of the single power system under Ontario Hydro are chronicled. Broad historical themes such as the technological impacts, regionalism, indigenous rights, plus environmental and economic issues are examined, in addition to an appreciation of the importance of electricity in the manufacturing sector of Ontario, the impact of hydroelectric development on the northern environment and on the northern First Nations, who rely on rivers for their subsistence. Until fairly recently, government policies and interpretations of law often excluded the recognition of Aboriginal uses of river systems, thereby limiting First Nations` peoples ability to practice traditional ways of life. In essence, the book is an account of how the northeastern power system in Ontario shaped the social, political and natural environments and how the development of northeastern power sources by southern power developers shaped the regional interactions between Ontario`s north and south. refs., figs.

  19. Implementation of an agency to improve chronic kidney disease care in Ontario: lessons learned by the Ontario Renal Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Graham L; Iverson, Alex; Harvey, Rebecca; Blake, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, Ontario's Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care initiated the transfer of oversight and coordination of chronic kidney disease (CKD) care to the Ontario Renal Network (ORN) under the auspices of Cancer Care Ontario (CCO). The aim was to replicate the quality improvement and change management practices used for cancer control within CKD. Much of the ORN's first three years were dedicated to building the infrastructure necessary to bridge the gap between provincial policy and clinical practice. This article explores the accomplishments, challenges and lessons learned over that period. The results, which are applicable to the management of chronic diseases in Ontario, Canada, and internationally, confirm that sustainable change takes time and requires strong leadership, transparency, accountability and communication, supported by a solid foundation of data and evidence.

  20. An Outbreak of Foodborne Botulism in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona R Loutfy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Botulism is a rare paralytic illness resulting from a potent neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Botulism in Canada is predominately due to C botulinum type E and affects mainly the First Nations and Inuit populations. The most recent outbreak of botulism in Ontario was in Ottawa in 1991 and was caused by C botulinum type A. We report an outbreak of foodborne type B botulism in Ontario, which implicated home-canned tomatoes. The outbreak was characterized by mild symptoms in two cases and moderately severe illness in one case. The investigation shows the importance of considering the diagnosis of botulism in patients presenting with cranial nerve and autonomic dysfunction, especially when combined with gastrointestinal complaints; it also highlights the importance of proper home canning technique.

  1. Bathymetry of Lake Ontario

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Ontario has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  2. Project risk management in complex petrochemical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirin Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of risk in complex industrial systems, as well as evaluation of main factors influencing decision making and implementation process using large petrochemical company as an example, has proved the importance of successful project risk management. This is even more emphasized when analyzing systems with complex structure, i.e. with several organizational units. It has been shown that successful risk management requires modern methods, based on adequate application of statistical analysis methods.

  3. 76 FR 11436 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Ontario Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Ontario Power Generation AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to... authorized OPG to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power marketer for a...

  4. Air Quality in the Central Ontario Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbor, P. K.; Meng, F.; Singh, R.; Galvez, O.; Sloan, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    The Central Ontario Region (COR) is the most densely populated area in Canada. With a population of 7.3 million, it contains 23% of the total population of Canada. It extends from the extreme south west end of Ontario to the eastern end of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and includes the Niagara, Hamilton and Waterloo Regions,. The air quality of this region is frequently severely impaired in the summer months. In the larger metropolitan areas (Toronto and Hamilton) air pollution is a concern throughout the year. Local health authorities attribute about 1000 premature deaths per year in the GTA alone to air pollution. Average air pollution levels in Ontario have decreased significantly during the past 30 years, despite significant growth in both population and industry. The concentrations of SO2 and CO have decreased by over 80% and the concentration of NOX has decreased by about 50% over the past 26 years. Currently, the concentrations of NOX, CO, SO2 and VOCs in the COR are well below the Provincial and Federal air quality criteria. Ozone, PM2.5 and PM10, however, remain above the Provincial guidelines, so smog still remains a problem. The pollutants in the atmosphere of the COR are caused by both local emissions and long range transport. The COR contributes over 50% of the NOx, VOC and CO emissions in Ontario. Over 58% of NOX and CO emissions in the COR are due to mobile sources while about 50% of VOC and PM emissions are due to area sources. The proximity of the COR to the Canada-U.S. border makes it vulnerable to long range transport of pollutants stemming from the much larger population in the United States. The Canadian government, industries and non-governmental organizations are all taking steps to help reduce the level of pollution in Canada. The Canadian federal government also participates in extensive consultations and cooperative programs with the United States designed to reduce the mutually detrimental effects of cross-border pollution. These

  5. Municipal-Aboriginal Relations: An Ontario Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alia Hanif

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In Canada, there are many examples of respectful relationships between municipalities and Aboriginal communities. Where Aboriginal peoples have concerns with the actions or inaction of governments (be they federal, provincial or municipal governments, it is often municipalities that are directly affected by the measures taken by Aboriginal peoples to express their concerns. To help reduce possible conflicts at the municipal level and find shared solutions, the Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing of the Province of Ontario has been advising municipalities in the province on the benefits of engaging and developing relationships with Aboriginal peoples.

  6. Handling Capacity of Dalian Petrochemical Port Surpasses Ten Million Tons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Li

    2007-01-01

    @@ Dalian Petrochemical Port (of Dalian Petrochemical Corporation), CNPC's biggest petrochemical port,owns 15 1-100000 ton-grade berths and has an annual throughput of 18 million tons of crude, oil products,lubrication oil, atoleine, liquefied gas, and etc.. In recent years, the port handles over 10% of the total annual cargo throughput of all major ports in Dalian city and ranks second for its berthing capacity.

  7. China Strengthens Macro-management in Petrochemical Branches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hui

    1997-01-01

    @@ China will strengthen macro-management in petrochemical branches in order to reasonably utilize the national petroleum resources and improve its competitive capacity in international refinery industrial market.

  8. Hydroids of the genus Sertularella (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Sertulariidae) from the Pacific coast of Canada in the collection of the Royal Ontario Museum, with descriptions of four new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Henry H C

    2015-03-02

    Examination of the hydroid fauna of the Canadian Pacific coast in the collections of the Royal Ontario Museum collected between 1934 and 1985 indicates that the genus Sertularella Gray, 1848 from the infralittoral zone in the region remains poorly enumerated. The present study shows that several European or northeast Atlantic hydroid species, Sertularella conica Allman, 1877, Sertularella rugosa (Linnaeus, 1758), Sertularella tenella Alder, 1856, Sertularella polyzonias (Linnaeus, 1758), and Sertularella fusiformis (Hincks, 1861) have been incorrectly reported from the west coast of North America and suggests that assumptions of cosmopolitanism of some species require verification by continuing refinement of regional species-level taxonomy. Four new species, Sertularella cervicula, S. coronata, S. sacciformis, and S. pacifica are recognized and described in this paper. Sertularella gigantea Hincks, 1874 is recognized for the first time from the Pacific coast of North America.

  9. Brief Introduction to CNPC Daqing Petrochemical Complex(DPC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Daqing Petrochemical Complex (DPC), as a subsidiary enterprise of China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), was founded in April,1962 and is a giant scale integrated petrochemical enterprise in China. With great efforts in the past four decades, DPC has developed four product series including oil, chemical, fibre and fertilizer according to its development strategy of construction and production being synchronously done. At the end of 1980s, it has become the integrated base for petrochemical production, scientific research and construction, which is involved in RD, design,mechanical manufacture, construction and comprehensive community service system. DPC has made great contribution to the construction for Daqing Oilfield and the economic development for Daqing area. After the reorganization in 1999, DPC has formed six systems including petrochemical extended processing, engineering technology service, production technology service, machine manufhcturing,multi-business and living base service for its employees. Its main businesses are involved in petrochemical & petrochemical extended processing, design & construction for large petrochemical plant, civil building and road, installation for petrochemical plant, engineering supervision,equipment maintenance, manufacturing & processing for machine and instrument, computer software development & application, network administration, passenger & cargo transportation, equipment & material purchase, realty management and logistic service for its employees.

  10. Key Factors for Development of China's Petrochemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Worldwide Market Volume and Development Trends of the Petrochemical Industry (1) Periodicity and Fluctuation The petrochemical industry has a typical periodicity that is shaped primarily by supply and demand on one hand and on the other hand by newly added capacity being put into production, operating rate and other uncertainty factors.

  11. Oil and Petrochem Sector Becomes Focus of Foreign Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Foreign investment sees a new growth in China's petroleum and petrochemical sector in 2004. It totaled between US$4 billion and US45 billion in 2003. Currently,the big-name oil and petrochemical multinationals expand their business in China.

  12. Key Polices for Development of Petroleum and Petrochemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Recently, the State Economic and Trade Commission published the 10th Five-Year Plan (2001~2005) for the development of 13 major sectorsmachinery, automobile, light Industry,building materials, chemicals,nonferrous metals, steel, textile,petroleum, power, petrochemicals,pharmaceuticals, and coal. The key policies concerning petroleum and petrochemicals are excerpted as follows:

  13. Ontario's Student Voice Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This article describes in some detail aspects of the Student Voice initiative funded and championed by Ontario's Ministry of Education since 2008. The project enables thousands of students to make their voices heard in meaningful ways and to participate in student-led research. Some students from grades 7 to 12 become members of the Student…

  14. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a high-resolution survey with towed electronic instrumentation along the Lake Ontario nearshore (720 km) at a 20 meter contour. The survey was conducted September 6-10, 2008 with a shorter 300 km survey conducted August 14-15 for comparing of temporal variability. ...

  15. Congenital anomalies surveillance in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, R Brian

    2008-01-01

    Congenital anomalies (CA) are present in approximately 3% of all newborn babies and account for about 12% of paediatric hospital admissions. They represent an important public health problem. Surveillance is especially important so that preventive measures such as folic acid fortification can be properly assessed without resorting to a series of ad hoc studies. Canada's surveillance of CAs is weak, with only Alberta and British Columbia having established sytems. Most provinces have perinatal systems but their CA data are incomplete and they do not capture terminations of pregnancy. The same is true of the Public Health Agency of Canada's system. A new system, the Fetal Alert Network, has been proposed for Ontario, which represents a start but will require additional sources of ascertainment if it is to be a truly population-based system for Ontario.

  16. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN TABRIZ PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Abduli, M. Abbasi, T. Nasrabadi, H. Hoveidi, N. Razmkhah

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Tabriz petrochemical complex is located in the northwest of Iran. Major products of this industry include raw plastics like, polyethylene, polystyrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene, etc. Sources of waste generation include service units, health and cure units, water, power, steam and industrial processes units. In this study, different types of solid waste including hazardous and non hazardous solid wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management of the industrial wastes in order to minimize the adverse environmental impacts. In the first stage, locating map and dispersion limits were prepared. Then, the types and amounts of industrial waste generated in were evaluated by an inventory and inspection. Wastes were classified according to Environmental Protection Agency and Basel Standards and subsequently hazards of different types were investigated. The waste management of TPC is quite complex because of the different types of waste and their pollution. In some cases recycling/reuse of waste is the best option, but treatment and disposal are also necessary tools. In this study, using different sources and references, generally petrochemical sources, various solid waste management practices were investigated and the best options were selected. Some wastes should be treated before land filling and some of them should be reused or recycled. In the case of solid waste optimization, source reduction ways were recommended as well as prior incineration system was modified.

  17. Reliable positioning in a sparse GPS network, eastern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi Alinia, H.; Tiampo, K.; Atkinson, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Canada hosts two regions that are prone to large earthquakes: western British Columbia, and the St. Lawrence River region in eastern Canada. Although eastern Ontario is not as seismically active as other areas of eastern Canada, such as the Charlevoix/Ottawa Valley seismic zone, it experiences ongoing moderate seismicity. In historic times, potentially damaging events have occurred in New York State (Attica, 1929, M=5.7; Plattsburg, 2002, M=5.0), north-central Ontario (Temiskaming, 1935, M=6.2; North Bay, 2000, M=5.0), eastern Ontario (Cornwall, 1944, M=5.8), Georgian Bay (2005, MN=4.3), and western Quebec (Val-Des-Bois,2010, M=5.0, MN=5.8). In eastern Canada, the analysis of detailed, high-precision measurements of surface deformation is a key component in our efforts to better characterize the associated seismic hazard. The data from precise, continuous GPS stations is necessary to adequately characterize surface velocities from which patterns and rates of stress accumulation on faults can be estimated (Mazzotti and Adams, 2005; Mazzotti et al., 2005). Monitoring of these displacements requires employing high accuracy GPS positioning techniques. Detailed strain measurements can determine whether the regional strain everywhere is commensurate with a large event occurring every few hundred years anywhere within this general area or whether large earthquakes are limited to specific areas (Adams and Halchuck, 2003; Mazzotti and Adams, 2005). In many parts of southeastern Ontario and western Québec, GPS stations are distributed quite sparsely, with spacings of approximately 100 km or more. The challenge is to provide accurate solutions for these sparse networks with an approach that is capable of achieving high-accuracy positioning. Here, various reduction techniques are applied to a sparse network installed with the Southern Ontario Seismic Network in eastern Ontario. Recent developments include the implementation of precise point positioning processing on acquired

  18. The adoption of residential solar photovoltaic systems in the presence of a financial incentive: A case study of consumer experiences with the Renewable Energy Standard Offer Program in Ontario (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Christopher William Junji

    2009-12-01

    Traditionally, high initial capital costs and lengthy payback periods have been identified as the most significant barriers that limit the diffusion of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. In response, the Ontario Government, through the Ontario Power Authority (OPA), introduced the Renewable Energy Standard Offer Program (RESOP) in November, 2006. The RESOP offers owners of solar PV systems with a generation capacity under 10MW a 20 year contract to sell electricity back to the grid at a guaranteed rate of $0.42/kWh. While it is the intent of incentive programs such as the RESOP to begin to lower financial barriers in order to increase the uptake of solar PV systems, there is no guarantee that the level of participation will in fact rise. The "on-the-ground" manner in which consumers interact with such an incentive program ultimately determines its effectiveness. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the relationship between the RESOP and solar PV system consumers. To act on this purpose, the experiences of current RESOP participants are presented, wherein the factors that are either hindering or promoting utilization of the RESOP and the adoption of solar PV systems are identified. This thesis was conducted in three phases--a literature review, preliminary key informant interviews, and primary RESOP participant interviews--with each phase informing the scope and design of the subsequent stage. First, a literature survey was completed to identify and to understand the potential drivers and barriers to the adoption of a solar PV system from the perspective of a consumer. Second, nine key informant interviews were completed to gain further understanding regarding the specific intricacies of the drivers and barriers in the case of Ontario, as well as the overall adoption system in the province. These interviews were conducted between July and September, 2008. Third, interviews with 24 RESOP participants were conducted; they constitute the primary data set. These

  19. Source Water Protection Planning for Ontario First Nations Communities: Case Studies Identifying Challenges and Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie Collins; Deborah McGregor; Stephanie Allen; Craig Murray; Chris Metcalfe

    2017-01-01

    After the Walkerton tragedy in 2000, where drinking water contamination left seven people dead and many suffering from chronic illness, the Province of Ontario, Canada implemented policies to develop Source Water Protection (SWP) plans. Under the Clean Water Act (2006), thirty-six regional Conservation Authorities were mandated to develop watershed-based SWP plans under 19 Source Protection Regions. Most First Nations in Ontario are outside of these Source Protection Regions and reserve lands...

  20. The real truth about wind energy: a literature based introduction to wind turbines in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadawski, Alexandra; Lynch, Greg [Sierra Club Canada (Canada)

    2011-08-15

    With the development of wind power energy in Ontario, several questions and concerns have been raised. This literature review addresses the viability, safety and environmental impact of wind power. The review was carried out on scientific publications, journal articles, books and study results. This document first presents energy generation and consumption in Ontario, it then presents wind energy technology in general and finally, it focuses on wind energy in Ontario. After reviewing all available information, Sierra Club Canada concludes that there is no proof of significant health effects attributable to wind energy and that use of this energy can minimize carbon emissions, improving the air quality and the health and well-being of Canadians. Sierra Club Canada believes that wind turbines are not linked to health concerns and that Canada should embrace wind power.

  1. The organization of district health councils in Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, F Maureen

    1982-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. This action research project with district health councils (DHCs) in Ontario, Canada, took place between 1976 and 1980. The purpose of the research was to identify the most effective forms of organization for DHCs, bodies set up to provide a local focus for planning and coordination of health services in the Province. The research method was based on social analysis, a method developed ove...

  2. Transboundary pollution and its effect on Ontario : fact sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-24

    The Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) has taken action to improve air quality in the province. Some measures include strict air emission limits and mandatory reporting requirements for the electric power generating sector. A freeze has been placed on the sale of all coal-fired generating plants pending environmental review. The Ontario Government pressured the Federal Government to reduce the sulphur content of gasoline and diesel fuel produced in Canada. This report stated that while it is recognized that half of Ontario's air pollution is caused by emissions from the U.S., the province considers smog and acid rain to be regional air issues that should be addressed using coordinated bilateral efforts. Ontario will commit to adopting the standards of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency if these standards will cap emissions of nitrogen oxides. This report presented a summary of simple facts regarding emissions of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, acid rain, as well as nuclear and fossil fueled power generation. The MOE has created several environmental programs such as the Anti-Smog Action Plan, Drive Clean Program, Smog Patrol, Partners in Air Program and the Climate Change Fund. It has also taken other initiatives such as the implementation of emission performance standards for power generation, updating air quality standards and investing $4 million into an air monitoring network. The ministry has offered resource materials for smog alert and has updated Ontario's gasoline volatility regulation. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  3. The core health science library in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, J L

    1974-04-01

    Core lists in Canada are characterized by regional differences. The lists of current importance are: (1) the British Columbia acquisitions guide for hospital libraries, (2) three Saskatchewan lists for hospitals of different sizes, (3) a core list recommended for Ontario hospitals, (4) Quebec core lists, including French language lists.

  4. The Core Health Science Library in Canada *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, June Leath

    1974-01-01

    Core lists in Canada are characterized by regional differences. The lists of current importance are: (1) the British Columbia acquisitions guide for hospital libraries, (2) three Saskatchewan lists for hospitals of different sizes, (3) a core list recommended for Ontario hospitals, (4) Quebec core lists, including French language lists. PMID:4826482

  5. Development of Oilfield Chemicals Based on Advantages in Petrochemical Feedstocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xieqing; Peng Pu

    2002-01-01

    This article focuses on the routes for development of oilfield chemicals by making use of the feedstock advantages of the petrochemical industry. The diversification of oilfield chemicals has re sulted in thousand product grades. Because there are hundred domestic producers of oilfield chemicals,mostly medium and small producers, the fluctuations of feedstock prices and product quality cannot be conducive to the application and development of oilfield chemicals. This article illustrates the feasibility of oilfield chemical production by state-run medium and large petrochemical enterprises by allowing full play to their own advantages in petrochemical feedstocks.

  6. Assessing secondary attack rates among household contacts at the beginning of the influenza A (H1N1 pandemic in Ontario, Canada, April-June 2009: A prospective, observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horn Maureen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding transmission dynamics of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1 virus in various exposure settings and determining whether transmissibility differed from seasonal influenza viruses was a priority for decision making on mitigation strategies at the beginning of the pandemic. The objective of this study was to estimate household secondary attack rates for pandemic influenza in a susceptible population where control measures had yet to be implemented. Methods All Ontario local health units were invited to participate; seven health units volunteered. For all laboratory-confirmed cases reported between April 24 and June 18, 2009, participating health units performed contact tracing to detect secondary cases among household contacts. In total, 87 cases and 266 household contacts were included in this study. Secondary cases were defined as any household member with new onset of acute respiratory illness (fever or two or more respiratory symptoms or influenza-like illness (fever plus one additional respiratory symptom. Attack rates were estimated using both case definitions. Results Secondary attack rates were estimated at 10.3% (95% CI 6.8-14.7 for secondary cases with influenza-like illness and 20.2% (95% CI 15.4-25.6 for secondary cases with acute respiratory illness. For both case definitions, attack rates were significantly higher in children under 16 years than adults (25.4% and 42.4% compared to 7.6% and 17.2%. The median time between symptom onset in the primary case and the secondary case was estimated at 3.0 days. Conclusions Secondary attack rates for pandemic influenza A (H1N1 were comparable to seasonal influenza estimates suggesting similarities in transmission. High secondary attack rates in children provide additional support for increased susceptibility to infection.

  7. Driving Distance to Telemedicine Units in Northern Ontario as a Measure of Potential Access to Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Laurel D; Hogenbirk, John C

    2016-04-01

    The Ontario Telemedicine Network (OTN) uses technology to help make medical services more accessible to people in medically underserved rural and remote parts of Ontario, Canada. We examined access to OTN-enabled health and medical services in Northern Ontario, which has 775,000 people in communities scattered across an area of 803,000 km(2). We used ArcGIS Network Analyst (Esri, Redlands, CA) to conduct a service area analysis with travel time as a measure of potential access to care. We used road distance and speed limits to estimate travel time between Northern Ontario communities and the nearest OTN unit. In 2014 there were 2,331 OTN units, of which 552 (24%) were located in Northern Ontario. All seven communities in Northern Ontario with a population of 10,000 or greater had OTN units. Almost 97% of the 59 communities with 1,000-10,000 people were within 30 min of an OTN unit. The percentage of communities within 30 min steadily decreased with decreasing population size, to 58% for communities with fewer than 50 people. In total, 86% (690/802) of Northern Ontario communities were within an hour's drive of an OTN unit. This study showed that most Northern Ontario communities were within an hour's drive of an OTN unit. The current distribution of OTN units has the potential to increase access to medical services and to reduce the need for medically related travel for residents of these communities.

  8. Validation of Six Short and Ultra-short Screening Instruments for Depression for People Living with HIV in Ontario: Results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Stephanie KY; Boyle, Eleanor; Burchell, Ann;

    2015-01-01

    of current depression in HIV-positive patients attending HIV specialty care clinics in Ontario. Methods A multi-centre validation study was conducted in Ontario to examine the validity and accuracy of three instruments (the Center for Epidemiologic Depression Scale [CESD20], the Kessler Psychological...... Distress Scale [K10], and the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale [PHQ9]) and their short forms (CESD10, K6, and PHQ2) in diagnosing current major depression among 190 HIV-positive patients in Ontario. Results from the three instruments and their short forms were compared to results from the gold...... positive predictive value (0.49–0.58) at their optimal cut-points. Conclusion Among people in HIV care in Ontario, Canada, the three instruments and their short forms performed equally well and accurately. When further in-depth assessments become available, shorter instruments might find greater clinical...

  9. Latest Development in China's Oil Refining & Petrochemical Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Zuhua

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's big-three oil companies-CNPC, Sinopec and CNOOC-have intensified their competition in the domestic oil refining and petrochemical sector in recent years so as to better position themselves in the oil products market at home.

  10. Important TQM Implementation Contributors in Pakistani Petrochemical Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Latif

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses quality practices in Pakistani Petrochemical sector to understand TQM practices and their implementation in Pakistan. It helps to understand the role of leadership, vision & plan statement, employee participation and education & training as important constructs of TQM. It shows how these constructs help to speed up the TQM implementation in petrochemical sector like other constructs of TQM and finally company moves towards quality approach. The responses of executives, managerial staff and workers were received using questionnaire and online surveys which are sent through Google Drive. Data of 106 respondents was taken in this study and analyzed by SPSS18. Study shows that Total Quality Management culture is less understood by employees, thus less adopted and implemented in Pakistan. Petrochemical companies fail to adopt the TQM philosophy and processes, hence reducing productivity and profits. This research paper is very helpful for executives for TQM implementation in petrochemical sector.

  11. Brief Introduction of PetroChina Fushun Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ PetroChina Fushun Pertrochemical Company (PFPC) is a large-scale integrated petrochemical complex, which owns three oil refineries, three large and medium-size chemical plants and one company for storage and transportation of oil products.

  12. Brief Introduction of PetroChina Dalian Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ PetroChina Dalian Petrochemical Company is capable of processing 20.50 million tons of crude oil once a year and manufacturing series of petrochemical products, such as gasoline,kerosene, diesel, lube oil, paraffin wax, benzene, polypropylene and fine fibre, etc. PetroChina Dalian Petrochemical Company is in the national leading position in terms of its key performance indicators,some of which are advanced in the world. As the largest oil refining base in China, it has leaped to a demonstrative refining and chemical enterprise with greatest competitiveness in PetroChina. It has become one of the important bases for exporting and transferring petrochemical products in China for its advantageous geographical position in Dalian, shore of the Yellow Sea and complete marine and land transportation facilities.

  13. Analyzing and Improving the Water-Table Fluctuation Method of Estimating Groundwater Recharge: Field Considerations Patros, T.B. and Parkin, G.W., School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patros, T.; Parkin, G. W.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the project is on measuring and quantifying groundwater recharge (GWR) using the water-table fluctuation (WTF) method. This method requires measuring the change in water-table (WT) height (Δh) during recharge (R) events and volumetric soil specific yield water content (θsy), (&/or) perhaps more correctly volumetric soil fillable water content (θf). The rise in WT can also result from other non-precipitation-related WTF causes (e.g., Lisse effect, temperature variations, barometric, lateral flow, Reverse Wieringermeer effect, encapsulated air, pumping), which must be counted for. The measurement of the storativity (S) terms (θsy) and/or θf) is, indeed, not clear-cut and often they are taken as being constant with depth, time, WT movement (Drying-Wetting & Freezing-Thawing) history and heterogeneity. In fact, these two terms (θsy & θf) are controversial in their definition, thus in their use, in the literature and may either overestimate the R, when using θsy, or underestimate it, when using θf. To resolve some of these questions, a novel-automated method is under development, at the University of Guelph's Elora Research Station (ERS) and Arboretum, along with a novel multi-event time series model. The long-term expected outcomes and significance of this study are; 1. Establishing accuracy in defining and evaluating the θsy and θf and using them accordingly in estimating GWR with the WTF method in order to overcome some of the existing substantial gaps in our knowledge of groundwater (GW) storage variation. 2. Obtaining GWR measurements at the local scale on a year-round basis, which are currently scarce or even completely lacking for many regions of Ontario and thus would provide a valuable database for guiding development of any policy requiring GWR. 3. Using this database to calibrate and test estimates of the spatial and temporal variability in regional-scale (watershed scale) GWR from approximate statistical techniques or deterministic

  14. New Petrochemical Processes Based on Direct Conversion of Methane

    OpenAIRE

    Faraguna F.; Jukić A.

    2015-01-01

    Petrochemistry is a branch of chemistry and chemical engineering that studies reactions and processes of the transformation of petroleum derivatives and natural gas into useful petrochemicals. In its beginning, petrochemistry, or rather the organic chemical industry, was based on the acetylene and Reppe chemistry. The main raw materials of the petrochemical industry nowadays are olefins and aromatic hydrocarbons, with a pronounced tendency toward development of new processes and higher usage ...

  15. Dalian Petrochemical Targets at World-class Giant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Min

    2002-01-01

    @@ As one of PetroChina's most profitable enterprises, Dalian Petrochemical Company, located on the western bank of Pacific Occean, is remarkable for the first-class management and performance. In a recent interview with media, general manger of Dalian Petrochemical Company Jiang Fan said the company has made ambitious efforts to adopt advanced information technology, establish the internal corporate website and information platform for optimization and sharing of resources and boost the management efficiency in the past few years.

  16. A modular success story the Saudi petrochemical project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirven, J.B.; Swenson, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Saudi Petrochemical Company is referred to within this paper as ''Sadaf''. Sadaf is the phonetic spelling of the Arabic word for seashell and is a joint venture of Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) and Pecten Arabian Ltd., an affiliate of Shell Oil Comapny, U.S.A. SABIC is a joint stock corporation responsible for the development of basic industries in the Kingdom in the petrochemicals, metals and fertilizers field.

  17. William D. Stevenson: Atlantic Canada's first neurosurgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhida, Karim; Mendez, Ivar

    2007-12-01

    The origins of neurosurgical services in Atlantic Canada are tied to the individual efforts of William D. Stevenson. Born in Hamilton, Ontario, Stevenson completed his senior matriculation in Dunnville, Ontario, before studying medicine at the University of Toronto. He completed the Gallie surgical course in Toronto and then spent 1 year training with Edward Archibald at McGill University. After working for 2 years with the Canadian Mobile Neurosurgical Unit in Europe during the Second World War, Stevenson undertook formal neurosurgical training with Kenneth G. McKenzie, Canada's first neurosurgeon. Stevenson was thereafter recruited to Halifax to start the neurosurgical service at the Victoria General Hospital in January 1948, and he remained head of the division for the next 26 years. His pioneering work laid the foundations for the establishment of a major academic neurosurgical service at Dalhousie University and was crucial for the establishment of neurosurgery in Atlantic Canada. After his retirement, Stevenson moved back to Ontario and began his second career, transferring his passion for neurosurgery to oil painting. His legacy to neurosurgery in Atlantic Canada will be remembered in perpetuity with the annual Neurosurgery Resident Research Award at Dalhousie University, established and named in his honour. This paper focuses on Stevenson's life and work in neurosurgery as Atlantic Canada's first neurosurgeon.

  18. Horizontal drilling in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidey, P.; Precul, L. [Sproule Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    A review of oil and gas production in Ontario was presented with particular reference to drilling activity between 1987 to mid 2002 when 1450 vertical wells were drilled, of which 1100 were for petroleum production and the remainder were for gas storage, observation wells, private gas wells and stratigraphic tests. Of the 1100 vertical wells drilled for petroleum production, 40 per cent became gas wells, 16 per cent became oil wells, 4 per cent became oil and gas wells, and 40 per cent were dry. During the same time period, 133 horizontal wells were also drilled, mostly for petroleum. The most active operator was Talisman Energy, which drilled 101 of the 133 horizontal wells. The remainder were drilled by 12 other companies. Of the horizontal wells, 64 per cent became oil wells, 19 per cent became gas wells, and 17 per cent were dry. This presentation included graphs depicting which oil and gas pools saw vertical or horizontal drilling during the designated time period, and explained how the wells were classified. Both horizontal and vertical well targets were illustrated. Particular reference was made to Talisman Energy's Lake Erie Drilling program which revealed that horizontal wells have an initial production rate that is 5 times that expected from vertical wells. The Hillman Pool case study revealed that the initial rate of the average horizontal well is less than half that of the average vertical well. Horizontal drilling in the Lake Erie Morpeth Gas pool has also been a commercial success. This paper demonstrates that operators have maintained Ontario's oil and gas production at high levels. In 1997 widespread horizontal drilling began taking place in Ontario, and since then, approximately 30 per cent of the wells drilled in the province have been horizontal. 16 figs.

  19. The short-term impact of Ontario's generic pricing reforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Law

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Canadians pay amongst the highest generic drug prices in the world. In July 2010, the province of Ontario enacted a policy that halved reimbursement for generic drugs from the public drug plan, and substantially lowered prices for private purchases. We quantified the impact of this policy on overall generic drug expenditures in the province, and projected the impact in other provinces had they mimicked this pricing change. METHODS: We used quarterly prescription generic drug dispensing data from the IMS-Brogan CompuScript Audit. We used the price per unit in both the pre- and post-policy period and two economics price indexes to estimate the expenditure reduction in Ontario. Further, we used the post-policy Ontario prices to estimate the potential reduction in other provinces. RESULTS: We estimate that total expenditure on generic drugs in Ontario during the second half of 2010 was between $181 and $194 million below what would be expected if prices had remained at pre-policy level. Over half of the reduction in spending was due to savings on just 10 generic ingredients. If other provinces had matched Ontario's prices, their expenditures over during the latter half of 2010 would have been $445 million lower. DISCUSSION: We found that if Ontario's pricing scheme were adopted nationally, overall spending on generic drugs in Canada would drop at least $1.28 billion annually--a 5% decrease in total prescription drug expenditure. Other provinces should seriously consider both changes to their generic drug prices and the use of more competitive bulk purchasing policies.

  20. Ontario Postsecondary Enrolment Report, 1977-81: Universities, Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology, Other Postsecondary Institutions = Rapport sur l'effectif des etablissements postsecondaires de l'Ontario, 1977-1981: Universites, colleges d'arts appliques et de technologie, et autres etablissements postsecondaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontario Ministry of Colleges and Universities, Toronto.

    Enrollment Data for 1977-1981 full- and part-time students in postsecondary institutions in Ontario, Canada, are presented in response to information needs of institutions and the Ontario Ministry of Colleges and Universities. The introduction, highlights of findings, and statistical tables are presented in both French and English. Analysis is…

  1. Midwifery education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Michelle M; Hutton, Eileen K; McNiven, Patricia S

    2016-02-01

    This article is part of a special series on midwifery education and describes the approach to midwifery education in Canada We begin with an overview of the model of midwifery practice introduced in Canada in the 1990s. We describe the model of midwifery education developed and report how it is implemented, with particular attention to the two longest established programs. Midwifery education programs in Ontario and British Columbia. Midwifery education programs in Canada are offered at the undergraduate baccalaureate level at universities and are typically four years in length. Programs are competence-based and follow a spiral curriculum. The first semesters focus on on core sciences, social sciences and introduction to midwifery concepts. Students spend fifty percent of the program in clinical practices with community-based midwives. Innovative education models enable students to be placed in distant placements and help to align theoretical and practice components. Clinically active faculty adds to the credibility of teaching but bring its own challenges for midwifery educators. The Canadian model of midwifery education has been very effective with low attrition rates and high demand for the number of places available. Further program expansion is warranted but is contingent on the growth of clinical placements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. International Student Support Services at Ontario Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Clayton; Whiteside, Brenda; Blanchard, Suzanne; Martin, Chris

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the Ontario Committee on Student Affairs and the Ontario Undergraduate Student Alliance partnered to examine the availability and use of international student support services at Ontario universities. Results of the recently administered Ontario Committee on Student Affairs, Canadian Bureau of International Education, and…

  3. Nuclear resurrection: Must Ontario fire up more reactors to power its future?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewar, E.

    2005-06-01

    An extensive historical review of Canada's nuclear reactor program is provided. The author also examines the role of nuclear power generation in Ontario's energy future, concluding that given the limited capacity for additional hydro power, and the uncertainty of natural gas supply, nuclear power will likely remain a significant source of energy for Ontario for the foreseeable future. Nevertheless, the challenge to bring nuclear power generation under control remains, considering that despite the best efforts of generations of nuclear engineers, politicians and regulators the industry appears close to being unmanageable, and Ontario taxpayers are likely to be paying its old debt far into the future. The current contingent of reactors is rapidly aging and the disposal of used nuclear fuel still defies a satisfactory solution. These formidable challenges notwithstanding, best estimates are that Ontario has few viable alternatives, and will have to embark on a new cycle of nuclear construction before the end of this decade.

  4. Financial Report of Ontario Universities, 1993-94. Volume I - Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This report provides detailed financial information for provincially-assisted colleges and universities in Ontario (Canada) for the fiscal year ended April 30, 1994. It describes university accounting procedures, principles for reporting financial data, and definitions. Nine tables provide summary information on revenue, expenses, fund balances,…

  5. Muse, Ruse, Subterfuge: Transdisciplinary "Praxis" in Ontario's Post-Secondary Bricolage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Richard C.; Moore, Shannon A.

    2015-01-01

    In late 2013, Canada's national newspaper reported that the implementation of Ontario's "differentiation policy framework" was the province's "boldest step yet to compel universities and colleges to make hard choices about how they spend their resources...a draft policy designed to stretch limited provincial dollars by narrowing…

  6. Alternative Pathways to Legitimacy: Promotional Practices in the Ontario For-Profit College Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro Milian, Roger; Quirke, Linda

    2017-01-01

    This study empirically examines how for-profit career colleges in Ontario, Canada market themselves to prospective students. It uses a mixed-methods approach to review the content of 489 online promotional profiles representing 375 unique for-profit colleges. It finds that for-profit colleges adopt several distinct marketing strategies, including…

  7. Demand for Substance Abuse Treatment Related to Use of Crystal Methamphetamine in Ontario: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Bruna; Corea, Larry; Strike, Carol; Singh, Veeran-Anne S.; Behrooz, Renee C.; Rush, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about methamphetamine/crystal methamphetamine (MA) have featured prominently in the Canadian media and on addiction treatment agency agendas. We examined MA admissions at addiction treatment agencies to determine if a service gap existed. In 2006, all addiction treatment agencies (n = 124) in Ontario, Canada were invited to complete an…

  8. Increasing Research Capacity in Ontario Child Welfare Organizations: A Unique University-Child Welfare Agency Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Barbara; Trocmé, Nico; Van Wert, Melissa; Budau, Krista; Ballantyne, Mary; Lwin, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the successes and challenges of a unique knowledge mobilization initiative that was funded through the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. This initiative focused on promoting knowledge mobilization by increasing the capacity of child welfare organizations in Ontario to conduct…

  9. Muse, Ruse, Subterfuge: Transdisciplinary "Praxis" in Ontario's Post-Secondary Bricolage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Richard C.; Moore, Shannon A.

    2015-01-01

    In late 2013, Canada's national newspaper reported that the implementation of Ontario's "differentiation policy framework" was the province's "boldest step yet to compel universities and colleges to make hard choices about how they spend their resources...a draft policy designed to stretch limited provincial dollars by narrowing…

  10. BACTERIOPHAGE AND MICROSPHERE TRANSPORT IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA: FORCED-GRADIENT EXPERIMENT AT BORDEN, ONTARIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    A two-well forced-gradient experiment involving virus and microsphere transport was carried out in a sandy aquifer in Borden, Ontario, Canada. Virus traveled at least a few meters in the experiment, but virus concentrations at observation points 1 and 2.54 m away from the injecti...

  11. Know How? Show How: Experienced Teachers Share Best Practices through Ontario Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Lindy; Anthony, Paul; Strachan, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Launched in 2007, the Teacher Learning and Leadership Program, out of Ontario, Canada, operates on the belief that classroom teachers know their learning needs and the needs of their students best. Additionally, the program assumes teachers have the greatest knowledge of how to build and foster multiple learning networks in order to share their…

  12. Components of sustainability considerations in management of petrochemical industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanasl, Amir; Ghodousi, Jamal; Arjmandi, Reza; Mansouri, Nabiollah

    2017-06-01

    Sustainability comprises three pillars of social, environmental, and economic aspects. Petrochemical industry has a great inter-related complex impact on social and economic development of societies and adverse impact on almost all environmental aspects and resource depletion in many countries, which make sustainability a crucial issue for petrochemical industries. This study was conducted to propose components of sustainability considerations in management of petrochemical industries.A combination of exploratory study-to prepare a preliminary list of components of sustainable business in petrochemical industries based on review of literature and Delphi-to obtain experts' view on this preliminary list and provide a detailed list of components and sub-components that should be addressed to bring sustainability to petrochemical industries, were used.Two sets of components were provided. First general components, which include stakeholders (staffs, society, and environment) with four sub-components, financial resources with 11 sub-components, improvement of design and processes with nine sub-components, policy and strategy of cleaner production with seven sub-components and leadership with seven sub-components. The second operational components included raw material supply and preparation with five, synthesis with ten, product separation and refinement with nine, product handling and storage with five, emission abatement with eight, and improvement of technology and equipment with 16 sub-components.

  13. Differences in access to services in rural emergency departments of Quebec and Ontario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Fleet

    Full Text Available Rural emergency departments (EDs are important safety nets for the 20% of Canadians who live there. A serious problem in access to health care services in these regions has emerged. However, there are considerable geographic disparities in access to trauma center in Canada. The main objective of this project was to compare access to local 24/7 support services in rural EDs in Quebec and Ontario as well as distances to Levels 1 and 2 trauma centers.Rural EDs were identified through the Canadian Healthcare Association's Guide to Canadian Healthcare Facilities. We selected hospitals with 24/7 ED physician coverage and hospitalization beds that were located in rural communities. There were 26 rural EDs in Quebec and 62 in Ontario meeting these criteria. Data were collected from ministries of health, local health authorities, and ED statistics. Fisher's exact test, the t-test or Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test, were performed to compare rural EDs of Quebec and Ontario.All selected EDs of Quebec and Ontario agreed to participate in the study. The number of EDs visits was higher in Quebec than in Ontario (19 322 ± 6 275 vs 13 446 ± 8 056, p = 0.0013. There were no significant differences between Quebec and Ontario's local population and small town population density. Quebec's EDs have better access to advance imaging services such as CT scanner (77% vs 15%, p < .0001 and most the consultant support and ICU (92% vs 31%, p < .0001. Finally, more than 40% of rural EDs in Quebec and Ontario are more than 300 km away from Levels 1 and 2 trauma centers.Considering that Canada has a Universal health care system, the discrepancies between Quebec and Ontario in access to support services are intriguing. A nationwide study is justified to address this issue.

  14. Contaminant Research in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wren C.

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Contaminant Research in CanadaPages 9 - 11 (ReportChristopher WrenAbstract:During the 1983/84 and 1984/85 trapping seasons, carcasses of river otter (Lutra canadensis were collected for contaminant analysis from trappers in Ontario. The studies identified clear differences in tissue levels of Hg, Pb and Cd between different collection areas. There is evidence to support Hg poisoning as the cause of death in at least one otter along this river system. The studies emphasize the potential interactions of toxic chemicals with each other and with natural stresses (e.g. cold, starvation, disease. More research is required along these lines since simultaneous exposure to more than one chemical and other stresses is more typical of conditions in the wild.

  15. Mortality incidence in outpatient anesthesia for dentistry in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkansah, P J; Haas, D A; Saso, M A

    1997-06-01

    Studies determining anesthesia mortality rates in dentistry have been published, yet a similar investigation has never been conducted in Canada. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine the incidence of mortality when general anesthesia or deep sedation was administered by qualified dentists in the province of Ontario. Mortality data were obtained from the years 1973 to 1995 inclusive. The number of general anesthetics and deep sedations administered annually by qualified in dental offices was calculated by surveying all oral and maxillofacial surgeons and dental anesthetists in Ontario in 1990 and 1995. The results provided an estimate of 2,830,000 cases from 1973 to 1995 inclusive. Over this time period there were four deaths associated with cases in which either an oral and maxillofacial surgeon or dental anesthetist administered the general anesthetic or deep sedation, yielding a mortality rate of 1.4 per 1,000,000. This mortality incidence is similar to rates already published for outpatient dentistry.

  16. Ontario's Poverty Reduction Strategy: A Critical Discourse Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbow, Sarah; Gorlick, Carolyne; Forchuk, Cheryl; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Berman, Helene

    2016-01-01

    This article overviews the second phase of a two-phase study which examined experiences of health and social exclusion among mothers experiencing homelessness in Ontario, Canada. A critical discourse analysis was employed to analyze the policy document, Realizing Our Potential: Ontario's Poverty Reduction Strategy, 2014-2019. In nursing, analysis of policy is an emerging form of scholarship, one that draws attention to the macro levels influencing health and health promotion, such as the social determinants of health, and the policies that impact them. The clear neo-liberal underpinnings, within the strategy, with a focus on productivity and labor market participation leave little room for an understanding of poverty reduction from a human rights perspective. Further, gender-neutrality rendered the poverty experienced by women, and mothers, invisible. Notably, there were a lack of deadlines, target dates, and thorough action and evaluation plans. Such absence troubles whether poverty reduction is truly a priority for the government, and society as a whole.

  17. Ontario Teachers' Deprofessionalization and Proletarianization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filson, Glen

    1988-01-01

    Discusses teachers' class location in capitalist societies in terms of major sociological perspectives. Identifies corporate capitalist class categories that distinguish professionals from proletarians, and applies these categories to Ontario teachers at different occupational levels. (44 references) (SV)

  18. New Petrochemical Processes Based on Direct Conversion of Methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraguna F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Petrochemistry is a branch of chemistry and chemical engineering that studies reactions and processes of the transformation of petroleum derivatives and natural gas into useful petrochemicals. In its beginning, petrochemistry, or rather the organic chemical industry, was based on the acetylene and Reppe chemistry. The main raw materials of the petrochemical industry nowadays are olefins and aromatic hydrocarbons, with a pronounced tendency toward development of new processes and higher usage of syngas, methane and other alkanes. Here, the reactions and new processes of direct conversion of methane into more valuable petrochemicals are reviewed. Reactions of partial oxidation of methane, dehydroaromatization of methane, oxidative and non-oxidative coupling of methane to higher hydrocarbons are also described and discussed.

  19. Corrosion problems and solutions in oil refining and petrochemical industry

    CERN Document Server

    Groysman, Alec

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses corrosion problems and their solutions at facilities in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, including cooling water and boiler feed water units. Further, it describes and analyzes corrosion control actions, corrosion monitoring, and corrosion management. Corrosion problems are a perennial issue in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, as they lead to a deterioration of the functional properties of metallic equipment and harm the environment – both of which need to be protected for the sake of current and future generations. Accordingly, this book examines and analyzes typical and atypical corrosion failure cases and their prevention at refineries and petrochemical facilities, including problems with: pipelines, tanks, furnaces, distillation columns, absorbers, heat exchangers, and pumps. In addition, it describes naphthenic acid corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen damages, sulfidic corrosion, microbiologically induced corrosion, erosion-corrosion, and corrosion...

  20. [Appraisal of occupational stressor in petrochemical industry workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-ping; Tian, Hong-er; Huang, Tong; Li, Zhi-yuan; Hu, Ke-ming; Ge, Xi-yong; Jin, Lei; Gao, Qi; Zhang, Jing-jing; Wang, Yu; Liu, Wen-he

    2009-12-01

    To discuss the origin of occupational stress among petrochemical industry workers and to access the main occupational stressors that impact job satisfaction and mental health of petrochemical industry workers. A survey on occupational stressor was carried out by Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI) in 532 petrochemical industry workers (345 chemical and 187 logistic workers). The environment in workplace of chemical group was worse than that of contrast. The chemical workers had less control over job and they experienced more hazards, monotonous as well as role stressors than the logistic group. The scores of job satisfaction and mental health of chemical group (36.867 +/- 0.656, 43.734 +/- 0.542, respectively) were higher than that of contrast (40.321 +/- 0.901, 46.714 +/- 0.745, respectively) (P occupational stressors exist in chemical workers which affect chemical workers' job satisfaction and mental health with different levels.

  1. Smart Manufacturing for the Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Yuan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Smart manufacturing will transform the oil refining and petrochemical sector into a connected, information-driven environment. Using real-time and high-value support systems, smart manufacturing enables a coordinated and performance-oriented manufacturing enterprise that responds quickly to customer demands and minimizes energy and material usage, while radically improving sustainability, productivity, innovation, and economic competitiveness. In this paper, several examples of the application of so-called “smart manufacturing” for the petrochemical sector are demonstrated, such as the fault detection of a catalytic cracking unit driven by big data, advanced optimization for the planning and scheduling of oil refinery sites, and more. Key scientific factors and challenges for the further smart manufacturing of chemical and petrochemical processes are identified.

  2. Industrial wind turbine post-construction bird and bat monitoring: A policy framework for Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisé, Jason; Walker, Tony R

    2017-10-01

    Electricity generation from wind energy has proliferated throughout North America and will continue to grow. Given Canada's expected increase in wind energy capacity, consideration of the potential adverse impacts to bird and bat populations is prudent given their sensitivity to these projects. The province of Ontario, Canada is currently the leading jurisdiction for wind energy development, and for provincial guidance on pre- and post-construction monitoring. With uniform monitoring guidance in Ontario, wind energy proponents, and third-party consultants, have developed post-construction monitoring protocols that meet provincial guidance, while also providing standardized reporting. In Atlantic Canada, post-construction guidelines vary between provinces, depending mostly on guidance from the Environment Canada Canadian Wildlife Service and relevant provincial agencies. To ensure quality post-construction monitoring results in Atlantic Canada and other provinces, it is imperative that all Canadian provinces adopt similar approaches to those employed in Ontario. This paper reviews major causes of bird and bat mortalities; reviews Canadian federal and Ontario provincial bird and bat monitoring guidelines to elucidate gaps between environmental assessment (EA) theory and application; summarizes post-construction monitoring protocols from eight bird and bat post-construction monitoring programs used in Ontario; and, proposes recommendations to support future wind development opportunities across Canada and specifically in Atlantic Canada. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of corrosion failure of petrochemical pipe elbow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-yan; L(U) Tao

    2005-01-01

    Corrosive failure is frequently found in petrochemical pipelines which may lead to the leakage of the pipes and even the shutdown of the system. However, the corrosion mechanism is still not well understood due to the complex service environment, e.g. the corrosive fluids and the long term operation at higher temperature. The corrosion behaviour of a petrochemical pipe elbow was evaluated via visual examination and microanalysis with optical microscope and scanning electron microscope(SEM) together with energy dispersive analysis X-ray (EDAX). The corresponding corrosion mechanisms, the combination of grain boundary attach and the crevice attach together with the flow-accelerated corrosion, were proposed consequently.

  4. Quantitative risks analysis of maritime terminal petrochemical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Leandro Silveira; Leal, Cesar A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica (PROMEC)]. E-mail: leandro19889900@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    This work consists of the application of a computer program (RISKAN) developed for studies of quantification of industrial risks and also a revision of the models used in the program. As part the evaluation made, a test was performed with the application of the computer program to estimate the risks for a marine terminal for storage of petrochemical products, in the city of Rio Grande, Brazil. Thus, as part of the work, it was performed a Quantitative Risk Analysis associated to the terminal, both for the workers and for the population nearby, with a verification of acceptability using the tolerability limits established by the State Licensing Agency (FEPAM-RS). In the risk analysis methodology used internationally, the most used way of presenting results of social risks is in the graphical form with the use of the FN curves and for the individual risk it is common the use of the iso-risk curves traced on the map of the area where is the plant. In the beginning of the study, both a historical analysis of accidents and use of the technique of Preliminary Analysis of Risks were made in order to aid in the process of identification of the possible scenarios of accidents related to the activities in the terminal. After identifying the initiating events, their frequencies or probabilities of occurrence were estimated and followed by the calculations of the physical effects and deaths, with the use, inside the computer program, of published models of Prins Mauritz Laboratory and of American Institute of Chemical Engineers. The average social risk obtained for the external populations was of 8.7x10{sup -7} fatality.year{sup -1} and for the internal population (people working inside the terminal), 3.2x10{sup -4} fatality.year-1. The accident scenario that most contributed to the social risk was death due to exposure to the thermal radiation caused by pool fire, with 84.3% of the total estimated for external populations and 82.9% for the people inside the terminal. The

  5. Brief Introduction of PetroChina Lanzhou Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ As the largest oil refining and chemical production enterprise in the western part of China, PetroChina Lanzhou Petrochemical Company is a regional company of PetroChina Company Limited, which was restructured and merged from the former Lanzhou Petroleum Processing & Chemical Complex and the former Lanzhou Chemical Industry Company.

  6. Guangdong to Invest Heavily in Natural Gas and Petrochemical Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Guangdong Provincial Government has decided to focus on 10 key projects this year with a total investment of 210,2 billion yuan, including energy infrastructure projects, natural gas projects,petrochemical projects, and auto projects. It is expected to complete an investment of 40 billion yuan

  7. Ecotoxicology of waters under the influence of a petrochemical complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noll, R.; Zandonai, V.; Ries, M.A. [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petrquimico do Sul

    1993-12-31

    This work summarizes the regular monitoring and studies conducted by SITEL - The Integrated Wastewater Treatment System of South Petrochemical Complex (South Brazil) - in order to evaluate the full environmental impact on waters in the area of influence of the effluents of the above mentioned Complex. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  8. Maximum fossil fuel feedstock replacement potential of petrochemicals via biorefineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.; Boom, R.M.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The search for feedstock replacement options within the petrochemical industry should logically be based upon non-fossil resources. Retaining the functionality of the biochemicals in biomass for use as chemical products and precursors can lead to a sizeable reduction of fossil fuel consumption. This

  9. Maximum fossil fuel feedstock replacement potential of petrochemicals via biorefineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.; Boom, R.M.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The search for feedstock replacement options within the petrochemical industry should logically be based upon non-fossil resources. Retaining the functionality of the biochemicals in biomass for use as chemical products and precursors can lead to a sizeable reduction of fossil fuel consumption. This

  10. A demonstration of biofiltration for VOC removal in petrochemical industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lan; Huang, Shaobin; Wei, Zongmin

    2014-05-01

    A biotrickling filter demo has been set up in a petrochemical factory in Sinopec Group for about 10 months with a maximum inlet gas flow rate of 3000 m3 h(-1). The purpose of this project is to assess the ability of the biotrickling filter to remove hardly biodegradable VOCs such as benzene, toluene and xylene which are recalcitrant and poorly water soluble and commonly found in petrochemical factories. Light-weight hollow ceramic balls (Φ 5-8 cm) were used as the packing media treated with large amounts of circulating water (2.4 m3 m(-2) h(-1)) added with bacterial species. The controlled empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 240 s is a key parameter for reaching a removal efficiency of 95% for benzene, toluene, xylene, and 90% for total hydrocarbons. The demo has been successfully adopted and practically applied in waste air treatments in many petrochemical industries for about two years. The net inlet concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene were varied from 0.5 to 3 g m(-3). The biofiltration process is highly efficient for the removal of hydrophobic and recalcitrant VOCs with various concentrations from the petrochemical factories. The SEM analysis of the bacterial community in the BTF during VOC removal showed that Pseudomonas putida and Klebsiella sp. phylum were dominant and shutdown periods could play a role in forming the community structural differences and leading to the changes of removal efficiencies.

  11. Assessment of soil organic contamination in a typical petrochemical industry park in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yong; Zhou, Qixing; Miao, Xinyu; Chen, Yuming

    2015-07-01

    The concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), n-alkanes (n-C8 through n-C40), and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils were determined to assess the level of organic contamination in soils from the Da-gang Petrochemical Industry Park with several big state-run enterprises, a recent rapid flourishing park in China. The results showed that the concentration of TPH in soil was high, up to 20 ng/g-12.8478%; in particular, the content in most sites ranged from 1 to 2%. Thus, it is clear that soil environment in the Da-gang Petrochemical Industry Park has been seriously polluted by TPH according to the Nemerow pollution index method. Furthermore, the average concentration of Σ(n-C>16 through n-C34) in 30 sampling sites was above the maximum limit set for F3 under all the conditions in the Canada-wide standards for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC CWS) with 43.33-93.33% soil samples exceeding F3 standards, and n-alkanes possessing higher concentrations were proved much abundant alkanes in this study. Besides, the predominance of even n-alkanes and lower carbon preference index (CPI) demonstrated that n-alkanes in surface soils were mainly caused by anthropogenic inputs, while the concentration of Σ16-PAHs was in the range of 1652.5-8217.3 ng/g and the BaA/(BaA + Chr) and Flu/(Flu + Pyr) ratios indicated that pyrogenic PAHs may be the dominant PAHs in most soils with the contribution of petrogenic hydrocarbons in some sites.

  12. Epidemiology of Enterovirus D68 in Ontario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Peci

    Full Text Available In August 2014, children's hospitals in Kansas City, Missouri and Chicago, Illinois notified the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC about increased numbers of pediatric patients hospitalized with severe respiratory illness (SRI. In response to CDC reports, Public Health Ontario Laboratories (PHOL launched an investigation of patients being tested for enterovirus D-68 (EV-D68 in Ontario, Canada. The purpose of this investigation was to enhance our understanding of EV-D68 epidemiology and clinical features. Data for this study included specimens submitted for EV-D68 testing at PHOL from September 1, 2014 to October 31, 2014. Comparisons were made between patients who tested positive for the virus (cases and those testing negative (controls. EV-D68 was identified in 153/907 (16.8% of patients tested. In the logistic regression model adjusting for age, sex, setting and time to specimen collection, individuals younger than 20 years of age were more likely to be diagnosed with EV-D68 compared to those 20 and over, with peak positivity at ages 5-9 years. Cases were not more likely to be hospitalized than controls. Cases were more likely to be identified in September than October (OR 8.07; 95% CI 5.15 to 12.64. Routine viral culture and multiplex PCR were inadequate methods to identify EV-D68 due to poor sensitivity and inability to differentiate EV-D68 from other enterovirus serotypes or rhinovirus. Testing for EV-D68 in Ontario from July to December, 2014 detected the presence of EV-D68 virus among young children during September-October, 2014, with most cases detected in September. There was no difference in hospitalization status between cases and controls. In order to better understand the epidemiology of this virus, surveillance for EV-D68 should include testing of symptomatic individuals from all treatment settings and patient age groups, with collection and analysis of comprehensive clinical and epidemiological data.

  13. Epidemiology of Enterovirus D68 in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peci, Adriana; Winter, Anne-Luise; Warshawsky, Bryna; Booth, Tim F; Eshaghi, AliReza; Li, Aimin; Perusini, Stephen; Olsha, Romy; Marchand-Austin, Alex; Kristjanson, Erik; Gubbay, Jonathan B

    2015-01-01

    In August 2014, children's hospitals in Kansas City, Missouri and Chicago, Illinois notified the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) about increased numbers of pediatric patients hospitalized with severe respiratory illness (SRI). In response to CDC reports, Public Health Ontario Laboratories (PHOL) launched an investigation of patients being tested for enterovirus D-68 (EV-D68) in Ontario, Canada. The purpose of this investigation was to enhance our understanding of EV-D68 epidemiology and clinical features. Data for this study included specimens submitted for EV-D68 testing at PHOL from September 1, 2014 to October 31, 2014. Comparisons were made between patients who tested positive for the virus (cases) and those testing negative (controls). EV-D68 was identified in 153/907 (16.8%) of patients tested. In the logistic regression model adjusting for age, sex, setting and time to specimen collection, individuals younger than 20 years of age were more likely to be diagnosed with EV-D68 compared to those 20 and over, with peak positivity at ages 5-9 years. Cases were not more likely to be hospitalized than controls. Cases were more likely to be identified in September than October (OR 8.07; 95% CI 5.15 to 12.64). Routine viral culture and multiplex PCR were inadequate methods to identify EV-D68 due to poor sensitivity and inability to differentiate EV-D68 from other enterovirus serotypes or rhinovirus. Testing for EV-D68 in Ontario from July to December, 2014 detected the presence of EV-D68 virus among young children during September-October, 2014, with most cases detected in September. There was no difference in hospitalization status between cases and controls. In order to better understand the epidemiology of this virus, surveillance for EV-D68 should include testing of symptomatic individuals from all treatment settings and patient age groups, with collection and analysis of comprehensive clinical and epidemiological data.

  14. Transboundary air pollution in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, D.; Reid, N.; De Brou, G.; Bloxam, R. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Energy, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-06-01

    This report examines the role of transboundary air pollution from an Ontario perspective, specifically the impacts of smog associated with both ground level ozone and fine particulate matter coming from the United States. Measurements and computer modeling have provided compelling evidence regarding the impact of transboundary pollution in Ontario. This paper presents an assessment of the human health and economic costs associated with transboundary air pollution. It also examines the impact of Ontario's emissions on other jurisdictions and reviews emission control programs, and initiatives and agreements that are being undertaken or considered to address these transboundary problems. Particular attention is given to the impacts of mercury and acid deposition. The report concludes that unique features exist in the regional climate that lead to elevated episodic conditions of poor air quality over southern Ontario. Transboundary transport of pollution is a very significant source of regionally elevated air quality levels in Ontario. Furthermore, there is an urgency to address the unacceptable health impacts and environmental consequences. 29 refs., 13 tabs., 33 figs., 1 app.

  15. Shifting Currents: Science Technology Society and Environment in Northern Ontario Schools

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The focus is on the practices of secondary science teachers in rural, resource-extraction-based communities in the boreal region of northern Ontario, Canada. In 2008 the Ontario Ministry of Education mandated that science teaching and learning should bring to the forefront consideration of the impacts of science on society and environment, and include environmental education; topics that are particularly pertinent given the location(s) of the study in logging and mining towns. Three years aft...

  16. Contaminated groundwater characterization at the Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilk, A.J.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.; Lepel, E.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Champ, D.R.; Killey, R.W.D.; Young, J.L.; Cooper, E.L. [Chalk River Labs., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1993-03-01

    The licensing requirements for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (10 CFR 61) specify the performance objectives and technical requisites for federal and commercial land disposal facilities, the ultimate goal of which is to contain the buried wastes so that the general population is adequately protected from harmful exposure to any released radioactive materials. A major concern in the operation of existing and projected waste disposal sites is subterranean radionuclide transport by saturated or unsaturated flow, which could lead to the contamination of groundwater systems as well as uptake by the surrounding biosphere, thereby directly exposing the general public to such materials. Radionuclide transport in groundwater has been observed at numerous commercial and federal waste disposal sites [including several locations within the waste management area of Chalk River Laboratories (CRL)], yet the physico-chemical processes that lead to such migration are still not completely understood. In an attempt to assist in the characterization of these processes, an intensive study was initiated at CRL to identify and quantify the mobile radionuclide species originating from three separate disposal sites: (a) the Chemical Pit, which has received aqueous wastes containing various radioisotopes, acids, alkalis, complexing agents and salts since 1956, (b) the Reactor Pit, which has received low-level aqueous wastes from a reactor rod storage bay since 1956, and (c) the Waste Management Area C, a thirty-year-old series of trenches that contains contaminated solid wastes from CRL and various regional medical facilities. Water samples were drawn downgradient from each of the above sites and passed through a series of filters and ion-exchange resins to retain any particulate and dissolved or colloidal radionuclide species, which were subsequently identified and quantified via radiochemical separations and gamma spectroscopy. These groundwaters were also analyzed for anions, trace metals, Eh, pH, alkalinity and dissolved oxygen.

  17. Ouellette manor senior citizens' building, Windsor, Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollick, J. [Solar Wall International Ltd., Downsview (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The world's tallest solar air collector was installed on this building as part of a renovation project. The brick exterior of the 24-storey building was deteriorating from moisture penetration and freezing. Recladding was necessary to prevent further damage. An unglazed brown perforated-plate solar collector was chosen to cover the facade. This solution prevents further moisture damage, has an attractive appearance and provides free heating of fresh air required in the building. The unglazed solar air heater (61 m high x 5.5 wide) looks like conventional metal cladding but it is mounted 250 mm from the main wall and is perforated to allow outside air to travel through the metal, where it picks up solar heat. The heated air is then directed to the fresh air intake of the ventilation system and supplies 28% of the ventilation heating requirements. The solar heating system has a six-year payback. (author)

  18. The potential for green power marketing in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, B. [EcoPathways Consulting Inc., Whitby, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A review of Ontario Hydro`s green power program was provided. Market research indicates that the public is interested in renewable energy, that a significant portion of the public claim to be `green` consumers, and that they are willing to pay a premium for green power. There is, however, very little actual experiential evidence to show who is truly willing to pay and what price would be acceptable. Sources of `green electricity` include renewables such as hydro, solar, wind, biomass from farm and forest waste, methane from landfills, and geothermal. Public support in Ontario, and in most other parts of Canada, is strong for investment by power utilities in `green electricity`. In a limited program, Ontario Hydro is currently offering greenpower pricing for some of its proposed green power projects. To those willing to pay, a premium of 4 cents per kWh will be added to the current costs from the electricity retailer. The general impression of industry experts is that the demand for green power is there, however, the supply is not. Continued delays and uncertainty about the power industry`s future structure are considered to be the major impediments to implementing the green program. 1 tab., 7 figs.

  19. Implications and reflections on the 2010 Supreme Court ruling on Canada's AHR Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonandan R

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Raywat Deonandan, Tarun RahmanInterdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: In December, 2010, Canada's 6 year old Assisted Human Reproduction Act was successfully challenged in the Supreme Court of Canada. There may be important implications for public health and the evolution of reproductive technologies in this country.Keywords: public health, reproductive medicine, IVF, ART, in vitro fertilization (IVF

  20. Planktonic diatoms of Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinwand, Jerry F.

    1969-01-01

    The major species of diatoms in surface collections from Lake Ontario in September 1964 were Asterionella formosa, Fragilaria crotonensis, and Tabellaris fenestrata. Dominant species in the deep-water samples were Stephanodiscus astraea, S. astraea var. mintula, and F. crotonensis. The diatom flora in surface collections varied among several stations in the eastern end of the lake.

  1. PV gold rush in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Daniela

    2011-07-01

    As a result of the Green Energy Act, the installed PV capacity in the Canadian province of Ontario has tripled in the year 2010. A generous feed-in tariff, aiming at maximum local added value, has attracted numerous international manufacturers. However, the rigorous rules committing the companies to 60 % inland production have provoked harsh criticism. (orig.)

  2. Market Myths and Facts - the Ontario Context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorey, S.

    2007-07-01

    The world has learned much about electricity markets and what they can and can't do over the past few years, but some myths persist. Why they persist is a subject for those who study politics, interests and influence. This paper provides a perspective on myths which have affected the reliable and economic delivery of electricity to customers, particularly with respect to transmission. Hydro One effectively provides the transmission network for the Province of Ontario, Canada. As Hydro One is a wires company, the paper is not intended to address the issues which affect the generation or conservation sectors of the industry, except where they directly relate to the wires. The proposition of this paper is that electricity transmission is best treated as an essential public good. Transmission as a market participant and a traded commodity has generally not worked with respect to assuring that the system continues to be developed to meet the basic need of customers for reliable and affordable electricity. (auth)

  3. Challenges of knowledge sharing in the petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Wei Chong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge sharing is one of the important and also challenging parts in the success of KM implementation. The objective of this paper is to find out knowledge sharing barriers in the petrochemical companies in a Middle East country. Three main categories are found to have an impact on knowledge sharing in the companies. These categories are potential individual knowledge sharing barriers, potential organizational knowledge sharing barriers and potential technological knowledge sharing barriers. Data were collected by using a convenience sampling survey method. 500 questionnaires were distributed among employees and 302 questionnaires were returned. Trust, knowledge as power, communication, organizational hierarchy and knowledge sharing technological systems are found to have relationships with knowledge sharing. However, reward and recognition system have less significant relationship with knowledge sharing in the petrochemical companies.

  4. The Mexican petrochemical sector in the NAFTA negotiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, G.; Kim, C.S. [Instituto Technologico Autonomo de Mexico, Magdalena Contreras (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    Since 1985, there have been important changes in the Mexican petrochemical sector, including trade liberalization, deregulation and the elimination of subsidies. NAFTA represents another step towards liberalization of the sector. Given the low tariffs currently applied to international trade among the three nations, the authors do not anticipate major impacts of NAFTA on trade flows. Nevertheless, the elimination of restrictions to foreign investment is expected to increase capital flows into the sector and to promote productivity increases. On the other hand, the new barriers to trade in petrochemical feedstocks and the restrictions on private investment in infrastructure may negatively affect the sector`s growth, making it necessary to adjust domestic regulations to improve the performance of Pemex. 12 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Air Quality Impacts of Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiswarya Ragothaman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Though refineries and petrochemical industries meet society’s energy demands and produce a range of useful chemicals, they can also affect air quality. The World Health Organization (WHO has identified polluted air as the single largest environmental risk, and hence it is necessary to strive for and maintain good air quality. To manage potential health impacts, it is important to implement proper air quality management by understanding the link between specific pollutant sources and resulting population exposures. These industries release pollutants such as Volatile Organic Compounds, greenhouse gases and particulate matter, from various parts of their operations. Air quality should be monitored and controlled more meticulously in developing nations where increased energy demands, industrialization and overpopulation has led to more emissions and lower air quality. This paper presents a review of findings and highlights from various studies on air quality impacts of petroleum refining and petrochemical plants in many regions in the world.

  6. An Integrated Multi-Institutional Diabetes Prevention Program Improves Knowledge and Healthy Food Acquisition in Northwestern Ontario First Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lara S.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Rimal, Rajiv; Treuth, Margarita S.; Sharma, Sangita; Rosecrans, Amanda; Harris, Stewart B.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the impact results of a feasibility study in Canada for prevention of risk factors for diabetes in seven northwestern Ontario First Nations. Baseline and follow-up data were collected before and after the 9-month intervention program in schools, stores, and communities that aimed to improve diet and increase physical activity…

  7. An Integrated Multi-Institutional Diabetes Prevention Program Improves Knowledge and Healthy Food Acquisition in Northwestern Ontario First Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lara S.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Rimal, Rajiv; Treuth, Margarita S.; Sharma, Sangita; Rosecrans, Amanda; Harris, Stewart B.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the impact results of a feasibility study in Canada for prevention of risk factors for diabetes in seven northwestern Ontario First Nations. Baseline and follow-up data were collected before and after the 9-month intervention program in schools, stores, and communities that aimed to improve diet and increase physical activity…

  8. Linking Quality of Life and Standard of Living Priorities with Rates of Return in Education: Implications for Ontario's Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menna, Agostino

    2012-01-01

    This study begins to develop a way to measure the returns and benefits of education using a standard of living and quality of life approach. It sought identification of school priorities among senior level managers at postsecondary institutions in Ontario, Canada, and found that these administrators prioritized standard of living over quality of…

  9. The Impact of the Public Library on Business Success: An Analysis Based on Medium-Sized Businesses in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Liwen Qiu

    1997-01-01

    Describes a survey of Ontario (Canada) medium-sized businesses that was conducted to investigate the impact of the public library on business success and discusses results that found a significant relationship between public library use and business success. A copy of the questionnaire used is appended. (Author/LRW)

  10. Principals as Middle Managers: School Leadership during the Implementation of Primary Class Size Reduction Policy in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessa, Joseph J.

    2012-01-01

    Previous work on policy implementation has often suggested that schools leave their "thumbprints" on policies received from above. During the implementation of Primary Class Size Reduction (PCS) Initiative in Ontario, Canada, however, school principals spoke with remarkable uniformity about the ways PCS affected their work. This article…

  11. The prevalence of different strains of Rhizoctonia solani associated with Rhizoctonia crown and root rot symptoms in Ontario sugarbeet fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (RCRR) [Rhizoctonia solani Kühn] is an important disease of sugarbeets in southwestern Ontario, Canada. A survey of commercial sugarbeet fields was completed in 2010 and 2011 to determine the range of R. solani anastomosis groups (AGs) and inter-specific groups (ISGs) ...

  12. District Resource Capacity and the Effects of Educational Policy: The Case of Primary Class Size Reduction in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascall, Blair; Leung, Joannie

    2012-01-01

    In a study of Ontario, Canada's province-wide Primary Class Size Reduction (PCS) Initiative, school districts' ability to direct and support schools was related to their experience with planning and monitoring, interest in innovation, and its human and fiscal resource base. Districts with greater "resource capacity" were able to…

  13. Records of unsuccessful attack by Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on broadleaf trees of questionable suitability in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery of the non-native Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Ontario, Canada, in 2003 led to the implementation of an eradication program. The plan consisted of removing all infested trees and all trees within 400 m of an infested tree belonging to a genus consider...

  14. Smart Manufacturing for the Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhihong Yuan; Weizhong Qin; Jinsong Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Smart manufacturing will transform the oil refining and petrochemical sector into a connected, information-driven environment. Using real-time and high-value support systems, smart manufacturing enables a coordinated and performance-oriented manufacturing enterprise that responds quickly to customer demands and minimizes energy and material usage, while radically improving sustainability, productivity, innovation, and economic competitiveness. In this paper, several examples of the applicatio...

  15. Prospects for the Structural Readjustment of China's Petrochemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Xiaoming; Mao Jiaxiang

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1.Structural Problems Facedby Domes tic Petrochemical Industry 1.1 Scattered distribution of enterprises with ostensibly small scale Currently China boasts over 130 petroleum processing enterprises, 60% of which have oil ditillation capacity less than 100 Mt/a apiece. Every province, or autonomous region or municipality directly under the Central Government with the exception of Tibet, Hainan, Yunnan and Guizhou has constructed their petroleum refineries. Eighteen sets of ethylene units are located in 15 cities of China.

  16. DIRECTION OF DEVELOPMENT FOR NATION'S PETROCHEMICAL PRODUCTS AND TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Baohai

    2001-01-01

    @@ As a result of remarkable advance over the past several dozen years with continuous development of technology, rapid increase of new products, and steady expansion in production scope, China's petrochemical industry has grown into a well-established industrial system composed of more than 20 trades,providing over 40,000 kinds of product which are complete in range and generally serialized in variety.

  17. [Source identification of toxic wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Yu, Yin; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Chen, Xue-Min; Fu, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Miao

    2014-12-01

    Petrochemical wastewaters have toxic impacts on the microorganisms in biotreatment processes, which are prone to cause deterioration of effluent quality of the wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the inhibition effects of activated sludge's oxygen consumption were tested to evaluate the toxicity of production wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park. The evaluation covered the wastewaters from not only different production units in the park, but also different production nodes in each unit. No direct correlation was observed between the toxicity effects and the organic contents, suggesting that the toxic properties of the effluents could not be predicted by the organic contents. In view of the variation of activated sludge sensitivity among different tests, the toxicity data were standardized according to the concentration-effect relationships of the standard toxic substance 3, 5-dichlorophenol on each day, in order to improve the comparability among the toxicity data. Furthermore, the Quality Emission Load (QEL) of corresponding standard toxic substance was calculated by multiplying the corresponding 3, 5-dichlorophenol concentration and the wastewater flow quantity, to indicate the toxicity emission contribution of each wastewater to the wastewater treatment plant. According to the rank list of the toxicity contribution of wastewater from different units and nodes, the sources of toxic wastewater in the petrochemical industrial park were clearly identified. This study provides effective guidance for source control of wastewater toxicity in the large industrial park.

  18. Microbial degradation of petrochemical waste-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulekar, M H

    2017-01-01

    Petrochemical industry is one of the fastest growing industries. This industry has immense importance in the growth of economy and manufacture of large varieties of chemicals. The petrochemical industry is a hazardous group of industry generating hazardous waste containing organic and inorganic compounds. In spite of the present treatment process, the hazardous waste compounds are found untreated to the acceptable level and found discharged at soil-water environment resulting into the persistent organic-inorganic pollutant into the environment. The bioremediation will be the innovative techniques to remove the persistent pollutants in the environment. Petrochemical contaminated site was found to be a rich source of microbial consortium degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Indigenous microbial consortiums were identified and used for bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene and anthracene) at the concentrations of 250, 500, and 750 ppm. The potential microorganism was also identified for naphthalene and anthracene, and their bioremediation was studied at varying concentrations. The bioremediation with consortium was found to be comparatively more effective than the potential microorganism used for bioremediation of each compound. Pseudomonas aeruginosa a potential organism was identified by 16S rRNA and further studied for the gene responsible for the PAH compounds. Indigenous microorganism as a consortium has been found effective and efficient source for remediation of organic compound-Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and this will also be applicable to remediate the toxic compounds to clean up the environment.

  19. Biomanagement of petrochemical sludge using an exotic earthworm Eudrilus eugineae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, J Rajesh; Esakkiraj, S; Nagendran, R; Logakanthi, S

    2005-01-01

    Petrochemical industry have severe problem in disposing effluent and semisolid sludge despite repeated recycling. It requires further treatment prior to disposal of sludge. In recent years biological treatment methods received much attention and considered as an efficient low-cost treatment. One such method is vermiculture treatment The end product of vermicompost is rich in essential micro and macronutrients along with microorganisms in a very simple form. Adding cast, not only improves the soil structure and fertility but also leads to improvement in overall plant growth and thus increase their yield. The present study was carried out to dispose the petrochemical sludge biologically using an exotic earthworm Eudrilus eugineae. The petrochemical sludge at various concentrations 25, 50 and 75% were subjected to vermicomposting treatment for a period of 60 days. During the period of study, data were collected on life form of earthworm and chemical analysis of the sludge before and after treatment. The microbial analysis was carried out fortnightly. The results indicate that 25 and 50% concentration of sludge was ideal for the vermicomposting, whereas the higher concentration inhibits the vermicomposting.

  20. Examining the Relationship between Economic Hardship and Child Maltreatment Using Data from the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2013 (OIS-2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Rachael Lefebvre; Barbara Fallon; Melissa Van Wert; Joanne Filippelli

    2017-01-01

    There is strong evidence that poverty and economic disadvantage are associated with child maltreatment; however, research in this area is underdeveloped in Canada. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between economic hardship and maltreatment for families and children identified to the Ontario child protection system for a maltreatment concern. Secondary analyses of the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2013 (OIS-2013) were conducted. The OIS-201...

  1. Regulatory and institutional developments in the Ontario wine and grape industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carew R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Richard Carew,1 Wojciech J Florkowski21Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Summerland, BC, Canada; 2Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Georgia, Griffin, GA, USAAbstract: The Ontario wine industry has undergone major transformative changes over the last two decades. These have corresponded to the implementation period of the Ontario Vintners Quality Alliance (VQA Act in 1999 and the launch of the Winery Strategic Plan, "Poised for Greatness," in 2002. While the Ontario wine regions have gained significant recognition in the production of premium quality wines, the industry is still dominated by a few large wine companies that produce the bulk of blended or "International Canadian Blends" (ICB, and multiple small/mid-sized firms that produce principally VQA wines. This paper analyzes how winery regulations, industry changes, institutions, and innovation have impacted the domestic production, consumption, and international trade, of premium quality wines. The results of the study highlight the regional economic impact of the wine industry in the Niagara region, the success of small/mid-sized boutique wineries producing premium quality wines for the domestic market, and the physical challenges required to improve domestic VQA wine retail distribution and bolster the international trade of wine exports. Domestic success has been attributed to the combination of natural endowments, entrepreneurial talent, established quality standards, and the adoption of improved viticulture practices.Keywords: Ontario, wine, quality standards

  2. Analysis of factors related to illegal tobacco sales to young people in Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    O'Grady, B.; Asbridge, M.; Abernathy, T.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To identify and to discuss factors influencing illegal merchant sales of tobacco to underage people in Ontario, Canada.
DESIGN—Results were obtained through random retail compliance checks of tobacco merchants. A multivariate analysis specified the relationship between selected independent variables and the willingness of tobacco merchants to sell to minors. The selected independent variables included retail operation type, community population size, the presence of tobacco producti...

  3. Sexual difference in mercury concentrations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.; Keir, M.J.; Whittle, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    We determined total mercury (Hg) concentrations in 50 female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and 69 male lake trout from Lake Ontario (Ontario, Canada and New York, United States). Results showed that, on average, males were 8% higher in Hg concentration than females in Lake Ontario. We also used bioenergetics modeling to determine whether a sexual difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE) could explain the observed sexual difference in Hg concentrations. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, male GGE was about 3% higher than female GGE, on average. Although the bioenergetics modeling could not explain the higher Hg concentrations exhibited by the males, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in Hg concentrations of the lake trout. In an earlier study, male lake trout from Lake Ontario were found to be 22% higher in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentration than females from Lake Ontario. Thus, although males were higher in both Hg and PCB concentrations, the degree of the sexual difference in concentration varied between the two contaminants. Further research on sexual differences in Hg excretion rates and Hg direct uptake rates may be needed to resolve the disparity in results between the two contaminants.

  4. Quality legislation: lessons for Ontario from abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veillard, Jérémy; Tipper, Brenda; Klazinga, Niek

    2012-01-01

    While the Excellent Care for All Act, 2010 (ECFA Act) provides a comprehensive approach to stimulating quality improvement in healthcare, there are other examples of legislations articulating strategies aimed at the same goal but proposing different approaches. This paper reviews quality of care legislations in the Netherlands, the United States, England and Australia, compares those pieces of legislation with the ECFA Act and suggests lessons for Ontario in planning the next stages of its healthcare quality strategy. Notable among the commonalities that the EFCA Act shares with the selected examples of legislation are mandatory reporting of performance results at an organizational level and furthering quality improvement, evidence generation and performance monitoring. However, the EFCA Act does not include any elements of restructuring or competition, unlike some of the other examples. Key to successful transformation of the Ontario healthcare system will be to propose a package of changes that will deal systematically with all aspects of transformation sought (including structural changes, payments systems and elements of competition), will garner support from all the actors, and will be implemented consistently and persistently. Benchmarking on the implementation and impact of reforms with the countries presented in this paper may be an additional important step. Quality of care is a key focus of health system reforms, and in recent years many countries in the Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), including Canada, have developed strategies aimed at improving healthcare quality and patient safety (OECD 2010). Øvretveit and Klazinga propose that national strategies for quality of care can be targeted at different types of health system stakeholders: professionals, healthcare organizations, medical products and technologies, patients and financers (World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe 2008). The generic elements of these

  5. Source Water Protection Planning for Ontario First Nations Communities: Case Studies Identifying Challenges and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Collins

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available After the Walkerton tragedy in 2000, where drinking water contamination left seven people dead and many suffering from chronic illness, the Province of Ontario, Canada implemented policies to develop Source Water Protection (SWP plans. Under the Clean Water Act (2006, thirty-six regional Conservation Authorities were mandated to develop watershed-based SWP plans under 19 Source Protection Regions. Most First Nations in Ontario are outside of these Source Protection Regions and reserve lands are under Federal jurisdiction. This paper explores how First Nations in Ontario are attempting to address SWP to improve drinking water quality in their communities even though these communities are not part of the Ontario SWP framework. The case studies highlight the gap between the regulatory requirements of the Federal and Provincial governments and the challenges for First Nations in Ontario from lack of funding to implement solutions to address the threats identified in SWP planning. This analysis of different approaches taken by Ontario First Nations shows that the Ontario framework for SWP planning is not an option for the majority of First Nations communities, and does not adequately address threats originating on reserve lands. First Nations attempting to address on-reserve threats to drinking water are using a variety of resources and approaches to develop community SWP plans. However, a common theme of all the cases surveyed is a lack of funding to support implementing solutions for the threats identified by the SWP planning process. Federal government initiatives to address the chronic problem of boil water advisories within Indigenous communities do not recognize SWP planning as a cost-effective tool for improving drinking water quality.

  6. The effect of the Ontario Bariatric Network on health services utilization after bariatric surgery: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnahas, Ahmad; Jackson, Timothy D.; Okrainec, Allan; Austin, Peter C.; Bell, Chaim M.; Urbach, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In 2009, the Ontario Bariatric Network was established to address the exploding demand by Ontario residents for bariatric surgery services outside Canada. We compared the use of postoperative hospital services between out-of-country surgery recipients and patients within the Ontario Bariatric Network. Methods: We conducted a population-based, comparative study using administrative data held at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. We included Ontario residents who underwent bariatric surgery between 2007 and 2012 either outside the country or at one of the Ontario Bariatric Network's designated centres of excellence. The primary outcome was use of hospital services in Ontario within 1 year after surgery. Results: A total of 4852 patients received bariatric surgery out of country, and 5179 patients underwent surgery through the Ontario Bariatric Network. After adjustment, surgery at a network centre was associated with a significantly lower utilization rate of postoperative hospital services than surgery out of country (rate ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84 to 0.97). No statistically significant differences were found with respect to time in critical care or mortality. However, the physician assessment and reoperation rates were significantly higher among patients who received surgery at a network centre than among those who had bariatric surgery out of country (rate ratio 4.10, 95% CI 3.69 to 4.56, and rate ratio 1.84, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.53, respectively). Interpretation: The implementation of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary provincial program to replace outsourcing of bariatric surgical services was associated with less use of postoperative hospital services by Ontario residents undergoing bariatric surgery. Future research should include an economic evaluation to determine the costs and benefits of the Ontario Bariatric Network. PMID:27730113

  7. Evaluation of open path measuring techniques for petrochemicals NMVOC emissions : DIAL applications in Sweden and Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuclis, A.; Frisch, L.; Byun, D. [Houston Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Various emissions factors have been used over the past twenty years to calculate the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) generated by refineries and chemical plants. Emissions inventories in Canada, the United States and Europe are created based on these estimating techniques. Petrochemical facilities have at their disposal the following 4 open path spectroscopic methods for measuring VOCs: Open Path Fourier Transform Infrared (OP-FTIR), Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS), Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS), and Differential Absorption Light Detection and Ranging (DIAL LIDAR or DIAL). The authors reviewed the 4 open path techniques and evaluated their ability to produce results for the creation of accurate accounting of VOCs in petrochemical facilities. The application of DIAL technology in both Sweden (Scanraff refinery in Lysekil, the largest in Sweden) and Texas (Houston-Gavelston area) to identify emissions was discussed in detail. The capability of creating two- and three-dimensional plots of concentrations and identifying the locations of leaks or hot spots is a major advantage of DIAL, even if it remains an expensive and complicated solution. The advantage of OP-FTIR is to be able to speciate several different compounds in a VOC filled atmosphere. However, a number of interfering compounds are also present adding to the difficulty of proper field operation. Capable of achieving very low detection limits, DOAS is the simplest of the technologies, but it has the disadvantage of identifying fewer compounds than OP-FTIR or DIAL. The most accurate technology for the identification of specific species is TDLAS with its high resolution. The requirement to generally use a separate laser for each component to be measured is a drawback. A separate transmitter and detector, or the use of retro-reflectors to return the signal back to the detector is required for OP-FTIR, DOAS and TDLAS. Reflections from particles in the gas

  8. Commercial Application of the CTV-IV Type Catalyst for Synthesis of Vinyl Acetate Developed by Shanghai Petrochemical Research Instit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The CTV-IV type catalyst for synthesis of vinyl acetate developed by the SINOPEC Shanghai Petrochemical Research Institute (SPRI) has been successfully applied on the #2 vinyl acetate unit at SINOPEC's Shanghai Petrochemical Company.

  9. Mideast Oil and Petrochem Industrial Influence on China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The petroleum and petrochemical industry in the Middle East region is exerting influence on the Chinese market because the Middle East has become an important option for China to import crude. In 2003, China imported 91.12 million tons of crude, of which the Middle East accounted for 50.7 percent. China imported 15.18 million tons of crude from Saudi Arabia in 2003, 16.7 percent of the nation's total import,and 12.39 million tons of crude from Iran, 13.6percent of the total.

  10. AspenTech to Provide VPS for CNOOC-Shell Nanhai Petrochemicals Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ AspenTech, a US supplier of software and services to the process industries, recently announced it has been awarded a contract to supply a series of operator training simulators for the US$4.3 billion Nanhai Petrochemicals Project of CNOOC-Shell Petrochemical Company (CSPC)at Daya Bay in Huizhou City in South China's Guangdong Province.

  11. Lymphohematopoietic Cancer Mortality and Morbidity of Workers in a Refinery/Petrochemical Complex in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hee Koh

    2011-03-01

    Conclusion: The results showed a potential relationship between leukemia and lymphohematopoietic cancers and exposure to benzene in refinery/petrochemical complex workers. This study yielded limited results due to a short observational period; therefore, a follow-up study must be performed to elucidate the relationship between petrochemical exposure and cancer rates.

  12. Petrochemicals from oil, natural gas, Ccoal and biomass: energy use, economics and innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, T.

    2009-01-01

    The petrochemical industry is faced with the dual challenges of climate change and the security of energy supply. To deal with these challenges, it is necessary to identify technologies for the production of basic petrochemicals that could potentially improve energy efficiency and/or utilizing

  13. Changxing Island in Dalian to Set up A World Class Petrochemical Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ In August 2008 "The Plan on Development of Petrochemi-cal Industry in Lingang Industry Area of Changxing Island in Dalian" had been assessed and approved by the expert team.According to this plan the Changxing Island will be basi-cally turned into a world-class Lingang petrochemical in-dustry park characterized by integration of oil refining and petrochemical sectors, and an industry intensive and eco-logical and environmentally friendly region. This industry park is scheduled to be developed in three phases to form in 15 years a national petrochemical base covering a total area of 25 km2. In the late "Eleventh Five-year Plan" period a region for development of specialty chemicals will be formed to prop up the low polluting, light and deep pro-cessing chemical sectors that can manufacture fine chemi-cals and new chemical materials to preliminarily set up a framework of petrochemical industry park.

  14. Integration of Petroleum Processing with Petrochemical Production—An Important Strategy for Development of Petrochemical Industry in the New Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Guohua

    2000-01-01

    @@1 Foreword In the 1990s China' s petroleum processing and petrochemical industry have achieved brisk development in parallel with the sharp growth of national economy. The volume of crude oil processed in China in 1998 reached 152. 4 Mt, increasing by 13% over the 1993 level (Figure 1), and China' s refining capacity was ranked the fourth in the world. The ethylene output reached 3.77 Mt, equaling to 1.87 times the total output in 1993 (Figure 2), and China' s ethylene capacity was ranked the sixth in the world.

  15. Applicability of anoxic-oxic process in treating petrochemical wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-jun ZHAO; Fang MA; Jing-bo GUO

    2009-01-01

    To explore the applicability of anoxic-oxic (A/O) activated sludge process for petrochemical wastewater treatment, the relationship between bacterial community structure and pollutants loading/removal efficiencies was investigated by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and other conventional techniques. It showed that when the concentrations of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) were 420~560 mg/L and 64~100 mg/L, respectively, the corresponding average effluent concentra-tions were 160 mg/L and 55 mg/L, which were 1.6 and 2.2 times higher than those of the national standards in China, respectively, demonstrating the inefficient performances of A/O process. Analysis of GC-MS indicated that refractory pollutants were mainly removed by sludge adsorption, but not by biodegradation. PCR-DGGE profile analysis suggested that the biological system was species-rich, but there was apparent succession of the bacterial community structure in different locations of the A/O system. Variations of bacterial community structure and pollutant Ioadings had obvious influences on pollutants removal efficiencies. Thus, A/O process was inapplicable for the treatment of complicated petrochemical wastewater, and strategies such as the reinforcement of pre-treatment and two-stage A/O process were suggested.

  16. Examining Competition in Ontario's Higher Education Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhan, Bayan Yousef

    2017-01-01

    Financial challenges have forced many publicly funded academic institutions in Ontario to adopt a corporate model and to use market tools to compete in the higher education market and maintain their enrolment and revenue levels. This study has analyzed how competition affects publicly funded universities in Ontario. Competition was examined by…

  17. Educational Information in Ontario: A Government Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, B. M.

    The Ontario Ministry of Education's role in funding educational research, and its procedures for the dissemination of educational research information are described. Two ministry initiatives are discussed in detail: the establishment of the Educational Information System for Ontario (EISO), a computerized search and retrieval service to access…

  18. Videoconferencing and dietitian services in rural Ontario communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlund, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Registered dietitians (RDs) are regulated health professionals in short supply in Ontario and throughout Canada. Projected workforce studies indicate the situation will likely worsen. Accessing these nutrition specialists is an even greater concern for residents living in rural or remote regions of the province. Smaller communities are increasingly using telehealth as a way to deliver health care services and to improve access to health care professionals. The adoption of interactive videoconferencing as a telehealth application is examined as an alternative approach for accessing RDs in rural communities. While valid reasons exist for implementing videoconferencing, other issues must be considered. These include costs, technological requirements, organizational readiness, and legal and ethical concerns. Future research must fully address the concept of videoconferencing in relation to the Canadian dietetic workforce and practice requirements.

  19. The appropriateness and persistence of testosterone replacement therapy in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Diana; Yao, Zhan; Tadrous, Mina; Shah, Baiju R; Juurlink, David N; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Gomes, Tara

    2017-02-01

    To examine the concordance between testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) use and established reimbursement criteria, as well as compare the persistence of use among available formulations (injectable, oral, topical gel, transdermal patch) among elderly men in Ontario, Canada. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of men aged 66 years or older in Ontario newly treated with testosterone between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2012 using linked health administrative data. Continuous use was defined on the basis of prescription refills issued within 180 days of the preceding prescription. We studied men who received at least two consecutive TRT prescriptions. We estimated the prevalence of hypogonadism, human immunodeficiency virus, specialist visits and lab tests for serum testosterone prior to initiation of TRT to investigate concordance with prescribing criteria. We also performed a Kaplan-Meier analysis to test for differences in the median time to discontinuation among formulations. Among the 4797 men who received at least two TRT prescriptions, only 38.7% met the reimbursement criteria for use prior to initiating therapy. The median time to discontinuation differed significantly among formulations and was longest among recipients of oral TRT products (383 days), and lower for recipients of topical gels (319 days), injectable (283 days) and transdermal patches (160 days; Log-rank test p therapy, and many discontinue TRT within a year of initiation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Glacially-streamlined hard and soft beds of the paleo- Ontario ice stream in Southern Ontario and New York state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Nick; Doughty, Mike

    2016-06-01

    An extensive tract of glacially-streamlined terrain across a large part of Southern Ontario, Canada, is recognized as the footprint of the paleo-Ontario Ice Stream (OIS) within the easternmost Great Lakes sector of the last Laurentide Ice Sheet. The upstream part is a drumlinized and megagrooved 'hard bed' underlain by Cambro-Ordovician carbonates and sandstones. Subglacial plucking of jointed limestone on the lateral margins of drumlinized escarpment interfluves and rock drumlins generated a large flux of coarse debris within the ice base, recorded by sporadic spreads of hummocky rubble moraine. Downstream, the hard bed passes underneath a streamlined 'soft' bed of till-cored ('drift') drumlins and megaridges of the classic Peterborough and New York State drumlin fields. The boundary between the two bed types is a ~ 10 km wide 'mixed bed' of isolated drift drumlins resting on drumlinized rock suggesting a common erosional origin. Spatial variation in the geomorphology of ~ 2500 drift drumlins, indicates that megaridges are clones resulting from the erosion and dissection of larger parent drumlins. A large moraine system may mark the final collapse and melt of the ice stream, accompanying abrupt flow switching of its margin.

  1. A Bibliometric Analysis of Digestive Health Research in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée Tuitt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the impact and influence of medical/scientific journals, and of individual researchers has become more widely practiced in recent decades. This is driven, in part, by the increased availability of data regarding citations of research articles, and by increased competition for research funding. Digestive disease research has been identified as a particularly strong discipline in Canada. The authors collected quantitative data on the impact and influence of Canadian digestive health research. The present study involved an analysis of the research impact (Hirsch factor and research influence (Influence factor of 106 digestive health researchers in Canada. Rankings of the top 25 researchers on the basis of the two metrics were dominated by the larger research groups at the University of Toronto (Toronto, Ontario, McMaster University (Hamilton, Ontario, and the Universities of Calgary (Calgary, Alberta and Alberta (Edmonton, Alberta, but with representation by other research groups at the Universities of Manitoba (Winnipeg, Manitoba, Western Ontario (London, Ontario and McGill University (Montreal, Quebec. Female and male researchers had similar scores for the two metrics, as did basic scientists versus clinical investigators. Strategic recruitment, particularly of established investigators, can have a major impact on the ranking of research groups. Comparing these metrics over different time frames can provide insights into the vulnerabilities and strengths of research groups.

  2. Direct cost associated with acquired brain injury in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Amy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acquired Brain Injury (ABI from traumatic and non traumatic causes is a leading cause of disability worldwide yet there is limited research summarizing the health system economic burden associated with ABI. The objective of this study was to determine the direct cost of publicly funded health care services from the initial hospitalization to three years post-injury for individuals with traumatic (TBI and non-traumatic brain injury (nTBI in Ontario Canada. Methods A population-based cohort of patients discharged from acute hospital with an ABI code in any diagnosis position in 2004 through 2007 in Ontario was identified from administrative data. Publicly funded health care utilization was obtained from several Ontario administrative healthcare databases. Patients were stratified according to traumatic and non-traumatic causes of brain injury and whether or not they were discharged to an inpatient rehabilitation center. Health system costs were calculated across a continuum of institutional and community settings for up to three years after initial discharge. The continuum of settings included acute care emergency departments inpatient rehabilitation (IR complex continuing care home care services and physician visits. All costs were calculated retrospectively assuming the government payer’s perspective. Results Direct medical costs in an ABI population are substantial with mean cost in the first year post-injury per TBI and nTBI patient being $32132 and $38018 respectively. Among both TBI and nTBI patients those discharged to IR had significantly higher treatment costs than those not discharged to IR across all institutional and community settings. This tendency remained during the entire three-year follow-up period. Annual medical costs of patients hospitalized with a brain injury in Ontario in the first follow-up year were approximately $120.7 million for TBI and $368.7 million for nTBI. Acute care cost accounted for 46

  3. Eastern Canada natural gas developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, A. [Engage Energy Canada, L.P., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This power point presentation addressed the following topics regarding development of natural gas in eastern Canada: (1) the 18 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves at Sable Island, (2) Canadian markets benefiting from the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP), (3) a 20 year franchise agreement between Enbridge Gas and the government of New Brunswick, (4) the 25 year provincial franchise agreement by Sempra Atlantic Gas, and (5) Sable Island's influence on central Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is now producing about 540,000 MMBtu/day from 6 fields. Plans for Tier 2 expansion are underway. Firm contracts for the M and NP are scheduled to transport gas from the SOEP to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine and New Hampshire. Sable gas is also a potential supply for the Quebec market. Gaz Metropolitain and Enbridge have proposed to build the Cartier Pipeline from the Quebec/New Brunswick border to Quebec City. It is unlikely that Sable Island supply will directly serve the Ontario market. Canadian customers for Sable gas and M and NP service include pulp and paper companies, oil refineries, power generators and local distribution companies (LDC), with the majority of demand coming form the electric power industry. tabs., figs.

  4. Successfully Attaining a Dietetic Internship Position in Ontario on the First Attempt: A Descriptive Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, Olivia; Brady, Jennifer; Gingras, Jacqui

    2015-03-01

    We explored the characteristics of Ontario-based dietetic internship program applicants who were successful upon their first application attempt, and we made comparisons between those who were successful and unsuccessful on their first internship application attempt. A 32-item online survey was distributed to graduates from nutrition programs in Ontario and to members of the Dietitians of Canada Student Network, Toronto Home Economics Association, and Ontario Home Economists in Business. Data from a previous study examining the characteristics of unsuccessful internship applicants were obtained from the authors to compare the two groups. Respondents (n = 76) were mostly female (97%), 20-25 years of age (67%), and had a previous degree (46%). Compared with those who were unsuccessful on their first internship application attempt, those who were successful had a significantly higher mean cGPA (3.69 ± 0.39 vs. 3.35 ± 0.41), were more likely to have a prior degree (46% vs. 29%), spent more time preparing their internship application package, and perceived their internship application packages to be stronger. Despite some differences, most applicants met the minimum cGPA requirement outlined by internship programs in Ontario. More internship opportunities can help increase the diversity and human potential in the dietetic profession.

  5. Legal requirements for human-health based appeals of wind energy projects in ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Albert M

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the government of the province of Ontario, Canada passed new legislation to promote the development of renewable energy facilities, including wind energy facilities in the province. Throughout the legislative process, concerns were raised with respect to the effect of wind energy facilities on human health. Ultimately, the government established setbacks and sound level limits for wind energy facilities and provided Ontario residents with the right to appeal the approval of a wind energy facility on the ground that engaging in the facility in accordance with its approval will cause serious harm to human health. The first approval of a wind facility under the new legislation was issued in 2010 and since then, Ontario's Environmental Review Tribunal as well as Ontario's courts has been considering evidence proffered by appellants seeking revocation of approvals on the basis of serious harm to human health. To date, the evidence has been insufficient to support the revocation of a wind facility approval. This article reviews the legal basis for the dismissal of human-health based appeals.

  6. Strategies for the development of Quebec`s petrochemical industry: education and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, J.A. [Canadian Chemical Producer`s Association (Canada)

    1992-12-31

    One of the key challenges not only for the Quebec but for the Canadian petrochemical industry will be the challenge to increase the number of students pursuing science or engineering as fields of study. According to this author, there is a crisis in science and technology education in Canada. The ability of Canadian students to compete with their peers around the world is steadily diminishing as a result of the undue emphasis on student attitudes and self-esteem in Canadian schools, as opposed to European and Asian schools which focus on conveying specific skills. He advocates a shift in attitude away from simply more money spent on education towards concern with what and how well students are learning. It was suggested that the educational system must take into account the demands of the market place in fashioning the curricula. If students are to function in the real world where performance is evaluated, the educational system will have to change to reflect the fact that the market and society reward people in proportion to their contribution. The relationship between environmental concern and education was also explored, and the inclusion of environmental issues in the classroom curriculum was recommended. As a topic for curricula, the environment is subject to broad-ranging and often conflicting views regarding its problems and their causes, effects and remedies. Nevertheless, it is not a transient issue to be dismissed as a fad. Rather, it is an issue here to stay, hence it should play a more formalized role at all levels of the curriculum from primary schools to colleges and universities.

  7. "My Parents May Not Be French Sir, but I Am": Exploration of Linguistic Identity of Francophone Bilingual Youth in Transition in Multicultural, Multilingual Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux, Sylvie A.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on discursive data collected during an 18-month reflexive critical ethnography of the transition to postsecondary education, this paper explores how graduates of a French first-language secondary school in Ontario, Canada, struggle to affirm their linguistic identity in their new academic and social communities. Despite not crossing…

  8. Saudi Arabia is committed to free trade in petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazer, H.M.

    1987-05-01

    Saudi Arabia sees protectionism in the petrochemical industry as self-defeating and against the interests of the world economy. Taking a world view based on the forces of a free market, the Minister of Petroleum and Mineral Resources argues that a free market, at best, is burdened with second-best solutions unless it is a universal free market. The burden is greatest on developing countries. Saudi Arabia's industrialization program is aimed at developing independence from oil exports by enhancing the value-added of hydrocarbon and mineral resources through manufacturing activities. An internal free market based on competition and privatization is forming a stronger economic base than government nurturing of infant industries.

  9. Pyrolysis kinetics and residue characteristics of petrochemical industrial sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, H L; Lo, J C; Tsai, J H; Chang, G M

    2000-02-01

    This study investigated the pyrolysis characteristics of sludge from wastewater treatment plants in the petrochemical industry and focused on the pyrolysis kinetics, elemental composition of residue, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of exhaust gas. As pyrolysis temperature increased to 773 K, the increasing rate of crude oil production tended to a stable condition. The result indicated that the optimal temperature of crude oil and water mixed production was 773 K. When pyrolysis temperature increased from 673 to 973 K, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen concentrations of residue decreased and the sulfur concentration of residue increased. The concentrations of benzene, toluene,ethylbenzene, and styrene increased by the increasing pyrolysis temperature. We found that the reaction order of sludge pyrolysis was 2.5 and the activation energy of the reaction was 11.06 kJ/mol. We believe that our pyrolysis system is transitional between devolatilization and combustion.

  10. Long term effects of irrigation with petrochemical industry wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, O.; Inam, A.; Samiullah; Siddiqi, R.H. [Aligarh Muslim Univ. (India)

    1996-11-01

    Split plot designed field trials were conducted during 1988-1995 to study the long term effects of petrochemical industry wastewater on six crops and agricultural soils. It was observed that wastewater irrigation resulted in increased seed yield of all the crops selected, viz. wheat, triticale, chickpea, lentil and pigeonpea, except summer moong which showed a decrease in seed yield. Soil receiving the wastewater showed no significant changes in pH, total organic carbon, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, micro- and macro-nutrients and SAR. Thus, it may be concluded that treated refinery wastewater met the irrigational quality requirements as its physico-chemical characteristics were within the permissible limits. The same could be said for the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil as well as in the grains making the latter safe for human consumption. 28 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Catalytic wet hydrogen peroxide oxidation of a petrochemical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariente, M I; Melero, J A; Martínez, F; Botas, J A; Gallego, A I

    2010-01-01

    Continuous Catalytic Wet Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidation (CWHPO) for the treatment of a petrochemical industry wastewater has been studied on a pilot plant scale process. The installation, based on a catalytic fixed bed reactor (FBR) coupled with a stirred tank reactor (STR), shows an interesting alternative for the intensification of a continuous CWHPO treatment. Agglomerated SBA-15 silica-supported iron oxide (Fe(2)O(3)/SBA-15) was used as Fenton-like catalyst. Several variables such as the temperature and hydrogen peroxide concentration, as well as the capacity of the pilot plant for the treatment of inlet polluted streams with different dilution degrees were studi